This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . i

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . .3. .6 *Problems . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . 3. . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 4. . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .1. . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . .3 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electroscopes . . . 3. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . 5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . .2. . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3 Equipotential Lines . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . .2. . . . .3. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 5. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . 5. . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . 4. . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . .

. .3. .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 6. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . .4 Problems . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .4 Half-lives . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Problems . .2. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . .1. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . .3. .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . .1 Structure . . . . . . 7. . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 5. . . . . 6. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . 7. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 6. . . . . . . 6. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . 6.2. . . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .2 Beta Decay . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . .4.3. . . . . . .4 Implications .3. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. 6. .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .1 Experimental Data . . . A. . . . . .1. . . . . . .2. . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. A. . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . . . . . . . .

3. pg 489 #27.8.1 2.2.3.14. pg 661 #5. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.28 pg 495 #30. BLM #1.Textbook Correlations Section 1.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111. pg 515 #39.2 6. pg 655 #26. pg 934 #5.9 #2.3 2. pg 863 #8.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.688-693 694-714.7. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680. pg 862 #6.3 3.2 4.6 #3.9.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.3 #4. pg 501 #31.3. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.1 3. pg 526 #1.1 1.2.10.6.2 5.4. pg 596 #12. pg 571 #21.4.7.27.8. pg 529 #30. pg 780 #2.6.9. pg 608 #3. pg 778 #1.3 7. pg 936-937 #26.4. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.15 pg 641 #9.4 pg 796 #1-4.4 6.3 5.40.1 7.2 7.28.27 v .3.8 #4.1 5.28 #2.33.2 4.8.5.2 1. pg 918-919 #3.1 4.25.37.1 6.2. pg 595 #5.4 #36.6.24. pg 886 #3. pg 933 #1.2 2.5. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.3 5.

CHAPTER 0. TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .

Consider the diagram below. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. This year. The symbol d represents these components. force. when typing. Last year. For example. it does not have a direction. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. displacement. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v).1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. it is actually two numbers. velocity. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. like a scalar is. For example. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. Likewise. In university. acceleration. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. In 2D space. When writing. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . A vector is not just a single number. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. dy ). a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. For example. 1 . two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams.

north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). Your textbook uses this last convention. So a + b will give (ax + bx . The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. we are actually adding their components. south would be 270o . our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. CHAPTER 1. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). in other words. 1. the other vector b represents the components (bx . INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long.1.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. east. south. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. ay + by ).1. by ). A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. Since vectors are not single numbers. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. In this system. In math. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. north would be 90o . This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). ay ). If we add these two vectors. 3.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. In the previous diagram. 2. To help visualize this. the direction of the vector would then be 30o .1. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. For the examples that follow. west). In this system.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

4

RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. Find the change in velocity. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. 6 km S. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. RRHS Physics . The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. using a compass. 8 km N.1. At the end of three days. 26.00 h. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. How fast is the player running? 23. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. We must assume u < v. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. and 3 km S. walks 4 km E.0 m/s. Diane rows a boat at 8. 20. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22.1. 5 kmN. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. 10 km W. Before it can move. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes.85 m/s. whose speed in still water is 2. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. 3 km E. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. the hiker is lost. why? 19. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. The speed of a boat in still water is v.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. wind speed? 18. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. mass. A hiker leaves camp and. A ferryboat. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. To do so.

and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). I will take up as the positive direction. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. Notice that although the normal. therefore. As can be seen in the diagram above. FORCE VECTORS 1. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). the force of the man pulling is not. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. Notice that FN = Fg . In the diagram below. the vertical forces. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components.2. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. friction. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. therefore. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. RRHS Physics 1. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force.2. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. First. both of which are vectors. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions.CHAPTER 1.

m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. as in the following diagram. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. Again notice that FN = Fg . it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. if present. Using trigonometry. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. In order to apply Newton’s second law.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg .2. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry).2. Drawing a free body diagram. these would have to be considered in the force analysis.1. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box .2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. If friction is present. we get CHAPTER 1. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics . the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. Similarly. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. Again. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. FORCE VECTORS friction for now). In other words.3. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes.

A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7.0o hill at 6. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3.30.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2.0 kg box is released on a 33.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.20.2. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.2. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.0 m/s. The tension in the rope is 110. (a) Ignoring friction.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.6o hill at a steady speed of 7. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. What is the acceleration of this system? 11. An 18.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. (b) Using the same power as in (a).0 km/h. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. RRHS Physics 9 . The total mass is 80 kg.30. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5.5 s for him to reach the bottom. A 15. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.3 m/s2 .0 N .0o angle with the horizontal. It takes 13.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1. A 25. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. where it is attached to a 4. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.300 m/s2 . will the slug slide down the hill? If so.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley.CHAPTER 1. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6.76.0o incline and accelerates at 0. A force of 300.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. A 55. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano.0o angle with the horizontal. A 5. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. A rope attached to the 5. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. A car can decelerate at -5. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal.2 Problems 1. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9.0 km/h.10.

the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. The mass is stationary. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. it is obviously not accelerating. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. there will be a net force in some direction. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium.1. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. therefore. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. Remember. therefore. As we said.3. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. although the net force is zero in both cases. but opposite in direction. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . therefore. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. there are three forces acting on the mass. 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. Since force is a vector.3. 3 1. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions.

as it was when discussing work. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. the greater the torque.4 The further away from this pivot. While forces were described using up. It is not in rotational equilibrium. It can be thought of as a twisting force. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). we must introduce the notion of a torque. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. but for calculating torques. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. it acts on every particle in the body. When you calculated work. As we have seen. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. etc. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm.CHAPTER 1. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). To examine this more. left. but one up and one down. τ = F⊥ d (1. As can be seen from equation 1. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. right. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). 4 RRHS Physics . Before dealing with torques.. You will learn more about these in university. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. down. Στ = 0 Obviously. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule.3. when calculating the work. this is important. This is called a dot product. 1. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. the board will begin to spin. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. even though the forces are equal and opposite.4.

Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. A 20. The two ropes make an angle of 15. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . The frame has a wire across the back. What is the tension in the rope? 2.0 N . If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. A sign with a mass of 1653. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. 7. Find the resultant force on the vehicle.5o with each other. 8.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle.1. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. When lifting a barbell. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great.3. A high wire is 25. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain.0 m when a 50. RRHS Physics 4. and you don’t want it to break. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below.3 Problems 1.3. 9. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle.0 m long and sags 1.0 s. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N .0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. 10. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. 12 . 3. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3.

