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Physics 12 Notes|Views: 31|Likes: 0

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- Dynamics Extension
- 1.1 Introduction to Vectors
- 1.1.1 Vector Algebra
- 1.1.2 Relative Velocity
- 1.1.3 Problems
- 1.2 Force Vectors
- 1.2.1 Inclined Planes
- 1.3 Equilibrium
- 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium
- 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium
- 1.3.3 Problems
- 2-D Motion
- 2.1 Projectiles
- 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizon- tally
- 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle
- 2.1.3 Problems
- 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
- 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy
- 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion
- 2.2.3 Problems
- 2.3 2D Collisions
- 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum
- 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
- 2.3.3 Problems
- Planetary Motion
- 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion
- 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration
- 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force”
- 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force
- 3.1.4 Problems
- 3.2 Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity
- 3.2.3 Satellite Motion
- 3.2.4 Kepler’s Laws
- 3.2.5 Problems
- 4.1 Static Electricity
- 4.1.1 Insulators and Conductors
- 4.1.2 Charging Objects
- 4.1.3 Electroscopes
- 4.1.4 Permanency of Charge
- 4.1.5 Problems
- 4.2 Forces and Fields
- 4.2.1 Coulomb’s Law
- 4.2.2 Electric Fields
- 4.2.3 Lines of Force
- 4.2.4 Gravitational Fields
- 4.2.5 Problems
- 4.3 Electric Potential
- 4.3.1 Electric Potential Energy
- 4.3.2 Electric Potential
- 4.3.3 Equipotential Lines
- 4.3.4 Problems
- Electricity & Magnetism
- 5.1 Electric Current
- 5.1.1 Electrical Quantities
- 5.1.2 Ohm’s Law
- 5.1.3 Electrical Power
- 5.1.4 Problems
- 5.2 *Circuits
- 5.2.1 *Series Circuits
- 5.2.2 *Parallel Circuits
- 5.2.3 *Complex Circuits
- 5.2.4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules
- 5.2.5 *Safety Devices
- 5.2.6 *Problems
- 5.3 Magnetism
- 5.3.1 Magnetic Fields
- 5.3.2 Electromagnetism
- 5.3.3 Force on a Wire
- 5.3.4 Force on a Charged Particle
- 5.3.5 Electric Motor
- 5.3.6 Problems
- 5.4 Induction
- 5.4.1 Induced EMF
- 5.4.2 Transformers
- 5.4.3 Electric Generators
- 5.4.4 Problems
- Waves and Modern Physics
- 6.1 Quantum Theory
- 6.1.1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis
- 6.1.2 Photoelectric Eﬀect
- 6.1.3 Compton Eﬀect
- 6.1.4 de Broglie Hypothesis
- 6.1.5 Problems
- 6.2 Wave-Particle Duality
- 6.2.1 Historical Models of Light
- 6.2.2 Modern Theory of Light
- 6.2.3 Modern Theory of Particles
- 6.2.4 Implications
- 6.3 Models of the Atom
- 6.3.1 Atomic Spectra
- 6.3.2 Bohr Theory
- 6.3.3 Quantum Model
- 6.3.4 Fluorescence and Phosphores- cence
- 6.3.5 Problems
- Nuclear Physics
- 7.1 The Nucleus
- 7.1.1 Structure
- 7.1.2 Mass Defect
- 7.1.3 Problems
- 7.2 Radioactive Decay
- 7.2.1 Alpha Decay
- 7.2.2 Beta Decay
- 7.2.3 Gamma Decay
- 7.2.4 Half-lives
- 7.2.5 Problems
- 7.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity
- 7.3.1 Nuclear Fission
- 7.3.2 Nuclear Reactors
- 7.3.3 Nuclear Fusion
- 7.3.4 Problems

J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .3. . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . 4. . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .2.4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .2. . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . .6 *Problems .2. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . .3 Electroscopes . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii . . . 4. . . . . . 5. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Magnetism .2 Charging Objects . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . .5 Problems . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .2. .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . .2 *Circuits . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . .1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . . .1. . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . .3. . . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 4. . . 5. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . . .2. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . 7. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . 5. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .1. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . 6. 6. . 6. . . . . . . 7. . . . . 7. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Structure . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.6 Problems .3. . . . 6. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .4. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 7. . 6. . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . .5 Problems . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS .1. Induction . . . . . . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. 5. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . .2. . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .3. .

2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. iv RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . .1 Experimental Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . A. .1. . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1. .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3 2. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.2 5.2.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.2 4. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8. pg 934 #5. pg 489 #27.28 pg 495 #30.9.2.3.24.6.25.10.3.4 #36. pg 918-919 #3.8.7. pg 611 Conceptual Problems. pg 596 #12. pg 778 #1.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.1 1.1 4.3.1 7. pg 862 #6.8.3 7.3 5. pg 886 #3.40.8 #4. pg 936-937 #26. pg 595 #5. pg 863 #8. pg 608 #3.2 7. pg 933 #1.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.4.14.2 2.3 #4.1 3. pg 655 #26.3 5. pg 571 #21.37.1 2.1 5. pg 526 #1.15 pg 641 #9. pg 780 #2.28 #2. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.4 pg 796 #1-4.1 6.6.6.6 #3.2 1.4 6.28.688-693 694-714.5.2 6.5.9.Textbook Correlations Section 1.8.9 #2.4.7.3 3.33.2 4.27 v . 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.4. pg 515 #39. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.27. pg 501 #31.3. pg 661 #5. pg 529 #30. BLM #1.

TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .CHAPTER 0.

The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. Last year. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. Likewise. when typing. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. This year. velocity. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . dy ). The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. For example. A vector is not just a single number. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. it is actually two numbers.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. In university. it does not have a direction. Consider the diagram below. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. force. When writing. like a scalar is. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). 1 . In 2D space. acceleration. For example.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ).Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. The symbol d represents these components. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. displacement. For example.

INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. 2. The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. So a + b will give (ax + bx . you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). If we add these two vectors. the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. in other words.1. west). Bearings are another way of expressing directions. ay + by ). CHAPTER 1.1. by ). This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. For the examples that follow. 1. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. In this system. the other vector b represents the components (bx . In math. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). Your textbook uses this last convention. north would be 90o . Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking.1. To help visualize this. 3. In the previous diagram. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . east. we are actually adding their components. ay ). and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . south would be 270o . Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail.1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. In this system. Since vectors are not single numbers. south. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

4

RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

5 kmN. 8 km N. To do so. We must assume u < v. walks 4 km E. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. How fast is the player running? 23. 3 km E. 20. wind speed? 18.1. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. whose speed in still water is 2. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u.1. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. mass. and 3 km S. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. Find the change in velocity. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. A hiker leaves camp and. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. The speed of a boat in still water is v. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. RRHS Physics . A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3.00 h. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. Before it can move. 26. 6 km S.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. At the end of three days. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. why? 19. A ferryboat. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle.0 m/s.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream.85 m/s. Diane rows a boat at 8. 10 km W. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. using a compass. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. the hiker is lost.

