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J. Burke 2009-2010

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Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . .1. . . . . . 3. . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . 4. . . .3. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . 4. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . .2. . 5. . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .3 Electroscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . .2 *Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2 Forces and Fields . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 4. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .5 Problems . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . .6 *Problems . . . RRHS Physics .3.3. . . . . . 4. . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .3. .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1. . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge .

. . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .1. . . . . . . .4 Half-lives .5 Problems . . . 6. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . . . . 5.1. . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .4. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 6. .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . .2. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . .2 Transformers . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 7. . . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . .3 Compton Eﬀect . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . 6. . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Induction . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . 7. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . .2. . . 6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .3 Problems . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .3. . . . . . . .

. . . . . A. . .1. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . . .2. . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Experimental Data . . A.1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.688-693 694-714.28 #2.2 7.7.3 7. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.33.7.6 #3.3. pg 571 #21.6.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.27. pg 596 #12.1 5.6.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.2. pg 529 #30.2 6.4.2.3 5.3.28.4.14.2 2.Textbook Correlations Section 1. pg 595 #5.1 4.1 6.9.28 pg 495 #30.15 pg 641 #9.4 6.40. BLM #1. pg 918-919 #3. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13. pg 934 #5. pg 515 #39.3.6. pg 886 #3.3 3. pg 611 Conceptual Problems. pg 489 #27.2 5.8.2 4. pg 655 #26. pg 933 #1.25.1 3.3 5.3 2. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.4 pg 796 #1-4. pg 936-937 #26. pg 501 #31.1 7. pg 863 #8.8.5. pg 661 #5.2 1.9 #2.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.37. pg 862 #6.9.2 4. pg 780 #2.10. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.4.1 2.3 #4.4 #36. pg 526 #1.8.5. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.27 v .3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.1 1. pg 608 #3.3. pg 778 #1.24.8 #4.

CHAPTER 0. TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .

a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. it does not have a direction. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. For example. The symbol d represents these components. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx .1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). when typing. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. For example. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). For example. displacement.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. A vector is not just a single number. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. Likewise. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. like a scalar is.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. velocity. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. Consider the diagram below. dy ). it is actually two numbers. 1 . You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. In 2D space. This year. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). acceleration. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. When writing. force. In university. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. Last year.

DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. 3.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. CHAPTER 1. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is.1. Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . the other vector b represents the components (bx . If we add these two vectors. east. south. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). Your textbook uses this last convention. north would be 90o . The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. In math. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. 1. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . 2. in other words. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). west).1. Since vectors are not single numbers. by ). ay + by ). This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. we are actually adding their components. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. ay ). So a + b will give (ax + bx . For the examples that follow. To help visualize this. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . In this system. south would be 270o . In this system. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. In the previous diagram. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions).1. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

A ferryboat. 8 km N. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. 3 km E. 26. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. 5 kmN. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. using a compass. walks 4 km E. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E.1. At the end of three days.85 m/s. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. A hiker leaves camp and.0 m/s. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. 10 km W. why? 19. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. Find the change in velocity. whose speed in still water is 2. Diane rows a boat at 8. We must assume u < v. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. RRHS Physics . (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. To do so. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. Before it can move. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. 20. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. 6 km S. The speed of a boat in still water is v.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. How fast is the player running? 23. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. mass. the hiker is lost.00 h.1. and 3 km S. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. wind speed? 18.

a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. FORCE VECTORS 1. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN .2. RRHS Physics 1. I will take up as the positive direction. the force of the man pulling is not. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. friction. Notice that FN = Fg . As can be seen in the diagram above. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. the vertical forces. Notice that although the normal. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). therefore. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. Because we often know Fg and Fpy .1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction.CHAPTER 1. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. therefore. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force.2. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . First. In the diagram below. both of which are vectors.

3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. if present. we get CHAPTER 1. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1.1. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. In order to apply Newton’s second law. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. Similarly. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane.3. Drawing a free body diagram. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry).2. Again.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . Again notice that FN = Fg . only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. If friction is present.2. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics . Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). FORCE VECTORS friction for now).2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. Using trigonometry. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). these would have to be considered in the force analysis. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. In other words. as in the following diagram.

2 kg block that is hanging in mid air. What is the acceleration of this system? 11.0o angle with the horizontal.30. A 25. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7.0o angle with the horizontal. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. A rope attached to the 5. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. where it is attached to a 4. The total mass is 80 kg.0 N .0o incline and accelerates at 0.10.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road.0 km/h.300 m/s2 .0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.5 s for him to reach the bottom. A car can decelerate at -5. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.0 kg box is released on a 33.3 m/s2 .20. A bicyclist can coast down a 4.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. (a) Ignoring friction.0 kg block and the ramp is 0. A 55. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.CHAPTER 1. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom.0 km/h. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. A 5.2.30. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5. It takes 13.2.2 Problems 1. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12.6o hill at a steady speed of 7. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. A 15. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2. An 18. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3. (b) Using the same power as in (a). A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . A force of 300. RRHS Physics 9 . The tension in the rope is 110. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv.0 m/s. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1.0o hill at 6.76. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill.

the net force acting on the mass must be zero.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. there will be a net force in some direction. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. there are three forces acting on the mass. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object.3.3. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. As we said. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. Remember. The mass is stationary. although the net force is zero in both cases. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. therefore. Since force is a vector.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11.1.3. 1. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . 3 1. it is obviously not accelerating. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. therefore. therefore. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. but opposite in direction.

4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. 4 RRHS Physics . we must introduce the notion of a torque. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. when calculating the work. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. This is called a dot product. even though the forces are equal and opposite. 1. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). this is important. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. the board will begin to spin. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. the greater the torque. etc. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule.. Before dealing with torques. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). You will learn more about these in university.4. right.4 The further away from this pivot. As we have seen. τ = F⊥ d (1. As can be seen from equation 1. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). it acts on every particle in the body. but one up and one down. as it was when discussing work. While forces were described using up. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium).CHAPTER 1. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. left. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). It can be thought of as a twisting force. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. When you calculated work. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application.3. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. Στ = 0 Obviously. but for calculating torques. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. It is not in rotational equilibrium. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. down. To examine this more. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero.

