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Physics 12 Notes|Views: 31|Likes: 0

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- Dynamics Extension
- 1.1 Introduction to Vectors
- 1.1.1 Vector Algebra
- 1.1.2 Relative Velocity
- 1.1.3 Problems
- 1.2 Force Vectors
- 1.2.1 Inclined Planes
- 1.3 Equilibrium
- 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium
- 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium
- 1.3.3 Problems
- 2-D Motion
- 2.1 Projectiles
- 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizon- tally
- 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle
- 2.1.3 Problems
- 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
- 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy
- 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion
- 2.2.3 Problems
- 2.3 2D Collisions
- 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum
- 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
- 2.3.3 Problems
- Planetary Motion
- 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion
- 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration
- 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force”
- 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force
- 3.1.4 Problems
- 3.2 Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity
- 3.2.3 Satellite Motion
- 3.2.4 Kepler’s Laws
- 3.2.5 Problems
- 4.1 Static Electricity
- 4.1.1 Insulators and Conductors
- 4.1.2 Charging Objects
- 4.1.3 Electroscopes
- 4.1.4 Permanency of Charge
- 4.1.5 Problems
- 4.2 Forces and Fields
- 4.2.1 Coulomb’s Law
- 4.2.2 Electric Fields
- 4.2.3 Lines of Force
- 4.2.4 Gravitational Fields
- 4.2.5 Problems
- 4.3 Electric Potential
- 4.3.1 Electric Potential Energy
- 4.3.2 Electric Potential
- 4.3.3 Equipotential Lines
- 4.3.4 Problems
- Electricity & Magnetism
- 5.1 Electric Current
- 5.1.1 Electrical Quantities
- 5.1.2 Ohm’s Law
- 5.1.3 Electrical Power
- 5.1.4 Problems
- 5.2 *Circuits
- 5.2.1 *Series Circuits
- 5.2.2 *Parallel Circuits
- 5.2.3 *Complex Circuits
- 5.2.4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules
- 5.2.5 *Safety Devices
- 5.2.6 *Problems
- 5.3 Magnetism
- 5.3.1 Magnetic Fields
- 5.3.2 Electromagnetism
- 5.3.3 Force on a Wire
- 5.3.4 Force on a Charged Particle
- 5.3.5 Electric Motor
- 5.3.6 Problems
- 5.4 Induction
- 5.4.1 Induced EMF
- 5.4.2 Transformers
- 5.4.3 Electric Generators
- 5.4.4 Problems
- Waves and Modern Physics
- 6.1 Quantum Theory
- 6.1.1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis
- 6.1.2 Photoelectric Eﬀect
- 6.1.3 Compton Eﬀect
- 6.1.4 de Broglie Hypothesis
- 6.1.5 Problems
- 6.2 Wave-Particle Duality
- 6.2.1 Historical Models of Light
- 6.2.2 Modern Theory of Light
- 6.2.3 Modern Theory of Particles
- 6.2.4 Implications
- 6.3 Models of the Atom
- 6.3.1 Atomic Spectra
- 6.3.2 Bohr Theory
- 6.3.3 Quantum Model
- 6.3.4 Fluorescence and Phosphores- cence
- 6.3.5 Problems
- Nuclear Physics
- 7.1 The Nucleus
- 7.1.1 Structure
- 7.1.2 Mass Defect
- 7.1.3 Problems
- 7.2 Radioactive Decay
- 7.2.1 Alpha Decay
- 7.2.2 Beta Decay
- 7.2.3 Gamma Decay
- 7.2.4 Half-lives
- 7.2.5 Problems
- 7.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity
- 7.3.1 Nuclear Fission
- 7.3.2 Nuclear Reactors
- 7.3.3 Nuclear Fusion
- 7.3.4 Problems

J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .3. . .6 *Problems . 4. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .3. RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . .2. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism .1. . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . .2. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 *Series Circuits . .3 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . . .3. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . 5. . . 5. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . 5. . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . . . . . . 5.2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . .2. . . . 5. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . 5. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . .3 Electroscopes . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . .2. . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . .2. . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . 5. .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 4. . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . 3. . . .2. . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . 5. . . .2 *Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . 7. .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . 6. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . .3. .3. . . . . . . . . . .4. 7. . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . 6. .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .4. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Transformers .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems . . . RRHS Physics . . . . .2 Beta Decay . .5 Problems . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . 6. 6. . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . 7. . .2. . . . . . . . 5. . . . 7. . . . . . 7. . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . Induction . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 7.2. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 7. . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . 6. .1.2. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .2. . . . . .4. . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . 6. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .1 Structure . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. A. . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 Precision and Random Errors . .1 Experimental Data . iv RRHS Physics . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . A. . . . .2. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . .

27.24.2.2.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508. pg 661 #5.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.2 6.4.33. pg 608 #3.2 1.37.2 7.3.3.5.6.3. pg 595 #5. pg 501 #31.2.5. BLM #1. pg 936-937 #26.8.1 2.2 4.2 4. pg 918-919 #3.27 v .1 6. pg 863 #8.9. pg 933 #1.40.8 #4.3 3.1 7.3 7.2 5. pg 655 #26.8. pg 596 #12. pg 489 #27. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.3 5. pg 529 #30.1 4.28 pg 495 #30. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.6. pg 571 #21.2 2. pg 886 #3.3 #4.10.1 3. pg 526 #1.1 5.3 2. pg 780 #2.14.9 #2.9.28 #2. pg 862 #6.28.1 1.15 pg 641 #9.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18. pg 778 #1.6 #3. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.7.Textbook Correlations Section 1.3.4 6. pg 515 #39.688-693 694-714. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.25.4.4 pg 796 #1-4. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8. pg 934 #5.3 5.7.4.8. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.4 #36.6.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . velocity. Last year. A vector is not just a single number. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. force. dy ). two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. This year. it is actually two numbers. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. When writing. when typing. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). For example. acceleration.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. The symbol d represents these components. Consider the diagram below. In 2D space. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. it does not have a direction. In university. displacement. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. like a scalar is.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. Likewise. For example. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. For example. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. 1 . You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram.

we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. west).1.1. 1. south. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o .this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. ay + by ). the other vector b represents the components (bx . A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. east.1. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. In the previous diagram. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. CHAPTER 1.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. For the examples that follow. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. In this system. (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). Your textbook uses this last convention. Since vectors are not single numbers. The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. So a + b will give (ax + bx . south would be 270o . 3. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. in other words. ay ). If we add these two vectors. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. north would be 90o . by ). you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. To help visualize this. we are actually adding their components. 2. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. In math. In this system.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

