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J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii .2 *Circuits . . .4 Problems . . 5. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . .2. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . .1. . . . . . . . . 4. 3. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .5 Electric Motor .1 Static Electricity . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .3 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . .3 Electroscopes . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. .1 Electrical Quantities . . 4. . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . 5. . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . 4. . . 3. . . . . . 5. . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6 *Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge .3. .2. . . .1. . . 5. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . 5. . 5. . . . . . .3 Lines of Force .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . .1. . .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . 4. . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .5 Problems . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . . . . .3. 4. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . 5. . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Induced EMF . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. .2 Nuclear Reactors 7.3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . 6. . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . 7. . . . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .4. . . . . .1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 5. .3. . . . . . . . 7. . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .4. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . .2. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .3. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .1 Nuclear Fission . . . .2. 6. . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .2. . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . 7. .1. . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . .4. . . 6. . .3. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . . . . . . . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . 6. . . . . . . 6. .2. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . .CONTENTS 5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .1 Experimental Data . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . A. .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . .2. . . . . . . . .1. . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

pg 661 #5.1 5. pg 655 #26.1 4.2 6.2 2.4.3 5.25. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1. pg 936-937 #26.3 2. pg 863 #8. BLM #1.4 pg 796 #1-4. pg 608 #3.2 4. pg 515 #39.3 5.1 2.24.9 #2.8 #4.9.Textbook Correlations Section 1.8.4. pg 489 #27.3. pg 862 #6.7.33.1 1.4.9.2 7.1 7.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.6.40.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18. pg 595 #5.2.6 #3.14.2 5.8.28. pg 501 #31.8. pg 778 #1.3.27 v .3 7.2 4.6. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680. pg 526 #1. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1. pg 933 #1. pg 596 #12.3 #4.2.37. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.1 3. pg 918-919 #3. pg 934 #5.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.15 pg 641 #9.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.27.3 3.5.28 #2.3. pg 886 #3.4 #36.2 1.5. pg 529 #30.1 6.688-693 694-714.4 6. pg 780 #2.7. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.3.6.2.10. pg 571 #21.28 pg 495 #30.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

In 2D space. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. When writing. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. 1 .1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. it is actually two numbers. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). Last year. displacement. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. This year. In university. For example. when typing. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). velocity. force. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. Likewise. it does not have a direction. like a scalar is. Consider the diagram below. For example. The symbol d represents these components. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. acceleration. A vector is not just a single number. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). dy ). For example. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector.

So a + b will give (ax + bx . (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). east. 3. If we add these two vectors. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. Your textbook uses this last convention. The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. 1. south would be 270o . CHAPTER 1. by ). the other vector b represents the components (bx . north would be 90o . we are actually adding their components. 2. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . south. ay + by ). The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions).1.1.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. west). north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. In math. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. In the previous diagram. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . In this system. Since vectors are not single numbers.1. To help visualize this. ay ). the direction of the vector would then be 30o . in other words. In this system. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. Bearings are another way of expressing directions.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. For the examples that follow.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. the hiker is lost. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. Before it can move. why? 19. How fast is the player running? 23. At the end of three days. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. Which of the following is a vector: velocity.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. 10 km W. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. The speed of a boat in still water is v. mass. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. A hiker leaves camp and.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. 26. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h.1. RRHS Physics .1. 20. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17.00 h.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. 8 km N. 3 km E. A ferryboat. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. Diane rows a boat at 8. We must assume u < v. walks 4 km E. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. and 3 km S.0 m/s. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. whose speed in still water is 2. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. To do so. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. 6 km S.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. Find the change in velocity. using a compass. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. wind speed? 18.85 m/s. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. 5 kmN.

so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. RRHS Physics 1. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. therefore. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction).1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. FORCE VECTORS 1.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11.2. the vertical forces. Because we often know Fg and Fpy . First. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions.CHAPTER 1. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. the force of the man pulling is not. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. friction. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative.2. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. Notice that although the normal. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . I will take up as the positive direction. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. In the diagram below. Notice that FN = Fg . both of which are vectors. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. As can be seen in the diagram above. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. therefore. A free body diagram for this box would like like this.

our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. Again. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics .2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). Again notice that FN = Fg .2. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. Similarly. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). FORCE VECTORS friction for now). In other words.2. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. we get CHAPTER 1.1. Using trigonometry. In order to apply Newton’s second law. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. these would have to be considered in the force analysis.3. If friction is present. if present. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. Drawing a free body diagram. as in the following diagram. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration).3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1.

0 km/h. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.0 m/s.0o hill at 6.2 Problems 1.30. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. A 55.0 km/h. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. The total mass is 80 kg. A force of 300. A 5. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8.2.76. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10. The tension in the rope is 110.0 kg box is released on a 33. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. (a) Ignoring friction.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.0o angle with the horizontal.10.20.3 m/s2 . A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0.6o hill at a steady speed of 7. A car can decelerate at -5. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. A rope attached to the 5. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. A 15.0 N . where it is attached to a 4.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. (b) Using the same power as in (a). His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed.300 m/s2 . What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.0o angle with the horizontal. A 25. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7.30.CHAPTER 1. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road.5 s for him to reach the bottom.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1.2.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano. RRHS Physics 9 .0 kg sled is accelerating at 2. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley.0o incline and accelerates at 0. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . What is the acceleration of this system? 11. An 18. It takes 13. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp.

the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium.3. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. although the net force is zero in both cases. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . The second condition will be discussed in the next section. there are three forces acting on the mass. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. Remember. therefore. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. therefore. the net force acting on the mass must be zero.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. but opposite in direction. 3 1. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. Since force is a vector.1. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. 1. As we said. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. there will be a net force in some direction. The mass is stationary. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. therefore. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium.3. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force.3. it is obviously not accelerating. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. As can be seen by the free-body diagram.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11.

A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. even though the forces are equal and opposite. Στ = 0 Obviously. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. as it was when discussing work. we must introduce the notion of a torque.3. You will learn more about these in university. when calculating the work..4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. but for calculating torques. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. This is called a dot product. 4 RRHS Physics . the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). etc. To examine this more. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. Before dealing with torques. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). As can be seen from equation 1. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. down. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. It is not in rotational equilibrium. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). but one up and one down. As we have seen. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). When you calculated work. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. τ = F⊥ d (1. left. it acts on every particle in the body. the board will begin to spin. the greater the torque. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler).CHAPTER 1. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). It can be thought of as a twisting force. this is important.4. While forces were described using up. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise.4 The further away from this pivot. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. right. 1.