0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. A high wire is 25.3. RRHS Physics 4. and you don’t want it to break.3 Problems 1.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . Find the resultant force on the vehicle. The frame has a wire across the back. The two ropes make an angle of 15. 8. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B.0 m when a 50.0 m long and sags 1. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N .3. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. 9. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. 3. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. What is the tension in the rope? 2. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. A 20. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. 12 . or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. When lifting a barbell.0 s. A sign with a mass of 1653. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50.1. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. 10. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall.5o with each other. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain.0 N . 7. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting.

0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000.0 kg person is sitting 1. The 10.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. determine the magnitude. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators.0 m.0 cm wide. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40.0 kg. and its center of gravity is located 4. A 50. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. 19. In the following diagram. If there is a spring on the door 5. 14. Fred. The plane has a base of 14.0 N. A force of 500.3. The platform is being held up by two students.0 m from the same end. apply to prevent acceleration? 1.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane.90 m away from the pivot on the other side.0 kg person is sitting 0.0 m and a length of 15. Find the equilibrant force: 12. EQUILIBRIUM 17.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. Betty is pulling with 205 N east.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N . direction. A 60. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. Where must a 22. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. What equilibrant force must a fourth student.0 m platform has a mass of 10. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18.0 kg person stands at its tip.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11.CHAPTER 1. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. one at either end.

DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .1.3. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.

and t is the time in the air.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. we see that there is only one . all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . Since we know our vertical acceleration. Ignoring air resistance. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). The horizontal speed does not change.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile.gravity. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. This also makes things somewhat simple. vx is the horizontal speed. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. and acceleration.1. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. 2. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. velocity. there is no horizontal acceleration.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. since max = ΣFx .1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. therefore. These are all vector quantities.

2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude. t is the time in the air. however. vyi is the initial vertical velocity. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed.2. As the ball rises. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. Again. the ball follows a parabolic path.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . In this case. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2.1 to 2. PROJECTILES used. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1.2. Notice that equation 2. vyi will be zero in equations 2. but gravity will act to slow it down. Once this is done. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. namely using equations 2. therefore. and 2. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation.1. until it reaches zero at its highest point. 2.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. 2.1. CHAPTER 2.4. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. The object does. as shown in the diagram below. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball.1. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components.3. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. the time in the air.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. For this reason. since there are no horizontal forces.1 and 2. instead of horizontally. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. Remember. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles.4.

4. PROJECTILES tree. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s. YES! It’s a score.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target.CHAPTER 2. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.7 m above the ground.0o with the horizontal. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.1. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. 14.1.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit. by how much will it miss the target? 3. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. Trailing by two points.0 s remaining in a basketball game. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13.0 m from the basket. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. The rotten egg landed 4. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. As soon as the hunter ﬁres.2 m away from the elevator. the elevator was 8. A diver running 3.02 m from the basket.2 m above the ground. and with only 2. how far from the building is the target? 6.0 m.0 m/s at an angle of 53. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s.0 m high. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2. Should the hunter aim directly at.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. 3.0o .3 Problems 1. At the time of the throw.0 m/s. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . releasing the ball at the height of the basket.05 m above the ﬂoor. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20.0 m/s. above.0 s later.0 m away and are 3. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. The building is 13. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. 2-D MOTION 2. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. A baseball is hit at 30. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. The ball is released at the height of the basket. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. Immediately. an outﬁelder runs 4. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. A person is in a moving elevator.5 m high.

Will the following quantities change? If so. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. For each of the following questions. 19.2. 21. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. PROJECTILES 14. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. 20. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time.1 m above the ﬂoor. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. When it reaches the end of the table.22 m (horizontally).6 m above the ﬂoor. (a) Draw the situation above. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal.1. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. The basket is 2. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points.0 m away? 16.0 m below. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. At any moment. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. draw all vectors to scale. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. 2-D MOTION speeds.

in this case. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached.CHAPTER 2. Also. a mattress. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched.at this point. 2 19 . Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. depending on its spring constant.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. Of course. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring.1b)). but is dependent on the spring.1a). When the spring is above the equilibrium point. this formula no longer holds). This is the equilibrium position. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). The units for the spring constant are N/m. This is now its new equilibrium position . it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. If you double the mass hanging on the spring.1c)and let it go. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. which results in a downward acceleration. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. etc. The period (the time for one complete vibration. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). (See Fig 2. 2-D MOTION 2. which causes the spring to stretch. you will double the distance the spring stretches. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. suspension bridges. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. the suspension of a car. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. if you exceed the limits of the spring. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants.2.

it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant.2.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a).7 we get T = 2π l g (2. the system. 1 Ep = kx2 (2. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. work is done on the spring.6). this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. Substituting this into Eq 2. the total energy remains the same. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. At equilibrium. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. 2.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). or removed from. therefore. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. 2-D MOTION 2. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released.2.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). 20 RRHS Physics . however. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to.2.2.

050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.CHAPTER 2. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12.30 m.150 m when a 0. When an 80. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. A small cockroach of mass 0.5 N hangs from it. A mass of 2.60 kg is hung from it.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car.10 m? 12. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. A spring stretches 0. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0.75 J of work done on it? 11.62 Hz.4 Hz when a weight of 0. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0.200 kg ball. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.50 kg is placed on a level. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 .48 Hz. frictionless surface.0 cm. whose length is 37. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. 2-D MOTION 2. the frequency is 0. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.30 kg hangs from it? 5. A geologist’s simple pendulum. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.8190 Hz at a particular location. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. 13.2. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.2. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. What is the value of m? 6. is then released.10 cm. When the man steps oﬀ.110 m and released.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15.10 m to load a 0.325 m. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. 2.30 kg mass is hung from it. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. What will its frequency be if only 0. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. if it had 3. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0.3 Problems 1. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. in contact with a spring bumper. whose other end is ﬁxed. The spring. has a frequency of 0. The spring is then stretched an additional 0.2 cm. A block of mass 0.10 g were trapped? 8.

you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. Also. This still applies in two dimensional collisions. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . a vector diagram must be drawn. In two dimensions. remember that it is momentum that is conserved.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. however. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). We can now RRHS Physics . pa = pa + pb (2. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions.3. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. 2. if you remember from grade 11. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. Since velocity is a vector. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). so is momentum.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum.3. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2.2. since p = mv.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course.12.12) (2. not velocity.11 and 2. 2-D MOTION Equation 2.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions.12. 2. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision.