As can be seen in the diagram above. Notice that FN = Fg . we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . Notice that although the normal. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. In the diagram below. RRHS Physics 1. Because we often know Fg and Fpy .CHAPTER 1. friction. the vertical forces. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. both of which are vectors. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. therefore. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 .2. FORCE VECTORS 1. First. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. the force of the man pulling is not. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). I will take up as the positive direction. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). A free body diagram for this box would like like this. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). therefore.2.

1. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane.3. as in the following diagram. Similarly.2. if present. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. In other words. If friction is present. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics . In order to apply Newton’s second law. we get CHAPTER 1.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. Drawing a free body diagram. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . FORCE VECTORS friction for now).3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . Again notice that FN = Fg . Again. Using trigonometry.2.

30. (a) Ignoring friction.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20.30. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. A force of 300.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.76.0o incline and accelerates at 0.0 m/s.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. where it is attached to a 4. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill.2. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.0o angle with the horizontal. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. A car can decelerate at -5.20. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6. The tension in the rope is 110. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.5 s for him to reach the bottom. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. A 5.6o hill at a steady speed of 7.10. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley.3 m/s2 . An 18. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40.2.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1.0 N . The total mass is 80 kg. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . RRHS Physics 9 . The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv.0o angle with the horizontal.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2.300 m/s2 . what is the acceleration of the sled? 2.0 km/h.0o hill at 6. (b) Using the same power as in (a). how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.CHAPTER 1. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. It takes 13. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. A 55.0 kg box is released on a 33. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. What is the acceleration of this system? 11.0 km/h. A 15. will the slug slide down the hill? If so. A 25.2 Problems 1. A rope attached to the 5. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h.

3. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. therefore. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. 1. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. there are three forces acting on the mass. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.3. As we said.1. but opposite in direction. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object.3. there will be a net force in some direction.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. therefore. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. As can be seen by the free-body diagram.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. Since force is a vector. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. although the net force is zero in both cases. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. The mass is stationary. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. it is obviously not accelerating. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. therefore. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. Remember. 3 1.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11.

Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. 1. Στ = 0 Obviously. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity.CHAPTER 1. As can be seen from equation 1. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). when calculating the work. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. Before dealing with torques. but for calculating torques. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). we must introduce the notion of a torque.4. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). left. it acts on every particle in the body.4 The further away from this pivot.3.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. As we have seen. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. 4 RRHS Physics . but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. the board will begin to spin. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily. This is called a dot product. down. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium.. You will learn more about these in university. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. τ = F⊥ d (1. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. It can be thought of as a twisting force. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. as it was when discussing work. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. It is not in rotational equilibrium. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). right. To examine this more. etc. While forces were described using up. but one up and one down. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. even though the forces are equal and opposite. the greater the torque. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). this is important. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. When you calculated work.

EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. RRHS Physics 4. 8.3. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. 9. The frame has a wire across the back. Find the resultant force on the vehicle.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. A 20.3. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . and you don’t want it to break. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. When lifting a barbell. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. 10.0 s. A sign with a mass of 1653.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle.3 Problems 1. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1.0 N . 7.1. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. 3.0 m when a 50. 12 . The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. What is the tension in the rope? 2. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great.5o with each other. Find the tension in the boom and the cable.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces.0 m long and sags 1. The two ropes make an angle of 15. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle. A high wire is 25.

0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. A 60.0 m platform has a mass of 10. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. and its center of gravity is located 4. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. A 50.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . What equilibrant force must a fourth student. 14.0 kg person is sitting 0. Find the equilibrant force: 12.0 kg person stands at its tip. determine the magnitude.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. The 10. direction.3. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N.0 m and a length of 15.0 kg. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N .0 m. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane. The plane has a base of 14. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. 19. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18. The platform is being held up by two students. If there is a spring on the door 5. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. A force of 500.90 m away from the pivot on the other side.0 cm wide. Fred.0 N. EQUILIBRIUM 17.CHAPTER 1.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000.0 m from the same end. one at either end.0 kg person is sitting 1. In the following diagram.0 N applied to a rope held at 30.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. Where must a 22. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40.

3.1. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .

velocity.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . there is no horizontal acceleration. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. 2. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. we see that there is only one .1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another. The horizontal speed does not change. vx is the horizontal speed. Since we know our vertical acceleration. therefore. Ignoring air resistance. since max = ΣFx . Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position. and t is the time in the air.1. These are all vector quantities. and acceleration. a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. This also makes things somewhat simple.gravity.

2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown.4. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. but gravity will act to slow it down.1 to 2.1.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2.1. For this reason.1 and 2. the time in the air. 2. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed. and 2. Notice that equation 2. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. vyi will be zero in equations 2. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. Once this is done. The object does. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. 2. In this case. CHAPTER 2. PROJECTILES used. namely using equations 2.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal speed vx is constant. t is the time in the air. Again. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics .2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. vyi is the initial vertical velocity. however.2.4. Remember. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. instead of horizontally. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2.2. the ball follows a parabolic path. until it reaches zero at its highest point. As the ball rises. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground.3. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. as shown in the diagram below. therefore. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement. since there are no horizontal forces.1. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2.

0 m away and are 3. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal.0 m/s as he leaves the ground.0 s later.0 m/s.2 m away from the elevator. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. At the time of the throw. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9.0 m/s. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. A person is in a moving elevator.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target.7 m above the ground. Immediately. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. The ball is released at the height of the basket. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. YES! It’s a score. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.1. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. and with only 2. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s. 3.2 m above the ground.5 m high.0o .0o with the horizontal. Trailing by two points. the elevator was 8.0 m from the basket. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit.05 m above the ﬂoor. The rotten egg landed 4. PROJECTILES tree. by how much will it miss the target? 3.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2.0 m high.CHAPTER 2.0 m. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. A baseball is hit at 30. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. 2-D MOTION 2.02 m from the basket. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. 14. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. an outﬁelder runs 4. 4. Should the hunter aim directly at. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. how far from the building is the target? 6. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot.1. The building is 13.0 s remaining in a basketball game.3 Problems 1. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. above. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. A diver running 3.0 m/s at an angle of 53. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.

0 m below. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air.0 m away? 16. When it reaches the end of the table. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon.2. draw all vectors to scale. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18.1 m above the ﬂoor.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time.1. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. For each of the following questions. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. PROJECTILES 14. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. 19. Will the following quantities change? If so. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. (a) Draw the situation above. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. The basket is 2. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . At any moment. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees.22 m (horizontally).6 m above the ﬂoor. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. 21. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. 20. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . 2-D MOTION speeds.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal.

