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J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines .3. . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4.3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1. . . . . .2. . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 5. . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . 3. . . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .1. . . . . . . . .6 *Problems . .2. . . 4. . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . .1. . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . .3 Electroscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .CONTENTS 3. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . 5. . . . . .2. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .2. . . . . . . . .1 *Series Circuits . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Electric Potential . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Universal Gravitation . . . . 4. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 4. . . . .2. . . . . 5. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 5. . .2 *Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .4 Problems . . . . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect .1. . . . . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . 7. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . .4 Problems . . .3. 6. . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory .2. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 7. . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5.2 Radioactive Decay . . . .2. . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3 Electric Generators 5. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 6. . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. Induction . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . 6. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . 7.1. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . .2. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . 6. . . . .3. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . A. . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . . .1 Experimental Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . .2. . . .1.

5. pg 886 #3. pg 526 #1.3.4. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8. pg 655 #26.6.6 #3.40.3 7.2.25.1 3.1 1.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111. pg 596 #12. pg 863 #8.6.3 #4.3 5. pg 936-937 #26. pg 918-919 #3.37.3 3.6.2 6.2 4. pg 489 #27.4 #36.4 6.2 4.8 #4.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.9. pg 595 #5.10. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.4 pg 796 #1-4.27 v .8.3 2. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.4. pg 862 #6.2 1.2 5.4.Textbook Correlations Section 1. pg 571 #21. pg 515 #39. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.14.7.1 7.27.8.28.2.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18. pg 661 #5.2 2.3. pg 529 #30. pg 934 #5.3.28 #2.8.1 5. pg 778 #1.3 5.1 4. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.1 2.28 pg 495 #30.3. pg 501 #31. pg 780 #2.15 pg 641 #9. pg 933 #1.5. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.9 #2. pg 608 #3.2 7. BLM #1.688-693 694-714.2.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.1 6.9.33.24.7.

CHAPTER 0. TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .

displacement. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. 1 . a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector).1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. A vector is not just a single number. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. it does not have a direction. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). acceleration. velocity. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension).Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). dy ). force. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. like a scalar is. it is actually two numbers. Consider the diagram below. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. This year. The symbol d represents these components. For example. when typing. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. Last year. Likewise. When writing. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). In 2D space. For example. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. In university. For example.

DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. south would be 270o . The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . In the previous diagram. by ). we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). To help visualize this. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. south. the other vector b represents the components (bx . the direction of the vector would then be 30o .1. In this system. (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north).1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. ay ). The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. 3. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. in other words. 1. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. If we add these two vectors. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. Your textbook uses this last convention. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude.1. west).1. 2. In math. So a + b will give (ax + bx . we are actually adding their components. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. north would be 90o . This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . For the examples that follow. ay + by ). assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. In this system. CHAPTER 1. Since vectors are not single numbers. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. east.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

What is the car’s change in velocity? 21.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. A ferryboat. 20. whose speed in still water is 2. 8 km N. and 3 km S. Diane rows a boat at 8. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. The speed of a boat in still water is v. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. using a compass. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. 6 km S. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. At the end of three days. We must assume u < v. 5 kmN. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. A hiker leaves camp and. To do so. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. walks 4 km E. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east.0 m/s. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. 3 km E.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. the hiker is lost. wind speed? 18. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. mass. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. 26. RRHS Physics . A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. 10 km W.1. why? 19. Find the change in velocity.00 h.1. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1.85 m/s. How fast is the player running? 23. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. Before it can move.

so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). First. Notice that although the normal. Notice that FN = Fg . therefore. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force.CHAPTER 1. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. the vertical forces. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. the force of the man pulling is not. both of which are vectors.2. In the diagram below. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). FORCE VECTORS 1. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. As can be seen in the diagram above. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11.2.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). RRHS Physics 1. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . friction. therefore. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. I will take up as the positive direction.

Using trigonometry. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. we get CHAPTER 1.1. Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. If friction is present. Similarly.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). In order to apply Newton’s second law. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. Again notice that FN = Fg . if present. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). as in the following diagram.3. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics . Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. Drawing a free body diagram. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. FORCE VECTORS friction for now).the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). In other words.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another).2.2. Again. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane.

A 15. will the slug slide down the hill? If so.3 m/s2 . What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.0 km/h. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. A 55.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2.CHAPTER 1. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h.30.300 m/s2 . A force of 300. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o .76. A 25.6o hill at a steady speed of 7.2. What is the acceleration of this system? 11.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. An 18. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.0 N .5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. where it is attached to a 4.0 kg box is released on a 33. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp.0o angle with the horizontal. RRHS Physics 9 .5 s for him to reach the bottom. It takes 13.0o angle with the horizontal. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. A rope attached to the 5. A 5.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.20.2.30. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3.0o incline and accelerates at 0. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. (b) Using the same power as in (a). FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley.10. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6.2 Problems 1. A car can decelerate at -5.0o hill at 6. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. The tension in the rope is 110. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal.0 m/s. (a) Ignoring friction. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.0 km/h. The total mass is 80 kg. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.

although the net force is zero in both cases.3. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. but opposite in direction. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. The second condition will be discussed in the next section.3. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. it is obviously not accelerating. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . the net force acting on the mass must be zero.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. 3 1. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes.3. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. there will be a net force in some direction. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. therefore. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. therefore.1. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. 1. The mass is stationary. Remember. Since force is a vector.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. As we said.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. there are three forces acting on the mass. therefore. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0.

11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). down. etc. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. It is not in rotational equilibrium. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. As we have seen. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). as it was when discussing work.3. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting.4. but for calculating torques. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. left. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. To examine this more. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero.4 The further away from this pivot. even though the forces are equal and opposite. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). when calculating the work. this is important. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. right. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. the board will begin to spin. This is called a dot product. Στ = 0 Obviously.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. It can be thought of as a twisting force. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. it acts on every particle in the body. the greater the torque. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. When you calculated work. 4 RRHS Physics . As can be seen from equation 1. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). While forces were described using up. You will learn more about these in university. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. τ = F⊥ d (1. but one up and one down. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel).. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. Before dealing with torques.CHAPTER 1. we must introduce the notion of a torque. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). 1.

