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J. Burke 2009-2010

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Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . 4. . . . . . . .3. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2. . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .6 *Problems .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities .1 Electric Current . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 3. . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 4. . . . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .2. . . .1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . 5. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2 Electromagnetism .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . .1. . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electroscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 4. . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . 5. . . . 5. .3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 5. . . . . . . .2. .2. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. .1. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . .2.2 *Circuits . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Charging Objects .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . . 4. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . .

. . . . .5 Problems . 6. . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .2. . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . .1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light .4. . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . 6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . 7. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 6. . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Induction . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . .4. . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . .3. . . . . .2. .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . .3. 5. . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . 7. . . . .3. . . . . . . 6. . .CONTENTS 5.2. .4 Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . 5. 6. . . .

. . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 .1 Experimental Data . . .1. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . A. .2. . . . . . . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111. BLM #1.4 #36.3.2.7.2 4.15 pg 641 #9.2 4.1 6.8. pg 780 #2. pg 529 #30. pg 936-937 #26. pg 526 #1.33. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.9 #2.3 7. pg 886 #3.2 1. pg 501 #31. pg 863 #8.3.10.Textbook Correlations Section 1. pg 661 #5.3 3.6.28 #2. pg 596 #12.2.4. pg 933 #1.3. pg 934 #5.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18. pg 778 #1. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.14.3 5. pg 515 #39.3 #4.2 7.4.8 #4.1 7.27.5.2 6. pg 595 #5.40. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.2 2. pg 608 #3.27 v .1 3. pg 571 #21.37. pg 918-919 #3.6 #3.3 2.4 pg 796 #1-4.1 2.9.6.25. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.3 5.5. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13. pg 489 #27.24.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.1 1. pg 655 #26.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6. pg 862 #6.1 5. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.3.2.6.8.8.9.688-693 694-714.2 5.28.7.4 6.28 pg 495 #30.1 4.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

The symbol d represents these components.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. When writing.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. like a scalar is. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. Last year. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). A vector is not just a single number. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. For example. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. displacement. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. force. In 2D space. velocity. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. In university. it is actually two numbers. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. Consider the diagram below. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. For example. 1 . and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. Likewise. when typing. it does not have a direction. This year. For example. acceleration. dy ).

south. For the examples that follow. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. the other vector b represents the components (bx . To help visualize this.1. In the previous diagram. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . CHAPTER 1. we are actually adding their components. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started.1. Since vectors are not single numbers. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . west). (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). ay ). Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. ay + by ). 2. In this system. In this system. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. east. south would be 270o . in other words.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. If we add these two vectors. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . So a + b will give (ax + bx . assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. by ). This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. Your textbook uses this last convention. north would be 90o . we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. In math. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude.1. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . 1. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . 3. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

To do so.00 h. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. the hiker is lost.0 m/s.1. using a compass.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. why? 19. walks 4 km E. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. and 3 km S. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. A ferryboat.1.85 m/s. Before it can move. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. 3 km E. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. We must assume u < v. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. whose speed in still water is 2. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. 5 kmN. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. 8 km N. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. Find the change in velocity. How fast is the player running? 23. RRHS Physics . wind speed? 18. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. 6 km S. mass. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. At the end of three days. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. 20. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. A hiker leaves camp and. 26. Diane rows a boat at 8. 10 km W. The speed of a boat in still water is v. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. Which of the following is a vector: velocity.

therefore. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. Notice that although the normal. In the diagram below.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. As can be seen in the diagram above. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle.2. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.2. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. First. friction. both of which are vectors. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. FORCE VECTORS 1. Notice that FN = Fg . Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). I will take up as the positive direction. the vertical forces. therefore. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. the force of the man pulling is not. RRHS Physics 1. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force.CHAPTER 1. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components.

we get CHAPTER 1.3.2. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). FORCE VECTORS friction for now). Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. Again. If friction is present. In order to apply Newton’s second law. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1.1. Again notice that FN = Fg . the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane.2. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. In other words. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. Drawing a free body diagram. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . the normal force can then be used in this calculation. Similarly.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. if present. Using trigonometry. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). as in the following diagram. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics .

A bicyclist can coast down a 4.20. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. A rope attached to the 5.CHAPTER 1. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.0o incline and accelerates at 0. A 5.76.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8.2 Problems 1. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. What is the acceleration of this system? 11.0o angle with the horizontal.2.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.0o hill at 6. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7.300 m/s2 . The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.30. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. A 15. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9.30. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.6o hill at a steady speed of 7.0 N . what is the acceleration of the sled? 2. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . (b) Using the same power as in (a). The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv. The tension in the rope is 110. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. It takes 13. A force of 300. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. A car can decelerate at -5. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.0 km/h. The total mass is 80 kg. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o .0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal.0o angle with the horizontal.10.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal. where it is attached to a 4.3 m/s2 . An 18. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. A 25. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. will the slug slide down the hill? If so.0 km/h. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h.0 m/s. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air. A 55. (a) Ignoring friction.0 kg box is released on a 33. RRHS Physics 9 .5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.5 s for him to reach the bottom.2.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20.

The second condition will be discussed in the next section. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. therefore. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . the net force acting on the mass must be zero. there will be a net force in some direction. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. As we said. Remember. but opposite in direction.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. The mass is stationary. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0.3. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. there are three forces acting on the mass.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. Since force is a vector. therefore. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. although the net force is zero in both cases. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. 3 1.3.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. 1. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. it is obviously not accelerating. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero.1. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. therefore. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium.3.

and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium).CHAPTER 1. As can be seen from equation 1. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). Στ = 0 Obviously. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). the board will begin to spin. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. 4 RRHS Physics . when calculating the work. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. 1. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. Before dealing with torques. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. While forces were described using up. as it was when discussing work.4. It can be thought of as a twisting force. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. but one up and one down. When you calculated work. To examine this more. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product.4 The further away from this pivot. left. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. even though the forces are equal and opposite. but for calculating torques. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. You will learn more about these in university. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). we must introduce the notion of a torque. it acts on every particle in the body. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. right.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). this is important. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). τ = F⊥ d (1. This is called a dot product. As we have seen. the greater the torque. It is not in rotational equilibrium. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point.3. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. down. etc. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion..

and you don’t want it to break. The two ropes make an angle of 15. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50.3. When lifting a barbell. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. 8. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting.0 m when a 50. RRHS Physics 4. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. Find the resultant force on the vehicle.0 s. A 20. What is the tension in the rope? 2.3 Problems 1. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. 3. A high wire is 25.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle.0 N . 7. The frame has a wire across the back.3. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. 12 .0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. A sign with a mass of 1653. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. 10. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3.5o with each other. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces.1. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle.0 m long and sags 1. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. 9.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. Find the tension in the boom and the cable.

