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Physics 12 Notes|Views: 31|Likes: 0

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- Dynamics Extension
- 1.1 Introduction to Vectors
- 1.1.1 Vector Algebra
- 1.1.2 Relative Velocity
- 1.1.3 Problems
- 1.2 Force Vectors
- 1.2.1 Inclined Planes
- 1.3 Equilibrium
- 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium
- 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium
- 1.3.3 Problems
- 2-D Motion
- 2.1 Projectiles
- 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizon- tally
- 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle
- 2.1.3 Problems
- 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
- 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy
- 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion
- 2.2.3 Problems
- 2.3 2D Collisions
- 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum
- 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
- 2.3.3 Problems
- Planetary Motion
- 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion
- 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration
- 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force”
- 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force
- 3.1.4 Problems
- 3.2 Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity
- 3.2.3 Satellite Motion
- 3.2.4 Kepler’s Laws
- 3.2.5 Problems
- 4.1 Static Electricity
- 4.1.1 Insulators and Conductors
- 4.1.2 Charging Objects
- 4.1.3 Electroscopes
- 4.1.4 Permanency of Charge
- 4.1.5 Problems
- 4.2 Forces and Fields
- 4.2.1 Coulomb’s Law
- 4.2.2 Electric Fields
- 4.2.3 Lines of Force
- 4.2.4 Gravitational Fields
- 4.2.5 Problems
- 4.3 Electric Potential
- 4.3.1 Electric Potential Energy
- 4.3.2 Electric Potential
- 4.3.3 Equipotential Lines
- 4.3.4 Problems
- Electricity & Magnetism
- 5.1 Electric Current
- 5.1.1 Electrical Quantities
- 5.1.2 Ohm’s Law
- 5.1.3 Electrical Power
- 5.1.4 Problems
- 5.2 *Circuits
- 5.2.1 *Series Circuits
- 5.2.2 *Parallel Circuits
- 5.2.3 *Complex Circuits
- 5.2.4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules
- 5.2.5 *Safety Devices
- 5.2.6 *Problems
- 5.3 Magnetism
- 5.3.1 Magnetic Fields
- 5.3.2 Electromagnetism
- 5.3.3 Force on a Wire
- 5.3.4 Force on a Charged Particle
- 5.3.5 Electric Motor
- 5.3.6 Problems
- 5.4 Induction
- 5.4.1 Induced EMF
- 5.4.2 Transformers
- 5.4.3 Electric Generators
- 5.4.4 Problems
- Waves and Modern Physics
- 6.1 Quantum Theory
- 6.1.1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis
- 6.1.2 Photoelectric Eﬀect
- 6.1.3 Compton Eﬀect
- 6.1.4 de Broglie Hypothesis
- 6.1.5 Problems
- 6.2 Wave-Particle Duality
- 6.2.1 Historical Models of Light
- 6.2.2 Modern Theory of Light
- 6.2.3 Modern Theory of Particles
- 6.2.4 Implications
- 6.3 Models of the Atom
- 6.3.1 Atomic Spectra
- 6.3.2 Bohr Theory
- 6.3.3 Quantum Model
- 6.3.4 Fluorescence and Phosphores- cence
- 6.3.5 Problems
- Nuclear Physics
- 7.1 The Nucleus
- 7.1.1 Structure
- 7.1.2 Mass Defect
- 7.1.3 Problems
- 7.2 Radioactive Decay
- 7.2.1 Alpha Decay
- 7.2.2 Beta Decay
- 7.2.3 Gamma Decay
- 7.2.4 Half-lives
- 7.2.5 Problems
- 7.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity
- 7.3.1 Nuclear Fission
- 7.3.2 Nuclear Reactors
- 7.3.3 Nuclear Fusion
- 7.3.4 Problems

J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 *Problems . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . .1 Electric Current . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . .2.2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . .2 Electric Potential .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .2. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . .CONTENTS 3. 4. . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 4. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . ii . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3 Electroscopes . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . 4. . . . . . . .2.3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .1. .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Structure . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 7. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.CONTENTS 5. . RRHS Physics . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 7. .3. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .1. . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . 7. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .3. . . . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .3 Problems . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . 6. 6. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . 7. . . . .1. . . . . 7. . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . .2. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . 6. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . A. . . . .1 Experimental Data . . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . A. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .

14. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.3 7.3. pg 863 #8. pg 934 #5. pg 780 #2.4 #36.4.2 1.3.40.3 2.1 4.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.2 5.1 5.3 5.2 4.2 2.2 7. pg 596 #12. pg 661 #5.8.3 3.2 6.8 #4. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.3 #4.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.1 3.9. pg 571 #21.27. pg 608 #3.2. pg 595 #5.4.4 pg 796 #1-4.1 2.33. pg 886 #3.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.24.3. pg 655 #26.4.3 5.2.28.8. BLM #1. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1. pg 501 #31.1 6.1 7.3.7. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.6. pg 778 #1. pg 526 #1.6.25.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6. pg 918-919 #3.6.7.4 6.28 pg 495 #30. pg 933 #1.9 #2.Textbook Correlations Section 1.688-693 694-714. pg 936-937 #26. pg 529 #30.28 #2. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.27 v .5. pg 862 #6.8.15 pg 641 #9.2 4.2.5.9.10.37.6 #3.1 1. pg 515 #39. pg 489 #27.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

dy ). where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. This year. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. Last year. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. In 2D space. For example. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. For example. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). When writing. velocity. force. Consider the diagram below. it is actually two numbers. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. A vector is not just a single number. In university.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . like a scalar is.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. when typing. The symbol d represents these components.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. displacement. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). For example. it does not have a direction. Likewise. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. 1 . acceleration.

For the examples that follow. west). (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). north would be 90o .this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. In this system. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. 2. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. In this system. south. 3. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. In math. Since vectors are not single numbers. in other words. ay + by ).1. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. 1. ay ). The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. If we add these two vectors. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . we are actually adding their components. the other vector b represents the components (bx . The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. Your textbook uses this last convention.1. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). east. Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. by ). DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. To help visualize this. In the previous diagram. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o .1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. So a + b will give (ax + bx . and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics .1. south would be 270o . assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

4

RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. A hiker leaves camp and. 20. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. RRHS Physics . Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. 3 km E. Before it can move. 6 km S. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. and 3 km S. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. why? 19.85 m/s. How fast is the player running? 23. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. Find the change in velocity. mass. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. whose speed in still water is 2. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. 8 km N.1.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. the hiker is lost. Diane rows a boat at 8. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. The speed of a boat in still water is v. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. using a compass. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. wind speed? 18. A ferryboat. We must assume u < v. 26. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15.00 h. 5 kmN. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn.1. walks 4 km E. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. To do so. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6.0 m/s. At the end of three days. 10 km W.