0 m and a length of 15. EQUILIBRIUM 17.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. A 60.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. Where must a 22. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40.0 kg person stands at its tip. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. one at either end. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50.0 m. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16.0 cm wide.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000.0 N. The 10. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. 19.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane.0 kg person is sitting 1. The plane has a base of 14. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. A 50. A force of 500.3.CHAPTER 1. In the following diagram. If there is a spring on the door 5. direction. 14. determine the magnitude. Find the equilibrant force: 12. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N .0 m platform has a mass of 10.0 kg person is sitting 0.0 kg.0 m from the same end. Fred.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. and its center of gravity is located 4. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. The platform is being held up by two students.

DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .3. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.1.

only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. 2. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. and t is the time in the air. there is no horizontal acceleration.1. and acceleration. Ignoring air resistance.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. These are all vector quantities. vx is the horizontal speed. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. This also makes things somewhat simple. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. therefore.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance).1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance).1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. Since we know our vertical acceleration. velocity. The horizontal speed does not change. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position. since max = ΣFx . Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. we see that there is only one .gravity.

2. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2.1. therefore. but gravity will act to slow it down. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity.1. the time in the air.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2.1 and 2. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. PROJECTILES used. Again. CHAPTER 2. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. vyi will be zero in equations 2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?).2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles.2. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation.1 to 2. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed. instead of horizontally. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. The object does. vyi is the initial vertical velocity. however. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components.3. 2. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. Once this is done. and 2. For this reason. since there are no horizontal forces.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. until it reaches zero at its highest point. and a is the acceleration due to gravity.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.2. the ball follows a parabolic path. t is the time in the air.4. Remember.4. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. as shown in the diagram below. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. namely using equations 2.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. Notice that equation 2.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . As the ball rises. In this case.1.

above.0 m/s at an angle of 53. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. A football is kicked with a speed of 21.1.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.CHAPTER 2. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. 3. A person is in a moving elevator. The rotten egg landed 4. and with only 2. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. Assuming the ball is launched at 51.1. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2. 14.0 m/s. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s. How much later does it hit the ground? 7.0 s later. 4.0o with the horizontal. At the time of the throw. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. by how much will it miss the target? 3. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree.2 m away from the elevator. The ball is released at the height of the basket. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s.3 Problems 1. Trailing by two points.0 m/s as he leaves the ground.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target.2 m above the ground. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. releasing the ball at the height of the basket.0o . Should the hunter aim directly at. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled.5 m high. Immediately. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. 2-D MOTION 2. YES! It’s a score. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19.0 m/s. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. A baseball is hit at 30.05 m above the ﬂoor. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.0 m from the basket. the elevator was 8.0 m high. an outﬁelder runs 4. The building is 13. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics .0 m away and are 3. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20.7 m above the ground. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. A diver running 3. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. PROJECTILES tree.0 s remaining in a basketball game.0 m.02 m from the basket. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. how far from the building is the target? 6. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8.

its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. For each of the following questions. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18.22 m (horizontally). The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. (a) Draw the situation above. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point.2. draw all vectors to scale.1. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. The basket is 2.0 m away? 16.6 m above the ﬂoor. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. 20. 19. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. 21. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. PROJECTILES 14. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. 2-D MOTION speeds.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. At any moment. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. Will the following quantities change? If so. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2.1 m above the ﬂoor. When it reaches the end of the table.0 m below. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity.

remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). (See Fig 2. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. The units for the spring constant are N/m. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. you will double the distance the spring stretches.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. a mattress. This is now its new equilibrium position . in this case.1c)and let it go. When the mass is below its equilibrium position.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. suspension bridges. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. 2 19 . which results in a downward acceleration.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. This is the equilibrium position. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. 2-D MOTION 2.2. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. this formula no longer holds). Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. Also. if you exceed the limits of the spring.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. etc. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants.1b)). meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2.1a).CHAPTER 2. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. which causes the spring to stretch. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x.at this point. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. Of course. the suspension of a car. The period (the time for one complete vibration. depending on its spring constant. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. but is dependent on the spring. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position).

The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . the total energy remains the same. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2.2. 2. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. therefore. work is done on the spring. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. 20 RRHS Physics .2. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). however. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. 2-D MOTION 2. At equilibrium. 1 Ep = kx2 (2.2. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ).2. or removed from. the system.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a).9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). v = 0 and all of the energy is potential.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. Substituting this into Eq 2.6).

4 Hz when a weight of 0. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 . If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.10 g were trapped? 8.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. 2-D MOTION 2. When the man steps oﬀ.75 J of work done on it? 11. whose length is 37. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz.10 m to load a 0. frictionless surface. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0.150 m when a 0.30 kg hangs from it? 5.100 m from this equilibrium point and released. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10.3 Problems 1.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. the frequency is 0.8190 Hz at a particular location. in contact with a spring bumper.60 kg is hung from it. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0.2 cm.200 kg ball. 13. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. is then released. When an 80.110 m and released. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. What will its frequency be if only 0.30 m. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator.48 Hz.30 kg mass is hung from it. has a frequency of 0. A geologist’s simple pendulum.10 m? 12.62 Hz. whose other end is ﬁxed.50 kg is placed on a level. 2. A small cockroach of mass 0. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8.CHAPTER 2. A mass of 2. A block of mass 0. What is the value of m? 6. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. The spring. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4.0 cm. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. it sinks deeper into the water by 5.5 N hangs from it.10 cm. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.325 m.2. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. A spring stretches 0.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. if it had 3.2.

In two dimensions. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. if you remember from grade 11.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. however. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. a vector diagram must be drawn. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. Also. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions).11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. since p = mv.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. We can now RRHS Physics . the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). Since velocity is a vector. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. 2. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions.11 and 2. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. not velocity. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision.3. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. This still applies in two dimensional collisions. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. remember that it is momentum that is conserved.12. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. 2. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. 2-D MOTION Equation 2.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision.12) (2. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. pa = pa + pb (2.12. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. so is momentum. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant.2.3.

