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- Dynamics Extension
- 1.1 Introduction to Vectors
- 1.1.1 Vector Algebra
- 1.1.2 Relative Velocity
- 1.1.3 Problems
- 1.2 Force Vectors
- 1.2.1 Inclined Planes
- 1.3 Equilibrium
- 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium
- 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium
- 1.3.3 Problems
- 2-D Motion
- 2.1 Projectiles
- 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizon- tally
- 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle
- 2.1.3 Problems
- 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
- 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy
- 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion
- 2.2.3 Problems
- 2.3 2D Collisions
- 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum
- 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
- 2.3.3 Problems
- Planetary Motion
- 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion
- 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration
- 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force”
- 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force
- 3.1.4 Problems
- 3.2 Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity
- 3.2.3 Satellite Motion
- 3.2.4 Kepler’s Laws
- 3.2.5 Problems
- 4.1 Static Electricity
- 4.1.1 Insulators and Conductors
- 4.1.2 Charging Objects
- 4.1.3 Electroscopes
- 4.1.4 Permanency of Charge
- 4.1.5 Problems
- 4.2 Forces and Fields
- 4.2.1 Coulomb’s Law
- 4.2.2 Electric Fields
- 4.2.3 Lines of Force
- 4.2.4 Gravitational Fields
- 4.2.5 Problems
- 4.3 Electric Potential
- 4.3.1 Electric Potential Energy
- 4.3.2 Electric Potential
- 4.3.3 Equipotential Lines
- 4.3.4 Problems
- Electricity & Magnetism
- 5.1 Electric Current
- 5.1.1 Electrical Quantities
- 5.1.2 Ohm’s Law
- 5.1.3 Electrical Power
- 5.1.4 Problems
- 5.2 *Circuits
- 5.2.1 *Series Circuits
- 5.2.2 *Parallel Circuits
- 5.2.3 *Complex Circuits
- 5.2.4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules
- 5.2.5 *Safety Devices
- 5.2.6 *Problems
- 5.3 Magnetism
- 5.3.1 Magnetic Fields
- 5.3.2 Electromagnetism
- 5.3.3 Force on a Wire
- 5.3.4 Force on a Charged Particle
- 5.3.5 Electric Motor
- 5.3.6 Problems
- 5.4 Induction
- 5.4.1 Induced EMF
- 5.4.2 Transformers
- 5.4.3 Electric Generators
- 5.4.4 Problems
- Waves and Modern Physics
- 6.1 Quantum Theory
- 6.1.1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis
- 6.1.2 Photoelectric Eﬀect
- 6.1.3 Compton Eﬀect
- 6.1.4 de Broglie Hypothesis
- 6.1.5 Problems
- 6.2 Wave-Particle Duality
- 6.2.1 Historical Models of Light
- 6.2.2 Modern Theory of Light
- 6.2.3 Modern Theory of Particles
- 6.2.4 Implications
- 6.3 Models of the Atom
- 6.3.1 Atomic Spectra
- 6.3.2 Bohr Theory
- 6.3.3 Quantum Model
- 6.3.4 Fluorescence and Phosphores- cence
- 6.3.5 Problems
- Nuclear Physics
- 7.1 The Nucleus
- 7.1.1 Structure
- 7.1.2 Mass Defect
- 7.1.3 Problems
- 7.2 Radioactive Decay
- 7.2.1 Alpha Decay
- 7.2.2 Beta Decay
- 7.2.3 Gamma Decay
- 7.2.4 Half-lives
- 7.2.5 Problems
- 7.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity
- 7.3.1 Nuclear Fission
- 7.3.2 Nuclear Reactors
- 7.3.3 Nuclear Fusion
- 7.3.4 Problems

J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . 5. . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . .3 Electric Potential . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .1. .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . .2. . . 5.1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 4. .3. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . ii . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices .2. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . .3. . .2. . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . 5. . . . . . .3. .3. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .6 *Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electroscopes . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . .1. . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4.3 Satellite Motion . . . . 4.3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. 5.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .2 *Circuits . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .2. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . 7. . . . . .1.2. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . 6. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . .3. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . .2. . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . 6.2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . 7. . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Implications .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 7. . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light .3. . 5. . . . . . . . . . 6.3. . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .1. . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . 7. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . .2. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . .4. . . . . . . . 6. . . .1 Nuclear Fission . Induction . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . . .1.1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 .1 Experimental Data . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . A. . . . . . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . .

8.4 pg 796 #1-4.4.8 #4.4. pg 918-919 #3.6 #3.10.40.1 4.3. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8. BLM #1.2 6.3 3.33. pg 571 #21. pg 936-937 #26.6. pg 863 #8.28 #2.9 #2.1 7.1 2.25. pg 933 #1.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.2 2. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.7.24. pg 886 #3.3 5. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13. pg 489 #27.28 pg 495 #30.4.4 6.27 v .37.6. pg 778 #1. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1. pg 934 #5. pg 595 #5.3 7. pg 526 #1.9.5.2 5.1 1.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18. pg 655 #26.2. pg 515 #39.3 5.2.8. pg 501 #31.1 3. pg 661 #5.15 pg 641 #9.3.7. pg 596 #12.9.2 7.Textbook Correlations Section 1.14.3 2.6.2.2 1. pg 608 #3.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.4 #36.2 4.28.27.3. pg 529 #30.1 6. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.688-693 694-714.5. pg 862 #6.3 #4.3.2 4. pg 780 #2.1 5.8. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. it is actually two numbers. For example. acceleration. For example. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. Last year. it does not have a direction. In 2D space. when typing. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ).1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. 1 . a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). Consider the diagram below. like a scalar is. This year. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. Likewise. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). A vector is not just a single number. displacement. dy ). When writing. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. The symbol d represents these components. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. For example. In university. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension).1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. velocity. force. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them.

by ). ay ). The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. we are actually adding their components. the other vector b represents the components (bx . our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. east. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines).this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. west). 3. south would be 270o .1. In this system. 1.1. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. north would be 90o . For the examples that follow. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. So a + b will give (ax + bx . ay + by ). and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. Your textbook uses this last convention. south. 2. In this system. In the previous diagram. In math. CHAPTER 1. Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . Since vectors are not single numbers. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . in other words. If we add these two vectors.1. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. To help visualize this.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

4

RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

The coach notices that it takes the player 4. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. Diane rows a boat at 8.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. and 3 km S. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. A ferryboat. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. We must assume u < v.00 h. Before it can move. A hiker leaves camp and. the hiker is lost. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. 5 kmN. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24.0 m/s. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. Find the change in velocity.1. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. whose speed in still water is 2. 26.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. wind speed? 18. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. 6 km S. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. why? 19. walks 4 km E. using a compass. 10 km W. The speed of a boat in still water is v. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. To do so. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. RRHS Physics . Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. How fast is the player running? 23. At the end of three days.85 m/s. 8 km N.1.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. mass. 20. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. 3 km E. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes.

all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. FORCE VECTORS 1.2. In the diagram below. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. the force of the man pulling is not. therefore. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . A free body diagram for this box would like like this. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. friction. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions.2.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . the vertical forces. Notice that although the normal. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. therefore. As can be seen in the diagram above. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). Notice that FN = Fg . I will take up as the positive direction. both of which are vectors. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components.CHAPTER 1. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. RRHS Physics 1. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. First. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem.

1. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). Using trigonometry. as in the following diagram. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics .3. we get CHAPTER 1. In other words.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. if present. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). Drawing a free body diagram. Again notice that FN = Fg . the normal force can then be used in this calculation. If friction is present. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. Similarly. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). In order to apply Newton’s second law.2. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. Again. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. FORCE VECTORS friction for now). it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg .2. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components.

The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road.2. where it is attached to a 4. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o .300 m/s2 . A force of 300. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1. A 5. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2.0 km/h.3 m/s2 .2. A rope attached to the 5. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv.0o angle with the horizontal. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40.0o incline and accelerates at 0.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed.0 kg box is released on a 33. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp.0 m/s. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. A 55. The total mass is 80 kg.0 km/h.0o hill at 6.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley.0o angle with the horizontal. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3.10. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.76. RRHS Physics 9 .6o hill at a steady speed of 7. (a) Ignoring friction. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. The tension in the rope is 110. What is the acceleration of this system? 11.0 N . He wipes out 225 m from the bottom.30. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. (b) Using the same power as in (a). A car can decelerate at -5. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. A 25. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.CHAPTER 1.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal.5 s for him to reach the bottom.2 Problems 1. A 15. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.30. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air. It takes 13.20. An 18. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6.

it is obviously not accelerating. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. The mass is stationary.3. Since force is a vector. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object.1. there are three forces acting on the mass. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. therefore. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. although the net force is zero in both cases. Remember. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. but opposite in direction. 1. The second condition will be discussed in the next section.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. 3 1. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium.3. This additional force is called the equilibrant force.3. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. therefore. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. As we said. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. therefore. there will be a net force in some direction.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero.

it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. as it was when discussing work.. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. but for calculating torques. we must introduce the notion of a torque. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. You will learn more about these in university. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. When you calculated work. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. the greater the torque. As can be seen from equation 1. While forces were described using up. the board will begin to spin. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium.CHAPTER 1. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. when calculating the work. left. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. As we have seen. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. etc. It can be thought of as a twisting force. 4 RRHS Physics . since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. To examine this more.3. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. τ = F⊥ d (1. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. This is called a dot product. 1. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium).4 The further away from this pivot. it acts on every particle in the body. It is not in rotational equilibrium. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. Στ = 0 Obviously. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. this is important.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). but one up and one down. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. down. right. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. even though the forces are equal and opposite. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel).4. Before dealing with torques. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object.

5o with each other. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. The two ropes make an angle of 15. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. 12 . Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5.3. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N .0 m when a 50. 3. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. The frame has a wire across the back.0 s. What is the tension in the rope? 2. A 20. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces.0 N . Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. and you don’t want it to break.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. 7. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. RRHS Physics 4.3 Problems 1. 9. 8.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. A sign with a mass of 1653. When lifting a barbell.3.1. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6.0 m long and sags 1. 10. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. A high wire is 25. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . Find the tension in the boom and the cable. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain.

EQUILIBRIUM 17. The platform is being held up by two students. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. The 10. Where must a 22. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N . Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. direction.0 cm wide. If there is a spring on the door 5. 19. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. determine the magnitude.0 kg person is sitting 1.0 N. one at either end. A 50. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50.0 m platform has a mass of 10. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force.0 kg.3. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90.0 m and a length of 15. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. Find the equilibrant force: 12. The plane has a base of 14.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. A force of 500. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. and its center of gravity is located 4.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. In the following diagram.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . 14.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane.CHAPTER 1.90 m away from the pivot on the other side.0 kg person stands at its tip.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15.0 m.0 m from the same end.0 kg person is sitting 0. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. A 60. Fred.

3.1. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .

velocity. since max = ΣFx . The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1. and t is the time in the air. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . 2. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. we see that there is only one . as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). there is no horizontal acceleration.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). The horizontal speed does not change. vx is the horizontal speed. Ignoring air resistance. and acceleration. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. therefore. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled.gravity. These are all vector quantities. Since we know our vertical acceleration.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. This also makes things somewhat simple. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another.

it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. As the ball rises. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction.2. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. as shown in the diagram below. Notice that equation 2.2.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics .4. until it reaches zero at its highest point. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. the time in the air. namely using equations 2.1 and 2. Again.4. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. since there are no horizontal forces. In this case. however. t is the time in the air. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. The object does. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. and 2. The horizontal speed vx is constant.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. vyi is the initial vertical velocity.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. PROJECTILES used. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. vyi will be zero in equations 2.1 to 2.1. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.1. For this reason. Remember. Once this is done.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. but gravity will act to slow it down. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions.3. 2. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. 2.1.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. the ball follows a parabolic path. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. therefore. instead of horizontally. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. CHAPTER 2.

A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20.7 m above the ground.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. A baseball is hit at 30. The building is 13. Should the hunter aim directly at. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. Immediately. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2.5 m high. by how much will it miss the target? 3. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. A football is kicked with a speed of 21.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s. 3. 2-D MOTION 2. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8.1. At the time of the throw.0 m from the basket.02 m from the basket.3 Problems 1. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree.0 m/s. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. Trailing by two points. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. YES! It’s a score. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . 14.0o with the horizontal. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. As soon as the hunter ﬁres.0 s later. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2.0 m/s. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. above. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s.1. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. A person is in a moving elevator. 4. PROJECTILES tree.2 m away from the elevator. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11.0 m.0 m high. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.0 s remaining in a basketball game.2 m above the ground.0o . how far from the building is the target? 6.CHAPTER 2.05 m above the ﬂoor. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s.0 m away and are 3. the elevator was 8. an outﬁelder runs 4. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. and with only 2. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. A diver running 3. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. The rotten egg landed 4.0 m/s at an angle of 53. The ball is released at the height of the basket. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10.