If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). I will take up as the positive direction.CHAPTER 1. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.2. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. FORCE VECTORS 1. In the diagram below. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . Notice that although the normal. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. A free body diagram for this box would like like this.2. First. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . the force of the man pulling is not. therefore. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. the vertical forces. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. Notice that FN = Fg . both of which are vectors. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. RRHS Physics 1. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. friction. As can be seen in the diagram above. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. therefore.

DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . as in the following diagram. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. we get CHAPTER 1. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics . Similarly. FORCE VECTORS friction for now). the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. In order to apply Newton’s second law. In other words. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. Using trigonometry. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). if present.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included.2. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. Again. Again notice that FN = Fg . If friction is present.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another).2. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1.3.1. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. Drawing a free body diagram.

A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. The total mass is 80 kg. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9.2 Problems 1.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.0 N . A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. A 15. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.0 km/h.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. A 55. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5.30.2. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . What is the acceleration of this system? 11. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h. (a) Ignoring friction. The tension in the rope is 110.30. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. A car can decelerate at -5.0o angle with the horizontal. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom.0o hill at 6.0 kg block and the ramp is 0. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano.20.10.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6.CHAPTER 1. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal.2.0 m/s.0 km/h. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0.6o hill at a steady speed of 7. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. (b) Using the same power as in (a). A 5. A bicyclist can coast down a 4.76. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. A force of 300.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. A rope attached to the 5. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0. It takes 13.3 m/s2 . A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp.0o incline and accelerates at 0.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1. where it is attached to a 4. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o .300 m/s2 . An 18. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.0 kg box is released on a 33. RRHS Physics 9 .5 s for him to reach the bottom. A 25.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley.0o angle with the horizontal. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.

therefore.3. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. therefore. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. there are three forces acting on the mass.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero.3. although the net force is zero in both cases. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. there will be a net force in some direction. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. Remember. the net force acting on the mass must be zero.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. As we said.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11.1. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero.3. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. 3 1. it is obviously not accelerating. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. The mass is stationary. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. but opposite in direction. Since force is a vector. 1. therefore.

you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). It is not in rotational equilibrium. Στ = 0 Obviously. when calculating the work. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). It can be thought of as a twisting force. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. As can be seen from equation 1. even though the forces are equal and opposite. down. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course.CHAPTER 1. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. etc. This is called a dot product. You will learn more about these in university. Before dealing with torques. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. 1. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. While forces were described using up.3. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. 4 RRHS Physics .4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. When you calculated work.4. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. it acts on every particle in the body. As we have seen. as it was when discussing work. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. left. the board will begin to spin. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). the force and the displacement used had to be parallel).4 The further away from this pivot. right. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm.. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). we must introduce the notion of a torque. but one up and one down. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. but for calculating torques. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. this is important. To examine this more. τ = F⊥ d (1. the greater the torque.

The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces.3. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. The two ropes make an angle of 15.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle.0 N . Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. RRHS Physics 4. When lifting a barbell. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain.5o with each other. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. The frame has a wire across the back. A sign with a mass of 1653.3. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. 7. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. 8.0 s. 10.3 Problems 1. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. and you don’t want it to break. What is the tension in the rope? 2. 12 . A high wire is 25.0 m when a 50.0 m long and sags 1.1. 9. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. A 20. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . Find the resultant force on the vehicle. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. 3. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E.

0 kg person is sitting 1.0 kg person stands at its tip.CHAPTER 1.0 kg. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. If there is a spring on the door 5. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. In the following diagram. A 60. The platform is being held up by two students. direction. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane. The 10.0 m.0 m from the same end. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. Find the equilibrant force: 12. What equilibrant force must a fourth student.0 m platform has a mass of 10.3.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. A 50. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40. Fred.0 N applied to a rope held at 30.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60.0 cm wide.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. 19. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N . 14. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. Where must a 22. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. determine the magnitude.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . A force of 500.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. The plane has a base of 14. and its center of gravity is located 4.0 N.0 m and a length of 15.0 kg person is sitting 0. one at either end. EQUILIBRIUM 17.

1.3. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics . EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.

as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance).1.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. we see that there is only one . The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. The horizontal speed does not change. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. 2. there is no horizontal acceleration. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. This also makes things somewhat simple. Since we know our vertical acceleration.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). and acceleration. vx is the horizontal speed. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. and t is the time in the air. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. velocity. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. since max = ΣFx . therefore. These are all vector quantities. Ignoring air resistance.gravity.

1. Once this is done. therefore. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. however. as shown in the diagram below. since there are no horizontal forces.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2.4. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. 2. the time in the air. and 2. t is the time in the air. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). As the ball rises.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown.1.2. instead of horizontally. Again. In this case. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. The object does. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed.3. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. but gravity will act to slow it down. CHAPTER 2.1 to 2. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. namely using equations 2.1. For this reason. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.4. Notice that equation 2. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. vyi will be zero in equations 2. PROJECTILES used.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball.1 and 2. until it reaches zero at its highest point.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. Remember. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. the ball follows a parabolic path. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle.2. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. vyi is the initial vertical velocity. 2. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground.

Assuming the ball is launched at 51. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. Immediately.0o with the horizontal.0 s later. releasing the ball at the height of the basket.1. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s. how far from the building is the target? 6. YES! It’s a score.0 m/s.0 m/s as he leaves the ground.0 m away and are 3.0 m from the basket. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. 3. A baseball is hit at 30.0 m/s. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s.1. The ball is released at the height of the basket. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. The rotten egg landed 4. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2.02 m from the basket. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. At the time of the throw.2 m above the ground. above. the elevator was 8. PROJECTILES tree. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2.7 m above the ground. an outﬁelder runs 4. A diver running 3.CHAPTER 2.0 m. by how much will it miss the target? 3. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.2 m away from the elevator. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. A person is in a moving elevator.3 Problems 1. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot.0 s remaining in a basketball game. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9.0 m high. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . 4.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13.0o .6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. 2-D MOTION 2. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5.05 m above the ﬂoor. 14. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9.0 m/s at an angle of 53. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. Trailing by two points.5 m high. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. Should the hunter aim directly at. and with only 2. The building is 13.