3.14. the collision is elastic. 2. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. and one of the particles is initially at rest.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. 4 In other words. our conservation of energy equation (2. such as thermal energy.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. In this type of collision. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. after this collision. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. therefore. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. some energy is lost. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. For a two body collision. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. though. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. Remember. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ).3. therefore. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision.CHAPTER 2. Since the masses are equal. In other words. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. RRHS Physics 23 . If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost.

and the second car had a velocity of 40. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2.3. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h.0o North of West. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6.0 km/h. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3.2. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. As a result of this elastic collision. Two cars collide at an intersection. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o .40 kg strikes a second ball. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus.400 kg. A proton travelling with speed 8. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0.20 m/s. 6.0 km/h.0o North of West. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. Immediately after impact. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. initially at rest.3. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. 40. Find 24 . The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1.3 Problems 1.80 m/s. of mass mb = 0.2×10−23 kg·m/s. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . After the collision (assumed elastic). the second ball is moving North. of mass 0. From skid marks. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. initially at rest. At what angle will the second proton be observed.00 m/s strikes a second ball. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West. If they collide and remain stuck together. and a neutrino. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7.00 m/s. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. an electron. the investigator determined that car A. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection.60 kg. 50. A billiard ball of mass 0. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N.

1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string.1.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). There is. Since this is the only force. To calculate the speed of the object. we get v= 2πr (3. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. 1 . Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). the object will speed up or slow down. With projectile motion.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. we see v= 25 3. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. the object will not speed up or slow down. which is pulling inward. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. we can simply use d (3. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. the acceleration must also be inward. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. in other words. an acceleration present. we realize that the speed of the object should not change.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. however. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. So even though the speed is not changing. the object moves in a curve. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. however. there is still an acceleration.

the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3. by deﬁnition.2.1: This is not a free body diagram. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one.1. however. In fact.2 and 3. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. it just shows the direction of the three quantities.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. This is a common misconception of students.3) T Combining equations 3. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .6) Figure 3. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. then equation 3. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. ac = v2 3. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . when solving centripetal force problems.5 becomes Fc = mac (3.3. in particular. horizontal surface. Centripetal force is not. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string.1 below). To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3.3. Looking at equation 3. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. 1. always inward toward the center of the circle.1. 3.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. 2.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration.

the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke.1. also. 3. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3.1. the ball is not being pushed outward. If there were. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). not outward.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. because of Newton’s Third Law. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. Remember. it is. in fact. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path).CHAPTER 3. in fact. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. being pulled inward by the string. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). In this situation. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. If you break the string. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. Pretend you are the ball in our example. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. because of inertia. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency).

(b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.1.5 cm. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0.1 times per second. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.0 complete revolution each second.20 kg and is attached to a string 0. 28 RRHS Physics . Assume a radius of curvature of 8.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3. A coin is placed 18. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.1. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96.0 revolutions per second. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm.15 m. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.3 days. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. 3.335 kg. A gravitron circus ride has a 2.60.80 m long.4 Problems 1. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth.0 m. A 5.000 km and a period of 27. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. 9. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. The ball makes exactly 2.15 m/s and its mass is 0.3.0 m rope. If its speed is 3. what force does the string now exert? 4. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3.00 revolutions in a second. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode.30? 7.e. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.20? 6.42. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2.0 m radius and rotates 1. What is the critical speed (i. The yo-yo has a mass of 0.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed.

determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. 19. Assume no change in energy for the system. 17. 15. what RRHS Physics 3. 18.6 km. how much and in what direction? 29 . When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. If the person is standing on the equator. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20.0 kg. A person has a mass of 75. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. PLANETARY MOTION 13. 14.CHAPTER 3.0 m long. including the relevant forces. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. will a friction force be required? If so. and explain this sensation. Sketch the situation. the vine is 4. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. For the previous question. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire).1. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine.

On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. gravity is much more common than this. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant.2. it travels a further distance. however. If the object is given a higher speed. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. Newton.2. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. speciﬁcally. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. Equation 3.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth).) g= GM m R2 3. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. Fg = 30 3.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. PLANETARY MOTION 3.2. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. Assuming a circular orbit. this is how the mass of the earth was found. To determine this necessary speed. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. This type of relationship appears often in physics. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. we get mg = or GM (3. we must consider the orbit.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena.3. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . equating the two expressions.2. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. but not to understand why they are so. it is falling toward the earth. given by G in the equation below.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. In grade 11. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. In fact. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration.2 Universal Gravitation 3. In this way. however. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s.

7. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness.9.CHAPTER 3. If the satellite goes slower than this speed.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite.2. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. m is the mass of the satellite. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.2. Solving this equation for v. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). 3. 2. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . faster than this speed. v= GM r (3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. as given in equation 3. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. PLANETARY MOTION 3. 3. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit.4)into equation 3.

What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. 7.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.99 × 1030 kg). Do the previous question again. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. Four 8. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. A force of 40. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon.5 Problems 1. determine the mass of Jupiter. 12. But Frank is lazy.71×10−8 N .85 × 105 km. From this data. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.3. 13. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3. Frank is really concerned about his weight.50 m.90 × 1027 kg. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7.44 × 106 s and it is 1.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. 8.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. All distances are center to center.85 × 105 km. 10.50 m apart. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. r = 6. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. but has the same mass.0 N is required to pull a 10. 6.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5.50 × 108 km. 3.98 × 107 m).2. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . PLANETARY MOTION weight. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. What is g near the surface? 5. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. 2.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth.2.6 times that of the earth. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. If the bowling balls are 0. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9.

16. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. 31. 27. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. The asteroid Icarus. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. orbits the sun like other planets. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. PLANETARY MOTION 14. what would happen to the value of G? 30.4 days) to do problem 16. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth.CHAPTER 3. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. Why? 28. though only a few hundred meters across. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. On July 19. Jupiter is 5. Find the value of this constant. RRHS Physics 3. 1969. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. Its period is 410 days. 32.3 × 1022 kg. A satellite is going around Earth. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case.2. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. 33 . Find its period in units of the period of the moon. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23.

PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics . UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2.3.

1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. In each case. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. This kind of atom is called an ion. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet.1. in the amount of charge is zero. During any of the processes described above.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. the net change 35 4. 4.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. . Metals are generally very good conductors. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. giving it a net negative or positive charge. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. If you rub a balloon in your hair. not the protons. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. In a normal state. for example. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. even more important than many people think. you notice that it will stick to the wall. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. When a conductor is given a negative charge. Remember. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. Likewise. According to atomic theory. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor.