You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting.3. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. When lifting a barbell. 12 . The frame has a wire across the back. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building.0 m when a 50. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E.5o with each other. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. 8. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3.0 N .0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. 9. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. What is the tension in the rope? 2. The two ropes make an angle of 15.1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. 7. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N .3 Problems 1. A 20. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. and you don’t want it to break. A sign with a mass of 1653.3. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N .0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. A high wire is 25. 3. RRHS Physics 4.0 s. Find the tension in the boom and the cable.0 m long and sags 1. 10.

0 N. and its center of gravity is located 4.0 cm wide. The platform is being held up by two students. EQUILIBRIUM 17. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18. If there is a spring on the door 5.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. A 50. A 60.0 kg person is sitting 1. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. Where must a 22.0 kg person is sitting 0.90 m away from the pivot on the other side.0 m from the same end.0 kg person stands at its tip. A force of 500. one at either end.3.CHAPTER 1. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end.0 m. direction. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. The 10. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane. The plane has a base of 14. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. 14.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. Find the equilibrant force: 12. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N . (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40.0 N applied to a rope held at 30.0 kg.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. 19.0 m platform has a mass of 10.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. Fred.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . In the following diagram.0 m and a length of 15. determine the magnitude.

3. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics . EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.1.

The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. since max = ΣFx . Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 .1. Ignoring air resistance. The horizontal speed does not change. velocity. Since we know our vertical acceleration. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on.gravity. there is no horizontal acceleration.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. therefore.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). and t is the time in the air. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. These are all vector quantities. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. and acceleration. we see that there is only one .1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. This also makes things somewhat simple. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. 2. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. vx is the horizontal speed.

The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles.2. In this case.3.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. PROJECTILES used.1.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics .4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. and 2.1. namely using equations 2. the time in the air.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. The object does. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1. CHAPTER 2. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. Remember. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions.4.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. the ball follows a parabolic path. instead of horizontally. vyi is the initial vertical velocity.2. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. 2. Again. but gravity will act to slow it down. t is the time in the air. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground).4. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude. For this reason. since there are no horizontal forces. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. The horizontal speed vx is constant.1. as shown in the diagram below. therefore.1 and 2. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. however. As the ball rises. 2.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. until it reaches zero at its highest point. vyi will be zero in equations 2.1 to 2. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. Once this is done. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. Notice that equation 2.

Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2.0 m/s. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. how far from the building is the target? 6. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. Should the hunter aim directly at.7 m above the ground. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12. As soon as the hunter ﬁres.0 m away and are 3. and with only 2. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. The building is 13. 14. 4. At the time of the throw. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics .0 s remaining in a basketball game.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit. 3.5 m high. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5.0o with the horizontal. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal.05 m above the ﬂoor. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. The rotten egg landed 4. PROJECTILES tree.0 m from the basket. above.2 m above the ground. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot. A person is in a moving elevator. Trailing by two points. 2-D MOTION 2.0 m/s at an angle of 53. A diver running 3.3 Problems 1.CHAPTER 2. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground. Immediately. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. the elevator was 8.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s.0 m. The ball is released at the height of the basket. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2.2 m away from the elevator.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. A baseball is hit at 30.0 m high.1. YES! It’s a score.0o .02 m from the basket. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. an outﬁelder runs 4.0 m/s.1. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. by how much will it miss the target? 3. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s.0 s later.

2. 21. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. draw all vectors to scale.1 m above the ﬂoor. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. For each of the following questions. The basket is 2. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time.22 m (horizontally).0 m and must be accurate to ±0. Will the following quantities change? If so. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air.0 m away? 16. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo .0 m below. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v.6 m above the ﬂoor. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . PROJECTILES 14. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. 20. When it reaches the end of the table. (a) Draw the situation above.1. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. 2-D MOTION speeds. 19. At any moment. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78.

CHAPTER 2.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. which results in a downward acceleration. etc. the suspension of a car. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. in this case. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. This is the equilibrium position. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). (See Fig 2.at this point. if you exceed the limits of the spring. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity.1b)). Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2.1c)and let it go.2. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. which causes the spring to stretch. this formula no longer holds). we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. The period (the time for one complete vibration.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. depending on its spring constant. Of course. Also. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). but is dependent on the spring. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. suspension bridges. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water.1a). The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. you will double the distance the spring stretches. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. 2-D MOTION 2. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. a mattress. This is now its new equilibrium position . The units for the spring constant are N/m.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. 2 19 . The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it.

1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring.2.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. work is done on the spring. 2-D MOTION 2. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass.2. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . however. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or.7 we get T = 2π l g (2.6).8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). the system. or removed from. therefore. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. 1 Ep = kx2 (2.2. Substituting this into Eq 2. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. the total energy remains the same. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. At equilibrium.2.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. 20 RRHS Physics . v = 0 and all of the energy is potential.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. 2. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum.

75 J of work done on it? 11. If the spring is stretched an additional 0.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. The spring is then stretched an additional 0.0 cm.48 Hz.3 Problems 1. 2-D MOTION 2. A geologist’s simple pendulum.325 m.10 m to load a 0. has a frequency of 0.30 kg mass is hung from it.2. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3.150 m when a 0.100 m from this equilibrium point and released. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. A small cockroach of mass 0. whose length is 37. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 . 2.4 Hz when a weight of 0.2.62 Hz. A block of mass 0.50 kg is placed on a level. A spring stretches 0. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake.30 kg hangs from it? 5.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0.5 N hangs from it. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.2 cm. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. the frequency is 0. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8.200 kg ball. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch.60 kg is hung from it. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0. 13.10 m? 12. What will its frequency be if only 0.8190 Hz at a particular location. What is the value of m? 6. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4.110 m and released. frictionless surface.CHAPTER 2. The spring.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. in contact with a spring bumper. it sinks deeper into the water by 5.30 m. When an 80. When the man steps oﬀ. whose other end is ﬁxed. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. is then released. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.10 cm. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0.10 g were trapped? 8. A mass of 2. if it had 3.

This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. not velocity. Also. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). 2-D MOTION Equation 2. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision.3.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. Since velocity is a vector. a vector diagram must be drawn.12) (2.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on.12. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension.3. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. however. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. pa = pa + pb (2.11 and 2. 2. if you remember from grade 11. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. This still applies in two dimensional collisions. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object.12. We can now RRHS Physics . since p = mv. so is momentum. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. and extend our analysis to two dimensions.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. 2. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). In two dimensions. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2.2. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or.