0 m below. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2.1 m above the ﬂoor. The basket is 2.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. At any moment. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200.0 m away? 16. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all.2. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. 21.22 m (horizontally). where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. When it reaches the end of the table. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. draw all vectors to scale. For each of the following questions. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. 19. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. PROJECTILES 14. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. (a) Draw the situation above. 2-D MOTION speeds.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. Will the following quantities change? If so. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal.1. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics .6 m above the ﬂoor. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. 20. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile.

a mattress. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2.CHAPTER 2. The period (the time for one complete vibration. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. This is now its new equilibrium position . a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. 2-D MOTION 2. This is the equilibrium position.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position).1c)and let it go.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring.at this point. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. which causes the spring to stretch. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. depending on its spring constant. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. The units for the spring constant are N/m. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. if you exceed the limits of the spring. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. but is dependent on the spring. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. Of course.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. the suspension of a car. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. (See Fig 2. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion.1a). Also. this formula no longer holds). The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. suspension bridges. in this case. 2 19 . Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants.2. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. etc. which results in a downward acceleration.1b)). you will double the distance the spring stretches.

a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2.2. 2.6). The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2.2. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). the total energy remains the same. 2-D MOTION 2.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). At equilibrium. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. however. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. therefore. the system. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. 1 Ep = kx2 (2. or removed from. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential.2. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. Substituting this into Eq 2. work is done on the spring. 20 RRHS Physics .10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system.2.

the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. The spring is then stretched an additional 0.30 kg mass is hung from it. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. 2-D MOTION 2.200 kg ball. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8.30 kg hangs from it? 5.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. 13. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. if it had 3. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0. whose length is 37. When the man steps oﬀ. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4.30 m. the frequency is 0. A mass of 2. A small cockroach of mass 0.5 N hangs from it. 2. If the spring is stretched an additional 0.3 Problems 1.CHAPTER 2. What is the value of m? 6.60 kg is hung from it.0 cm. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0. in contact with a spring bumper.48 Hz.325 m.110 m and released.75 J of work done on it? 11.62 Hz. frictionless surface. has a frequency of 0.2 cm. A spring stretches 0. is then released. A geologist’s simple pendulum.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15. What will its frequency be if only 0.10 m to load a 0.10 cm. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.10 g were trapped? 8. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.10 m? 12. What is the frequency of vibration? 7. The spring. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 . A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. A block of mass 0. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10.4 Hz when a weight of 0.150 m when a 0. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.8190 Hz at a particular location. whose other end is ﬁxed. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. it sinks deeper into the water by 5.2.50 kg is placed on a level. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. When an 80.2. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator.

11 and 2. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. if you remember from grade 11. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. We can now RRHS Physics . however. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. 2. Also.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. not velocity.2. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision.3.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. so is momentum. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. 2.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . since p = mv.12. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. pa = pa + pb (2. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. In two dimensions. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. Since velocity is a vector. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ).12) (2. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum.12. This still applies in two dimensional collisions.3.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). remember that it is momentum that is conserved. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. a vector diagram must be drawn.

2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem.CHAPTER 2. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. 4 In other words. 2. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va .2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. therefore. some energy is lost. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. Remember. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. though. RRHS Physics 23 . this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. and one of the particles is initially at rest. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. our conservation of energy equation (2.3. In this type of collision. such as thermal energy. the collision is elastic. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. For a two body collision. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. Since the masses are equal. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. after this collision. therefore. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. In other words. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision.14. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same.3.

20 m/s.40 kg strikes a second ball. Immediately after impact.0 km/h. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. of mass mb = 0.0 km/h. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. of mass 0. an electron. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2.00 m/s.60 kg. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. and a neutrino. 50. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. and the second car had a velocity of 40. the investigator determined that car A. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1.2.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. initially at rest. As a result of this elastic collision.0o North of West. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . If they collide and remain stuck together.00 m/s strikes a second ball. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9.3. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8.2×10−23 kg·m/s. the second ball is moving North. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3. initially at rest. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. At what angle will the second proton be observed. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8.0o North of West. Find 24 .3 Problems 1. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. 40. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. A billiard ball is moving North at 3.3. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. A proton travelling with speed 8. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. After the collision (assumed elastic). (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. From skid marks.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West. 6. A billiard ball of mass 0.400 kg. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. Two cars collide at an intersection.80 m/s. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision.

Since this is the only force.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. however. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. we can simply use d (3. the acceleration must also be inward. however. in other words.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr).1. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. With projectile motion. we see v= 25 3. the object moves in a curve. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. an acceleration present. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. There is. the object will not speed up or slow down. the object will speed up or slow down. there is still an acceleration.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. 1 . Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. To calculate the speed of the object. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. which is pulling inward. we get v= 2πr (3. So even though the speed is not changing.

the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. always inward toward the center of the circle. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object.4) r This centripetal acceleration is.1.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion.3.1: This is not a free body diagram. in particular. Centripetal force is not. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. then equation 3.1.2. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. This is a common misconception of students. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. Looking at equation 3. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. by deﬁnition. ac = v2 3. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a.1 below). when solving centripetal force problems. horizontal surface. 1.5 becomes Fc = mac (3. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle.3. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .6) Figure 3.3) T Combining equations 3. however. 3. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. 2.2 and 3. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. In fact. it just shows the direction of the three quantities. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration.

This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force.1. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. In this situation.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. in fact. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand.CHAPTER 3. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. Remember. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. not outward. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). because of inertia. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. also.1. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. the ball is not being pushed outward. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. in fact. because of Newton’s Third Law. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. being pulled inward by the string. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. it is. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. Pretend you are the ball in our example. 3. If you break the string. If there were.

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.3. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2.1 times per second. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8.60.335 kg. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm.e. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5. The yo-yo has a mass of 0.0 revolutions per second.3 days.000 km and a period of 27. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.80 m long. what force does the string now exert? 4. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle.4 Problems 1. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. The ball makes exactly 2. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.0 m rope. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. 28 RRHS Physics . When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased. Assume a radius of curvature of 8. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.15 m/s and its mass is 0. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. 9.15 m. A coin is placed 18. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. If its speed is 3. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.00 revolutions in a second. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.1.5 cm.1.20? 6.0 m.42.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0.0 m radius and rotates 1. 3. A 5.30? 7.0 complete revolution each second. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. What is the critical speed (i. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96.

calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. 17.0 kg.CHAPTER 3. what RRHS Physics 3. For the previous question.6 km. including the relevant forces. how much and in what direction? 29 . Assume no change in energy for the system. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. 15.0 m long. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. the vine is 4. A person has a mass of 75. and explain this sensation. 19. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required.1. 18. 14. If the person is standing on the equator. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. PLANETARY MOTION 13. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. Sketch the situation. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. will a friction force be required? If so.