RRHS Physics 4.0 N . Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. A high wire is 25. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. and you don’t want it to break.3.3 Problems 1. 8. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. A sign with a mass of 1653.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.0 s. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E.1.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. The two ropes make an angle of 15. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3.3. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle.5o with each other. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building.0 m when a 50. 10. 3. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . 9. What is the tension in the rope? 2. When lifting a barbell. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. 7. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain.0 m long and sags 1. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. 12 . The frame has a wire across the back. A 20. Find the tension in the boom and the cable.

0 kg.0 kg person is sitting 1. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90. The 10. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. If there is a spring on the door 5. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. A force of 500. Find the equilibrant force: 12.3. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13.0 m from the same end. Fred.0 m platform has a mass of 10. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N . Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end.0 cm wide. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. The plane has a base of 14. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. one at either end.0 m. A 60.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15.0 m and a length of 15.CHAPTER 1. Where must a 22. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. and its center of gravity is located 4.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. EQUILIBRIUM 17.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. What equilibrant force must a fourth student. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. The platform is being held up by two students. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50.0 kg person stands at its tip.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000.0 N.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. 19. direction. In the following diagram.0 kg person is sitting 0.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. determine the magnitude. 14. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. A 50.0 N applied to a rope held at 30.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane.

DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics . EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.3.1.

all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 .Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. and acceleration. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). The horizontal speed does not change. This also makes things somewhat simple. vx is the horizontal speed. Since we know our vertical acceleration. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). Ignoring air resistance. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. These are all vector quantities.gravity. we see that there is only one . velocity. 2. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. therefore.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. and t is the time in the air. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. since max = ΣFx .1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. there is no horizontal acceleration.

Remember. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed. 2. Once this is done.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t.2. 2. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . the time in the air. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles.1. the ball follows a parabolic path. until it reaches zero at its highest point.1. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. t is the time in the air. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. Notice that equation 2. vyi is the initial vertical velocity.2. The horizontal speed vx is constant. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. and 2. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. CHAPTER 2.3.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). The object does. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. As the ball rises.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2.1. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. PROJECTILES used. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. as shown in the diagram below.4. namely using equations 2. vyi will be zero in equations 2. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. Again. instead of horizontally.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. since there are no horizontal forces. In this case. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground.1 and 2. however. therefore. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. For this reason. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?).4. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2.1 to 2. but gravity will act to slow it down.

He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal.0 s remaining in a basketball game. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13.0 m from the basket. and with only 2. The rotten egg landed 4. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. At the time of the throw. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics .0 m high.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal.0 m/s. the elevator was 8.02 m from the basket. Trailing by two points. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree.7 m above the ground. A person is in a moving elevator. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.2 m above the ground. above.0o .3 Problems 1.0 m away and are 3.0 s later.1.2 m away from the elevator. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5.05 m above the ﬂoor.1. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8.0o with the horizontal.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. The building is 13. PROJECTILES tree. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. an outﬁelder runs 4. A diver running 3. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. YES! It’s a score. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. Immediately.0 m. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. The ball is released at the height of the basket. 14. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. 4. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. by how much will it miss the target? 3. Should the hunter aim directly at. A baseball is hit at 30. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s.CHAPTER 2. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9.0 m/s at an angle of 53.5 m high. 3. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. 2-D MOTION 2. how far from the building is the target? 6. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled.0 m/s. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.

6 m above the ﬂoor. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . 2-D MOTION speeds. 20. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. At any moment. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. 19. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. Will the following quantities change? If so. (a) Draw the situation above. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. draw all vectors to scale.1. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo .2.0 m away? 16. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. When it reaches the end of the table.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air.22 m (horizontally). (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. 21. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points.1 m above the ﬂoor. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. The basket is 2. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. PROJECTILES 14. For each of the following questions.0 m below.

The units for the spring constant are N/m. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. Also. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. this formula no longer holds). remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. which results in a downward acceleration. you will double the distance the spring stretches. The period (the time for one complete vibration. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. depending on its spring constant. in this case. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2.1a). When the spring is above the equilibrium point.1b)). 2 19 . etc.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2.2. 2-D MOTION 2. Of course. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. This is the equilibrium position. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. the suspension of a car. This is now its new equilibrium position . (See Fig 2.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. suspension bridges. but is dependent on the spring.CHAPTER 2. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. a mattress.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. If you double the mass hanging on the spring.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again.1c)and let it go. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. which causes the spring to stretch. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly.at this point. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. if you exceed the limits of the spring. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x.

1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring.2.2. the total energy remains the same. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. therefore. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. the system. 1 Ep = kx2 (2.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A).2.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. work is done on the spring.6). it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. 20 RRHS Physics . however. it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. 2-D MOTION 2. At equilibrium. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. or removed from.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant.2.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . Substituting this into Eq 2. 2.

2-D MOTION 2.30 kg hangs from it? 5. 13. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.8190 Hz at a particular location. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. What is the value of m? 6. When the man steps oﬀ.10 g were trapped? 8.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. When an 80. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. What will its frequency be if only 0. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. frictionless surface. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. if it had 3.50 kg is placed on a level. in contact with a spring bumper. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14.30 m.30 kg mass is hung from it. has a frequency of 0.60 kg is hung from it.75 J of work done on it? 11. the frequency is 0. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. A block of mass 0. A geologist’s simple pendulum.10 m? 12. the raft vibrates brieﬂy.62 Hz. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. A mass of 2.2. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0. A spring stretches 0. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3.200 kg ball.5 N hangs from it.2 cm.10 m to load a 0. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator.10 cm. A small cockroach of mass 0. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch.3 Problems 1.48 Hz.110 m and released. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 .0 cm.325 m.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.150 m when a 0. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. The spring. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m.2. whose other end is ﬁxed. whose length is 37. it sinks deeper into the water by 5.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.CHAPTER 2. 2. is then released.4 Hz when a weight of 0. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car.