22 m (horizontally).2.1 m above the ﬂoor. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. At any moment. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. (a) Draw the situation above.0 m away? 16. 20. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. 19. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. 21. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. 2-D MOTION speeds. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate.1.0 m below. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15.6 m above the ﬂoor. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. For each of the following questions. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. PROJECTILES 14. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. The basket is 2. draw all vectors to scale. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. Will the following quantities change? If so. When it reaches the end of the table. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo .

meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. but is dependent on the spring. which results in a downward acceleration.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). etc.2.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. 2-D MOTION 2. This is now its new equilibrium position . the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration.1b)). if you exceed the limits of the spring.1a). Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. This is the equilibrium position. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. in this case. this formula no longer holds). a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass.1c)and let it go. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). 2 19 .at this point. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. The units for the spring constant are N/m. which causes the spring to stretch. (See Fig 2. suspension bridges.CHAPTER 2. a mattress.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. you will double the distance the spring stretches. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. Of course. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. depending on its spring constant. the suspension of a car. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. Also. The period (the time for one complete vibration.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again.

then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. the total energy remains the same.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m).1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. At equilibrium. 2-D MOTION 2.2. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. the system.2. however. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . 20 RRHS Physics .2. or removed from.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. 2. therefore. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. 1 Ep = kx2 (2.6). v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). Substituting this into Eq 2.2.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. work is done on the spring.

A mass of 2. if it had 3.62 Hz. A spring stretches 0. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator.30 g is caught in a spider’s web.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12.CHAPTER 2.60 kg is hung from it.30 kg hangs from it? 5.110 m and released. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. What is the value of m? 6. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. 13. A block of mass 0. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. whose length is 37. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3.150 m when a 0. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0.200 kg ball.2.3 Problems 1.10 m to load a 0.75 J of work done on it? 11.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0. has a frequency of 0. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0.325 m. 2-D MOTION 2.30 kg mass is hung from it. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.30 m. A small cockroach of mass 0.10 m? 12. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0.48 Hz. 2. When an 80. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2.10 cm. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft.4 Hz when a weight of 0.50 kg is placed on a level. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. whose other end is ﬁxed.2 cm. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.10 g were trapped? 8.0 cm. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. If the spring is stretched an additional 0.2. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. What will its frequency be if only 0. The spring. the raft vibrates brieﬂy.100 m from this equilibrium point and released. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 . What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. is then released. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. When the man steps oﬀ. A geologist’s simple pendulum.8190 Hz at a particular location. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. in contact with a spring bumper.5 N hangs from it. the frequency is 0. frictionless surface.

13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision.12. This still applies in two dimensional collisions. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. pa = pa + pb (2.11 and 2. not velocity. 2.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. however.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv).3. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). In two dimensions. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). since p = mv. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. a vector diagram must be drawn. so is momentum.12.12) (2. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. if you remember from grade 11.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . 2. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. Also. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision.3.2. We can now RRHS Physics . Since velocity is a vector. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv.

Since the masses are equal. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. Remember.CHAPTER 2. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. In this type of collision. and one of the particles is initially at rest. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va .3. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. In other words. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. For a two body collision. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. some energy is lost.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. our conservation of energy equation (2.3. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. 4 In other words. after this collision. RRHS Physics 23 . Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. therefore. such as thermal energy.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. though. therefore. 2.14. the collision is elastic.

A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection.0o North of West. initially at rest. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. the second ball is moving North. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. an electron. A billiard ball of mass 0. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10.2. A proton travelling with speed 8. After the collision (assumed elastic). Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. As a result of this elastic collision. If they collide and remain stuck together. Immediately after impact.20 m/s. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o .6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. At what angle will the second proton be observed. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. Find 24 . and a neutrino. initially at rest. 50. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1.400 kg moving with a speed of 2.40 kg strikes a second ball. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. of mass mb = 0. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton.00 m/s strikes a second ball. of mass 0. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. From skid marks.00 m/s. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. 40.2×10−23 kg·m/s. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact.400 kg. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. Two cars collide at an intersection. the investigator determined that car A.3.0 km/h. and the second car had a velocity of 40. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3.0 km/h. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle.0o North of West. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. 6.3 Problems 1.80 m/s.60 kg.3.

To calculate the speed of the object. Since this is the only force. the object moves in a curve. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string).2) T The only force acting on the object is the string.1. however. we get v= 2πr (3. There is.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. we see v= 25 3. 1 . the object will not speed up or slow down. there is still an acceleration.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr).Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. which is pulling inward. the object will speed up or slow down.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. however. With projectile motion. we can simply use d (3. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. in other words. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. an acceleration present. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. the acceleration must also be inward. So even though the speed is not changing.

2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. 2.1. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3.5 becomes Fc = mac (3.3.6) Figure 3. it just shows the direction of the three quantities. in particular.3) T Combining equations 3. In fact. always inward toward the center of the circle. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion.3. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. Looking at equation 3.1. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3.2. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. Centripetal force is not.1: This is not a free body diagram. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. however. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. ac = v2 3. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one.2 and 3. when solving centripetal force problems. horizontal surface. 3. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. 1. then equation 3.1 below). In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. by deﬁnition. This is a common misconception of students. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 . There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics .5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration.

Remember. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r.CHAPTER 3. because of Newton’s Third Law. the ball is not being pushed outward. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. If there were. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. also. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. If you break the string. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward.1. being pulled inward by the string. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. in fact. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia.1. 3. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). not outward. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). In this situation. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. Pretend you are the ball in our example. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. it is. because of inertia.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. in fact. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle.

1.20? 6.80 m long. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0.4 Problems 1.0 m radius and rotates 1. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.15 m/s and its mass is 0. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.3 days. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. A 5. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10.00 revolutions in a second.42. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.30? 7. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8.1. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. 3. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. The yo-yo has a mass of 0.335 kg. what force does the string now exert? 4. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. If its speed is 3.5 cm.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. A coin is placed 18. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.3. The ball makes exactly 2. What is the critical speed (i.0 revolutions per second.000 km and a period of 27. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. 28 RRHS Physics . (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.0 complete revolution each second.0 m. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.e.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.15 m.1 times per second.60. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.0 m rope. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5. 9.

what RRHS Physics 3. 17. 14. Assume no change in energy for the system. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. including the relevant forces. will a friction force be required? If so. how much and in what direction? 29 . UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster.6 km. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. Sketch the situation. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. If the person is standing on the equator. the vine is 4. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine.1. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. A person has a mass of 75. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire).0 kg. 15. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . For the previous question. 18. 19.0 m long.CHAPTER 3. PLANETARY MOTION 13. and explain this sensation.