In grade 11. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. PLANETARY MOTION 3. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. equating the two expressions. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. however. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. gravity is much more common than this.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth).2. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. it is falling toward the earth. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them.2. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object.2 Universal Gravitation 3.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. this is how the mass of the earth was found. however. speciﬁcally. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them.3.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. In fact. Equation 3. given by G in the equation below. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . This type of relationship appears often in physics. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. but not to understand why they are so. we get mg = or GM (3.2. In this way.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics .) g= GM m R2 3. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. If the object is given a higher speed.2. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. it travels a further distance. People often ask what keeps a satellite up.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. Assuming a circular orbit. Newton. Fg = 30 3.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. we must consider the orbit. To determine this necessary speed. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity.

11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15).2. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. 3. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. Solving this equation for v. v= GM r (3. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . PLANETARY MOTION 3.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. as given in equation 3. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). faster than this speed. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects.7.CHAPTER 3. m is the mass of the satellite. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.2. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit.9. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. 3.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. 2. we get GM m mv 2 = (3.4)into equation 3. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun.

85 × 105 km.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. Frank is really concerned about his weight. 3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. A force of 40.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. determine the mass of Jupiter. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. 2. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.90 × 1027 kg.2. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3.50 m apart. 12. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. PLANETARY MOTION weight. All distances are center to center.2. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. From this data. r = 6. 10.50 × 108 km. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5.99 × 1030 kg). If the bowling balls are 0. Four 8. 8. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon.3. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1.5 Problems 1.71×10−8 N . See Dick and Jane ﬂy.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth.0 N is required to pull a 10. but has the same mass. 6. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3.44 × 106 s and it is 1. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1.85 × 105 km. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. 13.50 m. What is g near the surface? 5. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. Do the previous question again. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20.98 × 107 m). 7. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter.6 times that of the earth. But Frank is lazy.

What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. 33 . Its period is 410 days. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. 1969. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. 32.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. orbits the sun like other planets.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. 31.2. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. On July 19. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. what would happen to the value of G? 30. though only a few hundred meters across. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius.3 × 1022 kg. RRHS Physics 3. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27.4 days) to do problem 16. Find the value of this constant.CHAPTER 3. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. The asteroid Icarus. 27. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. Jupiter is 5. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. PLANETARY MOTION 14. Why? 28. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. 16. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. A satellite is going around Earth. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22.

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.3.2. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .

1. During any of the processes described above. you notice that it will stick to the wall. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. even more important than many people think. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. According to atomic theory. . you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. for example. If you rub a balloon in your hair. in the amount of charge is zero. not the protons. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. 4. This kind of atom is called an ion.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. This is the law of conservation of electric charge.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. Likewise. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. When a conductor is given a negative charge. Remember. the net change 35 4. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. In each case. In a normal state. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). Metals are generally very good conductors. giving it a net negative or positive charge. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons.

the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. there are . STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. it has merely been separated.4. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. but is just brought near it.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. 4. giving it excess electrons. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. For example. The RRHS Physics . it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). germanium. The other way of charging an object is called induction. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper.1.e. in this way. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. With induction. and they touch. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below).however. i. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. if it is charged negatively. however. No charge has been created. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one.1. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above.1. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. As soon as they touch. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. CHAPTER 4. An object can also be charged by conduction. If you ground the sphere. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. conduction occurs. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon.

Suppose. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. The leaves will then stay spread apart. particularly on each leaf. even when nothing is apparently done to them. The more water molecules in the air. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. 4. You can. more often. giving it a permanent charge. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. the faster the charge will be carried away. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. 37 . even after we remove the charged rod. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. as shown here. will repel each other and will spread out. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules .1. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. the two leaves just hang vertically. however. now negatively charged. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. 4. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. Think about how you may do this. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. In some cases. the leaves. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope.CHAPTER 4. If the electroscope is neutral. If charges become large enough.even though they are neutral.1.

they ﬂy away in different directions. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. When an electroscope is charged. You place two objects with strong positive charges. Finally. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. what kind of charge does B have? 6. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. close to but not touching the blocks. What charge is on the rod? 8. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. 3. but as soon as they touch the rod. and C repels D. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. you remove the two positively charges objects. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod.4. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. A attracts C. 12. 9. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain.1. Explain. If you know that D is positively charged. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth.1. 5. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. one at each end of the line of blocks.5 Problems 1. why does the record now attract dust? 4. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop.

1 is the distance between the centers.2. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge.it is a concept.2 4. If the two objects are spheres. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . and weak nuclear forces) continues.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. This worried people. electromagnetic.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. or some other type of contact. When people think of forces. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. FIELDS 4. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld.2. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. since it appeared to behave like magic. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. The search for simple. strong nuclear forces.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. tying a rope to something. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. it is precise for only point charges.2. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. 39 . 4. which has an equal but opposite charge). Using some test charge q.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres.CHAPTER 4.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . This may require pushing with your hand.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. then the r in equation 4. E= F q (4. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. To help explain this idea. they think of pushing or pulling an object. r is the distance between the charges in meters. in fact. without using some test charge. however. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point.

consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength).2. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. 4.4. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. These electric ﬁeld lines. then equation 4. For example.1 into equation 4. In reality. consider a positive source charge.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. we obtain kQ (4. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. E= CHAPTER 4. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance.1. For example. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. FIELDS points around the sources. 2. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld.2. which interacts with all objects near the earth. or lines of force. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . however. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. Substituting equation 4.2. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. If there is more than one source charge. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. the force on the test charge will be away from the source.2. equation 4. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q .

what force is exerted? 12. In one model of the hydrogen atom.00 × 10−17 C? 2. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. has a charge of +25 µC.2). located 25 cm above the second ball. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. q1 and q2 . We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g).2. One. 4. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g.5 Problems 1.67 × 10−27 kg. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . -4. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. What is the force between them? 5. The bottom electron is resting on a table. 3.030 m to the east.0 µC. mass 9. is 0. 8. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. A and B. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1.5 × 10−10 m.1 × 106 m/s. and an electron. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A.0 µC is 0. In other words. has a charge of -20 µC. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. A positive charge of 3. mass 1. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. the RRHS Physics . You are given two similar spheres. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. and the right -83 µC. -2. A third ball. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7.145 N on each other. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9.0 N on each other? 4. Two charges. the typical size of an atom. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges.050 m to the north and the other.2. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. What should you do? 11. located 16 cm to the right.CHAPTER 4. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. A second ball. Three particles are placed in a line.11 × 10−31 kg.

If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C.0 cm apart? 23. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0.0 µC and a +60. RRHS Physics . 17. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations.0× 10−6 C charge. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. A proton (m = 1. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1.0 × 10−6 C test charge. 19.0 µC charge 40. Take into account gravity and determine E.0 cm away from a 1. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. Two positive charges.4. A negative charge of 2.020 mm remains stationary in the air. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16. (a) two positively charged point sources. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. When placed 1. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. one 33. are a distance l apart. Two charges. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. the force each exerts on the other is 28. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. 42 CHAPTER 4. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre.2.30 m apart. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude.0 µC charged particle? 21.2 cm apart. −Qo and −3Qo . Find the force on an electron. FIELDS 20. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. then repeat your work with a 2.0 µC and the other 68. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain.5 N and is repulsive.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18.0 µC are 8. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. 24. A water droplet of radius 0.

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. Just as with gravitational potential energy. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge.CHAPTER 4. This will add energy to the system. FIELDS 4.3. Remember that W = ∆E. 4.3. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. we say that it is at a high potential. you don’t have to do anything. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. In this case. For example. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. If the two spheres are touched together. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. so Vab = Wab q (4. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . Suppose you have two spheres. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . namely potential energy. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B).3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. for example. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. The potential energy here will decrease. sphere B is said to be neutral. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. which is called the volt.3. If positive work is required to move the charge. therefore. The symbol for electric potential is V . It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. since they are trying to get away from one another.

the two spheres will be at the same potential. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. What work is done when 5. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3.5 V ? 3. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7.4. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. at this point. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld.3. 4.5 × 10−4 J. that is. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. if they were not.3. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9.0 µC charge.5 × 107 V .0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. CHAPTER 4. A force of 0. A -30.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).0 C is raised in potential by 1. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. The change in energy while doing this is 4. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. FIELDS 2.3. as shown below. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line.4 Problems 1. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5.

it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. Contrary to a common belief. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . As was discussed in the previous chapter. 1 . It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal).1 Electric Current Q (5. an ampere (A). In 1800. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. so its electrons are held very loosely. In short. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. a battery is several cells connected together. at the same time. When people discussed current. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. also referred to as an amp. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. Remember that in solids. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. 5. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. this is given a special name.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery.1. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. little was known about the structure of the atom. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. therefore. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. A wire is a conductor. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light.

since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. This makes sense. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. These materials are than said to be superconducting. because of their atomic structure. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. it gains or loses energy. With a battery.5. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. they lose potential. In liquids and gases. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature.1. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. insulators have a very high resistance. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. Resistance is measured in ohms. therefore. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. 3. For practical purposes. Temperature: In general. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. If one end of the pipe is raised. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. In the same way. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. When charges are moved through a resistance. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. however. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). 46 . Comparing this to electricity. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). CHAPTER 5. the greater the ﬂow of water. In our gravity/water analogy above. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. we can use it here as well. 2.

Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. or mechanical). Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. it is really energy that we pay for. That is. the resistance must be constant. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. Since wires have a resistance in the real world.5.4 with equation 5.5) 5. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. thereby increasing the resistance. if you double the voltage.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. so it will have a lower resistance. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. 5. light. 4. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. the current also doubles. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4.CHAPTER 5.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor.1. the current is proportional to the voltage. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. the current is proportional to voltage). By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. the watt (W ). power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A.1. but I = q/t (equation 5. We RRHS Physics . we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. Note that equation 5.1) so P = IV (5. current can be expressed as V (5. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law.1.3) 5.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. Looking at this equation.

a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. What voltage will produce 12.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. but when a 3. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. Joe argues that. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12.6) CHAPTER 5.0 A? 5.5 A for 6. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. 5. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9.5. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. What is the current through a 6.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. 11.1.0 cm apart.085/kW h). A current of 1. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. since R = V /I. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. above 100 mA can be fatal. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. When she connects it to a 1. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4.5 V battery. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. The line has a resistance of 1. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . at 20 mA. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours.0 V battery is used. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. A 1. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird.1. Is Joe correct? Explain. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). What is the voltage of the battery? 6. 5 mA can be painful.4 Problems 1.0 h.10 A ﬂows in a wire. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. 14.

Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .000 V rather than 12.0 s? 25. How many 100 W light bulbs. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. operated at 120 V . is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.2 Ω lines.CHAPTER 5.0o C. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. What is its increase in temperature during the 30.0o C to 55.0 A when operated on 120 V . Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. (a) 220 V are applied across it. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C. by means of a converter. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3.06 per kWh? 19.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. At $0. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A.11 per kW h.0 minutes. It is observed that it takes 12. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0.5 kg of water.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0.29 kg/m3 . 18. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17.) 49 . (a) If the cost of the battery is $0.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. A modern television set draws 2. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30.20 kg of water. RRHS Physics 5. What is the eﬃciency of a 0. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21.000 V ? 21. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24.08 per kW h.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .1. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20.4 A from a 120 V line? 27.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23.

each resistor has its own path. R3 respectively.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. and voltages throughout the circuit. since there is only one path. V2 . when we put several resistance in series.7) 5. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. If V1 .2. currents. Of course. and R3 . The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. I2 .2. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5.5.8) (5. Because charge must be conserved. then by applying equation 5. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. applying equation 5. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. and V3 = IR3 . Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor.9) RRHS Physics . 5.2. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor.2 to analyze the resistances. V2 = IR2 . the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. I1 . the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. When you add more resistances. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. Knowing the equivalent resistance. you increase the total resistance. By conservation of energy. R2 . R2 .

since there is a junction in between the two. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. equation 5. then they are not in series. if there is a junction between the resistors. *CIRCUITS 2. RRHS Physics 51 .3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits.2. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. every time you add a resistance in parallel.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. R1 and R2 are not in series. If any resistors are in parallel. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). R3 . you are also adding another path for the current to follow. R3 is in series with R4 . R2 . but are often some combination of the two. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. In this example.2. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). For example. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. 5. This combination is then in series with R1 . The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). Again. If any resistors are in series. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. so they can be combined using equation 5. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. Also. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit.CHAPTER 5. 3. Consider the following example. Remember. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. however.10) 5. Remember. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated.

circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. RRHS Physics 5. A third type of safety device is slightly different. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit.5. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. 2. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. too complicated for this analysis. 2. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. These rules actually apply to all circuits. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . 1. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. To deal with these circuits.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. 5. If too much current ﬂows. for example. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. This is just an expression of equation 5. however. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. Houses are wired in parallel. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. At any junction point.2. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. a system of equations can then be found and solved. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. For example. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether.9. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. If this strip melts. For example.7. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). Some circuits4 are. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. breaking the circuit.2.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb.2.

What is the resistance in each case? 53 . Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor.CHAPTER 5. 8. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. 4. 7. 5. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Find V. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. 2. Find the current in each branch. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0.50 A. 3.2. 5. Find the unknown currents and voltages.6 *Problems 1. Find each resistance.

and I4 . 16. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Find It .I3 . A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. CHAPTER 5. Find R3 .2. 100 W .0 54 .0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. Find the current in each branch. 13. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1. 11.0 V output for a 6.I2 . If each resistor is 10 Ω. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. or 150 W at 120 V . Given an unlimited supply of 1. 17. *CIRCUITS 10. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. 12.V2 .0 Ω. and P1 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2.0 V . what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb.5. Suppose that you have a 6. If each resistor is 10 Ω.I3 .0 V input? 15.

RRHS Physics 55 23. Consider the circuit below. *CIRCUITS 22. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. what is the resistance of the other? . If one resistor is 2. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. I2 .2.8 kΩ. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. which is brighter? 21. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. (a) If they are connected in parallel. 5. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). and I3 in the following circuit. determine the currents I1 . one larger than the other. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone.CHAPTER 5.

we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. each with a north and south pole. In a magnetized piece of iron. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. however. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. for example. In most materials. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. nickel. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. Since these forces do behave similarly. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. RRHS Physics 56 . these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. As a result. and cobalt.3. in ferromagnetic materials. the result is two magnets. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. If you cut a magnet in two. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. since an electric current will always produce both.5. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. magnetic forces act over distances. A compass needle is really a small magnet. 5. On a small scale. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. This will be seen in the next section. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. the same as electric charges. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. the domains are more lined up in one direction. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. 5. Magnetic poles are not. however. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole.3. however.

your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. To use this hand rule.3.3. around 1820. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). it makes sense. then. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). 5.CHAPTER 5. when using left hand rules. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop.3. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. it often7 experiences a force. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). the second right hand rule can be used. It was only with a moving charge. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. In fact. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current.3. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil).3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. This is an electromagnet. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. To use this hand rule. In other words. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. but this was found to have no eﬀect. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. 6 5. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. By using more than one loop. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. or a current.

you may also use the left hand rule. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion.3. however. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. Between c and d. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. the force will be out of the page.5. as shown below.3. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). use left hand rules. substituting this into equation 5. CHAPTER 5. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. as shown in the side view below. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. As we learned before. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld.8 8 Remember. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. but l/t is just the speed of the particle.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. 5. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. To do this. If the moving particle is negative. There will be no force between b and c. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. to 58 RRHS Physics . The charges do not. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire.3. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. This loop of wire will rotate. have to be moving through a wire. Remember that I = q/t. To use this rule. so F = qvB sin θ (5.5 Electric Motor 5. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld.

(c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. if the loop goes past this point. (b) Two opposite poles.6 Problems 1. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. MAGNETISM other brush. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). 5. Many loops of wire are usually used.3. In reality. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. we want it to turn continuously. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . Also. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. In order to make the loop continue turning. but no force acts on the wire. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. as well as a ferromagnetic core. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes.3. as shown below. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). As the armature turns. As a result. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other.CHAPTER 5. but just touch one another. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet.

Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. A proton having a speed of 5.3. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. (b) 10. MAGNETISM 5. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward.0 A and weighs 0. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire.5. A straight 2. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 . 11. What is the force on the wire? 7.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6. (a) CHAPTER 5.9 × 103 kg/m3 .0 × 10−5 T . An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14.90 T . A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . If the force on the wire below is into the page. it feels zero force. identify the poles of the magnets. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1.35 N .

A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. 23. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. A force of 5.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6.25 T .65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.6 × 10−13 N . The radius of its path is 4. 17. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0.032 T . Calculate the energy of the proton.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld.000 V .CHAPTER 5. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. B=0.5 cm.10 cm in a 0. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. Explain. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. If the velocity of the particle is 5. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27.10 T magnetic ﬁeld.08 m.3.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . what must be the speed of the ion? 26.4 mm? 24. which exists between the two parallel plates below. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19.25 × 106 m/s. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. An electron (m = 9. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20. 61 .02 T. 21.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25.385 T magnetic ﬁeld. 16. A particle with a charge of 2.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. Calculate the mass of the particle. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. E=1000 N/C. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space.

suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. when the magnet is removed. In other words. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. Such a current is called an induced current. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. and not a force where B. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction.4. 5.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving.14) EMF stands for electromotive force.4. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. ∆φ ∆t (5. For example. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary.5. For example. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. We call this an induced emf. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. v. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence.

13. Notice that if Ns > Np .CHAPTER 5. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. Just like before.4. The primary coil has the incoming current. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. This is called perpetual motion.4. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. Remember. If Ns < Np . we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. therefore. however. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. In the example shown below. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). to maintain a current in the secondary coil. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). But remember. conservation of energy tells 63 .2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. however. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. There is. the two wires are insulated from one another. Combining these two equations. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. this is called a step-up transformer. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation.15) 5. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. therefore. this is a step-down transformer. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. From equation 5. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core.

64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. The wire ab is moving out. out of the page). this means that if the voltage goes up. into the page). If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost).16) CHAPTER 5. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above.4. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. At position 1. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below.4. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. RRHS Physics . Similarly. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. at position 3. therefore. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. at positions 2 and 4. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. then the current must be lowered. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy.5. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. we see what happens to the current. Since P = V I. the force on cd must be out of the page. Consider the picture below.

707Imax (5. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. the greater the back (or counter) emf. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators.18) Since power is P = V I. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. Since the current is not constant. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. value.17) Similarly.4. the situation is the reverse. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. The greater the speed of the motor.CHAPTER 5. giving Pavg = 0. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. however. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. we take a root mean square average (rms). 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 .5Vmax Imax In North America. as were used with the DC motor. The more current that is drawn. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). INDUCTION called a counter torque. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. In a generator. as was seen in a previous graph.5Imax To make a DC generator. we get a sin2 θ graph. Instead. or eﬀective. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. As we turn the generator.707Vmax (5. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. If we square an AC electric current graph. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings.11 we cannot just average the current over time. Alternating Current As we have seen. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. When a motor is operating. Back EMF As was previously stated.

5Pmax (5. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0.4.4 s. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. Hence. calculate the emf developed. 5. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. A square coil of sides 5. Also note that since P = V I. It is initially in a 0. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . What is the average induced emf ? 2.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. A 12. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. If the wire has a resistance of 0.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.10 s. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. It takes 0. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. 6.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. with its plane perpendicular to B.405 T magnetic ﬁeld.5 Ω.4 Problems 1. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.5. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0.4.19) CHAPTER 5.800 T . In what direction is the induced current? 3.0 cm/s. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.350 T to zero. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. If the rod is 12. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.15 Ω. What is the induced emf ? 4.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8.

and an output current of 0.0 A. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. whose peak value is 90 V . and (c) the power transformed 13.0 V source and measures 8. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source.0 V at the secondary. is across a 35 Ω resistor. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). Why? 21. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. Scott connects a transformer to a 24.0 A. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. what would the new output voltage be? 16. It is used with a transformer in England. 26.0 V AC. An ac voltage. Frequently. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. Why is this true? 18.0 V and an output current of 5. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily.75 A.0 A. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. where the line voltage is 240 V . A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA.4. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. how many turns are on the primary side? 15.0 V and the input current is 11. If the primary and secondary were reversed. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system.CHAPTER 5. 19. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. Calculate the peak current in a 2.0 A respectively. INDUCTION 17. the coil will swing. (b) the current in the primary. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25.

25 A. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. a 700 W hair dryer. INDUCTION 28. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line.4. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line.5.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum.1 however.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence.1. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. after the collision. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. such as diﬀraction and interference. He suggested in 1923 that. however.4).4 and 6. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. The photon does not actually slow down. however. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. only its frequency is lowered.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. If he was correct. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect.5). but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. In fact. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. 1 RRHS Physics . The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. The difﬁculty here. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6.1. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small.6. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 .6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. Objects such as electrons. By making careful measurements.

does it increase or decrease? 11. If energy is radiated by all objects. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. What are the wavelengths. 12.1 × 1013 Hz. 7. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. 14.0 km/h. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light.0 eV photon and a 5.0 × 106 m/s.80 nm.40 Hz. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. 6.1. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. QUANTUM THEORY 8.CHAPTER 6. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . 13. of a 3. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light.0 eV electron? 73 .5 Problems 1. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5. 16. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. λ = 450 nm. does its wavelength change? If so. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. in meters. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. RRHS Physics 9. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves.1. 15. 10. Determine the wavelength of a 0. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0.

the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. 6. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. In a uniform medium. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line.6. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves.2. a ball thrown against a wall). since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). As the light gets closer to the water. As with Newton’s particle model. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves.2. for example. another group of scientists. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. led by Christian Huygens. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. the particles must be moving very fast. since all waves at this time required a medium. As these particles passed through a prism. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. was putting forward a wave model of light. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us.

The two theories. The two aspects of light complement one another. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. but to understand light fully. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). By the middle of the nineteenth century. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. which appear to be incompatible. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. the resulting image is slightly blurred. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. which contradicts Newton’s theory. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light.2. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. refraction. however. This model was not. It states that to understand any given experiment. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. and interference where the particle theory fails. Similarly. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. however. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. According to Maxwell’s theory. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. without its problems.2.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave.CHAPTER 6. however. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. however. indicating a spreading out of the light. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. 6. we must refer to both theories. in 1850. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. For example. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. Also. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction.

We instinctively want to describe light in these terms.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. In order to locate the ball. To locate this. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like.2. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. depending on which property of light is being measured. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle.6. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. when light passes through space or a medium. or as a wave that has a mass. In general. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. You wouldn’t know where it is going. you would have to feel your way around. Applied to a smaller scale. but a visual picture is again not possible. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. or even a combination of the two. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). when light interacts with matter. light reveals both wave and particle properties. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. negatively charged particles. its behavior imitates that of a wave. 6. When this radiation interacts with the electron. like light. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. An electron. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. however. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. When we try to visualize light. CHAPTER 6. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. This has some major implications. is the set of its properties that we can measure. 2 76 .2. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. you must interact with it. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. this duality extends to particles as well.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. but in the process would move it from that position. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. its behavior is more like that of a particle. In terms of everyday language and images. macroscopic world. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. This would tell you where it is. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). We cannot picture what they are.2. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron.

we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us.CHAPTER 6. it is still a probability and not a certainty. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. but has wave properties. In summary. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. we must use a small wavelength. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. 77 . but according to equations 6. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more.2. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.4 and 6. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known.5. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. Thus. For examRRHS Physics 6. and not determinism. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. on the other hand. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. however. however. If. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle.

WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.6.2. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .

Although a major step forward. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. This is how helium was discovered. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. not interactions between atoms. This is known as an emission spectrum. emit a discrete spectrum. scientists can analyze unknown materials. Using spectroscopy.3. Around 1911. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors.1.3. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. By analyzing these wavelengths. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products.CHAPTER 6. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. When viewing these spectra. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. If they were at rest. in industry. was accepted by scientists by 1900. Less dense gases. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas.1. This is known as an absorption spectrum. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. but a few were bounced almost directly back. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. heated solids. When energy is transferred to atoms. This became known as the Rutherford Model. since they are unique to each atom. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. 6. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. 6.

3.3. however. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. When changing energy levels. CHAPTER 6. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels).1 .3. The higher the energy level. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. as in solids). modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis.1). he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. In 1911.red. As the electrons spiraled inward. A student of Rutherford. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6.8) 6. in other words. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. The radius increases with n2 . Neils Bohr. RRHS Physics . it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. blue.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. the atom would not be very stable. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. as it loses energy. The Rutherford model could not explain this.2. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. both are therefore quantized. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. and also predicted an unstable atom. green. 2. Thus.6.8). MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. Using quantum theory. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. they are accelerating.6 eV n2 (6. 1. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. for example. If an electron absorbs energy. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. and violet. electrons can jump directly or in steps. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). as shown in the diagram in section 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state.

6. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. determined energy levels of the elements. however. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). In quantum mechanics. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. Bohr did not know how to explain this. This was a major problem with the model. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom.8 that when n=1. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. electron can go from 3 to 1. however. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. but is actually much harder to visualize. If we consider the electron to be a particle. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. however.3. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. since it has a wave nature. the energy is actually at a minimum. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. The electron. each independently. applying his theory of matter waves. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun.CHAPTER 6. Louis de Broglie.3. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. however. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. Notice in equation 6. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. As a result. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths.

8. 5. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. In a group of these atoms. Explain any discrepancies. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. CHAPTER 6. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. magnetic (ml ). Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. These materials are used. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed.6. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. 6. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics .3.3. for example. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials.3. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. the applied voltage accelerates electrons.3. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. This is called ﬂuorescence. spin (ms )). MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n).5 Problems 1. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms).4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds.1. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). however. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. At low temperatures. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. in luminous watch dials.

2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. the electric force becomes more important. This force only acts over short distances. the others being the gravitational force. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. for example. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. called a neutron.1. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. Z. A. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. In 1932. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. and the weak nuclear force. This adds energy to the system. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. however. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. the electromagnetic force. so as the distance becomes greater. Z is the atomic number. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. This is one of the four forces of nature. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. and neutrons and neutrons. Sometimes. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. In the last chapter. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. and A is the mass number. an element is written as A X.1. protons and neutrons. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. this force is the same between protons and protons. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. 1 . There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. 7.