4

RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

We must assume u < v. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. Diane rows a boat at 8.85 m/s. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24.0 m/s. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. The speed of a boat in still water is v. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. At the end of three days. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. the hiker is lost. 5 kmN. Before it can move. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. wind speed? 18. and 3 km S. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. walks 4 km E. 10 km W. 26.1.00 h. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. 6 km S. RRHS Physics . a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. whose speed in still water is 2.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. using a compass. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. mass. Which of the following is a vector: velocity.1. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. Find the change in velocity. 20. 8 km N. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. To do so. A ferryboat. A hiker leaves camp and. How fast is the player running? 23. 3 km E. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. why? 19. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22.

the vertical forces.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. the force of the man pulling is not. RRHS Physics 1.2. I will take up as the positive direction. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. Notice that FN = Fg . all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. friction. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). therefore. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. In the diagram below.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). Because we often know Fg and Fpy .CHAPTER 1.2. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. Notice that although the normal. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . therefore. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. both of which are vectors. First. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. FORCE VECTORS 1. As can be seen in the diagram above.

it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics .3. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. If friction is present.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . Drawing a free body diagram. as in the following diagram.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). Again notice that FN = Fg . Again. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes.2. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. Using trigonometry. FORCE VECTORS friction for now). if present. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged).2. In other words. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry).1. we get CHAPTER 1.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. In order to apply Newton’s second law. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. Similarly.

what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. A rope attached to the 5. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.6o hill at a steady speed of 7. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal.0 km/h. A 15.0o angle with the horizontal. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3.2.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road.30. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1.0o angle with the horizontal. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0.0 kg block and the ramp is 0. where it is attached to a 4. (a) Ignoring friction. A 5. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. The total mass is 80 kg.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. A 55. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom.76. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. A 25. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. RRHS Physics 9 . What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9.3 m/s2 .0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.0 kg box is released on a 33. What is the acceleration of this system? 11. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.0o incline and accelerates at 0. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp.20.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o .2.0o hill at 6. A car can decelerate at -5. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. It takes 13. The tension in the rope is 110.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. An 18. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5.CHAPTER 1. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle.0 N . A bicyclist can coast down a 4. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. A force of 300.2 Problems 1.30.10. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.0 m/s. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6.300 m/s2 . will the slug slide down the hill? If so. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.5 s for him to reach the bottom.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o .0 km/h. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. (b) Using the same power as in (a).

The mass is stationary. Since force is a vector. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. there are three forces acting on the mass. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. Remember. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. it is obviously not accelerating.3. 1. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium.3. but opposite in direction. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. although the net force is zero in both cases. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero.1. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. 3 1. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. As we said.3. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . therefore. therefore. therefore. there will be a net force in some direction.

the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). It is not in rotational equilibrium. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). even though the forces are equal and opposite. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). we must introduce the notion of a torque. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. It can be thought of as a twisting force. down. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. left.3. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. When you calculated work. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. While forces were described using up. as it was when discussing work. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. You will learn more about these in university. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. 1. right. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. it acts on every particle in the body. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. This is called a dot product. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. Before dealing with torques. this is important. the greater the torque. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. As we have seen. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. etc. Στ = 0 Obviously. τ = F⊥ d (1. 4 RRHS Physics . the board will begin to spin.4 The further away from this pivot. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. but one up and one down.. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example.4. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body.CHAPTER 1. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. As can be seen from equation 1. when calculating the work. To examine this more. but for calculating torques. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero.

Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle.0 m when a 50. 10.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. A high wire is 25. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. and you don’t want it to break. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. The frame has a wire across the back. What is the tension in the rope? 2.0 s. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.0 N . What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1.1. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. 12 . which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. 3. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3.3 Problems 1. The two ropes make an angle of 15. 9. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall.0 m long and sags 1. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . RRHS Physics 4. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. When lifting a barbell.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. 7. 8. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N .3.5o with each other. A 20. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. A sign with a mass of 1653.3. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom.

Fred.0 N. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. EQUILIBRIUM 17. Where must a 22.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18. 14. If there is a spring on the door 5.0 m platform has a mass of 10. Find the equilibrant force: 12. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. and its center of gravity is located 4.0 kg person is sitting 1.0 kg. A 60.0 m from the same end. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. The platform is being held up by two students.0 kg person is sitting 0.CHAPTER 1.0 m and a length of 15. direction.0 cm wide.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. A force of 500. A 50.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40. The 10.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13.0 m. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. determine the magnitude. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N .0 kg (uniformly distributed) . In the following diagram. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. 19. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end.3. one at either end.0 kg person stands at its tip. The plane has a base of 14.

DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics . EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.1.3.

and acceleration. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance).1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. and t is the time in the air. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. since max = ΣFx . Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. The horizontal speed does not change. therefore. we see that there is only one . there is no horizontal acceleration. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 .1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. vx is the horizontal speed. 2. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). Ignoring air resistance. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. These are all vector quantities.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2.gravity. Since we know our vertical acceleration. velocity. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion.1.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. This also makes things somewhat simple.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram.

CHAPTER 2. Remember.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. until it reaches zero at its highest point.1. but gravity will act to slow it down. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2. vyi is the initial vertical velocity. therefore. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . instead of horizontally. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2.1 and 2.1. The object does. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. the ball follows a parabolic path. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity.3.2. namely using equations 2.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. 2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. t is the time in the air. since there are no horizontal forces.4.4. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. and 2. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). PROJECTILES used. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. Once this is done. vyi will be zero in equations 2. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude. the time in the air. Notice that equation 2.2. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. Again. In this case. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. As the ball rises. For this reason. 2.1 to 2. as shown in the diagram below. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example.1. however. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2.

0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. an outﬁelder runs 4. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. 4. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5.0 m/s. YES! It’s a score. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit. how far from the building is the target? 6. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. A person is in a moving elevator.1. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. and with only 2. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. above. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal.05 m above the ﬂoor. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. The ball is released at the height of the basket.2 m above the ground. 3.0 s later. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. by how much will it miss the target? 3. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10.0o with the horizontal. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19.0 s remaining in a basketball game. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. releasing the ball at the height of the basket.02 m from the basket. At the time of the throw. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s.0o .3 Problems 1.5 m high. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11.1.7 m above the ground. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31.2 m away from the elevator. The building is 13.0 m/s. The rotten egg landed 4.0 m high. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground. Trailing by two points. the elevator was 8. Immediately. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8.0 m from the basket. Should the hunter aim directly at. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. 14. PROJECTILES tree. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled.0 m/s at an angle of 53. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. A diver running 3. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. A football is kicked with a speed of 21.0 m away and are 3. 2-D MOTION 2. How much later does it hit the ground? 7.0 m/s as he leaves the ground.CHAPTER 2. A baseball is hit at 30.0 m. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.