Assuming a circular orbit. Equation 3. a force of gravity exists between any two masses.) g= GM m R2 3. it travels a further distance. Newton.2. In grade 11. but not to understand why they are so. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. gravity is much more common than this. however.2. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . speciﬁcally. this is how the mass of the earth was found. equating the two expressions. however.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. it is falling toward the earth. In this way. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. In fact. Fg = 30 3. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. given by G in the equation below.3. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 .2 Universal Gravitation 3. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. This type of relationship appears often in physics.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. If the object is given a higher speed. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated.2. we must consider the orbit. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. we get mg = or GM (3. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results.2. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. PLANETARY MOTION 3. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. To determine this necessary speed. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground.

v= GM r (3. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.2. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. PLANETARY MOTION 3. m is the mass of the satellite. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. faster than this speed. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator.CHAPTER 3. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. If the satellite goes slower than this speed.9.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15).10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet).4)into equation 3.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). we get GM m mv 2 = (3. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite.2. 3. Solving this equation for v. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. 3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. as given in equation 3. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 .7. 2.

85 × 105 km. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km.85 × 105 km.44 × 106 s and it is 1.2. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. r = 6. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. But Frank is lazy. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. 10.50 m apart. 3. 7.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. Four 8.2. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics .5 Problems 1.50 × 108 km.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7. What is g near the surface? 5.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. A force of 40. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. 12.6 times that of the earth.71×10−8 N . determine the mass of Jupiter. All distances are center to center.98 × 107 m). PLANETARY MOTION weight.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter.99 × 1030 kg).0 N is required to pull a 10. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another.3. 13. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. From this data. 8. 6. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. Do the previous question again. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth.50 m.90 × 1027 kg. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3. 2. but has the same mass. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. If the bowling balls are 0. Frank is really concerned about his weight. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon.

Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. orbits the sun like other planets.3 × 1022 kg.2. Find the value of this constant. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. The asteroid Icarus. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth.CHAPTER 3. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15.4 days) to do problem 16. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. 32. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. though only a few hundred meters across. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). 33 . Why? 28. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. RRHS Physics 3.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. what would happen to the value of G? 30. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. 1969. PLANETARY MOTION 14. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. 16. Jupiter is 5. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. 31. Its period is 410 days. 27. A satellite is going around Earth. On July 19. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. What is its average distance from the sun? 26.

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.3.2. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .

According to atomic theory.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. . Likewise. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. the net change 35 4. 4. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. for example. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. Metals are generally very good conductors. If you rub a balloon in your hair.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. This kind of atom is called an ion. even more important than many people think. you notice that it will stick to the wall.1. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. In each case. in the amount of charge is zero. Remember. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. During any of the processes described above. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. giving it a net negative or positive charge. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. In a normal state. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. not the protons. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another).1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. When a conductor is given a negative charge.

the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. An object can also be charged by conduction. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. if it is charged negatively. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. there are . and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. No charge has been created. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. The RRHS Physics . As soon as they touch. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. germanium.4. The other way of charging an object is called induction. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. CHAPTER 4. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. and they touch.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together.1. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons.1. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. in this way.however. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. For example. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. conduction occurs. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. With induction.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. but is just brought near it. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. i. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. If you ground the sphere. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. however.e.1. it has merely been separated. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. giving it excess electrons. 4.

4.1. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. now negatively charged.even though they are neutral. In some cases. If charges become large enough. will repel each other and will spread out. as shown here. even when nothing is apparently done to them. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. particularly on each leaf. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. Suppose. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. Think about how you may do this. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge.1.CHAPTER 4. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. The leaves will then stay spread apart. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . giving it a permanent charge. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. 37 . The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. The more water molecules in the air. even after we remove the charged rod. 4.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. the leaves. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. more often. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. the faster the charge will be carried away. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. however. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. the two leaves just hang vertically. You can. If the electroscope is neutral.

Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. you remove the two positively charges objects. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. A attracts C.1. 12.4. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. Explain. what kind of charge does B have? 6.1. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. You place two objects with strong positive charges. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. one at each end of the line of blocks. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. When an electroscope is charged. If you know that D is positively charged. they ﬂy away in different directions. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. What charge is on the rod? 8. 5. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. 3. 9. why does the record now attract dust? 4. but as soon as they touch the rod. close to but not touching the blocks. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics .5 Problems 1. Finally. and C repels D. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres.

r is the distance between the charges in meters.2. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. then the r in equation 4. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life.2 4. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. 39 . To help explain this idea. The search for simple. however.CHAPTER 4. and weak nuclear forces) continues. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. This worried people.it is a concept. 4.2. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. it is precise for only point charges. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. If the two objects are spheres. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . Using some test charge q. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. or some other type of contact. tying a rope to something. in fact. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it.2. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. they think of pushing or pulling an object. When people think of forces. strong nuclear forces.1 is the distance between the centers. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. since it appeared to behave like magic.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. FIELDS 4. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. E= F q (4. This may require pushing with your hand. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. which has an equal but opposite charge). electromagnetic. without using some test charge. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less.

4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. For example. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . If there is more than one source charge. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially.2.2. 2. Substituting equation 4. These electric ﬁeld lines. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength).3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. or lines of force.2. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. E= CHAPTER 4. consider a positive source charge. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. For example. then equation 4.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. we obtain kQ (4. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance.1 into equation 4. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. however. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. equation 4. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. The closer together the ﬁeld lines.1. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. In reality. FIELDS points around the sources.4. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. which interacts with all objects near the earth. 4. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly.2. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge.

what force is exerted? 12. and an electron. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. A positive charge of 3. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. In one model of the hydrogen atom.5 Problems 1. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1.0 N on each other? 4. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. is 0. -2. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. What should you do? 11. mass 9.145 N on each other. Three particles are placed in a line. has a charge of +25 µC. and the right -83 µC. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0.00 × 10−17 C? 2.67 × 10−27 kg. the typical size of an atom.0 µC is 0.CHAPTER 4. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. You are given two similar spheres.030 m to the east. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. The bottom electron is resting on a table. In other words.2.2.0 µC. the RRHS Physics . 4. has a charge of -20 µC.050 m to the north and the other. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. A and B. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. Two charges. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. One. -4. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. q1 and q2 .2). If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . located 16 cm to the right.11 × 10−31 kg. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. mass 1. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. What is the force between them? 5. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. A second ball. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g).1 × 106 m/s. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. A third ball. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. 8. 3. located 25 cm above the second ball.5 × 10−10 m. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10.