In other words. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. In this type of collision. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. after this collision. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved.14.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11.3. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. such as thermal energy. therefore. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . some energy is lost. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. For a two body collision. Since the masses are equal. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. the collision is elastic. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). and one of the particles is initially at rest. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. 4 In other words. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. Remember. therefore.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. RRHS Physics 23 .CHAPTER 2. our conservation of energy equation (2. though.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors.3. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. 2.

80 m/s.0o North of West. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. As a result of this elastic collision. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. 50. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact.400 kg. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. initially at rest.60 kg. initially at rest.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. Two cars collide at an intersection. From skid marks. A proton travelling with speed 8.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. and the second car had a velocity of 40.20 m/s. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3.3.0 km/h. 6. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. of mass mb = 0. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10.2.00 m/s. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. At what angle will the second proton be observed. of mass 0.40 kg strikes a second ball. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. an electron. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton.00 m/s strikes a second ball. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. Immediately after impact.3 Problems 1. and a neutrino. A billiard ball of mass 0.3. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2.0 km/h. the second ball is moving North. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. Find 24 . The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West. the investigator determined that car A.0o North of West. After the collision (assumed elastic). 40. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. If they collide and remain stuck together.2×10−23 kg·m/s.

however. the acceleration must also be inward. we can simply use d (3. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. there is still an acceleration.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. 1 .1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. we get v= 2πr (3. the object will speed up or slow down. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. the object moves in a curve. To calculate the speed of the object. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). So even though the speed is not changing. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. which is pulling inward. Since this is the only force. There is. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. With projectile motion. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. an acceleration present. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. we see v= 25 3.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. however. the object will not speed up or slow down. in other words. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion.1. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion.

Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 . PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. then equation 3. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. by deﬁnition. it just shows the direction of the three quantities.1. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. Centripetal force is not. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration.3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3.2 and 3. 1.3. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . however. 2. Looking at equation 3. This is a common misconception of students.3) T Combining equations 3.6) Figure 3. always inward toward the center of the circle. horizontal surface.1 below). UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.1: This is not a free body diagram. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3. 3.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. In fact. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle.2.5 becomes Fc = mac (3. in particular. ac = v2 3. when solving centripetal force problems.1.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object.

Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. because of Newton’s Third Law. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. 3. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. in fact. If there were. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). In this situation. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. in fact.1. because of inertia. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). being pulled inward by the string.1. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. the ball is not being pushed outward. not outward. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. also.CHAPTER 3. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. it is. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). Pretend you are the ball in our example. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 .3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. Remember. If you break the string. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward.

If its speed is 3.0 m. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached.15 m/s and its mass is 0.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0.335 kg.3.0 m radius and rotates 1. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.0 complete revolution each second.15 m. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. A 5.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0. The ball makes exactly 2.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed.4 Problems 1.80 m long. What is the critical speed (i.30? 7. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.1. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10.1.1 times per second. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. Assume a radius of curvature of 8. what force does the string now exert? 4. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h. A gravitron circus ride has a 2.0 m rope. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5.e. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle.3 days. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. 9. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0. 3. A coin is placed 18. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. 28 RRHS Physics .0 revolutions per second.60. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.20? 6. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2.00 revolutions in a second.42. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm.5 cm.000 km and a period of 27.20 kg and is attached to a string 0.

how much and in what direction? 29 .1. will a friction force be required? If so. and explain this sensation. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o .0 m long. Sketch the situation. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. 17. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. 19. PLANETARY MOTION 13.0 kg. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. what RRHS Physics 3.6 km. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. Assume no change in energy for the system. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. A person has a mass of 75. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point.CHAPTER 3. 18. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. the vine is 4. including the relevant forces. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. For the previous question. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. 15. If the person is standing on the equator. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. 14. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km.

it is falling toward the earth. In this way. gravity is much more common than this. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. however. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration.2 Universal Gravitation 3. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. This type of relationship appears often in physics.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. we must consider the orbit. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. Fg = 30 3. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground.2. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . If the object is given a higher speed. Assuming a circular orbit. In fact.2. but not to understand why they are so. In grade 11. equating the two expressions. Newton. To determine this necessary speed. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. speciﬁcally. we get mg = or GM (3. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets.2.2. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. it travels a further distance.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. PLANETARY MOTION 3. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. given by G in the equation below. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally.3.) g= GM m R2 3. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. however.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. Equation 3. this is how the mass of the earth was found.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6.

The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. as given in equation 3. faster than this speed. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. 3. 2. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit.2. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.7.4)into equation 3. Solving this equation for v. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. m is the mass of the satellite. PLANETARY MOTION 3. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. Substituting this (as well as equation 3.2. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. 3.CHAPTER 3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). v= GM r (3.9. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity).

If the bowling balls are 0.0 N is required to pull a 10. From this data. What is g near the surface? 5.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.85 × 105 km. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. 7. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7. 12.98 × 107 m). and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. Four 8. Do the previous question again. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3.99 × 1030 kg).2.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. but has the same mass. 13. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. determine the mass of Jupiter. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4.3.5 Problems 1.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. A force of 40. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. r = 6. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics .0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. 8. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. PLANETARY MOTION weight.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter.50 m apart.50 m. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11.6 times that of the earth. All distances are center to center. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1.44 × 106 s and it is 1. 6. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3.50 × 108 km.2.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. 3.71×10−8 N . 2.90 × 1027 kg.85 × 105 km. 10. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. Frank is really concerned about his weight. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. But Frank is lazy. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000.

RRHS Physics 3. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. though only a few hundred meters across. what would happen to the value of G? 30. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. 1969. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. 16. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. Why? 28. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. Find the value of this constant. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. 32. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. A satellite is going around Earth. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17.CHAPTER 3. PLANETARY MOTION 14.3 × 1022 kg. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words.2. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. orbits the sun like other planets. 31. The asteroid Icarus. 27. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. On July 19. 33 . Its period is 410 days. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22.4 days) to do problem 16. Jupiter is 5. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit.

