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Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . RRHS Physics . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 5.1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . .1. . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . .2 *Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . .1 *Series Circuits . . .3 Electroscopes . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . .3 Satellite Motion .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . 5. . 4. . . . . . . 5. . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 *Problems .3. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . 4. 5. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS .4 Gravitational Fields .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . .3. . . . . 5. . . . .5 Electric Motor . . .3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . .1. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . .4 Problems . . . . . 7. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1. . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .4. . . . . .3. . . . . . .3. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . . .4 Implications .1 Structure .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . .4 Half-lives . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . 6. . . . . 6. . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . .1 Nuclear Fission .2 Beta Decay . . 6. . . . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . .2. . . . . . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .1. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .2. . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra .3 Nuclear Fusion . .1. . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Induction . 7. . . . . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .2. . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . .3 Quantum Model .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 6. .2 Radioactive Decay . .

. . . . .2. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Experimental Data . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . .

2 2.28 #2.6.5.15 pg 641 #9.2 4. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13. pg 595 #5.7.2 6.3.8 #4.3.1 2.3 7. pg 501 #31.37.2 5.6.27.14. pg 489 #27.3.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.9.24.7.4.4.8.3 5. pg 611 Conceptual Problems. pg 526 #1. pg 596 #12.Textbook Correlations Section 1.5.688-693 694-714. pg 863 #8. pg 778 #1.1 6.8. pg 661 #5. pg 780 #2.2.2 4. pg 934 #5.4 pg 796 #1-4.4.2.40.2 7. pg 886 #3. pg 862 #6.10.3 5.3.1 1.6 #3. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.2 1.25. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.4 #36. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.6. BLM #1. pg 936-937 #26.9 #2. pg 933 #1. pg 608 #3.3 2.4 6.1 4.1 7. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.9. pg 571 #21.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18. pg 918-919 #3.33.8. pg 529 #30.28 pg 495 #30.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.28.3 #4.3 3. pg 655 #26. pg 515 #39.2.1 3.27 v .1 5.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). displacement. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. 1 . dy ). This year.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. In 2D space. When writing. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. Likewise. For example. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. Consider the diagram below. In university. it is actually two numbers. Last year.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. acceleration. like a scalar is. velocity. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . The symbol d represents these components. For example. it does not have a direction. A vector is not just a single number. force. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). when typing. For example. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction.

ay + by ). 1. east. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . Bearings are another way of expressing directions. Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. south. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines).1.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. So a + b will give (ax + bx . the direction of the vector would then be 30o . For the examples that follow. in other words. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. CHAPTER 1. the other vector b represents the components (bx . This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. To help visualize this. we are actually adding their components. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . In this system.1. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. west). Your textbook uses this last convention. north would be 90o . you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). by ). In this system. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. ay ). The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. Since vectors are not single numbers. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. In the previous diagram. (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). If we add these two vectors. In math. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. south would be 270o . 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.1. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. 3. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. 2. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. To do so. wind speed? 18. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. The speed of a boat in still water is v. We must assume u < v. 20.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. whose speed in still water is 2. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. and 3 km S. 8 km N.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3.0 m/s. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. using a compass. mass. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. Find the change in velocity. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. 26. RRHS Physics . 3 km E. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts.00 h. the hiker is lost. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E.1. Diane rows a boat at 8. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. A ferryboat. why? 19. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. 6 km S.1. How fast is the player running? 23. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. walks 4 km E. Before it can move. At the end of three days. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east.85 m/s. A hiker leaves camp and. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. 5 kmN. 10 km W. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15.

therefore. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet.2. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). In the diagram below. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. Notice that FN = Fg . Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. First. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions.CHAPTER 1. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. the vertical forces. FORCE VECTORS 1.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. the force of the man pulling is not.2. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. friction. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . I will take up as the positive direction. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. As can be seen in the diagram above. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. therefore. Notice that although the normal. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. both of which are vectors. RRHS Physics 1. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle.

Similarly. Again.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . Using trigonometry.2. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). FORCE VECTORS friction for now). If friction is present.1. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. we get CHAPTER 1. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. In order to apply Newton’s second law.2. In other words. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. Again notice that FN = Fg . if present. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. Drawing a free body diagram.3. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). as in the following diagram. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics . the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another).

10.0o hill at 6. It takes 13. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0. A 15. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. (b) Using the same power as in (a). A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. What is the acceleration of this system? 11.0 m/s.0o incline and accelerates at 0. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.20. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8.300 m/s2 .0 N . A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill.0 km/h. A bicyclist can coast down a 4.0 km/h. RRHS Physics 9 .2. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5. A car can decelerate at -5. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. The total mass is 80 kg. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. (a) Ignoring friction. A 55. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h.0 kg block and the ramp is 0. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3.30.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal.2 Problems 1.0o angle with the horizontal.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2.2. where it is attached to a 4. The tension in the rope is 110. A 5.3 m/s2 . He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . will the slug slide down the hill? If so. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed.0o angle with the horizontal.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.CHAPTER 1. An 18. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano.5 s for him to reach the bottom. A force of 300. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. A rope attached to the 5.0 kg box is released on a 33. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. A 25.76. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o .30. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle.6o hill at a steady speed of 7.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.

the resultant vector (the net force) is zero.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium.3. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. therefore. The mass is stationary. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. there will be a net force in some direction.3. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. Remember.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . 1. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. This additional force is called the equilibrant force.1. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. it is obviously not accelerating. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. therefore. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. although the net force is zero in both cases.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. 3 1. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero.3. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. As we said. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. Since force is a vector. but opposite in direction. therefore. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. there are three forces acting on the mass.

the board will begin to spin. As we have seen. This is called a dot product. but for calculating torques. 1.. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. but one up and one down. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. Στ = 0 Obviously. this is important. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). You will learn more about these in university. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. as it was when discussing work. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. As can be seen from equation 1. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body.4. It can be thought of as a twisting force. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. When you calculated work.CHAPTER 1. It is not in rotational equilibrium. Before dealing with torques. it acts on every particle in the body. down. right. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. etc. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. when calculating the work.4 The further away from this pivot. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). even though the forces are equal and opposite. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. we must introduce the notion of a torque. To examine this more. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. τ = F⊥ d (1. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. the greater the torque. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board.3. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). While forces were described using up. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. 4 RRHS Physics . left. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point).

or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain.0 N .5o with each other. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . A sign with a mass of 1653. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. 8. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting.1. 12 . What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. The frame has a wire across the back. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. When lifting a barbell. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. 7. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. What is the tension in the rope? 2. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. 3.3.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. RRHS Physics 4.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B.3 Problems 1. A high wire is 25. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. 9. and you don’t want it to break.3. A 20. 10.0 m long and sags 1.0 m when a 50. Find the resultant force on the vehicle.0 s. The two ropes make an angle of 15.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle.

A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. EQUILIBRIUM 17. In the following diagram. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90. The 10. A force of 500.0 kg person is sitting 1.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N .0 m. The platform is being held up by two students.0 cm wide. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18. The plane has a base of 14.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. Fred. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50.0 kg person is sitting 0. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. 19. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. one at either end. 14. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end.0 m from the same end. determine the magnitude. If there is a spring on the door 5.0 N. direction. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car.0 kg.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13.3.0 m platform has a mass of 10.0 kg person stands at its tip. Find the equilibrant force: 12. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N.0 m and a length of 15.CHAPTER 1.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. A 50.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . A 60. Where must a 22.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. and its center of gravity is located 4.

EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.3. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .1.

The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. These are all vector quantities. there is no horizontal acceleration. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. velocity. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. we see that there is only one . and acceleration. therefore. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). Ignoring air resistance. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2.1. since max = ΣFx .gravity. vx is the horizontal speed.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. 2.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance).Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. and t is the time in the air. Since we know our vertical acceleration. The horizontal speed does not change. This also makes things somewhat simple.

instead of horizontally. In this case. vyi will be zero in equations 2. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. For this reason. therefore. Once this is done. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. and 2.1 and 2.1.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2.1. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.4. until it reaches zero at its highest point. vyi is the initial vertical velocity. the time in the air. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball.1 to 2. however. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller.1. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?).5) t= 2a RRHS Physics .2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. The object does.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. namely using equations 2. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. As the ball rises. 2. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. since there are no horizontal forces. t is the time in the air. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. Again. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. 2. Remember. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. Notice that equation 2. CHAPTER 2. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation.4. PROJECTILES used. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction.3. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. The horizontal speed vx is constant. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. as shown in the diagram below.2. but gravity will act to slow it down. the ball follows a parabolic path.2.

A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20.0 m/s at an angle of 53. and with only 2.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.1.7 m above the ground.0 m/s. The rotten egg landed 4. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. A person is in a moving elevator.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. A baseball is hit at 30.0o with the horizontal. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. above. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s.0 s later. Immediately. At the time of the throw.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. 14. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. 3.3 Problems 1. PROJECTILES tree.0o . 2-D MOTION 2. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot.CHAPTER 2. 4. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s.5 m high.0 m. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2.0 m away and are 3. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree.02 m from the basket.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. A diver running 3. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. YES! It’s a score. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12. As soon as the hunter ﬁres.0 m high. The building is 13.0 m/s. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10.0 m from the basket.2 m above the ground. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. the elevator was 8.05 m above the ﬂoor. The ball is released at the height of the basket.0 s remaining in a basketball game.2 m away from the elevator. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. how far from the building is the target? 6. by how much will it miss the target? 3. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. Should the hunter aim directly at.1. Trailing by two points. an outﬁelder runs 4.

(Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone.0 m away? 16. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. 2-D MOTION speeds. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. (a) Draw the situation above. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate.6 m above the ﬂoor. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. At any moment. draw all vectors to scale. 21. PROJECTILES 14. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12.1.2. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. For each of the following questions. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . 20. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18.1 m above the ﬂoor. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15.22 m (horizontally).0 m below.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. The basket is 2. Will the following quantities change? If so. 19. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. When it reaches the end of the table. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time.

When the spring is above the equilibrium point. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. which causes the spring to stretch. 2 19 . the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. This is now its new equilibrium position . SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. this formula no longer holds). The period (the time for one complete vibration. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly.1b)). (See Fig 2. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. depending on its spring constant. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. in this case.2. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. 2-D MOTION 2. but is dependent on the spring. suspension bridges.1c)and let it go. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. Also. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2.at this point. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. etc. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. The units for the spring constant are N/m.CHAPTER 2. Of course. you will double the distance the spring stretches. which results in a downward acceleration. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. the suspension of a car.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. a mattress. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ).1a). Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. if you exceed the limits of the spring. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. This is the equilibrium position. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached.

this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. 1 Ep = kx2 (2. 2-D MOTION 2. therefore.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). the system. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released.2. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2.2. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. or removed from. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). 20 RRHS Physics .2.6).2.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. At equilibrium.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. 2.7 we get T = 2π l g (2.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. the total energy remains the same. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). Substituting this into Eq 2. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. however. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . work is done on the spring.

325 m. A block of mass 0.0 cm. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. What is the value of m? 6. whose other end is ﬁxed.2. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2.10 cm.2 cm. What will its frequency be if only 0. A spring stretches 0.30 kg mass is hung from it. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake.30 kg hangs from it? 5.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0.10 m? 12.30 g is caught in a spider’s web.150 m when a 0. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15.4 Hz when a weight of 0. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0. The spring. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. A geologist’s simple pendulum.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. When an 80. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A. in contact with a spring bumper.110 m and released. 2-D MOTION 2. if it had 3.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. the frequency is 0. A mass of 2.10 m to load a 0. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. frictionless surface.100 m from this equilibrium point and released. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. has a frequency of 0. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. A small cockroach of mass 0.5 N hangs from it.50 kg is placed on a level.3 Problems 1. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch.30 m.75 J of work done on it? 11. is then released.200 kg ball. 2. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. The spring is then stretched an additional 0.CHAPTER 2. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 .62 Hz. 13.10 g were trapped? 8.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration.48 Hz. What is the frequency of vibration? 7. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1.2. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0.60 kg is hung from it. whose length is 37. When the man steps oﬀ.8190 Hz at a particular location. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10.

a vector diagram must be drawn.12. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions.2. if you remember from grade 11. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. This still applies in two dimensional collisions. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). however. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). not velocity.3. 2. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. We can now RRHS Physics .11) Just as with one dimensional collisions.12) (2. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest.11 and 2. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. Since velocity is a vector. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. since p = mv. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. pa = pa + pb (2. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. In two dimensions. 2. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. so is momentum.3.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. Also.12. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. 2-D MOTION Equation 2.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ).

14. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. some energy is lost. our conservation of energy equation (2. In this type of collision. though. and one of the particles is initially at rest. Since the masses are equal. 4 In other words. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. therefore. RRHS Physics 23 . A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. 2. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. the collision is elastic. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension.3. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors.3.CHAPTER 2. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. after this collision. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. such as thermal energy.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va .15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. therefore. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). Remember. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. In other words. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. For a two body collision. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision.

If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact.0 km/h.20 m/s. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4.3. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0.3. and a neutrino. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52.2×10−23 kg·m/s. A billiard ball is moving North at 3.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. initially at rest. From skid marks. Two cars collide at an intersection. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3.400 kg. As a result of this elastic collision. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. initially at rest. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. A billiard ball of mass 0. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton.2.80 m/s.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. and the second car had a velocity of 40. At what angle will the second proton be observed. an electron. 50.0o North of West. the second ball is moving North. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. of mass 0. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. Find 24 . what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5.00 m/s. A proton travelling with speed 8. the investigator determined that car A. If they collide and remain stuck together. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. of mass mb = 0. 6. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection.60 kg.3 Problems 1. After the collision (assumed elastic).00 m/s strikes a second ball. Immediately after impact.40 kg strikes a second ball. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N.0 km/h. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball.0o North of West. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. 40. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h.

1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. the object will speed up or slow down. which is pulling inward. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. There is. 1 . and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. however. however. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. in other words. the acceleration must also be inward. the object moves in a curve. the object will not speed up or slow down. Since this is the only force. there is still an acceleration.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). an acceleration present. With projectile motion.1. we get v= 2πr (3. we can simply use d (3. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. So even though the speed is not changing. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. To calculate the speed of the object. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. we see v= 25 3.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string).

2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. horizontal surface. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. 1. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. by deﬁnition. In fact. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle.6) Figure 3. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. in particular.3.1: This is not a free body diagram.2 and 3. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3.2. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. it just shows the direction of the three quantities. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .1.3) T Combining equations 3. ac = v2 3.1. 2. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. then equation 3. Centripetal force is not. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. always inward toward the center of the circle. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.5 becomes Fc = mac (3. This is a common misconception of students.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. 3. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless.1 below). however. Looking at equation 3.3. when solving centripetal force problems.

Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. Remember. In this situation. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand.1.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. being pulled inward by the string. in fact.1. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke.CHAPTER 3. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. because of inertia. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. the ball is not being pushed outward. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. Pretend you are the ball in our example. also. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. If you break the string. 3. not outward. it is. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. in fact. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . because of Newton’s Third Law. If there were. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 .

A coin is placed 18. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5.0 m radius and rotates 1.60. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth.335 kg. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. What is the critical speed (i. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8.4 Problems 1. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.e. If its speed is 3. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11. 28 RRHS Physics .00 revolutions in a second.42. what force does the string now exert? 4.30? 7. The ball makes exactly 2.3.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.20? 6. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0.15 m/s and its mass is 0. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.0 m rope.1. 9. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. 3.80 m long.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12.000 km and a period of 27.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle.0 revolutions per second. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.0 complete revolution each second. A 5. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.0 m. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96.1. The yo-yo has a mass of 0.15 m. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.5 cm.1 times per second. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1.3 days. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0.

CHAPTER 3.0 m long. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. the vine is 4. Sketch the situation. PLANETARY MOTION 13.6 km. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. 15. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. If the person is standing on the equator. including the relevant forces. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. how much and in what direction? 29 . 19. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . 14. will a friction force be required? If so. what RRHS Physics 3.1. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. and explain this sensation. 17. A person has a mass of 75. 18. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle.0 kg. Assume no change in energy for the system. For the previous question. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley.

it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. given by G in the equation below. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. In fact. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. In grade 11. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2. gravity is much more common than this.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or.3.2. it travels a further distance. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. Newton. we must consider the orbit.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . Assuming a circular orbit. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. however. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground.) g= GM m R2 3. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. Equation 3.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). however.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. This type of relationship appears often in physics. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. Fg = 30 3. To determine this necessary speed. speciﬁcally. this is how the mass of the earth was found. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. If the object is given a higher speed.2 Universal Gravitation 3. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. In this way. we get mg = or GM (3. equating the two expressions. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R.2. PLANETARY MOTION 3. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. a force of gravity exists between any two masses.2.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . but not to understand why they are so. it is falling toward the earth.

3. 3. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. v= GM r (3. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. 2. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. faster than this speed. as given in equation 3. m is the mass of the satellite. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet).11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites.CHAPTER 3.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. PLANETARY MOTION 3.7.2. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun.9. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. Solving this equation for v. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1.2.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus.4)into equation 3. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 .

8. r = 6. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another.50 × 108 km.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1.98 × 107 m). A force of 40.0 N is required to pull a 10. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. 2. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. 12.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. 7.3.50 m apart.50 m. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. but has the same mass.6 times that of the earth.2.85 × 105 km. 13. 3. See Dick and Jane ﬂy.85 × 105 km. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. Four 8. 10. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.44 × 106 s and it is 1. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. PLANETARY MOTION weight. Frank is really concerned about his weight.5 Problems 1. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. 6.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7.90 × 1027 kg. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. determine the mass of Jupiter. All distances are center to center. From this data.71×10−8 N . Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. What is g near the surface? 5. If the bowling balls are 0.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1.2. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. But Frank is lazy.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. Do the previous question again.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5.99 × 1030 kg). UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.

1969. PLANETARY MOTION 14. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. 33 . show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. what would happen to the value of G? 30. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. On July 19. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. Find the value of this constant. orbits the sun like other planets. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. though only a few hundred meters across. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.2. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. Its period is 410 days. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. RRHS Physics 3. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. 32.4 days) to do problem 16. 31. Why? 28. A satellite is going around Earth. 27. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. Jupiter is 5. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. The asteroid Icarus.CHAPTER 3. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). 16. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun.3 × 1022 kg. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3.

2. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.3. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .

even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. Remember. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. even more important than many people think. 4. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. Metals are generally very good conductors. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. Likewise. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). During any of the processes described above. In each case. you notice that it will stick to the wall. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. This kind of atom is called an ion. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. If you rub a balloon in your hair. When a conductor is given a negative charge.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. in the amount of charge is zero. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. for example. According to atomic theory. not the protons.1. . Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. This is the law of conservation of electric charge.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. the net change 35 4. In a normal state. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. giving it a net negative or positive charge.

and they touch.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. but is just brought near it. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. there are . they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). germanium. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material.4.1. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. giving it excess electrons. CHAPTER 4.1. For example. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. If you ground the sphere.however. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. it has merely been separated.1. The RRHS Physics . such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. With induction. 4. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper.e. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). As soon as they touch. The other way of charging an object is called induction. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. however. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. conduction occurs. No charge has been created. An object can also be charged by conduction. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. i. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. in this way. if it is charged negatively. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere.

particularly on each leaf. The more water molecules in the air. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. You can. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . In some cases. will repel each other and will spread out. 37 . 4. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. even when nothing is apparently done to them. even after we remove the charged rod. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. 4. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. If charges become large enough. the faster the charge will be carried away. The leaves will then stay spread apart. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. Think about how you may do this. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. If the electroscope is neutral. however. Suppose.1.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod.even though they are neutral. as shown here. the two leaves just hang vertically.CHAPTER 4. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged.1. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. more often. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. the leaves. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. now negatively charged. giving it a permanent charge. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air.

A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. and C repels D. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. 9. but as soon as they touch the rod. Explain. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. one at each end of the line of blocks. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. Finally.5 Problems 1. When an electroscope is charged. what kind of charge does B have? 6. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. you remove the two positively charges objects. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. If you know that D is positively charged. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4.1. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. they ﬂy away in different directions. 12. What charge is on the rod? 8.1. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. 5. You place two objects with strong positive charges. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod.4. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. why does the record now attract dust? 4. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. 3. close to but not touching the blocks. A attracts C. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain.

1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. they think of pushing or pulling an object. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. This may require pushing with your hand.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 .CHAPTER 4. since it appeared to behave like magic.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. or some other type of contact. it is precise for only point charges.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge.2. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4.1 is the distance between the centers. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. r is the distance between the charges in meters. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. This worried people. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . and weak nuclear forces) continues. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. When people think of forces. E= F q (4. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. tying a rope to something.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. FIELDS 4. which has an equal but opposite charge).1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. If the two objects are spheres.2. Using some test charge q. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9.it is a concept. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. 39 . To help explain this idea. strong nuclear forces. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. then the r in equation 4. without using some test charge. electromagnetic. 4. however. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. in fact. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature.2.2 4. The search for simple. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics.

it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. however. If there is more than one source charge.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. consider a positive source charge. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. the force on the test charge will be away from the source.2.4. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source.2. then equation 4. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . the stronger the electric ﬁeld. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. For example.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld.2. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. which interacts with all objects near the earth. 2. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. equation 4. Substituting equation 4. 4. FIELDS points around the sources. In reality. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. E= CHAPTER 4. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. or lines of force. These electric ﬁeld lines. For example.1 into equation 4.1.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. we obtain kQ (4.2. as the test charge is accelerated by the force.

What should you do? 11. -2. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1.0 N on each other? 4. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. What is the force between them? 5.1 × 106 m/s. A second ball. One. what force is exerted? 12. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . located 16 cm to the right.2). 3. has a charge of -20 µC. and the right -83 µC. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. is 0. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. the RRHS Physics .2.5 Problems 1.0 µC is 0. A positive charge of 3. 8.050 m to the north and the other.0 µC. the typical size of an atom. mass 9.67 × 10−27 kg.11 × 10−31 kg. A third ball. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. In other words. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4.030 m to the east. A and B. located 25 cm above the second ball. Two charges. -4. Three particles are placed in a line. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A.CHAPTER 4. mass 1. In one model of the hydrogen atom. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6.2. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. 4.145 N on each other. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. You are given two similar spheres. q1 and q2 . FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC.5 × 10−10 m. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. The bottom electron is resting on a table. and an electron. has a charge of +25 µC.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC.00 × 10−17 C? 2. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC.

What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. Take into account gravity and determine E.0 cm apart? 23.30 m apart. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. Two charges. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1.5 N and is repulsive. 19.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. the force each exerts on the other is 28. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. −Qo and −3Qo . Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre.0 µC and the other 68. A water droplet of radius 0. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20.2. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby.0× 10−6 C charge. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign.020 mm remains stationary in the air. one 33. 24. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. are a distance l apart.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld.0 µC charge 40. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.0 µC and a +60.4.0 µC charged particle? 21. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. RRHS Physics . A proton (m = 1. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. Find the force on an electron. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. FORCES AND FIELDS 14.0 × 10−6 C test charge. Two positive charges. (a) two positively charged point sources.0 cm away from a 1. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. 17. 42 CHAPTER 4. When placed 1. A negative charge of 2. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude.0 µC are 8. then repeat your work with a 2.2 cm apart. FIELDS 20.

electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B.CHAPTER 4. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy.3. Suppose you have two spheres. sphere B is said to be neutral. Just as with gravitational potential energy. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. If positive work is required to move the charge. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. since they are trying to get away from one another. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. namely potential energy.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. FIELDS 4.3. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. The symbol for electric potential is V . we say that it is at a high potential. This will add energy to the system. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. for example. because of the force of attraction between the two charges.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. If the two spheres are touched together. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. so Vab = Wab q (4. which is called the volt. you don’t have to do anything. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . therefore. Remember that W = ∆E. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. 4. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . The potential energy here will decrease.3. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. For example. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. In this case. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage.

How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. the two spheres will be at the same potential. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . A force of 0. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. FIELDS 2. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. A -30.3.5 × 107 V .5 × 10−4 J.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . at this point. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. that is. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line.4 Problems 1. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. The change in energy while doing this is 4. as shown below. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). CHAPTER 4. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A.4.3.0 µC charge. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. 4. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. What work is done when 5. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. if they were not. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point.5 V ? 3. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8.0 C is raised in potential by 1.3.

This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. 5. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. When people discussed current. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. In short. As was discussed in the previous chapter. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. a battery is several cells connected together. Contrary to a common belief. therefore.1 Electric Current Q (5. so its electrons are held very loosely. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. little was known about the structure of the atom. Remember that in solids. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. A wire is a conductor. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. In 1800. an ampere (A). a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. also referred to as an amp. this is given a special name.1.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. at the same time. 1 .

Temperature: In general. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. insulators have a very high resistance. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). 46 . ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. For practical purposes. If one end of the pipe is raised. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. it gains or loses energy. In our gravity/water analogy above. With a battery. we can use it here as well. however. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. they lose potential. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. This makes sense. These materials are than said to be superconducting. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). 2. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. In the same way. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. 3. Comparing this to electricity. therefore. the greater the ﬂow of water. In liquids and gases. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. When charges are moved through a resistance. Resistance is measured in ohms. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance).5. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. because of their atomic structure. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges.1. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). CHAPTER 5.

4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire.1. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current.4 with equation 5. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. light. That is. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. the current is proportional to voltage). we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. it is really energy that we pay for. the watt (W ). power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits.1. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer.CHAPTER 5. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat.1) so P = IV (5. current can be expressed as V (5. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. so it will have a lower resistance. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. or mechanical).2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. but I = q/t (equation 5. 4. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. We RRHS Physics .5) 5. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. if you double the voltage. the current also doubles. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law.1. the current is proportional to the voltage.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section).5. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. the resistance must be constant. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. Looking at this equation.3) 5. Note that equation 5. thereby increasing the resistance. 5.

What voltage does the bird feel? 13. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. What voltage will produce 12.4 Problems 1. but when a 3. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. Is Joe correct? Explain. 11.0 cm apart. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. 5. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. When she connects it to a 1. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. What is the current through a 6. Joe argues that. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. at 20 mA.1. 14. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. since R = V /I. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor.0 V battery is used. A 1.5 A for 6. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours.1. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows.5. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin.0 A? 5.0 h. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. A current of 1. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. above 100 mA can be fatal. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . 5 mA can be painful.10 A ﬂows in a wire. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. The line has a resistance of 1.085/kW h).6) CHAPTER 5.5 V battery.

If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line. 18. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. operated at 120 V .000 V ? 21. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. At $0. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. by means of a converter.0 s? 25. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio.06 per kWh? 19.CHAPTER 5. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.08 per kW h.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. It is observed that it takes 12. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V . What is the eﬃciency of a 0. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28.000 V rather than 12.1. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7. (a) 220 V are applied across it.0o C to 55. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0.4 A from a 120 V line? 27. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20.0 A when operated on 120 V . A modern television set draws 2. How many 100 W light bulbs.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21.29 kg/m3 . RRHS Physics 5. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5.2 Ω lines. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .0 minutes.0o C. What is its increase in temperature during the 30. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.) 49 . If the air is to be maintained at 20o C.11 per kW h. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24.20 kg of water. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40.5 kg of water. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0.

R2 . and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. and V3 = IR3 . Because charge must be conserved. each resistor has its own path. when we put several resistance in series. 5. V2 .2 to analyze the resistances. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. R2 . the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. When you add more resistances. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. I2 . you increase the total resistance. then by applying equation 5.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. and voltages throughout the circuit. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances.7) 5. Of course. applying equation 5. since there is only one path.8) (5. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . By conservation of energy. currents.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor.5. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. If V1 . and R3 .2. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. R3 respectively.2. V2 = IR2 . Knowing the equivalent resistance.2. I1 .9) RRHS Physics . I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5.

R2 . so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). Remember. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. equation 5.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). If any resistors are in parallel. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. This combination is then in series with R1 . if there is a junction between the resistors. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. so they can be combined using equation 5. Again.2. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. R3 is in series with R4 . then they are not in series. R3 . 3.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. R1 and R2 are not in series. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. but are often some combination of the two. *CIRCUITS 2. since there is a junction in between the two. For example. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1.CHAPTER 5. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). 5.10) 5. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. In this example. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. Consider the following example. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. every time you add a resistance in parallel. however. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. If any resistors are in series. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember.2. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . Also. Remember. RRHS Physics 51 . You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor.

the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. Some circuits4 are. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. RRHS Physics 5. If this strip melts. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. If too much current ﬂows.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. For example. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. At any junction point. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. breaking the circuit. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch.2. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. a system of equations can then be found and solved. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. however. 1. too complicated for this analysis.2. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. for example. 2. To deal with these circuits. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. 5. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. 2.5. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase.2.9. This is just an expression of equation 5. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 .7. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. These rules actually apply to all circuits. For example. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. A third type of safety device is slightly different. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). Houses are wired in parallel. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it.

Find the unknown currents and voltages. 7. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. 3. 5.6 *Problems 1. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch.CHAPTER 5. Find V. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. 4. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. 2. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. 5.2. 8. Find each resistance.50 A. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. Find the current in each branch.

what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W .2. 13. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. CHAPTER 5. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. and P1 . and I4 . If each resistor is 10 Ω. 11. 12.I2 .I3 .0 V .0 V input? 15. Given an unlimited supply of 1.0 Ω. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel.I3 .0 54 . Find R3 .0 V output for a 6. Find It . or 150 W at 120 V . Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. 100 W . Find the current in each branch. Suppose that you have a 6. *CIRCUITS 10. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.V2 . 16. 17. If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. If each resistor is 10 Ω.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1.5. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors.

CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. I2 . (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. Consider the circuit below. *CIRCUITS 22. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances.2. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. one larger than the other. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone.8 kΩ. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. and I3 in the following circuit. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. which is brighter? 21. If one resistor is 2. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). determine the currents I1 . RRHS Physics 55 23. (a) If they are connected in parallel. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. what is the resistance of the other? . What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. 5. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules.

Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. however. the domains are more lined up in one direction. each with a north and south pole. A compass needle is really a small magnet. the result is two magnets. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. for example.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron.5. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. In a magnetized piece of iron. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. On a small scale. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. In most materials.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. the same as electric charges. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole.3. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. magnetic forces act over distances. however. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. As a result. in ferromagnetic materials. however. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. since an electric current will always produce both. This will be seen in the next section. 5. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. 5. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. Magnetic poles are not. If you cut a magnet in two. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. Since these forces do behave similarly.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. nickel. and cobalt. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. RRHS Physics 56 .3.

the ﬁeld will be stronger here. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current.3. it often7 experiences a force. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow).2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. It was only with a moving charge.3. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. it makes sense.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes.3. By using more than one loop. around 1820. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. This is an electromagnet. 6 5. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. the second right hand rule can be used. but this was found to have no eﬀect. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). To use this hand rule.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. then. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. or a current. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. when using left hand rules. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. 5.CHAPTER 5. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst).3. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. To use this hand rule. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). In fact. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. In other words. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire.

instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. you may also use the left hand rule. If the moving particle is negative.8 8 Remember. substituting this into equation 5.5 Electric Motor 5. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. Between c and d. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld.3. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. so F = qvB sin θ (5. as shown below. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. To do this.3. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. As we learned before. To use this rule. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle.5. Remember that I = q/t. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. There will be no force between b and c.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. the force will be out of the page. This loop of wire will rotate. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. as shown in the side view below. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. to 58 RRHS Physics . The charges do not. have to be moving through a wire. however. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. use left hand rules. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. 5. CHAPTER 5.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion.3.

as well as a ferromagnetic core.3. Also. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. we want it to turn continuously. as shown below. As the armature turns. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. 5. if the loop goes past this point. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. As a result. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. In order to make the loop continue turning. This allows the current to change direction in the loop.3. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. Many loops of wire are usually used. but just touch one another.CHAPTER 5. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. In reality. MAGNETISM other brush. (b) Two opposite poles.6 Problems 1. but no force acts on the wire.

0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5.35 N . A proton having a speed of 5.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. it feels zero force. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west.3.90 T . What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. If the force on the wire below is into the page. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. A straight 2. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. identify the poles of the magnets. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 .9 × 103 kg/m3 . A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . (b) 10. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. (a) CHAPTER 5. What is the force on the wire? 7.0 × 10−5 T . It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld.5. MAGNETISM 5.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6.0 A and weighs 0. 11.

6 × 10−13 N . If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. The radius of its path is 4.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld.08 m. 21. 23.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2.5 cm.000 V . (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3.4 mm? 24. A particle with a charge of 2.10 cm in a 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9.CHAPTER 5.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward.3. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. 61 . which exists between the two parallel plates below.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. Calculate the energy of the proton. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. Explain. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes.385 T magnetic ﬁeld. 17. 16. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. E=1000 N/C. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.02 T. Calculate the mass of the particle. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. An electron (m = 9. If the velocity of the particle is 5. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron.25 T .0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V .11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6.10 T magnetic ﬁeld.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . A force of 5. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld.25 × 106 m/s.032 T . B=0.

suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. We call this an induced emf. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing.4. Such a current is called an induced current. For example. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux.4. when the magnet is removed. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. 5. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. In other words. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. v.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. ∆φ ∆t (5. and not a force where B. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. For example. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire.5. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another.14) EMF stands for electromotive force.

it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. This is called perpetual motion. therefore. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. Just like before. however. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. If Ns < Np . there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. The primary coil has the incoming current. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage.13. Notice that if Ns > Np . From equation 5. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. 5.CHAPTER 5. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. In the example shown below.4. to maintain a current in the secondary coil.15) 5.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. the two wires are insulated from one another. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. Combining these two equations. however. But remember.4. Remember. this is a step-down transformer. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). this is called a step-up transformer. There is. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. therefore. conservation of energy tells 63 .) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer.

16) CHAPTER 5. then the current must be lowered. we see what happens to the current. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. Consider the picture below. this means that if the voltage goes up.4. the force on cd must be out of the page. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. therefore.5. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. At position 1. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Since P = V I. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. The wire ab is moving out. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. RRHS Physics .4. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. Similarly. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. at positions 2 and 4. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. out of the page). into the page).3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. at position 3. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input.

the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. Alternating Current As we have seen.4. The greater the speed of the motor. If we square an AC electric current graph. Instead. Back EMF As was previously stated.707Imax (5.5Imax To make a DC generator. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. we get a sin2 θ graph. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction).707Vmax (5. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. we take a root mean square average (rms). When a motor is operating. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. INDUCTION called a counter torque. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. value. the situation is the reverse. The more current that is drawn.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. In a generator. or eﬀective.CHAPTER 5. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings.18) Since power is P = V I. as was seen in a previous graph. giving Pavg = 0. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. Since the current is not constant. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. As we turn the generator.5Vmax Imax In North America. however.17) Similarly. as were used with the DC motor.11 we cannot just average the current over time. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. the greater the back (or counter) emf.

how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. It takes 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. If the rod is 12.4 Problems 1. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed.4. 6.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8.10 s.350 T to zero.4.19) CHAPTER 5. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. calculate the emf developed.4 s.5.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0.15 Ω.5 Ω. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. Hence.800 T . In what direction is the induced current? 3. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. A square coil of sides 5. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. What is the induced emf ? 4. What is the average induced emf ? 2. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. with its plane perpendicular to B.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region.5Pmax (5.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. A 12. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power. 5. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero. Also note that since P = V I. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.0 cm/s. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. It is initially in a 0.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. If the wire has a resistance of 0. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process.

The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. Why? 21. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. whose peak value is 90 V . If you now plunge a magnet into the coil.0 V AC. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. and an output current of 0. INDUCTION 17. Scott connects a transformer to a 24.75 A. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. what would the new output voltage be? 16. It is used with a transformer in England.0 V and the input current is 11. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . Calculate the peak current in a 2.0 A. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. the coil will swing.0 V at the secondary.0 A. 26. and (c) the power transformed 13.0 A respectively. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). An ac voltage. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. If the primary and secondary were reversed. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. Frequently. where the line voltage is 240 V . A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. (b) the current in the primary. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 .CHAPTER 5. Why is this true? 18. is across a 35 Ω resistor. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9.0 A.0 V source and measures 8.4. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. 19.0 V and an output current of 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A.

5. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs.4. a 700 W hair dryer. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line.25 A. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. INDUCTION 28. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics .

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

1 however. after the collision. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. are small enough that wave properties can be observed.4 and 6. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. Objects such as electrons. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. By making careful measurements. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. In fact.6. He suggested in 1923 that. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light.5). De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. The difﬁculty here. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. however.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. however. only its frequency is lowered. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. If he was correct. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. The photon does not actually slow down. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties.1. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. 1 RRHS Physics .4). we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 .1. such as diﬀraction and interference. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision.