0 kg person stands at its tip. 19. 14. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. apply to prevent acceleration? 1.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N .0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60.0 kg person is sitting 0.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. In the following diagram. The platform is being held up by two students. direction.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. Betty is pulling with 205 N east.0 m from the same end.0 N. Fred.0 cm wide.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. Find the equilibrant force: 12. Where must a 22.0 kg person is sitting 1. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90. and its center of gravity is located 4. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. If there is a spring on the door 5. EQUILIBRIUM 17. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. A force of 500.CHAPTER 1.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . A 50. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. The 10. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators.3.0 m platform has a mass of 10.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. A 60. The plane has a base of 14. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18.0 kg. one at either end.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane.0 m and a length of 15. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40.0 m. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. determine the magnitude.

3. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .

we see that there is only one .1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion.gravity. The horizontal speed does not change. These are all vector quantities. therefore. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. velocity. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). Ignoring air resistance.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. and acceleration. Since we know our vertical acceleration. since max = ΣFx . there is no horizontal acceleration. 2.1.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. This also makes things somewhat simple. vx is the horizontal speed. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. and t is the time in the air.

and 2. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. until it reaches zero at its highest point. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction.3.1 and 2. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude. however.4. as shown in the diagram below. the time in the air.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle.1. vyi is the initial vertical velocity.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. 2.2. namely using equations 2.4. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. As the ball rises. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball.1. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. t is the time in the air. Again. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. 2. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles.2. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. therefore. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). the ball follows a parabolic path. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. Once this is done. since there are no horizontal forces. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. In this case. For this reason. Remember.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. PROJECTILES used. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). The object does.1 to 2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. instead of horizontally.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . CHAPTER 2. but gravity will act to slow it down. vyi will be zero in equations 2. Notice that equation 2. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground.1.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed.

As soon as the hunter ﬁres. by how much will it miss the target? 3. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ.05 m above the ﬂoor. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. 2-D MOTION 2. YES! It’s a score. The rotten egg landed 4. At the time of the throw. 14. A person is in a moving elevator. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9.0 m/s.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. A baseball is hit at 30.2 m away from the elevator. above.0 m/s. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. A diver running 3.0 m. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s.3 Problems 1.0 m from the basket. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19.0o with the horizontal.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal.1. The building is 13. Should the hunter aim directly at. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8.0 s remaining in a basketball game. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s.5 m high. Trailing by two points. the elevator was 8. 3.2 m above the ground. an outﬁelder runs 4. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. The ball is released at the height of the basket.1.0o . What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. 4. A football is kicked with a speed of 21.0 m/s at an angle of 53.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. how far from the building is the target? 6. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2.0 m high. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. and with only 2. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled.0 s later. Assuming the ball is launched at 51.CHAPTER 2.7 m above the ground. PROJECTILES tree. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. Immediately. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot.0 m away and are 3. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.02 m from the basket.

it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. 19.6 m above the ﬂoor. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal.1 m above the ﬂoor. The basket is 2. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics .0 m and must be accurate to ±0. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air.0 m away? 16. 20.1.0 m below. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate.2. draw all vectors to scale. (a) Draw the situation above. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. At any moment. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. 21. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. PROJECTILES 14. When it reaches the end of the table. 2-D MOTION speeds. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. For each of the following questions. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. Will the following quantities change? If so.22 m (horizontally). At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile.

if you exceed the limits of the spring. which causes the spring to stretch. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). suspension bridges.1a). Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. The units for the spring constant are N/m. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. 2-D MOTION 2. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position).1c)and let it go. This is now its new equilibrium position . Also. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. etc.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. The period (the time for one complete vibration. 2 19 . This is the equilibrium position. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. in this case. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2.CHAPTER 2.at this point.1b)). Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it.2. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. (See Fig 2. depending on its spring constant. this formula no longer holds). Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. which results in a downward acceleration.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. a mattress. the suspension of a car. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. but is dependent on the spring. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. Of course. you will double the distance the spring stretches. If you double the mass hanging on the spring.

this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. therefore. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass.2.2. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). 1 Ep = kx2 (2.2. 2-D MOTION 2. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 .1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). or removed from. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. At equilibrium.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m).9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. Substituting this into Eq 2.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ).7 we get T = 2π l g (2. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. the total energy remains the same.6).2.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. however. the system. work is done on the spring. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. 2. 20 RRHS Physics . since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released.

What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4.30 kg mass is hung from it.200 kg ball. in contact with a spring bumper.10 m to load a 0. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake.2.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12.30 g is caught in a spider’s web.30 m. whose length is 37. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. has a frequency of 0. 13. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. the raft vibrates brieﬂy.325 m. A small cockroach of mass 0. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz.30 kg hangs from it? 5. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0.100 m from this equilibrium point and released. frictionless surface. When an 80. 2.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0.8190 Hz at a particular location. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0. whose other end is ﬁxed. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m.50 kg is placed on a level. A mass of 2. 2-D MOTION 2. When the man steps oﬀ.2 cm. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.0 cm. The spring.10 g were trapped? 8.3 Problems 1.5 N hangs from it. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2.CHAPTER 2.60 kg is hung from it.48 Hz.150 m when a 0. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. is then released. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. What will its frequency be if only 0.2. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. What is the value of m? 6. A geologist’s simple pendulum.10 cm. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 .10 m? 12. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.62 Hz. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.75 J of work done on it? 11.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. it sinks deeper into the water by 5.110 m and released. if it had 3. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. the frequency is 0. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. What is the frequency of vibration? 7. A block of mass 0. A spring stretches 0.4 Hz when a weight of 0.