(b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. 20.0 m away? 16. (a) Draw the situation above. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air.0 m below. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. PROJECTILES 14. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. draw all vectors to scale. At any moment. 19. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate.2.1 m above the ﬂoor. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. The basket is 2. When it reaches the end of the table.1. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. Will the following quantities change? If so. For each of the following questions. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. 21. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. 2-D MOTION speeds.6 m above the ﬂoor. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal.22 m (horizontally). A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78.

1c)and let it go. 2-D MOTION 2. This is the equilibrium position.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. which results in a downward acceleration. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. if you exceed the limits of the spring. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. Also.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. The period (the time for one complete vibration. Of course. but is dependent on the spring. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. the suspension of a car. which causes the spring to stretch. you will double the distance the spring stretches. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. this formula no longer holds). diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. (See Fig 2. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. When the spring is above the equilibrium point.at this point. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2.1b)).7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. suspension bridges. a mattress.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. in this case.CHAPTER 2. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. depending on its spring constant. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). This is now its new equilibrium position . This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. The units for the spring constant are N/m.2. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring.1a). Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. etc. 2 19 . The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2.

work is done on the spring. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. the total energy remains the same.6). therefore.2. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass.2.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. At equilibrium. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. however.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). or removed from. 2. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. 1 Ep = kx2 (2. 20 RRHS Physics . The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 .1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. 2-D MOTION 2.2. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m).1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a).2. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. Substituting this into Eq 2. the system.

draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. in contact with a spring bumper.30 kg hangs from it? 5. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. The spring. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0. the frequency is 0.75 J of work done on it? 11. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2.2 cm.2. What is the value of m? 6. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m.62 Hz.10 g were trapped? 8. it sinks deeper into the water by 5.CHAPTER 2. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 .30 m. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3.150 m when a 0. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15. A spring stretches 0. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator.60 kg is hung from it. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.3 Problems 1. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. When an 80. A small cockroach of mass 0.30 kg mass is hung from it. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. has a frequency of 0.10 cm.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration.200 kg ball.5 N hangs from it. 13.2. A geologist’s simple pendulum.100 m from this equilibrium point and released. is then released.50 kg is placed on a level.48 Hz. 2-D MOTION 2.4 Hz when a weight of 0. frictionless surface. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12.8190 Hz at a particular location. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2.325 m.0 cm. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8. whose other end is ﬁxed. A mass of 2. whose length is 37. When the man steps oﬀ. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. What will its frequency be if only 0.10 m to load a 0. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. A block of mass 0. if it had 3.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. 2.110 m and released.10 m? 12. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.

however.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. 2. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. This still applies in two dimensional collisions.12.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). We can now RRHS Physics . the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. In two dimensions. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision.11 and 2. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. Since velocity is a vector. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). since p = mv. if you remember from grade 11. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. so is momentum. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. 2.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course.12) (2. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). pa = pa + pb (2. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. a vector diagram must be drawn. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. not velocity.3.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on.2. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa .3.12. Also. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities.

14.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. after this collision. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). In this type of collision. and one of the particles is initially at rest.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. therefore. our conservation of energy equation (2. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. Since the masses are equal. some energy is lost. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. the collision is elastic. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. For a two body collision. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. such as thermal energy. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. 2. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. In other words. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. though. RRHS Physics 23 .CHAPTER 2. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another.3. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same.3. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. Remember. therefore. 4 In other words. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost.

2.400 kg.00 m/s. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. At what angle will the second proton be observed. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2.00 m/s strikes a second ball. and the second car had a velocity of 40. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52.3 Problems 1. of mass mb = 0.20 m/s.60 kg. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. 6. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. and a neutrino. Two cars collide at an intersection. of mass 0. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. initially at rest.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. A proton travelling with speed 8. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. the second ball is moving North. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. initially at rest. A billiard ball of mass 0.3. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. If they collide and remain stuck together. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o .0 km/h. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. As a result of this elastic collision.80 m/s.2×10−23 kg·m/s. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. After the collision (assumed elastic). an electron.40 kg strikes a second ball. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. From skid marks. 40. Immediately after impact.3.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton.0 km/h. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision.0o North of West. 50. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. Find 24 . The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h.0o North of West. the investigator determined that car A.

We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr).1. To calculate the speed of the object. we see v= 25 3. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. 1 . however. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. in other words. the object moves in a curve. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. an acceleration present. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. we can simply use d (3.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. there is still an acceleration. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). Since this is the only force. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. the object will speed up or slow down. however. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. we get v= 2πr (3. There is. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. the acceleration must also be inward. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. So even though the speed is not changing.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. the object will not speed up or slow down. With projectile motion. which is pulling inward.

where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. in particular. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. always inward toward the center of the circle. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 . horizontal surface. it just shows the direction of the three quantities.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object.2. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. Centripetal force is not.3. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. Looking at equation 3. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration.3.5 becomes Fc = mac (3.1 below). This is a common misconception of students.3) T Combining equations 3. when solving centripetal force problems. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3.1: This is not a free body diagram. 2. then equation 3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v.4) r This centripetal acceleration is.6) Figure 3. ac = v2 3. 3.1. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string.2 and 3. 1.1. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . In fact. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. however. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. by deﬁnition.

Pretend you are the ball in our example. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. also. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). in fact. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . from your point of view (a rotating reference frame).CHAPTER 3. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke.1. the ball is not being pushed outward. being pulled inward by the string. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. 3. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball.1.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. In this situation. If you break the string. Remember. in fact. because of inertia. not outward. because of Newton’s Third Law. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. it is. If there were. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity.

0 m. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. A 5. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.80 m long.335 kg.4 Problems 1.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode.3 days.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0.00 revolutions in a second. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5.60.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. 28 RRHS Physics . When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0. 3.42.0 m radius and rotates 1.1 times per second. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0.0 revolutions per second.1. A coin is placed 18. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.30? 7.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. The ball makes exactly 2. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1.20? 6. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2.3. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. If its speed is 3. The yo-yo has a mass of 0.0 complete revolution each second.e. 9. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12.0 m rope.1. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.15 m. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.15 m/s and its mass is 0. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8. What is the critical speed (i. what force does the string now exert? 4.000 km and a period of 27. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.5 cm.

(a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16.0 m long. what RRHS Physics 3. 15. the vine is 4. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. how much and in what direction? 29 . If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. 18. Assume no change in energy for the system. PLANETARY MOTION 13. For the previous question. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1.1. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km.6 km.CHAPTER 3.0 kg. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. 14. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. will a friction force be required? If so. and explain this sensation. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. If the person is standing on the equator. 19. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. including the relevant forces. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. A person has a mass of 75. Sketch the situation. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. 17. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine.