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .3.2.

two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. 4. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. you notice that it will stick to the wall. even more important than many people think. According to atomic theory.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. During any of the processes described above. Metals are generally very good conductors. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. In a normal state. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. . giving it a net negative or positive charge. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. In each case. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. Likewise. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. for example. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). Remember. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. If you rub a balloon in your hair. When a conductor is given a negative charge. the net change 35 4.1. This kind of atom is called an ion. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. in the amount of charge is zero. not the protons. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object).

An object can also be charged by conduction. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. in this way.e. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. The other way of charging an object is called induction. i. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. No charge has been created. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material.however. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. there are . We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. it has merely been separated. CHAPTER 4. germanium. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). For example.1. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. If you ground the sphere. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. but is just brought near it. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon.1. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. With induction.4. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere.1. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. conduction occurs. if it is charged negatively. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. and they touch. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. giving it excess electrons. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. As soon as they touch. however. The RRHS Physics . it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. 4.

Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves.1. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. Suppose. The more water molecules in the air. the faster the charge will be carried away. 4. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. however. If the electroscope is neutral. If charges become large enough. the leaves. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). 37 . the two leaves just hang vertically. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. Think about how you may do this. even when nothing is apparently done to them. In some cases. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present.1.CHAPTER 4. now negatively charged. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. particularly on each leaf. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. even after we remove the charged rod. giving it a permanent charge. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. The leaves will then stay spread apart. as shown here. will repel each other and will spread out. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . You can. more often. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel.even though they are neutral. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. 4. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged.

Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. one at each end of the line of blocks. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. You place two objects with strong positive charges. but as soon as they touch the rod. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. you remove the two positively charges objects. why does the record now attract dust? 4. A attracts C. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. 5. 12. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. 9. they ﬂy away in different directions. close to but not touching the blocks. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. When an electroscope is charged. What charge is on the rod? 8. Finally. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7.4. If you know that D is positively charged. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres.5 Problems 1. Explain. what kind of charge does B have? 6. 3. and C repels D. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain.1.1.

electromagnetic. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter .1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge. strong nuclear forces. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge.2. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. it is precise for only point charges. 4. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. FIELDS 4. This may require pushing with your hand. E= F q (4. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful.1 is the distance between the centers. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. This worried people. or some other type of contact. When people think of forces. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. tying a rope to something.it is a concept.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs.CHAPTER 4. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. To help explain this idea. in fact. without using some test charge. however. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. and weak nuclear forces) continues. 39 . we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. If the two objects are spheres. The search for simple. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton.2. since it appeared to behave like magic. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. Using some test charge q. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. they think of pushing or pulling an object. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. r is the distance between the charges in meters.2 4. then the r in equation 4. which has an equal but opposite charge). Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility.2.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 .

3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld.2. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. FIELDS points around the sources. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. These electric ﬁeld lines. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. 4. Substituting equation 4. In reality. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics .2. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. 2.2. which interacts with all objects near the earth. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. or lines of force.2. then equation 4. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. If there is more than one source charge. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly.4.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. as the test charge is accelerated by the force.1. E= CHAPTER 4.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r.1 into equation 4. consider a positive source charge. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. however. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. equation 4. we obtain kQ (4. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . For example. For example.

-2. (b) Find the net force on the right particle.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1.0 µC. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1.2).00 × 10−17 C? 2.CHAPTER 4. One. A second ball. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A.1 × 106 m/s. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. 3. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. A third ball. and an electron. In other words. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. Two charges. You are given two similar spheres. has a charge of +25 µC. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0.0 µC is 0.2. and the right -83 µC. is 0.145 N on each other. has a charge of -20 µC. Three particles are placed in a line. mass 1. 4. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth.5 Problems 1. the typical size of an atom. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC.030 m to the east. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. -4. A and B. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. the RRHS Physics . A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass.5 × 10−10 m. what force is exerted? 12. What is the force between them? 5. A positive charge of 3.67 × 10−27 kg. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. The bottom electron is resting on a table. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. In one model of the hydrogen atom. 8. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. mass 9.11 × 10−31 kg. located 16 cm to the right. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. located 25 cm above the second ball. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words.0 N on each other? 4.2. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. q1 and q2 . We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g).050 m to the north and the other. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. What should you do? 11. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4.

A negative charge of 2. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. What is the electric ﬁeld 2.0 cm away from a 1.4. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. A proton (m = 1. 17. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. Take into account gravity and determine E. RRHS Physics . What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. the force each exerts on the other is 28. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. −Qo and −3Qo .0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. Find the force on an electron. When placed 1. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations.0 µC charged particle? 21.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1.2.0 × 10−6 C test charge. one 33. FIELDS 20.0 µC are 8.0 cm apart? 23. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude.0 µC and the other 68. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. A water droplet of radius 0. Two charges. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. are a distance l apart.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22.5 N and is repulsive.020 mm remains stationary in the air. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre.0 µC and a +60. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. then repeat your work with a 2.30 m apart.0× 10−6 C charge. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. 19. (a) two positively charged point sources. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. 42 CHAPTER 4. 24.2 cm apart. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth.0 µC charge 40. Two positive charges. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources.

The symbol for electric potential is V . Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). FIELDS 4. If the two spheres are touched together. If positive work is required to move the charge. you don’t have to do anything. sphere B is said to be neutral. For example. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. so Vab = Wab q (4. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. which is called the volt. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. Remember that W = ∆E. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge.3. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. In this case. therefore. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. This will add energy to the system. Just as with gravitational potential energy. Suppose you have two spheres. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). for example. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. since they are trying to get away from one another. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. we say that it is at a high potential.3.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy.3. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. namely potential energy. 4. The potential energy here will decrease.CHAPTER 4. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena.

the two spheres will be at the same potential. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6.4. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. A force of 0. if they were not. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. The change in energy while doing this is 4.3. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. CHAPTER 4. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere.0 C is raised in potential by 1. that is.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . A -30. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge.4 Problems 1. What work is done when 5. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. 4. at this point.3. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources. as shown below. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics .0 µC charge.5 × 10−4 J.5 × 107 V .3. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. FIELDS 2.5 V ? 3.