the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another.3. some energy is lost. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors.CHAPTER 2. 4 In other words. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. In this type of collision. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. Remember. RRHS Physics 23 . our conservation of energy equation (2. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. such as thermal energy. and one of the particles is initially at rest. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. though.14. therefore. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same.3. the collision is elastic. For a two body collision. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. 2. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. therefore. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. In other words. Since the masses are equal. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. after this collision.

and another is moving East with a speed of 4. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle.2×10−23 kg·m/s.0 km/h.3. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . the investigator determined that car A. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. After the collision (assumed elastic). From skid marks. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball.00 m/s strikes a second ball. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o .400 kg. of mass mb = 0. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7.3 Problems 1. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. initially at rest. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0.0o North of West.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. 6. initially at rest. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. the second ball is moving North. Immediately after impact. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection.60 kg. If they collide and remain stuck together. and a neutrino. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. As a result of this elastic collision. of mass 0.20 m/s. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. an electron.00 m/s. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. A billiard ball of mass 0. At what angle will the second proton be observed. A proton travelling with speed 8. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8.0 km/h. 50. and the second car had a velocity of 40. 40.0o North of West. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10.2. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h.40 kg strikes a second ball.3. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West.80 m/s. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. Find 24 .6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. Two cars collide at an intersection. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9.

2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. To calculate the speed of the object. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. which is pulling inward. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. however. we get v= 2πr (3.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. however. 1 .1. an acceleration present. we can simply use d (3. we see v= 25 3. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. the object moves in a curve. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. With projectile motion. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. the object will not speed up or slow down. the object will speed up or slow down. So even though the speed is not changing. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. in other words.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. the acceleration must also be inward. Since this is the only force. There is. there is still an acceleration.

2 and 3. Centripetal force is not. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. however. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. Looking at equation 3.1. 3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. it just shows the direction of the three quantities. In fact.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. horizontal surface. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .3. by deﬁnition. when solving centripetal force problems. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle.1: This is not a free body diagram.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. This is a common misconception of students. 2.3. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a.1 below). then equation 3.6) Figure 3. always inward toward the center of the circle.5 becomes Fc = mac (3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. 1.2.3) T Combining equations 3. ac = v2 3.1. in particular. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless.

Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. because of Newton’s Third Law. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. also. it is. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. in fact. In this situation. not outward. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). Remember. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward.1. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. If there were. Pretend you are the ball in our example. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 .1. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. 3. If you break the string.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. being pulled inward by the string. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. because of inertia. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. in fact. the ball is not being pushed outward. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle.CHAPTER 3. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path).

0 m radius and rotates 1.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.15 m/s and its mass is 0. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm.20? 6.5 cm. 9. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.0 m.30? 7.00 revolutions in a second.3 days. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.e. A 5. 3.42. What is the critical speed (i. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5.4 Problems 1.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3. what force does the string now exert? 4. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8. Assume a radius of curvature of 8. If its speed is 3. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.15 m.3.000 km and a period of 27.60. 28 RRHS Physics .80 m long.1.0 complete revolution each second.1 times per second.0 revolutions per second. A coin is placed 18. The ball makes exactly 2. The yo-yo has a mass of 0.0 m rope.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0.335 kg.1. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12.

1.0 kg. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. If the person is standing on the equator. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. Sketch the situation. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. 18. 15. Assume no change in energy for the system.CHAPTER 3. including the relevant forces. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. 17. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16.6 km. the vine is 4. For the previous question. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. PLANETARY MOTION 13. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine.0 m long. 14. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). how much and in what direction? 29 . what RRHS Physics 3. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. A person has a mass of 75. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. and explain this sensation. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. 19. will a friction force be required? If so.

Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated.2. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. Assuming a circular orbit. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. In grade 11. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. This type of relationship appears often in physics. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. If the object is given a higher speed. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. however. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . PLANETARY MOTION 3.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. but not to understand why they are so.2. In this way. we must consider the orbit. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. we get mg = or GM (3. Equation 3. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. it travels a further distance. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. this is how the mass of the earth was found.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. People often ask what keeps a satellite up.) g= GM m R2 3.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth).3. speciﬁcally. In fact. equating the two expressions. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. Newton. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. gravity is much more common than this.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 .2 Universal Gravitation 3. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. however. To determine this necessary speed.2. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. it is falling toward the earth. Fg = 30 3.2. given by G in the equation below. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up.

2. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth.9.CHAPTER 3. faster than this speed. 3. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth.2. m is the mass of the satellite. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.7. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. as given in equation 3. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness.2.4)into equation 3. v= GM r (3. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. 3. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. PLANETARY MOTION 3. Solving this equation for v. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet).4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15).

r = 6. But Frank is lazy. but has the same mass.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11.50 × 108 km.0 N is required to pull a 10. 8. Frank is really concerned about his weight.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is. Do the previous question again.99 × 1030 kg).0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. 7. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. From this data. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. If the bowling balls are 0. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. determine the mass of Jupiter. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. 3.6 times that of the earth. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics .0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. What is g near the surface? 5. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.2. 10. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. 12. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1.90 × 1027 kg.50 m. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. 2. A force of 40. All distances are center to center. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. Four 8. 13.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth.85 × 105 km. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat.85 × 105 km.50 m apart.2. 6. PLANETARY MOTION weight.3.98 × 107 m).71×10−8 N . Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three.44 × 106 s and it is 1. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7.5 Problems 1. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1.

it’s period is the same as that of the earth). On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. Find the value of this constant. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15.CHAPTER 3. 1969. A satellite is going around Earth. Jupiter is 5. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. orbits the sun like other planets. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. The asteroid Icarus.4 days) to do problem 16. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. RRHS Physics 3. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. though only a few hundred meters across. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. Its period is 410 days. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. 33 . If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. PLANETARY MOTION 14. 31. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. 16. what would happen to the value of G? 30. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. 32. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. Why? 28.2. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. What is its average distance from the sun? 26.3 × 1022 kg. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. 27. On July 19.

PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2.