If you ground the sphere. No charge has been created.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work).1. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. germanium. giving it excess electrons. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. there are . An object can also be charged by conduction. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. but is just brought near it. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. and they touch. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). in this way. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. The RRHS Physics .however. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated.1. The other way of charging an object is called induction. however. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. CHAPTER 4. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another.1. With induction. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. 4. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. it has merely been separated. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one.e. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. conduction occurs. i. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). For example. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. As soon as they touch. if it is charged negatively. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light.4. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope.

these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. You can. the leaves. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. the faster the charge will be carried away. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. If the electroscope is neutral. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges.1. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. If charges become large enough. The more water molecules in the air. 37 .CHAPTER 4. more often. even when nothing is apparently done to them. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present.1. now negatively charged. The leaves will then stay spread apart. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. however. Think about how you may do this. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). Suppose. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. 4. as shown here. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. 4. even after we remove the charged rod.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. particularly on each leaf. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. will repel each other and will spread out. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves.even though they are neutral. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. giving it a permanent charge. the two leaves just hang vertically. In some cases. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope.

Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. you remove the two positively charges objects. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. why does the record now attract dust? 4. If you know that D is positively charged. Explain. A attracts C. but as soon as they touch the rod. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. 12.1. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7.4. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. When an electroscope is charged. 9. one at each end of the line of blocks. You place two objects with strong positive charges. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. Finally. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. they ﬂy away in different directions. 3. what kind of charge does B have? 6. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. close to but not touching the blocks. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics .5 Problems 1. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. What charge is on the rod? 8. and C repels D.1. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. 5.

1 is the distance between the centers.2.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter .2. tying a rope to something.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . r is the distance between the charges in meters. which has an equal but opposite charge). we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. they think of pushing or pulling an object. The search for simple. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. When people think of forces. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. in fact.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. 4. FIELDS 4.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. To help explain this idea.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. E= F q (4. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. Using some test charge q. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. then the r in equation 4. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. electromagnetic. If the two objects are spheres. This worried people. or some other type of contact. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. 39 .2 4. and weak nuclear forces) continues. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. without using some test charge. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. it is precise for only point charges. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. however. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. This may require pushing with your hand.2. since it appeared to behave like magic.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld.it is a concept. strong nuclear forces. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature.CHAPTER 4.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s.

The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it.1 into equation 4. 4.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources.2. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. If there is more than one source charge. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. the stronger the electric ﬁeld.1. These electric ﬁeld lines. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. we obtain kQ (4. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . E= CHAPTER 4. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area.4. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. For example. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). In reality. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge.2. Substituting equation 4. which interacts with all objects near the earth. then equation 4. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. FIELDS points around the sources. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. or lines of force. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. 2. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. equation 4. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. consider a positive source charge. as the test charge is accelerated by the force.2. however. For example.2.

is 0. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. A positive charge of 3.2. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. What is the force between them? 5. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. has a charge of -20 µC.145 N on each other.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . Two charges. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. In one model of the hydrogen atom.5 Problems 1. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4.11 × 10−31 kg. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4.5 × 10−10 m. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. -4. q1 and q2 . located 16 cm to the right. -2.0 µC.67 × 10−27 kg. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. 3.2). We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. What should you do? 11. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. the typical size of an atom. 4. what force is exerted? 12. A third ball. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1.030 m to the east. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. In other words. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. 8.1 × 106 m/s. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart.0 µC is 0.2. the RRHS Physics .00 × 10−17 C? 2. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. A and B. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. has a charge of +25 µC. A second ball. and an electron. mass 1. and the right -83 µC. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. Three particles are placed in a line. One. The bottom electron is resting on a table. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity.050 m to the north and the other. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. mass 9.0 N on each other? 4. located 25 cm above the second ball. You are given two similar spheres.CHAPTER 4.

(c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). Two charges. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations.0× 10−6 C charge. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC.2. the force each exerts on the other is 28. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. Find the force on an electron. one 33. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. then repeat your work with a 2. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. A negative charge of 2. When placed 1. (a) two positively charged point sources. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. −Qo and −3Qo . how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28.0 cm away from a 1.30 m apart. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. 42 CHAPTER 4.0 cm apart? 23.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0.0 µC charged particle? 21. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16. 24. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26.020 mm remains stationary in the air. Two positive charges. which is about 1 × 105 N/C.0 µC and a +60. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. FORCES AND FIELDS 14.0 µC are 8.0 × 10−6 C test charge. are a distance l apart. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. 17. A proton (m = 1.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. RRHS Physics . A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. Take into account gravity and determine E.0 µC charge 40. FIELDS 20.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld.5 N and is repulsive.2 cm apart. 19. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain.4. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. A water droplet of radius 0. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre.0 µC and the other 68. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth.

Just as with gravitational potential energy. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. This will add energy to the system. If positive work is required to move the charge. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. therefore. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. Remember that W = ∆E. The symbol for electric potential is V . FIELDS 4. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. The potential energy here will decrease. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B).3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. so Vab = Wab q (4. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. since they are trying to get away from one another. Suppose you have two spheres.CHAPTER 4. In this case. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . namely potential energy. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). then you will increase the potential energy of the system.3. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. you don’t have to do anything. sphere B is said to be neutral. we say that it is at a high potential.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. If the two spheres are touched together. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing.3. 4. For example. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. for example. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena.3. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. which is called the volt. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable.

that is. the two spheres will be at the same potential.5 × 10−4 J. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . A force of 0. The change in energy while doing this is 4.4 Problems 1. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. as shown below. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld.0 µC charge. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4.3. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. if they were not.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld.4. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. FIELDS 2. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. at this point.5 × 107 V . CHAPTER 4. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. A -30. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). 4. What work is done when 5.3. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources.5 V ? 3. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes.3.0 C is raised in potential by 1.

Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. so its electrons are held very loosely. therefore. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery.1. Contrary to a common belief. little was known about the structure of the atom. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. When people discussed current. A wire is a conductor. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. In short.1 Electric Current Q (5.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. In 1800. 5. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. 1 . we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). at the same time. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. also referred to as an amp. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. Remember that in solids. As was discussed in the previous chapter.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. an ampere (A). electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. a battery is several cells connected together. this is given a special name. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal.

If one end of the pipe is raised. In the same way. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero.5. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). For practical purposes. the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. 3. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. 46 .1. insulators have a very high resistance. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). With a battery. CHAPTER 5. When charges are moved through a resistance. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). In our gravity/water analogy above. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. the greater the ﬂow of water. 2. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). In liquids and gases. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. Resistance is measured in ohms. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). since each end of the pipe is at the same height. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). Comparing this to electricity. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. These materials are than said to be superconducting. because of their atomic structure. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. This makes sense. we can use it here as well. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. it gains or loses energy. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. Temperature: In general. therefore. they lose potential. however. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega).

