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Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .3. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .2. . . . . . . .6 *Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 5. 5. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 3. . . . . . . . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . .3 Electroscopes . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . 5. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2. . . . . CONTENTS .2. . .3. . . . . . . . . 4. . .4 Gravitational Fields . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .5 Electric Motor .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . 4. . . . . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . 5. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 3. . . .1. . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . .2. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . .2 Universal Gravitation . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 5. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .2 *Circuits . . . . .1 *Series Circuits . . .1 Electric Current . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Transformers . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7.3 Electric Generators 5. . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . 6. 7. . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . .1.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. 6. .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . 6. . . . 7.1 Structure . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 5.1 Quantum Theory . . .1. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . . .5 Problems . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .3. .3. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . .3 Problems . 5. . . . . . .3. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .3.2. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . .1. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . Induction . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . .2. . . . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors .2. iv RRHS Physics . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1 Experimental Data . . A. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.8.28.4 pg 796 #1-4. pg 595 #5.27 v . pg 526 #1.2 4.40.2 5.6.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111. pg 529 #30. pg 501 #31.3.28 #2.3.2.14.2 6.24.Textbook Correlations Section 1. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.2 2.5.7.3 3. pg 862 #6.27.10. BLM #1.4.1 4.6.9.3.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.28 pg 495 #30.15 pg 641 #9.4 #36.3 7. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.688-693 694-714.4 6.2 1. pg 655 #26.1 2. pg 863 #8.1 1. pg 596 #12. pg 780 #2.3 2.33.6 #3.2.8 #4.3 #4.3.7.8. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680. pg 661 #5.6.9 #2. pg 918-919 #3. pg 571 #21.1 7. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13. pg 778 #1. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1. pg 936-937 #26.2.37. pg 489 #27.3 5.4.5.1 6.1 3.25. pg 515 #39. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.3 5.1 5. pg 934 #5. pg 886 #3.8. pg 933 #1.2 4. pg 608 #3.9.2 7.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

For example. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. For example. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). Likewise. In university. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. This year. like a scalar is. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. Consider the diagram below. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. For example. it is actually two numbers. it does not have a direction.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. The symbol d represents these components. A vector is not just a single number. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. dy ). velocity. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. When writing. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. In 2D space. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. when typing.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. 1 . acceleration. Last year. displacement. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). force.

our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. Your textbook uses this last convention.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. In this system. In this system.1. In the previous diagram.1. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . by ). 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. west). In math. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. we are actually adding their components. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. the other vector b represents the components (bx . This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. For the examples that follow. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). east. (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). south would be 270o . The vector a actually represents the components (ax . south. in other words. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). CHAPTER 1. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. ay + by ). Since vectors are not single numbers. north would be 90o . 3.1. So a + b will give (ax + bx . ay ). To help visualize this. 2. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. If we add these two vectors. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. 1.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

(a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. 5 kmN. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back.1. wind speed? 18. using a compass. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. and 3 km S.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. Find the change in velocity. 26. why? 19. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. We must assume u < v. the hiker is lost. 3 km E.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. At the end of three days. A ferryboat. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. walks 4 km E. To do so. 8 km N.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E.0 m/s. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. Diane rows a boat at 8. 6 km S. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. A hiker leaves camp and. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. 10 km W. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. mass. 20. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. The speed of a boat in still water is v.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. Before it can move.85 m/s. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. whose speed in still water is 2. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time.00 h. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. RRHS Physics .1. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. How fast is the player running? 23. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts.

Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. I will take up as the positive direction. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. the force of the man pulling is not. Notice that although the normal.2. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). A free body diagram for this box would like like this. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.2. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. As can be seen in the diagram above. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. Notice that FN = Fg . the vertical forces. RRHS Physics 1. therefore.CHAPTER 1. friction.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. FORCE VECTORS 1. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. In the diagram below. both of which are vectors. therefore.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. First. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero.

these would have to be considered in the force analysis. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. Again.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). In other words. Again notice that FN = Fg . only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. If friction is present. we get CHAPTER 1. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . if present. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1.2. as in the following diagram. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. the normal force can then be used in this calculation.2.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration).3. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1.1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry).3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. FORCE VECTORS friction for now). our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). Similarly. In order to apply Newton’s second law. Using trigonometry. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics . Drawing a free body diagram.

What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. It takes 13. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3. The tension in the rope is 110. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle.0o hill at 6.0o angle with the horizontal. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano.0 kg box is released on a 33. A 5.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. where it is attached to a 4. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. A 25. An 18.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. A rope attached to the 5.300 m/s2 .2.76. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4. (a) Ignoring friction.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.10. A 55. What is the acceleration of this system? 11. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom.2 Problems 1.0 N .CHAPTER 1. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o .0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.30.0 km/h. A 15.2.30.0o incline and accelerates at 0. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0.20. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. RRHS Physics 9 . If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5.0o angle with the horizontal.5 s for him to reach the bottom.0 m/s. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . A car can decelerate at -5.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. A force of 300. The total mass is 80 kg. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h.6o hill at a steady speed of 7.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal.3 m/s2 . what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.0 km/h. (b) Using the same power as in (a).

The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium.3. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. therefore. there will be a net force in some direction.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. The mass is stationary. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. As we said. there are three forces acting on the mass.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. it is obviously not accelerating.3. therefore. Since force is a vector. Remember. but opposite in direction. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . 1.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. therefore. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. although the net force is zero in both cases. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium.1. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. 3 1. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. As can be seen by the free-body diagram.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11.3.

τ = F⊥ d (1. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. As we have seen. etc. As can be seen from equation 1.CHAPTER 1. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). left. Στ = 0 Obviously. To examine this more. While forces were described using up.4 The further away from this pivot. this is important. when calculating the work. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. even though the forces are equal and opposite. the board will begin to spin. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. 1. You will learn more about these in university. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. Before dealing with torques. This is called a dot product.. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. we must introduce the notion of a torque.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. It can be thought of as a twisting force. It is not in rotational equilibrium.3. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). it acts on every particle in the body. but one up and one down. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. the greater the torque. 4 RRHS Physics . as it was when discussing work. but for calculating torques. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. right. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. down.4. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. When you calculated work. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door).

which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. 9. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom.3. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain.3 Problems 1. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. 3. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below.0 m long and sags 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6.0 N . 10. A high wire is 25.5o with each other. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. When lifting a barbell. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. 7. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E.1.3.0 s. 8. and you don’t want it to break. A 20. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. What is the tension in the rope? 2. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable.0 m when a 50. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . A sign with a mass of 1653. RRHS Physics 4. The two ropes make an angle of 15. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. 12 . The frame has a wire across the back.