The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance. Also. The units for the spring constant are N/m. which causes the spring to stretch. When the mass is below its equilibrium position. which results in a downward acceleration.1c)and let it go. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring.1a). Of course.CHAPTER 2. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). (See Fig 2. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. depending on its spring constant. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. etc. The period (the time for one complete vibration. 2 19 .2. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. a mattress. This is now its new equilibrium position . a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. in this case.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. but is dependent on the spring.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched.1b)).at this point. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. This is the equilibrium position. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. if you exceed the limits of the spring. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. you will double the distance the spring stretches. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. suspension bridges. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. 2-D MOTION 2. this formula no longer holds). the suspension of a car.

Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). the total energy remains the same. 2.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). Substituting this into Eq 2.2. 20 RRHS Physics . therefore.6). the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. 1 Ep = kx2 (2. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 . it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. or removed from. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy.2.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). 2-D MOTION 2. the system. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. however.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a).9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. work is done on the spring. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. At equilibrium.2.2.

325 m. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9. The spring.200 kg ball.62 Hz. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. 2. When the man steps oﬀ. if it had 3. has a frequency of 0. When an 80. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.60 kg is hung from it. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0. What is the value of m? 6. If the spring is stretched an additional 0.30 kg mass is hung from it. A small cockroach of mass 0. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. A geologist’s simple pendulum. the raft vibrates brieﬂy.2 cm. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. A spring stretches 0. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. frictionless surface. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 . A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. is then released.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.2.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0.30 m. whose length is 37.5 N hangs from it. in contact with a spring bumper.3 Problems 1.48 Hz.30 kg hangs from it? 5.CHAPTER 2. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m.10 m to load a 0.4 Hz when a weight of 0. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. the frequency is 0.50 kg is placed on a level. 2-D MOTION 2.10 m? 12. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. A mass of 2. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0. What will its frequency be if only 0. 13. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2.75 J of work done on it? 11.10 g were trapped? 8.8190 Hz at a particular location. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator.30 g is caught in a spider’s web.0 cm.2.10 cm. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch.150 m when a 0. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. A block of mass 0. whose other end is ﬁxed. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1.110 m and released. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15.

the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv). the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. if you remember from grade 11. not velocity. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. 2.3.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. In two dimensions. remember that it is momentum that is conserved.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension.12. pa = pa + pb (2. however.3. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. We can now RRHS Physics . we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions).11 and 2. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. Also. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv. Since velocity is a vector. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. This still applies in two dimensional collisions. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. since p = mv.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions.12. a vector diagram must be drawn. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. 2. so is momentum.2. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision.12) (2.

14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. and one of the particles is initially at rest. In this type of collision. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram.3. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). 2. the collision is elastic. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass.CHAPTER 2. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. therefore. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision. 4 In other words. In other words. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. Remember. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. therefore. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2.3. but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. RRHS Physics 23 . such as thermal energy. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. For a two body collision. though.14. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. some energy is lost. Since the masses are equal. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. after this collision. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy. our conservation of energy equation (2. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2.

A proton travelling with speed 8.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. Immediately after impact.40 kg strikes a second ball. After the collision (assumed elastic). (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. the investigator determined that car A. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. At what angle will the second proton be observed. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. of mass mb = 0. and a neutrino.3. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5.80 m/s.3. the second ball is moving North. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. an electron.2×10−23 kg·m/s. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3.2. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. Two cars collide at an intersection. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. 6. of mass 0.0o North of West. A billiard ball of mass 0. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. From skid marks. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8.00 m/s. If they collide and remain stuck together.00 m/s strikes a second ball. Find 24 . As a result of this elastic collision. 50. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North.400 kg.3 Problems 1. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52.60 kg. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h.0 km/h. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. initially at rest. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact.0o North of West.0 km/h. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus.20 m/s. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. 40. and the second car had a velocity of 40. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. initially at rest.

we can simply use d (3. the object moves in a curve.1. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. we get v= 2πr (3. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. Since this is the only force. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. 1 . Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. the acceleration must also be inward. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. however. there is still an acceleration. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. There is. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). the object will not speed up or slow down. an acceleration present. To calculate the speed of the object. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. So even though the speed is not changing.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. however.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. With projectile motion. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. the object will speed up or slow down. we see v= 25 3. which is pulling inward. in other words.

PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. Centripetal force is not. In fact. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3. in particular. 2. ac = v2 3. 3. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. 1. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string.3) T Combining equations 3. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics .6) Figure 3.2.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. however. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram.3. horizontal surface.2 and 3.3. then equation 3. by deﬁnition. when solving centripetal force problems. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 .1 below). we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.5 becomes Fc = mac (3.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. always inward toward the center of the circle. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration.1: This is not a free body diagram. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. This is a common misconception of students.1. Looking at equation 3. it just shows the direction of the three quantities.1. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle.

When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. also. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. Pretend you are the ball in our example. In this situation. because of Newton’s Third Law. in fact. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation.1. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. because of inertia. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). in fact. If there were.CHAPTER 3. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. Remember. being pulled inward by the string. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. the ball is not being pushed outward. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. it is. not outward. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . 3. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. If you break the string. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force.1.

000 km and a period of 27. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385.00 revolutions in a second.80 m long.20? 6.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8.60. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.20 kg and is attached to a string 0.3. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out.1 times per second. what force does the string now exert? 4. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. The ball makes exactly 2. 28 RRHS Physics . what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. 9. 3. A 5.e. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12.4 Problems 1.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.0 complete revolution each second. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96.0 revolutions per second. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.15 m. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.335 kg. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. What is the critical speed (i.15 m/s and its mass is 0. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.1.5 cm. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5. If its speed is 3.30? 7.1.0 m rope.0 m radius and rotates 1. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3.3 days. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle. A coin is placed 18.42. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1.0 m. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.

Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. including the relevant forces. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o .0 kg. A person has a mass of 75. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. For the previous question.0 m long. and explain this sensation. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. Assume no change in energy for the system.1.CHAPTER 3. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. what RRHS Physics 3. 17. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. how much and in what direction? 29 . Sketch the situation. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. will a friction force be required? If so. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). PLANETARY MOTION 13. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. If the person is standing on the equator. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. 14. 15. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16.6 km. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. 18. 19. the vine is 4. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg.

but not to understand why they are so. In this way.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results.2. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. PLANETARY MOTION 3. To determine this necessary speed. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s.2. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up.2 Universal Gravitation 3. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth.2. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. Newton.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. it travels a further distance.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth).67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 .7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. In grade 11. If the object is given a higher speed. given by G in the equation below. we get mg = or GM (3. This type of relationship appears often in physics. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. Fg = 30 3. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. equating the two expressions. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. it is falling toward the earth. People often ask what keeps a satellite up.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. this is how the mass of the earth was found. In fact. we must consider the orbit. however. Assuming a circular orbit. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. Equation 3. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. gravity is much more common than this. speciﬁcally. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook.) g= GM m R2 3.2. however. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant.3.

Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. Solving this equation for v. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1.4)into equation 3. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Substituting this (as well as equation 3.CHAPTER 3. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. v= GM r (3.2. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. 3. 3. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity).9. 2. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit.2. m is the mass of the satellite. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. PLANETARY MOTION 3. faster than this speed.7. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. as given in equation 3.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite.

) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. 2. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. 12.85 × 105 km. But Frank is lazy.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat.44 × 106 s and it is 1. determine the mass of Jupiter. 3.50 × 108 km. 13. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1.5 Problems 1.3. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1.2. Frank is really concerned about his weight. r = 6. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km. 10. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. Do the previous question again. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3.2. See Dick and Jane ﬂy.0 N is required to pull a 10. If the bowling balls are 0. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter. Four 8.71×10−8 N .50 m.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. What is g near the surface? 5. PLANETARY MOTION weight. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth. 6.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1.85 × 105 km.98 × 107 m).90 × 1027 kg.99 × 1030 kg). What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon. but has the same mass. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. A force of 40. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics . 8.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. 7. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. From this data.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. All distances are center to center. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun.50 m apart. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon.6 times that of the earth. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg.

show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth.4 days) to do problem 16. Why? 28. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. A satellite is going around Earth. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. PLANETARY MOTION 14.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. RRHS Physics 3. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. what would happen to the value of G? 30. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius.3 × 1022 kg. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. 1969. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. orbits the sun like other planets. Jupiter is 5. Find the value of this constant. 33 . Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. Its period is 410 days.CHAPTER 3. 16. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. On July 19. 32. 27. 31. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. The asteroid Icarus. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22.2. though only a few hundred meters across. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27.

3. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics . UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2.

not the protons. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. for example. In each case. This kind of atom is called an ion. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. even more important than many people think.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. During any of the processes described above. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. Remember. In a normal state. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. If you rub a balloon in your hair.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. Likewise. in the amount of charge is zero. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary. . it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object).1. According to atomic theory. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. When a conductor is given a negative charge. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. the net change 35 4. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. you notice that it will stick to the wall. giving it a net negative or positive charge. 4. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. Metals are generally very good conductors.

These semiconductors often have interesting properties. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. An object can also be charged by conduction. it has merely been separated. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. CHAPTER 4. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. If you ground the sphere. and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). No charge has been created. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. 4. however. i. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod.1. if it is charged negatively. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. For example. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. With induction.however. giving it excess electrons. conduction occurs. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. germanium. The RRHS Physics . a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. in this way. The other way of charging an object is called induction. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds.1. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects.1. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. there are .3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge.e. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). but is just brought near it.4. and they touch. As soon as they touch.

STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. particularly on each leaf. the leaves. giving it a permanent charge. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. Suppose. more often. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. the faster the charge will be carried away. If the electroscope is neutral. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. The more water molecules in the air.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. now negatively charged. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged.CHAPTER 4.1. 37 . even after we remove the charged rod. The leaves will then stay spread apart. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. Think about how you may do this. If charges become large enough. the two leaves just hang vertically. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). however. as shown here.1. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. even when nothing is apparently done to them. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. In some cases. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. 4. 4. You can. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. will repel each other and will spread out.even though they are neutral. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances.

and C repels D. A attracts C. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4.4. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. what kind of charge does B have? 6. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. When an electroscope is charged. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. you remove the two positively charges objects. If you know that D is positively charged. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. 12.1. What charge is on the rod? 8.5 Problems 1. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. 5. 3. close to but not touching the blocks. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . Finally. one at each end of the line of blocks. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B.1. they ﬂy away in different directions. but as soon as they touch the rod. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. Explain. 9. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. why does the record now attract dust? 4. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. You place two objects with strong positive charges. Using a charged rod and an electroscope.

1 is the distance between the centers. The search for simple. FIELDS 4. If the two objects are spheres. strong nuclear forces.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life.CHAPTER 4. they think of pushing or pulling an object. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. however. When people think of forces. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. or some other type of contact. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. E= F q (4. 39 . Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 .2 4.2.it is a concept.2.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. in fact. To help explain this idea. and weak nuclear forces) continues. This worried people. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. tying a rope to something. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. electromagnetic. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. then the r in equation 4.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. 4. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. without using some test charge.2. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. r is the distance between the charges in meters. since it appeared to behave like magic. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. it is precise for only point charges. which has an equal but opposite charge). The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. Using some test charge q.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. This may require pushing with your hand.

3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld.2.2. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1.4. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). however. If there is more than one source charge. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge.2. For example. which interacts with all objects near the earth. 2. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. or lines of force. 4. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. then equation 4. we obtain kQ (4.1 into equation 4. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. FIELDS points around the sources. In reality.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. These electric ﬁeld lines. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. E= CHAPTER 4. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. equation 4. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics .1. Substituting equation 4. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld.2. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. consider a positive source charge.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. For example.

located 25 cm above the second ball.1 × 106 m/s. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4.0 µC. q1 and q2 . What should you do? 11. located 16 cm to the right. is 0. 3. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. What is the force between them? 5. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. Two charges. The bottom electron is resting on a table. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others.5 Problems 1. A third ball. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. and the right -83 µC. A second ball. One. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. mass 9. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. mass 1. has a charge of +25 µC. and an electron. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. the typical size of an atom. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. In other words.2). 4. 8. -4. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. A and B. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g.CHAPTER 4. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1.00 × 10−17 C? 2. In one model of the hydrogen atom.0 µC is 0. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). are separated by a distance d and exert a force F . (b) Find the net force on the right particle. what force is exerted? 12.030 m to the east. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth.145 N on each other. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC.2. You are given two similar spheres. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC.5 × 10−10 m.050 m to the north and the other. -2.11 × 10−31 kg. Three particles are placed in a line. A positive charge of 3.67 × 10−27 kg. the RRHS Physics . You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A.0 N on each other? 4. has a charge of -20 µC.2.

What is the electric ﬁeld 2.4. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. the force each exerts on the other is 28.2 cm apart. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. 17. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. Find the force on an electron.0 cm away from a 1.0 µC are 8. When placed 1.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. one 33. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. Two charges.0 µC charge 40. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources.0 µC charged particle? 21. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. A negative charge of 2. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle.30 m apart.0× 10−6 C charge. FIELDS 20. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign.0 cm apart? 23. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).2.0 × 10−6 C test charge. A water droplet of radius 0.020 mm remains stationary in the air. −Qo and −3Qo . which is about 1 × 105 N/C. Two positive charges.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. A proton (m = 1.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0. then repeat your work with a 2. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26. 24. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. are a distance l apart. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. (a) two positively charged point sources. Take into account gravity and determine E.0 µC and the other 68. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1.5 N and is repulsive. RRHS Physics .0 µC and a +60.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. 19. 42 CHAPTER 4. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18.