49 MeV. m is the equivalent mass in kg. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. The mass of 2 H is 2. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1.1. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56.014102 u. It is expressed as a negative number. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. u. What mass was converted? 4. 84 7. the total number of nucleons. RRHS Physics . Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. In a nuclear reaction. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . Using equation 7. Thus. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus.1.66 × 10 kg).1. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. In other words. which is iron. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. where E is the energy in J. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. For each of the following. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. To be stable. This implies that by adding energy to the system. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. We will look at this more in the next two sections. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents.015123 u). THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction.0 × 1011 J of energy. it could just fall apart.007276 u mn = 1. the number of protons.1) CHAPTER 7.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. In general. we are actually adding mass. identify the element.7. A nuclear reaction produces 9. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. 5. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931.3 Problems 1. and c is the speed of light in m/s.

1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.CHAPTER 7. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .

2. therefore. This is true for all alpha decays. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. 7.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy.7. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. These nuclei are very tightly bound. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. As a result. 7. 4 He. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together.2. This is known as (natural radioactivity). these isotopes will decay spontaneously. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. there are not enough neutrons to do this. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. 7. If the atomic number gets too large. 2 They are not very energetic. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. RRHS Physics . 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. beyond this. and required no external stimulation. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below).3. as will be discussed in the following sections.2.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton.

becomes a neutron. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. In some cases.2. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. This photon is known as a gamma ray. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. allowing a proton to become a neutron. In beta decay. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs).2. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. the nucleus does not undergo any change.CHAPTER 7. A positron has the same mass as an electron. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. Other than releasing energy. 7. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. This electron disappears into the nucleus. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . Like an atom. when it drops down to a lower energy state. In 10 years. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. but the opposite charge. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus).3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). they can be very dangerous. which has no charge and no mass. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. by emitting a positron. One of the protons.2. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. For this reason. A neutrino is also emitted. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. 7.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. it emits a photon. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. This is a random process.

Write the complete nuclear equation. 210 P o. showing the element formed. 214 Bi.2. CHAPTER 7. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. A radioactive polonium isotope. 83 emits a β particle.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). After one half-life. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed.5 Problems 1. 8. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. One Bequerel is one decay per second.9898 u). Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. 7. Write the complete nuclear equation. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. In another 10 years. β − .2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. 84 emits a α particle. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6.7. so it is closely related to half-life. When 23 N e (mass=22. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. showing the element formed. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. 88 RRHS Physics . A radioactive bismuth isotope. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. or β + emission.

Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. but they can also occur in nature. protons. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. RRHS Physics 7. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). To detonate the bomb.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. 7. resulting in a transmutation. 7.2) although there are many other possibilities. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. 89 . A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. because it resembled cell division.2 are moving too fast. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. 2. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. however. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. Naturally occurring uranium is 99.S. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. neutrons. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr).2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. This ended the war. or gamma rays. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C).3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. electrons.3. This was called nuclear ﬁssion.3. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U .3% 238 U and only 0. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food.CHAPTER 7. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. this is known as radioactive fallout.3. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. following Fermi’s work. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. the top scientists in Europe and the U. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). the two masses would be brought together quickly.

The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. Quebec. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. To slow the reaction down. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. 92 7.3. Because of its design. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. 3. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. particularly since they usually have large half-lives.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. which is very expensive. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. 5 CHAPTER 7. helium is extremely tightly bound. RRHS Physics 90 . nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). and New Brunswick. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials.3. so it can be built where technology is limited. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). and can be separated to be used as fuel. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. however. which was discussed earlier. 235 U . CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. these control the rate of the reaction. For example. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). It has a simpliﬁed design. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. Also present are control rods. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. usually containing cadmium.7. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. energy will be released.

the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. This is higher than any known material can stand. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. 9. 91 RRHS Physics . 3.90722 u 235. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb.043925 u 238. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2.014102 u 3. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. How much energy would this release? 8. 2. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy.007825 u 2. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1.050786 u 1.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. 6.9250 u 87. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7.016049 u 3.3. A few years ago. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium).2? 5. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7.002603 140. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor.9141 u 91. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. List three medical uses of radioactivity.3. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.016029 u 4. Once this high temperature is achieved. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions.CHAPTER 7. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. At present. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors.7 for this reason.905625 u 135. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics .3. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.0 × 1014 J of energy. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.7.

3 and 2. we might estimate it to be 2. Take a meter stick.4. the ends of the stick may be chipped.4 cm.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2.1 Experimental Data however. For example. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. you will be expected to do an error analysis. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place.37. In our meter stick example. errors due to rounding oﬀ. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. In other words. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. and probably even more. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. . In writing lab reports. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. this 7 is only an estimate. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it.3 cm and 2. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. therefore. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. was friction considered to be constant.3*. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. for example. the thickness of the lines may vary. The wood may shrink or warp. errors in calculation. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. there are errors present. Some of these may be due to human errors. It may be smaller or larger.1 mm. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured.

2. A. this is not an excuse to be careless. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments.1. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. RRHS Physics .1 Standard Deviation A. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition.2. In this case. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. this type of error is present in all experiments. This type of error is generally more serious. For this reason. As long as these errors are random. we may end up with a very precise estimate.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. The smaller this value. The more data points that we have. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. the measurements are always too high. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. but it will not be very accurate. A.A. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated.1. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). A. The more random error we have in our experiment. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. that is. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). It is a good idea. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. the smaller the standard deviation should be. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. APPENDIX A. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. In the case of systematic error. or too low. In this case. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. In our error analysis. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. Section A.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. It does not address any possible systematic errors. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. the less precise our results are.

40 1. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.26 3.77 1. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A. however.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.58 A.23 3. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.06 2.01 2. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results.2.31 3.71 2.53 2.81 1.45.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.4.64 2.30 9.APPENDIX A.29 1. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.89 2. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.45 3. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed. The relevant values for t are given in the table. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.8.48 2.80 1.02 1.36 2.84 2.64 interval of 95% 99% 12. 95 RRHS Physics . If we know the theoretical value to be 4. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.18 5.36 3. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.83 1.78 1. If we have a theoretical value of 5.34 1.44 1.38 1. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval. and we took 12 measurements.35 to 5.92 3.36 1.18 3. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.7 63.90 1.7 4.78 4. and got an average value x of 4.20 3.16 3. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.70±0. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4. and N is the number of measurements.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.17 2.96 2.86 1.05.76 1.94 1. In this case.57 4.13 1.92 1.35. we would use t = 2.35 1.50 2.20. if possible.25 2. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab. When examining the data.11 2.1) where xi are the individual measurements.42 1.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no. Note.60 2. x is the average of all the values.31 1.35 1.37 1. we would use t = 2. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.36 1.08 6.14 2. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.35.98 1.2.03 2.

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