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Physics 12 Notes|Views: 31|Likes: 0

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- Dynamics Extension
- 1.1 Introduction to Vectors
- 1.1.1 Vector Algebra
- 1.1.2 Relative Velocity
- 1.1.3 Problems
- 1.2 Force Vectors
- 1.2.1 Inclined Planes
- 1.3 Equilibrium
- 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium
- 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium
- 1.3.3 Problems
- 2-D Motion
- 2.1 Projectiles
- 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizon- tally
- 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle
- 2.1.3 Problems
- 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
- 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy
- 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion
- 2.2.3 Problems
- 2.3 2D Collisions
- 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum
- 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
- 2.3.3 Problems
- Planetary Motion
- 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion
- 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration
- 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force”
- 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force
- 3.1.4 Problems
- 3.2 Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
- 3.2.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity
- 3.2.3 Satellite Motion
- 3.2.4 Kepler’s Laws
- 3.2.5 Problems
- 4.1 Static Electricity
- 4.1.1 Insulators and Conductors
- 4.1.2 Charging Objects
- 4.1.3 Electroscopes
- 4.1.4 Permanency of Charge
- 4.1.5 Problems
- 4.2 Forces and Fields
- 4.2.1 Coulomb’s Law
- 4.2.2 Electric Fields
- 4.2.3 Lines of Force
- 4.2.4 Gravitational Fields
- 4.2.5 Problems
- 4.3 Electric Potential
- 4.3.1 Electric Potential Energy
- 4.3.2 Electric Potential
- 4.3.3 Equipotential Lines
- 4.3.4 Problems
- Electricity & Magnetism
- 5.1 Electric Current
- 5.1.1 Electrical Quantities
- 5.1.2 Ohm’s Law
- 5.1.3 Electrical Power
- 5.1.4 Problems
- 5.2 *Circuits
- 5.2.1 *Series Circuits
- 5.2.2 *Parallel Circuits
- 5.2.3 *Complex Circuits
- 5.2.4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules
- 5.2.5 *Safety Devices
- 5.2.6 *Problems
- 5.3 Magnetism
- 5.3.1 Magnetic Fields
- 5.3.2 Electromagnetism
- 5.3.3 Force on a Wire
- 5.3.4 Force on a Charged Particle
- 5.3.5 Electric Motor
- 5.3.6 Problems
- 5.4 Induction
- 5.4.1 Induced EMF
- 5.4.2 Transformers
- 5.4.3 Electric Generators
- 5.4.4 Problems
- Waves and Modern Physics
- 6.1 Quantum Theory
- 6.1.1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis
- 6.1.2 Photoelectric Eﬀect
- 6.1.3 Compton Eﬀect
- 6.1.4 de Broglie Hypothesis
- 6.1.5 Problems
- 6.2 Wave-Particle Duality
- 6.2.1 Historical Models of Light
- 6.2.2 Modern Theory of Light
- 6.2.3 Modern Theory of Particles
- 6.2.4 Implications
- 6.3 Models of the Atom
- 6.3.1 Atomic Spectra
- 6.3.2 Bohr Theory
- 6.3.3 Quantum Model
- 6.3.4 Fluorescence and Phosphores- cence
- 6.3.5 Problems
- Nuclear Physics
- 7.1 The Nucleus
- 7.1.1 Structure
- 7.1.2 Mass Defect
- 7.1.3 Problems
- 7.2 Radioactive Decay
- 7.2.1 Alpha Decay
- 7.2.2 Beta Decay
- 7.2.3 Gamma Decay
- 7.2.4 Half-lives
- 7.2.5 Problems
- 7.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity
- 7.3.1 Nuclear Fission
- 7.3.2 Nuclear Reactors
- 7.3.3 Nuclear Fusion
- 7.3.4 Problems

J. Burke 2009-2010

c 2001-2010

Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 *Series Circuits . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . 3. . . . . . . 5. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. . . .2 Electric Potential .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current .2. . . . . . 5. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .3 Magnetism . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . 5. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 4. . . . . .3. .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Permanency of Charge . . . . .2 *Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 5. . . . . . . . . . .6 *Problems . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .1. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electroscopes . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . .3. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .2. .3. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .5 Problems . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . . . ii . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . CONTENTS . .4 Problems . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . . . . 3.1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . 5. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .2. .

