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J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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5 Problems . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .3.1. . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . .2.3. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . 5. . .2. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 *Problems . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .1. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1. .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .3. . . . . . . . . 5. . . .2. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . .1 Electrical Quantities . .1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3 Electroscopes . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . 4. .3 Electrical Power . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . 4. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . .5 Problems . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . .1. . . .3. . . . . 5. . .

. . . .1 Alpha Decay . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . 6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . .4 Implications . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . 6. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .3. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . 7. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . .3 Problems . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .4.2. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .2. . . . . .4 Half-lives . . 7. . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .3. 7. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . Induction . . 6. .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . 6.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . .2. . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . .1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Experimental Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 6. pg 936-937 #26. pg 515 #39.3. pg 595 #5.24. pg 526 #1.1 1.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.9 #2. pg 596 #12.3 2. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.33. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1. pg 655 #26.4 pg 796 #1-4.2 2.2 7.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.28 pg 495 #30.3.14.8.8.5.6 #3.3.7.8 #4.1 7. pg 933 #1.2 4. BLM #1. pg 489 #27.15 pg 641 #9.2 6.3 7. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.6.Textbook Correlations Section 1.27 v .4.9.40. pg 862 #6.3.1 4.6.2 1.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18. pg 934 #5.28 #2. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.4.688-693 694-714.27. pg 778 #1. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.7. pg 661 #5.4 #36. pg 529 #30.37. pg 501 #31.1 6.5.2 5. pg 780 #2.4.8. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.3 5.2 4.3 5.2.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.9. pg 571 #21.1 3. pg 918-919 #3.25. pg 886 #3.10.3 #4. pg 608 #3. pg 863 #8.1 5.6.2.2.3 3.28.1 2.

CHAPTER 0. TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .

a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. like a scalar is. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. it does not have a direction. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. velocity. In university. Consider the diagram below. dy ). For example. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. displacement. For example. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. acceleration. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. it is actually two numbers. In 2D space. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. When writing. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. This year. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. The symbol d represents these components. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. Last year. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ).1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). when typing. A vector is not just a single number. For example. force.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). 1 . a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. Likewise.

we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). 3. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started.1.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. in other words. CHAPTER 1. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . So a + b will give (ax + bx . For the examples that follow. 2. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. Your textbook uses this last convention. east. ay + by ). 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. To help visualize this. 1.1. we are actually adding their components. If we add these two vectors. south would be 270o . west). This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. In this system. by ). we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). the other vector b represents the components (bx . Since vectors are not single numbers. The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. north would be 90o . south. Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . In this system.1. In the previous diagram. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. In math.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . ay ). assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

5 kmN. wind speed? 18. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. The speed of a boat in still water is v. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. At the end of three days. walks 4 km E.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N.1. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. using a compass.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. Before it can move. 26. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. We must assume u < v. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. mass.85 m/s. 20. A ferryboat. To do so. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. Diane rows a boat at 8. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip.0 m/s. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. whose speed in still water is 2. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. the hiker is lost.1. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. and 3 km S. 6 km S. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. 8 km N. RRHS Physics . Find the change in velocity. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17.00 h. A hiker leaves camp and. why? 19. 10 km W. 3 km E. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. How fast is the player running? 23. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E.

a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground.2. I will take up as the positive direction. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. therefore. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. friction. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. In the diagram below. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . Because we often know Fg and Fpy .CHAPTER 1. FORCE VECTORS 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. Notice that FN = Fg . A free body diagram for this box would like like this. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . RRHS Physics 1. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction).2. therefore.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). As can be seen in the diagram above. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. the vertical forces. the force of the man pulling is not. both of which are vectors. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. First. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. Notice that although the normal.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp).

2. FORCE VECTORS friction for now).3. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. Again. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. Using trigonometry. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry).2. If friction is present. Similarly.1. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). we get CHAPTER 1. Again notice that FN = Fg . the normal force can then be used in this calculation.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another).3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. In order to apply Newton’s second law. In other words. Drawing a free body diagram. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics .the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . if present. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. as in the following diagram. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1.

6o hill at a steady speed of 7. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1.3 m/s2 . RRHS Physics 9 . The total mass is 80 kg. An 18. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.0 kg block and the ramp is 0. A car can decelerate at -5.0o hill at 6.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20.0o angle with the horizontal.2. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8.0 km/h.20. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. where it is attached to a 4. What is the acceleration of this system? 11. A 15. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h.10. (b) Using the same power as in (a).300 m/s2 .5 s for him to reach the bottom.76. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . The tension in the rope is 110.2 Problems 1.30. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2.0 km/h. A 55.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.0o angle with the horizontal. A 5. A 25. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.0 m/s. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6.0 N . If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5.0 kg box is released on a 33.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. A rope attached to the 5. (a) Ignoring friction. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp.30.0o incline and accelerates at 0. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.2. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.CHAPTER 1. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. A force of 300. It takes 13.

3. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. it is obviously not accelerating. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. 3 1. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. The mass is stationary. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance.1. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium.3. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. therefore.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions.3. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. As we said.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. therefore. 1. therefore. although the net force is zero in both cases. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . This additional force is called the equilibrant force. but opposite in direction. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. Since force is a vector. there are three forces acting on the mass. there will be a net force in some direction. Remember.

etc. 1. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). as it was when discussing work. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). When you calculated work.4. It can be thought of as a twisting force. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. 4 RRHS Physics . down. While forces were described using up. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door).. As can be seen from equation 1. left. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. To examine this more. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. It is not in rotational equilibrium. this is important. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. You will learn more about these in university. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. τ = F⊥ d (1. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. when calculating the work. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. Στ = 0 Obviously. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel).4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. the board will begin to spin. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler).3. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. we must introduce the notion of a torque. As we have seen. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. the greater the torque. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. even though the forces are equal and opposite. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. it acts on every particle in the body. but one up and one down. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board.4 The further away from this pivot. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. This is called a dot product. but for calculating torques. right.CHAPTER 1. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. Before dealing with torques.

which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50.3. 9. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. 10. Find the resultant force on the vehicle.0 s.0 m long and sags 1. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. What is the tension in the rope? 2. The frame has a wire across the back. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N .5o with each other. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. A 20. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.0 N . 12 . and you don’t want it to break. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. A sign with a mass of 1653. RRHS Physics 4. The two ropes make an angle of 15. 3. Find the tension in the boom and the cable.3.1. When lifting a barbell. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain.0 m when a 50. 8. 7.3 Problems 1. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. A high wire is 25.