4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level.3. 4. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. which is called the volt. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. sphere B is said to be neutral. namely potential energy. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. so Vab = Wab q (4. for example. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. If positive work is required to move the charge. For example. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges).2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge.3. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. you don’t have to do anything. The symbol for electric potential is V . In this case. we say that it is at a high potential. The potential energy here will decrease. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . This will add energy to the system. since they are trying to get away from one another.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. therefore. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. FIELDS 4. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence.CHAPTER 4. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. If the two spheres are touched together. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. Remember that W = ∆E.3. Suppose you have two spheres. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B). Just as with gravitational potential energy. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4.

How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources.4 Problems 1. What work is done when 5. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. CHAPTER 4. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. A -30. at this point.5 V ? 3.5 × 107 V . that is.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. A force of 0. FIELDS 2. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere.3.0 C is raised in potential by 1. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V .5 × 10−4 J.3.0 µC charge.3. the two spheres will be at the same potential. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. 4. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld.4. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . if they were not. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point. as shown below. The change in energy while doing this is 4. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld.

electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. When people discussed current. As was discussed in the previous chapter.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. this is given a special name. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. so its electrons are held very loosely. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. therefore. 1 . an ampere (A). indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. a battery is several cells connected together. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current.1 Electric Current Q (5. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. Contrary to a common belief. 5. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. also referred to as an amp. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). at the same time. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. Remember that in solids. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. In 1800.1. it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. little was known about the structure of the atom. A wire is a conductor. In short.

they lose potential. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. it gains or loses energy. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. 3. If one end of the pipe is raised. CHAPTER 5. In our gravity/water analogy above. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. Comparing this to electricity. however. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). insulators have a very high resistance. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. 46 . the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. When charges are moved through a resistance. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. 2. the greater the ﬂow of water. Temperature: In general. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. In liquids and gases. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. In the same way. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. This makes sense. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow.5. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using.1. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. we can use it here as well. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). These materials are than said to be superconducting. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. therefore. Resistance is measured in ohms. because of their atomic structure. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. For practical purposes. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). With a battery. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery).

power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. so it will have a lower resistance. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power.1. 5. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5.3) 5. Looking at this equation.4 with equation 5. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. light.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. Note that equation 5. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5.5) 5. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits.1. it is really energy that we pay for. That is. the watt (W ).4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. We RRHS Physics . the current is proportional to voltage). from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law.1) so P = IV (5.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. the current is proportional to the voltage. thereby increasing the resistance. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. if you double the voltage.5. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat.CHAPTER 5.1. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. but I = q/t (equation 5. 4. the current also doubles. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. current can be expressed as V (5. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words. or mechanical). Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. the resistance must be constant.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A.

The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. Is Joe correct? Explain. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. How much charge passes through the battery? 2.10 A ﬂows in a wire.5 V battery. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. but when a 3.6) CHAPTER 5. The line has a resistance of 1. What is the current through a 6. What is the voltage of the battery? 6. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9.0 h. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. at 20 mA. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. What voltage does the bird feel? 13.085/kW h). A current of 1.1. since R = V /I.4 Problems 1. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. 11. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ).1. above 100 mA can be fatal. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0.0 cm apart. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase.5. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. What voltage will produce 12. 5. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery.0 V battery is used.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. When she connects it to a 1. 5 mA can be painful. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15.0 A? 5. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . A 1.5 A for 6. Joe argues that. 14.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8.

000 V rather than 12. 18. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22.4 A from a 120 V line? 27. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. by means of a converter. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio.2 Ω lines. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 . A transistor radio operates by means of a 9.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23. It is observed that it takes 12.) 49 .29 kg/m3 . How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17.11 per kW h.0 s? 25. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V . What is its increase in temperature during the 30. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line. A modern television set draws 2. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. (a) 220 V are applied across it.20 kg of water.90 and it lasts for 300 hours.000 V ? 21. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.0 A when operated on 120 V . If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω.0 minutes.CHAPTER 5.08 per kW h. RRHS Physics 5.0o C to 55.06 per kWh? 19. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. At $0. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω.5 kg of water. What is the eﬃciency of a 0.0o C.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1.1. How many 100 W light bulbs. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. operated at 120 V .

2 to analyze the resistances. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. I2 . each resistor has its own path. I1 . and V3 = IR3 . Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. currents. By conservation of energy. and R3 . and voltages throughout the circuit.2 we know that V1 = IR1 .8) (5.2.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel.2.5. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. applying equation 5.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. Because charge must be conserved. there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors. and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 .2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits.9) RRHS Physics . you increase the total resistance. If V1 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. V2 . when we put several resistance in series. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . 5. R2 .7) 5. then by applying equation 5. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. Of course. Knowing the equivalent resistance. When you add more resistances. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery.2. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. V2 = IR2 . R2 . since there is only one path. R3 respectively.

This combination is then in series with R1 . Again. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. In this example. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. If any resistors are in series. R1 and R2 are not in series. Remember. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . RRHS Physics 51 . Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember. however. *CIRCUITS 2. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them.2. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). every time you add a resistance in parallel. so they can be combined using equation 5. equation 5. For example.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. but are often some combination of the two. Consider the following example. Remember. 5. If any resistors are in parallel. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1.10) 5. since there is a junction in between the two. R3 is in series with R4 . you are also adding another path for the current to follow. R3 . so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit.2. then they are not in series. if there is a junction between the resistors. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. 3. resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them.10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. R2 . The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. Also.CHAPTER 5. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit).

The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. 1. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. Some circuits4 are. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. A third type of safety device is slightly different.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. If too much current ﬂows. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. breaking the circuit. 5. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. RRHS Physics 5. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. These rules actually apply to all circuits. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase.2. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. For example. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. too complicated for this analysis.5.7. This is just an expression of equation 5. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. For example. a system of equations can then be found and solved. for example. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. At any junction point. To deal with these circuits. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit.9.2. 2. Houses are wired in parallel. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. 2. however. If this strip melts. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit.2. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths.

50 A. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. Find V. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Find each resistance. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. 3.6 *Problems 1. 5. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. 8. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. 2. Find the current in each branch. Find the unknown currents and voltages. 5. 4.2.CHAPTER 5. 7.2. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9.