. . . . . 7. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . .3. .2 Nuclear Reactors 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . Induction . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . .3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .3. . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . .2 Radioactive Decay . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .2 Bohr Theory . .5 Problems . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modern Theory of Light . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .1. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .4 Implications . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . 6. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . . . . . . . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . . . . . .1. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Quantum Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 6. .1 Structure . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 6.1. . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . .4. . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . RRHS Physics . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. iv RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Experimental Data . . . . . .2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Precision and Random Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . . . A. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .

15 pg 641 #9. pg 595 #5.27 v .2 6.2 2.28 pg 495 #30.5.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.10. pg 529 #30.28. pg 608 #3. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.4 pg 796 #1-4. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.37.6.2.2 7.14.5.1 2. pg 501 #31. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1.28 #2. pg 661 #5.9 #2.2. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.3.3 5.3.7.8.4 6.688-693 694-714.6. pg 886 #3. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.8 #4.6.2.24. pg 778 #1. pg 933 #1.3 5. pg 863 #8. pg 936-937 #26. pg 934 #5.8. pg 571 #21.2 5.4 #36.3 3.2 1.1 3.1 1. BLM #1.3.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.2 4.27.Textbook Correlations Section 1.1 5.2 4.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.9.6 #3.3 2.4.3 #4.40. pg 515 #39.4.3. pg 918-919 #3.9.8. pg 655 #26. pg 596 #12.1 7. pg 526 #1.33.3 7. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680. pg 862 #6. pg 489 #27.7.4.1 4.1 6. pg 780 #2.25.

CHAPTER 0. TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .

In 2D space. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. it does not have a direction. When writing. it is actually two numbers. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. displacement. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. For example. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). dy ).1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. Last year. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size).1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. This year. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). Likewise. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. A vector is not just a single number. v a vector is denoted using boldface (v). force. The symbol d represents these components. For example. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. when typing. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars. 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . For example. 1 . The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. velocity. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. like a scalar is. In university. acceleration.Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. Consider the diagram below. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math.

2. in other words. 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. ay + by ). To help visualize this. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. north would be 90o . (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). the other vector b represents the components (bx . This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.1. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. east. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics . the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . In this system. 1. Bearings are another way of expressing directions. This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. 3.1. by ). the direction of the vector would then be 30o . you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. In the previous diagram. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . south. In math. west).1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. south would be 270o . The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east.1. In this system. ay ). If we add these two vectors. Your textbook uses this last convention. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. For the examples that follow. Since vectors are not single numbers. The vector a actually represents the components (ax . we are actually adding their components. CHAPTER 1. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines). Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. So a + b will give (ax + bx .

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

4

RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27.1. must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. whose speed in still water is 2.00 h. wind speed? 18. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. How fast is the player running? 23. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. why? 19. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17.1. The speed of a boat in still water is v. using a compass. 10 km W. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. RRHS Physics . Before it can move. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back. Diane rows a boat at 8. 8 km N. 6 km S. and 3 km S. walks 4 km E. To do so. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. 26. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. We must assume u < v. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. Find the change in velocity. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. mass. A hiker leaves camp and. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. 3 km E. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. The coach notices that it takes the player 4.0 m/s.85 m/s. the hiker is lost. 5 kmN. DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. At the end of three days. 20. A ferryboat.

Notice that although the normal.2. therefore. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram. This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. Because we often know Fg and Fpy .1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). therefore. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. RRHS Physics 1. friction. These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle.CHAPTER 1. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. the force of the man pulling is not. Notice that FN = Fg . FORCE VECTORS 1.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. As can be seen in the diagram above. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction).2. Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. First. the vertical forces. both of which are vectors. In the diagram below. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. I will take up as the positive direction. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.

the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). Again.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. Again notice that FN = Fg . Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane. Drawing a free body diagram. Using trigonometry. In order to apply Newton’s second law. as in the following diagram. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). FORCE VECTORS friction for now). it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics . If friction is present. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes. it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . these would have to be considered in the force analysis. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. Similarly.2. In other words.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry).3.1.2. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time. we get CHAPTER 1. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane. m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. if present.