If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. 12. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. λ = 450 nm. 14. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. QUANTUM THEORY 8. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2.40 Hz. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. 6. does it increase or decrease? 11. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. 13. RRHS Physics 9. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. If energy is radiated by all objects.1 × 1013 Hz. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. 15.5 Problems 1.1. which has a shorter wavelength? 17.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90.1.0 × 106 m/s. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4.0 eV photon and a 5. 7.0 eV electron? 73 . 10. Determine the wavelength of a 0.80 nm.0 km/h. 16. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . of a 3. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. What are the wavelengths. does its wavelength change? If so.CHAPTER 6. in meters. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3.

the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. was putting forward a wave model of light. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. since all waves at this time required a medium. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. another group of scientists. In a uniform medium. As with Newton’s particle model. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 .2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. 6. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. As the light gets closer to the water.6. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules.2.2. a ball thrown against a wall). since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. for example. led by Christian Huygens. the particles must be moving very fast. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. As these particles passed through a prism.

This model was not. without its problems. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. The two theories. however. however. 6. in 1850. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). Also. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. It states that to understand any given experiment. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. refraction. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. however. which appear to be incompatible. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. For example. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. but to understand light fully. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. indicating a spreading out of the light.2. however.CHAPTER 6. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. Similarly. By the middle of the nineteenth century. we must refer to both theories. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. which contradicts Newton’s theory. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together.2. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. According to Maxwell’s theory.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. the resulting image is slightly blurred. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. and interference where the particle theory fails. The two aspects of light complement one another. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light.

its behavior imitates that of a wave. depending on which property of light is being measured. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. like light. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. An electron. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. In terms of everyday language and images. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. but in the process would move it from that position. You wouldn’t know where it is going. it will actuRRHS Physics 6.6. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. This would tell you where it is. This has some major implications. when light passes through space or a medium. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. 6. 2 76 .3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. but a visual picture is again not possible. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). In general. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. you would have to feel your way around. this duality extends to particles as well. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. We cannot picture what they are. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. When we try to visualize light. negatively charged particles. however. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny.2. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. when light interacts with matter.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. To locate this.2. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). is the set of its properties that we can measure. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. or even a combination of the two. or as a wave that has a mass. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle.2. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. macroscopic world. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. In order to locate the ball. you must interact with it. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. Applied to a smaller scale. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. light reveals both wave and particle properties. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. its behavior is more like that of a particle. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. CHAPTER 6. When this radiation interacts with the electron.

Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time.4 and 6. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. we must use a small wavelength. but has wave properties. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. 77 . Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. however. In summary.5. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. If. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us.CHAPTER 6. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. and not determinism. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. For examRRHS Physics 6. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. however. but according to equations 6.2. on the other hand. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. Thus. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. it is still a probability and not a certainty.

6.2. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .

This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. When energy is transferred to atoms. Using spectroscopy. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure.CHAPTER 6. This is how helium was discovered.1. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. By analyzing these wavelengths. scientists can analyze unknown materials.1. heated solids. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. 6. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. This is known as an emission spectrum. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. not interactions between atoms. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. 6. was accepted by scientists by 1900. but a few were bounced almost directly back. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. emit a discrete spectrum.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms.3. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. in industry. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. When viewing these spectra. If they were at rest. This became known as the Rutherford Model. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors.3. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. This is known as an absorption spectrum. Around 1911. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. since they are unique to each atom. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. Although a major step forward. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. Less dense gases.

Using quantum theory. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. and violet. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state.8). Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. as in solids). their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). green. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus.6. The Rutherford model could not explain this. blue. CHAPTER 6. and also predicted an unstable atom. The radius increases with n2 . for example. as it loses energy. As the electrons spiraled inward. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. The higher the energy level. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. as shown in the diagram in section 6. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon.red. electrons can jump directly or in steps. Neils Bohr. 2. in other words. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. RRHS Physics . In 1911.3. The electron then drops back down to the ground state.6 eV n2 (6. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. 1.3. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. Thus. When changing energy levels. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). both are therefore quantized.3.1). A student of Rutherford. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory.8) 6. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second.2. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. however. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. the atom would not be very stable.1 . If an electron absorbs energy. they are accelerating.

de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. 6. however. since it has a wave nature. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. In quantum mechanics.3. applying his theory of matter waves. the energy is actually at a minimum.8 that when n=1. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. Louis de Broglie. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements.CHAPTER 6. however.3. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. but is actually much harder to visualize. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. each independently. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. electron can go from 3 to 1. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. Notice in equation 6. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. As a result.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. If we consider the electron to be a particle. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. The electron. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. however. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. This was a major problem with the model. Bohr did not know how to explain this. however. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. determined energy levels of the elements. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements.

we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them.3. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. magnetic (ml ). What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. 6. These materials are used. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light).3. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. spin (ms )). How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. for example. In a group of these atoms. in luminous watch dials. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3.1. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. 8. however. 5.3. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. At low temperatures. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state.6. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. Explain any discrepancies. CHAPTER 6. This is called ﬂuorescence. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds.5 Problems 1.3.

Z. so as the distance becomes greater.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). however. A. and A is the mass number. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. the others being the gravitational force. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. In 1932.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. Z is the atomic number. Sometimes. called a neutron. for example. 7. the electric force becomes more important. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. this force is the same between protons and protons. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. In the last chapter. This adds energy to the system. the electromagnetic force. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. and the weak nuclear force. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. 1 . and neutrons and neutrons. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. This is one of the four forces of nature. an element is written as A X.1. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant.1. This force only acts over short distances. protons and neutrons. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions.

where E is the energy in J. it could just fall apart.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. 5.1. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. It is expressed as a negative number. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction.0 × 1011 J of energy. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy.015123 u). the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. A nuclear reaction produces 9.49 MeV.1. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. we are actually adding mass. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect.3 Problems 1. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. the number of protons. 84 7. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. the total number of nucleons. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus.7. Using equation 7.1) CHAPTER 7. which is iron. m is the equivalent mass in kg. and c is the speed of light in m/s. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1.66 × 10 kg). iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. RRHS Physics .014102 u.1. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. In general. Thus. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. In other words. We will look at this more in the next two sections.007276 u mn = 1. The mass of 2 H is 2. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. What mass was converted? 4. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. To be stable. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. identify the element. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. For each of the following. u. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. In a nuclear reaction. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. This implies that by adding energy to the system.

THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .1.CHAPTER 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.

2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. These nuclei are very tightly bound. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger.2. This is known as (natural radioactivity). there are not enough neutrons to do this.2.7. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. If the atomic number gets too large. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. 2 They are not very energetic. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. 7. RRHS Physics . Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. As a result. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. beyond this.2. This is true for all alpha decays. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). and required no external stimulation. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. these isotopes will decay spontaneously.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). therefore. 7. as will be discussed in the following sections. 7. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms.3. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. 4 He.

by emitting a positron. For this reason. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray.2. Other than releasing energy. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above).2. the nucleus does not undergo any change.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). This electron disappears into the nucleus. In 10 years. A positron has the same mass as an electron. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. but the opposite charge. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. A neutrino is also emitted. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected.2. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. allowing a proton to become a neutron. which has no charge and no mass. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). they can be very dangerous. This photon is known as a gamma ray. it emits a photon. 7. In some cases.CHAPTER 7. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. becomes a neutron. One of the protons. 7. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). Like an atom. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. This is a random process. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. In beta decay. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. when it drops down to a lower energy state.

In another 10 years. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. When 23 N e (mass=22. After one half-life. 210 P o. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). Write the complete nuclear equation. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. β − . 8. showing the element formed. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years.7. or β + emission. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. showing the element formed.5 Problems 1. One Bequerel is one decay per second. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. so it is closely related to half-life. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element.2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. A radioactive polonium isotope. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. Write the complete nuclear equation. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. 83 emits a β particle. 214 Bi. 88 RRHS Physics . 7. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. A radioactive bismuth isotope. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). 84 emits a α particle. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample.2. CHAPTER 7. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years.9898 u).

they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U .1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. resulting in a transmutation. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. This ended the war. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). 7.3. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. electrons. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb.3. however. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7.2) although there are many other possibilities. To detonate the bomb. 7. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. these particles are in direct contact with our cells.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. because it resembled cell division.3. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. the top scientists in Europe and the U.S. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. this is known as radioactive fallout. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). This would provide enormous amounts of energy. neutrons. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions.3% 238 U and only 0. but they can also occur in nature. or gamma rays. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). 89 .2 are moving too fast. following Fermi’s work. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). RRHS Physics 7. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. protons. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.CHAPTER 7. the two masses would be brought together quickly. 2.

7. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. 5 CHAPTER 7.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. so it can be built where technology is limited. For example. Also present are control rods. usually containing cadmium. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. Quebec. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. these control the rate of the reaction.3. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. Because of its design. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. It has a simpliﬁed design. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL).3. and New Brunswick. 92 7. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. RRHS Physics 90 . This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. energy will be released. helium is extremely tightly bound. 235 U . which is very expensive. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. 3. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. however. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars).6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). particularly since they usually have large half-lives. and can be separated to be used as fuel. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. To slow the reaction down. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. which was discussed earlier. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials.

the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. 9. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. How much energy would this release? 8. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion.014102 u 3. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. 91 RRHS Physics . Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2.90722 u 235. Once this high temperature is achieved. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions.007825 u 2. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. 2.002603 140. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy. 3. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction.016029 u 4. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. 6.043925 u 238. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures.050786 u 1. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion.7 for this reason.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7.9250 u 87. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7.905625 u 135. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7.016049 u 3.3. List three medical uses of radioactivity. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions.3. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4.9141 u 91. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors.CHAPTER 7. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). A few years ago. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. This is higher than any known material can stand. At present.2? 5. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K).

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics . 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.7.0 × 1014 J of energy. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11.3.

and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. and probably even more.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. In other words. errors due to rounding oﬀ. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. this 7 is only an estimate. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. It may be smaller or larger. was friction considered to be constant. you will be expected to do an error analysis. there are errors present. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it.1 mm. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. The wood may shrink or warp. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. Take a meter stick. therefore. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them.4. In our meter stick example. for example. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. . Some of these may be due to human errors. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument.3 cm and 2.3*. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument.1 Experimental Data however. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. errors in calculation. we might estimate it to be 2. the ends of the stick may be chipped.37.4 cm. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured.3 and 2. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). Suppose that a measurement is between 2. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. In writing lab reports. the thickness of the lines may vary. For example. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment.

1. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). In our error analysis. the measurements are always too high. For this reason. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. the less precise our results are. this type of error is present in all experiments. As long as these errors are random. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. RRHS Physics . you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large.2. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors).2. A. A. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. APPENDIX A. It does not address any possible systematic errors. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. that is.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. the smaller the standard deviation should be. A. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved.A.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic.1 Standard Deviation A. but it will not be very accurate. The more data points that we have. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. In the case of systematic error. we may end up with a very precise estimate. It is a good idea. In this case. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. or too low. The smaller this value. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value.1. In this case. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. this is not an excuse to be careless. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. Section A. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. This type of error is generally more serious. The more random error we have in our experiment. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion.

2.23 3.17 2.40 1.76 1. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values. and N is the number of measurements. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.16 3.77 1.70±0. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.20.92 1.90 1.83 1.86 1.35.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results. When examining the data.48 2.64 2.81 1. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.38 1.2.06 2.APPENDIX A.36 1. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.02 1.36 3.35 1. if possible. In this case.78 4.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ.35 to 5. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.8.84 2.58 A. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.64 interval of 95% 99% 12. and got an average value x of 4.96 2.01 2. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.36 1.13 1. The relevant values for t are given in the table.45 3.4. 95 RRHS Physics .1) where xi are the individual measurements. x is the average of all the values.94 1.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.31 3. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.18 3.18 5.30 9.50 2. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab. and we took 12 measurements.78 1. Note.42 1. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.80 1.25 2.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.08 6. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.14 2.35 1.29 1. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.26 3.20 3.53 2.35.37 1.31 1.11 2. we would use t = 2.03 2.7 63.57 4.45. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.92 3. we would use t = 2. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.71 2.36 2.7 4. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.89 2. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.05.60 2. however.34 1.44 1. If we have a theoretical value of 5.98 1. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.

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