0 kg (uniformly distributed) . A 60. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. determine the magnitude. one at either end.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. 14. The platform is being held up by two students. If there is a spring on the door 5. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40.0 N. and its center of gravity is located 4.0 kg person is sitting 0. Where must a 22. The plane has a base of 14. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50.CHAPTER 1. EQUILIBRIUM 17. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. A 50.0 kg.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000.0 m.0 cm wide.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90.0 kg person stands at its tip.0 m from the same end. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. Find the equilibrant force: 12. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N . Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. direction.0 m and a length of 15.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane. In the following diagram. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators.0 kg person is sitting 1. A force of 500.0 m platform has a mass of 10. Fred.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15.3. The 10. 19.

3. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .

therefore. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. we see that there is only one . and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. vx is the horizontal speed. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2.1. Ignoring air resistance. and acceleration. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. This also makes things somewhat simple.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . since max = ΣFx .gravity.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. and t is the time in the air. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). there is no horizontal acceleration. Since we know our vertical acceleration. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position. These are all vector quantities. 2. velocity.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. The horizontal speed does not change.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion.

4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement.1. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.2. the time in the air. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. but gravity will act to slow it down. 2. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. instead of horizontally.3. since there are no horizontal forces. vyi is the initial vertical velocity. the ball follows a parabolic path. For this reason. namely using equations 2. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. t is the time in the air. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?).2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2. Once this is done.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics .2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. In this case. CHAPTER 2. As the ball rises. Notice that equation 2. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. and 2. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1.4. as shown in the diagram below.1 and 2. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. PROJECTILES used. however. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. vyi will be zero in equations 2. Remember. The horizontal speed vx is constant. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2.1. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile.1. 2.1 to 2. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. until it reaches zero at its highest point. therefore. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). and a is the acceleration due to gravity. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed.2.4. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. The object does. Again.

A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20.0 m high. A diver running 3. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. The ball is released at the height of the basket. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. an outﬁelder runs 4. PROJECTILES tree.1.0 s later.3 Problems 1. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s. How much later does it hit the ground? 7.0 m from the basket.0 s remaining in a basketball game.7 m above the ground. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. and with only 2. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19.05 m above the ﬂoor. The building is 13. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . A person is in a moving elevator. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s. The rotten egg landed 4. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. YES! It’s a score.0 m/s. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot.CHAPTER 2. 14. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9.5 m high. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s.0o . the elevator was 8. A baseball is hit at 30. As soon as the hunter ﬁres.2 m above the ground. 4. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. above. 2-D MOTION 2. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11.0 m. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal.0 m/s at an angle of 53.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. 3.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. Trailing by two points. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. Should the hunter aim directly at. how far from the building is the target? 6.2 m away from the elevator. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12. by how much will it miss the target? 3.1. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2.0o with the horizontal.0 m/s. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. Assuming the ball is launched at 51.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. At the time of the throw.02 m from the basket. Immediately.0 m away and are 3.

Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. Will the following quantities change? If so. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. PROJECTILES 14. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . For each of the following questions.6 m above the ﬂoor. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78.1.0 m below. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. (a) Draw the situation above. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. 19. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. The basket is 2.0 m away? 16. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. 20. At any moment. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. 21. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile.2. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time.22 m (horizontally). draw all vectors to scale. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. When it reaches the end of the table. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. 2-D MOTION speeds.1 m above the ﬂoor.

Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. 2 19 . Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. (See Fig 2. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched.1c)and let it go.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. which causes the spring to stretch. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. this formula no longer holds). meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. depending on its spring constant. etc. but is dependent on the spring. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it.1b)).2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. suspension bridges. Of course.2. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. If you double the mass hanging on the spring.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. This is the equilibrium position. the suspension of a car.at this point. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. Also. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. This is now its new equilibrium position . if you exceed the limits of the spring. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. a mattress. The units for the spring constant are N/m. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. you will double the distance the spring stretches. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ).1a). The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. The period (the time for one complete vibration.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again.CHAPTER 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. which results in a downward acceleration. 2-D MOTION 2. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. in this case.

this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. therefore.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. Substituting this into Eq 2. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A).8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m).2. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass.2. 2-D MOTION 2.2.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. At equilibrium. 20 RRHS Physics . it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). or removed from.6). the system. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . 2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. 1 Ep = kx2 (2. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. work is done on the spring. however. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. the total energy remains the same. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ).7 we get T = 2π l g (2.2. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to.

How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12.150 m when a 0. has a frequency of 0. A block of mass 0. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. A spring stretches 0.30 kg mass is hung from it. A mass of 2. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. if it had 3. A geologist’s simple pendulum. in contact with a spring bumper. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. whose length is 37. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8.8190 Hz at a particular location.2 cm.10 m to load a 0. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. frictionless surface. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. The spring.5 N hangs from it. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake.50 kg is placed on a level. 2-D MOTION 2. the frequency is 0.2.3 Problems 1.62 Hz.30 m.10 m? 12.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. What will its frequency be if only 0. When an 80. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. When the man steps oﬀ. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m.4 Hz when a weight of 0. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4.0 cm.325 m. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.10 g were trapped? 8.10 cm. 2. whose other end is ﬁxed. What is the value of m? 6.200 kg ball.110 m and released. 13. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 . The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz.CHAPTER 2. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.48 Hz. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.75 J of work done on it? 11. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. A small cockroach of mass 0.30 kg hangs from it? 5.2.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0. is then released.60 kg is hung from it.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.

2. so is momentum.12) (2. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. In two dimensions. pa = pa + pb (2. We can now RRHS Physics . When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. a vector diagram must be drawn. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions).12.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. Since velocity is a vector. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv).13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . This still applies in two dimensional collisions.12. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions.11 and 2.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. since p = mv. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. however. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. 2.3.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. Also. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. 2. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. not velocity. if you remember from grade 11.3.

