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J. Burke 2009-2010

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Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . ii . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . .4 Problems . .2. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . .6 *Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .3 Electric Potential . . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 5. .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Electroscopes . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .1 Electric Current . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . 4. . .3. . . . . . . . . . 5. . .3. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . .5 Problems . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 Electric Potential . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Circuits . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . .1. . . . .2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . .4 Problems . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . 4. . . . 4. . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines .2. . . 4. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . 4. .1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . .1. . . .

. . . . . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .1. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . RRHS Physics . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .1 Quantum Theory . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . .2. . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Structure . . .4. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 6. . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . 6. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . 6. . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1. .5 Problems .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .2. .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . .1.1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .1 Experimental Data .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . .

2 2.8.5. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1. BLM #1.8 #4.28 #2.4 6.1 3.1 5.1 1.2 4.27 v . pg 778 #1.7. pg 863 #8.2 4. pg 862 #6. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680. pg 501 #31.Textbook Correlations Section 1.3 #4.6.2 7.4.1 2.15 pg 641 #9.5.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.1 6.40.8.1 4. pg 936-937 #26.3.37.3 3.4. pg 608 #3. pg 515 #39.1 7.3.2 1.3 5. pg 489 #27.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.688-693 694-714.2. pg 611 Conceptual Problems. pg 934 #5.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.2 5. pg 571 #21. pg 595 #5. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.3.10. pg 596 #12.27.7.4 pg 796 #1-4.8. pg 780 #2.6. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.9.6 #3.2.28.9.4 #36. pg 655 #26. pg 933 #1.9 #2.25.3.6. pg 918-919 #3.28 pg 495 #30.2 6. pg 886 #3.2. pg 661 #5.24. pg 529 #30.3 5.3 2.3 7.4.33.14. pg 526 #1.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

it is actually two numbers. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). when typing. it does not have a direction. For example.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . In 2D space. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). For example. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. For example. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. The symbol d represents these components. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. dy ). we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. This year. Likewise. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). In university. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. force. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. A vector is not just a single number. Consider the diagram below. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. When writing. 1 . velocity. acceleration.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. like a scalar is. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). Last year. displacement. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math.

1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. the direction of the vector would then be 30o .1. In math. ay + by ). The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east.1. we are actually adding their components. the other vector b represents the components (bx . Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. In the previous diagram. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. by ). In this system. in other words. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. east. south would be 270o . (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north).1. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. Since vectors are not single numbers. west). The vector a actually represents the components (ax . north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. If we add these two vectors. 2. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). north would be 90o . To help visualize this. Your textbook uses this last convention. ay ). south. 1. For the examples that follow. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . So a + b will give (ax + bx . DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. In this system. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. CHAPTER 1. 3.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

We must assume u < v. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. 3 km E.1. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. Find the change in velocity. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. using a compass. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. At the end of three days. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1.00 h. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. 6 km S. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. walks 4 km E. why? 19. 5 kmN. 20. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. A ferryboat. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. To do so. whose speed in still water is 2. 8 km N. A hiker leaves camp and.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. 10 km W. and 3 km S. wind speed? 18.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. the hiker is lost. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. How fast is the player running? 23.85 m/s. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E.0 m/s.1. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. Diane rows a boat at 8. mass. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. The speed of a boat in still water is v. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. Before it can move. RRHS Physics . 26.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line.

we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. therefore. both of which are vectors. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem.2. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. RRHS Physics 1. First. friction. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 .CHAPTER 1. In the diagram below. therefore. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. the force of the man pulling is not. the vertical forces.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force.2. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. Notice that although the normal. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. I will take up as the positive direction. As can be seen in the diagram above. FORCE VECTORS 1. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. Notice that FN = Fg .1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions.

In order to apply Newton’s second law. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). FORCE VECTORS friction for now). we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time.3. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. Using trigonometry.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . we get CHAPTER 1. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry).2. Again.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. as in the following diagram. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane.1. In other words. Drawing a free body diagram. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. if present. If friction is present. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. Similarly. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics .2. Again notice that FN = Fg . it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1.

what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.0o angle with the horizontal.6o hill at a steady speed of 7. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40.2.0 N .0 kg block and the ramp is 0. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.2.0o hill at 6. A force of 300.300 m/s2 .20. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. The tension in the rope is 110. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv.0o angle with the horizontal. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. A car can decelerate at -5.76. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. It takes 13. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. A rope attached to the 5. (b) Using the same power as in (a). DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. RRHS Physics 9 . A bicyclist can coast down a 4. A 25. An 18.0o incline and accelerates at 0.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. where it is attached to a 4.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.0 kg box is released on a 33.30.10. The total mass is 80 kg. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12.0 km/h. A 55.2 Problems 1.CHAPTER 1. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.5 s for him to reach the bottom.30.3 m/s2 .0 m/s. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4. (a) Ignoring friction. A 5. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road.0 km/h. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. A 15. What is the acceleration of this system? 11. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.

Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point.3. As we said. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. Since force is a vector.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. 1. The mass is stationary. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. therefore. although the net force is zero in both cases. therefore. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. there will be a net force in some direction. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. 3 1. but opposite in direction. there are three forces acting on the mass.1. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 .2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance.3. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. Remember.3.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. it is obviously not accelerating. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. therefore. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium.

on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. It is not in rotational equilibrium. You will learn more about these in university. As can be seen from equation 1. It can be thought of as a twisting force.3. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. when calculating the work. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. left. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). the board will begin to spin. 1. it acts on every particle in the body. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. This is called a dot product. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. Στ = 0 Obviously. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. etc. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. Before dealing with torques. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. While forces were described using up. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. but for calculating torques.4 The further away from this pivot. but one up and one down. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. down. this is important. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). 4 RRHS Physics .4. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. we must introduce the notion of a torque. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. right. When you calculated work. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). the greater the torque. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions.. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. As we have seen. even though the forces are equal and opposite.CHAPTER 1. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). τ = F⊥ d (1. as it was when discussing work. To examine this more.

12 . should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. 10. When lifting a barbell. A high wire is 25. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below.5o with each other. 3. The two ropes make an angle of 15. What is the tension in the rope? 2.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable.0 m when a 50. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. A 20. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. and you don’t want it to break. 9. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. RRHS Physics 4. 7. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.0 m long and sags 1. 8.0 N .3.3 Problems 1. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom.1.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building.3. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. The frame has a wire across the back. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain.0 s. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. A sign with a mass of 1653. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . Calculate the necessary tension in cable B.