Metals are generally very good conductors.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). During any of the processes described above. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). in the amount of charge is zero. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. . not the protons. you notice that it will stick to the wall. for example. In a normal state. 4. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin.1. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. the net change 35 4. Remember. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. According to atomic theory. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. even more important than many people think. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. When a conductor is given a negative charge. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. Likewise. In each case. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. If you rub a balloon in your hair. giving it a net negative or positive charge. This kind of atom is called an ion.

These semiconductors often have interesting properties.4.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. it has merely been separated. With induction. i. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. An object can also be charged by conduction. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. giving it excess electrons. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). The RRHS Physics . you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod.1. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. there are . the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. but is just brought near it. No charge has been created. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. conduction occurs. For example. there are more electrons than protons on the rod.1. If you ground the sphere. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. As soon as they touch. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. and they touch. germanium. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another.e.however. if it is charged negatively. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). 4. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. however. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one.1. in this way. The other way of charging an object is called induction.

4. Think about how you may do this. even after we remove the charged rod. 4. If charges become large enough. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. now negatively charged. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler.even though they are neutral. will repel each other and will spread out. more often. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. You can.1. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. The leaves will then stay spread apart. even when nothing is apparently done to them. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. however. the leaves. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge.CHAPTER 4. the two leaves just hang vertically. In some cases. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). the faster the charge will be carried away. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. The more water molecules in the air. If the electroscope is neutral. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma.1. 37 . They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. particularly on each leaf.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. Suppose. giving it a permanent charge. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. as shown here. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges.

If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. you remove the two positively charges objects. Finally. Explain. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. 12. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. If you know that D is positively charged. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. When an electroscope is charged. and C repels D. why does the record now attract dust? 4.1. they ﬂy away in different directions. A attracts C. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4.1. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. one at each end of the line of blocks. 3. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. You place two objects with strong positive charges. 9. close to but not touching the blocks. but as soon as they touch the rod. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. 5. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. What charge is on the rod? 8. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain.4. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . what kind of charge does B have? 6. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2.5 Problems 1.

they think of pushing or pulling an object. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. which has an equal but opposite charge). without using some test charge. since it appeared to behave like magic. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. tying a rope to something. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. To help explain this idea. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. electromagnetic. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. however. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. 39 . Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. in fact. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature.it is a concept.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 .CHAPTER 4. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge. strong nuclear forces. The search for simple. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. If the two objects are spheres. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton.2. 4.2. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. it is precise for only point charges. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. E= F q (4.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter .” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. When people think of forces. This worried people. r is the distance between the charges in meters.2 4. and weak nuclear forces) continues. Using some test charge q. then the r in equation 4. This may require pushing with your hand. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. or some other type of contact. FIELDS 4. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge.2. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful.1 is the distance between the centers. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres.

1 into equation 4. E= CHAPTER 4. we obtain kQ (4. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. or lines of force.2. then equation 4. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. 4. 2. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. FIELDS points around the sources. which interacts with all objects near the earth.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources.4. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. however. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. equation 4.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. the stronger the electric ﬁeld.2. These electric ﬁeld lines. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. consider a positive source charge. For example.2. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld.2. the force on the test charge will be away from the source.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. In reality. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . Substituting equation 4. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. If there is more than one source charge. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation.1. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). For example.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld.

The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others.0 N on each other? 4. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. What should you do? 11. q1 and q2 . has a charge of -20 µC. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. One. In one model of the hydrogen atom. what force is exerted? 12.2. -2. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC.145 N on each other. and the right -83 µC. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. What is the force between them? 5. -4. Two charges.CHAPTER 4. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words.050 m to the north and the other. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9.67 × 10−27 kg. the typical size of an atom. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. A positive charge of 3.0 µC is 0. the RRHS Physics . what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. In other words. is 0. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC.11 × 10−31 kg.5 × 10−10 m. The bottom electron is resting on a table. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4.00 × 10−17 C? 2.1 × 106 m/s. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0.0 µC. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. and an electron. A third ball. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10.2). 8. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. located 25 cm above the second ball. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g).2.030 m to the east. A and B. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. 3. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. Three particles are placed in a line.5 Problems 1. located 16 cm to the right. has a charge of +25 µC. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. A second ball. mass 9. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. mass 1. 4. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. You are given two similar spheres.

FORCES AND FIELDS 14. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. A proton (m = 1. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. Two charges. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.0× 10−6 C charge. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. A water droplet of radius 0.4. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. A negative charge of 2.5 N and is repulsive. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25.0 cm away from a 1.0 µC charged particle? 21. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. one 33. the force each exerts on the other is 28.0 µC and the other 68.0 µC and a +60. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. (a) two positively charged point sources. FIELDS 20. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude.2. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. 42 CHAPTER 4. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations.0 × 10−6 C test charge. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1.0 µC charge 40. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. Take into account gravity and determine E. RRHS Physics . What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20.30 m apart. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22.2 cm apart. 24. Find the force on an electron.020 mm remains stationary in the air. −Qo and −3Qo .0 µC are 8. 17.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby.0 cm apart? 23. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. 19. then repeat your work with a 2. are a distance l apart. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. When placed 1. Two positive charges.

the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. you don’t have to do anything. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. Remember that W = ∆E. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). because of the force of attraction between the two charges. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum.3. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. The symbol for electric potential is V . if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge.CHAPTER 4. namely potential energy.3. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. If positive work is required to move the charge. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics .3. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). FIELDS 4. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. For example. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. Suppose you have two spheres. If the two spheres are touched together. In this case. for example. The potential energy here will decrease. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. since they are trying to get away from one another. 4. Just as with gravitational potential energy. we say that it is at a high potential. so Vab = Wab q (4. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. therefore. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. sphere B is said to be neutral. This will add energy to the system. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. which is called the volt. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4.

0 µC charge. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential.3. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. 4.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. A -30. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5.0 C is raised in potential by 1.5 × 107 V . ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . A force of 0. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3. as shown below. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).5 V ? 3. that is. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources.5 × 10−4 J.4 Problems 1.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over).3. if they were not.3. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. CHAPTER 4. What work is done when 5. the two spheres will be at the same potential. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. FIELDS 2. at this point. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. The change in energy while doing this is 4.4.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line.

1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. also referred to as an amp.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal.1. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. so its electrons are held very loosely. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. an ampere (A). a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. this is given a special name. In short. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. 5. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. As was discussed in the previous chapter. When people discussed current. Contrary to a common belief. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. A wire is a conductor. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. a battery is several cells connected together.1 Electric Current Q (5. little was known about the structure of the atom. Remember that in solids. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. at the same time. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. 1 . In 1800. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. therefore. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire.