0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom.CHAPTER 1.0 m/s.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road.0 N . What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. What is the acceleration of this system? 11.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. where it is attached to a 4. A 25. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o . how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.20. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5.10.0o incline and accelerates at 0. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0. It takes 13.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed.3 m/s2 . A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . A 5. at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7. A rope attached to the 5.300 m/s2 . His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2. A 15. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal.0o hill at 6. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. The tension in the rope is 110. An 18.0 km/h. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9.0 kg block and the ramp is 0.5 s for him to reach the bottom. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv. (b) Using the same power as in (a). with what force is the rock being pulled? 4. (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal. A 55. The total mass is 80 kg.0o angle with the horizontal. will the slug slide down the hill? If so.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. A car can decelerate at -5.2.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2.30.0o angle with the horizontal. If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.6o hill at a steady speed of 7.30. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano.76. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5.0 km/h. A force of 300.2. RRHS Physics 9 .0 kg box is released on a 33. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. (a) Ignoring friction.2 Problems 1.

We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium. there are three forces acting on the mass. Remember. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. As we said.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. 1. Since force is a vector. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. therefore. The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium.1. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. therefore. 3 1.3. The mass is stationary. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. therefore. As can be seen by the free-body diagram. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately. but opposite in direction.3.3. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. there will be a net force in some direction. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. although the net force is zero in both cases. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium. it is obviously not accelerating.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.

When you calculated work.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. this is important.4. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. as it was when discussing work. As can be seen from equation 1. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. even though the forces are equal and opposite.3. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. You will learn more about these in university. Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero. we must introduce the notion of a torque. It is not in rotational equilibrium.CHAPTER 1. right. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. but for calculating torques. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). down. As we have seen. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. Στ = 0 Obviously. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. While forces were described using up. the greater the torque. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. it acts on every particle in the body. and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium). the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler). This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. To examine this more. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. 4 RRHS Physics . The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object.4 The further away from this pivot. 1. left.. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot. but one up and one down. etc. when calculating the work. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. It can be thought of as a twisting force. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm. τ = F⊥ d (1. Before dealing with torques. the board will begin to spin. This is called a dot product. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily.

3 Problems 1. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . A man pushes sideways with a force of 50. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle.0 m long and sags 1. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. The two ropes make an angle of 15.3.3. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. 12 . A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. 9. The frame has a wire across the back. 7. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain.0 m when a 50.0 s. A high wire is 25.0 N . If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. A 20. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6. A sign with a mass of 1653. When lifting a barbell.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle. and you don’t want it to break. 3.1. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain.5o with each other. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. 10.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. What is the tension in the rope? 2. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. RRHS Physics 4. 8. Find the resultant force on the vehicle.

how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90.0 N. A 50. Fred. If there is a spring on the door 5. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. The 10.0 m from the same end. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators. Where must a 22.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60. The platform is being held up by two students.0 kg person is sitting 1. direction.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw.0 kg person stands at its tip.0 kg. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40. EQUILIBRIUM 17.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. and its center of gravity is located 4.CHAPTER 1. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50. 19. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. A 60.0 m and a length of 15. The plane has a base of 14. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N .0 kg person is sitting 0.0 m platform has a mass of 10. apply to prevent acceleration? 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11.0 kg (uniformly distributed) . determine the magnitude. 14. What equilibrant force must a fourth student.3.0 m. In the following diagram. Find the equilibrant force: 12. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. one at either end.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane.0 cm wide.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16. A force of 500.

EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .1.3.

1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. and t is the time in the air. there is no horizontal acceleration.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled. and acceleration. velocity. therefore. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. Ignoring air resistance. Since we know our vertical acceleration. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). The horizontal speed does not change. since max = ΣFx . we see that there is only one . and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. vx is the horizontal speed.1.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another.gravity. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9. This also makes things somewhat simple. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position. These are all vector quantities. 2.8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion.

1 and 2. and 2.1. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller. The object does. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. 2. namely using equations 2.4. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?). 2. PROJECTILES used. vyi will be zero in equations 2.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. For this reason. it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components.3. Notice that equation 2. Remember. and a is the acceleration due to gravity.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t. The horizontal speed vx is constant. but gravity will act to slow it down. As the ball rises. instead of horizontally. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. as shown in the diagram below. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. In this case. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example.1. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1.2. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. since there are no horizontal forces. CHAPTER 2. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. Once this is done. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions. vyi is the initial vertical velocity.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. until it reaches zero at its highest point. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. t is the time in the air. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). Again.1. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement.4.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . the time in the air. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. therefore.1 to 2.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2.2. however. the ball follows a parabolic path. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components.

5 m high.1. The ball is released at the height of the basket. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.0o with the horizontal. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s. A person is in a moving elevator.7 m above the ground. A baseball is hit at 30. PROJECTILES tree.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target.0 m high.0 m/s. A diver running 3. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away. 2-D MOTION 2. How much later does it hit the ground? 7.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. As soon as the hunter ﬁres.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal.0 m/s. and with only 2. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. Immediately. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. how far from the building is the target? 6. an outﬁelder runs 4. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. At the time of the throw. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. the elevator was 8. 14. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19.1. The rotten egg landed 4.0 m from the basket.2 m away from the elevator. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled.0 m away and are 3. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot.3 Problems 1.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit. The building is 13. Trailing by two points. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20.0o . what velocity must the player give the ball? 8. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12.0 m. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2.0 m/s at an angle of 53. how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . 3. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal.02 m from the basket.0 s remaining in a basketball game. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. releasing the ball at the height of the basket. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9. YES! It’s a score. Should the hunter aim directly at. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8. A football is kicked with a speed of 21.0 s later.0 m/s as he leaves the ground.05 m above the ﬂoor. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. 4.2 m above the ground.CHAPTER 2. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. above. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. by how much will it miss the target? 3.

PROJECTILES 14. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees.1 m above the ﬂoor. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . Police agents ﬂying a constant 200.0 m below. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate. When it reaches the end of the table. (a) Draw the situation above. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth.2. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2. 19. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. 20. 2-D MOTION speeds. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points.6 m above the ﬂoor. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. draw all vectors to scale.0 m and must be accurate to ±0.22 m (horizontally).0 m away? 16.1. (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. The basket is 2. Will the following quantities change? If so. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. At any moment. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. 21. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78. For each of the following questions.

we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2. 2 19 . This is now its new equilibrium position . The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2.at this point. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. but is dependent on the spring. This is the equilibrium position. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. Also. The period (the time for one complete vibration. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring.1c)and let it go. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched. which results in a downward acceleration. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. The units for the spring constant are N/m. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. etc. the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. you will double the distance the spring stretches.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). a mattress. 2-D MOTION 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. in this case. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). this formula no longer holds). Of course.1b)). the suspension of a car. Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it.1a).2. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water. What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. When the mass is below its equilibrium position.2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion.CHAPTER 2. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. depending on its spring constant. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again. (See Fig 2. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. suspension bridges. if you exceed the limits of the spring. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. which causes the spring to stretch.

the system.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system. 1 Ep = kx2 (2. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2. x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic. therefore. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. Substituting this into Eq 2. Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant.7 we get T = 2π l g (2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. 2-D MOTION 2.6). v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. 20 RRHS Physics .8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). the total energy remains the same. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 .1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). 2.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. however. work is done on the spring. or removed from. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring. it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2.2.2. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy.2. At equilibrium.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to.2.

the raft vibrates brieﬂy. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. What is the value of m? 6. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.0 cm.10 g were trapped? 8. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. if it had 3. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. A spring stretches 0. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 .3 Problems 1.10 m? 12. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0.2 cm. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. in contact with a spring bumper.48 Hz.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. A block of mass 0. If the spring is stretched an additional 0. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9. frictionless surface. When an 80.10 cm.75 J of work done on it? 11. has a frequency of 0. 2-D MOTION 2. 2.2. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. is then released. The spring is then stretched an additional 0. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch. 13.200 kg ball.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0.325 m. When the man steps oﬀ. A geologist’s simple pendulum. What will its frequency be if only 0.150 m when a 0. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2.5 N hangs from it. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. the frequency is 0. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.110 m and released.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.CHAPTER 2.30 m.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. A small cockroach of mass 0.62 Hz.30 kg hangs from it? 5.8190 Hz at a particular location. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10.4 Hz when a weight of 0. whose length is 37. What is the frequency of vibration? 7.50 kg is placed on a level.60 kg is hung from it. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. The spring. whose other end is ﬁxed. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0. A mass of 2.30 kg mass is hung from it. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz.2.10 m to load a 0. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15.

a vector diagram must be drawn. since p = mv. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). We can now RRHS Physics . 2. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision.11 and 2. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv.11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2. 2. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest.12) (2. so is momentum. Since velocity is a vector. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or. if you remember from grade 11. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. remember that it is momentum that is conserved.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision.12. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. 2-D MOTION Equation 2. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. pa = pa + pb (2. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ).1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. however.2. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. In two dimensions. To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv).12. not velocity.3. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions). Also.3.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension. This still applies in two dimensional collisions.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2.

therefore. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2.14. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost. the collision is elastic. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2. For a two body collision.3. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. though.CHAPTER 2. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. and one of the particles is initially at rest. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. our conservation of energy equation (2. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. after this collision. Remember. such as thermal energy. 2. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . 4 In other words. In this type of collision. every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved.3. RRHS Physics 23 . some energy is lost. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. Since the masses are equal. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost. therefore. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy. In other words.

3. the second ball is moving North. At what angle will the second proton be observed.40 kg strikes a second ball. After the collision (assumed elastic). What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. initially at rest. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N.20 m/s. and another is moving East with a speed of 4.2.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. 50. an electron. Two cars collide at an intersection.3. and a neutrino. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. of mass 0. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h.0 km/h. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2.400 kg. Find 24 .0o North of West. initially at rest. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. and the second car had a velocity of 40. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north.400 kg moving with a speed of 2. As a result of this elastic collision.60 kg. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h.0 km/h. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o . and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8.3 Problems 1. Immediately after impact. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4.00 m/s. If they collide and remain stuck together. 40. the investigator determined that car A. A billiard ball of mass 0. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North.00 m/s strikes a second ball.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. of mass mb = 0.2×10−23 kg·m/s. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. 6. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. A proton travelling with speed 8. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0.80 m/s.0o North of West. From skid marks.

1. So even though the speed is not changing. which is pulling inward. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion.2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. in other words. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. Since this is the only force. the object will not speed up or slow down. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. however. we realize that the speed of the object should not change.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. the acceleration must also be inward. however. the object moves in a curve. we can simply use d (3. To calculate the speed of the object. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. the object will speed up or slow down. With projectile motion.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr).1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle.1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. There is. 1 . an acceleration present. there is still an acceleration. we get v= 2πr (3. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. we see v= 25 3.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion.

3.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object. it just shows the direction of the three quantities.3. however. Looking at equation 3. in particular.3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. In fact. always inward toward the center of the circle.2 and 3.5 becomes Fc = mac (3.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram. then equation 3. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration. by deﬁnition. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . This is a common misconception of students. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle.1. 1. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3.3) T Combining equations 3. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 . when solving centripetal force problems. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. horizontal surface. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3.1 below).1: This is not a free body diagram. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration.1. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. ac = v2 3.2. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. Centripetal force is not. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. 2.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one.6) Figure 3.

Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. being pulled inward by the string. This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force.CHAPTER 3. We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity.1. we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward). Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. If you break the string. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. If there were. because of Newton’s Third Law. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). because of inertia. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke. Remember. Pretend you are the ball in our example. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. the ball is not being pushed outward. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. also. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. not outward. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). In this situation. it is. 3. in fact. in fact.1.

00 revolutions in a second.1.30? 7. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved.4 Problems 1.20? 6.20 kg and is attached to a string 0.000 km and a period of 27. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased. Assume a radius of curvature of 8.15 m/s and its mass is 0.0 m.15 m.0 revolutions per second. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle.0 m radius and rotates 1. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1. A 5. 28 RRHS Physics .1.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1.335 kg. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.60. 9.e. The ball makes exactly 2. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96.42.3. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0.5 cm.1 times per second. 3. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached.0 m rope. If its speed is 3. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2.0 complete revolution each second.3 days. What is the critical speed (i. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10.0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. what force does the string now exert? 4.80 m long. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0. A coin is placed 18.

For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire).CHAPTER 3. For the previous question. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required. by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. the vine is 4. Assume no change in energy for the system. will a friction force be required? If so. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h.0 m long. Sketch the situation. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. PLANETARY MOTION 13. 17. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. 19. A person has a mass of 75. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16. how much and in what direction? 29 . including the relevant forces.6 km. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. and explain this sensation.1. 18.0 kg. If the person is standing on the equator. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. 14. what RRHS Physics 3. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. 15. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point.

8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. In grade 11. To determine this necessary speed.2 Universal Gravitation 3. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant.8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth). Fg = 30 3. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. it is falling toward the earth. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. Equation 3.2. given by G in the equation below. This type of relationship appears often in physics. we get mg = or GM (3. In fact. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. but not to understand why they are so. PLANETARY MOTION 3.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6.3. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. equating the two expressions. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. Newton.2. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. it travels a further distance. People often ask what keeps a satellite up.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth.) g= GM m R2 3. In this way. gravity is much more common than this. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects. If the object is given a higher speed. Assuming a circular orbit.2. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. however. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 . On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. however. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . this is how the mass of the earth was found.3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9. speciﬁcally.2. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. we must consider the orbit.

faster than this speed. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun.CHAPTER 3.4)into equation 3. 3. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3. v= GM r (3. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity). If the satellite goes slower than this speed. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit.4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation. m is the mass of the satellite. which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 . one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important. as given in equation 3. Substituting this (as well as equation 3.9.2.2.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15). 3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. 2.7. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. PLANETARY MOTION 3. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). we get GM m mv 2 = (3. Solving this equation for v.

6. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. 10. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon.85 × 105 km. If the bowling balls are 0. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1.44 × 106 s and it is 1. 12. Frank is really concerned about his weight. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth. 8.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1.6 times that of the earth. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.2. but has the same mass. Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7.5 Problems 1.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat.0 N is required to pull a 10. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11. 13. determine the mass of Jupiter. 2.90 × 1027 kg. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1.85 × 105 km.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. Do the previous question again. All distances are center to center. What is g near the surface? 5.50 m. See Dick and Jane ﬂy. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics .98 × 107 m).50 m apart. PLANETARY MOTION weight. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20.71×10−8 N . Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. 7. A force of 40.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1.50 × 108 km.2.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. Four 8. 3. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. From this data.99 × 1030 kg). r = 6. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3.3. But Frank is lazy.

The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. 32. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18.CHAPTER 3. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. Its period is 410 days. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size.4 days) to do problem 16. RRHS Physics 3.3 × 1022 kg. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. 27. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. Find the value of this constant. 31. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. A satellite is going around Earth. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23.2. 1969. Why? 28. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. 33 . Find its period in units of the period of the moon. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. The asteroid Icarus. orbits the sun like other planets. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. Jupiter is 5. PLANETARY MOTION 14. though only a few hundred meters across. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. 16. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). On July 19. what would happen to the value of G? 30.

3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.2. PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .

Remember. for example. 4. When a conductor is given a negative charge. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. giving it a net negative or positive charge. If you rub a balloon in your hair. even more important than many people think. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. you notice that it will stick to the wall. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. Metals are generally very good conductors. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another). In each case. According to atomic theory.1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. not the protons. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. In a normal state. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. in the amount of charge is zero. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. . two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge.1. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. Likewise. During any of the processes described above. This kind of atom is called an ion.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. the net change 35 4. Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary.

We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. With induction. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). however.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together. The other way of charging an object is called induction. the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge). Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. CHAPTER 4. As soon as they touch. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one. it has merely been separated. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). The RRHS Physics . Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. in this way. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. 4. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod. there are . if it is charged negatively. If you ground the sphere. such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged.however. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler.4. No charge has been created. These semiconductors often have interesting properties. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. there are more electrons than protons on the rod. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively.1.1. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. but is just brought near it. giving it excess electrons. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. and they touch. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope.1. conduction occurs. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another.e. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. An object can also be charged by conduction. For example. germanium. i.

You can. now negatively charged. Suppose. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. The leaves will then stay spread apart. 4. will repel each other and will spread out. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. the faster the charge will be carried away. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. even when nothing is apparently done to them. particularly on each leaf. If charges become large enough. the two leaves just hang vertically.CHAPTER 4. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. the leaves.even though they are neutral.1. In some cases. 37 . Think about how you may do this. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge.1. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules . The more water molecules in the air.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. more often. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. as shown here. even after we remove the charged rod. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. 4. giving it a permanent charge. If the electroscope is neutral. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. however. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged.

while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. and C repels D. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . 9. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. one at each end of the line of blocks.4. they ﬂy away in different directions. Explain.1. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. 3. 12.5 Problems 1. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. you remove the two positively charges objects. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. Finally. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. If you know that D is positively charged. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. When an electroscope is charged. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11. close to but not touching the blocks. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. why does the record now attract dust? 4. 5. What charge is on the rod? 8. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. but as soon as they touch the rod. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4.1. what kind of charge does B have? 6. You place two objects with strong positive charges. A attracts C. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles.

39 . Using some test charge q. When people think of forces. and weak nuclear forces) continues. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 .60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4. or some other type of contact. then the r in equation 4.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational.1 is the distance between the centers. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter . To help explain this idea. This worried people. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld.CHAPTER 4. r is the distance between the charges in meters. they think of pushing or pulling an object. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge.1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. it is precise for only point charges. since it appeared to behave like magic.it is a concept. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton. electromagnetic. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong.2. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful.2.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. 4.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. This may require pushing with your hand.2 4. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. The search for simple. however. without using some test charge. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. tying a rope to something. which has an equal but opposite charge). E= F q (4. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. If the two objects are spheres. strong nuclear forces. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres.2. FIELDS 4. in fact. The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point.

the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge.2. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld.1. we obtain kQ (4. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. as the test charge is accelerated by the force. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld.2. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. For example. FIELDS points around the sources. If there is more than one source charge. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source.1 into equation 4. consider a positive source charge.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. These electric ﬁeld lines.4. these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. which interacts with all objects near the earth.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. In reality. 2.2. equation 4. 4. or lines of force.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. Substituting equation 4. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). then equation 4. For example. however. E= CHAPTER 4. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q .2. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics .

at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7. -4. has a charge of +25 µC. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. the RRHS Physics . A second ball. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1. has a charge of -20 µC. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. Two charges.2. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4.67 × 10−27 kg. mass 9. and the right -83 µC. what force is exerted? 12. The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. 4.0 N on each other? 4. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0. located 16 cm to the right. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1.5 Problems 1. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. is 0. What is the force between them? 5. and an electron. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. the typical size of an atom. A and B. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. located 25 cm above the second ball. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC. You are given two similar spheres.0 µC. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. mass 1.5 × 10−10 m.1 × 106 m/s.0 µC is 0.145 N on each other. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. A positive charge of 3. In one model of the hydrogen atom.2). What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10.00 × 10−17 C? 2. Three particles are placed in a line. In other words. The bottom electron is resting on a table.2. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. 3.CHAPTER 4. One.11 × 10−31 kg.050 m to the north and the other. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. -2. If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart. q1 and q2 . What should you do? 11.030 m to the east. FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4. 8. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4. A third ball. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F .

What is the electric ﬁeld 2. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre. You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. 42 CHAPTER 4. A water droplet of radius 0.5 N and is repulsive. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. Two positive charges. then repeat your work with a 2. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources.4.0 cm apart? 23. 19. 24.0 µC and the other 68.30 m apart. one 33. 17. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. Two charges. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle.0 µC charge 40.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. (a) two positively charged point sources. the force each exerts on the other is 28. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26.2 cm apart. FIELDS 20. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16.0 µC and a +60. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). are a distance l apart.0 cm away from a 1. