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c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. .1. . . . . .CONTENTS 3. 5. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .2. .1 Electric Current . . .2. .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 *Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. .2 Forces and Fields . . 4. . . . . . . . 5. .3 Electroscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . .3.3. . . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . .1 Magnetic Fields . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . . . 3. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .2. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 5.1 Electrical Quantities .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 4. . . 5. .2 *Circuits . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 5. . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 5. .3.1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . 5. . .3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .3. . . . .4 Problems . . . 4. . . .4 Problems . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . 5. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . 7. . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . .3. . . .3. . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems .4. . . . . . . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . RRHS Physics . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . 6. . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 7. . . . .2. . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 6. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . .2. . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . .3. . 6. . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . . . .4 Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . .1. .2 Modern Theory of Light . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . .4 Half-lives . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7.1 Nuclear Fission . . . .

. . A. . . . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Experimental Data . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . iv RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28 pg 495 #30.688-693 694-714. pg 780 #2. pg 489 #27. pg 526 #1.9 #2. pg 918-919 #3.2 4.25.1 6.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.2 2.8.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6. pg 608 #3.7. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.33.4 #36. pg 886 #3.6 #3.2 5.Textbook Correlations Section 1.2.4.8 #4.4 pg 796 #1-4.37. pg 515 #39. pg 936-937 #26.9.4.3 5.2 6.5. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13. pg 863 #8.2.24.8. pg 571 #21.3 #4. pg 934 #5. pg 933 #1.2 7.27.3. pg 595 #5. pg 862 #6. pg 661 #5.3 3.2 4. pg 611 Conceptual Problems. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.3 2. pg 501 #31.3.6.1 5.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508. BLM #1.9. pg 655 #26.28.15 pg 641 #9.10.1 2.7.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.4 6.40.2 1.27 v . pg 778 #1.6.1 1.1 3. pg 596 #12.4.3 5.14.1 7. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.3.3 7.3.1 4.28 #2. pg 529 #30.2.5.6.8.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. acceleration. Likewise. For example. it does not have a direction. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. For example. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. A vector is not just a single number. When writing. 1 . the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). when typing. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). For example. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. Last year. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ).1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. like a scalar is. velocity. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. This year. In university. dy ). You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. The symbol d represents these components. displacement. force. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. In 2D space. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector).1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . Consider the diagram below. it is actually two numbers.

ay ).1. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. Since vectors are not single numbers. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. So a + b will give (ax + bx . In math. In this system. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. To help visualize this. CHAPTER 1. If we add these two vectors. south. Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. west). and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . south would be 270o . we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. we are actually adding their components. 1. In the previous diagram. by ). we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. the other vector b represents the components (bx . the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . east. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions).this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. ay + by ). 2. Your textbook uses this last convention. (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). north would be 90o .1. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . For the examples that follow. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. 3.1. in other words. The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. In this system.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. We must assume u < v.85 m/s. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. 10 km W. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. using a compass. the hiker is lost. why? 19. 6 km S. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp.00 h.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. Before it can move. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. and 3 km S. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. 20. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. RRHS Physics . whose speed in still water is 2. Find the change in velocity. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. 5 kmN. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. The speed of a boat in still water is v. A hiker leaves camp and.0 m/s.1. mass. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. To do so. wind speed? 18. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. Diane rows a boat at 8. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. walks 4 km E. 26. How fast is the player running? 23. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. 3 km E. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. A ferryboat. 8 km N. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. At the end of three days. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E.

we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions.2. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. friction. therefore. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. I will take up as the positive direction. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. In the diagram below. RRHS Physics 1. First. FORCE VECTORS 1. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 .2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. Notice that FN = Fg . you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. therefore. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force.CHAPTER 1. the vertical forces. both of which are vectors. Notice that although the normal.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation.2. As can be seen in the diagram above. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. the force of the man pulling is not.

it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . In other words.2. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. as in the following diagram. we get CHAPTER 1. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. Drawing a free body diagram.3. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics .3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. Using trigonometry. FORCE VECTORS friction for now).the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged).2. If friction is present. if present.1. In order to apply Newton’s second law. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. Again notice that FN = Fg . Similarly.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). the normal force can then be used in this calculation. Again.

The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.76.10.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.5 s for him to reach the bottom.6o hill at a steady speed of 7. RRHS Physics 9 .CHAPTER 1. where it is attached to a 4.0o angle with the horizontal. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill.20.2. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air. A 25.0 m/s. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. It takes 13. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0. The tension in the rope is 110. (a) Ignoring friction.0o incline and accelerates at 0. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o .0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. A car can decelerate at -5. A 15. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle.300 m/s2 .2.0 km/h. A 5. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. What is the acceleration of this system? 11. A force of 300. A 55. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6.0 kg box is released on a 33. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7.0 km/h. (b) Using the same power as in (a).5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. A rope attached to the 5. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.2 Problems 1.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. An 18. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.0 N .0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.0o angle with the horizontal. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6.30. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal.30. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8.0o hill at 6.3 m/s2 .0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. The total mass is 80 kg.

EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. there will be a net force in some direction. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. 3 1.3. Remember.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. it is obviously not accelerating. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . therefore. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. Since force is a vector. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. but opposite in direction. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. although the net force is zero in both cases. As we said. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. therefore. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. there are three forces acting on the mass. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance.1. The mass is stationary. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. 1.3.3. therefore.

the board will begin to spin. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. this is important. To examine this more. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. the greater the torque. even though the forces are equal and opposite. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. As we have seen. when calculating the work. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. 1. This is called a dot product. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course.4 The further away from this pivot. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. etc. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium).CHAPTER 1. Before dealing with torques.4. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. It can be thought of as a twisting force. right. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point.3. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. down. You will learn more about these in university. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. Στ = 0 Obviously. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). we must introduce the notion of a torque. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. As can be seen from equation 1. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. It is not in rotational equilibrium. When you calculated work. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). left.. 4 RRHS Physics . but one up and one down. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. but for calculating torques. it acts on every particle in the body. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. τ = F⊥ d (1. While forces were described using up.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). as it was when discussing work. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque.