0 kg person is sitting 0. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. A force of 500. Fred.0 kg person stands at its tip. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90.0 cm wide. The 10. direction.0 m and a length of 15. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. 14.3. Betty is pulling with 205 N east.0 N applied to a rope held at 30.0 kg person is sitting 1. Where must a 22. The plane has a base of 14. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N .0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. In the following diagram. If there is a spring on the door 5.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . Find the equilibrant force: 12. The platform is being held up by two students.0 m from the same end.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw.0 m platform has a mass of 10. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane. A 50.CHAPTER 1. 19.0 N. A 60.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. and its center of gravity is located 4. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18.0 kg. EQUILIBRIUM 17.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. one at either end. determine the magnitude. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car.0 m.

1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics . EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.3.

These are all vector quantities. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . there is no horizontal acceleration. and acceleration. velocity.gravity. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. This also makes things somewhat simple. vx is the horizontal speed. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. The horizontal speed does not change. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. since max = ΣFx . and t is the time in the air. therefore.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. Ignoring air resistance. Since we know our vertical acceleration.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. we see that there is only one . 2.

2. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. 2. namely using equations 2. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?).4. Once this is done.3. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. 2.1 and 2. Again. The object does. but gravity will act to slow it down.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. t is the time in the air.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. as shown in the diagram below. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground).2.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. therefore. In this case. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.1 to 2.4. vyi will be zero in equations 2. the ball follows a parabolic path. instead of horizontally.1. For this reason.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. since there are no horizontal forces. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. CHAPTER 2. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. until it reaches zero at its highest point. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. vyi is the initial vertical velocity.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. however. Remember. the time in the air.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. As the ball rises.1.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. Notice that equation 2. PROJECTILES used.1. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. and 2. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles.

Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12. the elevator was 8.5 m high.0 m/s as he leaves the ground.1. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. The rotten egg landed 4. A baseball is hit at 30. 14. A person is in a moving elevator.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.0 m high. Should the hunter aim directly at. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot. an outﬁelder runs 4. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree.0 s remaining in a basketball game. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. Immediately. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2.0 m/s.2 m above the ground.02 m from the basket. The ball is released at the height of the basket.2 m away from the elevator. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11.CHAPTER 2. above.1. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. 2-D MOTION 2. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5.7 m above the ground.3 Problems 1. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. A diver running 3. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics .6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. Trailing by two points.0 m.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target.05 m above the ﬂoor.0 m away and are 3. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. At the time of the throw. YES! It’s a score. by how much will it miss the target? 3. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. how far from the building is the target? 6. 3. The building is 13. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10.0 m/s at an angle of 53. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. A football is kicked with a speed of 21.0 m/s. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s.0 s later.0o with the horizontal. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. PROJECTILES tree. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal.0o . A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. 4. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. and with only 2.0 m from the basket.

which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. 21. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. 19.2. 2-D MOTION speeds. 20. When it reaches the end of the table. The basket is 2. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle.0 m away? 16. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. draw all vectors to scale. PROJECTILES 14. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo .22 m (horizontally). At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15.1. Will the following quantities change? If so. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200.0 m below. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity.0 m and must be accurate to ±0.6 m above the ﬂoor. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18.1 m above the ﬂoor. At any moment. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. For each of the following questions. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . (a) Draw the situation above.

but is dependent on the spring. Also. suspension bridges. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. depending on its spring constant. etc.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. The units for the spring constant are N/m. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. in this case.1a). (See Fig 2.CHAPTER 2. you will double the distance the spring stretches.2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. 2 19 . What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. When the mass is below its equilibrium position.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. this formula no longer holds).1c)and let it go. a mattress. This is now its new equilibrium position . The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. if you exceed the limits of the spring. Of course. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. This is the equilibrium position.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. which causes the spring to stretch.at this point. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. The period (the time for one complete vibration. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. which results in a downward acceleration. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration.1b)). 2-D MOTION 2. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. the suspension of a car. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ).

since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant.2.2. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. 20 RRHS Physics . the total energy remains the same.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. the system.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. therefore. 1 Ep = kx2 (2.2. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. 2.6). Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. 2-D MOTION 2.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or.2. or removed from. At equilibrium. work is done on the spring. however.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. Substituting this into Eq 2.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2.

What will its frequency be if only 0. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz.4 Hz when a weight of 0. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. 13.CHAPTER 2. When the man steps oﬀ.150 m when a 0. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. The spring is then stretched an additional 0.30 kg hangs from it? 5. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A. A block of mass 0.3 Problems 1. whose length is 37. it sinks deeper into the water by 5.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.2 cm. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. A mass of 2. What is the value of m? 6. 2. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 .325 m. whose other end is ﬁxed. the frequency is 0. A small cockroach of mass 0. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14.2.5 N hangs from it. in contact with a spring bumper. if it had 3.30 m.10 m to load a 0.110 m and released.50 kg is placed on a level. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3.30 kg mass is hung from it. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft.30 g is caught in a spider’s web.200 kg ball. 2-D MOTION 2. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. A spring stretches 0.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.75 J of work done on it? 11.48 Hz.10 m? 12.8190 Hz at a particular location.2. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator.10 g were trapped? 8. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.60 kg is hung from it. A geologist’s simple pendulum. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. The spring.10 cm.62 Hz. has a frequency of 0. When an 80. is then released. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15.0 cm.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. What is the frequency of vibration? 7. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. frictionless surface.

11 and 2.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. Also. however.2. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. since p = mv. 2.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions.12) (2. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. a vector diagram must be drawn.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). not velocity. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv).12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. 2. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. This still applies in two dimensional collisions. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision.12.3. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or.3. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2.12. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). pa = pa + pb (2. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. if you remember from grade 11. so is momentum. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). and extend our analysis to two dimensions. We can now RRHS Physics . Since velocity is a vector. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. In two dimensions. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2.

therefore. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. Remember. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. 2. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. therefore. In other words. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11.3.14. 4 In other words. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. In this type of collision. some energy is lost. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. though.CHAPTER 2.3. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. such as thermal energy. and one of the particles is initially at rest. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. For a two body collision. after this collision.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. RRHS Physics 23 . A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. Since the masses are equal. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. the collision is elastic. our conservation of energy equation (2. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision.