30 m apart. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. the force each exerts on the other is 28. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth.0 cm away from a 1. A negative charge of 2. FIELDS 20. one 33. Find the force on an electron. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain.2 cm apart. Two charges. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. A proton (m = 1.0 µC are 8. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. RRHS Physics .0 × 10−6 C test charge. then repeat your work with a 2. FORCES AND FIELDS 14.0 µC charged particle? 21.0 µC charge 40.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26.5 N and is repulsive.0 cm apart? 23. (a) two positively charged point sources. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. A water droplet of radius 0. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. 42 CHAPTER 4. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. 19. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. Two positive charges. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. −Qo and −3Qo . Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. 24. Take into account gravity and determine E. 17.2.4. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27.0 µC and the other 68.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. are a distance l apart. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).0× 10−6 C charge.020 mm remains stationary in the air.0 µC and a +60. When placed 1. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15.

it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. The potential energy here will decrease. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb .4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy.3. This will add energy to the system. you don’t have to do anything.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges).3. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics .1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. which is called the volt. Remember that W = ∆E. sphere B is said to be neutral. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. For example. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. therefore. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable.CHAPTER 4. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. Suppose you have two spheres. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy.3. If the two spheres are touched together. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). so Vab = Wab q (4. namely potential energy. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. 4. If positive work is required to move the charge. we say that it is at a high potential. The symbol for electric potential is V . The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. for example. FIELDS 4. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. Just as with gravitational potential energy. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. In this case. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. since they are trying to get away from one another. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point.

3. the two spheres will be at the same potential. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3. as shown below.3. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. 4. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. What work is done when 5. CHAPTER 4. if they were not. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9.5 × 10−4 J. that is.0 µC charge.3. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 .4. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).0 µC charge is moved towards a +45.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. A -30. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. FIELDS 2.0 C is raised in potential by 1. at this point. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. A force of 0.5 × 107 V . The change in energy while doing this is 4. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5.4 Problems 1. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over).5 V ? 3. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics .

a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). at the same time. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. this is given a special name. so its electrons are held very loosely. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. Remember that in solids. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. therefore. also referred to as an amp.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. little was known about the structure of the atom. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. In short. a battery is several cells connected together. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. In 1800. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. 5. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire.1 Electric Current Q (5. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. 1 . A wire is a conductor. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. Contrary to a common belief. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. When people discussed current. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. an ampere (A). As was discussed in the previous chapter.1. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal.

however. This makes sense. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. insulators have a very high resistance. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. When charges are moved through a resistance. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. These materials are than said to be superconducting. the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. they lose potential. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). we can use it here as well. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). In the same way. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). therefore. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. CHAPTER 5. Comparing this to electricity. it gains or loses energy. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. 3. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow.5. the greater the ﬂow of water. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). If one end of the pipe is raised. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). because of their atomic structure. For practical purposes. 46 . In liquids and gases. Temperature: In general. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire).1. Resistance is measured in ohms. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. In our gravity/water analogy above. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. With a battery. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). 2. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges.

it is really energy that we pay for. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. Note that equation 5.CHAPTER 5. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. light.5. but I = q/t (equation 5. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. the watt (W ). we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. so it will have a lower resistance. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law.4 with equation 5. the current is proportional to the voltage. current can be expressed as V (5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. if you double the voltage. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law.1.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. That is. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor.3) 5.1. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5.1. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. We RRHS Physics . Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. the current also doubles. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. Looking at this equation. the resistance must be constant. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. the current is proportional to voltage). 4. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. thereby increasing the resistance.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. 5. or mechanical).1) so P = IV (5.5) 5.

10 A ﬂows in a wire. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. but when a 3. A current of 1. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. What is the current through a 6. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. What is the voltage of the battery? 6.1.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. Joe argues that. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. A 1.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. 11. What voltage will produce 12. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. 5 mA can be painful. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows.4 Problems 1.6) CHAPTER 5. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. 14. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3.0 h. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire.0 A? 5. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12.5 V battery.5. The line has a resistance of 1. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows.0 cm apart.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω.1.0 V battery is used. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3.5 A for 6. above 100 mA can be fatal. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. Is Joe correct? Explain. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ).085/kW h). at 20 mA. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. since R = V /I. When she connects it to a 1. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery.

0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. 18. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28.08 per kW h.0 A when operated on 120 V . (a) If the cost of the battery is $0.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .5 kg of water.1. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C.000 V rather than 12. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.90 and it lasts for 300 hours.CHAPTER 5. At $0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16.4 A from a 120 V line? 27.0o C to 55.) 49 . How many 100 W light bulbs. operated at 120 V . can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. It is observed that it takes 12. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio.20 kg of water. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24.06 per kWh? 19. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. What is its increase in temperature during the 30.0 minutes. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. What is the eﬃciency of a 0. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30.0 s? 25.29 kg/m3 .2 Ω lines. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. RRHS Physics 5. (a) 220 V are applied across it. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. A modern television set draws 2. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. by means of a converter. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0.0o C. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .000 V ? 21.11 per kW h.

since there is only one path. each resistor has its own path. and R3 . applying equation 5. R3 respectively. then by applying equation 5. when we put several resistance in series. Because charge must be conserved. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits.5.2. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances.2. V2 = IR2 . and V3 = IR3 . The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor.8) (5. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. I1 .2. When you add more resistances. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. By conservation of energy. currents.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. If V1 .2 we know that V1 = IR1 . R2 .8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . I2 . and voltages throughout the circuit.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up.2 to analyze the resistances. Knowing the equivalent resistance.9) RRHS Physics . Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. you increase the total resistance. V2 . R2 . *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. Of course.7) 5. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . 5. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5.

however. every time you add a resistance in parallel. 5. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance.10) 5.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . then they are not in series. since there is a junction in between the two. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. For example. This combination is then in series with R1 .2. *CIRCUITS 2. but are often some combination of the two. Consider the following example. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. If any resistors are in series. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below.CHAPTER 5.2. so they can be combined using equation 5. In this example. 3. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit).10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. if there is a junction between the resistors. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. R3 . R1 and R2 are not in series. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. Again. R2 . If any resistors are in parallel. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). RRHS Physics 51 . Also. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . Remember. R3 is in series with R4 . equation 5. Remember.

RRHS Physics 5. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated.2. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. Some circuits4 are.5. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. 2. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. For example. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. 2.2. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. for example. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. too complicated for this analysis.2. a system of equations can then be found and solved. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. however.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5.9. Houses are wired in parallel. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. breaking the circuit. To deal with these circuits. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. A third type of safety device is slightly different. Most newer houses have circuit breakers.7. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. 5. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. For example. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. This is just an expression of equation 5. 1.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. If this strip melts. If too much current ﬂows. These rules actually apply to all circuits. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. At any junction point.

Find V. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6.50 A.6 *Problems 1. Find each resistance. 4. 8.2. 5. Find the unknown currents and voltages. 2. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find the current in each branch. 3. 7. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. 5. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances.CHAPTER 5. What is the resistance in each case? 53 .2.