You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on.11 and 2. pa = pa + pb (2. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions.3. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. In two dimensions. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ).3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. 2. not velocity. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions.12) (2. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. This still applies in two dimensional collisions.12.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. since p = mv. and extend our analysis to two dimensions.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. however.2. We can now RRHS Physics . if you remember from grade 11. Also. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. Since velocity is a vector. 2. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. a vector diagram must be drawn. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2.3. so is momentum. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa .12.

though. Remember. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. For a two body collision. the collision is elastic. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision.14. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. after this collision. some energy is lost. and one of the particles is initially at rest. therefore. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va .3. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy.3. RRHS Physics 23 . Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors.CHAPTER 2. our conservation of energy equation (2. In this type of collision. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. 2. In other words. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. 4 In other words.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. Since the masses are equal. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. therefore. such as thermal energy. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost.

From skid marks. 50. At what angle will the second proton be observed.20 m/s.0 km/h. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West.2×10−23 kg·m/s.0o North of West. initially at rest. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. initially at rest. A billiard ball of mass 0.2. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9.400 kg. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3.60 kg. the investigator determined that car A. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. Immediately after impact. 40. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. As a result of this elastic collision.00 m/s. After the collision (assumed elastic).3 Problems 1.40 kg strikes a second ball. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . Find 24 . A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision.80 m/s. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. and a neutrino. 6. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. A billiard ball is moving North at 3.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. of mass 0. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o .0 km/h.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. of mass mb = 0. A proton travelling with speed 8. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. If they collide and remain stuck together. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle.00 m/s strikes a second ball. Two cars collide at an intersection. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. and the second car had a velocity of 40.0o North of West. the second ball is moving North. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north.3. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. an electron. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8.3.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton.

If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. there is still an acceleration. we can simply use d (3. we see v= 25 3. an acceleration present. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. we get v= 2πr (3. There is. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. So even though the speed is not changing.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. the acceleration must also be inward. Since this is the only force. To calculate the speed of the object. With projectile motion. however. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. however. which is pulling inward.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. 1 . the object will not speed up or slow down. we realize that the speed of the object should not change.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. the object will speed up or slow down. the object moves in a curve. in other words. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3.

and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. in particular. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.1. Centripetal force is not. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . 1. then equation 3. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. 3. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. ac = v2 3. always inward toward the center of the circle.1: This is not a free body diagram. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. This is a common misconception of students.2 and 3.1. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram.6) Figure 3. when solving centripetal force problems. horizontal surface.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. Looking at equation 3. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless.3.5 becomes Fc = mac (3. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle.1 below). Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .4) r This centripetal acceleration is. 2. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one.3) T Combining equations 3.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. In fact.2. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string.3. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. however. it just shows the direction of the three quantities. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. by deﬁnition. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion.

When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. because of inertia. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. Remember. Pretend you are the ball in our example. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T .3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. not outward. In this situation. If there were.1. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. 3. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward.CHAPTER 3. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. it is. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). the ball is not being pushed outward.1. in fact. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. because of Newton’s Third Law. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. in fact. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. being pulled inward by the string. If you break the string. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . also. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path).

00 revolutions in a second.3. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0.1 times per second. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5.000 km and a period of 27.0 m radius and rotates 1. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. 9. 3.3 days.335 kg. A 5.1.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. If its speed is 3.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1. What is the critical speed (i. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0.0 revolutions per second. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. The ball makes exactly 2. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. Assume a radius of curvature of 8. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.0 complete revolution each second. 28 RRHS Physics . Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth.20? 6. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.4 Problems 1. what force does the string now exert? 4. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385.30? 7.1.80 m long. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.15 m. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. A coin is placed 18. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.0 m rope. A gravitron circus ride has a 2.e. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.15 m/s and its mass is 0.0 m.20 kg and is attached to a string 0.5 cm.42. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96.60.

A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. PLANETARY MOTION 13. 14. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. Sketch the situation. For the previous question.6 km. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. including the relevant forces. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required.0 kg. 15. 17. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. how much and in what direction? 29 . and explain this sensation.1. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . what RRHS Physics 3. will a friction force be required? If so. A person has a mass of 75. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point.CHAPTER 3. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. the vine is 4. 18. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km.0 m long. Assume no change in energy for the system. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. 19. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. If the person is standing on the equator.

It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. gravity is much more common than this. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. If the object is given a higher speed. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. This type of relationship appears often in physics. In fact. Equation 3. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. To determine this necessary speed. In grade 11.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. this is how the mass of the earth was found. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. we get mg = or GM (3. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. it is falling toward the earth. it travels a further distance. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. Fg = 30 3. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. we must consider the orbit. however.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. PLANETARY MOTION 3. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results.2.2. given by G in the equation below. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . speciﬁcally. In this way.3. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. Newton. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R.2. however.) g= GM m R2 3.2 Universal Gravitation 3. Assuming a circular orbit. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. but not to understand why they are so.2. equating the two expressions.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity.

its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). 2. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun.9. PLANETARY MOTION 3. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation.2. as given in equation 3. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. 3. 3.CHAPTER 3.4)into equation 3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1.2. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus.7. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. m is the mass of the satellite.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet).9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). Solving this equation for v. faster than this speed. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. v= GM r (3.

9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. From this data. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. 10.71×10−8 N . what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. but has the same mass. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. 3.90 × 1027 kg. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. 7.5 Problems 1. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. determine the mass of Jupiter. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter.50 m apart. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth. If the bowling balls are 0. 8.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. See Dick and Jane ﬂy.2.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. PLANETARY MOTION weight. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. Do the previous question again. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000.6 times that of the earth. 2. A force of 40. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. But Frank is lazy.3. 12.85 × 105 km. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3.99 × 1030 kg).44 × 106 s and it is 1.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is. What is g near the surface? 5. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. Four 8. Frank is really concerned about his weight. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics .) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3.0 N is required to pull a 10.2.98 × 107 m).50 m. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. 13. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. r = 6. All distances are center to center. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1.85 × 105 km.50 × 108 km. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. 6.

what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. A satellite is going around Earth. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24.CHAPTER 3. Jupiter is 5. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. PLANETARY MOTION 14. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit.3 × 1022 kg. though only a few hundred meters across. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. what would happen to the value of G? 30. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). Why? 28. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. RRHS Physics 3. 27. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. 16. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words.2.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. 32. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. orbits the sun like other planets. The asteroid Icarus. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. Find the value of this constant. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. 31. What is its average distance from the sun? 26.4 days) to do problem 16. 1969. On July 19. Its period is 410 days. 33 . How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2.3. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .

a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. in the amount of charge is zero. the net change 35 4. If you rub a balloon in your hair.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. When a conductor is given a negative charge. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. 4. you notice that it will stick to the wall.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). In each case. not the protons. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. Remember. for example. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. Metals are generally very good conductors.1. giving it a net negative or positive charge.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. . During any of the processes described above. In a normal state. This kind of atom is called an ion. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. According to atomic theory. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. even more important than many people think. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. Likewise. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another).