2-D MOTION Equation 2. remember that it is momentum that is conserved.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa .3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). pa = pa + pb (2. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. 2. since p = mv. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). since there is only one momentum vector before the collision.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. We can now RRHS Physics .13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision.12. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. not velocity. however. so is momentum. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector).3. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. In two dimensions.2.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. Also.12. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. Since velocity is a vector. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2.3. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities.11 and 2. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. This still applies in two dimensional collisions. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. a vector diagram must be drawn.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2.12) (2. 2. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. if you remember from grade 11. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions.

pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. therefore. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. Remember. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. 4 In other words. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. the collision is elastic. though. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. after this collision. and one of the particles is initially at rest. RRHS Physics 23 . the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision.3. In other words. our conservation of energy equation (2. Since the masses are equal. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va .15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. In this type of collision. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. some energy is lost. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same.CHAPTER 2.3. For a two body collision.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. therefore. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems.14. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. such as thermal energy. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. 2.

Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West.60 kg. If they collide and remain stuck together. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. initially at rest. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball.00 m/s.0 km/h. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0.0 km/h. 50. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. the investigator determined that car A. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. the second ball is moving North. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3.0o North of West.80 m/s. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. A billiard ball of mass 0. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. and another is moving East with a speed of 4.20 m/s. and the second car had a velocity of 40. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o .0o North of West.3. At what angle will the second proton be observed. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. of mass mb = 0. A billiard ball is moving North at 3.2×10−23 kg·m/s. 6. of mass 0. Immediately after impact. 40. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2.3. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north.00 m/s strikes a second ball.400 kg moving with a speed of 2.40 kg strikes a second ball. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. As a result of this elastic collision. and a neutrino. From skid marks. Find 24 . What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. After the collision (assumed elastic). If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. an electron. initially at rest. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8.3 Problems 1.2.400 kg. A proton travelling with speed 8. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. Two cars collide at an intersection.

If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. an acceleration present. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. There is.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. 1 . Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. Since this is the only force. the acceleration must also be inward. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. there is still an acceleration.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. however.1. we can simply use d (3.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. however. To calculate the speed of the object. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. the object will speed up or slow down.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). With projectile motion. in other words. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. which is pulling inward. So even though the speed is not changing. the object moves in a curve. the object will not speed up or slow down. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. we see v= 25 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. we get v= 2πr (3.

we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle.1. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics .2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. In fact. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration.5 becomes Fc = mac (3. in particular. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. 3. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 . the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. however. ac = v2 3.1.2. then equation 3.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion.3) T Combining equations 3. it just shows the direction of the three quantities. 2. 1.1 below).1: This is not a free body diagram. horizontal surface.2 and 3.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. when solving centripetal force problems. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. This is a common misconception of students. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3.3. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3.6) Figure 3. always inward toward the center of the circle. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. Centripetal force is not. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram.3. by deﬁnition. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. Looking at equation 3.

1. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. it is. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. 3. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. in fact. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). because of Newton’s Third Law. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. also. in fact.1. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. not outward. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. In this situation. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T .CHAPTER 3. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. being pulled inward by the string. the ball is not being pushed outward. because of inertia. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. If you break the string. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . If there were. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. Pretend you are the ball in our example. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. Remember.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward).

What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.20? 6. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.15 m. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1. What is the critical speed (i.5 cm.3. 28 RRHS Physics .80 m long. 9.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.0 revolutions per second.000 km and a period of 27.30? 7. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.15 m/s and its mass is 0. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.e.0 m radius and rotates 1. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. The ball makes exactly 2. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0.00 revolutions in a second. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.20 kg and is attached to a string 0.1 times per second.60. what force does the string now exert? 4. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth.1.0 complete revolution each second. If its speed is 3. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80. A coin is placed 18.0 m rope. 3. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3.1.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached.335 kg.42. A 5.4 Problems 1. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96. Assume a radius of curvature of 8. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode.0 m.3 days. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2.

A person has a mass of 75. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . PLANETARY MOTION 13. 14. For the previous question. and explain this sensation. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. 15. how much and in what direction? 29 . you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. 18. Assume no change in energy for the system.6 km. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20.1. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. will a friction force be required? If so. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. the vine is 4.0 kg. Sketch the situation. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. 19.0 m long. If the person is standing on the equator. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. what RRHS Physics 3. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. including the relevant forces. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg.CHAPTER 3. 17.

2. If the object is given a higher speed. In grade 11. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. we get mg = or GM (3. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. In fact. In this way. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. given by G in the equation below. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9.2. we must consider the orbit.3. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. gravity is much more common than this. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. PLANETARY MOTION 3. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. Newton. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. Equation 3.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. To determine this necessary speed. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . however.2.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. This type of relationship appears often in physics.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth.2. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. equating the two expressions. however.2 Universal Gravitation 3. Fg = 30 3. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant. Assuming a circular orbit.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). it travels a further distance. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. speciﬁcally. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally.) g= GM m R2 3. People often ask what keeps a satellite up. it is falling toward the earth. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook. a force of gravity exists between any two masses.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. this is how the mass of the earth was found. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. but not to understand why they are so.

9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. m is the mass of the satellite. Solving this equation for v. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. faster than this speed. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1.2.CHAPTER 3. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. 3. v= GM r (3.4)into equation 3. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. 2. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. 3. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. PLANETARY MOTION 3. as given in equation 3. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus.9. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.7. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). If the satellite goes slower than this speed. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.2.

Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. 10. 3.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5.44 × 106 s and it is 1.2. 13.2.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1.50 m apart. Frank is really concerned about his weight. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat.99 × 1030 kg).0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. From this data. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. Do the previous question again. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. r = 6. 12.71×10−8 N . 6. All distances are center to center. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7.0 N is required to pull a 10. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. If the bowling balls are 0. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. 7.85 × 105 km. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three.85 × 105 km. determine the mass of Jupiter. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. PLANETARY MOTION weight. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. But Frank is lazy. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. 2. Four 8. A force of 40.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. What is g near the surface? 5.50 m. but has the same mass.50 × 108 km.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. 8. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3.3. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9.6 times that of the earth. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter.90 × 1027 kg. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11.5 Problems 1.98 × 107 m).

Its period is 410 days. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. RRHS Physics 3. orbits the sun like other planets. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. what would happen to the value of G? 30. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. 33 . Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. On July 19. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. 16. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19.4 days) to do problem 16. though only a few hundred meters across. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). 31. Find the value of this constant.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun.CHAPTER 3. Why? 28. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. 1969. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. Jupiter is 5. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17.2. A satellite is going around Earth. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20.3 × 1022 kg. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. 27. PLANETARY MOTION 14. 32. The asteroid Icarus. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun.

3. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics . UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2.

when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. In a normal state.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. for example. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. even more important than many people think. If you rub a balloon in your hair.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. This kind of atom is called an ion. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. not the protons. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another).1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. . In each case. you notice that it will stick to the wall. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. Metals are generally very good conductors. the net change 35 4. giving it a net negative or positive charge. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. According to atomic theory. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper.1. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. During any of the processes described above. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. 4. Likewise. Remember. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. in the amount of charge is zero. When a conductor is given a negative charge.

One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. in this way. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. germanium. however.4.however. No charge has been created. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. it has merely been separated. there are .1. An object can also be charged by conduction. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). If you ground the sphere. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. As soon as they touch. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. With induction.1. i. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. The other way of charging an object is called induction. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. if it is charged negatively. conduction occurs. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. and they touch. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). For example. CHAPTER 4.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together.1. but is just brought near it. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons.e. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. giving it excess electrons. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. The RRHS Physics . Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. 4.

objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. even after we remove the charged rod. If the electroscope is neutral. as shown here. You can. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. even when nothing is apparently done to them. The leaves will then stay spread apart. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. Think about how you may do this. 37 .1. 4. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. 4.1. the two leaves just hang vertically. the faster the charge will be carried away.even though they are neutral. particularly on each leaf. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. Suppose. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. now negatively charged. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. giving it a permanent charge. If charges become large enough. the leaves.CHAPTER 4. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. more often. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. The more water molecules in the air. however. will repel each other and will spread out. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative).4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. In some cases. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged.

4. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. If you know that D is positively charged. You place two objects with strong positive charges. A attracts C. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics .5 Problems 1. 3. you remove the two positively charges objects. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. one at each end of the line of blocks. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. When an electroscope is charged. 12. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. and C repels D. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. 9. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope.1. what kind of charge does B have? 6. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod.1. they ﬂy away in different directions. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. What charge is on the rod? 8. 5. but as soon as they touch the rod. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. Explain. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. Finally. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. why does the record now attract dust? 4. close to but not touching the blocks.

0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . 4. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. E= F q (4. The search for simple. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. and weak nuclear forces) continues.CHAPTER 4. This may require pushing with your hand.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction.it is a concept. then the r in equation 4. Using some test charge q.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. 39 .1 is the distance between the centers. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. If the two objects are spheres. FIELDS 4. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres.2 4. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. When people think of forces. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. To help explain this idea. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. without using some test charge. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. electromagnetic. This worried people. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1.2. tying a rope to something. r is the distance between the charges in meters. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. or some other type of contact. strong nuclear forces.2. it is precise for only point charges. in fact. they think of pushing or pulling an object. which has an equal but opposite charge). however. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature.2. since it appeared to behave like magic.

as the test charge is accelerated by the force. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge.4.2. For example. 2. For example. then equation 4.1. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. or lines of force. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . equation 4. If there is more than one source charge.2.2. which interacts with all objects near the earth. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. Substituting equation 4. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. we obtain kQ (4. In reality. consider a positive source charge. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. the stronger the electric ﬁeld.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld.2. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. These electric ﬁeld lines.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law.1 into equation 4. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. however. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. 4. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. FIELDS points around the sources. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. E= CHAPTER 4. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source.

8. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. and an electron. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron.2). The hydrogen atom contains a proton. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1.5 × 10−10 m. The bottom electron is resting on a table. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. is 0. -4. (b) Find the net force on the right particle.11 × 10−31 kg. In other words.2. A second ball.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC.050 m to the north and the other. What is the force between them? 5. 4.0 µC. -2. q1 and q2 .67 × 10−27 kg. located 25 cm above the second ball.145 N on each other. has a charge of -20 µC.1 × 106 m/s.0 N on each other? 4. located 16 cm to the right. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. A positive charge of 3. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. A and B. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13.00 × 10−17 C? 2. 3. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F .2. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. the RRHS Physics . the typical size of an atom. mass 1. In one model of the hydrogen atom. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. has a charge of +25 µC.5 Problems 1. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. One. mass 9. Two charges. A third ball. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10.030 m to the east.0 µC is 0. What should you do? 11. and the right -83 µC. You are given two similar spheres. what force is exerted? 12.CHAPTER 4. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. Three particles are placed in a line. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0.

Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. RRHS Physics .020 mm remains stationary in the air. FIELDS 20. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. When placed 1. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons.0 µC and a +60. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. then repeat your work with a 2. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain.0× 10−6 C charge. A negative charge of 2. which is about 1 × 105 N/C.0 × 10−6 C test charge.30 m apart.0 µC charge 40. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).0 µC charged particle? 21. one 33. the force each exerts on the other is 28.0 cm away from a 1. 17.0 cm apart? 23. −Qo and −3Qo .67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. are a distance l apart.0 µC and the other 68. Two positive charges. (a) two positively charged point sources.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. A proton (m = 1. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. Two charges.4. 19. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25.2 cm apart. FORCES AND FIELDS 14.2. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0.5 N and is repulsive. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. Take into account gravity and determine E. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15.0 µC are 8. 42 CHAPTER 4. 24. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. A water droplet of radius 0. Find the force on an electron.

where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. sphere B is said to be neutral.3. If positive work is required to move the charge. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. since they are trying to get away from one another.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. so Vab = Wab q (4. For example. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. namely potential energy. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. 4. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges).CHAPTER 4. for example. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. Suppose you have two spheres. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena.3. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb .3. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. If the two spheres are touched together. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). which is called the volt. The potential energy here will decrease. Just as with gravitational potential energy. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. FIELDS 4. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. This will add energy to the system. Remember that W = ∆E. we say that it is at a high potential. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. In this case. you don’t have to do anything. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. The symbol for electric potential is V . therefore.