If each resistor is 10 Ω.I3 .I3 . Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. 12. and P1 . 100 W .0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2.0 V .5. Find R3 . or 150 W at 120 V . Suppose that you have a 6.2.0 Ω. 16. and I4 . If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.I2 . Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. CHAPTER 5. Find the current in each branch. Given an unlimited supply of 1. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.0 V output for a 6. If each resistor is 10 Ω.V2 . 13. *CIRCUITS 10.0 54 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. Find It .0 V input? 15. A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . 17. 11.

which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24.8 kΩ. I2 . and I3 in the following circuit. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. (a) If they are connected in parallel. RRHS Physics 55 23.2. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. Consider the circuit below. *CIRCUITS 22. one larger than the other. what is the resistance of the other? . Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. determine the currents I1 . what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. If one resistor is 2. 5. which is brighter? 21. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages.CHAPTER 5. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances.

The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. however. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. As a result. in ferromagnetic materials. RRHS Physics 56 . since an electric current will always produce both. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. the result is two magnets. almost as if they were spinning on their axis.3. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. A compass needle is really a small magnet. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. and cobalt. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. however.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. the same as electric charges.3. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. 5. nickel. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely.5. In most materials. each with a north and south pole. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. 5. On a small scale. In a magnetized piece of iron. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. This will be seen in the next section. Magnetic poles are not. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. for example. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. the domains are more lined up in one direction. magnetic forces act over distances.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. however. Since these forces do behave similarly.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. If you cut a magnet in two.

B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. By using more than one loop. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. then. In other words. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). when using left hand rules. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. it often7 experiences a force. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. or a current. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop.3. It was only with a moving charge. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle.3. To use this hand rule.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. around 1820. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. the ﬁeld will be stronger here.CHAPTER 5. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. it makes sense. 5. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . the second right hand rule can be used. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. In fact. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. To use this hand rule.3. Since we draw on two dimensional paper.3. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. This is an electromagnet. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. but this was found to have no eﬀect. 6 5. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld.

point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. To use this rule. There will be no force between b and c.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. use left hand rules. to 58 RRHS Physics .3.5 Electric Motor 5. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. as long as this force remains the same magnitude.3.8 8 Remember. CHAPTER 5. you may also use the left hand rule. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. As we learned before. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page.3.5. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. Remember that I = q/t. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. To do this.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. 5. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. substituting this into equation 5. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. Between c and d. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. the force will be out of the page. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. have to be moving through a wire. This loop of wire will rotate. If the moving particle is negative. as shown below. so F = qvB sin θ (5. The charges do not. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. however. as shown in the side view below.

A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. MAGNETISM other brush. as well as a ferromagnetic core. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). 5. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. In order to make the loop continue turning. we want it to turn continuously. As a result. To make eﬃcient use of a motor.3. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB).3. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. but no force acts on the wire. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate.6 Problems 1. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. In reality. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. as shown below. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. As the armature turns. (b) Two opposite poles. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. but just touch one another. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. if the loop goes past this point.CHAPTER 5. Many loops of wire are usually used. Also. This allows the current to change direction in the loop.

0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. (a) CHAPTER 5. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. A straight 2. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. (b) 10.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.35 N . The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 . What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12.90 T . identify the poles of the magnets. If the force on the wire below is into the page. 11.0 A and weighs 0.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. What is the force on the wire? 7. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9.9 × 103 kg/m3 .5. MAGNETISM 5. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13.3.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west.0 × 10−5 T . it feels zero force. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. A proton having a speed of 5. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward.

An electron (m = 9. 23. B=0. which exists between the two parallel plates below.25 T .25 × 106 m/s. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20.10 cm in a 0. 16. If the velocity of the particle is 5. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. 17.000 V . A particle with a charge of 2. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron.10 T magnetic ﬁeld.08 m.CHAPTER 5.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. Explain. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. 21. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. Calculate the mass of the particle. E=1000 N/C. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. The force is upward and of magnitude 5.4 mm? 24. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. Calculate the energy of the proton.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V .385 T magnetic ﬁeld.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward.02 T. 61 . The radius of its path is 4. A force of 5. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space.3.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0.6 × 10−13 N .032 T .240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1.5 cm.

No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. In other words. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. and not a force where B. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction.5. v. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. 5.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence.4. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. We call this an induced emf.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. For example. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one).4. when the magnet is removed. For example. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. ∆φ ∆t (5. Such a current is called an induced current. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor).4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld.

ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion.CHAPTER 5. however. The primary coil has the incoming current. In the example shown below. This is called perpetual motion. From equation 5. Just like before. to maintain a current in the secondary coil.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. therefore.13.15) 5. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. There is.4. this is a step-down transformer. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. conservation of energy tells 63 . The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. Combining these two equations. Remember. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. however. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. Notice that if Ns > Np . This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. 5. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil.4. If Ns < Np . This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. But remember. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. the two wires are insulated from one another. this is called a step-up transformer. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. therefore.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer.

The wire ab is moving out. the force on cd must be out of the page. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor.16) CHAPTER 5. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. therefore. out of the page). An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. RRHS Physics . and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). Similarly. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. At position 1.4. Since P = V I.5. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. at positions 2 and 4. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. at position 3. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. into the page). we see what happens to the current.4. Consider the picture below. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. then the current must be lowered. this means that if the voltage goes up. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input.

The more current that is drawn. the greater the back (or counter) emf.4.18) Since power is P = V I. Back EMF As was previously stated. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. as was seen in a previous graph. value. Since the current is not constant. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished.5Imax To make a DC generator. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. INDUCTION called a counter torque. If we square an AC electric current graph. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction.707Imax (5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. giving Pavg = 0. The greater the speed of the motor.11 we cannot just average the current over time. Instead. or eﬀective. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. we get a sin2 θ graph. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). however. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. As we turn the generator. the situation is the reverse.CHAPTER 5.5Vmax Imax In North America. we take a root mean square average (rms). When a motor is operating. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . In a generator. Alternating Current As we have seen. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf.707Vmax (5. as were used with the DC motor.17) Similarly.

The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. It is initially in a 0.4 s.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. calculate the emf developed. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. 6.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . It takes 0. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown.5 Ω.0 cm/s. What is the average induced emf ? 2.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.4. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.19) CHAPTER 5.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. 5. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. In what direction is the induced current? 3. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. A 12.15 Ω. with its plane perpendicular to B.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0.5Pmax (5. A square coil of sides 5.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. If the rod is 12.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. If the wire has a resistance of 0.4 Problems 1. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. What is the induced emf ? 4.10 s.5.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1.4. Also note that since P = V I.350 T to zero.800 T . Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. Hence. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V .

and (c) the power transformed 13. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. If the primary and secondary were reversed.0 V source and measures 8. INDUCTION 17. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25.0 V at the secondary. is across a 35 Ω resistor. 19. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. It is used with a transformer in England.0 A respectively. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). the coil will swing.0 V and the input current is 11. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. whose peak value is 90 V .0 A.75 A.CHAPTER 5. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. what would the new output voltage be? 16. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. Why? 21.0 A. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. (b) the current in the primary.0 V and an output current of 5. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23.4. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. Calculate the peak current in a 2. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . where the line voltage is 240 V . 26. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. Frequently. and an output current of 0. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3.0 A. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5.0 V AC. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . An ac voltage. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. Why is this true? 18.