You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. What is the tension in the rope? 2. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. 8. and you don’t want it to break. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom.0 m when a 50. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6.0 s. The two ropes make an angle of 15. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . A high wire is 25. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3.5o with each other. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. When lifting a barbell. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. RRHS Physics 4. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5.1.0 m long and sags 1. 7. 3.3. 10.3. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. 9. A sign with a mass of 1653.3 Problems 1.0 N . or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. The frame has a wire across the back. A 20. 12 .0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below.

If there is a spring on the door 5. direction. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. The 10. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N .90 m away from the pivot on the other side. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force.0 kg person is sitting 1.0 kg (uniformly distributed) .2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. determine the magnitude.0 N.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. 14. one at either end. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N.0 kg.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane. In the following diagram. A 50.0 m from the same end. What equilibrant force must a fourth student.0 kg person is sitting 0. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18.0 kg person stands at its tip.0 m and a length of 15. EQUILIBRIUM 17.CHAPTER 1. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50.0 m platform has a mass of 10. Find the equilibrant force: 12. The plane has a base of 14. Where must a 22. Fred. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car.0 m. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90.3. The platform is being held up by two students.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13.0 cm wide. A 60. apply to prevent acceleration? 1.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. and its center of gravity is located 4. 19. A force of 500.

DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .3. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.1.

These are all vector quantities. Ignoring air resistance. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. This also makes things somewhat simple. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. and t is the time in the air. velocity. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. vx is the horizontal speed. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. 2. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. we see that there is only one .1. and acceleration.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another.gravity.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). there is no horizontal acceleration. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . since max = ΣFx . Since we know our vertical acceleration. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. The horizontal speed does not change.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. therefore.

vyi will be zero in equations 2.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. CHAPTER 2. 2.4. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. therefore. In this case.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. until it reaches zero at its highest point. Once this is done.2. 2. but gravity will act to slow it down. as shown in the diagram below. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. and 2.1. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. PROJECTILES used.4.1 to 2. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. the ball follows a parabolic path. As the ball rises. Remember. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2.3. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions.1. namely using equations 2. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). Notice that equation 2. The object does. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components.1 and 2. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1.2. vyi is the initial vertical velocity. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. the time in the air.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. Again. however. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. since there are no horizontal forces. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. For this reason. instead of horizontally. t is the time in the air.1. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.

7 m above the ground. 14.0 m/s as he leaves the ground.0o . A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20.0o with the horizontal. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away.0 m from the basket.1. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. Should the hunter aim directly at. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . How much later does it hit the ground? 7. how far from the building is the target? 6. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. YES! It’s a score. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. A person is in a moving elevator.02 m from the basket. and with only 2. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree.0 m/s.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11.1. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot.0 m away and are 3. The rotten egg landed 4. 4. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8.0 s later.3 Problems 1.2 m above the ground. an outﬁelder runs 4. Trailing by two points. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8.5 m high.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. A baseball is hit at 30.CHAPTER 2. above. 2-D MOTION 2. Immediately. At the time of the throw. The ball is released at the height of the basket. by how much will it miss the target? 3. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2.0 m/s. 3. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.0 m. A diver running 3.05 m above the ﬂoor.2 m away from the elevator. the elevator was 8. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. PROJECTILES tree. Assuming the ball is launched at 51.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.0 m/s at an angle of 53.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2.0 s remaining in a basketball game. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. The building is 13.0 m high.

If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. PROJECTILES 14.1. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90.22 m (horizontally). When it reaches the end of the table. 20. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. Will the following quantities change? If so.0 m away? 16. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17.6 m above the ﬂoor. (a) Draw the situation above. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. 2-D MOTION speeds.0 m below. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. draw all vectors to scale. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. The basket is 2.1 m above the ﬂoor. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity.2. At any moment. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. For each of the following questions. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. 19. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics .0 m and must be accurate to ±0. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. 21. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal.

2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. suspension bridges. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. The period (the time for one complete vibration. which results in a downward acceleration.1b)). remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. Also. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. Of course.1c)and let it go. in this case. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly.1a). we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. This is the equilibrium position. etc. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). This is now its new equilibrium position .7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. but is dependent on the spring. 2-D MOTION 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. depending on its spring constant. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2.at this point.2. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. which causes the spring to stretch. if you exceed the limits of the spring. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law.CHAPTER 2. (See Fig 2. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. this formula no longer holds). The units for the spring constant are N/m. 2 19 . a mattress. you will double the distance the spring stretches. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. the suspension of a car.

2. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). the system.2.6).9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to.2. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. 1 Ep = kx2 (2.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. therefore. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). the total energy remains the same. At equilibrium.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. Substituting this into Eq 2. 20 RRHS Physics . 2-D MOTION 2. or removed from.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. however. work is done on the spring.2. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2.2.

What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4.10 m to load a 0. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8.200 kg ball. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 . At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0.50 kg is placed on a level.325 m. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake.0 cm.2. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.62 Hz.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.8190 Hz at a particular location. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0.2. the frequency is 0. A mass of 2.10 g were trapped? 8.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. 2.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3.150 m when a 0.10 cm.30 kg mass is hung from it.110 m and released.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. What is the value of m? 6. A geologist’s simple pendulum. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. 13.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator.2 cm. A block of mass 0. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. if it had 3.10 m? 12. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch.3 Problems 1. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.30 m. What will its frequency be if only 0. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. it sinks deeper into the water by 5.CHAPTER 2. whose length is 37. in contact with a spring bumper. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15. frictionless surface. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. is then released. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. has a frequency of 0. 2-D MOTION 2. When an 80.75 J of work done on it? 11.48 Hz. The spring. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0.60 kg is hung from it.5 N hangs from it. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. A spring stretches 0. A small cockroach of mass 0.30 kg hangs from it? 5. When the man steps oﬀ. whose other end is ﬁxed.4 Hz when a weight of 0.

the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision.2.12) (2. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. We can now RRHS Physics .3.12. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. however. not velocity. Since velocity is a vector.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa .1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. Also. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. In two dimensions. if you remember from grade 11. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. a vector diagram must be drawn. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. 2. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. pa = pa + pb (2. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv).12. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision.11 and 2. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. so is momentum. This still applies in two dimensional collisions.3. 2.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. since p = mv. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision.

then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. after this collision. For a two body collision. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va .2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. 4 In other words. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. 2. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2.3. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. therefore. and one of the particles is initially at rest. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another.14. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. such as thermal energy. though. our conservation of energy equation (2. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. therefore. the collision is elastic. In other words.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. some energy is lost. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2.CHAPTER 2. Remember.3. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. In this type of collision. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. RRHS Physics 23 . Since the masses are equal.