When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. so its electrons are held very loosely. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. 1 . a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. Remember that in solids. little was known about the structure of the atom. this is given a special name. a battery is several cells connected together. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. In short. Contrary to a common belief. an ampere (A). As was discussed in the previous chapter. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. In 1800. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. also referred to as an amp. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. therefore. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. A wire is a conductor. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal.1. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. When people discussed current. at the same time. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . 5.1 Electric Current Q (5.

the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using.1. because of their atomic structure. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). it gains or loses energy. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). Resistance is measured in ohms. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. When charges are moved through a resistance. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. however.5. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. For practical purposes. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). 2. therefore. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. In our gravity/water analogy above. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). CHAPTER 5. we can use it here as well. This makes sense. Temperature: In general. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. the greater the ﬂow of water. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). In liquids and gases. If one end of the pipe is raised. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. Comparing this to electricity. the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. 3. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. These materials are than said to be superconducting. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). 46 . When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. they lose potential. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. With a battery. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. insulators have a very high resistance. In the same way.

Since wires have a resistance in the real world. 5. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. That is. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time.5.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. or mechanical).2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. the current is proportional to the voltage. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. it is really energy that we pay for. thereby increasing the resistance. current can be expressed as V (5.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. the current is proportional to voltage). 4. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire.1.1) so P = IV (5.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. Note that equation 5.CHAPTER 5. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. the current also doubles. the watt (W ).1. light. We RRHS Physics . Consider a wire that is carrying a current. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. Looking at this equation. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device.1. if you double the voltage. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage.4 with equation 5. the resistance must be constant. so it will have a lower resistance.3) 5.5) 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. but I = q/t (equation 5. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic.

What is the voltage of the battery? 6. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. but when a 3. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. A 1.10 A ﬂows in a wire. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows.0 V battery is used. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. If the device obeys Ohm’s law.1.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. above 100 mA can be fatal. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. A current of 1. at 20 mA. What voltage will produce 12.0 A? 5. 5 mA can be painful. 11.6) CHAPTER 5. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects.5 V battery.5.4 Problems 1.1.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. Joe argues that. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy.0 cm apart.5 A for 6. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. since R = V /I. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. What is the current through a 6. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4.0 h. Is Joe correct? Explain. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. 5.085/kW h). 14. The line has a resistance of 1. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. When she connects it to a 1.

Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V . what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. What is its increase in temperature during the 30. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. How many 100 W light bulbs. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. It is observed that it takes 12. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23.CHAPTER 5.29 kg/m3 .0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1.06 per kWh? 19.0o C to 55.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5.0 s? 25. 18. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. RRHS Physics 5. What is the eﬃciency of a 0.4 A from a 120 V line? 27. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .20 kg of water.0o C. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. by means of a converter. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee. At $0.11 per kW h.2 Ω lines. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C.5 kg of water. (a) 220 V are applied across it. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0.90 and it lasts for 300 hours.0 A when operated on 120 V . operated at 120 V .000 V rather than 12.08 per kW h. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24.1.0 minutes. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. A modern television set draws 2. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.) 49 .000 V ? 21.

and voltages throughout the circuit. Knowing the equivalent resistance. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5.2. and V3 = IR3 . If V1 . 5. I1 .1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . V2 = IR2 . Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. and R3 . Of course. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. By conservation of energy. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor.2. I2 . there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances.5. currents.2. when we put several resistance in series. V2 .2 we know that V1 = IR1 . R2 .8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. When you add more resistances. applying equation 5. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. you increase the total resistance. then by applying equation 5. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5.7) 5.9) RRHS Physics .8) (5. R2 . Because charge must be conserved. each resistor has its own path.2 to analyze the resistances. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. R3 respectively. since there is only one path.

R3 is in series with R4 . then they are not in series. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. In this example. equation 5. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. but are often some combination of the two. 5. Consider the following example. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). R2 . calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. Remember. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them.2. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 .CHAPTER 5. Remember. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit).10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. 3. however. Again. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. If any resistors are in series. *CIRCUITS 2. RRHS Physics 51 . This combination is then in series with R1 . since there is a junction in between the two. if there is a junction between the resistors. Also. so they can be combined using equation 5. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 .3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits.10) 5. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. For example. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated.2. R3 . Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. If any resistors are in parallel. R1 and R2 are not in series. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. every time you add a resistance in parallel.

for example. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. 5. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. For example. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. 1. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. If too much current ﬂows.2. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. To deal with these circuits. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing.2. Some circuits4 are. 2. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. 2. Houses are wired in parallel. breaking the circuit. however.2. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. too complicated for this analysis. RRHS Physics 5. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink.9. At any junction point. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. If this strip melts. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. a system of equations can then be found and solved. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing.5. For example. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit.7. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. A third type of safety device is slightly different.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. This is just an expression of equation 5. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. These rules actually apply to all circuits. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether.

Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. 7.6 *Problems 1. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find the current in each branch. 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. 3.50 A. Find the unknown currents and voltages. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . 8. 4. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6.2.2. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances.CHAPTER 5. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find V. 5. Find each resistance. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. 2. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0.

Find It . 16. CHAPTER 5. 11. and I4 .I2 . Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. Given an unlimited supply of 1.0 V .I3 . Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. Find R3 . Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. or 150 W at 120 V . If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. 13. Suppose that you have a 6.2. 100 W . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Find the current in each branch.5. A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W .0 V input? 15. 17. 12.0 54 .0 V output for a 6.I3 . *CIRCUITS 10. If each resistor is 10 Ω. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14.0 Ω. If each resistor is 10 Ω. and P1 . ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.V2 .

If one resistor is 2. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. Consider the circuit below. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. (a) If they are connected in parallel. which is brighter? 21. what is the resistance of the other? . Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. 5. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. *CIRCUITS 22.2. one larger than the other. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. RRHS Physics 55 23.CHAPTER 5. and I3 in the following circuit.8 kΩ. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. determine the currents I1 . I2 . What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24.

since an electric current will always produce both. and cobalt. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. 5. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. the result is two magnets. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. Magnetic poles are not. In most materials. nickel. 5. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. however.5. each with a north and south pole. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. for example. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. the same as electric charges. magnetic forces act over distances.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. As a result. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet.3. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. On a small scale. however. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. Since these forces do behave similarly. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. This will be seen in the next section. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. A compass needle is really a small magnet. however. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. RRHS Physics 56 . these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. In a magnetized piece of iron. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. If you cut a magnet in two. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. in ferromagnetic materials.3. the domains are more lined up in one direction.