4 In other words. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). 2. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. Since the masses are equal.3. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. the collision is elastic. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. RRHS Physics 23 . If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. therefore. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy.CHAPTER 2. therefore. such as thermal energy. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same.3. our conservation of energy equation (2. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another.14. In this type of collision. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. Remember.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. In other words. and one of the particles is initially at rest. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. some energy is lost. though. after this collision.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. For a two body collision. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half.

From skid marks. and the second car had a velocity of 40. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1.400 kg. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. an electron. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. 50. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. 40. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5.20 m/s. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. the investigator determined that car A. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball.60 kg. the second ball is moving North.0 km/h. and a neutrino.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton.2×10−23 kg·m/s. of mass 0.80 m/s. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h.3 Problems 1. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West. At what angle will the second proton be observed.0 km/h. If they collide and remain stuck together. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. initially at rest. initially at rest. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. As a result of this elastic collision.2.3. A proton travelling with speed 8. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact.0o North of West. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h.3. Find 24 . of mass mb = 0. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. Immediately after impact. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus.40 kg strikes a second ball. A billiard ball of mass 0.00 m/s.00 m/s strikes a second ball. After the collision (assumed elastic).400 kg moving with a speed of 2. Two cars collide at an intersection. 6.0o North of West.

the object moves in a curve. the object will not speed up or slow down. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. an acceleration present. With projectile motion.1. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. the object will speed up or slow down. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. the acceleration must also be inward. in other words. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. There is. we see v= 25 3. which is pulling inward. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. we can simply use d (3.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. there is still an acceleration. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. So even though the speed is not changing. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. Since this is the only force. To calculate the speed of the object. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. however. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. 1 . we get v= 2πr (3. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. however.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr).

this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one.6) Figure 3. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .3. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration.1. horizontal surface.2 and 3. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. 2. however. Looking at equation 3. in particular. always inward toward the center of the circle.3) T Combining equations 3. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3.2. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration.1 below).5 becomes Fc = mac (3. Centripetal force is not. This is a common misconception of students. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. ac = v2 3. 1. then equation 3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. by deﬁnition.3. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . it just shows the direction of the three quantities.1. 3.1: This is not a free body diagram. In fact. when solving centripetal force problems.4) r This centripetal acceleration is.

because of Newton’s Third Law. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force.1. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. it is. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. being pulled inward by the string. 3. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. because of inertia.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before.1. in fact. If you break the string. the ball is not being pushed outward. also. not outward. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. In this situation. If there were. Remember. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. in fact. Pretend you are the ball in our example. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball.CHAPTER 3. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward.

PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8.4 Problems 1. If its speed is 3. A 5.1. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.60. 28 RRHS Physics . The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385.000 km and a period of 27.335 kg.42. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96. A gravitron circus ride has a 2.0 m radius and rotates 1. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. A coin is placed 18. what force does the string now exert? 4. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm.0 complete revolution each second. What is the critical speed (i. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10.0 m. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2.3 days.15 m/s and its mass is 0. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. The ball makes exactly 2. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0.20? 6. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.15 m.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.1 times per second. 9. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3.3.0 revolutions per second. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.5 cm.80 m long.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5.0 m rope. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80. 3. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.1.00 revolutions in a second. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.30? 7.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.e.

Assume no change in energy for the system. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. the vine is 4. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. PLANETARY MOTION 13. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. If the person is standing on the equator. how much and in what direction? 29 . 18. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. and explain this sensation.CHAPTER 3. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h.0 m long. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. 19. A person has a mass of 75. 15. Sketch the situation. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. 17. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire).1.0 kg. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. For the previous question.6 km. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. 14. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. including the relevant forces. what RRHS Physics 3. will a friction force be required? If so.

3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. but not to understand why they are so. equating the two expressions. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. PLANETARY MOTION 3. This type of relationship appears often in physics. In grade 11. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. it is falling toward the earth. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated.2. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity.3. we get mg = or GM (3. it travels a further distance. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth.2. Assuming a circular orbit. this is how the mass of the earth was found. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality.2.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. however.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit.2. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. If the object is given a higher speed. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. given by G in the equation below. Equation 3. speciﬁcally. Newton. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. To determine this necessary speed. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. In fact. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration.) g= GM m R2 3.2 Universal Gravitation 3. Fg = 30 3.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. gravity is much more common than this. In this way.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. however. we must consider the orbit.

Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. 3. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth.2. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3.4)into equation 3.2.CHAPTER 3.9. as given in equation 3. PLANETARY MOTION 3. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness.7. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. 2. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. 3. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity).9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. faster than this speed. Solving this equation for v. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. v= GM r (3.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). we get GM m mv 2 = (3. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. m is the mass of the satellite.

Do the previous question again. 12. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. Four 8. But Frank is lazy. 8.98 × 107 m). this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. determine the mass of Jupiter.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.99 × 1030 kg). 2.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three.85 × 105 km. 6. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. If the bowling balls are 0. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1.90 × 1027 kg. What is g near the surface? 5. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. 10. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. 13. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3.44 × 106 s and it is 1.50 m.0 N is required to pull a 10. All distances are center to center.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4.71×10−8 N .6 times that of the earth.50 m apart. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. r = 6. From this data. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. 3.50 × 108 km. Frank is really concerned about his weight. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. PLANETARY MOTION weight.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. but has the same mass. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3. A force of 40.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth. 7. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter.85 × 105 km. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1.5 Problems 1.3. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3.2.

the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. Why? 28. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. Find the value of this constant. 16. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. A satellite is going around Earth. 27. though only a few hundred meters across. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. orbits the sun like other planets. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18.4 days) to do problem 16. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. PLANETARY MOTION 14. RRHS Physics 3. Jupiter is 5. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. The asteroid Icarus. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7.CHAPTER 3. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. On July 19. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. Its period is 410 days. 33 . Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. 31. 1969. what would happen to the value of G? 30. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. 32.3 × 1022 kg. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. Find its period in units of the period of the moon.2.

PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics . UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2.3.