) g= GM m R2 3. equating the two expressions.2. but not to understand why they are so. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. Assuming a circular orbit. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. Equation 3. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. This type of relationship appears often in physics. In fact.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object.2. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. Fg = 30 3. gravity is much more common than this. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. speciﬁcally.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. this is how the mass of the earth was found. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground.2 Universal Gravitation 3. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . Newton. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. we get mg = or GM (3. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. however.2. To determine this necessary speed. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up.3. In grade 11. In this way. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. People often ask what keeps a satellite up.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. however. it is falling toward the earth. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. PLANETARY MOTION 3. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. given by G in the equation below.2. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. If the object is given a higher speed.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. it travels a further distance.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. we must consider the orbit. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality.

The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity).4)into equation 3.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites.CHAPTER 3.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15).7. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. 3.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite. 3. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . m is the mass of the satellite. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. PLANETARY MOTION 3. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. v= GM r (3. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit.9.2. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. as given in equation 3. faster than this speed. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. 2. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. Solving this equation for v. we get GM m mv 2 = (3.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation.2. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit.

r = 6.50 m.99 × 1030 kg). Frank is really concerned about his weight.98 × 107 m).2. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3.85 × 105 km. But Frank is lazy. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. Four 8. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.50 × 108 km. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. What is g near the surface? 5. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. 10.3. From this data.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. All distances are center to center. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. 12.0 N is required to pull a 10. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. but has the same mass.50 m apart. determine the mass of Jupiter. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. 6. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun.90 × 1027 kg. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. Do the previous question again.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7.44 × 106 s and it is 1. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. 8.5 Problems 1. 13.71×10−8 N .85 × 105 km. PLANETARY MOTION weight.2.6 times that of the earth. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. 2. 3. 7. If the bowling balls are 0. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. A force of 40.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.

27. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. PLANETARY MOTION 14. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. though only a few hundred meters across. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. 33 . A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. what would happen to the value of G? 30. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. A satellite is going around Earth.CHAPTER 3. Find the value of this constant. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km.4 days) to do problem 16. Its period is 410 days. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit.2. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. Jupiter is 5. The asteroid Icarus. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). Why? 28. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. On July 19. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. 31. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. RRHS Physics 3. 16. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. 32. 1969.3 × 1022 kg. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. orbits the sun like other planets.

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .2.3.

.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. for example. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge.1. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. This kind of atom is called an ion. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. the net change 35 4. In a normal state. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. Likewise. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. Remember. giving it a net negative or positive charge. According to atomic theory. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. If you rub a balloon in your hair. even more important than many people think. Metals are generally very good conductors. in the amount of charge is zero. you notice that it will stick to the wall. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object).1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. When a conductor is given a negative charge. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. During any of the processes described above. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. not the protons. In each case. 4. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body.

and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. there are . These semiconductors often have interesting properties. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. i. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). The other way of charging an object is called induction. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. and they touch. but is just brought near it. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. however.1. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work).1. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. For example. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper.e. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. in this way. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing.1.4.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. If you ground the sphere. The RRHS Physics . germanium. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. An object can also be charged by conduction. conduction occurs. 4. CHAPTER 4. if it is charged negatively. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4.however. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. it has merely been separated. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. With induction. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. giving it excess electrons. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. As soon as they touch. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. No charge has been created.

now negatively charged. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. giving it a permanent charge. even after we remove the charged rod. If charges become large enough. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. 37 . these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. however. as shown here. In some cases. the leaves. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. particularly on each leaf. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . the faster the charge will be carried away. the two leaves just hang vertically. even when nothing is apparently done to them. You can. The more water molecules in the air. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. Think about how you may do this. 4. more often. will repel each other and will spread out. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances.CHAPTER 4. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges.even though they are neutral. The leaves will then stay spread apart. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. If the electroscope is neutral. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope.1. 4. Suppose.1.

Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. Finally. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. 3. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. Explain. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. What charge is on the rod? 8. one at each end of the line of blocks. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. why does the record now attract dust? 4. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics .5 Problems 1.1. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. 12. but as soon as they touch the rod. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. If you know that D is positively charged. close to but not touching the blocks. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. 5.4. You place two objects with strong positive charges. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. When an electroscope is charged. and C repels D. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. A attracts C. they ﬂy away in different directions.1. 9. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. what kind of charge does B have? 6. you remove the two positively charges objects.

then the r in equation 4.2. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter .2. If the two objects are spheres. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld.1 is the distance between the centers. or some other type of contact. since it appeared to behave like magic.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. 39 . electromagnetic. without using some test charge. and weak nuclear forces) continues.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point.2. however. When people think of forces. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 .it is a concept. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. r is the distance between the charges in meters.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. To help explain this idea. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. This worried people. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. in fact. they think of pushing or pulling an object. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful.CHAPTER 4.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. The search for simple. FIELDS 4. it is precise for only point charges. strong nuclear forces. E= F q (4.2 4. This may require pushing with your hand. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. 4. tying a rope to something. Using some test charge q. which has an equal but opposite charge).1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them.

4. E= CHAPTER 4. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. For example. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1.4. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld.1. which interacts with all objects near the earth. equation 4. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. or lines of force. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. These electric ﬁeld lines. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation.2. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength).3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. If there is more than one source charge.1 into equation 4. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . For example. Substituting equation 4. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. In reality. then equation 4. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges.2. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. 2. we obtain kQ (4. FIELDS points around the sources. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance.2. consider a positive source charge. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space.2. however. the force on the test charge will be away from the source.

5 Problems 1.0 µC is 0. -2. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. and the right -83 µC. what force is exerted? 12. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. the RRHS Physics . and an electron. has a charge of +25 µC. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. mass 1.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. 4. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7.11 × 10−31 kg.CHAPTER 4. A positive charge of 3. 8.030 m to the east. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. You are given two similar spheres. has a charge of -20 µC.0 µC. What is the force between them? 5. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). mass 9. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. A and B. A third ball.1 × 106 m/s. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. the typical size of an atom. -4.5 × 10−10 m.00 × 10−17 C? 2. One. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. In other words.2. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. is 0. q1 and q2 . The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. The bottom electron is resting on a table. Three particles are placed in a line. In one model of the hydrogen atom.2. located 25 cm above the second ball. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC.050 m to the north and the other.145 N on each other. Two charges.2). located 16 cm to the right. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. What should you do? 11.67 × 10−27 kg. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. 3. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. A second ball.0 N on each other? 4. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others.