By using more than one loop.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld.3. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. 5. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. In fact. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop).3. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst).6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid.CHAPTER 5. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. it makes sense. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. then. when using left hand rules. but this was found to have no eﬀect. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). It was only with a moving charge. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld.3. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). In other words. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. To use this hand rule.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. the second right hand rule can be used. This is an electromagnet.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. around 1820. 6 5. it often7 experiences a force. To use this hand rule. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire.3. or a current. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow).

Remember that I = q/t. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. As we learned before. To use this rule. The charges do not. If the moving particle is negative. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. but l/t is just the speed of the particle.5. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. as shown in the side view below. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. substituting this into equation 5.8 8 Remember. 5. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. the force will be out of the page. you may also use the left hand rule. so F = qvB sin θ (5. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire.5 Electric Motor 5. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. however. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. To do this. have to be moving through a wire.3. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. This loop of wire will rotate.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). CHAPTER 5. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld.3. There will be no force between b and c. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. to 58 RRHS Physics . Between c and d. as shown below. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld.3. use left hand rules. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy.

but just touch one another. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above.3.3. we want it to turn continuously. MAGNETISM other brush. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. In reality. as shown below. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes.CHAPTER 5. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position.6 Problems 1. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. but no force acts on the wire. if the loop goes past this point. As the armature turns. Also. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). (b) Two opposite poles. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. In order to make the loop continue turning. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. As a result. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. 5. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). as well as a ferromagnetic core. Many loops of wire are usually used. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate.

When moving horizontally in a northerly direction. 11. What is the force on the wire? 7. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14.35 N .120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6.3. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. it feels zero force. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. A proton having a speed of 5. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. (a) CHAPTER 5.0 A and weighs 0.9 × 103 kg/m3 . Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15.5.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. (b) 10.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. If the force on the wire below is into the page. MAGNETISM 5. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8.0 × 10−5 T . The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. A straight 2. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. identify the poles of the magnets. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 .90 T .0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward.

what must be the speed of the ion? 26. An electron (m = 9. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V .000 V . Protons move in a circle of radius 8. which exists between the two parallel plates below. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. Calculate the mass of the particle.6 × 10−13 N . A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. A particle with a charge of 2.385 T magnetic ﬁeld. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected.02 T. If the velocity of the particle is 5. 16. Calculate the energy of the proton. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2.032 T . E=1000 N/C.10 cm in a 0. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0.25 × 106 m/s.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V .3. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. Explain.5 cm. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. 23. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20. B=0. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. A force of 5. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.4 mm? 24. 17. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20. 21.10 T magnetic ﬁeld.CHAPTER 5.08 m. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27.25 T . 61 . A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. The radius of its path is 4.

The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. For example. For example. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. In other words. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. and not a force where B. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. Such a current is called an induced current. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld.5. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. when the magnet is removed. 5. We call this an induced emf. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. Fill in the direction of the current in this example.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. ∆φ ∆t (5. v. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing.4.4. Magnetic ﬂux (φ.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction.

no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. therefore. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor.13. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. Remember. There is. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. Combining these two equations. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). however. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. this is a step-down transformer. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. 5. Notice that if Ns > Np . and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation.CHAPTER 5. But remember. From equation 5. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. however. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. If Ns < Np . But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. The primary coil has the incoming current.4. the two wires are insulated from one another.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. This is called perpetual motion. In the example shown below.4. Just like before. this is called a step-up transformer. conservation of energy tells 63 . to maintain a current in the secondary coil.15) 5. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. therefore. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage.

4. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page.4. then the current must be lowered. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b.16) CHAPTER 5. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. this means that if the voltage goes up. Consider the picture below. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. the force on cd must be out of the page. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. out of the page). which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor.5. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. into the page). at positions 2 and 4. we see what happens to the current. RRHS Physics . 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. therefore. Since P = V I. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. Similarly.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. at position 3. At position 1. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. The wire ab is moving out. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.

17) Similarly. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. the greater the back (or counter) emf. Instead.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. however. If we square an AC electric current graph. giving Pavg = 0. we get a sin2 θ graph. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. In a generator.18) Since power is P = V I.707Imax (5. or eﬀective. As we turn the generator.11 we cannot just average the current over time. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . value. INDUCTION called a counter torque. When a motor is operating.4. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. the situation is the reverse. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor.5Vmax Imax In North America. Alternating Current As we have seen. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz.5Imax To make a DC generator. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. we take a root mean square average (rms). generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. as was seen in a previous graph. The greater the speed of the motor. Since the current is not constant.CHAPTER 5.707Vmax (5. Back EMF As was previously stated. The more current that is drawn. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. as were used with the DC motor. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire.

What is the average induced emf ? 2. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed.350 T to zero. What is the induced emf ? 4. In what direction is the induced current? 3. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. calculate the emf developed. 5. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0.5.4 Problems 1. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary.5 Ω. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. A square coil of sides 5. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. Hence. If the rod is 12. A 12. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.800 T .19) CHAPTER 5. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5. If the wire has a resistance of 0. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0.15 Ω.4 s.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0.10 s.50 T magnetic ﬁeld.4.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. with its plane perpendicular to B. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. It takes 0.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region.4. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.5Pmax (5.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. Also note that since P = V I. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. 6.60 T magnetic ﬁeld.0 cm/s. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. It is initially in a 0.

the coil will swing.0 V and the input current is 11. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. Why is this true? 18. whose peak value is 90 V . It is used with a transformer in England. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. and an output current of 0. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25.0 V and an output current of 5. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. what would the new output voltage be? 16.CHAPTER 5. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. is across a 35 Ω resistor. 26. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5.0 A. where the line voltage is 240 V . Scott connects a transformer to a 24. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). Calculate the peak current in a 2. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W.75 A. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22.0 A.0 V source and measures 8. Why? 21. (b) the current in the primary.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source.0 V at the secondary. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. and (c) the power transformed 13.0 A.0 A respectively.4. An ac voltage. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. If the primary and secondary were reversed. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. INDUCTION 17. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. 19. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20.0 V AC. Frequently. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet.

(a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29.25 A. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. INDUCTION 28.5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. a 700 W hair dryer. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line.4. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

The photon does not actually slow down. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6.4). The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. The difﬁculty here. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. such as diﬀraction and interference.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties.1. only its frequency is lowered. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. after the collision. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6.5). we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 .6. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. By making careful measurements. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. If he was correct. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). He suggested in 1923 that. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties.4 and 6. Objects such as electrons.1 however. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. however.1.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. 1 RRHS Physics . In fact. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. however. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6.