If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. A force of 0. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential.5 V ? 3.0 µC charge. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . that is.5 × 10−4 J.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . A -30. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). 4. The change in energy while doing this is 4. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8.4. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A.4 Problems 1.3. the two spheres will be at the same potential.3.0 C is raised in potential by 1. as shown below. at this point. What work is done when 5.3. FIELDS 2. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5. CHAPTER 4. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources. if they were not.5 × 107 V . An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9.

the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. As was discussed in the previous chapter.1 Electric Current Q (5. therefore. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. In short. little was known about the structure of the atom.1. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. so its electrons are held very loosely. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. a battery is several cells connected together. 1 . A wire is a conductor. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. In 1800. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. 5. an ampere (A). also referred to as an amp. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. Remember that in solids. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. Contrary to a common belief. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. at the same time. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. this is given a special name. When people discussed current.

the greater the ﬂow of water. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. 46 . Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. Comparing this to electricity. If one end of the pipe is raised. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. they lose potential. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. it gains or loses energy. This makes sense. With a battery. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal.5. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. 3. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. because of their atomic structure. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. Temperature: In general. In liquids and gases. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. For practical purposes. however. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. we can use it here as well. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). 2.1. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. CHAPTER 5. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. These materials are than said to be superconducting. In our gravity/water analogy above. Resistance is measured in ohms. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). therefore. insulators have a very high resistance. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. When charges are moved through a resistance. In the same way.

we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. 5.5) 5. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. thereby increasing the resistance. light.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. Looking at this equation. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. the watt (W ). Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. That is.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4.CHAPTER 5. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. it is really energy that we pay for.1.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law.5. Note that equation 5. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. the current is proportional to voltage).1. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. We RRHS Physics . and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). Consider a wire that is carrying a current.1. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. but I = q/t (equation 5. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. current can be expressed as V (5. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. so it will have a lower resistance. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire.3) 5. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law.1) so P = IV (5. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. the resistance must be constant.4 with equation 5. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. or mechanical). we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. the current is proportional to the voltage. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible. the current also doubles. 4. if you double the voltage.

at 20 mA. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. 5 mA can be painful.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery.10 A ﬂows in a wire. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 .1.0 V battery is used. 14. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird.1. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. What voltage will produce 12. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase.0 h. How much charge passes through the battery? 2. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. Is Joe correct? Explain. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. The line has a resistance of 1. but when a 3.5.4 Problems 1.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. A 1. 11. What is the current through a 6. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. above 100 mA can be fatal.6) CHAPTER 5. What voltage does the bird feel? 13.0 A? 5. 5. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. since R = V /I. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7.5 V battery.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. A current of 1. When she connects it to a 1.0 cm apart.5 A for 6. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A.085/kW h). Joe argues that. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12.

0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1.5 kg of water. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.0 minutes. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 . A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3.20 kg of water. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .000 V ? 21. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. A modern television set draws 2.000 V rather than 12. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5. 18. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. (a) 220 V are applied across it. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. At $0. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.0 s? 25. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0.0o C.0o C to 55. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. What is its increase in temperature during the 30. How many 100 W light bulbs. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio.90 and it lasts for 300 hours.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28.CHAPTER 5.1.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23.29 kg/m3 . The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A.4 A from a 120 V line? 27.08 per kW h.) 49 . It is observed that it takes 12. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water. What is the eﬃciency of a 0.11 per kW h. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0.06 per kWh? 19. operated at 120 V .0 A when operated on 120 V . Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. by means of a converter. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24.2 Ω lines. RRHS Physics 5.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current.

V2 . when we put several resistance in series.2. I2 . I1 . this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor.8) (5. applying equation 5. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors.2. and voltages throughout the circuit. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. R3 respectively.7) 5. Knowing the equivalent resistance.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. Of course. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 .8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. When you add more resistances. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery.9) RRHS Physics . then by applying equation 5. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5.2. each resistor has its own path.2 to analyze the resistances. Because charge must be conserved. you increase the total resistance. and V3 = IR3 . there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances.5. 5. If V1 .2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. By conservation of energy. V2 = IR2 . In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . R2 . currents. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. and R3 . the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. R2 . since there is only one path.

Consider the following example. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. R2 . resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. In this example. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated.CHAPTER 5. R3 is in series with R4 . equation 5. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. R3 . then they are not in series. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. since there is a junction in between the two. 3. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. Again. Remember. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. R1 and R2 are not in series.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below).2. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. so they can be combined using equation 5. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. Remember. *CIRCUITS 2. If any resistors are in parallel. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance.2. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). Also.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. 5. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. If any resistors are in series. if there is a junction between the resistors. every time you add a resistance in parallel.10) 5. however. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . For example. RRHS Physics 51 . so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. but are often some combination of the two. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. This combination is then in series with R1 .

the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. however. a system of equations can then be found and solved. For example. For example. These rules actually apply to all circuits.7. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. A third type of safety device is slightly different. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend.5. breaking the circuit.9. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit.2. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. 5. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. At any junction point.2. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink.2. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. Some circuits4 are.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. To deal with these circuits. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. This is just an expression of equation 5. RRHS Physics 5. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. 2. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. 2. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. 1.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. too complicated for this analysis. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. for example. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. If too much current ﬂows. Houses are wired in parallel. If this strip melts. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase.

Find the unknown currents and voltages. Find the current in each branch. 5. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . 8.2. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. 5. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch.50 A.6 *Problems 1. 4. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. 7. Find V. 2. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. 3.CHAPTER 5. Find each resistance.2.

what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18.5. 16. 13.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. Given an unlimited supply of 1.I2 .V2 .I3 .0 V input? 15.0 Ω. 11. 12. *CIRCUITS 10. CHAPTER 5. Suppose that you have a 6.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Find It .0 54 . If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2.0 V . Find R3 .I3 . A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W .0 V output for a 6. and P1 . Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. 17. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. 100 W . and I4 . If each resistor is 10 Ω. Find the current in each branch. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1. or 150 W at 120 V . If each resistor is 10 Ω. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel.

Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed.2. If one resistor is 2. what is the resistance of the other? . (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled.CHAPTER 5. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel.8 kΩ. I2 . Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). Consider the circuit below. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. and I3 in the following circuit. (a) If they are connected in parallel. RRHS Physics 55 23. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. *CIRCUITS 22. determine the currents I1 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. 5. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. which is brighter? 21. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. one larger than the other.

Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. since an electric current will always produce both. however. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. nickel. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. magnetic forces act over distances. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet.3. A compass needle is really a small magnet. almost as if they were spinning on their axis.5. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. and cobalt.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. On a small scale. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. As a result. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. however. In a magnetized piece of iron. each with a north and south pole.3. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. the result is two magnets.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. for example. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. the domains are more lined up in one direction. but north and south poles always appear in pairs.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. If you cut a magnet in two. In most materials. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. however. RRHS Physics 56 . Magnetic poles are not. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. in ferromagnetic materials. This will be seen in the next section. Since these forces do behave similarly. 5. the same as electric charges. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. 5. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination.