Immediately after impact.3 Problems 1. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West.0o North of West. and a neutrino. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. 50. If they collide and remain stuck together. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10.3.00 m/s strikes a second ball. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8.20 m/s. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. A billiard ball of mass 0.80 m/s. of mass mb = 0. of mass 0. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact.0 km/h.400 kg. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3.0o North of West. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. As a result of this elastic collision. A proton travelling with speed 8. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4.2. After the collision (assumed elastic). initially at rest.3.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. the investigator determined that car A. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. initially at rest. 6. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. Two cars collide at an intersection. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5.0 km/h. Find 24 . what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. At what angle will the second proton be observed.2×10−23 kg·m/s.00 m/s. and the second car had a velocity of 40. an electron.60 kg. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7.40 kg strikes a second ball. the second ball is moving North. From skid marks. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. 40.

With projectile motion.1. Since this is the only force. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. the object will not speed up or slow down. There is. 1 . the acceleration must also be inward. we can simply use d (3. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string).2) T The only force acting on the object is the string.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. So even though the speed is not changing. in other words.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. we see v= 25 3. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. however. the object moves in a curve. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. To calculate the speed of the object. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. we get v= 2πr (3. however. the object will speed up or slow down. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. an acceleration present. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. there is still an acceleration. which is pulling inward.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion.

2.6) Figure 3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3.1 below). In fact. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. Looking at equation 3. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. however. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. always inward toward the center of the circle.2 and 3. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3.3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. 2. by deﬁnition. 1. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. 3. Centripetal force is not. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. ac = v2 3.1. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3.1. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. in particular.1: This is not a free body diagram. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .3) T Combining equations 3. it just shows the direction of the three quantities.5 becomes Fc = mac (3. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. This is a common misconception of students. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a.3. when solving centripetal force problems. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. horizontal surface.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. then equation 3.

We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . Pretend you are the ball in our example. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T .1. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. If there were. being pulled inward by the string. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia.CHAPTER 3. because of Newton’s Third Law. also. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. it is. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand.1. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). in fact. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. 3. not outward. Remember. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. If you break the string. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. because of inertia. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). in fact. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. the ball is not being pushed outward.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. In this situation. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke.

the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. A coin is placed 18.15 m/s and its mass is 0.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. what force does the string now exert? 4.15 m. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5.000 km and a period of 27.0 m radius and rotates 1. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.0 m rope. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.1. If its speed is 3.1 times per second. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0.0 m.1. 9.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0. 3.5 cm. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3.3. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.80 m long. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.4 Problems 1.0 complete revolution each second. What is the critical speed (i. The yo-yo has a mass of 0.60.30? 7. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.335 kg. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96.0 revolutions per second. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. 28 RRHS Physics . The ball makes exactly 2.42.3 days. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385.20? 6. A 5. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2.00 revolutions in a second. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10.e. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.

For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. the vine is 4. 15. what RRHS Physics 3.1.CHAPTER 3. how much and in what direction? 29 . Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. will a friction force be required? If so. 14.0 m long. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. 18. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. PLANETARY MOTION 13. 19. If the person is standing on the equator. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster.6 km. For the previous question. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. Sketch the situation.0 kg. and explain this sensation. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. including the relevant forces. 17. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. A person has a mass of 75. Assume no change in energy for the system.

2 Universal Gravitation 3.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. given by G in the equation below. however.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth).2. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. speciﬁcally. This type of relationship appears often in physics. Newton. In grade 11. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets.) g= GM m R2 3.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. however. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. we get mg = or GM (3.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . In fact. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. it travels a further distance. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. Assuming a circular orbit. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. To determine this necessary speed. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. but not to understand why they are so.2. If the object is given a higher speed. this is how the mass of the earth was found.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. Fg = 30 3. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. In this way.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object.3. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. we must consider the orbit.2. equating the two expressions. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. gravity is much more common than this. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. it is falling toward the earth. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics .2. PLANETARY MOTION 3. Equation 3.

v= GM r (3. 3.2. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3.4)into equation 3. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. faster than this speed. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. m is the mass of the satellite.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. 3. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit.2.7. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. as given in equation 3.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite.9. PLANETARY MOTION 3. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. Solving this equation for v.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet).CHAPTER 3. 2. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. If the satellite goes slower than this speed.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth.

The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20.99 × 1030 kg). One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. 8.98 × 107 m). Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. Frank is really concerned about his weight.0 N is required to pull a 10. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3. What is g near the surface? 5. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. r = 6. determine the mass of Jupiter.85 × 105 km. A force of 40.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . See Dick and Jane ﬂy. But Frank is lazy. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. 6. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun.2.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is. 7. 10. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. Four 8. 2.90 × 1027 kg. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7.85 × 105 km. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9.6 times that of the earth.50 m.2. 12. All distances are center to center.5 Problems 1.50 × 108 km. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. If the bowling balls are 0.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. PLANETARY MOTION weight. 13.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3.44 × 106 s and it is 1. but has the same mass.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0.50 m apart. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth. Do the previous question again.71×10−8 N .98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1.3. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. 3. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. From this data.

The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered.4 days) to do problem 16.2. orbits the sun like other planets. what would happen to the value of G? 30. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. PLANETARY MOTION 14.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. Its period is 410 days.CHAPTER 3. 33 . Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. A satellite is going around Earth. Why? 28. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. 31. The asteroid Icarus. 27. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. Find the value of this constant. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. 16. 32.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29.3 × 1022 kg. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. Jupiter is 5. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. 1969. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. On July 19. RRHS Physics 3. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. though only a few hundred meters across. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth.