When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. The RRHS Physics . the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. The other way of charging an object is called induction. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). 4. and they touch. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. in this way.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon.1. there are . Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. For example. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. As soon as they touch. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper.however.4.1. however. giving it excess electrons. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. conduction occurs. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler.e. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible.1. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. if it is charged negatively. An object can also be charged by conduction. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. but is just brought near it. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. No charge has been created. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. With induction. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. germanium. If you ground the sphere. it has merely been separated. i. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod.

You can.1. giving it a permanent charge. 4. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air.CHAPTER 4.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. The more water molecules in the air. however.1. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. Suppose. the faster the charge will be carried away. In some cases. Think about how you may do this. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . If the electroscope is neutral. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. 37 . use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. The leaves will then stay spread apart. as shown here. particularly on each leaf. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. the two leaves just hang vertically. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. even after we remove the charged rod. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. If charges become large enough. 4. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. more often.even though they are neutral. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. even when nothing is apparently done to them. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. will repel each other and will spread out. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. now negatively charged. the leaves.

If you know that D is positively charged. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. you remove the two positively charges objects. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. What charge is on the rod? 8. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. what kind of charge does B have? 6. 9.5 Problems 1. 3. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. A attracts C. why does the record now attract dust? 4. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. 5. and C repels D. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. one at each end of the line of blocks. Explain. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. You place two objects with strong positive charges. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop.4. Finally. but as soon as they touch the rod. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod.1. close to but not touching the blocks. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. they ﬂy away in different directions. When an electroscope is charged. 12. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge.1.

it is precise for only point charges. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong.2. however. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge.1 is the distance between the centers.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. Using some test charge q. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. and weak nuclear forces) continues. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. then the r in equation 4.it is a concept.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs.2 4. 39 . To help explain this idea. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. tying a rope to something. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. they think of pushing or pulling an object. or some other type of contact. strong nuclear forces. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. in fact. This worried people. electromagnetic. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1.2.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. If the two objects are spheres. E= F q (4. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld.2. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. since it appeared to behave like magic.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. This may require pushing with your hand. FIELDS 4. which has an equal but opposite charge). 4. r is the distance between the charges in meters. without using some test charge. When people think of forces. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. The search for simple.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction.CHAPTER 4.

these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. FIELDS points around the sources.1. 4. the force on the test charge will be away from the source.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. consider a positive source charge.1 into equation 4. Substituting equation 4. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. E= CHAPTER 4. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge.4. If there is more than one source charge. then equation 4. The closer together the ﬁeld lines.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. we obtain kQ (4. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1.2. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. equation 4. however. which interacts with all objects near the earth. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. 2.2. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. For example. or lines of force. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics .2. In reality. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. These electric ﬁeld lines. For example.2. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r.

What should you do? 11. mass 1. has a charge of -20 µC. is 0. 4. The hydrogen atom contains a proton.145 N on each other. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others.0 N on each other? 4. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. The bottom electron is resting on a table.2). the RRHS Physics .5 Problems 1.0 µC is 0. 3.CHAPTER 4. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. Two charges. What is the force between them? 5. and an electron. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. A and B. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. One. -2. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4.5 × 10−10 m. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. A second ball. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. Three particles are placed in a line. has a charge of +25 µC. located 16 cm to the right. located 25 cm above the second ball. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. In one model of the hydrogen atom. and the right -83 µC. mass 9. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4.030 m to the east. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. A positive charge of 3.00 × 10−17 C? 2.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. the typical size of an atom. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g.050 m to the north and the other.67 × 10−27 kg.2. -4.2.11 × 10−31 kg. q1 and q2 . How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13.1 × 106 m/s.0 µC. A third ball. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. what force is exerted? 12. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. 8. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. In other words. You are given two similar spheres.

2. −Qo and −3Qo .0 cm apart? 23. Two charges. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. A water droplet of radius 0.0 µC charge 40. the force each exerts on the other is 28. then repeat your work with a 2. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). 19. When placed 1.0 µC and a +60. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22.020 mm remains stationary in the air. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. Two positive charges. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15.30 m apart. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. are a distance l apart. Take into account gravity and determine E.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0.0 µC are 8. A negative charge of 2. one 33. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons.5 N and is repulsive.0 cm away from a 1. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. 24.4.0 µC and the other 68. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. 17. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. FIELDS 20.0 × 10−6 C test charge. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. RRHS Physics . one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations. 42 CHAPTER 4. A proton (m = 1. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources.0 µC charged particle? 21. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. Find the force on an electron. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. (a) two positively charged point sources.2 cm apart. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain.0× 10−6 C charge. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth.

which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. which is called the volt. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. so Vab = Wab q (4. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B).1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). This will add energy to the system.3. FIELDS 4. namely potential energy. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . because of the force of attraction between the two charges. 4. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. Suppose you have two spheres. therefore.CHAPTER 4. sphere B is said to be neutral. If positive work is required to move the charge. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. The potential energy here will decrease. for example. since they are trying to get away from one another. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4.3. Just as with gravitational potential energy. In this case. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. Remember that W = ∆E. we say that it is at a high potential. The symbol for electric potential is V .3. For example.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. If the two spheres are touched together. you don’t have to do anything. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence.