CHAPTER 5. By using more than one loop. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst).3. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. around 1820. 5. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. the ﬁeld will be stronger here.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. 6 5. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end.3. it often7 experiences a force. the second right hand rule can be used. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. or a current.3. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop.3. It was only with a moving charge. In other words. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. To use this hand rule. then. In fact. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. To use this hand rule. when using left hand rules. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil).11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. but this was found to have no eﬀect.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. it makes sense. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. This is an electromagnet. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil.

3. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. The charges do not. substituting this into equation 5. This loop of wire will rotate. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. you may also use the left hand rule. CHAPTER 5. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire.5. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. There will be no force between b and c. 5. Between c and d. Remember that I = q/t.8 8 Remember. As we learned before. To do this. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire.3. as shown in the side view below. so F = qvB sin θ (5. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. the force will be out of the page. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. If the moving particle is negative. however.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. To use this rule. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. to 58 RRHS Physics . as shown below. use left hand rules. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld.5 Electric Motor 5. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle.3. have to be moving through a wire. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb).

(b) Two opposite poles. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. Many loops of wire are usually used. Also. as shown below. if the loop goes past this point. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place.6 Problems 1.CHAPTER 5. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . In reality. 5. MAGNETISM other brush. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. As the armature turns.3. as well as a ferromagnetic core. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets.3. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. In order to make the loop continue turning. but no force acts on the wire. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. we want it to turn continuously. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. As a result. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. but just touch one another. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture).

What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15.9 × 103 kg/m3 . (b) 10. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 . A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. A straight 2. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8.67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0.35 N .3. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13.5. What is the force on the wire? 7. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward.0 A and weighs 0. A proton having a speed of 5. If the force on the wire below is into the page. MAGNETISM 5. 11.0 × 10−5 T . What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. it feels zero force. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1.90 T .0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. (a) CHAPTER 5. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. identify the poles of the magnets. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6.

which exists between the two parallel plates below. E=1000 N/C. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. 23.10 cm in a 0. 16. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20.385 T magnetic ﬁeld.4 mm? 24. 21.3.02 T. what must be the speed of the ion? 26.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0. 61 . A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V .10 T magnetic ﬁeld. 17. If the velocity of the particle is 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0.000 V . An electron (m = 9. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. B=0. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. The force is upward and of magnitude 5.25 T .25 × 106 m/s.6 × 10−13 N . The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. A particle with a charge of 2. Explain.CHAPTER 5. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V .08 m. Calculate the energy of the proton. A force of 5. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. Calculate the mass of the particle.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0.032 T .11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. The radius of its path is 4.5 cm.

The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . For example. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. In other words. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. We call this an induced emf.4.5. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). opposing the motion of the bar magnet. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. For example. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. v. ∆φ ∆t (5. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. when the magnet is removed. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. and not a force where B. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one).1 Induced EMF Around 1831. Such a current is called an induced current. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld.4. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. 5. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil.

But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. Remember. 5. There is.15) 5. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. This is called perpetual motion. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. If Ns < Np . conservation of energy tells 63 . this is called a step-up transformer. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage.13. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary.4.4. this is a step-down transformer. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. Just like before. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. therefore. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. Notice that if Ns > Np . Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). But remember.CHAPTER 5. the two wires are insulated from one another. From equation 5. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. however. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). Combining these two equations. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. In the example shown below. however. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. The primary coil has the incoming current. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. therefore.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power.

RRHS Physics . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. At position 1. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. we see what happens to the current. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. at positions 2 and 4. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. this means that if the voltage goes up. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. Since P = V I.4.16) CHAPTER 5. at position 3. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. then the current must be lowered. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. into the page). therefore. Consider the picture below. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page.4. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. The wire ab is moving out. out of the page). Similarly. the force on cd must be out of the page. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case.5. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below.

If we square an AC electric current graph.11 we cannot just average the current over time. or eﬀective. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. as was seen in a previous graph. Back EMF As was previously stated. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. Instead. Since the current is not constant. we get a sin2 θ graph.CHAPTER 5.707Vmax (5. as were used with the DC motor.707Imax (5. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. The greater the speed of the motor. however. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. The more current that is drawn.18) Since power is P = V I. the greater the back (or counter) emf. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.5Vmax Imax In North America. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. value. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. As we turn the generator.4. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). INDUCTION called a counter torque. When a motor is operating. In a generator. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. Alternating Current As we have seen. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. giving Pavg = 0. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. the situation is the reverse. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings.17) Similarly. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers.5Imax To make a DC generator. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. we take a root mean square average (rms).

how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100.800 T .0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right.15 Ω.4.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5. Hence.60 T magnetic ﬁeld.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical.4.350 T to zero. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.5 Ω.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics .0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. What is the average induced emf ? 2. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . If the rod is 12. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. A 12. with its plane perpendicular to B.4 s.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. What is the induced emf ? 4.0 cm/s. A square coil of sides 5. 5. calculate the emf developed. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown.5. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.50 T magnetic ﬁeld.4 Problems 1. In what direction is the induced current? 3. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. 6. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. If the wire has a resistance of 0.5Pmax (5. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms.10 s. It takes 0. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. It is initially in a 0. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary.19) CHAPTER 5.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. Also note that since P = V I.

Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. If the primary and secondary were reversed. whose peak value is 90 V . and (c) the power transformed 13. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. 19. (b) the current in the primary.75 A. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. An ac voltage. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. Why? 21. Calculate the peak current in a 2.0 A respectively.0 V and the input current is 11. Scott connects a transformer to a 24.0 A. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer.0 A.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source.CHAPTER 5. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3.0 A. Frequently. is across a 35 Ω resistor. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. It is used with a transformer in England.4. Why is this true? 18. where the line voltage is 240 V .0 V at the secondary. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily.0 V and an output current of 5. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. the coil will swing. what would the new output voltage be? 16. and an output current of 0. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V .0 V AC. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. 26. INDUCTION 17.0 V source and measures 8.