40. and a neutrino.0o North of West. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. 50. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. an electron. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7.60 kg. of mass 0. A billiard ball of mass 0. the second ball is moving North.2. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision.0o North of West. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection.0 km/h.20 m/s. Immediately after impact. initially at rest. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north.2×10−23 kg·m/s. If they collide and remain stuck together. initially at rest. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection.3. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. and the second car had a velocity of 40. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o .40 kg strikes a second ball. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. From skid marks.00 m/s strikes a second ball. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle.0 km/h. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. the investigator determined that car A. of mass mb = 0. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. Two cars collide at an intersection. As a result of this elastic collision. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4.3.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. After the collision (assumed elastic).400 kg. Find 24 .6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. A proton travelling with speed 8. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West.00 m/s.3 Problems 1. At what angle will the second proton be observed. 6. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o .2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton.80 m/s. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8.

the acceleration must also be inward. the object moves in a curve. there is still an acceleration. we can simply use d (3.1. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. an acceleration present. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr).Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. With projectile motion.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. which is pulling inward. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. Since this is the only force. we see v= 25 3. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. 1 . however. To calculate the speed of the object.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. in other words. the object will speed up or slow down. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. There is. we get v= 2πr (3. So even though the speed is not changing. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. however. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). the object will not speed up or slow down.

6) Figure 3. 2. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration.1 below). it just shows the direction of the three quantities.1. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless.3.5 becomes Fc = mac (3. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. Looking at equation 3. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. This is a common misconception of students.3. always inward toward the center of the circle.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration.1: This is not a free body diagram. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. 3.1. by deﬁnition. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics .2 and 3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v.3) T Combining equations 3.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. horizontal surface. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. Centripetal force is not. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 . ac = v2 3. when solving centripetal force problems. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. then equation 3. 1. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. In fact. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. however. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle.2. in particular.

not outward.1. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. because of inertia. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. If there were. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. in fact. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. In this situation. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. Remember. being pulled inward by the string. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. If you break the string. also. the ball is not being pushed outward.1. 3. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. because of Newton’s Third Law. in fact. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). Pretend you are the ball in our example. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. it is.CHAPTER 3. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency).

30? 7. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0.0 revolutions per second. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96. If its speed is 3. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. A 5.15 m. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.0 m. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. The ball makes exactly 2. what force does the string now exert? 4. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. 9. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.0 complete revolution each second. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1.20? 6.e. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. A coin is placed 18. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. 3. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.3. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.1.335 kg. The yo-yo has a mass of 0.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0.5 cm. What is the critical speed (i. 28 RRHS Physics . A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode.1 times per second.4 Problems 1. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8.1. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.3 days.42. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.80 m long.20 kg and is attached to a string 0.000 km and a period of 27.00 revolutions in a second.60. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.0 m radius and rotates 1. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.15 m/s and its mass is 0.0 m rope. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.

calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. how much and in what direction? 29 . PLANETARY MOTION 13. Sketch the situation. 14. will a friction force be required? If so. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. and explain this sensation. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. the vine is 4. 18. Assume no change in energy for the system.0 kg. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . including the relevant forces. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. 19. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. 15. A person has a mass of 75. 17.0 m long. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r.6 km. If the person is standing on the equator. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. what RRHS Physics 3. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. For the previous question.1. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire).CHAPTER 3. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine.

1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. equating the two expressions. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. we get mg = or GM (3. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. but not to understand why they are so. Newton.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or.3. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. however. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets.2. it travels a further distance. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. To determine this necessary speed. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). In fact. If the object is given a higher speed. Equation 3. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration.2 Universal Gravitation 3.) g= GM m R2 3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. Assuming a circular orbit. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. Fg = 30 3. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. This type of relationship appears often in physics. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R.2. People often ask what keeps a satellite up.2.2. PLANETARY MOTION 3. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. In grade 11. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. gravity is much more common than this. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. we must consider the orbit. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. speciﬁcally. given by G in the equation below. this is how the mass of the earth was found.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. however. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. it is falling toward the earth.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . In this way. a force of gravity exists between any two masses.

4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. v= GM r (3. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. PLANETARY MOTION 3. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. 2. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. we get GM m mv 2 = (3.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). If the satellite goes slower than this speed. m is the mass of the satellite. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite.9. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites.CHAPTER 3. Solving this equation for v.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). 3.2. as given in equation 3. faster than this speed. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. 3.4)into equation 3.7. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun.2.

Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km.6 times that of the earth. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. A force of 40. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3.0 N is required to pull a 10.50 m. Do the previous question again. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. From this data. r = 6. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1.3.85 × 105 km. 8. See Dick and Jane ﬂy.99 × 1030 kg). Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. 7.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. 10. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. But Frank is lazy.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. 6. 3.50 × 108 km. What is g near the surface? 5. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. Four 8. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. determine the mass of Jupiter.98 × 107 m).44 × 106 s and it is 1.5 Problems 1. 12. All distances are center to center.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. PLANETARY MOTION weight. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. If the bowling balls are 0.85 × 105 km. 2. Frank is really concerned about his weight. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.90 × 1027 kg.2. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. 13. but has the same mass. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another.50 m apart.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5.71×10−8 N .

Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. orbits the sun like other planets. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. Its period is 410 days. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. The asteroid Icarus. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. 1969. Jupiter is 5. On July 19. 32.2. RRHS Physics 3. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. A satellite is going around Earth. PLANETARY MOTION 14. What is its average distance from the sun? 26.CHAPTER 3.4 days) to do problem 16. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. though only a few hundred meters across. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. 31. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words.3 × 1022 kg. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. Find the value of this constant. 16. what would happen to the value of G? 30. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. Why? 28. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. 27. 33 . what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered.

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .2.3.

The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). you notice that it will stick to the wall. In a normal state. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. not the protons. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. Metals are generally very good conductors.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material.1. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. in the amount of charge is zero. In each case. Remember. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. the net change 35 4. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. . for example. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. 4. During any of the processes described above. Likewise. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. giving it a net negative or positive charge. This kind of atom is called an ion.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. even more important than many people think. According to atomic theory. If you rub a balloon in your hair. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. When a conductor is given a negative charge. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet.