0 µC and the other 68. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. Find the force on an electron. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. are a distance l apart.5 N and is repulsive.0 cm apart? 23. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27.0 µC are 8. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. Two charges. (a) two positively charged point sources.0 × 10−6 C test charge.30 m apart.0 µC and a +60. one 33. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain.0 µC charge 40. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. 42 CHAPTER 4. then repeat your work with a 2.2. RRHS Physics . What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. A water droplet of radius 0. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. Two positive charges. A negative charge of 2. 19. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). 24. Take into account gravity and determine E. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. −Qo and −3Qo .0× 10−6 C charge. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28.0 cm away from a 1. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. A proton (m = 1.4. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations.0 µC charged particle? 21.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. FIELDS 20.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. the force each exerts on the other is 28. When placed 1. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources.020 mm remains stationary in the air. 17.2 cm apart. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth.

Suppose you have two spheres. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. for example. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B).1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. Just as with gravitational potential energy. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. If positive work is required to move the charge. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge.3. you don’t have to do anything. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. namely potential energy. FIELDS 4. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. For example.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. sphere B is said to be neutral. Remember that W = ∆E. If the two spheres are touched together. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. since they are trying to get away from one another. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. we say that it is at a high potential.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges).3. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum.3. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . which is called the volt. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . 4. The potential energy here will decrease. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another.CHAPTER 4. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. so Vab = Wab q (4. This will add energy to the system. therefore. The symbol for electric potential is V . In this case.

4.3. A force of 0. the two spheres will be at the same potential.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. if they were not. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources.5 × 10−4 J. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. A -30. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line.5 V ? 3. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere.0 C is raised in potential by 1. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). as shown below. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8.3. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. at this point. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. CHAPTER 4.3. that is. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. FIELDS 2. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A.0 µC charge.5 × 107 V .4 Problems 1. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3. The change in energy while doing this is 4. What work is done when 5. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4.4.

A wire is a conductor. a battery is several cells connected together. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. at the same time.1. When people discussed current. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. In 1800. 5. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. little was known about the structure of the atom. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. In short.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. also referred to as an amp. Contrary to a common belief. As was discussed in the previous chapter. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. therefore. an ampere (A). we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. this is given a special name. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. so its electrons are held very loosely. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. 1 .1 Electric Current Q (5. Remember that in solids.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5.

the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge.1. These materials are than said to be superconducting. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). the greater the ﬂow of water. With a battery. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. When charges are moved through a resistance. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. however. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). we can use it here as well. 3. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. therefore. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. they lose potential. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. In the same way. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. If one end of the pipe is raised. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. CHAPTER 5. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. because of their atomic structure. Temperature: In general. For practical purposes. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). it gains or loses energy. This makes sense. insulators have a very high resistance. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. 46 . In liquids and gases. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. Resistance is measured in ohms. In our gravity/water analogy above. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water.5. 2. Comparing this to electricity. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential.

2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. Note that equation 5. light.5. the watt (W ). since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. or mechanical). as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. 4. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words.1.5) 5. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time.3) 5. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5.1) so P = IV (5.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law.4 with equation 5. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. so it will have a lower resistance. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. Looking at this equation. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). 5. the current also doubles.CHAPTER 5. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. it is really energy that we pay for. We RRHS Physics . the resistance must be constant. if you double the voltage. the current is proportional to voltage). Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. the current is proportional to the voltage. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. That is.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. current can be expressed as V (5. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. thereby increasing the resistance.1. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic.1. but I = q/t (equation 5.

The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. Joe argues that.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. Is Joe correct? Explain. 11. 14. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it.10 A ﬂows in a wire. but when a 3. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3.5.0 h.0 V battery is used. 5 mA can be painful. What is the current through a 6. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. since R = V /I.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. 5. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. A 1. When she connects it to a 1. The line has a resistance of 1. at 20 mA.6) CHAPTER 5. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8.0 A? 5.1. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. A current of 1.085/kW h). It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4.5 V battery.1.4 Problems 1. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12.5 A for 6. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). above 100 mA can be fatal.0 cm apart. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. What voltage will produce 12. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A.

If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. What is the eﬃciency of a 0. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. operated at 120 V . A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. 18. How many 100 W light bulbs.0 A when operated on 120 V .CHAPTER 5. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio.20 kg of water. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .5 kg of water. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.) 49 . (a) 220 V are applied across it. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω.06 per kWh? 19. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.0 minutes. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30.0o C.000 V rather than 12. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23. At $0.0o C to 55.11 per kW h. A modern television set draws 2.4 A from a 120 V line? 27.000 V ? 21.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21.2 Ω lines. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0.29 kg/m3 .08 per kW h. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. It is observed that it takes 12.0 s? 25. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V . what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. RRHS Physics 5.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. What is its increase in temperature during the 30.1.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. by means of a converter.

*CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. I2 .7) 5. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. each resistor has its own path.5.2 to analyze the resistances. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors.9) RRHS Physics . and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 .2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. and R3 .2. when we put several resistance in series.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel.2. Because charge must be conserved. and voltages throughout the circuit.8) (5. I1 .2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. R2 . currents. Of course. R3 respectively. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . By conservation of energy. V2 = IR2 . then by applying equation 5. When you add more resistances. 5. Knowing the equivalent resistance. V2 . If V1 . The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. R2 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. you increase the total resistance. since there is only one path. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. and V3 = IR3 . the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. applying equation 5.2.

Remember. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. since there is a junction in between the two.CHAPTER 5. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. For example. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated.10) 5. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. every time you add a resistance in parallel. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). then they are not in series. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). If any resistors are in parallel. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. Again. Consider the following example.2. If any resistors are in series. R1 and R2 are not in series. but are often some combination of the two. equation 5. if there is a junction between the resistors. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. so they can be combined using equation 5. *CIRCUITS 2. R2 . calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. This combination is then in series with R1 . Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. In this example. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. 3. R3 . This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . 5. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ).2. RRHS Physics 51 . you are also adding another path for the current to follow. Also. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. R3 is in series with R4 . Remember. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. however. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 .

A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. too complicated for this analysis.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. At any junction point. 5. To deal with these circuits. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. If this strip melts. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. Houses are wired in parallel. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. These rules actually apply to all circuits. A third type of safety device is slightly different. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. a system of equations can then be found and solved. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes.5. For example. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R).9. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. however. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit.7. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase.2. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. RRHS Physics 5. If too much current ﬂows. For example. 1. breaking the circuit. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. This is just an expression of equation 5. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. Some circuits4 are. for example. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. 2. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether.2. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. 2.2.

2. 8. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find the current in each branch. 7. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. 4. 5. 5. Find V.2.CHAPTER 5. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . 3. Find each resistance. Find the unknown currents and voltages.50 A. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6.6 *Problems 1. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0.2.