4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. the current is proportional to the voltage.1. the resistance must be constant. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5.5) 5. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. the current is proportional to voltage). ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. if you double the voltage. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. That is. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. Note that equation 5.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. so it will have a lower resistance. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by.5. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. current can be expressed as V (5.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power.1. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat.1) so P = IV (5.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. the current also doubles. the watt (W ). We RRHS Physics . Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. light. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. 4.CHAPTER 5. 5. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. Looking at this equation.1. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. but I = q/t (equation 5. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). In materials that follow Ohm’s Law.3) 5. or mechanical). it is really energy that we pay for.4 with equation 5. thereby increasing the resistance. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage.

0 cm apart. What voltage will produce 12. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. When she connects it to a 1.0 h. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4.4 Problems 1.1. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. at 20 mA. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. The line has a resistance of 1. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. A current of 1.10 A ﬂows in a wire. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. 11. Joe argues that.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. 5 mA can be painful.5 V battery. How much charge passes through the battery? 2.6) CHAPTER 5. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. 5. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. 14. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. A 1. but when a 3. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15.5 A for 6.085/kW h). What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. Is Joe correct? Explain. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0.1. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. since R = V /I.0 A? 5. above 100 mA can be fatal.0 V battery is used.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire.5. What is the current through a 6.

what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.2 Ω lines.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. What is the eﬃciency of a 0.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. How many 100 W light bulbs.06 per kWh? 19.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0.29 kg/m3 . A transistor radio operates by means of a 9.0 minutes. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40.5 kg of water. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. operated at 120 V . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V . A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.11 per kW h. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28.000 V ? 21.CHAPTER 5. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A.) 49 . Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. 18. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17.0o C to 55. (a) 220 V are applied across it. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. At $0.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3.20 kg of water. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5. A modern television set draws 2. RRHS Physics 5.1. by means of a converter.0 A when operated on 120 V . If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. What is its increase in temperature during the 30.000 V rather than 12.0o C. It is observed that it takes 12. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .08 per kW h. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21.4 A from a 120 V line? 27.0 s? 25. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2.

the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. I1 . V2 = IR2 .2. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. and V3 = IR3 .2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits.5. and R3 . the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. Because charge must be conserved. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. R2 . Of course. 5. and voltages throughout the circuit.8) (5.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. I2 . when we put several resistance in series.2 to analyze the resistances. Knowing the equivalent resistance. you increase the total resistance.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . R3 respectively. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery.2. When you add more resistances.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. currents. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . then by applying equation 5. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5.7) 5. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. applying equation 5. V2 . we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. If V1 .2. By conservation of energy.9) RRHS Physics . each resistor has its own path. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. R2 . since there is only one path. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch.

Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. R1 and R2 are not in series. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. then they are not in series. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. Again.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. 3.2. 5. This combination is then in series with R1 . Remember.10) 5. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). so they can be combined using equation 5.CHAPTER 5. every time you add a resistance in parallel. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. if there is a junction between the resistors. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. If any resistors are in parallel. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. RRHS Physics 51 .10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. *CIRCUITS 2. If any resistors are in series. R3 . The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. equation 5. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . but are often some combination of the two. however.2. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . R2 . Remember. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. R3 is in series with R4 . For example. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. Consider the following example. Also.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). since there is a junction in between the two. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. In this example. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ).

a system of equations can then be found and solved. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced.7. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. RRHS Physics 5.9. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. If this strip melts. however. for example. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. At any junction point. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. 2. If too much current ﬂows. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. A third type of safety device is slightly different. 2. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. For example. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. This is just an expression of equation 5. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. Some circuits4 are. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. 5.2. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. breaking the circuit. For example.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. Houses are wired in parallel.2. These rules actually apply to all circuits. To deal with these circuits. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit.5. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. too complicated for this analysis.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. 1. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. Most newer houses have circuit breakers.2. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous.

7. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor.50 A. Find each resistance. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. Find the current in each branch. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. 8. 5. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9.2. Find the unknown currents and voltages.CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. 3. Find V. 4. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0.2. 2. 5. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch.6 *Problems 1.

Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. 17. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. If each resistor is 10 Ω. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.0 V . If each resistor is 10 Ω. or 150 W at 120 V . Given an unlimited supply of 1. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Suppose that you have a 6. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.2. Find R3 . 11.0 Ω.V2 . *CIRCUITS 10.I2 .0 V input? 15. 13. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors.0 V output for a 6.I3 . 12. and I4 . Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel.I3 . 100 W . and P1 . A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . CHAPTER 5. 16. Find the current in each branch.0 54 . If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb.5. Find It .

(a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. RRHS Physics 55 23. Consider the circuit below. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. determine the currents I1 . what is the resistance of the other? . Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors).2. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit.8 kΩ. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. 5. one larger than the other. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. which is brighter? 21. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. I2 . and I3 in the following circuit.CHAPTER 5. (a) If they are connected in parallel. If one resistor is 2. *CIRCUITS 22. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed.

The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. the result is two magnets.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. As a result. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. however. This will be seen in the next section. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. magnetic forces act over distances. however. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. in ferromagnetic materials. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. for example.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. however. Since these forces do behave similarly. the domains are more lined up in one direction. In most materials. since an electric current will always produce both. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. nickel. On a small scale. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. In a magnetized piece of iron. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. If you cut a magnet in two. 5. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. RRHS Physics 56 . Magnetic poles are not. A compass needle is really a small magnet. 5. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable.5. the same as electric charges. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. and cobalt. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole.3. each with a north and south pole. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld.3. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination.

when using left hand rules. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. the second right hand rule can be used.3. It was only with a moving charge. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. In fact. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5.3. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. By using more than one loop. the ﬁeld will be stronger here.3. then. it makes sense.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla.3. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. This is an electromagnet. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. 5. To use this hand rule. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. Since we draw on two dimensional paper.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil).CHAPTER 5. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. In other words. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. it often7 experiences a force. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. 6 5. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. or a current. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. To use this hand rule. around 1820. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). but this was found to have no eﬀect. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’.