For practical purposes. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. These materials are than said to be superconducting. If one end of the pipe is raised. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. 46 . If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. Temperature: In general. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. we can use it here as well. In liquids and gases. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. When charges are moved through a resistance. however. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. it gains or loses energy. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. they lose potential. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. Comparing this to electricity. because of their atomic structure. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). Resistance is measured in ohms. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. In our gravity/water analogy above. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. therefore. the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge.5. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. 3. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. In the same way. With a battery. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. 2. the greater the ﬂow of water. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. insulators have a very high resistance.1. CHAPTER 5. This makes sense. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water.

if you double the voltage. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by.5.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. so it will have a lower resistance. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. the resistance must be constant. Since wires have a resistance in the real world.1. but I = q/t (equation 5.4 with equation 5. the current also doubles.1. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. the current is proportional to voltage).5) 5. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law.1) so P = IV (5. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits.3) 5. or mechanical). Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5.1. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. light. We RRHS Physics . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time.CHAPTER 5. Note that equation 5.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. the current is proportional to the voltage.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. 5. 4. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. the watt (W ). If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. thereby increasing the resistance. Looking at this equation. current can be expressed as V (5. it is really energy that we pay for. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. That is. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat.

5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. A 1. The line has a resistance of 1.1. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. but when a 3. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled.5 A for 6. A current of 1. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird.4 Problems 1. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3.0 V battery is used. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. How much charge passes through the battery? 2.0 h. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). If the device obeys Ohm’s law. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. above 100 mA can be fatal. When she connects it to a 1.5 V battery.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours.0 A? 5.085/kW h). what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10.10 A ﬂows in a wire. What is the current through a 6. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. 11. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9.6) CHAPTER 5. What voltage will produce 12.1.5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. Joe argues that. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. What is the voltage of the battery? 6.0 cm apart. 5 mA can be painful. since R = V /I. 14. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. Is Joe correct? Explain. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. at 20 mA. 5. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours.

The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. (a) 220 V are applied across it. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.0 A when operated on 120 V .0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.29 kg/m3 . The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26. by means of a converter. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour.08 per kW h. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. operated at 120 V . (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3.1.20 kg of water.5 kg of water.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0.06 per kWh? 19. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. What is its increase in temperature during the 30. It is observed that it takes 12. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1.0o C. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1.11 per kW h.0o C to 55. A modern television set draws 2. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.000 V rather than 12. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20.4 A from a 120 V line? 27.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .2 Ω lines. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. 18.0 s? 25. At $0. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .0 minutes.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C. How many 100 W light bulbs. RRHS Physics 5.000 V ? 21.) 49 . Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. What is the eﬃciency of a 0.CHAPTER 5.

R2 .8) (5. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. currents. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. By conservation of energy.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 .2 to analyze the resistances. V2 . R3 respectively. and R3 . I1 . Because charge must be conserved. If V1 . applying equation 5. Of course. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. since there is only one path.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. R2 . I2 . each resistor has its own path. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5.9) RRHS Physics .2. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery.2. and voltages throughout the circuit.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5.2 we know that V1 = IR1 .2. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. When you add more resistances. V2 = IR2 . then by applying equation 5. when we put several resistance in series. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other.7) 5.5. 5. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. Knowing the equivalent resistance. and V3 = IR3 . you increase the total resistance. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors.

you are also adding another path for the current to follow. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). Consider the following example. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. 3. For example. every time you add a resistance in parallel.2. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. however. Again. then they are not in series. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. RRHS Physics 51 .2. R3 is in series with R4 . This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them.CHAPTER 5. Also. R2 . This combination is then in series with R1 . the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5.10) 5. since there is a junction in between the two. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. if there is a junction between the resistors. so they can be combined using equation 5. Remember. 5. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. If any resistors are in parallel. Remember. but are often some combination of the two. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. R3 . equation 5. R1 and R2 are not in series. In this example. If any resistors are in series. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). *CIRCUITS 2. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below).

1. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. A third type of safety device is slightly different. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. breaking the circuit. 2. too complicated for this analysis. This is just an expression of equation 5. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. a system of equations can then be found and solved. Some circuits4 are. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. however. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous.2. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . For example. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. 2. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. These rules actually apply to all circuits. For example. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing.2.9. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit.5. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. At any junction point. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. Houses are wired in parallel.7. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. for example. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. If too much current ﬂows.2. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. 5. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. To deal with these circuits. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. If this strip melts. RRHS Physics 5.

Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. Find V. 5. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor.CHAPTER 5. 7. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. 3. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. Find each resistance. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.6 *Problems 1.50 A. 4.2.2. 5. Find the current in each branch. Find the unknown currents and voltages. 8. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. 2.

Suppose that you have a 6. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.V2 .5. and I4 .0 Ω.0 V .2. 13. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. 12. Given an unlimited supply of 1.I2 . If each resistor is 10 Ω. If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. and P1 . CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. Find the current in each branch. 17. 11. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. *CIRCUITS 10.0 54 . ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Find It . Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. If each resistor is 10 Ω. 100 W . how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.I3 . A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W .0 V input? 15. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. or 150 W at 120 V .I3 .0 V output for a 6. Find R3 . 16.

Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed.2. determine the currents I1 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages.8 kΩ. which is brighter? 21. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. RRHS Physics 55 23. I2 . If one resistor is 2. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. and I3 in the following circuit. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. (a) If they are connected in parallel. what is the resistance of the other? . (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. *CIRCUITS 22. Consider the circuit below. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. 5.CHAPTER 5. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. one larger than the other.

5. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. This will be seen in the next section. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. however. however. nickel.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges.5. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. In a magnetized piece of iron. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. On a small scale. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. in ferromagnetic materials. A compass needle is really a small magnet. In most materials.3. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. for example. As a result. since an electric current will always produce both. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. magnetic forces act over distances. each with a north and south pole.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet.3. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. the same as electric charges. RRHS Physics 56 . Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. Since these forces do behave similarly. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. If you cut a magnet in two. Magnetic poles are not. however. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. the domains are more lined up in one direction. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. 5. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. and cobalt. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. the result is two magnets. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole.