The 10.0 m. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. EQUILIBRIUM 17.0 N. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N . What equilibrant force must a fourth student.0 kg person is sitting 1. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. In the following diagram. A 60. The plane has a base of 14.0 cm wide.CHAPTER 1. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. Find the equilibrant force: 12. A force of 500.0 kg (uniformly distributed) .0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. If there is a spring on the door 5. 14. The platform is being held up by two students. Fred.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. direction. one at either end. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. 19.0 m platform has a mass of 10.0 m and a length of 15. and its center of gravity is located 4. Betty is pulling with 205 N east.90 m away from the pivot on the other side.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane. Where must a 22. A 50. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. determine the magnitude. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators.0 kg.0 m from the same end.3. apply to prevent acceleration? 1.0 kg person stands at its tip. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11.0 kg person is sitting 0.

EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .3.1.

since max = ΣFx . all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. and acceleration. This also makes things somewhat simple.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. therefore. 2. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance).1. velocity. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. Since we know our vertical acceleration.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another.gravity. we see that there is only one . there is no horizontal acceleration. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position. The horizontal speed does not change. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). and t is the time in the air. These are all vector quantities. Ignoring air resistance. vx is the horizontal speed.

the ball follows a parabolic path. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed.1.4. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. In this case. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. the time in the air.2.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude. namely using equations 2. however.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. Again. 2. since there are no horizontal forces. The object does. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. Once this is done. but gravity will act to slow it down. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. vyi will be zero in equations 2. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity.2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. For this reason. and a is the acceleration due to gravity.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2. t is the time in the air. Notice that equation 2.3. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. instead of horizontally. until it reaches zero at its highest point. Remember.1 and 2.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. 2.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement.4. PROJECTILES used. as shown in the diagram below. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). and 2.1. vyi is the initial vertical velocity.1 to 2. CHAPTER 2. therefore. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. As the ball rises. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation.1.

what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. an outﬁelder runs 4. Immediately. A diver running 3. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2.0 m from the basket. 3. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. PROJECTILES tree.02 m from the basket. YES! It’s a score. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. A football is kicked with a speed of 21.1. A person is in a moving elevator. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot.0 s remaining in a basketball game. by how much will it miss the target? 3. how far from the building is the target? 6. Should the hunter aim directly at. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s.0 m/s. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics .3 Problems 1. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s.CHAPTER 2.0o with the horizontal. The ball is released at the height of the basket. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. The rotten egg landed 4. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10.0 s later. above. 4.0 m away and are 3. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31.05 m above the ﬂoor. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11.2 m above the ground. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13.0 m/s. releasing the ball at the height of the basket.5 m high.7 m above the ground. Trailing by two points. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. 2-D MOTION 2.0 m/s at an angle of 53. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. The building is 13.1.0 m.2 m away from the elevator. At the time of the throw. the elevator was 8. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. A baseball is hit at 30. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.0 m high. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6.0o . and with only 2. 14. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9.

22 m (horizontally). what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. Will the following quantities change? If so. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. At any moment. 2-D MOTION speeds. (a) Draw the situation above. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone.1 m above the ﬂoor.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. The basket is 2.6 m above the ﬂoor. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. 19. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. When it reaches the end of the table. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. 20. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. 21.0 m below. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. PROJECTILES 14.1. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . For each of the following questions. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground.0 m away? 16. draw all vectors to scale. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon.2. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time.

if you exceed the limits of the spring.2. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring.1b)). the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. This is now its new equilibrium position . it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. Also. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. which causes the spring to stretch. you will double the distance the spring stretches.1a). the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. The units for the spring constant are N/m. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. This is the equilibrium position. a mattress. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). this formula no longer holds). The period (the time for one complete vibration. in this case. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly.1c)and let it go. etc.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. but is dependent on the spring.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. depending on its spring constant. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. the suspension of a car. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. 2-D MOTION 2. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. which results in a downward acceleration. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2.CHAPTER 2. Of course.at this point. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. suspension bridges. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. 2 19 . This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. (See Fig 2. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2.

6).8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). the system. 2. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. 2-D MOTION 2. 20 RRHS Physics . Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A).7 we get T = 2π l g (2.2. however. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. 1 Ep = kx2 (2.2. work is done on the spring. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. Substituting this into Eq 2.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential.2. or removed from. At equilibrium. the total energy remains the same.2.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. therefore. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or.

110 m and released. 13. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. A spring stretches 0. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. in contact with a spring bumper.30 g is caught in a spider’s web.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. 2-D MOTION 2. A small cockroach of mass 0. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. the frequency is 0. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8. whose other end is ﬁxed. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0.5 N hangs from it. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0.30 kg mass is hung from it. The spring is then stretched an additional 0.325 m. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. A geologist’s simple pendulum. whose length is 37.4 Hz when a weight of 0. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.62 Hz. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. if it had 3.30 m. If the spring is stretched an additional 0.48 Hz.2 cm. A block of mass 0. is then released.150 m when a 0. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14.2. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator.2.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12.8190 Hz at a particular location. 2. A mass of 2. When the man steps oﬀ. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0. When an 80. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator.60 kg is hung from it. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.0 cm.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. frictionless surface. The spring. has a frequency of 0. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 .CHAPTER 2. What will its frequency be if only 0. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0.10 m? 12.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.200 kg ball.3 Problems 1.50 kg is placed on a level. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4.10 g were trapped? 8.10 m to load a 0. What is the value of m? 6.30 kg hangs from it? 5. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.10 cm.75 J of work done on it? 11.

Also. a vector diagram must be drawn. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. since p = mv. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions).12. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2.12) (2. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities.12. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . if you remember from grade 11. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. We can now RRHS Physics . ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. and extend our analysis to two dimensions.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). pa = pa + pb (2. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector).12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. Since velocity is a vector.2. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. so is momentum. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. not velocity.3. This still applies in two dimensional collisions.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. 2.3. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. In two dimensions. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or.11 and 2. however. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. 2.