I3 .I3 .2. Given an unlimited supply of 1. 11.0 V input? 15. 13. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. 16. 12. A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . CHAPTER 5. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. 17. Find the current in each branch. Find It . and I4 . Suppose that you have a 6. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. If each resistor is 10 Ω.0 V . Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. or 150 W at 120 V . and P1 . Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. If each resistor is 10 Ω.0 V output for a 6. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. Find R3 .5. what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1.V2 .0 Ω.0 54 . 100 W .I2 . If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. *CIRCUITS 10.

Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances.2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. If one resistor is 2. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. which is brighter? 21. I2 . what is the resistance of the other? . 5. Consider the circuit below.CHAPTER 5.8 kΩ. *CIRCUITS 22. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. (a) If they are connected in parallel. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. one larger than the other. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. RRHS Physics 55 23. and I3 in the following circuit. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. determine the currents I1 . (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed.

Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. the result is two magnets. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. the same as electric charges. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. 5. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet.3. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. nickel. A compass needle is really a small magnet. RRHS Physics 56 .3. however. magnetic forces act over distances. in ferromagnetic materials. Magnetic poles are not. On a small scale. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. In a magnetized piece of iron. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. 5. however. for example. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. If you cut a magnet in two. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. A positive or negative charge can be isolated.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. As a result. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. and cobalt. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. the domains are more lined up in one direction. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. In most materials. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. each with a north and south pole. This will be seen in the next section. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. Since these forces do behave similarly. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. since an electric current will always produce both.5. however. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron.

around 1820. To use this hand rule. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. It was only with a moving charge.3. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. This is an electromagnet. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. then. In fact. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. or a current. To use this hand rule. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current.3.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla.3. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. 5. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). 6 5. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). it often7 experiences a force.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted. it makes sense. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. In other words. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop).CHAPTER 5. By using more than one loop. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. when using left hand rules. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge.3. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. the second right hand rule can be used. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. but this was found to have no eﬀect. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil.

3. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. 5. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. CHAPTER 5. This loop of wire will rotate. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. however. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers.8 8 Remember. as shown in the side view below. the force will be out of the page.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy.3. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. To use this rule. you may also use the left hand rule. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. To do this. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. use left hand rules. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld.5. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. substituting this into equation 5. As we learned before. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. Between c and d. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. as shown below. so F = qvB sin θ (5. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. have to be moving through a wire. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). If the moving particle is negative. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld.3. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. to 58 RRHS Physics . Remember that I = q/t. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. The charges do not. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge.5 Electric Motor 5. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. There will be no force between b and c. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld.

Also. As a result. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. In reality. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. 5. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. In order to make the loop continue turning. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. but just touch one another. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. Many loops of wire are usually used. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire.3. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above.3. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. but no force acts on the wire. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. As the armature turns.6 Problems 1. (b) Two opposite poles. as well as a ferromagnetic core. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. if the loop goes past this point. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. we want it to turn continuously.CHAPTER 5. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). as shown below. MAGNETISM other brush. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture).

67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. 11. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.5.9 × 103 kg/m3 .0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. If the force on the wire below is into the page.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6.35 N . A current carrying wire is pointing to the East.90 T . What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. MAGNETISM 5. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. it feels zero force. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room.0 A and weighs 0. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 . (b) 10. A proton having a speed of 5. (a) CHAPTER 5.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. A straight 2. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13.0 × 10−5 T . An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward.3. What is the force on the wire? 7. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. identify the poles of the magnets.

The radius of its path is 4.02 T.5 cm. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. An electron (m = 9. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0.6 × 10−13 N . and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes.4 mm? 24. 21. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0.CHAPTER 5. Calculate the energy of the proton. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22.000 V . (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. A force of 5. Protons move in a circle of radius 8. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18. 16. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected.3.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. A particle with a charge of 2. E=1000 N/C. 17. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. If the velocity of the particle is 5. 61 . what must be the speed of the ion? 26. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20.10 T magnetic ﬁeld. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. B=0.10 cm in a 0.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20. which exists between the two parallel plates below. Calculate the mass of the particle. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. 23.032 T . MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron.08 m. Explain.25 T .240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25.385 T magnetic ﬁeld.25 × 106 m/s.

Magnetic ﬂux (φ. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below).13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. We call this an induced emf. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil.5. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. and not a force where B.4. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. For example. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . Fill in the direction of the current in this example. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. Such a current is called an induced current. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. when the magnet is removed. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). ∆φ ∆t (5. 5. For example. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. In other words.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one).4. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. v. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5.

to maintain a current in the secondary coil. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer.15) 5. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. therefore. Remember. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary.4. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. this is called a step-up transformer. the two wires are insulated from one another. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. There is. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. however. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. Combining these two equations. conservation of energy tells 63 . however. This is called perpetual motion. therefore. Notice that if Ns > Np . the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion.CHAPTER 5.4. From equation 5. 5. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. But remember. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. In the example shown below. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. If Ns < Np . The primary coil has the incoming current. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). this is a step-down transformer. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. Just like before.13.

An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. at positions 2 and 4. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. at position 3. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. this means that if the voltage goes up. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation.4. RRHS Physics .3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. The wire ab is moving out. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. Since P = V I. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. out of the page). Consider the picture below. we see what happens to the current. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost).4. therefore. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. At position 1. so the current must ﬂow from c to d.5.16) CHAPTER 5. into the page). the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. then the current must be lowered. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. the force on cd must be out of the page. Similarly.

the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. The greater the speed of the motor. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction.18) Since power is P = V I. value. If we square an AC electric current graph. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. the situation is the reverse. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them.11 we cannot just average the current over time. the greater the back (or counter) emf. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. Instead. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. Since the current is not constant. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. INDUCTION called a counter torque. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished.707Imax (5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.4.5Vmax Imax In North America. Alternating Current As we have seen. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0.CHAPTER 5. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion.17) Similarly. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators.5Imax To make a DC generator. In a generator. giving Pavg = 0. we get a sin2 θ graph. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. or eﬀective. we take a root mean square average (rms). When a motor is operating. As we turn the generator. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. The more current that is drawn. Back EMF As was previously stated. as was seen in a previous graph. however.707Vmax (5. as were used with the DC motor.

0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5.0 cm/s. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. If the wire has a resistance of 0. It takes 0.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics .5 Ω. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. What is the average induced emf ? 2. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.15 Ω. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. with its plane perpendicular to B. If the rod is 12. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8.800 T .0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. In what direction is the induced current? 3.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V .10 s. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0.5Pmax (5. What is the induced emf ? 4.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. A square coil of sides 5. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown.4 Problems 1. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. It is initially in a 0. A 12.4. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. calculate the emf developed.19) CHAPTER 5.5.4 s. Also note that since P = V I.405 T magnetic ﬁeld. Hence.350 T to zero.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.4. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. 6.

19. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC). Calculate the peak current in a 2.0 V source and measures 8. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. and (c) the power transformed 13. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. Why is this true? 18. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. INDUCTION 17. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. how many turns are on the primary side? 15.0 A. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. whose peak value is 90 V . What is the rms voltage across it? 27.CHAPTER 5. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. (b) the current in the primary. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain.0 V at the secondary. Frequently. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. 26. the coil will swing. where the line voltage is 240 V . A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . Why? 21.4. what would the new output voltage be? 16.75 A. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. while those with many turns are made of thin wire.0 A. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. An ac voltage.0 V and the input current is 11. is across a 35 Ω resistor. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. It is used with a transformer in England. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. and an output current of 0.0 V and an output current of 5. If the primary and secondary were reversed. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3.0 A respectively.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9.0 A. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily.0 V AC.

You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. INDUCTION 28. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30.25 A. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line.4.5. a 700 W hair dryer.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. after the collision.1 however. By making careful measurements. however. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength.4 and 6. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties. only its frequency is lowered. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. In fact. Objects such as electrons.6. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect.5). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. He suggested in 1923 that. 1 RRHS Physics . we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 .6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves. The photon does not actually slow down. The difﬁculty here. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. such as diﬀraction and interference. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal.4). but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. If he was correct. however. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength.1.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons.1. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties.

40 Hz. 6.0 × 106 m/s. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2.5 Problems 1. RRHS Physics 9. 16. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5.80 nm. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4.1. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. 7. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. of a 3. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. If energy is radiated by all objects.0 eV electron? 73 . Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. What are the wavelengths. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. λ = 450 nm.0 km/h. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. Determine the wavelength of a 0. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract.CHAPTER 6. 12. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. does its wavelength change? If so. does it increase or decrease? 11. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light.1 × 1013 Hz. 14.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90.1. 15. 10. QUANTUM THEORY 8. in meters. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3.0 eV photon and a 5. 13.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm.

the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. As the light gets closer to the water. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. another group of scientists. was putting forward a wave model of light. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence.2.2. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. since all waves at this time required a medium. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. for example. 6. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. They proposed that light actually consists of waves. As with Newton’s particle model. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. a ball thrown against a wall). In a uniform medium. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. led by Christian Huygens. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. the particles must be moving very fast. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased).1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. As these particles passed through a prism.6.

however. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves.CHAPTER 6.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. The two theories. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. without its problems. but to understand light fully. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. in 1850.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. This model was not.2. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). we must refer to both theories. Also. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. and interference where the particle theory fails. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. which contradicts Newton’s theory. 6. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories.2. By the middle of the nineteenth century. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. According to Maxwell’s theory. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. which appear to be incompatible. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. refraction. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. however. Similarly. It states that to understand any given experiment. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. however. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. The two aspects of light complement one another. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. the resulting image is slightly blurred. indicating a spreading out of the light. For example. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. however.

but a visual picture is again not possible. when light interacts with matter.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. This has some major implications. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. depending on which property of light is being measured. like light. is the set of its properties that we can measure. negatively charged particles. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. when light passes through space or a medium. You wouldn’t know where it is going. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). An electron.2. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. Applied to a smaller scale. however. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us.2. When this radiation interacts with the electron. CHAPTER 6. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. or as a wave that has a mass. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. this duality extends to particles as well. light reveals both wave and particle properties.6. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. 6. We cannot picture what they are. you would have to feel your way around. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. 2 76 . The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. This would tell you where it is. In order to locate the ball. When we try to visualize light. To locate this. you must interact with it. its behavior is more like that of a particle. In general. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. or even a combination of the two. its behavior imitates that of a wave.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. macroscopic world. In terms of everyday language and images.2. but in the process would move it from that position. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with.

it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. and not determinism. Thus. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. however. we must use a small wavelength. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view.5. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. If. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used.CHAPTER 6. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. however. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. For examRRHS Physics 6. it is still a probability and not a certainty. but according to equations 6. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. 77 . the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. In summary. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle.2. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.4 and 6. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. but has wave properties. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. on the other hand. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next.

WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.2.6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .

This is known as an emission spectrum. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines.CHAPTER 6.1. This is how helium was discovered. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. Using spectroscopy. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. not interactions between atoms.1. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. emit a discrete spectrum. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. in industry.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight.3. When energy is transferred to atoms. was accepted by scientists by 1900. Less dense gases.3. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. since they are unique to each atom. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. When viewing these spectra. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. 6. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). Although a major step forward. but a few were bounced almost directly back. By analyzing these wavelengths. heated solids. 6. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. scientists can analyze unknown materials. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. This became known as the Rutherford Model. If they were at rest. This is known as an absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. Around 1911. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus.

as shown in the diagram in section 6.6. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. Thus. as it loses energy. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). they are accelerating. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. In 1911. CHAPTER 6. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. for example. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon.3. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13.1). both are therefore quantized. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. The higher the energy level. Neils Bohr. When changing energy levels. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. 2. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. As the electrons spiraled inward. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra.2. A student of Rutherford. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. Using quantum theory. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. 1. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus.8). as in solids). Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. and violet. The radius increases with n2 . RRHS Physics . blue. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts.6 eV n2 (6.red. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized.3. If an electron absorbs energy. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. in other words.3. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. and also predicted an unstable atom. The Rutherford model could not explain this. green. electrons can jump directly or in steps. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. The electron then drops back down to the ground state.1 .8) 6.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. however. the atom would not be very stable.

The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg.CHAPTER 6. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. If we consider the electron to be a particle. each independently. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. determined energy levels of the elements. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. In quantum mechanics. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. the energy is actually at a minimum. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. This was a major problem with the model. however. applying his theory of matter waves. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. however. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). the magnitude of the energy is the largest. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. Notice in equation 6. since it has a wave nature. The electron.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. but is actually much harder to visualize. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. Bohr did not know how to explain this. As a result. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example.8 that when n=1. however. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. however. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. electron can go from 3 to 1. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. 6. Louis de Broglie.3. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements.3.

The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials.6. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. in luminous watch dials. This is called ﬂuorescence. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. These materials are used.3. CHAPTER 6. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. spin (ms )). Explain any discrepancies. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. magnetic (ml ). nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6.3. In a group of these atoms. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). however. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour.3. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7. 8. for example. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds.3. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. 5. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). At low temperatures. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. 6. Phosphorescence works in a similar way.1.5 Problems 1.