3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. 5. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). it makes sense. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. it often7 experiences a force. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. around 1820. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. In fact.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. or a current. 6 5. then. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). To use this hand rule.CHAPTER 5. when using left hand rules. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil.3.3.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. It was only with a moving charge. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. This is an electromagnet.3. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current.3. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. By using more than one loop. In other words. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. the second right hand rule can be used. To use this hand rule. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. but this was found to have no eﬀect.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor.

the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. the force will be out of the page. substituting this into equation 5. as shown below. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire.5 Electric Motor 5. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. have to be moving through a wire. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. There will be no force between b and c. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. however.3. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). Between c and d. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire.3. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. To use this rule. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. Remember that I = q/t. As we learned before. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. To do this. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. as shown in the side view below. The charges do not. 5. so F = qvB sin θ (5.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers.3. use left hand rules. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. This loop of wire will rotate. you may also use the left hand rule.8 8 Remember. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. to 58 RRHS Physics . your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges.5. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. CHAPTER 5. If the moving particle is negative.

if the loop goes past this point. Many loops of wire are usually used. we want it to turn continuously. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. as shown below. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. In reality. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. Also. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. MAGNETISM other brush.6 Problems 1. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. but just touch one another. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. 5. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). (b) Two opposite poles. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other.CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. In order to make the loop continue turning. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB).3. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . as well as a ferromagnetic core. but no force acts on the wire. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. As a result.3. As the armature turns.

35 N . Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. identify the poles of the magnets. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15.90 T . 11. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. If the force on the wire below is into the page. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. A straight 2.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. it feels zero force.0 × 10−5 T . Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0.9 × 103 kg/m3 .67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 .0 A and weighs 0. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. (a) CHAPTER 5. A proton having a speed of 5. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.3. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. (b) 10.5. What is the force on the wire? 7. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. MAGNETISM 5.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5.

Calculate the energy of the proton. A force of 5. 17. Explain. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. 23.032 T .4 mm? 24. E=1000 N/C. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. If the velocity of the particle is 5. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. 61 .6 × 10−13 N . Calculate the mass of the particle. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. which exists between the two parallel plates below. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9.385 T magnetic ﬁeld. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. A particle with a charge of 2.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6.02 T. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld.25 T . If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. 16. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. An electron (m = 9.5 cm. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0.3. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. The radius of its path is 4.10 cm in a 0. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25.25 × 106 m/s.CHAPTER 5. B=0.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V .000 V . what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18.10 T magnetic ﬁeld. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. 21.08 m.

For example. when the magnet is removed. ∆φ ∆t (5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. Such a current is called an induced current. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. and not a force where B. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. For example. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. We call this an induced emf. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving.4. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil.4. 5. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. In other words. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below).1 Induced EMF Around 1831. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). v.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. Magnetic ﬂux (φ.5.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current.

this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. There is. This is called perpetual motion. therefore. But remember. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary.4. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. the two wires are insulated from one another. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil.4. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. this is called a step-up transformer. conservation of energy tells 63 . the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. Remember. From equation 5. 5. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. however. Just like before. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes.CHAPTER 5. Combining these two equations. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. In the example shown below. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. If Ns < Np .15) 5. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage.13.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. The primary coil has the incoming current. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. therefore. Notice that if Ns > Np . however. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). this is a step-down transformer. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage.

we see what happens to the current. The wire ab is moving out. at position 3. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. at positions 2 and 4. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. then the current must be lowered. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. Since P = V I. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. out of the page).16) CHAPTER 5. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. therefore. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. the force on cd must be out of the page. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. At position 1. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. RRHS Physics . into the page). this means that if the voltage goes up. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph.5.4. Consider the picture below. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. Similarly. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. the split ring commutator does not have to be used.4. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. so the current must ﬂow from c to d.

the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current.CHAPTER 5. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them.17) Similarly.5Imax To make a DC generator. INDUCTION called a counter torque. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. value. we take a root mean square average (rms). In a generator. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. however.5Vmax Imax In North America. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. or eﬀective. Instead. the situation is the reverse. the greater the back (or counter) emf. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0.4. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. As we turn the generator. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. Back EMF As was previously stated. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning.11 we cannot just average the current over time. as were used with the DC motor. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. The greater the speed of the motor. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. giving Pavg = 0. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . When a motor is operating.18) Since power is P = V I. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. Alternating Current As we have seen. Since the current is not constant. The more current that is drawn.707Vmax (5. we get a sin2 θ graph. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. If we square an AC electric current graph. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0.707Imax (5. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. as was seen in a previous graph.

The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. It is initially in a 0. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms.350 T to zero. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. A square coil of sides 5. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1.0 cm/s.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0.4. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. In what direction is the induced current? 3.4 s. A 12.4.5Pmax (5. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.15 Ω.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed.4 Problems 1.10 s. Also note that since P = V I.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. 5.5. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12.5 Ω. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.19) CHAPTER 5. It takes 0. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. Hence. If the wire has a resistance of 0. What is the induced emf ? 4. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . with its plane perpendicular to B.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0.60 T magnetic ﬁeld.405 T magnetic ﬁeld.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. calculate the emf developed. If the rod is 12. What is the average induced emf ? 2. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8.800 T . It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. 6.

You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily.0 A.0 A. INDUCTION 17. is across a 35 Ω resistor. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24.0 V AC. If the primary and secondary were reversed. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. the coil will swing.0 V and an output current of 5.0 V source and measures 8. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. Calculate the peak current in a 2. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. and (c) the power transformed 13.0 A. Why is this true? 18. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 .CHAPTER 5. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. while those with many turns are made of thin wire.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5.4. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. 26. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. whose peak value is 90 V . and an output current of 0. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. where the line voltage is 240 V . Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain.75 A.0 V and the input current is 11. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary.0 V at the secondary. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. what would the new output voltage be? 16.0 A respectively. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). (b) the current in the primary. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. An ac voltage. 19. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. Why? 21. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . It is used with a transformer in England. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. Frequently. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil.