5 × 10−4 J. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources.5 × 107 V . if they were not. FIELDS 2. the two spheres will be at the same potential.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld.3. A -30. A force of 0.3.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45.4. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5. The change in energy while doing this is 4.0 µC charge. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. that is.3. at this point. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3.5 V ? 3. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. as shown below. CHAPTER 4. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7.4 Problems 1. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. What work is done when 5.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point.0 C is raised in potential by 1. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. 4. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge.

electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. Remember that in solids. As was discussed in the previous chapter. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. In short. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. Contrary to a common belief.1. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. therefore. 1 . so its electrons are held very loosely.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. an ampere (A). This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. In 1800. a battery is several cells connected together. this is given a special name. at the same time.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). little was known about the structure of the atom. also referred to as an amp. A wire is a conductor. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. 5. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. When people discussed current. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire.1 Electric Current Q (5. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago.

the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero.1. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). the greater the ﬂow of water. Comparing this to electricity. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. 2. therefore. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). Resistance is measured in ohms. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. we can use it here as well. because of their atomic structure. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. CHAPTER 5. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. These materials are than said to be superconducting. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. If one end of the pipe is raised. This makes sense. it gains or loses energy. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). they lose potential. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire).5. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. however. In our gravity/water analogy above. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. Temperature: In general. In the same way. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. insulators have a very high resistance. 3. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. In liquids and gases. 46 . positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. For practical purposes. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. With a battery. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. When charges are moved through a resistance.

The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. it is really energy that we pay for. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. the watt (W ).2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. 5. 4.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law.5) 5. Consider a wire that is carrying a current.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. That is.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. light. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. the current is proportional to the voltage.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time.3) 5. the current also doubles. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire.1. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible.5. so it will have a lower resistance. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations.4 with equation 5. current can be expressed as V (5. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. but I = q/t (equation 5. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. Note that equation 5. if you double the voltage. Looking at this equation.1) so P = IV (5. or mechanical). the resistance must be constant. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. We RRHS Physics . A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. the current is proportional to voltage).1. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power.CHAPTER 5. thereby increasing the resistance. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage.1. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true.

5 mA can be painful. The line has a resistance of 1. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. Joe argues that. since R = V /I. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. 11. A current of 1.085/kW h).5. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A.0 cm apart. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . but when a 3. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. above 100 mA can be fatal. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin.0 V battery is used. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0.1.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4.5 A for 6. Is Joe correct? Explain. at 20 mA. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours.1. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ).10 A ﬂows in a wire. When she connects it to a 1. What is the current through a 6.0 h. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. 5. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase.0 A? 5.4 Problems 1. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4.6) CHAPTER 5. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10.5 V battery. What voltage will produce 12. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. 14. A 1.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3.

operated at 120 V . A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour.20 kg of water.0 s? 25.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21.0 minutes.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40.1.4 A from a 120 V line? 27. RRHS Physics 5. What is the eﬃciency of a 0.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23.0 A when operated on 120 V . At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. A modern television set draws 2.000 V ? 21. 18. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.06 per kWh? 19. What is its increase in temperature during the 30. (a) 220 V are applied across it.11 per kW h.000 V rather than 12. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.2 Ω lines. by means of a converter.0o C.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5.5 kg of water.) 49 . Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V . what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4.0o C to 55.08 per kW h. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω.CHAPTER 5.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. At $0. How many 100 W light bulbs. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. It is observed that it takes 12. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .29 kg/m3 . ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.

V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . since there is only one path. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. V2 . When you add more resistances. R2 . applying equation 5. Knowing the equivalent resistance.5. R2 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. currents. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. R3 respectively. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5.2 to analyze the resistances. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. 5.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. and voltages throughout the circuit. and V3 = IR3 . I2 . In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. each resistor has its own path. and R3 .7) 5. you increase the total resistance.2.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. when we put several resistance in series. By conservation of energy.2.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors.9) RRHS Physics . we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery.8) (5.2. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. V2 = IR2 . then by applying equation 5. Because charge must be conserved. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . Of course. If V1 . I1 . the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits.

3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows.10) 5. Also. R1 and R2 are not in series. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below.2. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). Consider the following example. If any resistors are in series. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). R2 . In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. If any resistors are in parallel. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). R3 is in series with R4 . so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. In this example. Again. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. Remember. every time you add a resistance in parallel. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. however. 5.CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . since there is a junction in between the two.2. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. RRHS Physics 51 . resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. but are often some combination of the two. equation 5. *CIRCUITS 2. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. R3 .10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. For example. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. if there is a junction between the resistors. This combination is then in series with R1 .10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below).3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. Remember. so they can be combined using equation 5. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. 3. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). then they are not in series.

it is designed to detect small changes in the current. for example. These rules actually apply to all circuits. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb.2. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. This is just an expression of equation 5. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows.5. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. a system of equations can then be found and solved. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. For example. For example. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing.7. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. If this strip melts. Houses are wired in parallel. too complicated for this analysis. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre.9. RRHS Physics 5. If too much current ﬂows. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. Some circuits4 are. however. 1. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. At any junction point. To deal with these circuits. 5. breaking the circuit. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced.2. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. 2. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. 2. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. A third type of safety device is slightly different. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates.2. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens.

5. 4.6 *Problems 1. Find the unknown currents and voltages. 3. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. What is the resistance in each case? 53 .50 A. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. 8. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. 2.2.CHAPTER 5. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. Find the current in each branch. Find V. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find each resistance. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.2. 7. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch.

Find the current in each branch.0 Ω.I3 . Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. and I4 . Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor.I3 . 100 W . how could you connect them so as to produce a 1. CHAPTER 5. Given an unlimited supply of 1. 12. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors.2.0 V input? 15.I2 . and P1 . If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . or 150 W at 120 V .0 V . Suppose that you have a 6. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.V2 . Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. *CIRCUITS 10.0 V output for a 6. Find It .5. 17. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. 16. If each resistor is 10 Ω. If each resistor is 10 Ω. 11. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. Find R3 .0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. 13.0 54 .

(a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled.8 kΩ. RRHS Physics 55 23. 5. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). I2 . one larger than the other. determine the currents I1 . Consider the circuit below. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. what is the resistance of the other? .CHAPTER 5. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. (a) If they are connected in parallel. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. and I3 in the following circuit. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. *CIRCUITS 22. If one resistor is 2. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. which is brighter? 21. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed.