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.3. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .2.

a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object).1. you notice that it will stick to the wall. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. the net change 35 4. During any of the processes described above. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. When a conductor is given a negative charge. giving it a net negative or positive charge. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. According to atomic theory. Likewise. for example. . you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. Metals are generally very good conductors.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. in the amount of charge is zero.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. not the protons. In each case. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. even more important than many people think. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. 4. If you rub a balloon in your hair. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). In a normal state. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. This kind of atom is called an ion. Remember. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled.

If you ground the sphere. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope.1. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another.e.4. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. CHAPTER 4. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. conduction occurs. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). but is just brought near it. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. 4. These semiconductors often have interesting properties.however.1. if it is charged negatively. and they touch. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. giving it excess electrons. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. however. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. i. The RRHS Physics . but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. No charge has been created. it has merely been separated.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. germanium. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. in this way. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds.1. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). For example.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. there are . you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. With induction. An object can also be charged by conduction. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. As soon as they touch. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. The other way of charging an object is called induction. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated.

use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. If the electroscope is neutral.CHAPTER 4. 37 . even when nothing is apparently done to them. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. You can. as shown here. giving it a permanent charge. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. Suppose. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges.1. now negatively charged. particularly on each leaf. If charges become large enough. 4. however. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. In some cases. the two leaves just hang vertically. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. the leaves. even after we remove the charged rod.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . The leaves will then stay spread apart. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. 4. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. The more water molecules in the air.even though they are neutral. more often. Think about how you may do this.1. will repel each other and will spread out. the faster the charge will be carried away. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present.

9. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. what kind of charge does B have? 6. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. and C repels D. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. 5. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. they ﬂy away in different directions. why does the record now attract dust? 4. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres.5 Problems 1. 12.1. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. What charge is on the rod? 8. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. A attracts C. but as soon as they touch the rod.1. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. you remove the two positively charges objects. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. You place two objects with strong positive charges. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. When an electroscope is charged. Finally.4. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . close to but not touching the blocks. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. If you know that D is positively charged. Explain. 3. one at each end of the line of blocks.

Using some test charge q. it is precise for only point charges. E= F q (4. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. since it appeared to behave like magic. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. however.2 4. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. 4.2. then the r in equation 4.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. The search for simple. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. r is the distance between the charges in meters. in fact.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them.it is a concept. To help explain this idea. tying a rope to something. and weak nuclear forces) continues.1 is the distance between the centers. electromagnetic. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force.CHAPTER 4. they think of pushing or pulling an object. When people think of forces. or some other type of contact. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. If the two objects are spheres. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton.2.2.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. 39 . strong nuclear forces.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 .60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. This may require pushing with your hand. FIELDS 4. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. This worried people. without using some test charge. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. which has an equal but opposite charge). Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational.

If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. which interacts with all objects near the earth. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. For example. FIELDS points around the sources.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. we obtain kQ (4. For example.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. If there is more than one source charge. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. These electric ﬁeld lines. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it.1. however. 2.1 into equation 4. Substituting equation 4. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. 4. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . as the test charge is accelerated by the force.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space.4. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. In reality. E= CHAPTER 4.2. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly.2. consider a positive source charge. equation 4.2.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. then equation 4. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. or lines of force.2.

3.145 N on each other. The bottom electron is resting on a table. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. -4. What should you do? 11. and the right -83 µC. You are given two similar spheres. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. 8. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. A second ball.2. What is the force between them? 5. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. mass 1. -2. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle.0 µC. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others.0 N on each other? 4. 4.2.00 × 10−17 C? 2. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron.11 × 10−31 kg.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. located 25 cm above the second ball. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4.CHAPTER 4.2). We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. In other words. is 0. A and B. has a charge of +25 µC. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. Three particles are placed in a line. located 16 cm to the right. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. the typical size of an atom. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. and an electron. mass 9. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. In one model of the hydrogen atom. A positive charge of 3.1 × 106 m/s. Two charges. A third ball. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7.5 Problems 1. what force is exerted? 12. the RRHS Physics .0 µC is 0. has a charge of -20 µC. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . q1 and q2 .5 × 10−10 m.67 × 10−27 kg.050 m to the north and the other.030 m to the east. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. One.

−Qo and −3Qo . Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. A water droplet of radius 0. Take into account gravity and determine E.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26.020 mm remains stationary in the air. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television.30 m apart.0 cm away from a 1. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. 17.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0.0 × 10−6 C test charge.0 cm apart? 23. A proton (m = 1. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.2. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1.0 µC charged particle? 21. Find the force on an electron.2 cm apart.4. (a) two positively charged point sources. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. Two positive charges. the force each exerts on the other is 28.0 µC are 8. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. A negative charge of 2. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations. 19.0 µC charge 40. 24. Two charges. then repeat your work with a 2. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. When placed 1. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. one 33. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).5 N and is repulsive. RRHS Physics . What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. 42 CHAPTER 4. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27.0× 10−6 C charge. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth.0 µC and a +60. are a distance l apart. FIELDS 20. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18.0 µC and the other 68.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain.

We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. If positive work is required to move the charge. therefore. The potential energy here will decrease. 4. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. for example.3. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). Remember that W = ∆E. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. In this case. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. you don’t have to do anything. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another.3. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. The symbol for electric potential is V . so Vab = Wab q (4.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. we say that it is at a high potential. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. For example. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. Just as with gravitational potential energy. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. FIELDS 4. sphere B is said to be neutral. since they are trying to get away from one another. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. Suppose you have two spheres. This will add energy to the system. namely potential energy.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . which is called the volt.3.CHAPTER 4. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. If the two spheres are touched together.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge.

4. if they were not. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. the two spheres will be at the same potential. The change in energy while doing this is 4. A -30. at this point.0 C is raised in potential by 1. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . that is.5 × 10−4 J. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes.0 µC charge. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).3. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3.5 V ? 3. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources.3. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. FIELDS 2. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. as shown below.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential.3. What work is done when 5. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. A force of 0. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5.4 Problems 1. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. 4. CHAPTER 4. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45.5 × 107 V .