According to atomic theory. even more important than many people think. the net change 35 4. If you rub a balloon in your hair. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. In each case. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. giving it a net negative or positive charge.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives.1. for example. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. in the amount of charge is zero. Remember. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. During any of the processes described above. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). 4.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. Likewise. In a normal state. you notice that it will stick to the wall. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. This is the law of conservation of electric charge.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. Metals are generally very good conductors. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. When a conductor is given a negative charge. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. not the protons. . and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. This kind of atom is called an ion.

some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). if it is charged negatively. there are . such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. however.1. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. The RRHS Physics . in this way. germanium. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. but is just brought near it.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. it has merely been separated. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. giving it excess electrons. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. and they touch. conduction occurs. As soon as they touch. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. No charge has been created. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. 4. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one.e. i.however. The other way of charging an object is called induction. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. If you ground the sphere. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. An object can also be charged by conduction. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere.4. For example. CHAPTER 4. With induction. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated.1. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing.1.

the faster the charge will be carried away. Sparks and lightning are examples of this.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. now negatively charged. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances.1. The more water molecules in the air. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. 37 . objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. however. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . In some cases. giving it a permanent charge. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. the leaves. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma.1. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case.CHAPTER 4. Think about how you may do this. particularly on each leaf. even when nothing is apparently done to them. even after we remove the charged rod. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. the two leaves just hang vertically. more often. will repel each other and will spread out. The leaves will then stay spread apart. as shown here. Suppose.even though they are neutral. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. You can. If the electroscope is neutral. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. 4. 4. If charges become large enough.

(a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. one at each end of the line of blocks. what kind of charge does B have? 6. why does the record now attract dust? 4. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. You place two objects with strong positive charges. you remove the two positively charges objects. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. close to but not touching the blocks. they ﬂy away in different directions. If you know that D is positively charged. and C repels D. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7.4. 5. Explain. 3. Finally.1. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. What charge is on the rod? 8. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. 9. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2.5 Problems 1. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. A attracts C. but as soon as they touch the rod. Why don’t they rise farther? 10.1. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. 12. When an electroscope is charged.

2 4. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. without using some test charge. This may require pushing with your hand. however.2.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. in fact. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . since it appeared to behave like magic. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. When people think of forces.CHAPTER 4. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs.it is a concept. FIELDS 4. and weak nuclear forces) continues. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space.1 is the distance between the centers. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. which has an equal but opposite charge). r is the distance between the charges in meters. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s.2. This worried people. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. To help explain this idea.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. they think of pushing or pulling an object.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. If the two objects are spheres. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. electromagnetic.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. then the r in equation 4. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge. The search for simple. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. tying a rope to something.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. E= F q (4. it is precise for only point charges. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. Using some test charge q. or some other type of contact.2. 39 . 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. strong nuclear forces. 4. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 .

4. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. we obtain kQ (4. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. which interacts with all objects near the earth. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. The closer together the ﬁeld lines.2.2. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. For example. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). These electric ﬁeld lines. equation 4.2. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. FIELDS points around the sources.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r.2.1 into equation 4. then equation 4. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. Substituting equation 4. 2.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. however. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1.1. or lines of force. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation.4. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. If there is more than one source charge.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. For example.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. In reality. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. E= CHAPTER 4. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. consider a positive source charge.

2. located 16 cm to the right. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. A and B. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. -4. You are given two similar spheres. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. is 0. Three particles are placed in a line.2). What should you do? 11. located 25 cm above the second ball.145 N on each other. Two charges.050 m to the north and the other. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. (b) Find the net force on the right particle.1 × 106 m/s.67 × 10−27 kg.CHAPTER 4. A positive charge of 3. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart.00 × 10−17 C? 2. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g).0 N on each other? 4.030 m to the east. has a charge of -20 µC. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. what force is exerted? 12. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. and an electron. 4. 3. One. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4.5 Problems 1. mass 9. The bottom electron is resting on a table. A third ball.5 × 10−10 m. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. -2. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6.11 × 10−31 kg. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. mass 1. 8. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. In one model of the hydrogen atom. In other words. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. the RRHS Physics . What is the force between them? 5.2. has a charge of +25 µC. and the right -83 µC. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. q1 and q2 .0 µC. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC.0 µC is 0. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . the typical size of an atom. A second ball. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10.

Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. RRHS Physics . −Qo and −3Qo . (a) two positively charged point sources. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. Two charges. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. 42 CHAPTER 4.020 mm remains stationary in the air. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. are a distance l apart. What is the electric ﬁeld 2.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E.30 m apart. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. Two positive charges.0 µC charged particle? 21. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. one 33. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television.0× 10−6 C charge. Find the force on an electron.0 cm apart? 23.0 cm away from a 1. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. which is about 1 × 105 N/C.0 µC charge 40. 17.4. A negative charge of 2.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. When placed 1. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. FIELDS 20. then repeat your work with a 2.2. A water droplet of radius 0. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.0 µC are 8.0 µC and the other 68. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude.0 × 10−6 C test charge. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. A proton (m = 1. 24. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations.0 µC and a +60. the force each exerts on the other is 28. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. Take into account gravity and determine E.2 cm apart. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons.5 N and is repulsive. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. 19.

If the two spheres are touched together. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. The symbol for electric potential is V . the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. which is called the volt. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. 4. so Vab = Wab q (4.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. If positive work is required to move the charge. The potential energy here will decrease. Remember that W = ∆E.3. for example.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. therefore. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B).3. since they are trying to get away from one another. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. Suppose you have two spheres. sphere B is said to be neutral. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum.CHAPTER 4. For example. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. you don’t have to do anything. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. we say that it is at a high potential.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . FIELDS 4. Just as with gravitational potential energy. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. This will add energy to the system. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. In this case. namely potential energy. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge.3. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges).

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . What work is done when 5.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. The change in energy while doing this is 4.5 × 107 V . that is. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4.5 V ? 3.3. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8.5 × 10−4 J. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5. A -30. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. A force of 0. the two spheres will be at the same potential.4 Problems 1.4. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3. at this point. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line.3. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. 4. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources.3. FIELDS 2. if they were not.0 C is raised in potential by 1. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential.0 µC charge. as shown below. CHAPTER 4.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V .

this is given a special name. As was discussed in the previous chapter. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. Remember that in solids. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light.1. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). therefore. also referred to as an amp. little was known about the structure of the atom.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. so its electrons are held very loosely.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. an ampere (A). When people discussed current. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. 5. A wire is a conductor. In 1800. 1 . The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . at the same time. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. a battery is several cells connected together. Contrary to a common belief. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons.1 Electric Current Q (5. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. In short. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge.

the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. In the same way. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). 2. This makes sense. 46 . If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow.5. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. we can use it here as well. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). These materials are than said to be superconducting. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance).1. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. therefore. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. If one end of the pipe is raised. 3. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. the greater the ﬂow of water. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. because of their atomic structure. With a battery. they lose potential. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. insulators have a very high resistance. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. For practical purposes. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). Comparing this to electricity. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. When charges are moved through a resistance. Temperature: In general. however. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. Resistance is measured in ohms. CHAPTER 5. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). it gains or loses energy. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. In liquids and gases. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. In our gravity/water analogy above.