0 Ω. Suppose that you have a 6.5. If each resistor is 10 Ω. Find It . If each resistor is 10 Ω. A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W .V2 . 11. 16. *CIRCUITS 10. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor.I3 . CHAPTER 5. or 150 W at 120 V . Find R3 .I2 . what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18.0 54 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors.I3 . 12. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb.0 V . Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14.0 V input? 15. 100 W . 13. Find the current in each branch. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Given an unlimited supply of 1.0 V output for a 6. and P1 . and I4 . Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. 17. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.2.

What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. Consider the circuit below. one larger than the other.8 kΩ. and I3 in the following circuit. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. determine the currents I1 .2. If one resistor is 2. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed.CHAPTER 5. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. (a) If they are connected in parallel. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. what is the resistance of the other? . (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. I2 . what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. which is brighter? 21. 5. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. RRHS Physics 55 23. *CIRCUITS 22.

these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld.3. In most materials. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. magnetic forces act over distances. for example. however. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. 5. the result is two magnets. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. since an electric current will always produce both. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. Magnetic poles are not. RRHS Physics 56 . If you cut a magnet in two. each with a north and south pole.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. On a small scale. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. 5. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. the same as electric charges. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. the domains are more lined up in one direction. nickel. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot.3. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. Since these forces do behave similarly. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. As a result. however. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. A compass needle is really a small magnet. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. This will be seen in the next section. however.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. in ferromagnetic materials. and cobalt. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable.5. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. In a magnetized piece of iron.

when using left hand rules.3.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’.3. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. around 1820. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. the second right hand rule can be used. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. then. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. This is an electromagnet. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle.3. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow).6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. To use this hand rule. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. it makes sense. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. In fact. or a current. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. By using more than one loop.3. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. It was only with a moving charge. it often7 experiences a force. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. To use this hand rule. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 .CHAPTER 5. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. 5. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. but this was found to have no eﬀect. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). 6 5. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. In other words. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5.

3. The charges do not. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. To use this rule. substituting this into equation 5.8 8 Remember. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. Remember that I = q/t. 5. so F = qvB sin θ (5. as shown in the side view below. If the moving particle is negative. There will be no force between b and c. however. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld.3. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. have to be moving through a wire. as shown below. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. Between c and d.3. use left hand rules. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. you may also use the left hand rule. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire.5. To do this.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire.5 Electric Motor 5. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. This loop of wire will rotate. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. CHAPTER 5. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. to 58 RRHS Physics . but l/t is just the speed of the particle. the force will be out of the page. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. As we learned before. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld.

6 Problems 1. (b) Two opposite poles. Many loops of wire are usually used. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. Also. As a result. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets.3. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. as shown below. MAGNETISM other brush. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.3. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. but just touch one another. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. In reality. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. if the loop goes past this point. As the armature turns.CHAPTER 5. but no force acts on the wire. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. In order to make the loop continue turning. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. 5. we want it to turn continuously. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). as well as a ferromagnetic core. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture).

A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. If the force on the wire below is into the page. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. MAGNETISM 5. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 .35 N .0 A and weighs 0.5. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. (a) CHAPTER 5. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. it feels zero force. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. 11. A straight 2.0 × 10−5 T . What is the force on the wire? 7.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6. identify the poles of the magnets. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward.3. A proton having a speed of 5.90 T . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6.9 × 103 kg/m3 . (b) 10.

000 V . A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. 17. 21. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld.02 T. An electron (m = 9. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. which exists between the two parallel plates below. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. The radius of its path is 4. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. 61 . Explain. Calculate the energy of the proton. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. A force of 5.25 T .4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0.25 × 106 m/s. E=1000 N/C. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.10 cm in a 0. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. what must be the speed of the ion? 26.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V .032 T . 16.6 × 10−13 N . An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. A particle with a charge of 2. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V .78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld.08 m. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. 23.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. B=0.385 T magnetic ﬁeld.10 T magnetic ﬁeld. If the velocity of the particle is 5. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron.3. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.4 mm? 24.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward.5 cm. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. Calculate the mass of the particle. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9.CHAPTER 5. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld.

and not a force where B.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. when the magnet is removed. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. Such a current is called an induced current. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current.5. v. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . For example. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5.4. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire.4. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. We call this an induced emf.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. ∆φ ∆t (5. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. In other words. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. 5. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). For example.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit.

we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. this is called a step-up transformer. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. 5. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. conservation of energy tells 63 . this is a step-down transformer. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). The primary coil has the incoming current. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil.CHAPTER 5. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. however. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power.13. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. Notice that if Ns > Np . the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. Combining these two equations. Just like before. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. therefore.4. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. There is. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation.4. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil.15) 5. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). Remember. This is called perpetual motion. the two wires are insulated from one another. From equation 5.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. But remember. If Ns < Np . the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. however. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. In the example shown below. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. therefore.

then the current must be lowered. at positions 2 and 4. the force on cd must be out of the page. out of the page). If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. at position 3. therefore.16) CHAPTER 5. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. this means that if the voltage goes up. RRHS Physics . so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. into the page). so the current must ﬂow from c to d. Consider the picture below. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. At position 1. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.4. Similarly.5. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. we see what happens to the current. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. Since P = V I. The wire ab is moving out.4. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case.

value.5Imax To make a DC generator. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. When a motor is operating. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. The greater the speed of the motor. Since the current is not constant. Back EMF As was previously stated. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . If we square an AC electric current graph.4. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. As we turn the generator. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. however. as were used with the DC motor. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. In a generator. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. the situation is the reverse. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. we get a sin2 θ graph. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. we take a root mean square average (rms). Alternating Current As we have seen.5Vmax Imax In North America. as was seen in a previous graph.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion.707Imax (5. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished.18) Since power is P = V I. Instead. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. giving Pavg = 0. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. or eﬀective. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0.17) Similarly. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction).CHAPTER 5. The more current that is drawn. INDUCTION called a counter torque. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. the greater the back (or counter) emf.707Vmax (5.11 we cannot just average the current over time. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly.

Also note that since P = V I.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics .350 T to zero. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. calculate the emf developed.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0.5 Ω. In what direction is the induced current? 3.5.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. What is the induced emf ? 4.4. 5.5Pmax (5. A square coil of sides 5.60 T magnetic ﬁeld.10 s. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.50 T magnetic ﬁeld.4 s. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5. Hence.800 T . A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. 6.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power. What is the average induced emf ? 2. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal.19) CHAPTER 5. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . It is initially in a 0. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12.4 Problems 1. If the rod is 12.15 Ω.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. A 12. It takes 0.4.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.0 cm/s. If the wire has a resistance of 0. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15. with its plane perpendicular to B. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0.