The RRHS Physics . there are more electrons than protons on the rod. For example. CHAPTER 4. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. With induction. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. 4. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. If you ground the sphere. The other way of charging an object is called induction. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. i. germanium. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. As soon as they touch. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. there are . in this way. however. giving it excess electrons.e. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. but is just brought near it. An object can also be charged by conduction.4. it has merely been separated. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. conduction occurs. if it is charged negatively. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). No charge has been created.however. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively.1. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated.1. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere.1. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). and they touch. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere.

a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. 4. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. giving it a permanent charge. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope.CHAPTER 4. 37 . more often. If charges become large enough. now negatively charged. Think about how you may do this.1. Suppose. The more water molecules in the air. the faster the charge will be carried away. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. If the electroscope is neutral. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present.1. Sparks and lightning are examples of this.even though they are neutral. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. the two leaves just hang vertically. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). particularly on each leaf.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. the leaves. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. as shown here. You can. even when nothing is apparently done to them. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. The leaves will then stay spread apart. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. will repel each other and will spread out. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. In some cases. 4. however. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. even after we remove the charged rod. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge.

Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. close to but not touching the blocks. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. 3.4. A attracts C. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod.1. 9. If you know that D is positively charged. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. one at each end of the line of blocks. and C repels D. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. 12. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. what kind of charge does B have? 6. What charge is on the rod? 8. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. they ﬂy away in different directions.5 Problems 1. 5.1. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. but as soon as they touch the rod. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. Explain. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. When an electroscope is charged. Finally. why does the record now attract dust? 4. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. You place two objects with strong positive charges. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. you remove the two positively charges objects. Using a charged rod and an electroscope.

r is the distance between the charges in meters.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. electromagnetic. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. or some other type of contact. This may require pushing with your hand.CHAPTER 4. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. however.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it.1 is the distance between the centers. strong nuclear forces. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. and weak nuclear forces) continues.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. To help explain this idea.it is a concept.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. since it appeared to behave like magic. Using some test charge q. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics.2.2 4. 4. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. which has an equal but opposite charge). then the r in equation 4. they think of pushing or pulling an object.2. FIELDS 4.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. it is precise for only point charges. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. The search for simple. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4.2. If the two objects are spheres. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. E= F q (4.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. When people think of forces. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. tying a rope to something. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. without using some test charge. in fact. 39 . This worried people.

we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. E= CHAPTER 4.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. For example. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. equation 4. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. we obtain kQ (4. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. In reality.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld.2. FIELDS points around the sources. however.1 into equation 4.2. 4. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. then equation 4. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. The closer together the ﬁeld lines.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law.2. which interacts with all objects near the earth. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . consider a positive source charge. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. or lines of force. 2. For example.1. as the test charge is accelerated by the force.4. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. If there is more than one source charge. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. Substituting equation 4. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. These electric ﬁeld lines.2. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics .

The hydrogen atom contains a proton. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth.1 × 106 m/s. Two charges. has a charge of -20 µC.2. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. the typical size of an atom. In other words. A third ball. located 16 cm to the right. What should you do? 11. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10.0 N on each other? 4. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. 8. A positive charge of 3. In one model of the hydrogen atom. q1 and q2 . the RRHS Physics .67 × 10−27 kg. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1.5 Problems 1.2. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. mass 9. You are given two similar spheres. located 25 cm above the second ball. has a charge of +25 µC. A second ball. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. mass 1. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. -2. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7.CHAPTER 4. One. A and B. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. and the right -83 µC.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. What is the force between them? 5.00 × 10−17 C? 2. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC.0 µC is 0. 3. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. -4. and an electron. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. The bottom electron is resting on a table.11 × 10−31 kg. is 0.145 N on each other. Three particles are placed in a line. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. 4.2).050 m to the north and the other. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g.5 × 10−10 m. what force is exerted? 12. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other.0 µC.030 m to the east.

RRHS Physics .67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. (a) two positively charged point sources.0 µC charged particle? 21. 17. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. FIELDS 20. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. −Qo and −3Qo .020 mm remains stationary in the air. Find the force on an electron. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. When placed 1. What is the electric ﬁeld 2.0× 10−6 C charge. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. Take into account gravity and determine E. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. A proton (m = 1. then repeat your work with a 2. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. one 33.0 µC and a +60.0 cm away from a 1. 42 CHAPTER 4.0 µC are 8. 19. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. Two charges. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. Two positive charges. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. 24.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre.0 µC charge 40. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth.2.0 µC and the other 68. A water droplet of radius 0. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations. the force each exerts on the other is 28. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. are a distance l apart.30 m apart. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources.0 × 10−6 C test charge. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. A negative charge of 2.4. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).2 cm apart.0 cm apart? 23.5 N and is repulsive. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude.

We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . we say that it is at a high potential. which is called the volt. Suppose you have two spheres. 4. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. sphere B is said to be neutral. you don’t have to do anything. so Vab = Wab q (4. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. since they are trying to get away from one another.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. In this case. If the two spheres are touched together. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. The symbol for electric potential is V .3. This will add energy to the system.3. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. For example. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. because of the force of attraction between the two charges.3. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. FIELDS 4. Just as with gravitational potential energy. therefore. Remember that W = ∆E. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). namely potential energy. If positive work is required to move the charge. The potential energy here will decrease.CHAPTER 4. for example. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point.

How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. as shown below. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. 4. FIELDS 2.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 .5 × 10−4 J. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5.4.3. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. if they were not. the two spheres will be at the same potential. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . at this point. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8.0 C is raised in potential by 1. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld.3.5 × 107 V . How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. CHAPTER 4. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . that is. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line.0 µC charge.3. A force of 0.5 V ? 3. A -30. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3. What work is done when 5. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge.4 Problems 1. The change in energy while doing this is 4.

1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. 1 . charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. In 1800. Remember that in solids. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. When people discussed current. so its electrons are held very loosely. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. Contrary to a common belief. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . A wire is a conductor. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. therefore. a battery is several cells connected together.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. little was known about the structure of the atom. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. an ampere (A). 5. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. this is given a special name. As was discussed in the previous chapter. at the same time. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales.1. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). also referred to as an amp. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. In short. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s.1 Electric Current Q (5. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal.