A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. it is really energy that we pay for. the current is proportional to voltage). so it will have a lower resistance. 4. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. the current also doubles. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true.1. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire.1. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. current can be expressed as V (5. or mechanical). Consider a wire that is carrying a current.1. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. Note that equation 5.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. the watt (W ).2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. if you double the voltage. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law.4 with equation 5. thereby increasing the resistance. the resistance must be constant. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. the current is proportional to the voltage. Looking at this equation. We RRHS Physics . If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. That is.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. but I = q/t (equation 5. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. 5.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor.3) 5.1) so P = IV (5. light. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations.5) 5. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials.CHAPTER 5. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic.5.

25 × 10−3 A ﬂows.0 V battery is used.1. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ).085/kW h). Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. If the device obeys Ohm’s law.0 A? 5. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . What voltage will produce 12. What voltage does the bird feel? 13.0 cm apart. The line has a resistance of 1. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. A 1. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. What is the current through a 6.0 h. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3.5 V battery. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. 14. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire.5 A for 6. but when a 3. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. Is Joe correct? Explain.1. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5.4 Problems 1.6) CHAPTER 5.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. Joe argues that. 5 mA can be painful. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. 5.10 A ﬂows in a wire. at 20 mA.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours.5. A current of 1. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. since R = V /I.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. When she connects it to a 1. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. above 100 mA can be fatal. 11.

Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. It is observed that it takes 12. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16.000 V rather than 12. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5.CHAPTER 5. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40.1.0 s? 25. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 . Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. operated at 120 V . How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.06 per kWh? 19. by means of a converter.2 Ω lines. How many 100 W light bulbs. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. What is its increase in temperature during the 30. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28.11 per kW h.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4.5 kg of water.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23.08 per kW h. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0.0o C to 55.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21.000 V ? 21. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. RRHS Physics 5.20 kg of water.4 A from a 120 V line? 27.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0.0 A when operated on 120 V . A modern television set draws 2. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .29 kg/m3 . What is the eﬃciency of a 0. 18. (a) 220 V are applied across it.0o C.90 and it lasts for 300 hours.0 minutes. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9.) 49 . At $0.

*CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. and voltages throughout the circuit. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch.8) (5. and V3 = IR3 . in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. applying equation 5. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. Because charge must be conserved. If V1 .9) RRHS Physics . and R3 . we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. currents.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor.7) 5. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. since there is only one path. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. when we put several resistance in series. When you add more resistances. Knowing the equivalent resistance. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense.2. you increase the total resistance. then by applying equation 5. Of course. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors.5.2.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . 5. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . By conservation of energy. R2 .8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel.2 to analyze the resistances. I2 . V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. R3 respectively. I1 . The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. R2 .1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. V2 = IR2 . each resistor has its own path. V2 .

but are often some combination of the two. equation 5.10) 5. *CIRCUITS 2. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below.2. 5. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. R1 and R2 are not in series. so they can be combined using equation 5. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. Consider the following example. Again. If any resistors are in parallel. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. R3 . if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. 3. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. every time you add a resistance in parallel. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit.2. then they are not in series. R2 .3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. Remember. Also. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. Remember. In this example. For example.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . R3 is in series with R4 .10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). RRHS Physics 51 . This combination is then in series with R1 . Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). since there is a junction in between the two. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . If any resistors are in series. if there is a junction between the resistors. however. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit).CHAPTER 5. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember.

2. If too much current ﬂows. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. Most newer houses have circuit breakers.7.2. For example. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. 2. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows.9. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. a system of equations can then be found and solved. For example. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. To deal with these circuits. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. At any junction point. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. however. 5. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. A third type of safety device is slightly different. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. Some circuits4 are. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. breaking the circuit. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. Houses are wired in parallel. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. RRHS Physics 5. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch.2. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. 1. for example. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre.5. If this strip melts. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. too complicated for this analysis. These rules actually apply to all circuits. This is just an expression of equation 5.2. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb.

Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . 4.2. Find each resistance. 7.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. 2.6 *Problems 1. 5. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. Find the unknown currents and voltages. Find the current in each branch. 8. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. Find V.50 A. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. 3.CHAPTER 5. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. 5. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line.

13. 11. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. or 150 W at 120 V . 17. If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. CHAPTER 5. A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. Find It . If each resistor is 10 Ω.0 54 .2. 16. Find the current in each branch. Suppose that you have a 6.0 V input? 15. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. If each resistor is 10 Ω. and I4 . Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel.0 V output for a 6. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. 12. Find R3 .0 V . Given an unlimited supply of 1. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1. 100 W .V2 . *CIRCUITS 10.I3 . Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.I2 .5. and P1 .I3 .0 Ω.

Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. one larger than the other.8 kΩ. RRHS Physics 55 23. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. and I3 in the following circuit. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). which is brighter? 21. Consider the circuit below. determine the currents I1 . (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules.2. what is the resistance of the other? . I2 . (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. *CIRCUITS 22. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. (a) If they are connected in parallel. 5. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. If one resistor is 2.CHAPTER 5.

This will be seen in the next section. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely.5. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. however. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. in ferromagnetic materials. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. nickel. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level.3. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. If you cut a magnet in two. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. Since these forces do behave similarly. 5. In most materials. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. however. A compass needle is really a small magnet. On a small scale. each with a north and south pole. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron.3.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. since an electric current will always produce both. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. the same as electric charges. magnetic forces act over distances. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. 5. however. the domains are more lined up in one direction. RRHS Physics 56 . The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. As a result. Magnetic poles are not. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. the result is two magnets. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. In a magnetized piece of iron. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. and cobalt. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. for example. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs.