You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. INDUCTION 28. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21.5. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line.25 A. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line.4. a 700 W hair dryer.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. only its frequency is lowered.6. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect.1. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength.5). He suggested in 1923 that. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. The photon does not actually slow down. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. In fact. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. Objects such as electrons. however. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. If he was correct. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties.1 however. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). such as diﬀraction and interference. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). however.1.4 and 6. after the collision. The difﬁculty here. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. 1 RRHS Physics . By making careful measurements. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6.4). he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6.

35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. RRHS Physics 9. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. If energy is radiated by all objects. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted.0 eV photon and a 5.1 × 1013 Hz. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. in meters. of a 3. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2.0 eV electron? 73 . QUANTUM THEORY 8. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. 13. 12. 14. 6. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. What are the wavelengths. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5. does its wavelength change? If so.40 Hz. λ = 450 nm. 16.0 × 106 m/s. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed.CHAPTER 6.80 nm. 15. does it increase or decrease? 11. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. 7. Determine the wavelength of a 0. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4.5 Problems 1. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6.1. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm.0 km/h.1. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. 10. which has a shorter wavelength? 17.

• Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. another group of scientists. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling.2. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. As these particles passed through a prism. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. since all waves at this time required a medium. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. In a uniform medium. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light.6. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. led by Christian Huygens. 6. for example. As with Newton’s particle model. was putting forward a wave model of light. As the light gets closer to the water. the particles must be moving very fast.2. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. a ball thrown against a wall). going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course.

mainly due to Newton’s reputation. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. and interference where the particle theory fails. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. however. By the middle of the nineteenth century. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. however. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories.2. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. however. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. but to understand light fully. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. For example. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. in 1850. According to Maxwell’s theory.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. refraction.CHAPTER 6. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. This model was not. which appear to be incompatible. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium).0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model.2. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. 6. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. Also. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. which contradicts Newton’s theory. however. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. the resulting image is slightly blurred. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. The two aspects of light complement one another. without its problems. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. Similarly. we must refer to both theories. indicating a spreading out of the light. It states that to understand any given experiment. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. The two theories. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water.

This raises another problem: in order to measure something. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. its behavior is more like that of a particle. In terms of everyday language and images. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. An electron. 2 76 . when light interacts with matter. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. you would have to feel your way around. its behavior imitates that of a wave. When this radiation interacts with the electron. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. but in the process would move it from that position. when light passes through space or a medium. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. however. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. this duality extends to particles as well. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. In order to locate the ball. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. You wouldn’t know where it is going. negatively charged particles. but a visual picture is again not possible. This would tell you where it is.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. 6. To locate this. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. macroscopic world. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. We cannot picture what they are. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle.2. or even a combination of the two. is the set of its properties that we can measure.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. light reveals both wave and particle properties. Applied to a smaller scale. you must interact with it. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. or as a wave that has a mass. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us.2.2. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. In general.6. like light. When we try to visualize light. CHAPTER 6. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. This has some major implications. depending on which property of light is being measured. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny.

such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us.2. For examRRHS Physics 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. we must use a small wavelength. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction.4 and 6. it is still a probability and not a certainty. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. Thus. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. on the other hand. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. and not determinism. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. however. 77 . we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. but has wave properties. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is.5.CHAPTER 6. In summary. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. If. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. however. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. but according to equations 6.

2.6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .

Less dense gases. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. 6. Around 1911.1.3. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). heated solids.1. since they are unique to each atom. By analyzing these wavelengths. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it.CHAPTER 6. but a few were bounced almost directly back.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. This is how helium was discovered.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. not interactions between atoms. emit a discrete spectrum. When energy is transferred to atoms. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). Although a major step forward. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. If they were at rest. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. Using spectroscopy. This is known as an absorption spectrum. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. When viewing these spectra. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. scientists can analyze unknown materials. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. was accepted by scientists by 1900. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. in industry. 6. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor.3. This is known as an emission spectrum. This became known as the Rutherford Model. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure.

The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. and violet. 1. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. green. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be.1). Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. and also predicted an unstable atom. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. however. The higher the energy level.6 eV n2 (6. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun.2. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient.6. RRHS Physics . this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). A student of Rutherford. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. 2. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. for example.8) 6.3.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. both are therefore quantized. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. Thus. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. blue. When changing energy levels. the atom would not be very stable.1 .3. Neils Bohr. CHAPTER 6.red. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. Using quantum theory. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. electrons can jump directly or in steps.3. in other words. The Rutherford model could not explain this. If an electron absorbs energy. they are accelerating. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second.8). Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. as it loses energy. as shown in the diagram in section 6. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. The radius increases with n2 . the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. As the electrons spiraled inward. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. as in solids). In 1911. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts.

it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. The electron. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. the energy is actually at a minimum. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. Notice in equation 6.3. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. determined energy levels of the elements. As a result. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. but is actually much harder to visualize. however. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. however. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location.CHAPTER 6. applying his theory of matter waves. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. electron can go from 3 to 1. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero).3. This was a major problem with the model. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. since it has a wave nature. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state.8 that when n=1. 6. In quantum mechanics.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. Bohr did not know how to explain this. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. If we consider the electron to be a particle. Louis de Broglie. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. however. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. each independently. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. however. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron.

3. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. CHAPTER 6. 8. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons.3. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. magnetic (ml ). in luminous watch dials. however. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state.1.6. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. In a group of these atoms. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state.3. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). Phosphorescence works in a similar way. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom.5 Problems 1. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. These materials are used. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. At low temperatures. This is called ﬂuorescence.3. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. 5. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. for example.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . Explain any discrepancies. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. 6. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. spin (ms )). the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n).

Sometimes. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. so as the distance becomes greater. This adds energy to the system. this force is the same between protons and protons. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. This is one of the four forces of nature. an element is written as A X.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element.1. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). In the last chapter. In 1932. and A is the mass number. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. Z is the atomic number. 7. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. 1 . the others being the gravitational force. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. called a neutron. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. the electromagnetic force.1. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. however. and neutrons and neutrons. This force only acts over short distances. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. protons and neutrons. A. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. the electric force becomes more important. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. for example. Z. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. and the weak nuclear force.

which is iron. In general.007276 u mn = 1. u.1) CHAPTER 7.0 × 1011 J of energy. Using equation 7. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931.1.66 × 10 kg). if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. 5. m is the equivalent mass in kg. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. 84 7. identify the element. it could just fall apart. Thus. where E is the energy in J. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. We will look at this more in the next two sections. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron.1. The mass of 2 H is 2.014102 u. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. we are actually adding mass. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. For each of the following. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. In a nuclear reaction. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. and c is the speed of light in m/s. In other words. What mass was converted? 4.015123 u). A nuclear reaction produces 9. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. This implies that by adding energy to the system. To be stable.49 MeV. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. RRHS Physics .3 Problems 1. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. the total number of nucleons.7. the number of protons. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. It is expressed as a negative number.1. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.1. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .CHAPTER 7.

Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus.3.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. 7. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. 2 They are not very energetic. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. As a result. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. and required no external stimulation. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). This is true for all alpha decays. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below).2. If the atomic number gets too large. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. RRHS Physics . RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. there are not enough neutrons to do this. This is known as (natural radioactivity). These nuclei are very tightly bound. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions.7. as will be discussed in the following sections.2. therefore. 7. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. 4 He.2. beyond this. 7. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together.

In some cases.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. but the opposite charge. it emits a photon.2. Other than releasing energy.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. they can be very dangerous. Like an atom. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. the nucleus does not undergo any change. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). when it drops down to a lower energy state. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays.2. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. One of the protons. In beta decay. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. This electron disappears into the nucleus. A neutrino is also emitted. allowing a proton to become a neutron. A positron has the same mass as an electron. becomes a neutron.CHAPTER 7. This photon is known as a gamma ray. In 10 years. which has no charge and no mass. This is a random process. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction).3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral.2. by emitting a positron. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). 7. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . 7. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). For this reason. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons.

8. β − . 214 Bi. In another 10 years. 83 emits a β particle. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. showing the element formed. 7. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. Write the complete nuclear equation.2.9898 u). A radioactive bismuth isotope. CHAPTER 7. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. 210 P o. Write the complete nuclear equation. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus.5 Problems 1. or β + emission.7. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. 88 RRHS Physics .9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. One Bequerel is one decay per second. showing the element formed. After one half-life. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. so it is closely related to half-life.2. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. When 23 N e (mass=22. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. 84 emits a α particle. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. A radioactive polonium isotope.

7. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb.3.2) although there are many other possibilities.3. electrons. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing.S. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. this is known as radioactive fallout. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. or gamma rays.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. protons. 7. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. the two masses would be brought together quickly. following Fermi’s work. This ended the war. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. resulting in a transmutation. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. the top scientists in Europe and the U. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. 2.3. however.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. but they can also occur in nature. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U .1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. because it resembled cell division.2 are moving too fast. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. RRHS Physics 7. 89 . The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II.3% 238 U and only 0. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). neutrons. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere.CHAPTER 7. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. To detonate the bomb. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions.

ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. RRHS Physics 90 . Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg).7. Because of its design. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion.3. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. helium is extremely tightly bound. 92 7. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. For example. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). usually containing cadmium. 3. and can be separated to be used as fuel. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. It has a simpliﬁed design. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. and New Brunswick. which is very expensive. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. Also present are control rods. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. 235 U . One of the byproducts is 239 P u. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. 5 CHAPTER 7.3. however. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. which was discussed earlier. so it can be built where technology is limited. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. these control the rate of the reaction. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. Quebec. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. To slow the reaction down.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. energy will be released. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons.

6.002603 140. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2.90722 u 235.3. 9.9250 u 87. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures.007825 u 2. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. 91 RRHS Physics .014102 u 3.043925 u 238. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7.016029 u 4. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7. Once this high temperature is achieved. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. 2.CHAPTER 7.050786 u 1.7 for this reason. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion.016049 u 3. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb.2? 5. How much energy would this release? 8. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions.9141 u 91. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. A few years ago. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy. 3. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. At present. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7.3. This is higher than any known material can stand. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy.905625 u 135. List three medical uses of radioactivity.

The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.3.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics . ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.0 × 1014 J of energy. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7.7.

1 Experimental Data however. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. this 7 is only an estimate. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. for example. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. errors due to rounding oﬀ.3 and 2. It may be smaller or larger. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”.4. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. there are errors present.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. the thickness of the lines may vary. For example. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. Take a meter stick. the ends of the stick may be chipped.37. was friction considered to be constant. you will be expected to do an error analysis. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis.3*. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. In writing lab reports. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. errors in calculation.3 cm and 2. In other words. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. Some of these may be due to human errors. therefore. . we might estimate it to be 2. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. In our meter stick example. and probably even more. The wood may shrink or warp. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment.4 cm. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0.1 mm. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure.

This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. RRHS Physics . In this case. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. or too low. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result.2. but it will not be very accurate. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. As long as these errors are random. The smaller this value. A. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. For this reason. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. The more random error we have in our experiment. This type of error is generally more serious. In the case of systematic error.A. we may end up with a very precise estimate. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. The more data points that we have. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments.1 Standard Deviation A. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition.2. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. It does not address any possible systematic errors. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. A. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. A. the measurements are always too high. the smaller the standard deviation should be. the less precise our results are. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. In our error analysis.1.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. In this case.1. Section A. this type of error is present in all experiments. APPENDIX A. that is. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. this is not an excuse to be careless. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). It is a good idea.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times.

4.23 3.35 1. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.18 3.58 A.35.80 1. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.13 1. if possible. 95 RRHS Physics . Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.14 2.20 3.APPENDIX A. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.11 2. however. x is the average of all the values.31 3. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.78 4.83 1.29 1.94 1.16 3. and N is the number of measurements. we would use t = 2.48 2.42 1.36 2.44 1.35 1. The relevant values for t are given in the table.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation. and got an average value x of 4. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.90 1.36 1. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.64 2. In this case.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.45 3.03 2.05.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.25 2.78 1. When examining the data.31 1. Note.77 1. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.86 1.01 2.38 1. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.60 2.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.84 2.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.37 1. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.02 1. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.92 3. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.53 2.08 6.2.8.71 2. If we have a theoretical value of 5. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.1) where xi are the individual measurements.35 to 5.92 1.50 2.26 3. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.45.76 1.17 2.20.30 9.96 2.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. and we took 12 measurements.89 2. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.57 4.40 1. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.36 1.06 2. we would use t = 2.35. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.98 1. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.36 3.7 63.2.81 1. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.70±0.18 5. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.34 1.7 4. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.

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