Resistance is measured in ohms.5. insulators have a very high resistance. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. the greater the ﬂow of water. For practical purposes. Comparing this to electricity. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. In the same way. 2. If one end of the pipe is raised. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. therefore. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. 3. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. Temperature: In general. When charges are moved through a resistance. With a battery. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. CHAPTER 5. These materials are than said to be superconducting. In liquids and gases. it gains or loses energy. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance.1. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). because of their atomic structure. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. This makes sense. however. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. 46 . the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. they lose potential. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. In our gravity/water analogy above. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). we can use it here as well. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance).

2 to obtain P = I 2R (5.1. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. if you double the voltage. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. 4. That is. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. it is really energy that we pay for. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power.5. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. but I = q/t (equation 5. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. 5. the current also doubles.4 with equation 5.5) 5. Consider a wire that is carrying a current.3) 5.1) so P = IV (5. thereby increasing the resistance.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. Looking at this equation. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. Note that equation 5. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. light. Since wires have a resistance in the real world.CHAPTER 5. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. the current is proportional to the voltage. current can be expressed as V (5. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. so it will have a lower resistance. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. or mechanical). the current is proportional to voltage). Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. the resistance must be constant.1.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. We RRHS Physics .4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. the watt (W ).1. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire.

25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. Is Joe correct? Explain. 14. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. What is the current through a 6.4 Problems 1. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. What voltage will produce 12. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. What voltage does the bird feel? 13.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). A current of 1.5 V battery. at 20 mA.10 A ﬂows in a wire.0 cm apart. 5 mA can be painful.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours.0 A? 5. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. A 1. above 100 mA can be fatal. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin.5 A for 6. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase.0 h. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. When she connects it to a 1. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7.6) CHAPTER 5. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4.1. but when a 3. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. What is the voltage of the battery? 6.085/kW h). 5. 11.5. since R = V /I.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. Joe argues that. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time.1. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9.0 V battery is used. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. The line has a resistance of 1.

Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. RRHS Physics 5. How many 100 W light bulbs. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C.29 kg/m3 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16.4 A from a 120 V line? 27.08 per kW h. 18.1. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. It is observed that it takes 12. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A.20 kg of water.0 s? 25.90 and it lasts for 300 hours.0o C. (a) 220 V are applied across it.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. At $0. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24.000 V rather than 12.11 per kW h. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.06 per kWh? 19. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2.2 Ω lines. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0.) 49 . How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17.5 kg of water. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. operated at 120 V . What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. What is its increase in temperature during the 30. A modern television set draws 2.0 A when operated on 120 V . by means of a converter. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9.000 V ? 21.CHAPTER 5. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 . can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.0 minutes. What is the eﬃciency of a 0. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3.0o C to 55.

each resistor has its own path.7) 5. Because charge must be conserved. and R3 . 5. since there is only one path.2. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor.5. When you add more resistances.9) RRHS Physics . V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . V2 = IR2 . I1 . then by applying equation 5. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. V2 .1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. I2 . If V1 . you increase the total resistance. Of course. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. R2 . the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. R3 respectively. when we put several resistance in series.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. Knowing the equivalent resistance. R2 . Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch.2.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. currents.2 we know that V1 = IR1 .8) (5. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. and voltages throughout the circuit. applying equation 5. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. By conservation of energy.2 to analyze the resistances. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. and V3 = IR3 . *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5.

and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). RRHS Physics 51 . if there is a junction between the resistors.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). R1 and R2 are not in series. Again. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. This combination is then in series with R1 . Consider the following example. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. then they are not in series.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 .2. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. 3.10) 5. however. Remember. For example. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). R3 is in series with R4 . Remember. Also. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them.2. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. R3 . 5. equation 5. so they can be combined using equation 5. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor.CHAPTER 5. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . but are often some combination of the two. since there is a junction in between the two. R2 . the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. If any resistors are in parallel. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. *CIRCUITS 2. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. If any resistors are in series. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. every time you add a resistance in parallel. In this example. you are also adding another path for the current to follow.

7. 1. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. RRHS Physics 5. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. Some circuits4 are. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. for example. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. For example.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing.5. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows.9. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated.2. a system of equations can then be found and solved. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. If this strip melts. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. These rules actually apply to all circuits. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes.2. This is just an expression of equation 5. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. however. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. 2. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. If too much current ﬂows. too complicated for this analysis. To deal with these circuits. 5. For example. At any junction point. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. Houses are wired in parallel. A third type of safety device is slightly different.2. 2. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. breaking the circuit. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit.

what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. Find V. 3. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9.50 A. 4. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. 8.6 *Problems 1. Find the unknown currents and voltages. 5.2. Find each resistance. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. 2. 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch.2.CHAPTER 5. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. 7. Find the current in each branch. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor.

Find the current in each branch.I2 . A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . If each resistor is 10 Ω. If each resistor is 10 Ω. Suppose that you have a 6. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.2. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Find It .0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Find R3 . Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. and P1 . If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb.5. 16.I3 . *CIRCUITS 10.I3 .0 V input? 15. 11.V2 . or 150 W at 120 V . 13. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. Given an unlimited supply of 1. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. 12. 17.0 Ω.0 V output for a 6. 100 W . and I4 .0 54 . CHAPTER 5. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel.0 V . Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2.

If one resistor is 2. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. I2 . (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. RRHS Physics 55 23. 5.CHAPTER 5. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. which is brighter? 21. (a) If they are connected in parallel. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19.8 kΩ. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. *CIRCUITS 22. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. and I3 in the following circuit. one larger than the other. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. Consider the circuit below.2. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. what is the resistance of the other? . determine the currents I1 .

RRHS Physics 56 . In a magnetized piece of iron. and cobalt. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. Magnetic poles are not. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. the domains are more lined up in one direction. the same as electric charges. however. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. however. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. Since these forces do behave similarly. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. in ferromagnetic materials.5. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. As a result. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. however. each with a north and south pole.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. A compass needle is really a small magnet. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. If you cut a magnet in two. magnetic forces act over distances. for example. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole.3. 5. nickel. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. since an electric current will always produce both.3. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. This will be seen in the next section. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. the result is two magnets. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. In most materials. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. On a small scale. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. 5. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot.

curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). In fact. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. It was only with a moving charge. 5. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld.3. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. then. it makes sense. To use this hand rule. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. but this was found to have no eﬀect. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. This is an electromagnet. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. it often7 experiences a force. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld.3.3. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. In other words.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. around 1820. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted.CHAPTER 5. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. 6 5. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). or a current. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. the second right hand rule can be used. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. To use this hand rule. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. when using left hand rules. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. By using more than one loop. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld.3.

to 58 RRHS Physics . a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb).3.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s.8 8 Remember. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. This loop of wire will rotate. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. Between c and d.5. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. 5. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle.3. you may also use the left hand rule. To use this rule. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. To do this. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. substituting this into equation 5. as shown in the side view below. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. as shown below. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. the force will be out of the page. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. There will be no force between b and c.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force.5 Electric Motor 5.3. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. The charges do not. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. have to be moving through a wire. As we learned before. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. Remember that I = q/t. however. so F = qvB sin θ (5. CHAPTER 5. If the moving particle is negative. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. use left hand rules.

(c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. but just touch one another. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. 5. if the loop goes past this point. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet.3. Also. MAGNETISM other brush. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. Many loops of wire are usually used. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. As a result. As the armature turns.CHAPTER 5. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator.3. In order to make the loop continue turning. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). but no force acts on the wire. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. we want it to turn continuously. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. as shown below. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. In reality. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. as well as a ferromagnetic core.6 Problems 1. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. (b) Two opposite poles. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3.

90 T . A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. If the force on the wire below is into the page. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. A proton having a speed of 5. 11. MAGNETISM 5.35 N . (b) 10.0 × 10−5 T . The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 . What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6.0 A and weighs 0. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. (a) CHAPTER 5.3. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. identify the poles of the magnets.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . it feels zero force. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East.5.9 × 103 kg/m3 . A straight 2. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. What is the force on the wire? 7. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5.

25 × 106 m/s. 17.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . If the velocity of the particle is 5.25 T . An electron (m = 9. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.6 × 10−13 N . A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected.CHAPTER 5. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. 21.10 cm in a 0. The radius of its path is 4.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25.385 T magnetic ﬁeld.032 T .3. A particle with a charge of 2. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. Calculate the mass of the particle. Explain. E=1000 N/C.4 mm? 24. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld.000 V .02 T.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. 23. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. Calculate the energy of the proton. B=0. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space.10 T magnetic ﬁeld. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20.5 cm. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. 61 . 16. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. A force of 5. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1.08 m.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V .1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. which exists between the two parallel plates below.

and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current.5. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary.1 Induced EMF Around 1831.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). Fill in the direction of the current in this example. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. 5. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. v. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. We call this an induced emf. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. and not a force where B. ∆φ ∆t (5. For example. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. when the magnet is removed. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . Such a current is called an induced current. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B.4.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld.4. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. For example. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). opposing the motion of the bar magnet. In other words.

From equation 5. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. This is called perpetual motion.4. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). Just like before. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. Remember.CHAPTER 5. Notice that if Ns > Np . to maintain a current in the secondary coil. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. Combining these two equations. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster.4. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. therefore. But remember.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. There is. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. therefore. however. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core.13. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. In the example shown below. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. this is called a step-up transformer. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. however. this is a step-down transformer. If Ns < Np . The primary coil has the incoming current. conservation of energy tells 63 . we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil.15) 5. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. 5. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. the two wires are insulated from one another. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil.

at positions 2 and 4. Since P = V I.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. we see what happens to the current. at position 3. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. Consider the picture below. RRHS Physics . then the current must be lowered. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire.4. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. therefore.4. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. into the page). At position 1. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. The wire ab is moving out. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. the force on cd must be out of the page.5. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn.16) CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). Similarly. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. out of the page). the split ring commutator does not have to be used. this means that if the voltage goes up.

10 The current is actually sinusoidal. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. the situation is the reverse. In a generator. we get a sin2 θ graph. however. Since the current is not constant. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side.CHAPTER 5.707Imax (5. value. or eﬀective. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf.5Imax To make a DC generator. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished.17) Similarly. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. Back EMF As was previously stated. we take a root mean square average (rms). as was seen in a previous graph. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz.5Vmax Imax In North America. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. When a motor is operating. Instead. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. If we square an AC electric current graph. The more current that is drawn. The greater the speed of the motor. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. As we turn the generator. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. giving Pavg = 0. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning.4. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . INDUCTION called a counter torque. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators.707Vmax (5.11 we cannot just average the current over time. Alternating Current As we have seen. as were used with the DC motor. the greater the back (or counter) emf.18) Since power is P = V I. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire.

INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. It is initially in a 0.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0.4 Problems 1.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. A square coil of sides 5.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. 6. calculate the emf developed.5. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right.10 s.800 T . It takes 0. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms.5Pmax (5. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.19) CHAPTER 5. A 12.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical.0 cm/s. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9.15 Ω. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. What is the induced emf ? 4. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.5 Ω. Also note that since P = V I. In what direction is the induced current? 3.4 s. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.4. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. Hence. If the wire has a resistance of 0. with its plane perpendicular to B. If the rod is 12.4. What is the average induced emf ? 2. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0.350 T to zero. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. 5.

You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. Why is this true? 18.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. If the primary and secondary were reversed. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary.0 V at the secondary. 26. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 .0 V and an output current of 5.0 A. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. An ac voltage. how many turns are on the primary side? 15.0 A. and an output current of 0. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. where the line voltage is 240 V . is across a 35 Ω resistor. Why? 21.75 A. 19. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. What is the rms voltage across it? 27.4. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23.0 V AC. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain.0 V source and measures 8. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall.CHAPTER 5. It is used with a transformer in England. (b) the current in the primary. INDUCTION 17.0 V and the input current is 11. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet.0 A respectively. whose peak value is 90 V . and (c) the power transformed 13. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. Calculate the peak current in a 2. what would the new output voltage be? 16. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer.0 A. the coil will swing. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. Frequently. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14.

and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29.5.4. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. INDUCTION 28. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. a 700 W hair dryer. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics .25 A.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

4). This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. such as diﬀraction and interference.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. If he was correct. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. The difﬁculty here.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. The photon does not actually slow down. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties.4 and 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. He suggested in 1923 that. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. after the collision.5).1. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. 1 RRHS Physics .6.1.1 however. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . however. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. only its frequency is lowered. In fact. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. Objects such as electrons. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. however. By making careful measurements.