15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. In this type of collision. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem.14. Remember. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. therefore.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. after this collision. RRHS Physics 23 . Since the masses are equal. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. and one of the particles is initially at rest. the collision is elastic. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. 4 In other words. though. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ).CHAPTER 2. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. For a two body collision. some energy is lost. In other words. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. our conservation of energy equation (2. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2.3. therefore.3. such as thermal energy. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. 2.

From skid marks.40 kg strikes a second ball. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52.80 m/s. A proton travelling with speed 8. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball.2.3 Problems 1. the second ball is moving North. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West.0 km/h.0 km/h.2×10−23 kg·m/s. an electron. A billiard ball of mass 0. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. initially at rest. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. If they collide and remain stuck together. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. As a result of this elastic collision.00 m/s. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1.3. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. and the second car had a velocity of 40. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection.20 m/s. 6. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. 50.60 kg. and a neutrino. Two cars collide at an intersection. Immediately after impact.3. At what angle will the second proton be observed. of mass mb = 0. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. the investigator determined that car A.00 m/s strikes a second ball. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. 40. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. After the collision (assumed elastic). of mass 0. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . initially at rest. Find 24 .6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10.400 kg. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton.400 kg moving with a speed of 2.0o North of West. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. A billiard ball is moving North at 3.0o North of West. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus.

the object will speed up or slow down.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. however. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. With projectile motion. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. the object will not speed up or slow down. There is. So even though the speed is not changing. the object moves in a curve. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. the acceleration must also be inward. there is still an acceleration. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. Since this is the only force. in other words. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. 1 .1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. we can simply use d (3. we get v= 2πr (3. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle.1. an acceleration present. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. however. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. which is pulling inward.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. we see v= 25 3. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). To calculate the speed of the object.

this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . 1.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .2. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. by deﬁnition. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. In fact. This is a common misconception of students.3. however. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. always inward toward the center of the circle.2 and 3. in particular. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless.3. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. Centripetal force is not.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram.1.3) T Combining equations 3. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration.6) Figure 3.1: This is not a free body diagram. it just shows the direction of the three quantities. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3.4) r This centripetal acceleration is.5 becomes Fc = mac (3.1. 3. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. ac = v2 3. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. when solving centripetal force problems. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. Looking at equation 3. 2. then equation 3. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3.1 below). horizontal surface.

We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. because of Newton’s Third Law. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward.1. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). it is. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. the ball is not being pushed outward. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). In this situation. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. because of inertia. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball.1. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). in fact. If you break the string. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. not outward. If there were. Pretend you are the ball in our example. 3. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. in fact.CHAPTER 3. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. being pulled inward by the string. also. Remember.

0 m rope.42.4 Problems 1. 3.3.3 days. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.15 m. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96.60. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11. The ball makes exactly 2. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. 28 RRHS Physics . A coin is placed 18.000 km and a period of 27. A 5. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0. What is the critical speed (i. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.5 cm. 9.80 m long. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12.20? 6.1 times per second.0 m radius and rotates 1.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0.30? 7.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.15 m/s and its mass is 0. If its speed is 3.0 m. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2.0 revolutions per second. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8.1. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode.1. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.335 kg.00 revolutions in a second. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. what force does the string now exert? 4. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.0 complete revolution each second.e. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.

determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. For the previous question. 18. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle.1. Assume no change in energy for the system. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. 19. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. what RRHS Physics 3.0 m long. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. the vine is 4. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. 15. will a friction force be required? If so. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. and explain this sensation.CHAPTER 3. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). Sketch the situation.0 kg. PLANETARY MOTION 13. A person has a mass of 75. 17. including the relevant forces. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. how much and in what direction? 29 . For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r.6 km. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. If the person is standing on the equator. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. 14. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km.

and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena.3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. To determine this necessary speed. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. speciﬁcally. we get mg = or GM (3. Fg = 30 3. it is falling toward the earth. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. however. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity.) g= GM m R2 3.2.2.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6.2 Universal Gravitation 3.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. In this way. equating the two expressions. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. Newton. gravity is much more common than this. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. In fact. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth.2. This type of relationship appears often in physics. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. given by G in the equation below. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. we must consider the orbit. however.2. Assuming a circular orbit.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. but not to understand why they are so. Equation 3. it travels a further distance.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. this is how the mass of the earth was found. In grade 11. If the object is given a higher speed. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. PLANETARY MOTION 3.

11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15).9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite.7. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). Substituting this (as well as equation 3. faster than this speed. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. as given in equation 3. PLANETARY MOTION 3. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. v= GM r (3.4)into equation 3. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.9. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. m is the mass of the satellite.CHAPTER 3.2. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. 3. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. 2. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . 3. Solving this equation for v.2.

36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. What is g near the surface? 5.0 N is required to pull a 10. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4.50 × 108 km.85 × 105 km. Frank is really concerned about his weight. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. All distances are center to center. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. But Frank is lazy. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. 3. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon.71×10−8 N . PLANETARY MOTION weight. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter.2. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1.5 Problems 1. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1.3.90 × 1027 kg. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is. determine the mass of Jupiter. but has the same mass.2. r = 6. 2. A force of 40. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. Do the previous question again. From this data. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3.6 times that of the earth. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3.50 m. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. Four 8. 10. If the bowling balls are 0.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. 6.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth.85 × 105 km.99 × 1030 kg). Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . 7. 8. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. 13.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1.98 × 107 m). How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1.50 m apart.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. 12.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth.44 × 106 s and it is 1.

Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. 33 . it’s period is the same as that of the earth). 32. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. A satellite is going around Earth. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. though only a few hundred meters across. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. Why? 28. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km.CHAPTER 3. orbits the sun like other planets. what would happen to the value of G? 30. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. 31. On July 19. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. 16. Find the value of this constant. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29.3 × 1022 kg. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. PLANETARY MOTION 14. 27. RRHS Physics 3. The asteroid Icarus. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. Its period is 410 days. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. 1969. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth.2. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. Jupiter is 5. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17.4 days) to do problem 16.

2. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.

In a normal state. . the net change 35 4. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. 4. for example. This kind of atom is called an ion. Metals are generally very good conductors. giving it a net negative or positive charge. Remember. When a conductor is given a negative charge.1. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. During any of the processes described above. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. According to atomic theory. In each case. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). If you rub a balloon in your hair. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. you notice that it will stick to the wall. Likewise. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. in the amount of charge is zero. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. even more important than many people think. not the protons.

with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). An object can also be charged by conduction. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. No charge has been created.e. 4.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. With induction. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. but is just brought near it. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. i. As soon as they touch. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged.1. The other way of charging an object is called induction. The RRHS Physics . the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. For example. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above.1. giving it excess electrons. however. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. it has merely been separated. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. and they touch. If you ground the sphere. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper.4.however. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. if it is charged negatively. in this way. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. germanium.1. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. there are . CHAPTER 4. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. conduction occurs. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope.

4. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. will repel each other and will spread out. as shown here.1. giving it a permanent charge. If charges become large enough. now negatively charged. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. Think about how you may do this. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). even when nothing is apparently done to them. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules .4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. The more water molecules in the air. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel.CHAPTER 4.even though they are neutral. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves.1. If the electroscope is neutral. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. even after we remove the charged rod. Suppose. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. however. particularly on each leaf. the two leaves just hang vertically. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. 4. the leaves. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. You can. more often. In some cases. The leaves will then stay spread apart. the faster the charge will be carried away. 37 . Sparks and lightning are examples of this. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges.

5.1. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. When an electroscope is charged. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. they ﬂy away in different directions. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . what kind of charge does B have? 6. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. but as soon as they touch the rod. 9. You place two objects with strong positive charges. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4.4. If you know that D is positively charged. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. Explain. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles.1. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. Finally. What charge is on the rod? 8. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. 12. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. one at each end of the line of blocks. why does the record now attract dust? 4. 3. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. close to but not touching the blocks. A attracts C.5 Problems 1. you remove the two positively charges objects. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. and C repels D. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2.

it is precise for only point charges.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life.it is a concept. electromagnetic. or some other type of contact.2 4. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. strong nuclear forces. since it appeared to behave like magic.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. without using some test charge. which has an equal but opposite charge).60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. tying a rope to something. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4.1 is the distance between the centers. r is the distance between the charges in meters. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge.2. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. This worried people. they think of pushing or pulling an object.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1.2. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. Using some test charge q. 39 . it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. To help explain this idea. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. in fact.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. The search for simple. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. then the r in equation 4.CHAPTER 4. 4. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. If the two objects are spheres.2. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. and weak nuclear forces) continues. This may require pushing with your hand. E= F q (4. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . however. When people think of forces. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. FIELDS 4. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less.

these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially.1 into equation 4. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. then equation 4. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. 2. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it.4. we obtain kQ (4. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. For example.2. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. consider a positive source charge. E= CHAPTER 4. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. In reality. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q.2. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. Substituting equation 4.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. the force on the test charge will be away from the source.1. FIELDS points around the sources. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. For example. These electric ﬁeld lines. or lines of force. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld.2. equation 4. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . The closer together the ﬁeld lines. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. If there is more than one source charge. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. however. 4. which interacts with all objects near the earth.2.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area.

The bottom electron is resting on a table. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. A second ball.CHAPTER 4. A positive charge of 3. has a charge of -20 µC. the RRHS Physics .0 µC is 0. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. mass 9.2. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. Two charges. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. mass 1. What should you do? 11. the typical size of an atom. -2. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. located 16 cm to the right. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other.67 × 10−27 kg.11 × 10−31 kg. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity.2.145 N on each other.2). A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. what force is exerted? 12. One. You are given two similar spheres. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. 8. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. In one model of the hydrogen atom. has a charge of +25 µC. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. -4.0 N on each other? 4.00 × 10−17 C? 2. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. A and B. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . located 25 cm above the second ball. is 0. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words.1 × 106 m/s. 3. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. A third ball.030 m to the east.5 × 10−10 m. In other words.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. and an electron. 4.5 Problems 1. and the right -83 µC.050 m to the north and the other. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g).0 µC. What is the force between them? 5. Three particles are placed in a line. q1 and q2 . (b) Find the net force on the right particle. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4.

Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. Two charges. Find the force on an electron. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.0 cm away from a 1. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26.5 N and is repulsive. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). then repeat your work with a 2. 17. Two positive charges. the force each exerts on the other is 28. −Qo and −3Qo . are a distance l apart. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. (a) two positively charged point sources. 42 CHAPTER 4.2 cm apart.4.30 m apart.0 µC are 8. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. FIELDS 20.020 mm remains stationary in the air.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. A water droplet of radius 0. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons.0 µC and the other 68. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27.0 µC and a +60. one 33.0× 10−6 C charge. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. A negative charge of 2. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25.0 µC charged particle? 21. 24. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. 19.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. Take into account gravity and determine E. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. RRHS Physics . A proton (m = 1. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15.0 × 10−6 C test charge.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22.0 µC charge 40. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross.2. When placed 1. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC.0 cm apart? 23.

namely potential energy. we say that it is at a high potential.3. For example. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . The symbol for electric potential is V . because of the force of attraction between the two charges. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. so Vab = Wab q (4. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges).3.CHAPTER 4. This will add energy to the system. Just as with gravitational potential energy. Suppose you have two spheres. The potential energy here will decrease. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. If the two spheres are touched together.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. In this case. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. you don’t have to do anything.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. for example. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. therefore. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. since they are trying to get away from one another. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. FIELDS 4. 4. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). which is called the volt. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge.3. sphere B is said to be neutral. Remember that W = ∆E.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. If positive work is required to move the charge.

as shown below. What work is done when 5.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. if they were not. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources.0 µC charge.4. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. at this point.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. that is. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). CHAPTER 4. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere.3. FIELDS 2. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. 4.5 V ? 3. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). A force of 0. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. the two spheres will be at the same potential.3.5 × 107 V . A -30. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8.4 Problems 1.0 C is raised in potential by 1.3. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3.5 × 10−4 J. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. The change in energy while doing this is 4.

this is given a special name. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. 1 . The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. so its electrons are held very loosely. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. When people discussed current. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. Remember that in solids. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. also referred to as an amp. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. Contrary to a common belief. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery.1 Electric Current Q (5. at the same time. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. 5. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. an ampere (A).1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. little was known about the structure of the atom.1. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. A wire is a conductor.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. therefore. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. a battery is several cells connected together. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . As was discussed in the previous chapter. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. In short. In 1800.

Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. With a battery. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). Resistance is measured in ohms. it gains or loses energy. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). CHAPTER 5. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. For practical purposes. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). Temperature: In general. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). 3. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. This makes sense.5. These materials are than said to be superconducting. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. In the same way. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). because of their atomic structure. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. 46 . If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. insulators have a very high resistance. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. we can use it here as well.1. In our gravity/water analogy above. they lose potential. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. Comparing this to electricity. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. When charges are moved through a resistance. the greater the ﬂow of water. however. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. If one end of the pipe is raised. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. 2. In liquids and gases. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. therefore.

Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. That is. it is really energy that we pay for. We RRHS Physics . since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5.1) so P = IV (5. thereby increasing the resistance. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. light. the current also doubles. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. the current is proportional to voltage). By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by.5. the watt (W ). so it will have a lower resistance.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. 4.1.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. Looking at this equation.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. or mechanical). A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. the current is proportional to the voltage.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. current can be expressed as V (5. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. Since wires have a resistance in the real world.1.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5.4 with equation 5. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. Note that equation 5. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power.CHAPTER 5.1. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. but I = q/t (equation 5.5) 5. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). the resistance must be constant. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. 5. if you double the voltage.3) 5.

A service station charges a battery using a current of 5.0 A? 5. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ).085/kW h). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. When she connects it to a 1. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4.0 V battery is used.5 A for 6. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. but when a 3.1. Joe argues that. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. 5. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω.4 Problems 1. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase.6) CHAPTER 5. 11. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. A current of 1. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. at 20 mA. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. What is the current through a 6. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. above 100 mA can be fatal. since R = V /I. 14. A 1. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt.5 V battery. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. The line has a resistance of 1.1. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. What voltage will produce 12. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10.0 cm apart.5.10 A ﬂows in a wire. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . Is Joe correct? Explain.0 h. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. 5 mA can be painful.

29 kg/m3 . (a) 220 V are applied across it.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23.90 and it lasts for 300 hours.0o C to 55. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 . what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0.5 kg of water. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24.0 minutes. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω.4 A from a 120 V line? 27.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V . How many 100 W light bulbs. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour.2 Ω lines. A modern television set draws 2. by means of a converter. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20.20 kg of water. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1.08 per kW h. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. RRHS Physics 5.0 s? 25. It is observed that it takes 12.) 49 . An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0.0o C.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5. 18. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A.000 V ? 21. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. What is the eﬃciency of a 0.06 per kWh? 19.1. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2.0 A when operated on 120 V .CHAPTER 5. At $0. What is its increase in temperature during the 30.11 per kW h. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22.000 V rather than 12. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3. operated at 120 V .

the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. Knowing the equivalent resistance. each resistor has its own path. R3 respectively.5. 5. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. currents. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. then by applying equation 5. I2 . the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. applying equation 5. and voltages throughout the circuit. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. R2 . In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5.7) 5.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. When you add more resistances. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. and R3 . R2 . I1 . Of course.2.9) RRHS Physics . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5.2. V2 .2 to analyze the resistances.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. and V3 = IR3 .8) (5.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. when we put several resistance in series.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . If V1 . you increase the total resistance. Because charge must be conserved. V2 = IR2 .2. By conservation of energy.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. since there is only one path.

*CIRCUITS 2. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). If any resistors are in parallel. then they are not in series. Remember. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. every time you add a resistance in parallel. If any resistors are in series. if there is a junction between the resistors.2. Again. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. but are often some combination of the two. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). 5. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. equation 5. R3 is in series with R4 . since there is a junction in between the two. This combination is then in series with R1 . In this example. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). R3 . For example. RRHS Physics 51 .10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. Also. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. however. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. Consider the following example.2. so they can be combined using equation 5. R2 . 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows.CHAPTER 5.10) 5.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. 3. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). Remember. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. R1 and R2 are not in series. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 .

4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. These rules actually apply to all circuits. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. 5. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. too complicated for this analysis. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. RRHS Physics 5. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. Houses are wired in parallel. If too much current ﬂows. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. 1. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. For example. For example. 2. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. a system of equations can then be found and solved. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. If this strip melts. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. At any junction point. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous.5.2. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. A third type of safety device is slightly different. breaking the circuit.2. 2. however. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. To deal with these circuits. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. Some circuits4 are. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. for example. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5.7. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. Most newer houses have circuit breakers.9.2. This is just an expression of equation 5.

Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. 5. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. Find the unknown currents and voltages. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find V.6 *Problems 1. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6.50 A.CHAPTER 5. 8.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. 3. 7. What is the resistance in each case? 53 .2. Find the current in each branch. Find each resistance. 5. 2. 4.

and I4 . ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.I3 . Find It .0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. 17.V2 .2. Find the current in each branch. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. If each resistor is 10 Ω. 16. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. Given an unlimited supply of 1. 12. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2.I3 . Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W .0 Ω. If each resistor is 10 Ω. *CIRCUITS 10. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.0 V output for a 6.0 V . Suppose that you have a 6. Find R3 .0 54 . 11.5. CHAPTER 5. 100 W . 13. or 150 W at 120 V .0 V input? 15. and P1 .I2 .

and I3 in the following circuit. which is brighter? 21. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19.2. (a) If they are connected in parallel. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. *CIRCUITS 22. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. RRHS Physics 55 23. determine the currents I1 .CHAPTER 5. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. Consider the circuit below. I2 . Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit.8 kΩ. what is the resistance of the other? . one larger than the other. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. 5. If one resistor is 2. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24.

In most materials. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. 5. each with a north and south pole. the domains are more lined up in one direction. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. This will be seen in the next section. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. the result is two magnets. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. magnetic forces act over distances. In a magnetized piece of iron. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. however. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. however. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron.3. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. RRHS Physics 56 . but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. the same as electric charges. for example. On a small scale. In an unmagnetized piece of iron.3. 5. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. and cobalt. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. Magnetic poles are not. in ferromagnetic materials.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. A compass needle is really a small magnet. If you cut a magnet in two. since an electric current will always produce both. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet.5. however. As a result. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. nickel. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. Since these forces do behave similarly. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction.