0 eV electron? 73 . does it increase or decrease? 11. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg.0 × 106 m/s.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. 12. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. 6. of a 3. 16. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0.1 × 1013 Hz. 10. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron.5 Problems 1. RRHS Physics 9.0 eV photon and a 5. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. What are the wavelengths.CHAPTER 6. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. 13. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. λ = 450 nm. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927.1. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. Determine the wavelength of a 0. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. QUANTUM THEORY 8. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted.40 Hz. in meters. 14. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. 15. does its wavelength change? If so. 7.0 km/h. which has a shorter wavelength? 17.80 nm. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5.1. If energy is radiated by all objects. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . De Broglie waves are known as matter waves.

going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. a ball thrown against a wall). • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. another group of scientists. In a uniform medium. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either).2. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles.6. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection.2. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. led by Christian Huygens. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. As these particles passed through a prism. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. 6. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. As with Newton’s particle model. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. was putting forward a wave model of light. for example. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. As the light gets closer to the water. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. since all waves at this time required a medium. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. the particles must be moving very fast. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.

The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light.CHAPTER 6. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. For example. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. By the middle of the nineteenth century. however. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. 6. we must refer to both theories. which contradicts Newton’s theory. however.2. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model.2. indicating a spreading out of the light. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. which appear to be incompatible. but to understand light fully. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. Also. refraction. in 1850. The two aspects of light complement one another. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. and interference where the particle theory fails. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. According to Maxwell’s theory. It states that to understand any given experiment. This model was not. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. however. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. without its problems. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. Similarly. the resulting image is slightly blurred. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. The two theories. however. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz.

there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. In general. but a visual picture is again not possible. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light.6.2. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. when light interacts with matter. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). you would have to feel your way around. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. like light. light reveals both wave and particle properties.2. 2 76 .4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. depending on which property of light is being measured. this duality extends to particles as well. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. however.2. 6. Applied to a smaller scale. This has some major implications. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). When this radiation interacts with the electron. This would tell you where it is. CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. You wouldn’t know where it is going. or even a combination of the two. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. negatively charged particles. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. or as a wave that has a mass. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. An electron. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. To locate this. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. In order to locate the ball. but in the process would move it from that position. When we try to visualize light. In terms of everyday language and images. macroscopic world. is the set of its properties that we can measure. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. its behavior imitates that of a wave. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. when light passes through space or a medium. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. its behavior is more like that of a particle. you must interact with it. We cannot picture what they are. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air.

The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. In summary.2. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. but has wave properties. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. If. and not determinism. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. but according to equations 6. on the other hand.5. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. we must use a small wavelength.CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. it is still a probability and not a certainty. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. however. however. Thus. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. 77 . then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time.4 and 6. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. For examRRHS Physics 6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple.

6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .2.

Using spectroscopy.3. Although a major step forward. since they are unique to each atom. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen.1. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. This is how helium was discovered. This became known as the Rutherford Model. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. This is known as an absorption spectrum. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. Less dense gases.3. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. in industry.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6.CHAPTER 6.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. When viewing these spectra. but a few were bounced almost directly back. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. By analyzing these wavelengths. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. This is known as an emission spectrum. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. 6. emit a discrete spectrum. heated solids. was accepted by scientists by 1900. 6. Around 1911. When energy is transferred to atoms. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. not interactions between atoms.1. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. If they were at rest. scientists can analyze unknown materials. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight.

WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. 1. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. the atom would not be very stable. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state.red. and violet.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels.2.3. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. CHAPTER 6. both are therefore quantized. The higher the energy level.6.3. If an electron absorbs energy. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon.8). however. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. as shown in the diagram in section 6. RRHS Physics .2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. In 1911. as in solids). Using quantum theory. 2. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. electrons can jump directly or in steps. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. As the electrons spiraled inward. they are accelerating. green.6 eV n2 (6. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. Thus. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. in other words. as it loses energy. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy).1). Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. for example. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. and also predicted an unstable atom. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. The radius increases with n2 . modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. A student of Rutherford. Neils Bohr.8) 6.1 . When changing energy levels. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. The Rutherford model could not explain this.3. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. blue.

the magnitude of the energy is the largest. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure.3. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. If we consider the electron to be a particle.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. but is actually much harder to visualize. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. the energy is actually at a minimum. since it has a wave nature. electron can go from 3 to 1. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example.CHAPTER 6. The electron. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. however. Bohr did not know how to explain this. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules.3. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. This was a major problem with the model. In quantum mechanics. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. 6. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. however. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. each independently. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. however. Louis de Broglie. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. however. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. determined energy levels of the elements.8 that when n=1. Notice in equation 6. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. applying his theory of matter waves. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. As a result.

for example. This is called ﬂuorescence. CHAPTER 6. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. These materials are used. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. in luminous watch dials.3. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them.5 Problems 1. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. In a group of these atoms. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). 8. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. 5. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics .1. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l).6. Explain any discrepancies. magnetic (ml ). What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. spin (ms )). Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. 6.3. At low temperatures.3. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. the applied voltage accelerates electrons.3. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). Phosphorescence works in a similar way. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. however.

however.1. this force is the same between protons and protons. This adds energy to the system. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. This force only acts over short distances. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). In 1932. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. and neutrons and neutrons. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. Z is the atomic number. This is one of the four forces of nature. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. protons and neutrons. Z. so as the distance becomes greater. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. 7. 1 .Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. In the last chapter. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. for example. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. the others being the gravitational force. an element is written as A X.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. A. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. called a neutron. the electromagnetic force. and the weak nuclear force. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force.1. the electric force becomes more important. Sometimes. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. and A is the mass number. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus.

For each of the following. and c is the speed of light in m/s. it could just fall apart.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents.49 MeV. A nuclear reaction produces 9. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. This implies that by adding energy to the system. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). We will look at this more in the next two sections. In general. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. identify the element. The mass of 2 H is 2. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies.007276 u mn = 1.3 Problems 1.1. the number of protons. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. 5. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . In a nuclear reaction.015123 u). Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. Using equation 7. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. u. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy.014102 u.7. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy.66 × 10 kg). The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. Thus. which is iron. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. the total number of nucleons. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. m is the equivalent mass in kg.1. RRHS Physics . the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. What mass was converted? 4.1. In other words. It is expressed as a negative number. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. where E is the energy in J. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart.1) CHAPTER 7. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. we are actually adding mass. To be stable. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. 84 7.0 × 1011 J of energy. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6.

THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .1.CHAPTER 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.

This is true for all alpha decays. RRHS Physics . as will be discussed in the following sections.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. therefore. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). This is known as (natural radioactivity). Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. 4 He. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. If the atomic number gets too large. 2 They are not very energetic. These nuclei are very tightly bound. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. 7. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. and required no external stimulation. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. there are not enough neutrons to do this.2. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper.2. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7.7. As a result. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay.2. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity).3. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. 7. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. 7. beyond this. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83.

Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. Like an atom.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. This photon is known as a gamma ray. when it drops down to a lower energy state. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. In beta decay. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. 7. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). A positron has the same mass as an electron. Other than releasing energy. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. allowing a proton to become a neutron.2. by emitting a positron. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton.CHAPTER 7.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. For this reason. becomes a neutron. which has no charge and no mass. In 10 years. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. This electron disappears into the nucleus. One of the protons. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. but the opposite charge. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). A neutrino is also emitted.2. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . In some cases. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. This is a random process. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. the nucleus does not undergo any change. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. they can be very dangerous. 7.2. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. it emits a photon.

7. 84 emits a α particle. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). so it is closely related to half-life. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. In another 10 years. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half.7. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. Write the complete nuclear equation. 88 RRHS Physics . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. 214 Bi. A radioactive polonium isotope. showing the element formed. showing the element formed. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. A radioactive bismuth isotope. One Bequerel is one decay per second. or β + emission. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6.2. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. CHAPTER 7. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. When 23 N e (mass=22. 210 P o. After one half-life. Write the complete nuclear equation. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2.5 Problems 1.2.9898 u). Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. β − . A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. 8. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. 83 emits a β particle.

each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. To detonate the bomb. 7.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. or gamma rays. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. the top scientists in Europe and the U. Naturally occurring uranium is 99.2 are moving too fast. RRHS Physics 7.CHAPTER 7. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. following Fermi’s work. however. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei.2) although there are many other possibilities. resulting in a transmutation. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. the two masses would be brought together quickly. protons. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). 89 .S. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. 2. 7. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II.3. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. electrons. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food.3.3% 238 U and only 0. because it resembled cell division. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.3. this is known as radioactive fallout. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. This ended the war. but they can also occur in nature. neutrons.

helium is extremely tightly bound.3. and New Brunswick. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. however.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. To slow the reaction down. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. 5 CHAPTER 7. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. and can be separated to be used as fuel. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. which was discussed earlier. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat.7. Quebec. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. For example. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. 92 7. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator.3. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. It has a simpliﬁed design. RRHS Physics 90 . ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . 235 U . 3. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. energy will be released. these control the rate of the reaction. which is very expensive. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. Because of its design. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. usually containing cadmium. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. so it can be built where technology is limited. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. Also present are control rods. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion.

Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. This is higher than any known material can stand.016029 u 4.CHAPTER 7. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3.7 for this reason. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor.043925 u 238. At present. 3. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. 91 RRHS Physics .3.90722 u 235. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. List three medical uses of radioactivity.9250 u 87. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7.016049 u 3. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium).905625 u 135. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another.9141 u 91. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2.050786 u 1. 9. A few years ago. 6. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion.2? 5. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures.007825 u 2. Once this high temperature is achieved. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld.002603 140. 2. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions.3. How much energy would this release? 8.014102 u 3. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems.

92 (a) How many atoms are in 1. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.3. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics .0 × 1014 J of energy. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1.7.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW.

use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results.3 cm and 2. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. therefore. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. In writing lab reports. and probably even more. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. there are errors present. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. errors in calculation. errors due to rounding oﬀ. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. for example. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. . where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). It may be smaller or larger. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument.3 and 2.4 cm. In our meter stick example.1 Experimental Data however.1 mm. we might estimate it to be 2. Take a meter stick. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself.4. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. you will be expected to do an error analysis. was friction considered to be constant. Some of these may be due to human errors.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. this 7 is only an estimate. The wood may shrink or warp. In other words.37. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. For example. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment.3*. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. the ends of the stick may be chipped. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. the thickness of the lines may vary. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate.

2. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. this type of error is present in all experiments. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. It is a good idea. Section A. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. or too low. A. In the case of systematic error. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. The more random error we have in our experiment. This type of error is generally more serious.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. that is. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. the smaller the standard deviation should be. we may end up with a very precise estimate. APPENDIX A. For this reason. The smaller this value.1 Standard Deviation A. It does not address any possible systematic errors.1. you cannot expect to get the same result every time.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. A. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. the measurements are always too high. As long as these errors are random. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. In this case.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. but it will not be very accurate. In this case. RRHS Physics . In our error analysis. no matter how many estimates are averaged together.A. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. The more data points that we have. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average).2. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. the less precise our results are. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. A.1. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. this is not an excuse to be careless.

2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.26 3.13 1.35 to 5.30 9.35 1. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.92 3.08 6. and got an average value x of 4.86 1.89 2.25 2.29 1.36 1.80 1.38 1.96 2.03 2.35 1.18 5.92 1. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation. and N is the number of measurements. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.58 A.90 1. In this case.7 4.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.8.53 2. x is the average of all the values.14 2. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.64 2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.42 1.18 3. If we have a theoretical value of 5.APPENDIX A.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.4. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits. When examining the data.40 1.11 2.7 63.71 2.84 2.23 3.98 1.20. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.45 3. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval. we would use t = 2.31 3.76 1.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.70±0.57 4.01 2.48 2. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.36 3.60 2.1) where xi are the individual measurements.02 1. if possible. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this. we would use t = 2.94 1. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.83 1. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.35.36 1.34 1.37 1. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.17 2.78 1. The relevant values for t are given in the table. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty. 95 RRHS Physics .36 2.78 4.31 1.2.44 1.81 1. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements. Note. however.20 3. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.06 2.45.35.50 2.2.05. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values. and we took 12 measurements. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.77 1. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.16 3.

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