This loop of wire will rotate. To do this. substituting this into equation 5. There will be no force between b and c.3. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. so F = qvB sin θ (5. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. use left hand rules. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. to 58 RRHS Physics . hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers.5.3.5 Electric Motor 5. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. Remember that I = q/t. as shown below. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. you may also use the left hand rule. CHAPTER 5. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. 5. have to be moving through a wire. the force will be out of the page. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). Between c and d. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. as shown in the side view below. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. The charges do not. To use this rule.8 8 Remember. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld.3. If the moving particle is negative. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. As we learned before. however. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b.

but no force acts on the wire. As the armature turns. we want it to turn continuously. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. but just touch one another. Many loops of wire are usually used. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. Also. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). This allows the current to change direction in the loop. 5. MAGNETISM other brush. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. as well as a ferromagnetic core. In reality.CHAPTER 5.3. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . if the loop goes past this point. (b) Two opposite poles.6 Problems 1. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. as shown below.3. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. As a result. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. In order to make the loop continue turning.

What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15.35 N . It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld.9 × 103 kg/m3 . MAGNETISM 5. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward.0 × 10−5 T .0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. (a) CHAPTER 5. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction. If the force on the wire below is into the page. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 . Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. identify the poles of the magnets. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. What is the force on the wire? 7. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. 11. A straight 2. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12.0 A and weighs 0. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room.90 T . Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0.5. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. (b) 10. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o .3. it feels zero force. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. A proton having a speed of 5.

What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20.000 V . Explain.25 × 106 m/s. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper.3. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . The radius of its path is 4.10 T magnetic ﬁeld.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. 23. B=0. 21. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0.4 mm? 24. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. A force of 5. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. A particle with a charge of 2. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. which exists between the two parallel plates below.02 T.385 T magnetic ﬁeld. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. An electron (m = 9.10 cm in a 0. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. E=1000 N/C. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. 16. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1.CHAPTER 5. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. 61 . It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. If the velocity of the particle is 5.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V .25 T .5 cm. Calculate the mass of the particle.08 m. Calculate the energy of the proton. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19.032 T .240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other.6 × 10−13 N . 17.

5. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5.4. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. v. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. In other words. ∆φ ∆t (5. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one).1 Induced EMF Around 1831. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. 5. We call this an induced emf. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge.4. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. and not a force where B. Such a current is called an induced current. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). when the magnet is removed. For example. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms.14) EMF stands for electromotive force.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. For example.

13. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. therefore. But remember. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. Remember. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. Notice that if Ns > Np . we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. 5. In the example shown below. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. therefore. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. conservation of energy tells 63 . we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. however. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. The primary coil has the incoming current. There is. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. the two wires are insulated from one another. From equation 5. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. this is a step-down transformer. This is called perpetual motion. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil.15) 5.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. Just like before.CHAPTER 5. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. If Ns < Np . it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. however. this is called a step-up transformer. Combining these two equations.4. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule).4. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force).

the force on cd must be out of the page. into the page). the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. RRHS Physics . so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. At position 1. Consider the picture below. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). then the current must be lowered.16) CHAPTER 5. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b.5. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation.4. we see what happens to the current. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. out of the page).3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. this means that if the voltage goes up. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. at positions 2 and 4. at position 3. The wire ab is moving out. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input.4. Similarly. therefore. Since P = V I. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire.

This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. If we square an AC electric current graph. Instead.17) Similarly. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. When a motor is operating. value. In a generator. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. the situation is the reverse. As we turn the generator. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. giving Pavg = 0. as was seen in a previous graph. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. however. The greater the speed of the motor. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion.18) Since power is P = V I. the greater the back (or counter) emf. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). we take a root mean square average (rms). This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 .707Imax (5. or eﬀective.5Imax To make a DC generator. Back EMF As was previously stated.707Vmax (5.10 The current is actually sinusoidal.CHAPTER 5. The more current that is drawn. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. as were used with the DC motor. Since the current is not constant.5Vmax Imax In North America. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. Alternating Current As we have seen.11 we cannot just average the current over time.4. INDUCTION called a counter torque. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. we get a sin2 θ graph. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side.

4 Problems 1. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics .19) CHAPTER 5.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. with its plane perpendicular to B. A square coil of sides 5. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process.5.4.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. In what direction is the induced current? 3. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. Hence. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.5Pmax (5. 5. Also note that since P = V I.405 T magnetic ﬁeld.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. It is initially in a 0. A 12. If the wire has a resistance of 0. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed.800 T . in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary.4 s. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. calculate the emf developed.10 s.60 T magnetic ﬁeld.5 Ω.350 T to zero. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0.4. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.0 cm/s. 6. It takes 0. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100.15 Ω. What is the average induced emf ? 2. If the rod is 12. What is the induced emf ? 4.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8.

If the primary and secondary were reversed.CHAPTER 5. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. whose peak value is 90 V . You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily.0 A respectively. INDUCTION 17. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). An ac voltage. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. 26. what would the new output voltage be? 16. is across a 35 Ω resistor. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. and an output current of 0. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. Why? 21. how many turns are on the primary side? 15.0 V and the input current is 11. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . and (c) the power transformed 13. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. Calculate the peak current in a 2. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. It is used with a transformer in England.4. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25.0 V source and measures 8.0 V AC. (b) the current in the primary. the coil will swing. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer.0 V and an output current of 5. 19. Frequently. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9.0 A. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet.75 A. Why is this true? 18. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20.0 A. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. where the line voltage is 240 V . What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22.0 A. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3.0 V at the secondary.

What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line.4. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30.25 A. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . INDUCTION 28.5. a 700 W hair dryer. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles).4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons.4 and 6. The difﬁculty here. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. The photon does not actually slow down. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 .5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. By making careful measurements. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. If he was correct. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. however.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. 1 RRHS Physics . WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal.6. Objects such as electrons.1.4). after the collision. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. however.5). De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. only its frequency is lowered.1. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. He suggested in 1923 that. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. such as diﬀraction and interference.1 however. In fact. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength.

CHAPTER 6. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V .0 km/h. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. in meters. λ = 450 nm. Determine the wavelength of a 0. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light.1. 7.0 eV photon and a 5. does its wavelength change? If so. 16. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. 14. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4.40 Hz.0 eV electron? 73 . The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. 13.80 nm.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. QUANTUM THEORY 8. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. What are the wavelengths. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light.1. 12. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5. RRHS Physics 9. 6. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. If energy is radiated by all objects.1 × 1013 Hz. of a 3.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. does it increase or decrease? 11. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. 15.0 × 106 m/s. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. 10. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron.5 Problems 1.