5. therefore.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. In short. Contrary to a common belief. little was known about the structure of the atom. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 .1. 1 . electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. In 1800. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. an ampere (A). When people discussed current. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. also referred to as an amp. a battery is several cells connected together. so its electrons are held very loosely. A wire is a conductor. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. this is given a special name. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. at the same time. As was discussed in the previous chapter. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. Remember that in solids.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery.1 Electric Current Q (5. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal).

the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. For practical purposes.1. they lose potential. 3. Temperature: In general. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. we can use it here as well. because of their atomic structure. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. therefore. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. insulators have a very high resistance. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. In the same way. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. it gains or loses energy. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. Resistance is measured in ohms. 2. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. With a battery. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. the greater the ﬂow of water. CHAPTER 5. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. Comparing this to electricity.5. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. This makes sense. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. If one end of the pipe is raised. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). These materials are than said to be superconducting. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. however. In liquids and gases. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). When charges are moved through a resistance. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. In our gravity/water analogy above. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. 46 . positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges.

we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. the current is proportional to the voltage.4 with equation 5.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law.1) so P = IV (5. That is.1. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. Note that equation 5. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. but I = q/t (equation 5. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. light. the resistance must be constant. so it will have a lower resistance. Looking at this equation.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer.5) 5. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section).1. the watt (W ). it is really energy that we pay for.CHAPTER 5. the current is proportional to voltage).2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. 5.5. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. We RRHS Physics .3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words.3) 5. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. 4.1. or mechanical). Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. current can be expressed as V (5. if you double the voltage. thereby increasing the resistance. the current also doubles. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible.

5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. What voltage will produce 12.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. What is the voltage of the battery? 6.0 h.085/kW h). A 1. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. since R = V /I.10 A ﬂows in a wire. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 .6) CHAPTER 5. 14. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. Is Joe correct? Explain.4 Problems 1. The line has a resistance of 1. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt.0 V battery is used.0 cm apart. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0.0 A? 5. but when a 3. What is the current through a 6.1. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. 5 mA can be painful. at 20 mA. Joe argues that. 11. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. above 100 mA can be fatal. When she connects it to a 1.1. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7.5 A for 6.5. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. 5. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. A current of 1. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. If the device obeys Ohm’s law.5 V battery.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3.

0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current.0 A when operated on 120 V . What is the eﬃciency of a 0. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. operated at 120 V . what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0.20 kg of water.CHAPTER 5.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23. RRHS Physics 5. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. (a) 220 V are applied across it. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.000 V rather than 12. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26. 18. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9.2 Ω lines. It is observed that it takes 12.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1.06 per kWh? 19.5 kg of water. by means of a converter.0 minutes. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .0o C to 55.29 kg/m3 .1.4 A from a 120 V line? 27. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .0 s? 25. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω.0o C. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40.11 per kW h. What is its increase in temperature during the 30.) 49 . At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28.08 per kW h. A modern television set draws 2. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30.000 V ? 21.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. At $0. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. How many 100 W light bulbs. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h.

9) RRHS Physics . V2 .2 we know that V1 = IR1 . this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances.2. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. 5. When you add more resistances.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. I1 . Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. If V1 . I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . R2 . Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. Because charge must be conserved. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. since there is only one path. I2 . and V3 = IR3 . and R3 .5. and voltages throughout the circuit.8) (5.2 to analyze the resistances. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. each resistor has its own path.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. applying equation 5. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. R2 . Knowing the equivalent resistance. when we put several resistance in series.2. V2 = IR2 .2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. you increase the total resistance. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. currents. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5.7) 5. By conservation of energy.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. R3 respectively. Of course. then by applying equation 5.

resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. Remember. R3 is in series with R4 . so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance.2. if there is a junction between the resistors. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. This combination is then in series with R1 . R1 and R2 are not in series. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated.2. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. so they can be combined using equation 5. *CIRCUITS 2. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω.10) 5. RRHS Physics 51 . resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. R2 .3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). 3. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). equation 5. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. R3 . Remember. however. In this example. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. Again. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. For example. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . Consider the following example. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). since there is a junction in between the two. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. 5. every time you add a resistance in parallel. but are often some combination of the two. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below.CHAPTER 5. then they are not in series. If any resistors are in parallel. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). Also. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. If any resistors are in series.

This resistance is then taken out of the circuit.2.9. a system of equations can then be found and solved. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb.7. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. for example.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. A third type of safety device is slightly different. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. breaking the circuit. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. This is just an expression of equation 5. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. 2. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. If this strip melts. 2. For example. For example. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism.5. too complicated for this analysis. If too much current ﬂows. 5. To deal with these circuits.2. Some circuits4 are. 1. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. At any junction point. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. however. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. RRHS Physics 5. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero.2. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. Houses are wired in parallel.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. These rules actually apply to all circuits. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ.

Find the current in each branch. 2.6 *Problems 1. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. Find the unknown currents and voltages. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6.CHAPTER 5.50 A. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. Find V. 5. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. 7. 8. 4. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . Find each resistance. 5. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch.2. 3.

ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.I3 .0 V output for a 6. 17.I3 . If each resistor is 10 Ω. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.5. 12.V2 . A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . *CIRCUITS 10. If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. Suppose that you have a 6. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. or 150 W at 120 V .2. 13.0 V . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. 16. Find R3 .0 54 . CHAPTER 5. 100 W . If each resistor is 10 Ω.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. and I4 . Given an unlimited supply of 1. Find It . ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Find the current in each branch.0 V input? 15. 11. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18.I2 .0 Ω. and P1 .

If one resistor is 2. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. (a) If they are connected in parallel. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. *CIRCUITS 22. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. 5. which is brighter? 21. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. what is the resistance of the other? . Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. and I3 in the following circuit. determine the currents I1 .8 kΩ. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. Consider the circuit below. one larger than the other.2.CHAPTER 5. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. RRHS Physics 55 23. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. I2 .

in ferromagnetic materials. RRHS Physics 56 . nickel. On a small scale.3. the result is two magnets. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. however. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable.5. however. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. each with a north and south pole. In a magnetized piece of iron. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. 5. Magnetic poles are not. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. In most materials. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet.3. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. the same as electric charges. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. A compass needle is really a small magnet. 5. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. As a result. If you cut a magnet in two. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. Since these forces do behave similarly. but north and south poles always appear in pairs.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. and cobalt.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. magnetic forces act over distances. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. This will be seen in the next section. for example. since an electric current will always produce both. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. however. the domains are more lined up in one direction.

your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. around 1820. then. it makes sense. 6 5. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop.3. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. This is an electromagnet. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. or a current.3. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’.3. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. By using more than one loop. It was only with a moving charge. In fact. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current.CHAPTER 5. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. In other words. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. To use this hand rule. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld.3. 5. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. To use this hand rule. the second right hand rule can be used. it often7 experiences a force.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. when using left hand rules. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. but this was found to have no eﬀect.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil.

8 8 Remember. There will be no force between b and c. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. To do this. Remember that I = q/t. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. CHAPTER 5. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld.3. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy.3. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b.3. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. use left hand rules. If the moving particle is negative. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. as shown in the side view below. As we learned before. The charges do not. have to be moving through a wire. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction.5.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. to 58 RRHS Physics . so F = qvB sin θ (5. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. Between c and d. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. however. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. This loop of wire will rotate. To use this rule. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). you may also use the left hand rule. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges.5 Electric Motor 5. the force will be out of the page. as shown below. substituting this into equation 5.

Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. Also. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. As the armature turns. (b) Two opposite poles. In order to make the loop continue turning. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator.3. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. As a result. as well as a ferromagnetic core. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. Many loops of wire are usually used. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet.CHAPTER 5.3. but no force acts on the wire.6 Problems 1. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. we want it to turn continuously. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). but just touch one another. as shown below. In reality. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. 5. MAGNETISM other brush. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. if the loop goes past this point.

0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds.0 A and weighs 0. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. (a) CHAPTER 5. identify the poles of the magnets. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. If the force on the wire below is into the page. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 .3. What is the force on the wire? 7. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. MAGNETISM 5. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13.0 × 10−5 T . What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8.5. 11. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. it feels zero force. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. (b) 10. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. A proton having a speed of 5.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5.35 N . A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward.9 × 103 kg/m3 . A straight 2.90 T .

A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. A particle with a charge of 2.10 cm in a 0. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. Calculate the energy of the proton. A force of 5.08 m.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. 23. The radius of its path is 4. If the velocity of the particle is 5. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20. 16.25 T . What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. 21.3.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V .CHAPTER 5.385 T magnetic ﬁeld.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.032 T . 17. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5.4 mm? 24. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6.5 cm.6 × 10−13 N . The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2.02 T.000 V . how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. B=0. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. 61 .25 × 106 m/s. Explain. An electron (m = 9.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. E=1000 N/C.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. which exists between the two parallel plates below.10 T magnetic ﬁeld. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. Calculate the mass of the particle. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9.

The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor).13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. For example. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. and not a force where B. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another.4. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. 5. Such a current is called an induced current. We call this an induced emf. v. when the magnet is removed. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. In other words.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. ∆φ ∆t (5. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 .5. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. opposing the motion of the bar magnet.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). For example.4.

From equation 5. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. The primary coil has the incoming current.CHAPTER 5. Remember. Just like before. But remember.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. In the example shown below. conservation of energy tells 63 . however. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power.13. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. If Ns < Np .15) 5. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. There is. this is called a step-up transformer. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. Notice that if Ns > Np . and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B.4. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. Combining these two equations. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. the two wires are insulated from one another. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. therefore. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. this is a step-down transformer. however. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes.4. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. 5. therefore. This is called perpetual motion.

Similarly. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. the split ring commutator does not have to be used.4. therefore. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. Consider the picture below. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. the force on cd must be out of the page. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. at position 3. RRHS Physics . INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input.16) CHAPTER 5. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. then the current must be lowered. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). we see what happens to the current. out of the page). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire.5. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. this means that if the voltage goes up. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. At position 1. Since P = V I. into the page). which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor.4. at positions 2 and 4. The wire ab is moving out.

When a motor is operating. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current.17) Similarly. If we square an AC electric current graph. we get a sin2 θ graph. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction).5Vmax Imax In North America. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor.4. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0.11 we cannot just average the current over time. giving Pavg = 0. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings.707Vmax (5. Alternating Current As we have seen. the situation is the reverse. The greater the speed of the motor. the greater the back (or counter) emf. Since the current is not constant. as was seen in a previous graph. value.18) Since power is P = V I. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. we take a root mean square average (rms). current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. Instead.CHAPTER 5.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. The more current that is drawn.5Imax To make a DC generator. INDUCTION called a counter torque. As we turn the generator. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. In a generator. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. Back EMF As was previously stated. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. as were used with the DC motor. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. or eﬀective. however.707Imax (5. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire.

ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. with its plane perpendicular to B.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . It is initially in a 0.350 T to zero. What is the average induced emf ? 2. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical.4 s. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V .0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region.4 Problems 1.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. In what direction is the induced current? 3.5 Ω. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. 5.10 s. calculate the emf developed.800 T . It takes 0. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.19) CHAPTER 5. A square coil of sides 5.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. 6. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.4. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.4. Also note that since P = V I. If the wire has a resistance of 0. If the rod is 12. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. What is the induced emf ? 4. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary.0 cm/s. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. A 12. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right.15 Ω. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power. Hence.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0.50 T magnetic ﬁeld.5.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8.5Pmax (5.

75 A.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V .0 A. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. what would the new output voltage be? 16. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. and an output current of 0.4. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. 26. whose peak value is 90 V . is across a 35 Ω resistor. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. If the primary and secondary were reversed.0 A.0 V AC.0 V and the input current is 11. where the line voltage is 240 V . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. Calculate the peak current in a 2. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. Why is this true? 18. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. It is used with a transformer in England. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24.0 V and an output current of 5. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. the coil will swing. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). 19. Why? 21. INDUCTION 17.0 V at the secondary. while those with many turns are made of thin wire.CHAPTER 5. Frequently. (b) the current in the primary.0 A. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9.0 A respectively. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. and (c) the power transformed 13. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . An ac voltage.0 V source and measures 8. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system.

25 A. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5.4. a 700 W hair dryer. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line.5. INDUCTION 28. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

If he was correct. By making careful measurements. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. The photon does not actually slow down.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. however. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. In fact. The difﬁculty here. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. only its frequency is lowered. after the collision. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. such as diﬀraction and interference.4 and 6. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well.1.4). The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. Objects such as electrons. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. 1 RRHS Physics . Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6.1 however. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties.6. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 .5). Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. however. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties. He suggested in 1923 that.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6.1. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6.

De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. which has a shorter wavelength? 17.0 eV electron? 73 .5 Problems 1. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2.CHAPTER 6. 16.40 Hz. 14.0 km/h.1 × 1013 Hz.1.0 × 106 m/s. does its wavelength change? If so.0 eV photon and a 5. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. 12. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. 13. RRHS Physics 9. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. 15. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. Determine the wavelength of a 0. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. QUANTUM THEORY 8. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. What are the wavelengths. in meters. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5.1. λ = 450 nm. 10. 7.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. of a 3. 6. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed.80 nm. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. does it increase or decrease? 11. If energy is radiated by all objects. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3.

going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. As these particles passed through a prism. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. another group of scientists. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. the particles must be moving very fast.6. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . was putting forward a wave model of light. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. As the light gets closer to the water. for example. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. led by Christian Huygens. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves.2. a ball thrown against a wall). As with Newton’s particle model. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). 6. since all waves at this time required a medium. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century.2. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. In a uniform medium. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules.

in 1850. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. we must refer to both theories. The two aspects of light complement one another. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. however. Similarly. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. which appear to be incompatible. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century.2. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. For example. This model was not.2. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. however.CHAPTER 6.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. The two theories. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. the resulting image is slightly blurred. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. and interference where the particle theory fails. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. refraction. however. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. without its problems. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. 6. but to understand light fully. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. It states that to understand any given experiment. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. indicating a spreading out of the light. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. By the middle of the nineteenth century. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. however. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. According to Maxwell’s theory. which contradicts Newton’s theory. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. Also.

negatively charged particles. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. macroscopic world. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. however. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. 6. To locate this. depending on which property of light is being measured. this duality extends to particles as well. This has some major implications. CHAPTER 6.2. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. This would tell you where it is. but a visual picture is again not possible. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. light reveals both wave and particle properties.2. An electron. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. In terms of everyday language and images. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. or even a combination of the two. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. In general. You wouldn’t know where it is going. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. but in the process would move it from that position.2. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. is the set of its properties that we can measure. you would have to feel your way around. In order to locate the ball. We cannot picture what they are. when light passes through space or a medium. When this radiation interacts with the electron.6. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). or as a wave that has a mass. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. you must interact with it. when light interacts with matter. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. like light. 2 76 . When we try to visualize light. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. its behavior imitates that of a wave. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. its behavior is more like that of a particle. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. Applied to a smaller scale. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties.

In summary. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. Thus. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. on the other hand. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. For examRRHS Physics 6. 77 . This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next.2. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. however. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. however. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high.4 and 6. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. but has wave properties. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. but according to equations 6. we must use a small wavelength. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known.CHAPTER 6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple.5. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. and not determinism. it is still a probability and not a certainty. If. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism.

WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .2. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.6.

in industry. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. since they are unique to each atom. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. When energy is transferred to atoms. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. If they were at rest. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors.CHAPTER 6. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. By analyzing these wavelengths. Less dense gases. emit a discrete spectrum. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. heated solids. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. Although a major step forward. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. 6. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). This became known as the Rutherford Model. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). scientists can analyze unknown materials. but a few were bounced almost directly back.1. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. This is known as an absorption spectrum. 6. not interactions between atoms. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6.3. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus.3. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . This is how helium was discovered.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed.1. This is known as an emission spectrum. When viewing these spectra. Around 1911. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. was accepted by scientists by 1900. Using spectroscopy. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight.

Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. A student of Rutherford.3. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus.3. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. blue. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. electrons can jump directly or in steps. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus.6. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. however. as shown in the diagram in section 6. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. The higher the energy level. RRHS Physics . and also predicted an unstable atom. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis.6 eV n2 (6.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. The radius increases with n2 . this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. The Rutherford model could not explain this.1 . As the electrons spiraled inward. When changing energy levels. 2. as it loses energy. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. they are accelerating. Using quantum theory. the atom would not be very stable.3. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. Thus. In 1911. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. Neils Bohr. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms.8) 6. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). 1. If an electron absorbs energy. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient.red. in other words. CHAPTER 6. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths.1). for example.2. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. and violet. as in solids). both are therefore quantized.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6.8). green.

so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. however. determined energy levels of the elements. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave.CHAPTER 6. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). As a result. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. In quantum mechanics. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths.3. however.3. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. Notice in equation 6. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. This was a major problem with the model. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud.8 that when n=1. each independently. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. Bohr did not know how to explain this. the energy is actually at a minimum. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. however. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. If we consider the electron to be a particle. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. since it has a wave nature. Louis de Broglie. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. The electron.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. however. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. 6. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. electron can go from 3 to 1. but is actually much harder to visualize. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. applying his theory of matter waves. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location.

however. At low temperatures. 6. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2.6. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). CHAPTER 6.3. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. spin (ms )). These materials are used.5 Problems 1. magnetic (ml ). Phosphorescence works in a similar way. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them.1. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. 5. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). Explain any discrepancies. 8. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. This is called ﬂuorescence. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. for example. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . In a ﬂuorescent light bulb.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. In a group of these atoms. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. in luminous watch dials.3. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation.3. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4.3. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom.

The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. Z is the atomic number. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. protons and neutrons. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. this force is the same between protons and protons.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom.1. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. This is one of the four forces of nature. called a neutron. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. Z. In 1932. Sometimes. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. for example. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. A. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. however. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. 7. the electric force becomes more important. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. an element is written as A X. and the weak nuclear force. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. and neutrons and neutrons. In the last chapter. 1 . Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. the others being the gravitational force. so as the distance becomes greater. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is.1. This adds energy to the system. the electromagnetic force. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. This force only acts over short distances.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. and A is the mass number.

007276 u mn = 1. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. where E is the energy in J. In general. RRHS Physics . identify the element. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1.1. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. The mass of 2 H is 2. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron.1.3 Problems 1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 .1. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect.0 × 1011 J of energy.66 × 10 kg). 84 7. which is iron.49 MeV. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. 5.014102 u. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. In other words.7. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. the total number of nucleons. We will look at this more in the next two sections. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. Thus. we are actually adding mass. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents.015123 u). What mass was converted? 4. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. For each of the following. u. In a nuclear reaction. To be stable. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. Using equation 7.1) CHAPTER 7. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. A nuclear reaction produces 9. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). and c is the speed of light in m/s. it could just fall apart. It is expressed as a negative number. the number of protons. m is the equivalent mass in kg. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. This implies that by adding energy to the system.

1. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .CHAPTER 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.

there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83.2. and required no external stimulation.2. 2 They are not very energetic.2. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. therefore. As a result. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). This is known as (natural radioactivity). there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. 7. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. These nuclei are very tightly bound. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. If the atomic number gets too large. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. 7. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. 4 He. as will be discussed in the following sections. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. beyond this.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. RRHS Physics . there are not enough neutrons to do this. This is true for all alpha decays. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus.3. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay.7. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. 7. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously.

RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. In 10 years. Other than releasing energy. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. 7.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a random process. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . becomes a neutron. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. A neutrino is also emitted.2. For this reason. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. by emitting a positron. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). 7. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). One of the protons. This photon is known as a gamma ray. Like an atom. which has no charge and no mass. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. when it drops down to a lower energy state. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years.2.2. In some cases. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. they can be very dangerous. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. A positron has the same mass as an electron.CHAPTER 7. This electron disappears into the nucleus. but the opposite charge. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. it emits a photon. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). In beta decay. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. the nucleus does not undergo any change.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. allowing a proton to become a neutron.

A radioactive bismuth isotope. 214 Bi. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. showing the element formed. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2.5 Problems 1.2. After one half-life. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. In another 10 years. Write the complete nuclear equation. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6.9898 u). 84 emits a α particle. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. β − . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. When 23 N e (mass=22.2. so it is closely related to half-life. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. 7.7. A radioactive polonium isotope. 83 emits a β particle. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). Write the complete nuclear equation. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). showing the element formed. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. 8. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. 88 RRHS Physics . The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. One Bequerel is one decay per second.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. or β + emission. CHAPTER 7. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. 210 P o.

often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. the top scientists in Europe and the U. because it resembled cell division. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. but they can also occur in nature. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. To detonate the bomb. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. This ended the war. or gamma rays. 2. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions.S. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. RRHS Physics 7. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. following Fermi’s work.2 are moving too fast.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere.CHAPTER 7. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. however. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. resulting in a sustained chain reaction.3. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. 89 . The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus.2) although there are many other possibilities. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . 7. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements.3. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). protons. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. this is known as radioactive fallout. 7. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction.3% 238 U and only 0. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. resulting in a transmutation. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. electrons.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. neutrons.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938.3. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. the two masses would be brought together quickly.

too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. 92 7. and can be separated to be used as fuel. It has a simpliﬁed design. however. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. helium is extremely tightly bound. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. usually containing cadmium. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. energy will be released. which is very expensive. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. so it can be built where technology is limited. these control the rate of the reaction. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. Because of its design. 235 U . There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg).3. Also present are control rods. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. RRHS Physics 90 . Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos.3. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. For example. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. 5 CHAPTER 7. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). To slow the reaction down.7. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. 3. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. and New Brunswick. which was discussed earlier. Quebec.

the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4.050786 u 1. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. How much energy would this release? 8. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. 3. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. List three medical uses of radioactivity.043925 u 238. 6. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb.016029 u 4. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. At present. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. 2. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. A few years ago.3. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3.9141 u 91. 9.CHAPTER 7.90722 u 235. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion.014102 u 3.016049 u 3.007825 u 2.002603 140. 91 RRHS Physics . Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K).905625 u 135. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7.7 for this reason.2? 5. This is higher than any known material can stand. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems.3.9250 u 87. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. Once this high temperature is achieved. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy.

What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics .3.7. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.0 × 1014 J of energy. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW.

If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. errors in calculation. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis.1 Experimental Data however. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. the ends of the stick may be chipped. was friction considered to be constant. and probably even more. the thickness of the lines may vary. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. In other words. therefore. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. .3 and 2. The instrument may have been damaged at some point.1 mm. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself.4 cm. In writing lab reports. there are errors present.37. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). For example. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above.3*. we might estimate it to be 2. for example. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. The wood may shrink or warp. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. In our meter stick example. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. errors due to rounding oﬀ. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. this 7 is only an estimate.4. It may be smaller or larger. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. Take a meter stick. you will be expected to do an error analysis. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. Some of these may be due to human errors.3 cm and 2.

This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. The smaller this value. It is a good idea. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. A. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. This type of error is generally more serious. In the case of systematic error.2.2. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. The more random error we have in our experiment. As long as these errors are random. or too low.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. The more data points that we have. In this case. the less precise our results are. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. It does not address any possible systematic errors. A. but it will not be very accurate. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. A. RRHS Physics . the smaller the standard deviation should be.1. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. the measurements are always too high. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. In our error analysis.1. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. For this reason. this is not an excuse to be careless. APPENDIX A. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors).A. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). we may end up with a very precise estimate. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment.1 Standard Deviation A. In this case. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. that is. Section A. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. this type of error is present in all experiments.

71 2. we would use t = 2.53 2. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.34 1.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.64 2. and got an average value x of 4.31 3.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.86 1.50 2.57 4.7 4. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.16 3. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.92 1. The relevant values for t are given in the table.36 1.44 1.18 3.31 1.81 1.78 4.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results. 95 RRHS Physics .90 1. When examining the data.45 3.58 A. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.05. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.20 3. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.70±0.48 2.78 1.42 1.APPENDIX A.38 1.7 63.18 5.98 1. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this. and N is the number of measurements.25 2. If we have a theoretical value of 5. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.4.35.60 2.13 1. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.35.29 1.03 2.35 1.80 1. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.23 3.8.35 1.14 2.40 1. Note.1) where xi are the individual measurements. In this case. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.2. if possible. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A. and we took 12 measurements.02 1.36 2.83 1.08 6.20.06 2. we would use t = 2. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.37 1.89 2.2.11 2.77 1.36 1. however. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.94 1. x is the average of all the values.01 2.36 3.17 2.30 9.76 1.35 to 5.84 2. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.92 3.26 3.96 2. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.45. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.

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