Magnetic poles are not. Since these forces do behave similarly. the same as electric charges. and cobalt. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. RRHS Physics 56 . A compass needle is really a small magnet.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot.3.3. for example. in ferromagnetic materials. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. magnetic forces act over distances. 5.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. In a magnetized piece of iron. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. nickel. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. since an electric current will always produce both. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. In most materials. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. This will be seen in the next section. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. As a result. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. each with a north and south pole. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. however. If you cut a magnet in two. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions.5. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. however. the result is two magnets. 5. On a small scale. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. however. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. the domains are more lined up in one direction. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely.

the ﬁeld will be stronger here. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge.3. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. the second right hand rule can be used. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. it often7 experiences a force. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. In fact. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire.3.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. To use this hand rule. It was only with a moving charge. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. By using more than one loop. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. when using left hand rules.3. To use this hand rule. then. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle.CHAPTER 5.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. 6 5. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. it makes sense. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). In other words. or a current. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. This is an electromagnet. 5.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. around 1820. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 .3. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. but this was found to have no eﬀect. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams.

3. The charges do not. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire.8 8 Remember.3. This loop of wire will rotate.5. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. 5. There will be no force between b and c. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. however. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. If the moving particle is negative.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. as shown below. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. To use this rule. use left hand rules. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion.5 Electric Motor 5. to 58 RRHS Physics . The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. you may also use the left hand rule. CHAPTER 5. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. As we learned before. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb).11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. have to be moving through a wire. Remember that I = q/t. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. so F = qvB sin θ (5. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. Between c and d. as shown in the side view below. the force will be out of the page.3. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. substituting this into equation 5. To do this. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld.

if the loop goes past this point. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4.6 Problems 1. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. but just touch one another.3. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature.CHAPTER 5. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. As the armature turns.3. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. Many loops of wire are usually used. we want it to turn continuously. Also. MAGNETISM other brush. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. 5. In order to make the loop continue turning. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. as shown below. As a result. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). (b) Two opposite poles. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. In reality. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. but no force acts on the wire. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . as well as a ferromagnetic core. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position.

Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward.5. (a) CHAPTER 5. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 .0 × 10−5 T .0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8.90 T . Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . 11. If the force on the wire below is into the page. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14.3. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. it feels zero force. MAGNETISM 5. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld.9 × 103 kg/m3 . (b) 10. What is the force on the wire? 7. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire.0 A and weighs 0.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. A straight 2.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6.35 N . What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. A proton having a speed of 5. identify the poles of the magnets. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0.

6 × 10−13 N .08 m. 61 . B=0. An electron (m = 9.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. 23. which exists between the two parallel plates below.02 T. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. Explain.10 T magnetic ﬁeld. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6.385 T magnetic ﬁeld. 16. A force of 5. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron.25 × 106 m/s. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. E=1000 N/C. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. If the velocity of the particle is 5. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. 17.10 cm in a 0. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. 21.000 V .5 cm. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. what must be the speed of the ion? 26.032 T . Calculate the mass of the particle.3. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V .1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.4 mm? 24.CHAPTER 5.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. Calculate the energy of the proton.25 T . A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. A particle with a charge of 2.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. The radius of its path is 4.

whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. when the magnet is removed. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. We call this an induced emf. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). Such a current is called an induced current. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil.5. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. Magnetic ﬂux (φ.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . For example. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. In other words. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). ∆φ ∆t (5. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. v. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. For example. 5.4.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction.4. and not a force where B.

this is called a step-up transformer. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. the two wires are insulated from one another. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. Remember.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. therefore. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. In the example shown below. conservation of energy tells 63 . From equation 5. however. This is called perpetual motion. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). The primary coil has the incoming current. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil.4. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. But remember.4. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. therefore. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. however. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. 5. There is. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor.13. Combining these two equations. this is a step-down transformer. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil.15) 5.CHAPTER 5. Notice that if Ns > Np . Just like before. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. If Ns < Np . the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster.

At position 1. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. into the page). with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse.4. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page.4. Since P = V I. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. the force on cd must be out of the page. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below.5. this means that if the voltage goes up. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. we see what happens to the current. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. therefore. Consider the picture below. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. at position 3. The wire ab is moving out. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. RRHS Physics . so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. then the current must be lowered.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Similarly. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn.16) CHAPTER 5. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. out of the page). so the current must ﬂow from c to d. at positions 2 and 4. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost).

value. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). The more current that is drawn.18) Since power is P = V I.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. INDUCTION called a counter torque. The greater the speed of the motor. the greater the back (or counter) emf. Back EMF As was previously stated. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average.5Imax To make a DC generator. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. as were used with the DC motor.5Vmax Imax In North America. Since the current is not constant. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. giving Pavg = 0. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. the situation is the reverse. If we square an AC electric current graph. we take a root mean square average (rms). and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. we get a sin2 θ graph. As we turn the generator. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. Instead. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. When a motor is operating. however. In a generator.17) Similarly. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz.CHAPTER 5. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. as was seen in a previous graph.11 we cannot just average the current over time. or eﬀective. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.4. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. Alternating Current As we have seen. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current.707Vmax (5.707Imax (5. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion.

0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. If the rod is 12.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. Hence. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15. What is the average induced emf ? 2.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. In what direction is the induced current? 3.4 Problems 1. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8. 6.4.5. It is initially in a 0.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.350 T to zero. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. It takes 0. A 12. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right.10 s.800 T .19) CHAPTER 5.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical.5 Ω. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.0 cm/s. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0. If the wire has a resistance of 0. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8.5Pmax (5. What is the induced emf ? 4. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. 5. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. Also note that since P = V I. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. calculate the emf developed. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . with its plane perpendicular to B. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed.15 Ω. A square coil of sides 5.4 s. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V .4.

how many turns are on the primary side? 15.75 A.0 V AC. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. Why? 21.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. Calculate the peak current in a 2. what would the new output voltage be? 16. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. is across a 35 Ω resistor.0 V and the input current is 11. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23.0 A respectively. 19. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain.0 V source and measures 8. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. and an output current of 0. (b) the current in the primary. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A.0 A. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. and (c) the power transformed 13. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. Why is this true? 18. INDUCTION 17. whose peak value is 90 V . 26. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. It is used with a transformer in England. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3.4. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25.0 A. Frequently.0 V and an output current of 5. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. Scott connects a transformer to a 24.0 V at the secondary. An ac voltage. the coil will swing. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC).CHAPTER 5. If the primary and secondary were reversed. where the line voltage is 240 V . (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire.0 A. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3.

At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. INDUCTION 28. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29.5. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. a 700 W hair dryer. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31.4. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line.25 A. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics .

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. Objects such as electrons. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. such as diﬀraction and interference.4 and 6. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision.1. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small.4). however. By making careful measurements.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. however.5). only its frequency is lowered. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. The photon does not actually slow down. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves.1 however. If he was correct. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. In fact. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. The difﬁculty here.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. 1 RRHS Physics .5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. after the collision.1. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6.6. He suggested in 1923 that. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal.

35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. 10. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. Determine the wavelength of a 0. in meters. If energy is radiated by all objects. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light.80 nm.1 × 1013 Hz. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. 6. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. What are the wavelengths. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2.40 Hz.1. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V .1. does it increase or decrease? 11. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. 16. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4.CHAPTER 6.0 eV photon and a 5. RRHS Physics 9.0 eV electron? 73 .0 × 106 m/s. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. of a 3.0 km/h. λ = 450 nm. QUANTUM THEORY 8. 13. 12. 7. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. 14. 15. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. does its wavelength change? If so.5 Problems 1.

for example. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. was putting forward a wave model of light. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course.2. the particles must be moving very fast. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. In a uniform medium. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. As these particles passed through a prism.2. since all waves at this time required a medium. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.6. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. another group of scientists. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. led by Christian Huygens. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. As with Newton’s particle model.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. As the light gets closer to the water. 6. a ball thrown against a wall).

Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. in 1850. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. which appear to be incompatible. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. Also. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). 6. however. This model was not. According to Maxwell’s theory. refraction.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. indicating a spreading out of the light. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century.2. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. however. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century.CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. By the middle of the nineteenth century. and interference where the particle theory fails. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. but to understand light fully. Similarly. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. we must refer to both theories. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. The two theories. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. For example. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. The two aspects of light complement one another. however. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. however. which contradicts Newton’s theory.2. the resulting image is slightly blurred. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. It states that to understand any given experiment. without its problems. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons.

or as a wave that has a mass. depending on which property of light is being measured. In general. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. its behavior is more like that of a particle. you must interact with it. like light. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. when light interacts with matter.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball.2. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. light reveals both wave and particle properties. or even a combination of the two. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). This has some major implications. but a visual picture is again not possible. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world.6. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). CHAPTER 6. 2 76 . In order to locate the ball. An electron. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. Applied to a smaller scale.2.2. When we try to visualize light. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. To locate this. this duality extends to particles as well. its behavior imitates that of a wave. macroscopic world. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. you would have to feel your way around. is the set of its properties that we can measure. In terms of everyday language and images. This would tell you where it is. We cannot picture what they are. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. however. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. but in the process would move it from that position.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. 6. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. when light passes through space or a medium. negatively charged particles. When this radiation interacts with the electron. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. You wouldn’t know where it is going. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms.

2. we must use a small wavelength. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. and not determinism. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. but has wave properties. In summary. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction.4 and 6. If. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. on the other hand. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. however. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron.CHAPTER 6. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.5. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. but according to equations 6. 77 . we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. it is still a probability and not a certainty. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. however. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. For examRRHS Physics 6. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. Thus. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object.

6.2. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .

When viewing these spectra. not interactions between atoms. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors.1. This is how helium was discovered. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. scientists can analyze unknown materials. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). heated solids. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. When energy is transferred to atoms. This is known as an absorption spectrum. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. Less dense gases. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. since they are unique to each atom. This became known as the Rutherford Model. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. By analyzing these wavelengths. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. 6. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). was accepted by scientists by 1900. in industry. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas.CHAPTER 6. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. 6. Using spectroscopy. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight.3. but a few were bounced almost directly back. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. Around 1911. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it.3. This is known as an emission spectrum. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. emit a discrete spectrum. If they were at rest. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight.1. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. Although a major step forward.

The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. both are therefore quantized. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. Using quantum theory. Neils Bohr. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6.6. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. green. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. as in solids).6 eV n2 (6. as it loses energy. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. in other words. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. When changing energy levels. The higher the energy level. 1. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels).3. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. they are accelerating. As the electrons spiraled inward. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. CHAPTER 6. the atom would not be very stable. Thus. and also predicted an unstable atom. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. however. for example. The radius increases with n2 .red. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. RRHS Physics .8) 6. 2. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra.8).2.1 . The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. In 1911. electrons can jump directly or in steps. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient.3. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. and violet.1). Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. The Rutherford model could not explain this.3. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. A student of Rutherford. as shown in the diagram in section 6. blue. If an electron absorbs energy.

an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. but is actually much harder to visualize. In quantum mechanics. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. 6. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. Bohr did not know how to explain this. however. Louis de Broglie. As a result. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. since it has a wave nature. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. applying his theory of matter waves. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. each independently. determined energy levels of the elements. Notice in equation 6. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable.8 that when n=1. If we consider the electron to be a particle. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. This was a major problem with the model. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom.CHAPTER 6.3. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. however. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. The electron. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. however. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero).3. the energy is actually at a minimum. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . electron can go from 3 to 1. however. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1.

these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). At low temperatures. 5. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). CHAPTER 6.3. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. spin (ms )). we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. This is called ﬂuorescence. for example. magnetic (ml ).3. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms.1. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. 6. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation.6.3. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them.3. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. in luminous watch dials. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. These materials are used. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. 8. however. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. Explain any discrepancies. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. In a group of these atoms.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom.5 Problems 1. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds.

The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. so as the distance becomes greater. however. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. the others being the gravitational force. protons and neutrons.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. an element is written as A X. In 1932. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. called a neutron. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. This adds energy to the system. In the last chapter. Z. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). 1 . They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus.1. This is one of the four forces of nature. the electromagnetic force. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon.1. and the weak nuclear force. 7. A. the electric force becomes more important.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. Z is the atomic number. This force only acts over short distances.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. Sometimes. for example. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. this force is the same between protons and protons. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. and A is the mass number.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. and neutrons and neutrons.

007276 u mn = 1. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1.66 × 10 kg). One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. To be stable. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. The mass of 2 H is 2. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. In a nuclear reaction. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. we are actually adding mass.1. the number of protons. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei.1) CHAPTER 7. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. Using equation 7. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. and c is the speed of light in m/s.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. which is iron. m is the equivalent mass in kg.014102 u.49 MeV. A nuclear reaction produces 9. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. In general. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. What mass was converted? 4. u. Thus. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect.3 Problems 1. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. identify the element. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. 5. where E is the energy in J. In other words. it could just fall apart. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy.0 × 1011 J of energy. We will look at this more in the next two sections. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. the total number of nucleons. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. RRHS Physics .015123 u). This implies that by adding energy to the system. 84 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A.1. It is expressed as a negative number. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. For each of the following. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction.1. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents.7.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.1. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .CHAPTER 7.

Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. This is known as (natural radioactivity). there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger.2. and required no external stimulation. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. beyond this. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. there are not enough neutrons to do this. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. therefore. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. 7.2. These nuclei are very tightly bound. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation.3. 7. If the atomic number gets too large. 4 He.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. as will be discussed in the following sections. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. This is true for all alpha decays. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. 2 They are not very energetic. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. As a result.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896.7. RRHS Physics .2. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. 7. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section.

2. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected.2. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). A positron has the same mass as an electron. but the opposite charge. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). This electron disappears into the nucleus. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. In some cases. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. becomes a neutron. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. This is a random process.CHAPTER 7. the nucleus does not undergo any change. Like an atom. allowing a proton to become a neutron. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. 7. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. when it drops down to a lower energy state. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . by emitting a positron. which has no charge and no mass. A neutrino is also emitted. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). It is called the antiparticle to the electron. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. In 10 years.2. they can be very dangerous. 7. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. This photon is known as a gamma ray. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. For this reason. One of the protons. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. Other than releasing energy.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. In beta decay. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. it emits a photon.

β − . Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. A radioactive bismuth isotope. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). 84 emits a α particle. 88 RRHS Physics . 83 emits a β particle. In another 10 years. showing the element formed. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. After one half-life.2. CHAPTER 7.9898 u). One Bequerel is one decay per second. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. or β + emission. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. 8. Write the complete nuclear equation. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. When 23 N e (mass=22. Write the complete nuclear equation. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2.7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. A radioactive polonium isotope.5 Problems 1. 214 Bi. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half.2. showing the element formed. 210 P o. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). so it is closely related to half-life. 7. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4.

2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. 7.3. neutrons. To detonate the bomb.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. 2. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released.2 are moving too fast. resulting in a transmutation.3% 238 U and only 0. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. 89 .2) although there are many other possibilities. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. electrons. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. the top scientists in Europe and the U. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr).CHAPTER 7. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. following Fermi’s work. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. RRHS Physics 7. but they can also occur in nature. this is known as radioactive fallout. or gamma rays. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. This ended the war. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). protons. because it resembled cell division. the two masses would be brought together quickly. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing.3.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938.S. however. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II.3. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. 7. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C).

92 7. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. which is very expensive. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. 5 CHAPTER 7. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. 235 U . this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. To slow the reaction down. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. Also present are control rods. helium is extremely tightly bound. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb.3. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). these control the rate of the reaction. and New Brunswick. It has a simpliﬁed design. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. so it can be built where technology is limited. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . Because of its design. which was discussed earlier. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons.3. For example. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. and can be separated to be used as fuel. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. 3. RRHS Physics 90 . This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. Quebec.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. usually containing cadmium. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL).7. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. however. energy will be released. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. particularly since they usually have large half-lives.

9141 u 91. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). How much energy would this release? 8. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. 91 RRHS Physics . How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion.014102 u 3. 9. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3.7 for this reason. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4.90722 u 235. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7.2? 5. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium.3. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction.9250 u 87. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium).CHAPTER 7. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2.905625 u 135. At present.3. This is higher than any known material can stand. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. List three medical uses of radioactivity. A few years ago.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems.016029 u 4. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy.007825 u 2.043925 u 238. Once this high temperature is achieved. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy. 2. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. 3. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures.016049 u 3. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1.002603 140.050786 u 1. 6.

How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1.7. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1.0 × 1014 J of energy. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics . 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW.3. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7.

Some of these may be due to human errors. . there are errors present. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. you will be expected to do an error analysis. Take a meter stick.4. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above.Appendix A Analysis of Data A.37. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0.3 and 2. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. this 7 is only an estimate.3*. The wood may shrink or warp. errors due to rounding oﬀ. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. In writing lab reports. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument.1 mm.4 cm. for example. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. the ends of the stick may be chipped. therefore. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. we might estimate it to be 2. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. the thickness of the lines may vary. and probably even more. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. It may be smaller or larger.1 Experimental Data however. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. errors in calculation. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them.3 cm and 2. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. In other words. For example. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. In our meter stick example. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). was friction considered to be constant.

The more random error we have in our experiment. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. As long as these errors are random.2. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. The smaller this value. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. It does not address any possible systematic errors. that is. Section A. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. This type of error is generally more serious. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property.2. APPENDIX A. or too low. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. In this case. the less precise our results are.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large.1 Standard Deviation A. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. In our error analysis. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. In this case. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. The more data points that we have. we may end up with a very precise estimate. the smaller the standard deviation should be. this type of error is present in all experiments.A. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. RRHS Physics . but it will not be very accurate. this is not an excuse to be careless.1. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. A. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. A.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. In the case of systematic error. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). It is a good idea. the measurements are always too high.1.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. A. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. For this reason. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion.

you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest. and we took 12 measurements.94 1. we would use t = 2.7 4.96 2.92 1.92 3.71 2.84 2.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab. The relevant values for t are given in the table. however.17 2.31 3.38 1. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.60 2.31 1.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.44 1.02 1.11 2.35.81 1.90 1.83 1.25 2. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.64 2. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.98 1. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.2.80 1.05.86 1.18 3.20. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.45.53 2.70±0.14 2.01 2.23 3. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.35 1.35 1. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation. When examining the data. we would use t = 2. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.89 2.48 2.35. if possible.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0. x is the average of all the values. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.36 1. If we know the theoretical value to be 4. 95 RRHS Physics .2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.36 2. and N is the number of measurements.1) where xi are the individual measurements.16 3. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.08 6.78 1.50 2.29 1. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.2.78 4.36 3. In this case.30 9.40 1.35 to 5. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.45 3.42 1.APPENDIX A.26 3.7 63.57 4. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.8.77 1. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results. Note. If we have a theoretical value of 5. and got an average value x of 4.20 3.76 1.36 1.03 2.13 1.34 1.58 A.4. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.37 1.06 2.18 5.

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