The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. was putting forward a wave model of light. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. As these particles passed through a prism.6. a ball thrown against a wall). this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century.2. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference.2. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. since all waves at this time required a medium. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. As with Newton’s particle model. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. led by Christian Huygens. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. for example. another group of scientists.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. In a uniform medium. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. As the light gets closer to the water. the particles must be moving very fast. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules.

The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories.2. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. however.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave.CHAPTER 6. It states that to understand any given experiment. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. however. we must refer to both theories. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. the resulting image is slightly blurred. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. in 1850. 6. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. and interference where the particle theory fails. Also. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. The two aspects of light complement one another. indicating a spreading out of the light. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. they must be travelling at a speed of 3.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. but to understand light fully. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. which contradicts Newton’s theory. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. however. According to Maxwell’s theory. For example. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. By the middle of the nineteenth century. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. without its problems. This model was not. which appear to be incompatible. The two theories. refraction. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. Similarly. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. however.2.

is the set of its properties that we can measure. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. In general. or as a wave that has a mass. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. its behavior is more like that of a particle. when light interacts with matter. When we try to visualize light. you must interact with it. however. This has some major implications. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. or even a combination of the two. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. light reveals both wave and particle properties. CHAPTER 6. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. To locate this. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. When this radiation interacts with the electron. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle.2. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. In terms of everyday language and images. This would tell you where it is. depending on which property of light is being measured. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. this duality extends to particles as well. 2 76 . It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. 6. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. We cannot picture what they are. but in the process would move it from that position.2. its behavior imitates that of a wave.6. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. negatively charged particles. when light passes through space or a medium. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. you would have to feel your way around.2. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). like light. Applied to a smaller scale. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. but a visual picture is again not possible. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. You wouldn’t know where it is going. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). An electron. macroscopic world. In order to locate the ball. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows.

For examRRHS Physics 6. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. but has wave properties. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. it is still a probability and not a certainty. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. and not determinism. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted.4 and 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. 77 . this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high.2. we must use a small wavelength. on the other hand. however. Thus.CHAPTER 6. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. In summary. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. If.5. however. but according to equations 6. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view.

2. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .

The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. scientists can analyze unknown materials. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. since they are unique to each atom.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. This is how helium was discovered. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. This is known as an absorption spectrum.1. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors.3. When energy is transferred to atoms. not interactions between atoms. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). Around 1911. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. 6.1. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. heated solids. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. was accepted by scientists by 1900. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. Less dense gases. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. If they were at rest. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section).CHAPTER 6. but a few were bounced almost directly back. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. emit a discrete spectrum.3. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. 6. in industry. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. This is known as an emission spectrum. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. When viewing these spectra. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. Although a major step forward. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. Using spectroscopy. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. By analyzing these wavelengths. This became known as the Rutherford Model.

1. As the electrons spiraled inward. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels).2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. both are therefore quantized. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient.1). the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. as in solids).3. When changing energy levels. Neils Bohr. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. as it loses energy.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. blue. 2. The Rutherford model could not explain this. Using quantum theory. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom.8) 6. The radius increases with n2 . Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. CHAPTER 6. and violet. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. Thus.6 eV n2 (6.8). while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. The higher the energy level. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. as shown in the diagram in section 6. In 1911. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. in other words. electrons can jump directly or in steps.6.red. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. they are accelerating. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. A student of Rutherford.2. green. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra.3. and also predicted an unstable atom. RRHS Physics .3.1 . for example. If an electron absorbs energy. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. the atom would not be very stable. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. however. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second.

Bohr did not know how to explain this. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable.CHAPTER 6.8 that when n=1. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. 6. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. The electron. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. however. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. the energy is actually at a minimum. each independently. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. As a result. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun.3. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. electron can go from 3 to 1. however. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. Louis de Broglie. This was a major problem with the model. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. however. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements.3. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. however. Notice in equation 6. determined energy levels of the elements. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. since it has a wave nature. In quantum mechanics. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. but is actually much harder to visualize. applying his theory of matter waves. If we consider the electron to be a particle. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics .

8.1. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour.3. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. 5. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. At low temperatures. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. magnetic (ml ). Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. These materials are used. 6. This is called ﬂuorescence. CHAPTER 6. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. Explain any discrepancies. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. spin (ms )). in luminous watch dials. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. In a group of these atoms.6. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. however.3.5 Problems 1.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7.3. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. for example.3. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light).

an element is written as A X. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. protons and neutrons. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom.1. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. Z. 1 . for example. Z is the atomic number. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. This force only acts over short distances. called a neutron. this force is the same between protons and protons. 7. the electric force becomes more important. and neutrons and neutrons. the others being the gravitational force. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide.1. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. In 1932. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). In the last chapter. however. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. and A is the mass number. the electromagnetic force. This adds energy to the system. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. This is one of the four forces of nature. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. A. Sometimes. so as the distance becomes greater.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. and the weak nuclear force.

This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. the number of protons. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it.1. 5. The mass of 2 H is 2. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . In a nuclear reaction. Thus. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2.3 Problems 1. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7.1) CHAPTER 7. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). We will look at this more in the next two sections. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei.014102 u. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931.0 × 1011 J of energy. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy.007276 u mn = 1. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. and c is the speed of light in m/s. Using equation 7. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies.015123 u). This implies that by adding energy to the system. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. In other words. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. where E is the energy in J. For each of the following. In general. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. 84 7. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. identify the element. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. we are actually adding mass.1. u. It is expressed as a negative number.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. To be stable. A nuclear reaction produces 9.66 × 10 kg). which is iron. RRHS Physics .49 MeV. What mass was converted? 4. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6.1. the total number of nucleons.7. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. it could just fall apart. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. m is the equivalent mass in kg. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.1.CHAPTER 7. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .

Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. This is known as (natural radioactivity). Many unstable isotopes occur in nature.7. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. This is true for all alpha decays. 7.2. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. and required no external stimulation. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. 2 They are not very energetic. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. 4 He. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons.2. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. If the atomic number gets too large. beyond this. 7. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton.3. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay.2. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. therefore. These nuclei are very tightly bound. 7.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. RRHS Physics . this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). As a result. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. as will be discussed in the following sections. there are not enough neutrons to do this. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.