(a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. a 700 W hair dryer. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics .25 A.5.4. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. INDUCTION 28. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

He suggested in 1923 that.6. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles).6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. after the collision. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. 1 RRHS Physics .4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. By making careful measurements. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. The difﬁculty here. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties.4).1. In fact.5). Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. only its frequency is lowered. such as diﬀraction and interference. however. If he was correct. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. however. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons.1.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6.1 however.4 and 6. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . Objects such as electrons. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. The photon does not actually slow down. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal.

If energy is radiated by all objects. in meters.0 eV electron? 73 .80 nm. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. 12. 7.40 Hz.CHAPTER 6. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. 6. RRHS Physics 9. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. 10. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. What are the wavelengths. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. Determine the wavelength of a 0.1.1 × 1013 Hz. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. QUANTUM THEORY 8. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5.1. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves.0 × 106 m/s. 15.5 Problems 1. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. 14. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . λ = 450 nm. does its wavelength change? If so. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. 13. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. does it increase or decrease? 11. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. 16. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light.0 eV photon and a 5. of a 3.0 km/h. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light.

since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). As with Newton’s particle model. was putting forward a wave model of light. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). As the light gets closer to the water. led by Christian Huygens. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. for example. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. In a uniform medium. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course.2. 6. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us.6. since all waves at this time required a medium. As these particles passed through a prism. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. a ball thrown against a wall). Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up.2. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. another group of scientists. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. the particles must be moving very fast. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast.

refraction. the resulting image is slightly blurred.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. without its problems.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. in 1850. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light.2. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. By the middle of the nineteenth century. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. The two theories. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. The two aspects of light complement one another. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. indicating a spreading out of the light. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. Similarly. which contradicts Newton’s theory. which appear to be incompatible. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. According to Maxwell’s theory. This model was not. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. however. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. however. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening.2. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. however. Also. It states that to understand any given experiment. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. but to understand light fully. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . and interference where the particle theory fails. For example. we must refer to both theories. however. they must be travelling at a speed of 3.CHAPTER 6. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. 6. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light.

we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. however. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. its behavior imitates that of a wave. when light passes through space or a medium. or as a wave that has a mass. depending on which property of light is being measured. 6. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball.2.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. To locate this. or even a combination of the two. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. 2 76 . In order to locate the ball. You wouldn’t know where it is going. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. you must interact with it. In general. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms.2. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). is the set of its properties that we can measure.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. When this radiation interacts with the electron. when light interacts with matter. negatively charged particles. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. light reveals both wave and particle properties. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. We cannot picture what they are. This would tell you where it is. but a visual picture is again not possible. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another.2. This has some major implications.6. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. In terms of everyday language and images. its behavior is more like that of a particle. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. macroscopic world. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). An electron. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. but in the process would move it from that position. like light. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. this duality extends to particles as well. you would have to feel your way around. When we try to visualize light. Applied to a smaller scale. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. CHAPTER 6.

it is still a probability and not a certainty. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. however. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. but according to equations 6. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. however. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used.4 and 6. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. and not determinism. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. If. In summary. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron.5.CHAPTER 6. but has wave properties. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. 77 . the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. For examRRHS Physics 6. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. we must use a small wavelength.2. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. Thus. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. on the other hand. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability.

2.6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics . WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.

Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. 6. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. Around 1911. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products.1. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. in industry. but a few were bounced almost directly back.CHAPTER 6. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. heated solids. emit a discrete spectrum. By analyzing these wavelengths.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. 6. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. was accepted by scientists by 1900. This is known as an emission spectrum. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section).3. not interactions between atoms. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. When viewing these spectra. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. This is how helium was discovered. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. This became known as the Rutherford Model.3. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. since they are unique to each atom. scientists can analyze unknown materials. This is known as an absorption spectrum. Using spectroscopy.1. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. If they were at rest. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. Although a major step forward. Less dense gases. When energy is transferred to atoms.

7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. both are therefore quantized. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. as it loses energy. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. however. in other words. Thus. the atom would not be very stable. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. as shown in the diagram in section 6. In 1911. When changing energy levels.6. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. Using quantum theory. and also predicted an unstable atom. The radius increases with n2 . the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy).3.3. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted.red. 2. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. The higher the energy level. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. The Rutherford model could not explain this.1 . it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. electrons can jump directly or in steps. and violet. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy.3. they are accelerating. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. 1.8) 6. blue.6 eV n2 (6. As the electrons spiraled inward. for example.2. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state.8). Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. RRHS Physics . If an electron absorbs energy.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. A student of Rutherford. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. Neils Bohr.1). green. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. as in solids). CHAPTER 6. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted.

6. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. Louis de Broglie. however. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. however. however. The electron. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . the magnitude of the energy is the largest. electron can go from 3 to 1. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. As a result. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. Notice in equation 6.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. applying his theory of matter waves. but is actually much harder to visualize.3. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. If we consider the electron to be a particle. determined energy levels of the elements. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron.CHAPTER 6. the energy is actually at a minimum. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. This was a major problem with the model. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. In quantum mechanics. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. each independently. Bohr did not know how to explain this. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. since it has a wave nature. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave.3. however. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements.8 that when n=1. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra.

6.5 Problems 1. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. 5. Explain any discrepancies. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. 8. At low temperatures.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one.3. In a group of these atoms. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms).3. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. for example. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. spin (ms )). How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6.6. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n).3. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. in luminous watch dials.3. This is called ﬂuorescence. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). however. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. These materials are used. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. CHAPTER 6. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7.1. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. magnetic (ml ). some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour.

This is one of the four forces of nature. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. the others being the gravitational force. 7. the electric force becomes more important.1. and A is the mass number. called a neutron.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. so as the distance becomes greater.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. This force only acts over short distances. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. Z is the atomic number. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. Z. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. In 1932.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. This adds energy to the system. In the last chapter. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. the electromagnetic force. protons and neutrons. for example. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. and neutrons and neutrons. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. A. 1 . Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. and the weak nuclear force. this force is the same between protons and protons. an element is written as A X.1. Sometimes. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. however.