In 1932. This force only acts over short distances. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. this force is the same between protons and protons. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. called a neutron. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. 7. Z. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. the electric force becomes more important. A. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. the others being the gravitational force. so as the distance becomes greater. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. protons and neutrons. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is. for example.1. an element is written as A X.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. Sometimes. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. and the weak nuclear force. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. This is one of the four forces of nature. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together.1. This adds energy to the system. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. 1 . In the last chapter. and neutrons and neutrons. Z is the atomic number. however. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. the electromagnetic force.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. and A is the mass number.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically.

it could just fall apart. It is expressed as a negative number. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6.0 × 1011 J of energy.3 Problems 1. 5. For each of the following. where E is the energy in J. In a nuclear reaction. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. Using equation 7. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. u. In other words. A nuclear reaction produces 9. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. which is iron. In general. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. 84 7.7. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). identify the element. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents.1. To be stable. the number of protons. This implies that by adding energy to the system. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit.1. m is the equivalent mass in kg. The mass of 2 H is 2.015123 u). since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. the total number of nucleons. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. What mass was converted? 4.1. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction.49 MeV. We will look at this more in the next two sections.014102 u. Thus. and c is the speed of light in m/s. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents.007276 u mn = 1. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect.66 × 10 kg). NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . we are actually adding mass. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. RRHS Physics . energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus.1) CHAPTER 7.

CHAPTER 7. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.

stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. 7. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7. This is true for all alpha decays.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. As a result. beyond this.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. 7.2. These nuclei are very tightly bound. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. 7. 4 He. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. and required no external stimulation. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. 2 They are not very energetic. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force.2. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped). We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section.2. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). there are not enough neutrons to do this.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896.3. If the atomic number gets too large. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. therefore. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. This is known as (natural radioactivity). RRHS Physics .7. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. as will be discussed in the following sections. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity).

2. This photon is known as a gamma ray. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. they can be very dangerous. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. In beta decay.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. This is a random process. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. by emitting a positron. This electron disappears into the nucleus. Like an atom. 7. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). when it drops down to a lower energy state. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. the nucleus does not undergo any change. it emits a photon. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). becomes a neutron. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. In 10 years. Other than releasing energy. A neutrino is also emitted. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). A positron has the same mass as an electron. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). allowing a proton to become a neutron. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. but the opposite charge. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer.CHAPTER 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. 7. which has no charge and no mass. In some cases. One of the protons.2. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell.2. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. For this reason.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time.

88 RRHS Physics . or β + emission.2. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. When 23 N e (mass=22. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. After one half-life. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. Write the complete nuclear equation. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4. showing the element formed. β − . showing the element formed. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. 7. so it is closely related to half-life. One Bequerel is one decay per second. 214 Bi. 8. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed.9898 u). Write the complete nuclear equation. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. 210 P o. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5.5 Problems 1. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. 83 emits a β particle.7. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. A radioactive bismuth isotope. CHAPTER 7. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. A radioactive polonium isotope. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. In another 10 years.2. 84 emits a α particle. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.2 are moving too fast. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions.3. RRHS Physics 7. electrons. the top scientists in Europe and the U.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing.3% 238 U and only 0. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. neutrons. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. 2. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. following Fermi’s work. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. but they can also occur in nature. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. This ended the war. protons. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. or gamma rays. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr).3. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7.2) although there are many other possibilities. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. however. 89 . To detonate the bomb. 7.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. This would provide enormous amounts of energy.S. resulting in a transmutation. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium).3. the two masses would be brought together quickly. this is known as radioactive fallout. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction.CHAPTER 7. 7. because it resembled cell division. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb.

Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He).7. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. usually containing cadmium. 235 U . To slow the reaction down.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. For example. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator. so it can be built where technology is limited. Also present are control rods. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. however. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. which was discussed earlier. 3. RRHS Physics 90 . and can be separated to be used as fuel. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able.3. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. and New Brunswick. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). these control the rate of the reaction. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. 5 CHAPTER 7. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. Quebec. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium.3. energy will be released. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. It has a simpliﬁed design. helium is extremely tightly bound. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. which is very expensive. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. 92 7. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. Because of its design.

How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium).3. 3. Once this high temperature is achieved.90722 u 235.905625 u 135.3. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction.9141 u 91. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. At present. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. 91 RRHS Physics . and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. A few years ago. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. 2. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors.CHAPTER 7. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). How much energy would this release? 8. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures.7 for this reason. 6. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.016049 u 3. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions.014102 u 3. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor.050786 u 1.007825 u 2.016029 u 4.9250 u 87. List three medical uses of radioactivity. 9.043925 u 238.2? 5. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems.002603 140. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. This is higher than any known material can stand. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy.

What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.3. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics .00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1.7.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.0 × 1014 J of energy.

was friction considered to be constant. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. The wood may shrink or warp. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. the ends of the stick may be chipped. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. you will be expected to do an error analysis. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. therefore. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment.37.3 cm and 2. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. we might estimate it to be 2. In our meter stick example. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. for example. errors due to rounding oﬀ. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. Take a meter stick. In other words. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. and probably even more.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. . the thickness of the lines may vary. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. this 7 is only an estimate.1 Experimental Data however. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. It may be smaller or larger. Suppose that a measurement is between 2.3 and 2.4. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure.4 cm. For example. there are errors present. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. errors in calculation. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis.1 mm. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data.3*. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. In writing lab reports. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. Some of these may be due to human errors. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place.

Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). In our error analysis. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. For this reason. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. This type of error is generally more serious. this type of error is present in all experiments. In this case. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. As long as these errors are random. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken.2. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem.1. The more data points that we have. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. the measurements are always too high. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). A. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion.1 Standard Deviation A. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. but it will not be very accurate. this is not an excuse to be careless. A. RRHS Physics . the smaller the standard deviation should be. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property.2. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. It does not address any possible systematic errors.A. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. In the case of systematic error. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. The more random error we have in our experiment.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. APPENDIX A. Section A. The smaller this value. we may end up with a very precise estimate. that is. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. It is a good idea.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. In this case.1. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. A. or too low. the less precise our results are. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment.

35 to 5. we would use t = 2.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.92 3.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.50 2.76 1.70±0.25 2. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.31 1.35. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0. x is the average of all the values. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.20 3.37 1. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.98 1.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.13 1. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement.06 2.90 1. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.7 63.96 2. we would use t = 2. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.01 2.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4. In this case. Note. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.23 3.31 3. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.08 6. When examining the data. The relevant values for t are given in the table.78 1.APPENDIX A.53 2.17 2.92 1. and we took 12 measurements.83 1.02 1.35 1.58 A.35 1. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A. and N is the number of measurements. and got an average value x of 4.20. If we have a theoretical value of 5.71 2.78 4. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.36 1.35.57 4.45 3.18 5.84 2.36 1. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest. if possible.36 3.1) where xi are the individual measurements.36 2. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.81 1.94 1.60 2.89 2.64 2. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.45.11 2.03 2.7 4.05.2.8.44 1.80 1. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4. however.30 9.48 2.86 1.2.16 3.4.34 1. 95 RRHS Physics .29 1. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.14 2.42 1.38 1.18 3.40 1.77 1.26 3.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.

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