3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. which has no charge and no mass.2. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. it emits a photon. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). A neutrino is also emitted. This is a random process. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. but the opposite charge. 7. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. the nucleus does not undergo any change. In some cases.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. A positron has the same mass as an electron.CHAPTER 7. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). In 10 years.2. In beta decay. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. allowing a proton to become a neutron. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass.2. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. Other than releasing energy. when it drops down to a lower energy state. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). For this reason. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. This electron disappears into the nucleus. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. One of the protons. This photon is known as a gamma ray. becomes a neutron. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. by emitting a positron. they can be very dangerous. 7. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). Like an atom. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics .

CHAPTER 7. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. After one half-life. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. When 23 N e (mass=22.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. In another 10 years.2.7. so it is closely related to half-life. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. β − . showing the element formed.9898 u). Write the complete nuclear equation. 88 RRHS Physics . Write the complete nuclear equation. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. 7.5 Problems 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. 210 P o. 8. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. 214 Bi.2. or β + emission. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. A radioactive bismuth isotope. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. 84 emits a α particle. One Bequerel is one decay per second. A radioactive polonium isotope. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. 83 emits a β particle. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. showing the element formed.

resulting in a transmutation. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. but they can also occur in nature. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. because it resembled cell division. however. following Fermi’s work.3. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. this is known as radioactive fallout.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles.2 are moving too fast.3. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons.3% 238 U and only 0. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. the top scientists in Europe and the U. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. neutrons. protons. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7.S. RRHS Physics 7. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. 7. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). or gamma rays. This ended the war. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). This would provide enormous amounts of energy.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. 7. 89 . resulting in a sustained chain reaction. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. electrons.2) although there are many other possibilities. 2. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction.CHAPTER 7. the two masses would be brought together quickly. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator.3. To detonate the bomb.

3. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. 5 CHAPTER 7. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. helium is extremely tightly bound. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. Because of its design. Also present are control rods. To slow the reaction down. It has a simpliﬁed design. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. Quebec. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. however. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . 92 7. RRHS Physics 90 . and can be separated to be used as fuel. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium.7. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. and New Brunswick.3. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). 235 U . The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL).3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. energy will be released. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. so it can be built where technology is limited. usually containing cadmium. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. For example. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water.3. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. these control the rate of the reaction. which is very expensive. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. which was discussed earlier.

These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. 3. List three medical uses of radioactivity. Once this high temperature is achieved. A few years ago. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). Controlled fusion has not yet been attained.3. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld.050786 u 1.2? 5. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures.7 for this reason. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7.3. 6. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1.905625 u 135. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. 91 RRHS Physics . 9.016029 u 4. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1.002603 140. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. How much energy would this release? 8.90722 u 235. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7.016049 u 3. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7.9250 u 87.CHAPTER 7.007825 u 2. 2.9141 u 91. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction.014102 u 3. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. At present. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong.043925 u 238. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. This is higher than any known material can stand. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.

3.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11.7. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics . 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.0 × 1014 J of energy.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.

or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. In other words. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. the ends of the stick may be chipped. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. and probably even more. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). the thickness of the lines may vary. for example. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them.37. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. you will be expected to do an error analysis.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. In writing lab reports. this 7 is only an estimate. Some of these may be due to human errors. we might estimate it to be 2. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. errors due to rounding oﬀ. In our meter stick example.1 Experimental Data however. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it.4. was friction considered to be constant. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. errors in calculation. Take a meter stick. It may be smaller or larger.4 cm.3 and 2. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data.3*. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. The wood may shrink or warp. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9.1 mm. For example. there are errors present. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument.3 cm and 2. therefore. .

either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion.1. but it will not be very accurate. we may end up with a very precise estimate. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large.2. this type of error is present in all experiments. This type of error is generally more serious. For this reason. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. this is not an excuse to be careless. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. The more data points that we have.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). A. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. the measurements are always too high.1.1 Standard Deviation A. the less precise our results are. A. The smaller this value. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. It is a good idea. A. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. that is.2. APPENDIX A. RRHS Physics . or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. It does not address any possible systematic errors. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. In this case. In the case of systematic error. In our error analysis. As long as these errors are random. Section A. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. or too low. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. the smaller the standard deviation should be. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken.A. In this case. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. The more random error we have in our experiment.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average).

34 1. When examining the data.23 3. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.45 3. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.77 1.01 2.96 2.86 1. In this case.20.36 2.18 3.05.17 2.06 2. and N is the number of measurements. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.78 4. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.30 9. and got an average value x of 4.64 2.44 1.36 3.31 3. we would use t = 2. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.84 2. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.40 1.89 2.35.02 1. x is the average of all the values.7 4.53 2.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.2.81 1.98 1.92 3.20 3.58 A. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A. we would use t = 2.7 63. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.APPENDIX A.8. and we took 12 measurements. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.35 1.03 2. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.25 2.35 1. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.11 2.90 1. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.14 2.18 5.35.60 2. If we have a theoretical value of 5.83 1. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.1) where xi are the individual measurements. if possible. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.29 1.26 3. Note.70±0.80 1.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.13 1.37 1.78 1.71 2. The relevant values for t are given in the table.42 1.36 1.92 1.35 to 5. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.4.50 2. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results.2.94 1. 95 RRHS Physics .48 2. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.36 1.76 1. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.16 3. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.38 1.45.31 1.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0. however.08 6.57 4. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.

- ap05types.pdf
- Nelson Physics 12
- Full Year Review2 (1)
- Sat Physics
- ClassicalFluids III
- adfasdf
- AP Physics B Sample Exam
- Van Der Waals Equation - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- Eliassen Transverse Circulation Equation and Dynamical Efficiency of heat in Cylindrical Coordinates
- physic review
- SM2006 Part3 Web
- Law+Thermodynamic
- Lectures
- 13 Bishop
- Practical Exam C++
- lectut-CYN-008-pdf-Handout_entropy.pdf
- Ideal Gas Law Derivation
- Branches of Physics
- Thermal Physics Lecture 16
- BIF bagi2
- Partial Differantial Equation Gregoryan
- Physics Phenomena
- Thermo Chapter Three
- Thermodynamics – 1st Law (Chapter 19.1- 3)
- Problem 1
- NCERT Ph 2 Kinetic Theory
- Me25 Engineering Mechanics
- 210-06 Kinetics of Particles
- A Psychrometric Chart
- A Brief Review of Magnetic Wells

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd