# RRHS Physics 12 Course Notes

J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Potential . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58
4 Fields 4. . . . . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . .
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5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .
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CONTENTS . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . .1.1 *Series Circuits . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 3. . . . . .
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. .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 *Circuits . . .1. . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . .6 *Problems . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .2. . . .5 Problems . . .
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. . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . .
. .3 Electrical Power . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . .
. .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . .
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.5 Problems .2 Charging Objects . . . . . .
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. 5. . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . .
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. . .2 *Parallel Circuits .
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. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . .5 Electric Motor . . .
. . 4. . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2. . . . .3. .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .2. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . 5. . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .
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. . .3 Electric Potential . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .
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. . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . 7. . . 7. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . .
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. 6. . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . 7. . .
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. .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . 7. . . .
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. . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.2 Bohr Theory . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . .
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CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . .4. . . . .1 Structure . . . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . .4. . . . . . . . .3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Induction .
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.1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1. .
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. . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95
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19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.37.2 2.2 1.4. pg 886 #3.3.7. pg 596 #12.6.40.27
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pg 641 #9. pg 933 #1.2 4. pg 489 #27. pg 934 #5.4 #36.2 6. pg 608 #3. pg 863 #8. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2
pg 767 #1.8.6.8.9.4.6 #3. pg 529 #30.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.1 2.3 3. pg 862 #6.1 4.33.4 pg 796 #1-4.1 6.28 #2. pg 501 #31.2.6. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1. BLM #1.Textbook Correlations
Section 1.1 5. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.8 #4. pg 780 #2.3.2.3 7.688-693 694-714.9.27. pg 936-937 #26.8.9 #2.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.3. pg 655 #26.14. pg 918-919 #3.2 4.28.2 5. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.5.3 5.3 #4.1 3. pg 571 #21. pg 661 #5.1 1.4 6. pg 526 #1.4.3 5.7.1 7.3 2.24.25. pg 778 #1. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.10.28 pg 495 #30.2 7.3.5.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS
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RRHS Physics
.CHAPTER 0.

For example. Consider the diagram below. force. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). displacement. In university. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. This year. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. when typing. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension.1 Introduction to Vectors
In grade 11 physics. 1
The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . dy ). we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. A vector is not just a single number. acceleration. The symbol d represents these components. In 2D space. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. it does not have a direction. a 30 m displacement
Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. When writing. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). Likewise. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. velocity. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. Last year. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space.Chapter 1
Dynamics Extension
1. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. it is actually two numbers. For example.
1
. like a scalar is. For example. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector.

west). 2.
CHAPTER 1.1. 1. In math. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. So a + b will give (ax + bx . in other words.1
Vector Algebra
Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. 3. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. and the diagram will look like this:
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. In the previous diagram. The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . south. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. ay + by ). north would be 90o . Your textbook uses this last convention. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude.1. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). 2
We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. If we add these two vectors. To help visualize this. we are actually adding their components. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. In this system. the other vector b represents the components (bx . The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. east. In this system. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . south would be 270o . we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together)
The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). Since vectors are not single numbers.1. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. by ). ay ). DYNAMICS EXTENSION
1. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . For the examples that follow.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

4

RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

(a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. 26.1. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. and 3 km S. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. using a compass. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. 10 km W. How fast is the player running? 23. Diane rows a boat at 8.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. wind speed? 18.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. 8 km N. The speed of a boat in still water is v. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. Before it can move.00 h. 20. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. whose speed in still water is 2. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. why? 19. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. A ferryboat.1. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. At the end of three days. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. 6 km S. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N.0 m/s. mass. A hiker leaves camp and. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. the hiker is lost. We must assume u < v. walks 4 km E.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. 5 kmN. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6
CHAPTER 1. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. Find the change in velocity. To do so. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E.
RRHS Physics
. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. 3 km E. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time.85 m/s.

Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation.2
Force Vectors
In Physics 11. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground.
Notice that although the normal. Notice that FN = Fg . we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN .2. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. the vertical forces. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. DYNAMICS EXTENSION
1. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). both of which are vectors. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. therefore. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero.
Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative.CHAPTER 1. I will take up as the positive direction.2. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . In the diagram below. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. friction. FORCE VECTORS
1. RRHS Physics
1. the force of the man pulling is not. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction).
As can be seen in the diagram above.1
Inclined Planes
We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). therefore. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7
. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. First.

it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1.
m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. Drawing a free body diagram. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . In other words. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). Similarly. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). we get
CHAPTER 1. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes.1. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane.2. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. Using trigonometry. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem!
The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics
.2)
Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). If friction is present.2. In order to apply Newton’s second law. Again.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1.3. FORCE VECTORS friction for now). Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). Again notice that FN = Fg . as in the following diagram. if present. the normal force can then be used in this calculation.

(a) Ignoring friction.0 m/s. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.0 N . which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. It takes 13.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2.0 kg box is released on a 33. RRHS Physics
9
.2.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal.5 s for him to reach the bottom. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp.CHAPTER 1. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5. A 55.0 km/h.0 kg block and the ramp is 0. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. will the slug slide down the hill? If so.0o hill at 6.0o angle with the horizontal.10. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12.2
Problems
1. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.0 km/h. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. DYNAMICS EXTENSION
1.30.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. The tension in the rope is 110. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.30. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8.3 m/s2 . where it is attached to a 4. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v)
1.300 m/s2 .5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road.76.0o incline and accelerates at 0. (b) Using the same power as in (a).2. The total mass is 80 kg. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . A car can decelerate at -5.6o hill at a steady speed of 7. A rope attached to the 5. A force of 300.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . A bicyclist can coast down a 4. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. An 18. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. A 15. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. What is the acceleration of this system? 11. A 5. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill.20. A 25.0o angle with the horizontal. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv.

it is obviously not accelerating.3. Since force is a vector. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. Remember. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. As we said. therefore. as shown in the following vector diagram:
A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. DYNAMICS EXTENSION
1.3. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. although the net force is zero in both cases. therefore. The mass is stationary.
3
1. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force.
Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point.3. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero.
As can be seen by the free-body diagram. there will be a net force in some direction. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. therefore.2
Rotational Equilibrium
Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance.3
Equilibrium
You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object.
1. but opposite in direction. EQUILIBRIUM
CHAPTER 1. The second condition will be discussed in the next section.1.1
Translational Equilibrium
This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. there are three forces acting on the mass. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics
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. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium.

Στ = 0
Obviously.
4
RRHS Physics
. this is important. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. 11
where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. right. To examine this more. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. as it was when discussing work. As we have seen. left. When you calculated work. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object.. etc.4. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero.
1.4)
This is the second condition for equilibrium. but for calculating torques. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. As can be seen from equation 1. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). when calculating the work. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). This is called a dot product. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. You will learn more about these in university. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. While forces were described using up. It is not in rotational equilibrium. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. It can be thought of as a twisting force. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. we must introduce the notion of a torque. it acts on every particle in the body. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). τ = F⊥ d (1. you multiplied only
If there is a natural pivot point (for example. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily.4 The further away from this pivot. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course.3.CHAPTER 1. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. down. Before dealing with torques. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. the board will begin to spin. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. the greater the torque. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). but one up and one down. even though the forces are equal and opposite.

1. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . 8. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall.0 s.3. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below:
5. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. 10. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. 9. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. 12
.0 m when a 50. A high wire is 25. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated:
1. What is the tension in the rope? 2. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below.
7. A 20. When lifting a barbell.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. The frame has a wire across the back.0 m long and sags 1. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N .3
Problems
1.3.5o with each other. EQUILIBRIUM
CHAPTER 1. and you don’t want it to break. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. 3.0 N . A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. RRHS Physics
4. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. A sign with a mass of 1653. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. The two ropes make an angle of 15. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces.

In the following diagram. Find the equilibrant force: 12. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13
18. and its center of gravity is located 4.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15.0 N. 14. direction.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. one at either end. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators.0 kg (uniformly distributed)
.CHAPTER 1.0 m and a length of 15. Betty is pulling with 205 N east.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. The platform is being held up by two students. A 60.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. Where must a 22. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N . Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N.3.0 kg person is sitting 1.
19. EQUILIBRIUM
17. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. The plane has a base of 14. A force of 500.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60.0 cm wide. Fred.0 kg person stands at its tip. determine the magnitude.0 m from the same end. The 10.0 kg person is sitting 0.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane. If there is a spring on the door 5.0 m platform has a mass of 10.0 kg. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90. apply to prevent acceleration?
1. A 50. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40.90 m away from the pivot on the other side.0 m.

EQUILIBRIUM
CHAPTER 1.1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION
14
RRHS Physics
.3.

all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15
. and t is the time in the air. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion.1. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion.1
Objects tally
Launched
Horizon-
Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. These are all vector quantities. and acceleration.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another.
2. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. The horizontal speed does not change. since max = ΣFx . The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1 Projectiles
An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this
1
We can show this later on. as seen in the picture below:
Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). we see that there is only one . therefore. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. velocity. vx is the horizontal speed.Chapter 2
2-D Motion
2. there is no horizontal acceleration. This also makes things somewhat simple. Ignoring air resistance.1)
where dx is the horizontal distance travelled.gravity.
Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. Since we know our vertical acceleration.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance).

then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?).1. vyi will be zero in equations 2. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity.
1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy =
(2. 2.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics
. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown.1. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude. Remember. instead of horizontally. since there are no horizontal forces. and 2.2
Objects Launched at an Angle
We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. In this case. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball.2.1 to 2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. until it reaches zero at its highest point. namely using equations 2. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. the ball follows a parabolic path.1. For this reason.2.3. however. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles.4. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles.
CHAPTER 2. The object does. As the ball rises. as shown in the diagram below.1 and 2. therefore.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. Once this is done. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. the time in the air.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. vyi is the initial vertical velocity.2)
2 2 vyf − vyi (2. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below:
Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16
This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. PROJECTILES used. Notice that equation 2. Again.4.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. t is the time in the air. but gravity will act to slow it down. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity.
2. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller.

1.2 m above the ground. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. Immediately. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9.0 m/s. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground. 3. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.0 m away and are 3. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. Trailing by two points. YES! It’s a score. PROJECTILES tree. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot. Should the hunter aim directly at.7 m above the ground. 2-D MOTION
2. A baseball is hit at 30. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal.05 m above the ﬂoor.CHAPTER 2. A diver running 3. The rotten egg landed 4. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s.0 s remaining in a basketball game. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. At the time of the throw.5 m high.0 s later. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31.0 m/s. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. A person is in a moving elevator. by how much will it miss the target? 3.0 m high. the elevator was 8. and with only 2. above. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. an outﬁelder runs 4. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away.1.3
Problems
1. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s.0o .5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. The building is 13. how far from the building is the target? 6. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17
2.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.0 m. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5.0o with the horizontal. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics
. The ball is released at the height of the basket. 14. releasing the ball at the height of the basket.0 m from the basket. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8.2 m away from the elevator.0 m/s at an angle of 53. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2.02 m from the basket. 4.

2.6 m above the ﬂoor. For each of the following questions. Will the following quantities change? If so. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. At any moment. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200.1 m above the ﬂoor. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. PROJECTILES 14. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees.0 m away? 16. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g
CHAPTER 2. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all.22 m (horizontally). 21. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. 20. draw all vectors to scale. (a) Draw the situation above.1. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle.0 m below. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. The basket is 2. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. 2-D MOTION speeds. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range
where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. 19. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18
RRHS Physics
. When it reaches the end of the table.

2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion.2.
2
19
. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. (See Fig 2.2
Simple Harmonic Motion
Figure 2.1a).1c)and let it go. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
2. etc. If you double the mass hanging on the spring.CHAPTER 2. which causes the spring to stretch. This is the equilibrium position. This is now its new equilibrium position .
Of course.1: Simple Harmonic Motion
When a mass is hung on a spring. The units for the spring constant are N/m. Suppose that you RRHS Physics
now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards.7)
where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. if you exceed the limits of the spring.1b)). 2-D MOTION
2. this formula no longer holds). or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. suspension bridges. but is dependent on the spring. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. The period (the time for one complete vibration. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. you will double the distance the spring stretches. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. a mattress. in this case. the suspension of a car. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. which results in a downward acceleration. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. depending on its spring constant.at this point.6)
where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. Also.

7 we get T = 2π l g (2. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant.2.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a).2
Pendulum Motion
For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ).2.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m).9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. 1 Ep = kx2 (2.10)
Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass!
Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system.
1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2.
20
RRHS Physics
.2.2. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L
where L is the length of the pendulum. Substituting this into Eq 2.6). So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3
3
If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that
is supporting a mass. or removed from.
2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
CHAPTER 2. the total energy remains the same. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. At equilibrium. 2-D MOTION
2. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). however. therefore. the system. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy.1
Conservation of Energy
When we stretch or compress a spring. work is done on the spring.

2.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. if it had 3. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. A geologist’s simple pendulum. A block of mass 0.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. frictionless surface. whose length is 37. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. What will its frequency be if only 0. A spring stretches 0. When an 80. 13.30 m.30 kg mass is hung from it.2.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0.CHAPTER 2.110 m and released. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4.100 m from this equilibrium point and released. The spring.60 kg is hung from it. What is the value of m? 6. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics
21
.62 Hz.2 cm. has a frequency of 0.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9. What is the frequency of vibration? 7. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. A mass of 2. A small cockroach of mass 0. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0. the raft vibrates brieﬂy.30 kg hangs from it? 5.10 g were trapped? 8.8190 Hz at a particular location.0 cm.150 m when a 0.200 kg ball.4 Hz when a weight of 0. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1.5 N hangs from it.2.325 m.10 cm.48 Hz.10 m? 12. in contact with a spring bumper. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. When the man steps oﬀ. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15.75 J of work done on it? 11. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.50 kg is placed on a level. the frequency is 0.3
Problems
1. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. whose other end is ﬁxed. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. is then released. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz.10 m to load a 0. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. 2-D MOTION
2.

12) (2. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv.12.
2.11)
Just as with one dimensional collisions.1
Conservation of Momentum
If the collision is not head on.2. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. Since velocity is a vector.13 would look like this:
where pt is really just pa . This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. 22
Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. pa = pa + pb (2. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. Also. so is momentum.3. a vector diagram must be drawn. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. since p = mv. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object.3
2D Collisions
As with many of our topics so far in this course. 2D COLLISIONS
CHAPTER 2. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or.11 and 2. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision.3. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ).13)
where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. We can now RRHS Physics
. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. This still applies in two dimensional collisions.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. not velocity. however.
You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum.12. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). if you remember from grade 11. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions.
2. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. In two dimensions.

the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby
2. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems.3. Remember.
A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. such as thermal energy. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. after this collision. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. therefore. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. In other words. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. some energy is lost.3. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle.2
Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). though.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. therefore. and one of the particles is initially at rest. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension.
2. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. In this type of collision. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. RRHS Physics
23
.
4
In other words. For a two body collision. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example.14. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. Since the masses are equal. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. the collision is elastic. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. our conservation of energy equation (2. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors.CHAPTER 2.

A proton travelling with speed 8.2. the investigator determined that car A. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3. initially at rest. initially at rest. Two cars collide at an intersection. 50. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h.0o North of West. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5.40 kg strikes a second ball. Find 24
.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West.00 m/s strikes a second ball. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. the second ball is moving North.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. of mass 0.3
Problems
1.3. A billiard ball of mass 0. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. From skid marks. and the second car had a velocity of 40.60 kg. As a result of this elastic collision. 6. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1.0o North of West. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics
2. At what angle will the second proton be observed. If they collide and remain stuck together. 40.80 m/s. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9.3. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. After the collision (assumed elastic). If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection.400 kg. and a neutrino.0 km/h. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6.00 m/s.2×10−23 kg·m/s. and another is moving East with a speed of 4.20 m/s. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. an electron. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. Immediately after impact. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2.0 km/h. 2D COLLISIONS
CHAPTER 2. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. of mass mb = 0. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact.

We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr).1. an acceleration present. There is. we get v= 2πr (3. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram.1 Uniform Circular Motion
the change of speed.Chapter 3
Planetary Motion
3. which is pulling inward. Since this is the only force. the object will not speed up or slow down. the object will speed up or slow down. we can simply use d (3. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity.
To calculate the speed of the object. So even though the speed is not changing. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time.
We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. however. the object moves in a curve. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. With projectile motion. however.
1
. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion.1
Centripetal Acceleration
Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. in other words. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. not
Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. there is still an acceleration. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). we see v= 25
3.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. the acceleration must also be inward.

In fact. it just shows the direction of the three quantities. in particular. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 . then equation 3. however. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential)
You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one.1. 3. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a.1 below).3) T Combining equations 3.1. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
CHAPTER 3. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. horizontal surface.3. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. always inward toward the center of the circle.5 becomes Fc = mac (3.3. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. Centripetal force is not.2 and 3.1: This is not a free body diagram.2
Centripetal “Force”
The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. 2. This is a common misconception of students. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics
.6)
Figure 3.
where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26
Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. ac = v2
3. Looking at equation 3. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. 1.2.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. when solving centripetal force problems. by deﬁnition.

Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). being pulled inward by the string. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency).CHAPTER 3. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. because of inertia. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. in fact. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. In this situation. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. If there were. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. We have already RRHS Physics
2
tangent to the circle
27
. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. in fact. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. Remember. it is. the ball is not being pushed outward. If you break the string. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this:
3.3
Centrifugal Force
The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. Pretend you are the ball in our example. because of Newton’s Third Law. not outward.
3. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward.1. also.1. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line.

Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.3. 28
RRHS Physics
. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. The ball makes exactly 2. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
CHAPTER 3. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.1 times per second.e.60. what force does the string now exert? 4. A coin is placed 18.5 cm.0 m.1.0 complete revolution each second. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.1.15 m.15 m/s and its mass is 0. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.3 days.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle.0 revolutions per second.80 m long.0 m rope.000 km and a period of 27. 3. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out. A gravitron circus ride has a 2.42. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12.0 m radius and rotates 1. A 5. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. If its speed is 3. 9.30? 7. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8.335 kg. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.20? 6. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.4
Problems
1. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass?
3. What is the critical speed (i. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.00 revolutions in a second.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385.

assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. the vine is 4. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. PLANETARY MOTION 13. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). will a friction force be required? If so. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. A person has a mass of 75. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required.CHAPTER 3. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16.1. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h.0 kg. For the previous question. 18. 17. 19. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. what RRHS Physics
3. how much and in what direction?
29
. 15. 14. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. If the person is standing on the equator. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. Sketch the situation. and explain this sensation.0 m long. Assume no change in energy for the system.6 km. including the relevant forces. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km.

this is how the mass of the earth was found.
In grade 11. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. given by G in the equation below. PLANETARY MOTION
3.3. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant.2
Acceleration Due to Gravity
For readings on this unit. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. If the object is given a higher speed. it travels a further distance. People often ask what keeps a satellite up.1
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
In the 1600’s.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
CHAPTER 3. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. we must consider the orbit. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. Newton.) g= GM m R2
3. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. Fg = 30
3. To determine this necessary speed. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. In fact.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics
. speciﬁcally.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or.2.2. In this way. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. gravity is much more common than this. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. but not to understand why they are so. Equation 3. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. we get mg = or GM (3. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is.2
Universal Gravitation
3. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. Assuming a circular orbit. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity.2. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9.3
Satellite Motion
If a projectile is thrown horizontally. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. however. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. This type of relationship appears often in physics. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. however.2. equating the two expressions. it is falling toward the earth. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up.

Solving this equation for v.
3. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1.CHAPTER 3. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth.
Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important.4
Kepler’s Laws
More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31
. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. 3. as given in equation 3.9)
What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite.11)
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). faster than this speed. PLANETARY MOTION
3.2.
2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2
F = mac
(3. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites.7. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. 2.4)into equation 3. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit.9. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. m is the mass of the satellite. v= GM r (3. If the satellite goes slower than this speed.2. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.

36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5.85 × 105 km. 12.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3.2. 6. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. If the bowling balls are 0. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another.5
Problems
1.50 m apart. But Frank is lazy.2. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. 7.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1.44 × 106 s and it is 1. 10. Four 8. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1.3. PLANETARY MOTION weight. 8. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. All distances are center to center. Do the previous question again. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. r = 6. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1.0 N is required to pull a 10.50 m. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. A force of 40.98 × 107 m). what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun.6 times that of the earth. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon.90 × 1027 kg. Frank is really concerned about his weight. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32
RRHS Physics
.99 × 1030 kg). What is g near the surface? 5.50 × 108 km.71×10−8 N . How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter.
3. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. 13. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. determine the mass of Jupiter.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
CHAPTER 3. but has the same mass.85 × 105 km. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. From this data.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is. 2. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three.

what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. Find its period in units of the period of the moon.3 × 1022 kg. RRHS Physics
3. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.2. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. 1969. 32. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. On July 19. Find the value of this constant. 31.4 days) to do problem 16. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth.CHAPTER 3. The asteroid Icarus. A satellite is going around Earth.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. PLANETARY MOTION 14. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. what would happen to the value of G? 30. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). 33
. Why? 28. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. though only a few hundred meters across. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. Jupiter is 5. 27. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. Its period is 410 days. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. 16. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. orbits the sun like other planets.

PLANETARY MOTION
34
RRHS Physics
.2.3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
CHAPTER 3.

In a normal state. In each case. According to atomic theory. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. Likewise. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it.
4. for example. Metals are generally very good conductors. not the protons. If you rub a balloon in your hair.
. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract.1. giving it a net negative or positive charge. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. in the amount of charge is zero. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body.1
Insulators and Conductors
A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. the net change 35
4. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. even more important than many people think. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. This kind of atom is called an ion.Chapter 4
Fields
The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. you notice that it will stick to the wall. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). During any of the processes described above.1
Static Electricity
Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. Remember. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). When a conductor is given a negative charge.

One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above.1. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects.e. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. however. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper.2
Charging Objects
Induction and conduction can also work together. it has merely been separated.1. The RRHS Physics
. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). if it is charged negatively.3
Electroscopes
An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge.1. No charge has been created. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. but is just brought near it. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36
4. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod.
4. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. The other way of charging an object is called induction. conduction occurs. giving it excess electrons. there are . and they touch. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. i. in this way. With induction. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. germanium. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons.however. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. An object can also be charged by conduction. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below).4. As soon as they touch. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories.
CHAPTER 4. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). For example. If you ground the sphere.
We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work).

Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. the faster the charge will be carried away.even though they are neutral.
4. the two leaves just hang vertically. RRHS Physics
A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. even after we remove the charged rod. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma.4
Permanency of Charge
If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. even when nothing is apparently done to them. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. The leaves will then stay spread apart. You can. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. The more water molecules in the air. will repel each other and will spread out. STATIC ELECTRICITY
Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. Sparks and lightning are examples of this.
4. In some cases. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. If charges become large enough.1. If the electroscope is neutral.CHAPTER 4. Think about how you may do this. Suppose.
37
. the leaves. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. however. more often. as shown here. giving it a permanent charge. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. particularly on each leaf. now negatively charged.1.

A attracts C.5
Problems
1. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. 9. one at each end of the line of blocks. they ﬂy away in different directions. 5. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. STATIC ELECTRICITY
CHAPTER 4. close to but not touching the blocks. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. When an electroscope is charged. and C repels D. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. but as soon as they touch the rod. Explain. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. why does the record now attract dust?
4. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. Finally. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. 3. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. You place two objects with strong positive charges.1. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. what kind of charge does B have? 6. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. you remove the two positively charges objects. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth.4. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38
RRHS Physics
. 12. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. What charge is on the rod? 8. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. Why don’t they rise farther? 10.1. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. If you know that D is positively charged.

39
. or some other type of contact.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less.2. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. and weak nuclear forces) continues. When people think of forces.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge. Using some test charge q. however. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . they think of pushing or pulling an object. This worried people. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space.
4. tying a rope to something. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. FIELDS
4.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . The search for simple. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force.CHAPTER 4. To help explain this idea.1
Forces and Fields
Coulomb’s Law
The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. then the r in equation 4.
1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. If the two objects are spheres.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9.1 is the distance between the centers. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. which has an equal but opposite charge). it is precise for only point charges.2.2. without using some test charge.2
4.it is a concept.2
Electric Fields
Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics
4. in fact. electromagnetic. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld.2)
Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. r is the distance between the charges in meters. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. since it appeared to behave like magic. This may require pushing with your hand. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. strong nuclear forces. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. E= F q (4. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1.

The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics
.4
Gravitational Fields
To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. The electric ﬁeld would look like this:
The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld.2.2.1 into equation 4. These electric ﬁeld lines. equation 4. consider a positive source charge. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source.1. which interacts with all objects near the earth. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines.4. E=
CHAPTER 4. If there is more than one source charge.2. 2. we obtain kQ (4.
4. Substituting equation 4. FIELDS points around the sources. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r.3
Lines of Force
In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40
In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. however. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. then equation 4. In reality. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. or lines of force. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. For example.2. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. For example. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this:
4.

the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1.5
Problems
1. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. mass 9.0 µC is 0. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . The bottom electron is resting on a table. is 0. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13.2. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. In one model of the hydrogen atom. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. has a charge of -20 µC.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. and the right -83 µC. what force is exerted? 12. 3.030 m to the east. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. A and B. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. Three particles are placed in a line. You are given two similar spheres. and an electron.1 × 106 m/s. What is the force between them? 5.
4.67 × 10−27 kg. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1.145 N on each other. the typical size of an atom. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. -4. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC.2. In other words. -2. A third ball. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. the RRHS Physics
. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). 8. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. One. mass 1. located 16 cm to the right. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41
4.2). FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. What should you do? 11. Two charges.11 × 10−31 kg.0 N on each other? 4. q1 and q2 . what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. has a charge of +25 µC.0 µC. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4.5 × 10−10 m. located 25 cm above the second ball. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10.CHAPTER 4.00 × 10−17 C? 2.050 m to the north and the other. A second ball. A positive charge of 3.

(a) two positively charged point sources. 19. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. FIELDS 20. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28.0 cm apart? 23.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. A negative charge of 2. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. Find the force on an electron. What is the electric ﬁeld 2.0 µC charge 40. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. A proton (m = 1. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC.
RRHS Physics
. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.0 cm away from a 1.0 µC and the other 68. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain.0 µC and a +60. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20.5 N and is repulsive. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. 17. Two charges. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons.020 mm remains stationary in the air. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. the force each exerts on the other is 28.0× 10−6 C charge.0 µC charged particle? 21. Take into account gravity and determine E. 42
CHAPTER 4.0 × 10−6 C test charge. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. then repeat your work with a 2. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. 24.2. A water droplet of radius 0.2 cm apart. one 33. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. Two positive charges. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. are a distance l apart. When placed 1. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C.0 µC are 8.4. −Qo and −3Qo . You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22.30 m apart. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1.

The potential energy here will decrease. Remember that W = ∆E. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. since they are trying to get away from one another. For example.1
Electric Potential Energy
As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable.
2
without accelerating it
RRHS Physics
. which is called the volt. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. Just as with gravitational potential energy. The symbol for electric potential is V .
4. therefore. If the two spheres are touched together. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. namely potential energy. so Vab = Wab q (4. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy.CHAPTER 4.4)
The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. In this case.3. Suppose you have two spheres. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q
4. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. sphere B is said to be neutral. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q
but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge.3
Electric Potential
We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature.3. If positive work is required to move the charge. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. for example. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. we say that it is at a high potential.3. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. FIELDS
4. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43
4.2
Electric Potential
Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge.
where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. you don’t have to do anything. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. This will add energy to the system.

there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld.3.
or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions
44
RRHS Physics
.4
Problems
1.
CHAPTER 4. that is. How much charge is transferred?
3
(a) two positively charged point sources.4. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . A -30. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. The change in energy while doing this is 4. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).5 V ? 3. A force of 0. if they were not. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6.5 × 107 V . If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. the two spheres will be at the same potential. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. What work is done when 5.3
Equipotential Lines
The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). at this point. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations:
4.5 × 10−4 J. as shown below. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge.3.3. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point.
4. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3.0 C is raised in potential by 1.0 µC charge. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. FIELDS 2.

when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. little was known about the structure of the atom. Contrary to a common belief. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. also referred to as an amp. When people discussed current. a battery is several cells connected together. this is given a special name. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. so its electrons are held very loosely. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. In short. at the same time.
1
. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. As was discussed in the previous chapter. you will study this in more detail in chemistry.
5. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45
Until 1800. In 1800. an ampere (A).1. therefore.1 Electric Current
Q (5. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal).
The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire.1
Electrical Quantities
Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery.Chapter 5
Electricity & Magnetism
5.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. A wire is a conductor. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. Remember that in solids.

3. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. This makes sense. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. we can use it here as well. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics
Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. These materials are than said to be superconducting. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. 46
. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. 2. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. because of their atomic structure. insulators have a very high resistance. If one end of the pipe is raised. they lose potential. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). it gains or loses energy. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). In the same way. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. Comparing this to electricity.5. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe.1. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. When charges are moved through a resistance. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. In our gravity/water analogy above. therefore. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. Resistance is measured in ohms. For practical purposes. With a battery. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. however. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance.
CHAPTER 5. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. Temperature: In general. In liquids and gases. the greater the ﬂow of water. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using.

but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. the current is proportional to voltage). If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire.5)
5. if you double the voltage.5. the watt (W ).3)
5.4) we have P = qV t
Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer.1. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. 4. it is really energy that we pay for. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power.4 with equation 5. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A.1.CHAPTER 5.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. or mechanical). Consider a wire that is carrying a current. light. Note that equation 5. the resistance must be constant.4)
This gives us the power transformed by any device. current can be expressed as V (5. the current also doubles. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations.2
Ohm’s Law
Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage.1) so P = IV (5. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. the current is proportional to the voltage. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time.
but I = q/t (equation 5. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. power is just the amount of energy 47
In most electric circuits. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. so it will have a lower resistance. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. We RRHS Physics
.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5.
5. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5.3
Electrical Power
This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. Looking at this equation. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law.1. That is. thereby increasing the resistance.

5. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics
The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. When she connects it to a 1.4
Problems
1.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0.0 V battery is used. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. Is Joe correct? Explain. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. 14. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. Does the device obey Ohm’s law?
2
the standard SI unit of energy
48
. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. The line has a resistance of 1.6)
CHAPTER 5.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4.5. above 100 mA can be fatal. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5.0 A? 5. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase.1. What voltage will produce 12. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it.0 cm apart. 5 mA can be painful. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. A current of 1. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin.10 A ﬂows in a wire. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. Joe argues that. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. at 20 mA. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects.5 A for 6.5 V battery.085/kW h). since R = V /I. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled.0 h. but when a 3. 11. A 1.1. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. What is the current through a 6. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12.

0 minutes.5 kg of water. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16.2 Ω lines. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current.11 per kW h. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.000 V ? 21. A modern television set draws 2. At $0. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω.06 per kWh? 19. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26. RRHS Physics
5. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. It is observed that it takes 12. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1.0o C. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A.20 kg of water.000 V rather than 12. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5.08 per kW h. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. How many 100 W light bulbs.0 s? 25. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. What is the eﬃciency of a 0. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0. by means of a converter. 18. What is its increase in temperature during the 30.)
49
. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .4 A from a 120 V line? 27. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. operated at 120 V .0 A when operated on 120 V . can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. (a) 220 V are applied across it.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1.0o C to 55.1.CHAPTER 5.29 kg/m3 .

the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. Because charge must be conserved. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other.8) (5. Consider the parallel circuit shown below:
The same current must pass through each resistor.2
*Circuits
In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits.2.2 to analyze the resistances. and R3 . The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. R3 respectively.2. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. you increase the total resistance. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols:
5. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. R2 . currents. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. R2 . I2 .7)
5.2
*Parallel Circuits
A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 .8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. I1 . since there is only one path.9) RRHS Physics
. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . applying equation 5. and voltages throughout the circuit. Of course. V2 = IR2 .5. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. and V3 = IR3 . then by applying equation 5. By conservation of energy. Knowing the equivalent resistance. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 .1
*Series Circuits
A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. If V1 . the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50
If I is the total current that leaves the battery. when we put several resistance in series. When you add more resistances.2. each resistor has its own path. V2 .
5. *CIRCUITS
CHAPTER 5. Consider three resistors in series as shown below:
which makes sense.

If any resistors are in parallel. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below).
3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. since there is a junction in between the two. R3 . resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. This combination is then in series with R1 . If any resistors are in series.CHAPTER 5.2. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . For example. Remember. 3. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. R1 and R2 are not in series. Again. so they can be combined using equation 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). then they are not in series.
5. R2 . however. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω.2.
RRHS Physics
51
. *CIRCUITS 2. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit).
so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit.3
*Complex Circuits
Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1.10)
5. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. Consider the following example. but are often some combination of the two. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). every time you add a resistance in parallel. you are also adding another path for the current to follow.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. Also. equation 5.
In this example. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. if there is a junction between the resistors. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. Remember. R3 is in series with R4 .

Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level.2. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). This is just an expression of equation 5. for example. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. breaking the circuit. 2.5. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. a system of equations can then be found and solved. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow.5
*Safety Devices
Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. These rules actually apply to all circuits. If this strip melts. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit.
5.2. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. 2. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. Houses are wired in parallel.7. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. *CIRCUITS
CHAPTER 5. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase.9. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. At any junction point.2. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. 1. however. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. too complicated for this analysis. To deal with these circuits. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. Some circuits4 are. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. For example. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current
4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course
52
.4
*Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules
Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. RRHS Physics
5. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. If too much current ﬂows. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. For example. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. A third type of safety device is slightly different.

Find V. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics
9.
3. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. What is the resistance in each case? 53
. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0.
8.6
*Problems
1. Find each resistance. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5. 7.
4. Find the unknown currents and voltages. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. Find the current in each branch.2. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6.
5. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch.
2.2.CHAPTER 5.50 A.
5.

V2 .0 Ω. Given an unlimited supply of 1.0 V . Find It .0 V input? 15.0 V output for a 6. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. Suppose that you have a 6.5.
16.0 54
. or 150 W at 120 V . 100 W .0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. *CIRCUITS 10.2.I2 . Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. and I4 .
13.
12.
11. and P1 . A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W .I3 . If each resistor is 10 Ω. If each resistor is 10 Ω. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. 17.
CHAPTER 5. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics
14. If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. Find the current in each branch.I3 . Find R3 . what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18.

Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). Consider the circuit below. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3.CHAPTER 5. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19.
5. one larger than the other.2. (a) If they are connected in parallel. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone.8 kΩ. RRHS Physics 55 23. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. If one resistor is 2. and I3 in the following circuit. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. determine the currents I1 . I2 . Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. *CIRCUITS
22. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. which is brighter? 21. what is the resistance of the other?
.

The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. A compass needle is really a small magnet. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld —
The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole.3
Magnetism
As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. A positive or negative charge can be isolated.3. In most materials. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld.3. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. since an electric current will always produce both. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. In a magnetized piece of iron. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. in ferromagnetic materials. MAGNETISM
CHAPTER 5. Magnetic poles are not. each with a north and south pole. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. and cobalt. the same as electric charges. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. for example. however. however. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out.
5. however. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets.
5
Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level.1
Magnetic Fields
Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges.
5. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. If you cut a magnet in two. the result is two magnets. nickel. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. Since these forces do behave similarly. This will be seen in the next section. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld.5. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. On a small scale. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. the domains are more lined up in one direction. magnetic forces act over distances. As a result. RRHS Physics
56
.

your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. it makes sense. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. To use this hand rule. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. when using left hand rules. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). In other words.
6
5. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. or a current. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current.2
Electromagnetism
The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. the second right hand rule can be used. By using more than one loop. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld.3
Force on a Wire
We have already seen in section 5.
5. it often7 experiences a force. This is an electromagnet. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. In fact. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. then. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. and θ is the angle between
7
depending on its orientation
RRHS Physics
57
. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. but this was found to have no eﬀect.3.3. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’.3. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet.3. this increases the strength
Some people use left hand rules instead. around 1820. To use this hand rule. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5.CHAPTER 5. It was only with a moving charge. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst).11)
where I is the current in the wire in amperes.

a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire.
5. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. have to be moving through a wire.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t
An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy.
CHAPTER 5. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. as long as this force remains the same magnitude.
use left hand rules. As we learned before.
but l/t is just the speed of the particle. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire.3. There will be no force between b and c. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. Remember that I = q/t. If the moving particle is negative. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. This loop of wire will rotate. to
58
RRHS Physics
. so F = qvB sin θ (5. as shown in the side view below. The charges do not. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. substituting this into equation 5.
where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b.5
Electric Motor
5.3. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion.4
Force on a Charged Particle
We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. you may also use the left hand rule. To do this. To use this rule. Between c and d. as shown below.3.8
8
Remember. the force will be out of the page.5. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. however.

In order to make the loop continue turning. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5. if the loop goes past this point. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics
3.3. In reality. we want it to turn continuously. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. Many loops of wire are usually used. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. but no force acts on the wire. Also. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. as well as a ferromagnetic core.CHAPTER 5. (b) Two opposite poles.6
Problems
1. but just touch one another. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. As a result. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4.
If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. as shown below.
5. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. As the armature turns. MAGNETISM other brush.3. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59
. (a)
(b)
Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. This allows the current to change direction in the loop.

What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. A proton having a speed of 5.90 T .
(b)
10.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1.3. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. it feels zero force. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60
. What is the force on the wire? 7. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room.5.0 × 10−5 T . The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west.9 × 103 kg/m3 . A straight 2. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction. (a)
CHAPTER 5. MAGNETISM 5.35 N .0 A and weighs 0. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . If the force on the wire below is into the page. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics
(c)
6. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. identify the poles of the magnets. 11.

An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics
5. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V .
61
. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20. A particle with a charge of 2. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. Calculate the mass of the particle. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected.08 m. which exists between the two parallel plates below. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. what must be the speed of the ion? 26.000 V . Protons move in a circle of radius 8.CHAPTER 5.032 T . The radius of its path is 4.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. Calculate the energy of the proton. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. If the velocity of the particle is 5. 21. A force of 5.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld.25 T . What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. E=1000 N/C. 16.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld.02 T. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . 17.
23.10 T magnetic ﬁeld.3. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22.5 cm.10 cm in a 0.4 mm? 24. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. Explain. B=0.6 × 10−13 N . what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18.385 T magnetic ﬁeld.25 × 106 m/s. An electron (m = 9. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space.

and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another.14)
EMF stands for electromotive force. We call this an induced emf.
5. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). In other words. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current?
5. opposing the motion of the bar magnet.5. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. Fill in the direction of the current in this example.
∆φ ∆t
(5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N
9
The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current.1
Induced EMF
Around 1831. For example. when the magnet is removed. Such a current is called an induced current. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire.4. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. The direction of RRHS Physics
62
.4
Induction
We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. For example.4. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). and not a force
where B. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux.13)
Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. INDUCTION
CHAPTER 5. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. v. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes.

Remember. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. Notice that if Ns > Np . it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. RRHS Physics
This is called the transformer equation.13. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. From equation 5. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. therefore.
5. If Ns < Np . So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. this is a step-down transformer. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. conservation of energy tells 63
. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current.4. INDUCTION
When a current ﬂows in the primary coil.CHAPTER 5. There is. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. however.15)
5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t
where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. the two wires are insulated from one another. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. This is called perpetual motion. The primary coil has the incoming current. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power.2
Transformers
When we discussed transmission of power. But remember. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current.4. In the example shown below. therefore. Just like before. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. however. Combining these two equations. this is called a step-up transformer. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same.

Consider the picture below. Similarly. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5.16)
CHAPTER 5.5. we see what happens to the current. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. out of the page). The wire ab is moving out. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. Since P = V I. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor.4. RRHS Physics
. into the page). then the current must be lowered. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. the force on cd must be out of the page.3
Electric Generators
A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. therefore. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. 64
Unlike the DC motor described earlier. at positions 2 and 4. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. this means that if the voltage goes up.
If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below.
At position 1. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5.4. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. at position 3.

the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. Back EMF As was previously stated. value. INDUCTION called a counter torque. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0.5Imax
To make a DC generator. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be
2 I 2 = 0. the situation is the reverse. In a generator. however.5Vmax Imax
In North America. or eﬀective. This is RRHS Physics
Taking the square root of each side. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current.18)
Since power is P = V I.4. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power
10
65
. giving Pavg = 0. Alternating Current As we have seen. the greater the back (or counter) emf.10 The current is actually sinusoidal.
This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. Since the current is not constant. we take a root mean square average (rms). as was seen in a previous graph. The greater the speed of the motor.11 we cannot just average the current over time.707Vmax (5. The more current that is drawn. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. we get a sin2 θ graph. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. When a motor is operating. Instead. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor.707Imax (5. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire.17)
Similarly.CHAPTER 5. As we turn the generator. If we square an AC electric current graph. as were used with the DC motor. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
5. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz.

out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. It takes 0. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.4.
Also note that since P = V I.19)
CHAPTER 5. with its plane perpendicular to B. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer?
9. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7.15 Ω. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power. calculate the emf developed.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.50 T magnetic ﬁeld.350 T to zero. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. It is initially in a 0.10 s.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. A square coil of sides 5.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0. (a) What voltage is across the secondary?
66
RRHS Physics
.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region.5.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. A 12.4 s. In what direction is the induced current?
3. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0.5Pmax (5.0 cm/s. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. What is the average induced emf ? 2. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. If the rod is 12. Hence.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. What is the induced emf ? 4.5 Ω.4. 6.4
Problems
1. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100.800 T . A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V .
5. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power. If the wire has a resistance of 0.

The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . and an output current of 0.0 A. what would the new output voltage be? 16.0 V and the input current is 11. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics
5. An ac voltage. Why? 21. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil.0 V source and measures 8. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9.0 V AC. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. the coil will swing. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily.CHAPTER 5. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. Calculate the peak current in a 2. whose peak value is 90 V . If the primary and secondary were reversed. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. (b) the current in the primary.4. where the line voltage is 240 V .0 V at the secondary. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. It is used with a transformer in England.0 A. Frequently. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. is across a 35 Ω resistor. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22.0 A. 19. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). What is the rms voltage across it? 27.0 A respectively. INDUCTION 17. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. 26.75 A. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary.0 V and an output current of 5. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67
. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. and (c) the power transformed 13. Why is this true? 18. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16.

(a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. INDUCTION 28. a 700 W hair dryer. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt?
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. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line.25 A.4. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21.5.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

only its frequency is lowered.
1
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. after the collision. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. however. such as diﬀraction and interference.5). We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. The difﬁculty here. QUANTUM THEORY Since
CHAPTER 6. By making careful measurements. He suggested in 1923 that. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light
hc E = hf = (6. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass).4).1 however.4
de Broglie Hypothesis
Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. however. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence.6. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). Objects such as electrons.6)
but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties.1. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties. he obtained mv = h λ
Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6.1. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. If he was correct. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6.4 and 6. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. The photon does not actually slow down. p= 72 hf E = c c
which is called the de Broglie wavelength. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2
6. are small enough that wave properties can be observed.
In fact. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929.

A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0.5
Problems
1. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V .0 km/h.0 eV photon and a 5. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. What are the wavelengths. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light.1. Determine the wavelength of a 0. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. does it increase or decrease? 11. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg.40 Hz. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. 15. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. 12. 7. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2.CHAPTER 6. 13. RRHS Physics
9.0 eV electron?
73
. 10. does its wavelength change? If so. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm
6.1 × 1013 Hz.80 nm.1. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. λ = 450 nm.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90.0 × 106 m/s. of a 3.
6. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. 14. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. 16. QUANTUM THEORY 8. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. If energy is radiated by all objects. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. in meters. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2.

for example. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. In a uniform medium. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. As with Newton’s particle model. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. another group of scientists. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY
CHAPTER 6. They proposed that light actually consists of waves.
6. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles.6. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light.2
Wave-Particle Duality
Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. As these particles passed through a prism. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. led by Christian Huygens. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics
6. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74
. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal.1
Historical Models of Light
In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. since all waves at this time required a medium. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up.2. a ball thrown against a wall).2. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. was putting forward a wave model of light. the particles must be moving very fast. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). As the light gets closer to the water.

the resulting image is slightly blurred. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. without its problems. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. This model was not. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. however. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. however. The two theories. The two aspects of light complement one another. however. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. Similarly. Also. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium).2
Modern Theory of Light
Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century.
6. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. in 1850.2. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. which appear to be incompatible. they must be travelling at a speed of 3.CHAPTER 6.2. refraction. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. and interference where the particle theory fails. however. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. It states that to understand any given experiment. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75
. indicating a spreading out of the light. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. but to understand light fully. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics
6. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. By the middle of the nineteenth century. which contradicts Newton’s theory. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. According to Maxwell’s theory. we must refer to both theories. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. For example.

This would tell you where it is. but a visual picture is again not possible. We cannot picture what they are. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball.4
Implications
We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. In order to locate the ball. you must interact with it. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. You wouldn’t know where it is going. When we try to visualize light. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. is the set of its properties that we can measure. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. To locate this. its behavior is more like that of a particle. like light. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. light reveals both wave and particle properties. this duality extends to particles as well. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world.
6.3
Modern Theory of Particles
As was shown by de Broglie. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave
Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. it will actuRRHS Physics
6. however. when light interacts with matter. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. An electron. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. In terms of everyday language and images. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. when light passes through space or a medium.
CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. or even a combination of the two. Applied to a smaller scale.
2
76
. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. its behavior imitates that of a wave.2. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. depending on which property of light is being measured. you would have to feel your way around. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. or as a wave that has a mass. negatively charged particles. This has some major implications. In general. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations.2.6. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. When this radiation interacts with the electron. but in the process would move it from that position. macroscopic world. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!).2.

We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. Thus. we must use a small wavelength. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. and not determinism. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. In summary. For examRRHS Physics
6.4 and 6. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. however. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism.
77
. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. however. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. If. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. but according to equations 6. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. it is still a probability and not a certainty. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is.2. on the other hand. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction.CHAPTER 6. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. but has wave properties. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time.5. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted.

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.2. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY
CHAPTER 6.6.

3
Models of the Atom
The existence of atoms.1. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS
6. not interactions between atoms. heated solids. since they are unique to each atom. This became known as the Rutherford Model. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. When energy is transferred to atoms. Although a major step forward. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed.CHAPTER 6. Using spectroscopy. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure.1. was accepted by scientists by 1900. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products.
A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. Around 1911. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics
The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. This is how helium was discovered. This is known as an absorption spectrum. in industry. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. If they were at rest. scientists can analyze unknown materials.3.1
Atomic Spectra
As we saw in section 6.
6. Less dense gases. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected.
6. This is known as an emission spectrum. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79
. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. but a few were bounced almost directly back. emit a discrete spectrum. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. By analyzing these wavelengths. When viewing these spectra. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight.3. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined.

as it loses energy. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. they are accelerating. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state.8).8)
6. as shown in the diagram in section 6. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. however. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. Neils Bohr. going
3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. The Rutherford model could not explain this.
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. in other words. for example. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. When changing energy levels. The radius increases with n2 .2
Bohr Theory
The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. 2.3. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels).
CHAPTER 6. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. the atom would not be very stable. electrons can jump directly or in steps. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. Thus. blue. both are therefore quantized. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory.7)
where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. The higher the energy level. and also predicted an unstable atom.6.1). As the electrons spiraled inward. as in solids).3.3. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. it makes 80
where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. In 1911. The electron then drops back down to the ground state.1 . green. A student of Rutherford. 1.red. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized.2.6 eV n2 (6. If an electron absorbs energy. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. Using quantum theory. and violet.

As a result. electron can go from 3 to 1.8 that when n=1. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. If we consider the electron to be a particle. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. determined energy levels of the elements. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately.CHAPTER 6. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. Louis de Broglie. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics
. Bohr did not know how to explain this. In quantum mechanics. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81
6. applying his theory of matter waves.
6. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. since it has a wave nature. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. however. This was a major problem with the model. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. however. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements.3
Quantum Model
The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero).3. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure.3. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. however. however. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. each independently. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. but is actually much harder to visualize. the energy is actually at a minimum. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. The electron. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. Notice in equation 6. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr.

WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics
. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms.1. spin (ms )).6. Explain any discrepancies. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. This is called ﬂuorescence. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state.3. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. 8. for example. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. At low temperatures. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). in luminous watch dials. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation.
6. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light).5
Problems
1. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. 5. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. In a group of these atoms. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation.3. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. magnetic (ml ). Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence?
6. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. however.
CHAPTER 6. These materials are used. Phosphorescence works in a similar way.3. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4.3.4
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful.

we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. the electric force becomes more important. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. and the weak nuclear force. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus.
This is one of the four forces of nature. the others being the gravitational force.2
Mass Defect
where X is the symbol for the element. They have the 83
Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. called a neutron. for example.
7.Chapter 7
Nuclear Physics
7. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. This force only acts over short distances. however. This adds energy to the system. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. Z is the atomic number. The notation used to represent particular atoms is
A ZX
7. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. A. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions.
In the last chapter. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. In 1932. protons and neutrons. and A is the mass number.1. Z.1
Structure
The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. an element is written as A X.
1
. Sometimes. so as the distance becomes greater. and neutrons and neutrons. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.1. this force is the same between protons and protons. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton.1 The Nucleus
same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. the electromagnetic force.

008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. m is the equivalent mass in kg. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. What mass was converted? 4. we are actually adding mass. A nuclear reaction produces 9. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931.1. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. In a nuclear reaction.014102 u. 5.007276 u mn = 1.015123 u). it could just fall apart. identify the element. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. which is iron. To be stable. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6.49 MeV. Using equation 7. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it.0 × 1011 J of energy. and c is the speed of light in m/s. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 .7.
RRHS Physics
. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. u. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97
3. the total number of nucleons.
where E is the energy in J. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. For each of the following. We will look at this more in the next two sections. Thus.66 × 10 kg).1. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. This implies that by adding energy to the system. It is expressed as a negative number. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). the number of protons.1)
CHAPTER 7. The mass of 2 H is 2. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents.1. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. 84
7. In other words. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56.3
Problems
1. In general.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS
7.CHAPTER 7. THE NUCLEUS
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85
.1.

Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. 2 They are not very energetic. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following:
226 88 Ra
→222 Rn +4 He 86 2
Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.2. As a result.2. there are not enough neutrons to do this. This is known as (natural radioactivity). stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons.2
Radioactive Decay
In 1896. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. and required no external stimulation. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. 86
where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy.2
Beta Decay
Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. beyond this. as will be discussed in the following sections. This is true for all alpha decays.
7. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. If the atomic number gets too large.3. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below).
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. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus.7.
7. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger.
7. RADIOACTIVE DECAY
CHAPTER 7. therefore. 4 He. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. Since the charge was
2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. These nuclei are very tightly bound.2. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together.1
Alpha Decay
Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms.

2. by emitting a positron. it emits a photon. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. which has no charge and no mass. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. In 10 years. they can be very dangerous. In beta decay. A neutrino is also emitted. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus.4
Half-lives
All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. the nucleus does not undergo any change. but the opposite charge. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent.2. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino).
7. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. One of the protons. In some cases.CHAPTER 7.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). Like an atom.3
Gamma Decay
→14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0
where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below:
14 6 C
7. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). This is a random process. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton.2. becomes a neutron. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. For this reason. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). this means that half of the sample 87
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.
7.
There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the
3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. A positron has the same mass as an electron. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. allowing a proton to become a neutron. This photon is known as a gamma ray. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). when it drops down to a lower energy state. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. This electron disappears into the nucleus. Other than releasing energy. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum.

What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. 214 Bi. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. Write the complete nuclear equation. One Bequerel is one decay per second. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. Write the complete nuclear equation. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92
3.
238 U 92
decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
7. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. so it is closely related to half-life. After one half-life. In another 10 years. 84 emits a α particle. 210 P o.5
Problems
1.9898 u).2.
88
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. 7. β − . The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). 8. showing the element formed. When 23 N e (mass=22. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. A radioactive bismuth isotope. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. or β + emission. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4.2.
CHAPTER 7. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. A radioactive polonium isotope.7. 83 emits a β particle. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. showing the element formed.

A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons.3% 238 U and only 0. the two masses would be brought together quickly.S. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. because it resembled cell division.3
Artiﬁcial Radioactivity
Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. To detonate the bomb.3. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. this is known as radioactive fallout. Naturally occurring uranium is 99.2
Nuclear Reactors
There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. but they can also occur in nature. or gamma rays. 2. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food.CHAPTER 7.3. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus.2 are moving too fast. following Fermi’s work. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). neutrons. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
7. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements.
7. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. This ended the war. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer.2)
although there are many other possibilities. electrons. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr).
89
. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. the top scientists in Europe and the U. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere.3. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92
4
which can be used in the form of heavy water. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by
1 0n
+235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0
(7. however. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. This would provide enormous amounts of energy.
7.1
Nuclear Fission
It was discovered in 1938. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. protons. RRHS Physics
7. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. resulting in a transmutation. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes.

6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. which is very expensive. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps:
1 1H
+1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0
1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H
The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. helium is extremely tightly bound. Also present are control rods. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. usually containing cadmium. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic.3. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. so it can be built where technology is limited. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. these control the rate of the reaction. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. Quebec.3
Nuclear Fusion
In nuclear fusion. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). It has a simpliﬁed design. It
This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. 92
7. however. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. 3. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. RRHS Physics
90
. and New Brunswick. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. To slow the reaction down.7. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. and can be separated to be used as fuel. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg).
235 U . Because of its design. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He).3. For example.
5
CHAPTER 7. which was discussed earlier. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. energy will be released. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water.

002603 140.016029 u 4.7 for this reason. At present. 3. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. List three medical uses of radioactivity. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). Controlled fusion has not yet been attained.043925 u 238. 6. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. How much energy would this release? 8. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions.
they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act
7
7. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.9141 u 91. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7. 91
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. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy.3.016049 u 3.3. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2.CHAPTER 7. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another.9250 u 87. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures.014102 u 3.905625 u 135. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3.007825 u 2. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction
1 0n
+235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0
4.050786 u
1. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. This is higher than any known material can stand. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY
7. 9. 2. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium).4
Problems
Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb.90722 u 235. A few years ago.2? 5. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. Once this high temperature is achieved.

The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1.7.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW.0 × 1014 J of energy. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.3. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy?
CHAPTER 7. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
92
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. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.

Appendix A
Analysis of Data
A. It may be smaller or larger. we might estimate it to be 2. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. Take a meter stick. Some of these may be due to human errors. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. there are errors present.4 cm. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. the thickness of the lines may vary. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. Suppose that a measurement is between 2.1 mm.3 and 2. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). In writing lab reports. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. you will be expected to do an error analysis. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself.3 cm and 2. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. the ends of the stick may be chipped. In our meter stick example. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error.
. For example. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. was friction considered to be constant. The wood may shrink or warp. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using.3*. therefore. errors due to rounding oﬀ.37. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93
In any scientiﬁc experiment. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. and probably even more. the device is only calibrated in millimeters.1 Experimental Data
however.4. In other words. for example. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. this 7 is only an estimate. errors in calculation. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate.

You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. the less precise our results are. but it will not be very accurate. It is a good idea. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used.2. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab.2. this is not an excuse to be careless. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem.
APPENDIX A. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). or too low. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. In this case. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. The more data points that we have. the smaller the standard deviation should be.A. that is.
A.
A.1. The smaller this value. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. this type of error is present in all experiments. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. It does not address any possible systematic errors.2
Statistical Analysis
The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. RRHS Physics
. we may end up with a very precise estimate. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. For this reason. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. In our error analysis. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order.
A. This may result from a mistake in 94
The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors).1. In this case. This type of error is generally more serious.2
Accuracy and Systematic Errors
The other case is if the errors are systematic. The more random error we have in our experiment. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. the measurements are always too high. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. In the case of systematic error. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. As long as these errors are random. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition.1
Standard Deviation
A.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. Section A. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge.1
Precision and Random Errors
If you repeat an experiment several times.

23 3. we would use t = 2.48 2.8. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.71 2. we would use t = 2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Table A.16 3. if possible.APPENDIX A.89 2.1) where xi are the individual measurements.64 2.36 2. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.31 1.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.78 1.45.84 2. and N is the number of measurements.20 3.98 1.96 2. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.58
A. and got an average value x of 4.20. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2
A.40 1.78 4.38 1. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.83 1.70
1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times
and a standard deviation σ of 0. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.37 1. The relevant values for t are given in the table. and we took 12 measurements. If we have a theoretical value of 5.35 1.77 1.30 9.06 2. Note.90 1.36 1.7 63.94 1.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ.35.92 3.2.2.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.92 1.26 3. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.29 1.44 1.36 1. When examining the data.08 6.14 2. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.86 1. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.76 1.35 to 5.36 3.81 1.80 1.35.17 2.18 3.25 2. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.13 1. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.42 1.70±0.18 5. In this case.57 4. x is the average of all the values. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.05. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.7 4.50 2.53 2. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.35 1.31 3.34 1.01 2. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.2
Conﬁdence Intervals
The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results.4.03 2. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.45 3.64 interval of 95% 99% 12. 95
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.60 2.11 2.02 1. however.