008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei.1. In other words. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. we are actually adding mass.66 × 10 kg). We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. where E is the energy in J. For each of the following. u. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. What mass was converted? 4.3 Problems 1. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus.1) CHAPTER 7. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. identify the element. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. This implies that by adding energy to the system. and c is the speed of light in m/s.1.49 MeV. Using equation 7. We will look at this more in the next two sections. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. the number of protons.0 × 1011 J of energy. RRHS Physics . iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy).014102 u. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. In a nuclear reaction. In general. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies.015123 u). the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. A nuclear reaction produces 9. 5. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. It is expressed as a negative number.7. which is iron. The mass of 2 H is 2. m is the equivalent mass in kg.1. the total number of nucleons. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. To be stable.007276 u mn = 1. Thus. it could just fall apart. 84 7. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .CHAPTER 7.1.

7. This is true for all alpha decays. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). This is known as (natural radioactivity). Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. as will be discussed in the following sections. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. 2 They are not very energetic.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together.3.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. beyond this. and required no external stimulation. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. 7. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force.2. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. there are not enough neutrons to do this. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896.2.2. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. As a result. therefore. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. 4 He. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). 7. These nuclei are very tightly bound. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. If the atomic number gets too large. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. these isotopes will decay spontaneously.7. RRHS Physics .

the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. A neutrino is also emitted. but the opposite charge. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. Like an atom. In 10 years. Other than releasing energy. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions.2. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). One of the protons. by emitting a positron. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). becomes a neutron. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). the nucleus does not undergo any change. which has no charge and no mass.CHAPTER 7. A positron has the same mass as an electron. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). allowing a proton to become a neutron. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. This photon is known as a gamma ray.2. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. For this reason. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). This is a random process. they can be very dangerous. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. In beta decay. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. 7. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. In some cases.2.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. 7. This electron disappears into the nucleus. when it drops down to a lower energy state. it emits a photon. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton.

After one half-life. 210 P o. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. Write the complete nuclear equation. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6.2. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed.5 Problems 1. A radioactive bismuth isotope. 83 emits a β particle. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. 7.9898 u). When 23 N e (mass=22.7. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). showing the element formed. so it is closely related to half-life. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus.2. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). 84 emits a α particle. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. 8. or β + emission. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. Write the complete nuclear equation. One Bequerel is one decay per second. 88 RRHS Physics . NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. 214 Bi. showing the element formed. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. A radioactive polonium isotope. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. In another 10 years. β − . The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. CHAPTER 7.

RRHS Physics 7. This would provide enormous amounts of energy.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. 7.3.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. the two masses would be brought together quickly. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. neutrons. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. following Fermi’s work. This was called nuclear ﬁssion.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles.2 are moving too fast. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). 7. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle.S. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U .3% 238 U and only 0. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons.3. resulting in a transmutation. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. or gamma rays. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr).CHAPTER 7. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). this is known as radioactive fallout. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. however. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself.2) although there are many other possibilities. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. 89 . radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. protons. because it resembled cell division. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. the top scientists in Europe and the U. 2. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions.3. electrons. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. To detonate the bomb. This ended the war. but they can also occur in nature.

any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. 235 U .3. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. 3. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). these control the rate of the reaction. however.7.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. For example. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. which is very expensive. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . helium is extremely tightly bound. Quebec. To slow the reaction down. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. It has a simpliﬁed design. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. usually containing cadmium. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. 92 7. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. so it can be built where technology is limited. and New Brunswick. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion.3. which was discussed earlier. 5 CHAPTER 7. energy will be released. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. RRHS Physics 90 . the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. and can be separated to be used as fuel. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). Because of its design. Also present are control rods.

The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7.002603 140. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion. 6.905625 u 135.016049 u 3.9141 u 91. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction.014102 u 3. 91 RRHS Physics . Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4.050786 u 1.2? 5. This is higher than any known material can stand.3.043925 u 238. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures. 9. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. List three medical uses of radioactivity.CHAPTER 7. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2.3. Once this high temperature is achieved. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb.7 for this reason. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7.016029 u 4.90722 u 235. At present. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy. How much energy would this release? 8. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions.007825 u 2. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. A few years ago. 2.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy. 3.9250 u 87. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium.

The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics .3.0 × 1014 J of energy.7. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11.

4 cm. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above.1 Experimental Data however. the thickness of the lines may vary. this 7 is only an estimate. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure.3 and 2. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. there are errors present.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error.3 cm and 2. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. for example.4.37. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. The wood may shrink or warp. It may be smaller or larger. For example. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. errors in calculation. Take a meter stick. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. In our meter stick example. we might estimate it to be 2. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. errors due to rounding oﬀ.1 mm. In writing lab reports. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. you will be expected to do an error analysis. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. In other words. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. and probably even more. therefore. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. the ends of the stick may be chipped.3*. was friction considered to be constant. . In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. Some of these may be due to human errors. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment.

or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. APPENDIX A. In this case. that is. this type of error is present in all experiments. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. It does not address any possible systematic errors. we may end up with a very precise estimate. For this reason. It is a good idea. the less precise our results are. As long as these errors are random.1 Standard Deviation A. this is not an excuse to be careless.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. or too low. the measurements are always too high. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. In this case.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times.1. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors).2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used.A. The more data points that we have. RRHS Physics . but it will not be very accurate. A. The more random error we have in our experiment. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved.2. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. In the case of systematic error.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. the smaller the standard deviation should be.2. A. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. This type of error is generally more serious. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. In our error analysis. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. Section A. A. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem.1. The smaller this value. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only.

18 5.78 4. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.34 1. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.36 2.78 1.86 1.25 2.98 1.77 1. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.89 2. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.81 1.20. we would use t = 2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.45.06 2.53 2.90 1.02 1. if possible.13 1.92 3.1) where xi are the individual measurements.36 1.01 2. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.17 2.57 4.44 1.45 3.2.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.36 1.26 3.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate. and N is the number of measurements. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.36 3. The relevant values for t are given in the table. however.14 2. 95 RRHS Physics .35 1.37 1. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.4.42 1. and got an average value x of 4. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results.APPENDIX A.83 1.05. In this case. and we took 12 measurements.7 4. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.31 3.16 3.31 1.35 to 5.80 1. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A. When examining the data.8.94 1. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.35 1. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0. x is the average of all the values.08 6. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.2. Note.50 2. we would use t = 2.64 2.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0.20 3.7 63. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.70±0.30 9.18 3.60 2.03 2.35.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.48 2.96 2.35.23 3.92 1.58 A. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.29 1. If we have a theoretical value of 5.40 1.38 1. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.84 2.11 2.71 2.76 1.

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