0 km/h. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. 13. 16. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm.CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5.1. in meters. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. λ = 450 nm. Determine the wavelength of a 0.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6.80 nm. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8.1 × 1013 Hz. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0.1.40 Hz. 6. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. What are the wavelengths. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. does its wavelength change? If so.5 Problems 1.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. If energy is radiated by all objects. 14. 7. 10. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. QUANTUM THEORY 8. of a 3.0 × 106 m/s. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. RRHS Physics 9. 12. 15. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. does it increase or decrease? 11.0 eV electron? 73 .0 eV photon and a 5. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4.

the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. 6. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another.6. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence.2. the particles must be moving very fast. As the light gets closer to the water. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light.2. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. another group of scientists. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. was putting forward a wave model of light. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. led by Christian Huygens. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 .1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. since all waves at this time required a medium. As with Newton’s particle model. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. As these particles passed through a prism. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. for example. a ball thrown against a wall). This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. In a uniform medium. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small.

however. and interference where the particle theory fails. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. they must be travelling at a speed of 3.2. without its problems. It states that to understand any given experiment. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. indicating a spreading out of the light.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. This model was not. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories.2. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. the resulting image is slightly blurred. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. however. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. The two theories. however. refraction. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. For example. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. we must refer to both theories. The two aspects of light complement one another. which contradicts Newton’s theory. According to Maxwell’s theory. which appear to be incompatible. 6. Also. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. Similarly.CHAPTER 6. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. but to understand light fully. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. By the middle of the nineteenth century. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. however. in 1850.

but a visual picture is again not possible. In order to locate the ball. To locate this. negatively charged particles. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. or even a combination of the two. Applied to a smaller scale.2. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. you would have to feel your way around. when light passes through space or a medium. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. An electron. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. this duality extends to particles as well. however. macroscopic world. is the set of its properties that we can measure. you must interact with it. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. depending on which property of light is being measured. but in the process would move it from that position. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). its behavior is more like that of a particle. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. like light. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle.6. 2 76 . we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. You wouldn’t know where it is going. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. 6. its behavior imitates that of a wave.2.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. When we try to visualize light.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. We cannot picture what they are. or as a wave that has a mass. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. light reveals both wave and particle properties. This would tell you where it is. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. In terms of everyday language and images. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. When this radiation interacts with the electron.2. In general. This has some major implications. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. CHAPTER 6. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. when light interacts with matter.

we must use a small wavelength. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. Thus. however. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. In summary. however. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle.5. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us.4 and 6. If. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. 77 . than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places.2. on the other hand. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. For examRRHS Physics 6. it is still a probability and not a certainty. but has wave properties. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. and not determinism. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron.CHAPTER 6. but according to equations 6. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important.

2.6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics . WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.

The emitted light is due to individual atoms. heated solids. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. 6. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor.3. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. When energy is transferred to atoms. This is known as an absorption spectrum. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. 6. This became known as the Rutherford Model. Using spectroscopy. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors.3. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. If they were at rest. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away).1. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. scientists can analyze unknown materials. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. Around 1911. When viewing these spectra. By analyzing these wavelengths. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. not interactions between atoms. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. This is known as an emission spectrum. This is how helium was discovered. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 .1. Less dense gases. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. in industry. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. but a few were bounced almost directly back.CHAPTER 6. since they are unique to each atom. was accepted by scientists by 1900.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. Although a major step forward. emit a discrete spectrum. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6.

1). as shown in the diagram in section 6. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. 1.red.3.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. Using quantum theory. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy).8) 6. and also predicted an unstable atom. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. RRHS Physics . Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom.1 . In 1911. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. The Rutherford model could not explain this.6. as it loses energy. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. Neils Bohr.6 eV n2 (6. Thus. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. green. in other words. and violet. as in solids). the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). A student of Rutherford. 2.8).2. The higher the energy level. they are accelerating. for example. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy.3. If an electron absorbs energy. both are therefore quantized. the atom would not be very stable. When changing energy levels. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. CHAPTER 6. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. blue. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. electrons can jump directly or in steps. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. As the electrons spiraled inward. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. however. The radius increases with n2 . this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra.3.

however.3. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). but is actually much harder to visualize. This was a major problem with the model. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. Louis de Broglie. each independently.8 that when n=1. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. determined energy levels of the elements. however.CHAPTER 6. however.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. If we consider the electron to be a particle. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. electron can go from 3 to 1. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. applying his theory of matter waves. the energy is actually at a minimum. In quantum mechanics. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1.3. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. Notice in equation 6. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. As a result. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. since it has a wave nature. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. The electron. however. Bohr did not know how to explain this. 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure.

These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light).3. magnetic (ml ). Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms).3. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms.6. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. however. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. In a group of these atoms. spin (ms )). the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). CHAPTER 6. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials.1. for example.3. 8. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). 5. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. This is called ﬂuorescence. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. Explain any discrepancies. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. These materials are used. 6. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. At low temperatures. in luminous watch dials.3.5 Problems 1. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6.

1 . This adds energy to the system. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. Z is the atomic number. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2.1. A.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. so as the distance becomes greater. Sometimes. In 1932. This force only acts over short distances. In the last chapter. the electromagnetic force.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant.1. and neutrons and neutrons. Z. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. an element is written as A X. called a neutron. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. and A is the mass number. protons and neutrons. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. this force is the same between protons and protons. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. 7. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. the electric force becomes more important. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. the others being the gravitational force. and the weak nuclear force. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. for example. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). This is one of the four forces of nature. however. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom.

If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents.3 Problems 1. the number of protons. identify the element. For each of the following. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. In a nuclear reaction. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. This implies that by adding energy to the system. we are actually adding mass. and c is the speed of light in m/s. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus.015123 u). the total number of nucleons. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. In general. m is the equivalent mass in kg. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . where E is the energy in J. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. 84 7. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6.49 MeV. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. In other words. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1.1. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. Using equation 7.014102 u. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei.7.0 × 1011 J of energy.1. The mass of 2 H is 2. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart.1) CHAPTER 7. which is iron. We will look at this more in the next two sections. 5. RRHS Physics .1. Thus.007276 u mn = 1. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). To be stable. it could just fall apart. It is expressed as a negative number. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. What mass was converted? 4. A nuclear reaction produces 9. u.66 × 10 kg). We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3.