A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. This is an electromagnet.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil.3. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. In fact. 5. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. then.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes.3.CHAPTER 5. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. it makes sense. In other words. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. To use this hand rule.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. 6 5. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. when using left hand rules. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). around 1820. or a current. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). By using more than one loop. the second right hand rule can be used. It was only with a moving charge. it often7 experiences a force. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.3. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 .3. but this was found to have no eﬀect. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. To use this hand rule. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead.

This loop of wire will rotate. Remember that I = q/t.3. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld.5 Electric Motor 5. As we learned before. you may also use the left hand rule. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. to 58 RRHS Physics . It will therefore not change the speed of the particle.5. substituting this into equation 5.3. as shown in the side view below.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. use left hand rules. have to be moving through a wire. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. so F = qvB sin θ (5. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. The charges do not.3. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. CHAPTER 5.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. Between c and d. There will be no force between b and c. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. To use this rule. the force will be out of the page. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. as shown below. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. If the moving particle is negative. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. To do this. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. however.8 8 Remember. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb).11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. 5. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld.

Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. we want it to turn continuously.6 Problems 1. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. As a result. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. In reality. 5. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate.3. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. Many loops of wire are usually used. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. Also. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. as well as a ferromagnetic core. MAGNETISM other brush. (b) Two opposite poles. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. as shown below. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. but just touch one another. As the armature turns. but no force acts on the wire. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. In order to make the loop continue turning.3.CHAPTER 5. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). if the loop goes past this point.

An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . If the force on the wire below is into the page.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. it feels zero force. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8.3. A straight 2. (b) 10. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 . A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6.0 A and weighs 0. (a) CHAPTER 5. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. identify the poles of the magnets.90 T . What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. MAGNETISM 5. A proton having a speed of 5.0 × 10−5 T .0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. What is the force on the wire? 7. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction.9 × 103 kg/m3 .35 N .5. 11. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5.

A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld.02 T.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . An electron (m = 9. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1.CHAPTER 5.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. If the velocity of the particle is 5. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0.385 T magnetic ﬁeld. Explain.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.032 T . and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22.25 × 106 m/s.25 T .240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. E=1000 N/C.10 cm in a 0.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . 61 . What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. 23. Protons move in a circle of radius 8.000 V . A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. A particle with a charge of 2. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0.5 cm. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. which exists between the two parallel plates below. Calculate the mass of the particle.4 mm? 24. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. Calculate the energy of the proton. 17. 21. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.08 m. B=0. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. A force of 5.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20. 16.10 T magnetic ﬁeld. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper.6 × 10−13 N . The radius of its path is 4. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld.3.

We call this an induced emf. In other words. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. 5. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one).4. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. when the magnet is removed. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. For example.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. and not a force where B. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. ∆φ ∆t (5. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. Such a current is called an induced current. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds.5.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). v. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge.4. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. For example.

This is called perpetual motion. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). therefore. There is. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. this is a step-down transformer. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). The primary coil has the incoming current. conservation of energy tells 63 .4. this is called a step-up transformer. Combining these two equations. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. Remember. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. Notice that if Ns > Np . From equation 5. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. In the example shown below. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5.15) 5. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. however. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. therefore. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same.4. If Ns < Np . 5. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil.CHAPTER 5. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. the two wires are insulated from one another. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. however. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. Just like before. But remember.13.

applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. into the page). the force on cd must be out of the page. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. out of the page). Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. At position 1. Consider the picture below.4. at positions 2 and 4. then the current must be lowered. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier.16) CHAPTER 5. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). Similarly.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Since P = V I.4. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. therefore. The wire ab is moving out.5. at position 3. this means that if the voltage goes up. we see what happens to the current. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. RRHS Physics . then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced.

As we turn the generator. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. as was seen in a previous graph. If we square an AC electric current graph. INDUCTION called a counter torque. In a generator. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 .CHAPTER 5. giving Pavg = 0. The greater the speed of the motor. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire.707Vmax (5.5Vmax Imax In North America. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side.18) Since power is P = V I. we take a root mean square average (rms). however. Alternating Current As we have seen. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished.11 we cannot just average the current over time.4. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators.17) Similarly. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. the situation is the reverse. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. Back EMF As was previously stated. or eﬀective. Instead. as were used with the DC motor. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. Since the current is not constant. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. The more current that is drawn. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. we get a sin2 θ graph. the greater the back (or counter) emf. When a motor is operating.5Imax To make a DC generator.707Imax (5. value.

If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. In what direction is the induced current? 3.5.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8.4 Problems 1. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.350 T to zero. Hence.4.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. It takes 0. What is the induced emf ? 4. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.19) CHAPTER 5. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. If the rod is 12.15 Ω. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. 5.0 cm/s. What is the average induced emf ? 2. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. 6. If the wire has a resistance of 0. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12.800 T . Also note that since P = V I. calculate the emf developed.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. A square coil of sides 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region.4 s.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.405 T magnetic ﬁeld.5 Ω.4.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V .0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9.10 s. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. It is initially in a 0. A 12. with its plane perpendicular to B.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7.5Pmax (5. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.

4.0 V and the input current is 11. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. Frequently. what would the new output voltage be? 16. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. whose peak value is 90 V . INDUCTION 17. Why is this true? 18. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23.0 A respectively. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. the coil will swing. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. If the primary and secondary were reversed. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11.0 A. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 .2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. It is used with a transformer in England.CHAPTER 5.0 A. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. What is the rms voltage across it? 27.0 V and an output current of 5. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9.0 V source and measures 8. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. is across a 35 Ω resistor. Calculate the peak current in a 2. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. where the line voltage is 240 V .0 V at the secondary. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. and an output current of 0. Why? 21. An ac voltage. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . and (c) the power transformed 13. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). (b) the current in the primary.75 A.0 A. 26. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3.0 V AC. 19. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20.

5. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line.4. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics .25 A. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. INDUCTION 28. a 700 W hair dryer.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. only its frequency is lowered. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. 1 RRHS Physics . however.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. If he was correct. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. In fact. Objects such as electrons. By making careful measurements. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision.5). Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. such as diﬀraction and interference. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. after the collision. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties. however.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. The difﬁculty here. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). He suggested in 1923 that. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. The photon does not actually slow down.1.6. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy.1 however.4). p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum.4 and 6.1.

12. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. of a 3. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0.80 nm.0 eV photon and a 5. in meters. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. does its wavelength change? If so. What are the wavelengths. 14.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90.5 Problems 1. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5.1.40 Hz. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. If energy is radiated by all objects. 15. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light.1 × 1013 Hz. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. QUANTUM THEORY 8. 13. 7.0 km/h. 6. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. RRHS Physics 9.0 eV electron? 73 . They can be developed with a red “safelight” on.0 × 106 m/s. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. Determine the wavelength of a 0. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. 10. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1.CHAPTER 6. 16. λ = 450 nm. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927.1. does it increase or decrease? 11. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3.

these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6.2. was putting forward a wave model of light. As the light gets closer to the water. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules.6. 6. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. a ball thrown against a wall). since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. for example. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). since all waves at this time required a medium.2. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. led by Christian Huygens. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. As with Newton’s particle model. As these particles passed through a prism. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. the particles must be moving very fast. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. In a uniform medium.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. another group of scientists.

The two aspects of light complement one another. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. the resulting image is slightly blurred. refraction. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. in 1850. mainly due to Newton’s reputation.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century.2. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. This model was not. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . however. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons.2. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. however. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. which contradicts Newton’s theory. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. The two theories. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water.CHAPTER 6. however. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. It states that to understand any given experiment. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. Similarly. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. indicating a spreading out of the light. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. which appear to be incompatible. By the middle of the nineteenth century. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). we must refer to both theories. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. but to understand light fully. 6. however. and interference where the particle theory fails. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. According to Maxwell’s theory. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. For example. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. without its problems. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. Also.

6. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. macroscopic world. An electron. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). When this radiation interacts with the electron.2. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. You wouldn’t know where it is going. like light. In order to locate the ball. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. This has some major implications. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. When we try to visualize light.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. when light interacts with matter. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). In general. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it.2. when light passes through space or a medium. you must interact with it. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. To locate this. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. 2 76 . depending on which property of light is being measured. you would have to feel your way around. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. Applied to a smaller scale. however. light reveals both wave and particle properties. or even a combination of the two. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. We cannot picture what they are. is the set of its properties that we can measure. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. this duality extends to particles as well. its behavior imitates that of a wave.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. but a visual picture is again not possible. negatively charged particles. but in the process would move it from that position.2. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. or as a wave that has a mass.6. its behavior is more like that of a particle. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. CHAPTER 6. This would tell you where it is. In terms of everyday language and images. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle.

we must use a small wavelength. however. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important.CHAPTER 6. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. 77 . it is still a probability and not a certainty. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. but has wave properties. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. on the other hand. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron.5. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next.4 and 6. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. For examRRHS Physics 6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. but according to equations 6. and not determinism. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object.2. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Thus. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. however. If. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. In summary. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle.

6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics . WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.2.

He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). The emitted light is due to individual atoms. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. Around 1911. emit a discrete spectrum. was accepted by scientists by 1900. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. Although a major step forward. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. 6. 6. in industry.3.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight.1. When viewing these spectra. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. This is known as an emission spectrum. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed.1. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. If they were at rest. Less dense gases. scientists can analyze unknown materials. heated solids. When energy is transferred to atoms. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. not interactions between atoms. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines.3. By analyzing these wavelengths. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight.CHAPTER 6. since they are unique to each atom. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. This is how helium was discovered. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. This became known as the Rutherford Model. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. This is known as an absorption spectrum. Using spectroscopy. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. but a few were bounced almost directly back. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus.

any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. Using quantum theory. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13.6.8) 6. CHAPTER 6. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). and violet. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. The Rutherford model could not explain this.red. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths.3. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. in other words.3. If an electron absorbs energy. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted.8). the atom would not be very stable. As the electrons spiraled inward. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. The radius increases with n2 . It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient.1).3. In 1911. both are therefore quantized. as shown in the diagram in section 6. Neils Bohr. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. Thus. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. as in solids). The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra.6 eV n2 (6.2. 2. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. they are accelerating. for example. The higher the energy level. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. and also predicted an unstable atom. as it loses energy.1 . MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. however. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. RRHS Physics . A student of Rutherford.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. 1. green. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. When changing energy levels. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. electrons can jump directly or in steps. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. blue.

6. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr.8 that when n=1. applying his theory of matter waves. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. however. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. electron can go from 3 to 1. however. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. each independently. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. however. the energy is actually at a minimum. The electron. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. This was a major problem with the model.CHAPTER 6. since it has a wave nature. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. Bohr did not know how to explain this. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. Notice in equation 6. If we consider the electron to be a particle. but is actually much harder to visualize. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. As a result. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. In quantum mechanics.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave.3. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. determined energy levels of the elements. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. however. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. Louis de Broglie.3.

6. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3.3. This is called ﬂuorescence. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one.5 Problems 1. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. These materials are used. At low temperatures. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). 5. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . 8.1. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. In a group of these atoms. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. Explain any discrepancies.3. however. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). for example. spin (ms )). the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials.3. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6.3. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. in luminous watch dials. CHAPTER 6. magnetic (ml ).6.

this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. 7. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. and the weak nuclear force. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. This is one of the four forces of nature.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. the others being the gravitational force. A. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. This adds energy to the system. called a neutron.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. protons and neutrons. This force only acts over short distances. and A is the mass number. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus.1. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. an element is written as A X. so as the distance becomes greater. the electric force becomes more important. for example. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. In the last chapter. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. however.1. Sometimes. Z.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. and neutrons and neutrons. In 1932. Z is the atomic number. this force is the same between protons and protons.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. the electromagnetic force. 1 . Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.

Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction.66 × 10 kg).1.3 Problems 1. RRHS Physics . The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. The mass of 2 H is 2.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. Thus. the total number of nucleons.1. A nuclear reaction produces 9. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents.49 MeV. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. the number of protons. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei.007276 u mn = 1. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. which is iron.1. and c is the speed of light in m/s. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. We will look at this more in the next two sections.0 × 1011 J of energy. Using equation 7. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. It is expressed as a negative number. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 .7. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. In a nuclear reaction. 5. This implies that by adding energy to the system. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6.015123 u).014102 u. where E is the energy in J. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. In general. m is the equivalent mass in kg. u. To be stable. In other words. For each of the following. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. 84 7. identify the element. What mass was converted? 4. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. it could just fall apart. we are actually adding mass.1) CHAPTER 7. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.1. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .CHAPTER 7.

2.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle.2. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature.3. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. As a result. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. This is true for all alpha decays. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. If the atomic number gets too large. These nuclei are very tightly bound. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. 2 They are not very energetic. and required no external stimulation. therefore. RRHS Physics . Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. there are not enough neutrons to do this. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. beyond this.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. as will be discussed in the following sections. 4 He. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. 7.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. 7. This is known as (natural radioactivity). this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity).2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus.7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. 7.2.

For this reason. it emits a photon. Other than releasing energy. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray.2. by emitting a positron. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. the nucleus does not undergo any change. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). In some cases. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . which has no charge and no mass. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. This electron disappears into the nucleus. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). they can be very dangerous. when it drops down to a lower energy state. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. 7. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. allowing a proton to become a neutron. This is a random process.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. A neutrino is also emitted. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. One of the protons. In 10 years. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral.CHAPTER 7. A positron has the same mass as an electron. In beta decay. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. This photon is known as a gamma ray. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. Like an atom. 7. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus).2. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. but the opposite charge. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. becomes a neutron.2.

CHAPTER 7. Write the complete nuclear equation. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. A radioactive bismuth isotope. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. After one half-life. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq).2.9898 u). 83 emits a β particle. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. 210 P o. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. so it is closely related to half-life. 214 Bi. showing the element formed. 88 RRHS Physics . In another 10 years.7. showing the element formed. 7. When 23 N e (mass=22. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed.2. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. 84 emits a α particle. A radioactive polonium isotope. β − .5 Problems 1. Write the complete nuclear equation. One Bequerel is one decay per second. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. 8. or β + emission. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ.

3. 7. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei.3. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles.CHAPTER 7. To detonate the bomb. the top scientists in Europe and the U. however.3% 238 U and only 0. This ended the war. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. the two masses would be brought together quickly. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. protons. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. RRHS Physics 7.S.2 are moving too fast. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). neutrons. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. resulting in a transmutation. electrons. following Fermi’s work.2) although there are many other possibilities. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. but they can also occur in nature. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. 2. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). or gamma rays. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium).1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. 89 . A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. because it resembled cell division. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. this is known as radioactive fallout.3. 7. This was called nuclear ﬁssion.

It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. 5 CHAPTER 7. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. however. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. Because of its design. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. and can be separated to be used as fuel. It has a simpliﬁed design. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). so it can be built where technology is limited. which was discussed earlier. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. 3. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. To slow the reaction down. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. these control the rate of the reaction. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). There is also only a limited supply of uranium.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors.3.7. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). and New Brunswick. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials.3. For example. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. usually containing cadmium. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. RRHS Physics 90 . the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. Also present are control rods. 92 7. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. energy will be released. helium is extremely tightly bound. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. Quebec. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. which is very expensive. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. 235 U .

9.9141 u 91. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained.016049 u 3. List three medical uses of radioactivity. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. 6. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors.905625 u 135. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures.7 for this reason.90722 u 235.016029 u 4. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.2? 5. At present. 3. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction.9250 u 87.002603 140.3.043925 u 238.3. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. How much energy would this release? 8. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). 91 RRHS Physics . they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4.014102 u 3.007825 u 2.050786 u 1. Once this high temperature is achieved.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. A few years ago. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. 2. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2.CHAPTER 7. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. This is higher than any known material can stand. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2.

What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.0 × 1014 J of energy.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics . The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV.7.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1.3. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11.

We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. In other words. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. was friction considered to be constant. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). we might estimate it to be 2. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. The wood may shrink or warp. this 7 is only an estimate. you will be expected to do an error analysis. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. errors due to rounding oﬀ. .3*. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. therefore. errors in calculation. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place.37. It may be smaller or larger. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. the thickness of the lines may vary.1 Experimental Data however. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. the ends of the stick may be chipped. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. and probably even more. In our meter stick example. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. Suppose that a measurement is between 2.4 cm.3 and 2. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. there are errors present. In writing lab reports.4.3 cm and 2.1 mm. For example. for example. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. Take a meter stick. Some of these may be due to human errors. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself.

This type of error is generally more serious. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. In this case. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. As long as these errors are random. the less precise our results are.2. It does not address any possible systematic errors. For this reason. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. or too low. this is not an excuse to be careless. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic.1. RRHS Physics . that is. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. The more data points that we have. A. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. the smaller the standard deviation should be. In this case. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. The smaller this value. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. but it will not be very accurate. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. A.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. APPENDIX A. In the case of systematic error. Section A.A. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. The more random error we have in our experiment. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself.1 Standard Deviation A. the measurements are always too high. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. this type of error is present in all experiments. It is a good idea. we may end up with a very precise estimate. A. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. In our error analysis.1.2. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge.

96 2. and N is the number of measurements.58 A. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.45 3. and we took 12 measurements.60 2.76 1. If we know the theoretical value to be 4. In this case.35.35 1. x is the average of all the values. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.7 63.48 2.18 3. we would use t = 2. however.78 4. If we have a theoretical value of 5. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.35. When examining the data.40 1.34 1. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.35 to 5.80 1.44 1. and got an average value x of 4.92 1. if possible. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.89 2.1) where xi are the individual measurements.2.57 4.16 3.20.70±0. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.36 1. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement. The relevant values for t are given in the table.92 3.05.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.8. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.71 2.64 interval of 95% 99% 12. Note.2.42 1.03 2.84 2.98 1.94 1.36 1. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.4. 95 RRHS Physics .18 5.36 3. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.45.64 2.11 2.23 3. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.35 1.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.13 1.26 3.01 2.17 2.38 1.50 2.78 1.29 1. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.53 2.81 1. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.90 1.APPENDIX A.08 6.37 1. we would use t = 2.36 2.31 1. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.86 1. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.7 4. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.83 1.06 2. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.31 3.25 2.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results.30 9.14 2.77 1.20 3.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ.02 1.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.

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