4. where the line voltage is 240 V .0 A.0 V source and measures 8. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain.0 A. whose peak value is 90 V .0 V and an output current of 5. the coil will swing. and (c) the power transformed 13.0 A respectively. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11.75 A. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23.0 A. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. INDUCTION 17. (b) the current in the primary. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. An ac voltage.0 V at the secondary. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. Calculate the peak current in a 2. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5.CHAPTER 5. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. 26. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. is across a 35 Ω resistor. If the primary and secondary were reversed.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source.0 V and the input current is 11. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. what would the new output voltage be? 16. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. Why? 21. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. and an output current of 0. 19. It is used with a transformer in England. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. Why is this true? 18.0 V AC. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. Frequently. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall.

A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line.4. INDUCTION 28. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs.25 A. a 700 W hair dryer. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29.5. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

If he was correct. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . however. only its frequency is lowered.1. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6.5). however. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. In fact.1. Objects such as electrons. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light.4 and 6. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. such as diﬀraction and interference. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. The difﬁculty here. By making careful measurements.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). after the collision. He suggested in 1923 that.6. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. The photon does not actually slow down. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6.4). The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6.1 however. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. 1 RRHS Physics . this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties.

A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. 7. 13. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. 10. 16.0 × 106 m/s. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. RRHS Physics 9.40 Hz. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. does it increase or decrease? 11. 6. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed.0 km/h. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. of a 3.0 eV electron? 73 . what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6.1 × 1013 Hz. 15. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. What are the wavelengths. 14. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron.0 eV photon and a 5.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. 12.5 Problems 1. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. does its wavelength change? If so. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. λ = 450 nm.CHAPTER 6.80 nm.1. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. in meters. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. Determine the wavelength of a 0. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. QUANTUM THEORY 8. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on.1. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. If energy is radiated by all objects.

the particles must be moving very fast.2. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. As these particles passed through a prism. a ball thrown against a wall). another group of scientists. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century.2. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6.6. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. led by Christian Huygens. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. In a uniform medium. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. As the light gets closer to the water. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). 6. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. was putting forward a wave model of light. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. As with Newton’s particle model. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. since all waves at this time required a medium.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. for example. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves.

James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. The two aspects of light complement one another. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. 6. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. Similarly. without its problems. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. which contradicts Newton’s theory. which appear to be incompatible. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. By the middle of the nineteenth century. however. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. however. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. however. we must refer to both theories. For example.2. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. indicating a spreading out of the light. refraction. and interference where the particle theory fails.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. but to understand light fully. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. It states that to understand any given experiment. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. Also. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air.2. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. the resulting image is slightly blurred. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. in 1850. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. This model was not. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. they must be travelling at a speed of 3.CHAPTER 6. According to Maxwell’s theory. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. however. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium).2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. The two theories. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories.

light reveals both wave and particle properties. An electron. In terms of everyday language and images. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. negatively charged particles. this duality extends to particles as well. however. or as a wave that has a mass. its behavior imitates that of a wave. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. In general. CHAPTER 6.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. When this radiation interacts with the electron. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. 6. This has some major implications. but a visual picture is again not possible. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. 2 76 . depending on which property of light is being measured. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. when light interacts with matter. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms.2. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. or even a combination of the two. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron.2. but in the process would move it from that position. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. This would tell you where it is. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. When we try to visualize light. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. like light. is the set of its properties that we can measure. macroscopic world. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows.2. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. you must interact with it. you would have to feel your way around. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like.6. Applied to a smaller scale.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. To locate this. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. its behavior is more like that of a particle. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. You wouldn’t know where it is going. We cannot picture what they are. when light passes through space or a medium. In order to locate the ball.

this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. 77 . If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object.4 and 6. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. it is still a probability and not a certainty. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. but has wave properties. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. on the other hand. but according to equations 6. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.5.2. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. For examRRHS Physics 6. we must use a small wavelength. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. and not determinism. Thus. In summary. however.CHAPTER 6. however. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. If.

6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .2.

the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). When energy is transferred to atoms.CHAPTER 6. 6. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. not interactions between atoms. was accepted by scientists by 1900. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. but a few were bounced almost directly back. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 .3. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. Using spectroscopy. When viewing these spectra. emit a discrete spectrum. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. Around 1911. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. This became known as the Rutherford Model. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. By analyzing these wavelengths. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. This is known as an absorption spectrum. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure.1.3. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. scientists can analyze unknown materials. This is known as an emission spectrum. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. This is how helium was discovered. 6.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. since they are unique to each atom. Although a major step forward. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. heated solids. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited.1. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. in industry. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. Less dense gases. If they were at rest.

2. green.8) 6. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. Thus. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). and also predicted an unstable atom. CHAPTER 6. The Rutherford model could not explain this. electrons can jump directly or in steps. blue. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized.3. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. however. When changing energy levels. as in solids). they are accelerating. as it loses energy. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon.1). RRHS Physics . While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom.6 eV n2 (6.3. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. for example.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. Using quantum theory. A student of Rutherford. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level.6. and violet. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. The higher the energy level. the atom would not be very stable.1 . Neils Bohr. both are therefore quantized. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. in other words. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. As the electrons spiraled inward. In 1911. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts.3. 1. If an electron absorbs energy.2. as shown in the diagram in section 6. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. The radius increases with n2 .8). It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second.red.

however. As a result. This was a major problem with the model. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure.8 that when n=1.3. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. Louis de Broglie. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. In quantum mechanics. Bohr did not know how to explain this. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. however. however. applying his theory of matter waves. Notice in equation 6. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. If we consider the electron to be a particle. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. each independently. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does.CHAPTER 6. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. the energy is actually at a minimum. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. but is actually much harder to visualize. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. 6. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom.3. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. electron can go from 3 to 1. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. however. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. determined energy levels of the elements. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. since it has a wave nature. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. The electron.

3. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n).4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. however. 5. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. At low temperatures. 6. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. These materials are used.3. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6.3. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. In a group of these atoms. This is called ﬂuorescence. CHAPTER 6. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4.1. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. spin (ms )). The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. in luminous watch dials. Explain any discrepancies. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. for example.6. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour.3. magnetic (ml ). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. 8.5 Problems 1.

A. 1 . for example. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. the electric force becomes more important. Sometimes.1. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. an element is written as A X. however. and A is the mass number. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. called a neutron. the others being the gravitational force. This adds energy to the system. Z.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. Z is the atomic number. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions.1. so as the distance becomes greater. and the weak nuclear force. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. the electromagnetic force. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. and neutrons and neutrons. protons and neutrons. In the last chapter. this force is the same between protons and protons. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. This is one of the four forces of nature. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. 7.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. This force only acts over short distances. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. In 1932.

008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron.1) CHAPTER 7. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents.66 × 10 kg). where E is the energy in J. it could just fall apart. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. In a nuclear reaction. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. and c is the speed of light in m/s. 84 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 .49 MeV. We will look at this more in the next two sections. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. 5. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. identify the element. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy).014102 u. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. It is expressed as a negative number. What mass was converted? 4. we are actually adding mass. In other words. the number of protons. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. In general. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3.1. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. the total number of nucleons. Thus. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. u. RRHS Physics . The mass of 2 H is 2. which is iron.007276 u mn = 1.7. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. Using equation 7. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. This implies that by adding energy to the system.1. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. To be stable. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A.3 Problems 1. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus.1. A nuclear reaction produces 9. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it.015123 u). For each of the following. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. m is the equivalent mass in kg. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1.0 × 1011 J of energy. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2.

THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .1.CHAPTER 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.

3. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. This is true for all alpha decays. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. there are not enough neutrons to do this. 2 They are not very energetic. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). and required no external stimulation. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. 4 He. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. 7. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below).1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. If the atomic number gets too large. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. As a result.7.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.2. These nuclei are very tightly bound. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. 7. 7. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. beyond this. therefore. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. RRHS Physics . they can barely penetrate a piece of paper.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. as will be discussed in the following sections.2. This is known as (natural radioactivity). other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83.2. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7.

they can be very dangerous. 7. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton.CHAPTER 7. In some cases. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass.2. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. This electron disappears into the nucleus. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). A neutrino is also emitted. it emits a photon. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). but the opposite charge. In beta decay. when it drops down to a lower energy state. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. the nucleus does not undergo any change. 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. allowing a proton to become a neutron. One of the protons. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell.2. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). In 10 years. becomes a neutron. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. This photon is known as a gamma ray. Other than releasing energy. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). A positron has the same mass as an electron. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture.2. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. For this reason. which has no charge and no mass. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. Like an atom. by emitting a positron. This is a random process. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years.

Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. 8. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. 7. CHAPTER 7. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). 84 emits a α particle. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. Write the complete nuclear equation. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. or β + emission. After one half-life. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. 210 P o. In another 10 years. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. A radioactive bismuth isotope. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. 88 RRHS Physics . One Bequerel is one decay per second. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. 214 Bi. so it is closely related to half-life.2. When 23 N e (mass=22.2. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample.7. β − . What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. Write the complete nuclear equation. showing the element formed. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. 83 emits a β particle.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22.5 Problems 1. A radioactive polonium isotope. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. showing the element formed.9898 u).

The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. protons.2 are moving too fast.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938.3. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . 7. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. electrons. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. the top scientists in Europe and the U. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. resulting in a transmutation. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr).3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. but they can also occur in nature. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. this is known as radioactive fallout. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin.CHAPTER 7. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. because it resembled cell division. RRHS Physics 7. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. 89 . these particles are in direct contact with our cells. neutrons.3. the two masses would be brought together quickly. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. or gamma rays. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain.3% 238 U and only 0. 7. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. however. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb.3. following Fermi’s work. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C).7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. To detonate the bomb. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. Naturally occurring uranium is 99.S. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. resulting in a sustained chain reaction.2) although there are many other possibilities. This ended the war. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. 2. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons.

the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. It has a simpliﬁed design. helium is extremely tightly bound. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. usually containing cadmium. so it can be built where technology is limited. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. these control the rate of the reaction. which was discussed earlier. which is very expensive. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. Quebec. For example. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. Because of its design. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. 5 CHAPTER 7. and can be separated to be used as fuel. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. RRHS Physics 90 . To slow the reaction down. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. however. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. Also present are control rods.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. and New Brunswick. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic.3. 92 7. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. 3. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. energy will be released. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U .7. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions.3. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). 235 U .

What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7.9141 u 91. How much energy would this release? 8.905625 u 135.9250 u 87. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. 6. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1.90722 u 235. Once this high temperature is achieved. List three medical uses of radioactivity. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. 2. 3.7 for this reason. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium).002603 140. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium.3.CHAPTER 7. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures.016029 u 4. At present.2? 5. 91 RRHS Physics . Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2.007825 u 2. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures.014102 u 3. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7.043925 u 238. This is higher than any known material can stand. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions.050786 u 1. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2.016049 u 3. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4. 9. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. A few years ago.3. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics .7. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11.3. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.0 × 1014 J of energy.

Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. errors due to rounding oﬀ. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. errors in calculation.4.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. we might estimate it to be 2. for example. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. .1 Experimental Data however. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. In our meter stick example.3 cm and 2.4 cm. was friction considered to be constant. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis.37. and probably even more. this 7 is only an estimate. For example. therefore. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. Some of these may be due to human errors. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. In writing lab reports. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data.3 and 2. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. there are errors present. the thickness of the lines may vary. In other words. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. The wood may shrink or warp. the ends of the stick may be chipped. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. you will be expected to do an error analysis. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured.3*. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. Take a meter stick. It may be smaller or larger.1 mm.

1. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. the less precise our results are.A.2. A. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. A. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. The smaller this value.1 Standard Deviation A. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. or too low. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. It is a good idea. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. This type of error is generally more serious. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). the measurements are always too high. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. the smaller the standard deviation should be. Section A. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. In this case. For this reason. In the case of systematic error. It does not address any possible systematic errors. RRHS Physics . In our error analysis.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. this is not an excuse to be careless. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. we may end up with a very precise estimate. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data.1. but it will not be very accurate. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. The more data points that we have. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. this type of error is present in all experiments. The more random error we have in our experiment. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. In this case. that is. APPENDIX A.2. A. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. As long as these errors are random.

20.34 1.84 2. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.90 1.60 2.29 1.71 2. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.18 3.23 3.7 4. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.02 1.31 1.81 1. Note. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.45. If we have a theoretical value of 5. x is the average of all the values.1) where xi are the individual measurements.36 1.7 63. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values. The relevant values for t are given in the table. When examining the data.40 1.53 2. however. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.03 2. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A. In this case.35 to 5. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.26 3.86 1.78 1.18 5. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.11 2. we would use t = 2.36 2.35.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.36 3.APPENDIX A.17 2.42 1. and we took 12 measurements.2.77 1.78 4.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0. we would use t = 2.45 3.83 1.37 1. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.05.35. and got an average value x of 4.48 2.35 1.2.30 9.70±0. 95 RRHS Physics .94 1. if possible.13 1.14 2.89 2. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results.80 1.31 3.36 1. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest. and N is the number of measurements. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.25 2.44 1.96 2.38 1.57 4. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.08 6.76 1. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.58 A.92 3.4.16 3.01 2.06 2.98 1. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.92 1.20 3. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.8.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ.50 2. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.64 2.35 1.

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