B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. To use this hand rule. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams.CHAPTER 5. but this was found to have no eﬀect. In other words. To use this hand rule. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead.3. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. This is an electromagnet. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. In fact.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. it often7 experiences a force. the ﬁeld will be stronger here.3.3. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. it makes sense. then. when using left hand rules. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). It was only with a moving charge. or a current.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). By using more than one loop. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. 6 5.3. the second right hand rule can be used. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. 5. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. around 1820.

MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. There will be no force between b and c. The charges do not. Remember that I = q/t. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. use left hand rules.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force.5 Electric Motor 5.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion.5. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. as shown in the side view below. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. If the moving particle is negative. however. CHAPTER 5. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. so F = qvB sin θ (5.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. to 58 RRHS Physics .8 8 Remember. 5. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction.3. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. have to be moving through a wire. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. This loop of wire will rotate. As we learned before. To do this. To use this rule. the force will be out of the page. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. Between c and d.3. as shown below. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges.3. you may also use the left hand rule. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. substituting this into equation 5. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle.

the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position.6 Problems 1. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. MAGNETISM other brush. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. In order to make the loop continue turning. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets.3. we want it to turn continuously. In reality. as well as a ferromagnetic core. Also. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other.3. To make eﬃcient use of a motor.CHAPTER 5. Many loops of wire are usually used. As a result. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. (b) Two opposite poles. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. 5. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. but no force acts on the wire. but just touch one another. if the loop goes past this point. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. as shown below. As the armature turns.

An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. What is the force on the wire? 7. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0.5. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld.3. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room.0 × 10−5 T . What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. 11.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8.35 N .9 × 103 kg/m3 . A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. A straight 2.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. identify the poles of the magnets. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction. (a) CHAPTER 5. it feels zero force. A proton having a speed of 5. If the force on the wire below is into the page.0 A and weighs 0.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. MAGNETISM 5. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 . What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8.90 T . What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. (b) 10. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire.

how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. B=0. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0.CHAPTER 5. Protons move in a circle of radius 8.000 V . 17. Calculate the energy of the proton.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9.02 T. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20.25 T . Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. If the velocity of the particle is 5.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. which exists between the two parallel plates below. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. A particle with a charge of 2.6 × 10−13 N .0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . 21. An electron (m = 9. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. Explain. Calculate the mass of the particle. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld.25 × 106 m/s. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. The force is upward and of magnitude 5.10 T magnetic ﬁeld.5 cm. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6.3.08 m. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0.032 T . If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. 16. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.385 T magnetic ﬁeld.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. 23. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. 61 . If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. The radius of its path is 4.4 mm? 24.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.10 cm in a 0. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. A force of 5. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. E=1000 N/C.

the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. For example. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms.4. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. Fill in the direction of the current in this example.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. and not a force where B. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction.14) EMF stands for electromotive force.4. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. In other words. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). 5. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . when the magnet is removed. ∆φ ∆t (5. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. For example. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. We call this an induced emf.5.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. Such a current is called an induced current. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). v. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit.

and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. Combining these two equations. therefore. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power.4. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. the two wires are insulated from one another. however. If Ns < Np . the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. There is. From equation 5. Just like before. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule).2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. In the example shown below. Notice that if Ns > Np .13. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. This is called perpetual motion. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. Remember. therefore. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. this is called a step-up transformer. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. But remember. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. however.15) 5. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. conservation of energy tells 63 .CHAPTER 5. 5. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force).4. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. this is a step-down transformer. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. The primary coil has the incoming current.

If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. then the current must be lowered. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page.5. The wire ab is moving out. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). this means that if the voltage goes up. Since P = V I. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. into the page). Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. Similarly.16) CHAPTER 5. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. at position 3.4. we see what happens to the current. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. Consider the picture below. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. out of the page). therefore. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. At position 1. the force on cd must be out of the page.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. at positions 2 and 4. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. RRHS Physics . we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire.4.

The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). however. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. INDUCTION called a counter torque.CHAPTER 5. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. the situation is the reverse.5Vmax Imax In North America. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Since the current is not constant. the greater the back (or counter) emf. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. The greater the speed of the motor. Back EMF As was previously stated.11 we cannot just average the current over time. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. As we turn the generator. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. In a generator.707Imax (5. giving Pavg = 0. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. or eﬀective. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf.707Vmax (5. as were used with the DC motor. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . If we square an AC electric current graph.5Imax To make a DC generator.4. When a motor is operating. we take a root mean square average (rms). we get a sin2 θ graph. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. Instead.18) Since power is P = V I. The more current that is drawn. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. value. Alternating Current As we have seen. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. as was seen in a previous graph. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers.17) Similarly.

The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8.0 cm/s. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.4. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. If the rod is 12. What is the average induced emf ? 2.10 s.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1.4 s.4 Problems 1. Also note that since P = V I.350 T to zero. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. 5. What is the induced emf ? 4. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. It takes 0.60 T magnetic ﬁeld.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0.5. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7.800 T . In what direction is the induced current? 3. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical.405 T magnetic ﬁeld.5 Ω. A square coil of sides 5. calculate the emf developed.50 T magnetic ﬁeld.15 Ω. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.19) CHAPTER 5. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0.5Pmax (5. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . It is initially in a 0. If the wire has a resistance of 0. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. 6. A 12. with its plane perpendicular to B.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region.4. Hence.

(a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. An ac voltage. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). Why is this true? 18. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25.4. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. and an output current of 0. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . and (c) the power transformed 13. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. 19.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. Calculate the peak current in a 2. where the line voltage is 240 V .0 V AC. 26.75 A. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. is across a 35 Ω resistor. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. Why? 21.0 V source and measures 8.CHAPTER 5. INDUCTION 17. the coil will swing. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A.0 A. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22.0 A. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. If the primary and secondary were reversed.0 V and the input current is 11.0 A. (b) the current in the primary. whose peak value is 90 V . The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12.0 A respectively. what would the new output voltage be? 16. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA.0 V at the secondary.0 V and an output current of 5. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . Frequently. It is used with a transformer in England. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5.

At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line.4. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30.5. INDUCTION 28.25 A. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. a 700 W hair dryer.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

1 RRHS Physics .4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. In fact. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. He suggested in 1923 that. however. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. after the collision. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy.5). By making careful measurements.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties.4). this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons.1 however. such as diﬀraction and interference. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision.6. The difﬁculty here.4 and 6. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well.1. only its frequency is lowered. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. If he was correct. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. The photon does not actually slow down. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. Objects such as electrons. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties.1. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. however.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924.

7. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. 6.1. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. 13. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves.1 × 1013 Hz. does its wavelength change? If so. 10.0 × 106 m/s. 12. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. RRHS Physics 9. 16. If energy is radiated by all objects.CHAPTER 6. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light.0 eV photon and a 5.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. λ = 450 nm. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. QUANTUM THEORY 8. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. does it increase or decrease? 11. 15. What are the wavelengths.40 Hz. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. Determine the wavelength of a 0. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. 14.0 km/h.1. in meters.80 nm. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. of a 3. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron.0 eV electron? 73 .5 Problems 1. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg.

it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. As these particles passed through a prism. 6. since all waves at this time required a medium.2. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. As with Newton’s particle model. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. was putting forward a wave model of light. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . a ball thrown against a wall). As the light gets closer to the water. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal.2. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. In a uniform medium. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. led by Christian Huygens. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). another group of scientists. for example.6. the particles must be moving very fast.

the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air.2. indicating a spreading out of the light. The two theories. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. the resulting image is slightly blurred. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). 6. which appear to be incompatible. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. It states that to understand any given experiment. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. in 1850. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. however. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. however. By the middle of the nineteenth century. and interference where the particle theory fails. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. This model was not. refraction.CHAPTER 6. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. Similarly. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. but to understand light fully. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. For example. without its problems. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. The two aspects of light complement one another. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. however. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model.2. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. which contradicts Newton’s theory. we must refer to both theories. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. however.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. According to Maxwell’s theory. Also.

We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. light reveals both wave and particle properties. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. you would have to feel your way around. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. but in the process would move it from that position. like light. its behavior is more like that of a particle. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. 2 76 . An electron. negatively charged particles. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. CHAPTER 6.2. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand.2. when light passes through space or a medium. This has some major implications. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. This would tell you where it is. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. when light interacts with matter. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. or even a combination of the two. In general.2. depending on which property of light is being measured. In terms of everyday language and images. macroscopic world. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. this duality extends to particles as well. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. or as a wave that has a mass. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. When this radiation interacts with the electron. To locate this. its behavior imitates that of a wave. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. When we try to visualize light. is the set of its properties that we can measure. however. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. you must interact with it. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). We cannot picture what they are. In order to locate the ball.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. but a visual picture is again not possible. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. You wouldn’t know where it is going.6. Applied to a smaller scale. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. 6.

2. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time.5. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. For examRRHS Physics 6. but according to equations 6. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction.4 and 6. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. on the other hand. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. and not determinism. Thus. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. however. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. but has wave properties. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. If. we must use a small wavelength. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple.CHAPTER 6. 77 . In summary. however. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. it is still a probability and not a certainty. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty.

WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics . WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.2.6.

This is known as an absorption spectrum.CHAPTER 6. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. When energy is transferred to atoms. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. If they were at rest. Using spectroscopy. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. 6. This became known as the Rutherford Model. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. By analyzing these wavelengths.3.1. This is known as an emission spectrum. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. This is how helium was discovered. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. heated solids. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. since they are unique to each atom. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. Around 1911. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil.1. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. in industry. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. not interactions between atoms. scientists can analyze unknown materials.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. Less dense gases. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. When viewing these spectra. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. emit a discrete spectrum.3. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. but a few were bounced almost directly back. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. Although a major step forward.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. was accepted by scientists by 1900. 6.

their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted.6 eV n2 (6. Thus. the atom would not be very stable. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. When changing energy levels. for example. The radius increases with n2 . as it loses energy. In 1911. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy).8) 6. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized.6. The higher the energy level.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. If an electron absorbs energy. and violet. green. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6.2.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. blue. RRHS Physics . Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis.8). any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be.3. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. electrons can jump directly or in steps. CHAPTER 6.3. in other words. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. and also predicted an unstable atom. 1. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. Neils Bohr. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6.red.3. 2. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. both are therefore quantized. A student of Rutherford. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). they are accelerating.1). as shown in the diagram in section 6. The Rutherford model could not explain this. Using quantum theory. however.1 . Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. as in solids). As the electrons spiraled inward.

the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. but is actually much harder to visualize. determined energy levels of the elements. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. 6. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. however. Bohr did not know how to explain this. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. each independently. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6.3. however. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable.8 that when n=1. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. As a result. Louis de Broglie. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. however.CHAPTER 6. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. This was a major problem with the model. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. If we consider the electron to be a particle. In quantum mechanics. electron can go from 3 to 1. since it has a wave nature. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. the energy is actually at a minimum. The electron. however.3. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. Notice in equation 6. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. applying his theory of matter waves. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure.

we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. spin (ms )).4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. CHAPTER 6. At low temperatures. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light).3. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb.3. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. These materials are used. in luminous watch dials. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. Explain any discrepancies. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation.5 Problems 1. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. 5. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). 6. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. This is called ﬂuorescence. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. however. In a group of these atoms. magnetic (ml ). What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom.6. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. 8.3. for example. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation.3.1. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state.

The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. and A is the mass number. 7. the electric force becomes more important. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. and neutrons and neutrons. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus).1. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. the others being the gravitational force. an element is written as A X. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Sometimes. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. 1 . we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. and the weak nuclear force.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. so as the distance becomes greater. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. called a neutron. however. In 1932. In the last chapter. This adds energy to the system. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. This force only acts over short distances. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7.1. Z is the atomic number. protons and neutrons. this force is the same between protons and protons. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. This is one of the four forces of nature. the electromagnetic force. Z. A. for example.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number.

84 7. The mass of 2 H is 2. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931.1.014102 u.007276 u mn = 1. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. 5. we are actually adding mass. It is expressed as a negative number. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. it could just fall apart.0 × 1011 J of energy. Using equation 7. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. where E is the energy in J. which is iron.49 MeV. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. In a nuclear reaction.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. What mass was converted? 4. A nuclear reaction produces 9. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. In other words. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1.3 Problems 1.7. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. In general. the total number of nucleons. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents.1. and c is the speed of light in m/s. m is the equivalent mass in kg. This implies that by adding energy to the system. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 .015123 u). u. identify the element. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. For each of the following. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus.66 × 10 kg). The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. RRHS Physics . To be stable. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2.1. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. Thus.1) CHAPTER 7. We will look at this more in the next two sections. the number of protons.

1.CHAPTER 7. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 . NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.

2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions.7. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. 7. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons.2. as will be discussed in the following sections. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. This is true for all alpha decays. If the atomic number gets too large. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation.2. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. 2 They are not very energetic. therefore. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. These nuclei are very tightly bound. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. 4 He. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. 7. As a result. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. RRHS Physics . there are not enough neutrons to do this. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped).3. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. and required no external stimulation. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. This is known as (natural radioactivity). An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. 7.2. beyond this.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity).

Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent.2.CHAPTER 7. This is a random process. In some cases. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . 7. they can be very dangerous. 7. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. allowing a proton to become a neutron. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. A neutrino is also emitted. A positron has the same mass as an electron. becomes a neutron.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. by emitting a positron. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. but the opposite charge. Like an atom. which has no charge and no mass. the nucleus does not undergo any change. One of the protons. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. This photon is known as a gamma ray. Other than releasing energy. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. For this reason.2. it emits a photon. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. In beta decay. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. It is called the antiparticle to the electron.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. In 10 years. This electron disappears into the nucleus.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. when it drops down to a lower energy state.2. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction).

It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. 210 P o. showing the element formed. 88 RRHS Physics . A radioactive polonium isotope. β − . Write the complete nuclear equation. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years.7.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus.2. 8. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. showing the element formed. After one half-life. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. CHAPTER 7. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. When 23 N e (mass=22. Write the complete nuclear equation. so it is closely related to half-life.2. One Bequerel is one decay per second.9898 u). 84 emits a α particle. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). 214 Bi. In another 10 years. A radioactive bismuth isotope.5 Problems 1. or β + emission. 7. 83 emits a β particle. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed.

It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. the top scientists in Europe and the U. 7. 89 . 7.3. however. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. resulting in a transmutation. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). or gamma rays. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. but they can also occur in nature. 2.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7.3% 238 U and only 0. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C).S. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). RRHS Physics 7. this is known as radioactive fallout. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. protons.CHAPTER 7. because it resembled cell division. the two masses would be brought together quickly. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions.3.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. following Fermi’s work. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. This ended the war. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. To detonate the bomb. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions.2 are moving too fast. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. electrons.3.2) although there are many other possibilities. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. neutrons.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released.

One of the byproducts is 239 P u. Quebec. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. which was discussed earlier. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. 3. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. To slow the reaction down. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. 235 U . energy will be released. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. usually containing cadmium. helium is extremely tightly bound. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions.7. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. 5 CHAPTER 7. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. however. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. Also present are control rods. and can be separated to be used as fuel. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. It has a simpliﬁed design. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. 92 7. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials.3. and New Brunswick. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). which is very expensive. these control the rate of the reaction. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. so it can be built where technology is limited.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. Because of its design. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. RRHS Physics 90 . which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. For example. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive).3. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water.

A few years ago. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors.016029 u 4. Once this high temperature is achieved. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. 3.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems.043925 u 238. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2.007825 u 2. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong.3. 2. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. 6. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. At present. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. This is higher than any known material can stand. List three medical uses of radioactivity.905625 u 135. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7.016049 u 3. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures.90722 u 235. 91 RRHS Physics . a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion.7 for this reason.CHAPTER 7.9141 u 91. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. How much energy would this release? 8.9250 u 87. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2.2? 5. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. 9.002603 140. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.014102 u 3.050786 u 1.3. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained.

How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.0 × 1014 J of energy. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics . The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.3.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1.7.

therefore. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using.3 cm and 2. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. the thickness of the lines may vary. Take a meter stick. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results.4 cm. the ends of the stick may be chipped. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. For example.37. The wood may shrink or warp.3*. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. In other words. Some of these may be due to human errors. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. .Appendix A Analysis of Data A. It may be smaller or larger. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). and probably even more. errors in calculation. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. there are errors present. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. this 7 is only an estimate.4. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. was friction considered to be constant. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. errors due to rounding oﬀ. In writing lab reports. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. we might estimate it to be 2. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. you will be expected to do an error analysis. In our meter stick example. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. for example. We only know that the correct measurement is 2.3 and 2.1 mm.1 Experimental Data however. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. Suppose that a measurement is between 2.

to suggest ways the experiment might be improved.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times.1 Standard Deviation A. we may end up with a very precise estimate. It does not address any possible systematic errors. this is not an excuse to be careless. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. In this case. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. For this reason. The more random error we have in our experiment. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. this type of error is present in all experiments. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. As long as these errors are random. It is a good idea. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment.2.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. In the case of systematic error. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. the measurements are always too high. In this case. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. APPENDIX A.2. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. A. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. but it will not be very accurate. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. This type of error is generally more serious. the smaller the standard deviation should be. The smaller this value. the less precise our results are.A. or too low. A.1.1. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. that is. In our error analysis. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. The more data points that we have. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. RRHS Physics . Section A. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). no matter how many estimates are averaged together. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. A. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis.

58 A.98 1.31 1. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.23 3.57 4.60 2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.96 2.16 3.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.53 2.7 4.18 3.89 2.05. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.4.8.36 1.14 2.2.13 1. If we have a theoretical value of 5.76 1.38 1. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.77 1.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.7 63.1) where xi are the individual measurements. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no. if possible. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.APPENDIX A.50 2. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.37 1.11 2.45 3.42 1.80 1. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.35 to 5.70±0.71 2. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.81 1. and we took 12 measurements. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.92 1.44 1.25 2.64 2.35 1.02 1. and N is the number of measurements.26 3.06 2.45. we would use t = 2. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.92 3.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.03 2. In this case.86 1. 95 RRHS Physics .36 3.90 1. Note. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.01 2. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.36 1.17 2.08 6. When examining the data.31 3.78 4.35.35 1.83 1. however.29 1. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.30 9.18 5.2.48 2.84 2.34 1. The relevant values for t are given in the table.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results.36 2. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.40 1. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.20 3. and got an average value x of 4.78 1.35. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.94 1. x is the average of all the values.20.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. we would use t = 2. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.

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