CHAPTER 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .1.

These nuclei are very tightly bound. and required no external stimulation. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. RRHS Physics . RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. This is known as (natural radioactivity).2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. 7.7. beyond this. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper.2. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). This is true for all alpha decays. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions.2. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. therefore.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. 7. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. there are not enough neutrons to do this. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. 4 He. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. 7. as will be discussed in the following sections.3.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. As a result.2. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. If the atomic number gets too large. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. 2 They are not very energetic. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section.

7. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. when it drops down to a lower energy state. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino).2. they can be very dangerous. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. which has no charge and no mass.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. In beta decay. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. but the opposite charge. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). It is basically their production that is diﬀerent.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . One of the protons. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. In 10 years. This electron disappears into the nucleus. 7.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. by emitting a positron. In some cases. the nucleus does not undergo any change. This is a random process. A neutrino is also emitted. For this reason.2. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). it emits a photon.CHAPTER 7. A positron has the same mass as an electron. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. allowing a proton to become a neutron. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. Like an atom.2. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. This photon is known as a gamma ray. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. becomes a neutron. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. Other than releasing energy.

One Bequerel is one decay per second. 84 emits a α particle. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. A radioactive polonium isotope. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. When 23 N e (mass=22. A radioactive bismuth isotope. After one half-life. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. so it is closely related to half-life. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. 7. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again.5 Problems 1. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). 83 emits a β particle.7. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. In another 10 years. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. CHAPTER 7. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. or β + emission. showing the element formed. Write the complete nuclear equation.2. β − . what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years.2. showing the element formed. 214 Bi. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. 8. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ.9898 u). (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. 210 P o. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. 88 RRHS Physics . Write the complete nuclear equation.

2) although there are many other possibilities. electrons. 2. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. this is known as radioactive fallout. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles.3% 238 U and only 0.CHAPTER 7. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. 7. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7.3. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). RRHS Physics 7. Naturally occurring uranium is 99.3. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki.2 are moving too fast. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. To detonate the bomb. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. 89 . This was called nuclear ﬁssion. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . because it resembled cell division. however. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory).S. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. protons. or gamma rays. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. resulting in a transmutation. the two masses would be brought together quickly.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. following Fermi’s work. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. these particles are in direct contact with our cells.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. the top scientists in Europe and the U. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. but they can also occur in nature. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons.3. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. This ended the war. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. neutrons. 7. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle.

the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . helium is extremely tightly bound. It has a simpliﬁed design. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. For example. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. Also present are control rods. these control the rate of the reaction. however. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. and New Brunswick.3. Because of its design. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. which is very expensive. 3. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). 235 U . Quebec. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1.7. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). and can be separated to be used as fuel. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. so it can be built where technology is limited. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. 5 CHAPTER 7. 92 7. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. energy will be released. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. RRHS Physics 90 . Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. To slow the reaction down. which was discussed earlier.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. usually containing cadmium. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL).3.

and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld.007825 u 2. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3.050786 u 1. 2.3. 6. 9.9250 u 87.016029 u 4.2? 5. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. 3. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems.90722 u 235. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. List three medical uses of radioactivity. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. At present. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction.CHAPTER 7.7 for this reason.9141 u 91. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction.016049 u 3. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. 91 RRHS Physics .014102 u 3. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. This is higher than any known material can stand.043925 u 238.002603 140.3. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K).905625 u 135. A few years ago. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. Once this high temperature is achieved. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. How much energy would this release? 8. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). and there is no way to control it at these temperatures.

The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.3. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics .0 × 1014 J of energy. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11.7. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.

this 7 is only an estimate.3 and 2.3*. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. you will be expected to do an error analysis. and probably even more. for example. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. we might estimate it to be 2. For example. It may be smaller or larger. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. The wood may shrink or warp. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. . Some of these may be due to human errors. the ends of the stick may be chipped. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. The instrument may have been damaged at some point.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. was friction considered to be constant. Take a meter stick.1 Experimental Data however. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above.4. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9.37. In writing lab reports. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. therefore.4 cm. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. In our meter stick example. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. there are errors present. errors due to rounding oﬀ. the thickness of the lines may vary. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure.3 cm and 2. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. In other words. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. errors in calculation. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument.1 mm. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument.

It does not address any possible systematic errors.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. this is not an excuse to be careless.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. As long as these errors are random. or too low. A. It is a good idea. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. In our error analysis. This type of error is generally more serious. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. Section A.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error.1. the less precise our results are.2.1 Standard Deviation A. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. the measurements are always too high. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. In the case of systematic error. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. The more random error we have in our experiment. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. RRHS Physics . or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion.2. but it will not be very accurate. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. A. A. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. the smaller the standard deviation should be. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. The smaller this value. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. that is. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. this type of error is present in all experiments. For this reason. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. In this case. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. In this case.1. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. The more data points that we have. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large.A. APPENDIX A. we may end up with a very precise estimate.

18 5.18 3.64 2.84 2.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.42 1. 95 RRHS Physics . we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.86 1.58 A. we would use t = 2.06 2.14 2. however.2. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.40 1.7 4. x is the average of all the values.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ.16 3. and we took 12 measurements.36 3.78 1.35 1.1) where xi are the individual measurements.60 2.17 2.45.35.71 2. The relevant values for t are given in the table.48 2.11 2.45 3.83 1. When examining the data.92 3.98 1. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.38 1.01 2.36 1. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.31 3.37 1.30 9.08 6. if possible.76 1. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.23 3.78 4.64 interval of 95% 99% 12. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.35.34 1.80 1. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed. and N is the number of measurements.53 2. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3. Note.03 2. If we have a theoretical value of 5. we would use t = 2.57 4.89 2.20 3. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A. In this case. and got an average value x of 4.96 2.35 1.36 2.7 63.94 1. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.13 1.77 1. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.35 to 5.2. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.92 1.81 1.70±0.20. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.8. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.05.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.44 1. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.90 1.4.50 2.APPENDIX A. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.25 2.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.31 1. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.26 3.02 1.36 1.29 1.

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