(a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line.4. a 700 W hair dryer. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics .5. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. INDUCTION 28. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21.25 A. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

If he was correct. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. The photon does not actually slow down.1 however. however. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. By making careful measurements. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. In fact.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength.1. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. after the collision.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. The difﬁculty here. He suggested in 1923 that. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. however. Objects such as electrons. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6.1. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum.4).6. 1 RRHS Physics .5). such as diﬀraction and interference. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength.4 and 6. only its frequency is lowered.

RRHS Physics 9. 6. Determine the wavelength of a 0. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. 16. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. in meters. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light.40 Hz. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. 13. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. 10. QUANTUM THEORY 8.1. 14. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . If energy is radiated by all objects. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract.0 eV photon and a 5. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on.0 km/h.5 Problems 1. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. What are the wavelengths. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0.1. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. 7.0 eV electron? 73 .28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2.CHAPTER 6. 15. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1.80 nm. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg.1 × 1013 Hz. does its wavelength change? If so. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. of a 3. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5.0 × 106 m/s. 12. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. does it increase or decrease? 11. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. λ = 450 nm.

2. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light.2. a ball thrown against a wall). The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. As with Newton’s particle model. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. In a uniform medium. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . since all waves at this time required a medium. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. As these particles passed through a prism. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. was putting forward a wave model of light.6. for example. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. the particles must be moving very fast. 6. led by Christian Huygens. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. They proposed that light actually consists of waves.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. another group of scientists. As the light gets closer to the water.

mainly due to Newton’s reputation. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. It states that to understand any given experiment. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). however. without its problems.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. Also. The two theories. which contradicts Newton’s theory. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. the resulting image is slightly blurred.2. which appear to be incompatible. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. Similarly. however. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. This model was not. we must refer to both theories. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6.2. however. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. in 1850. The two aspects of light complement one another. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum.CHAPTER 6. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. refraction. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. but to understand light fully. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. According to Maxwell’s theory. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. For example. indicating a spreading out of the light. By the middle of the nineteenth century. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. however. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. and interference where the particle theory fails. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. 6.

Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). 2 76 . or as a wave that has a mass. In terms of everyday language and images. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. Applied to a smaller scale. depending on which property of light is being measured. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. however. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. In order to locate the ball. when light passes through space or a medium. In general. this duality extends to particles as well. but in the process would move it from that position. you would have to feel your way around. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. its behavior imitates that of a wave. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. negatively charged particles. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. You wouldn’t know where it is going.2. but a visual picture is again not possible. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. or even a combination of the two.6. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. is the set of its properties that we can measure. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. This would tell you where it is.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. This has some major implications. like light. light reveals both wave and particle properties. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. An electron. To locate this. you must interact with it. CHAPTER 6. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. macroscopic world. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). when light interacts with matter. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. its behavior is more like that of a particle. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. We cannot picture what they are. 6. When we try to visualize light. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us.2. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating.2. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. When this radiation interacts with the electron.

this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object.4 and 6. however. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. but according to equations 6. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. If. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. and not determinism. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. it is still a probability and not a certainty. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. however. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. Thus.2. For examRRHS Physics 6. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. 77 . Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. we must use a small wavelength. but has wave properties.5. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. In summary. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. on the other hand. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important.CHAPTER 6.

2. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.

A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. Although a major step forward.1. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons.3. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. When energy is transferred to atoms. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. This is known as an absorption spectrum. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. scientists can analyze unknown materials. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. This became known as the Rutherford Model. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. If they were at rest. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. This is how helium was discovered. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. emit a discrete spectrum. By analyzing these wavelengths. Less dense gases.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. Using spectroscopy. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. Around 1911. When viewing these spectra. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. was accepted by scientists by 1900. not interactions between atoms.CHAPTER 6.3. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. since they are unique to each atom. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. heated solids. 6. but a few were bounced almost directly back. This is known as an emission spectrum. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . The emitted light is due to individual atoms. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths.1. in industry. 6. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas.

The Rutherford model could not explain this. The radius increases with n2 . Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. for example.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. When changing energy levels. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). The higher the energy level. Thus. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. Neils Bohr. as in solids). The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. 1.1). Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. they are accelerating. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. and also predicted an unstable atom. however. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts.3. as shown in the diagram in section 6.3.3. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. green. As the electrons spiraled inward. both are therefore quantized. CHAPTER 6. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. blue. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. in other words.6 eV n2 (6. Using quantum theory. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths.2. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. as it loses energy. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. the atom would not be very stable. electrons can jump directly or in steps. RRHS Physics . While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. A student of Rutherford. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. In 1911. If an electron absorbs energy. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). and violet. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra.6.8) 6.red. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms.8). The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. 2. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus.1 .

The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. Notice in equation 6. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg.3. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). This was a major problem with the model. If we consider the electron to be a particle. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure.CHAPTER 6. the energy is actually at a minimum. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. but is actually much harder to visualize. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. The electron. however. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. Louis de Broglie. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. As a result. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. determined energy levels of the elements. since it has a wave nature. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. however. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. applying his theory of matter waves.8 that when n=1. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. In quantum mechanics. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. Bohr did not know how to explain this. electron can go from 3 to 1. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. however. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. however. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron.3. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. each independently. 6.

Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. for example. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state.6. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. These materials are used. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6.3. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. Explain any discrepancies. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). At low temperatures. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour.3. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). in luminous watch dials. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed.3. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. In a group of these atoms.3. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. 8.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one.1. 5. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. 6. CHAPTER 6. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state.5 Problems 1. spin (ms )). In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. This is called ﬂuorescence. magnetic (ml ). however. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light).

Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. however. Sometimes. for example. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. This is one of the four forces of nature. This force only acts over short distances.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. Z is the atomic number.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. and A is the mass number. an element is written as A X.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element.1. A. In the last chapter. Z. the electromagnetic force.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. the others being the gravitational force. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. In 1932. 7. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. this force is the same between protons and protons. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. 1 . protons and neutrons. and the weak nuclear force. called a neutron. so as the distance becomes greater. the electric force becomes more important. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together.1. This adds energy to the system. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. and neutrons and neutrons.

u. A nuclear reaction produces 9. To be stable. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6.1. which is iron.1. and c is the speed of light in m/s.014102 u. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931.1. We will look at this more in the next two sections. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. This implies that by adding energy to the system. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. The mass of 2 H is 2.015123 u). and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. Thus. where E is the energy in J. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. RRHS Physics . If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents.49 MeV. In general. It is expressed as a negative number. we are actually adding mass. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . the number of protons. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. 5.1) CHAPTER 7. In other words. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy.3 Problems 1. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. m is the equivalent mass in kg.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. it could just fall apart. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus.66 × 10 kg). What mass was converted? 4.7. In a nuclear reaction.007276 u mn = 1. identify the element. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents.0 × 1011 J of energy. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. Using equation 7. the total number of nucleons. 84 7. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. For each of the following.

THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 . NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.1.CHAPTER 7.

there are not enough neutrons to do this. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.2. 7. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. This is known as (natural radioactivity). as will be discussed in the following sections. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. As a result. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. therefore. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity).7. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. 7. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. beyond this. 2 They are not very energetic. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. 4 He. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). This is true for all alpha decays.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. These nuclei are very tightly bound.3. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. and required no external stimulation. 7. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896.2. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped).2. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. RRHS Physics . The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. If the atomic number gets too large.

This is a random process. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino).2.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). allowing a proton to become a neutron.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. For this reason. it emits a photon. A neutrino is also emitted. This electron disappears into the nucleus. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. 7. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. they can be very dangerous. 7. when it drops down to a lower energy state.2.CHAPTER 7. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). A positron has the same mass as an electron. In beta decay. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. In 10 years. In some cases. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . This photon is known as a gamma ray. by emitting a positron. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above).2. Like an atom. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. the nucleus does not undergo any change. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). Other than releasing energy. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. which has no charge and no mass. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. becomes a neutron. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. but the opposite charge. One of the protons. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7.

A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. 210 P o. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years.2. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ.5 Problems 1. CHAPTER 7. β − . One Bequerel is one decay per second. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. so it is closely related to half-life. 214 Bi. Write the complete nuclear equation. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample.9898 u). 8. A radioactive bismuth isotope. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. After one half-life. or β + emission. 84 emits a α particle. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. 7.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. When 23 N e (mass=22. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. 88 RRHS Physics . showing the element formed. 83 emits a β particle. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample.2. In another 10 years. Write the complete nuclear equation. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). showing the element formed. A radioactive polonium isotope. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element.7. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus.

2 are moving too fast. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released.2) although there are many other possibilities. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. but they can also occur in nature. because it resembled cell division. 7. or gamma rays.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). 89 . Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). resulting in a sustained chain reaction. 7.3. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. 2. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory).CHAPTER 7. the top scientists in Europe and the U. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. To detonate the bomb. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . This ended the war. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere.S. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. resulting in a transmutation. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima.3% 238 U and only 0. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. this is known as radioactive fallout. RRHS Physics 7.3. following Fermi’s work. protons.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. the two masses would be brought together quickly. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator.3. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. neutrons. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. electrons. however. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes.

Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). these control the rate of the reaction. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. Quebec. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. usually containing cadmium. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). For example. however. so it can be built where technology is limited. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. It has a simpliﬁed design. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. 3. energy will be released. To slow the reaction down. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. 92 7. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. 5 CHAPTER 7.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. and can be separated to be used as fuel. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. and New Brunswick.3. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. helium is extremely tightly bound. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive).7. Also present are control rods. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. RRHS Physics 90 . which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. which was discussed earlier. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. which is very expensive.3. 235 U . There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. Because of its design. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses.

9250 u 87. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). How much energy would this release? 8. 3. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. 91 RRHS Physics .3. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.002603 140. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. A few years ago. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong.905625 u 135. 9. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7.050786 u 1.016029 u 4.007825 u 2. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. 2. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). At present. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1.016049 u 3.90722 u 235.7 for this reason. This is higher than any known material can stand.CHAPTER 7. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld.3.9141 u 91. 6. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained.014102 u 3.043925 u 238. List three medical uses of radioactivity. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. Once this high temperature is achieved. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1.2? 5. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics .00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV.3.0 × 1014 J of energy. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.7.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1.

Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. you will be expected to do an error analysis. Some of these may be due to human errors. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9.3 and 2. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. . We only know that the correct measurement is 2.37. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”.4. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. In our meter stick example. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. the ends of the stick may be chipped. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument.1 Experimental Data however.1 mm. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. errors in calculation. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. and probably even more. Take a meter stick. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place.3*. It may be smaller or larger. For example. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. there are errors present. In other words. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. was friction considered to be constant. therefore.4 cm. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. for example. this 7 is only an estimate. we might estimate it to be 2. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. The wood may shrink or warp. In writing lab reports.3 cm and 2. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. errors due to rounding oﬀ. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. the thickness of the lines may vary.

In the case of systematic error.1 Standard Deviation A. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. or too low. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. In this case. RRHS Physics . or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. we may end up with a very precise estimate. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. that is. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. The more data points that we have.2. For this reason. this is not an excuse to be careless. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. the smaller the standard deviation should be. The more random error we have in our experiment. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. APPENDIX A. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. this type of error is present in all experiments. This type of error is generally more serious. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion.1. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. In our error analysis.2. Section A. The smaller this value. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. It is a good idea. In this case.A. It does not address any possible systematic errors. the less precise our results are. A. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). but it will not be very accurate. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. A. As long as these errors are random. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. A. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used.1. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. the measurements are always too high.

18 3.77 1.13 1. If we have a theoretical value of 5.05.01 2. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.30 9.11 2. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.40 1.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.7 4.78 4. however.58 A.94 1.38 1.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results.29 1.20 3. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.23 3.02 1. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.2.35 to 5.1) where xi are the individual measurements.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.7 63.31 1.53 2.70±0. 95 RRHS Physics .84 2.03 2.90 1. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.83 1. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.06 2. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.60 2. and got an average value x of 4. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.35 1.36 1.64 2. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.17 2.50 2.16 3. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab. we would use t = 2.89 2.78 1. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.18 5. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.86 1. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.2.35.44 1.92 3. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.08 6.14 2. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.34 1.25 2. When examining the data. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.APPENDIX A.57 4. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.35.4. In this case.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ.71 2.45.81 1. and we took 12 measurements. and N is the number of measurements.96 2. The relevant values for t are given in the table.48 2. x is the average of all the values.26 3. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.37 1.98 1.80 1.31 3. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.36 2. if possible.92 1.42 1.35 1.8. Note.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.36 3.20.76 1.45 3.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.36 1. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4. we would use t = 2.

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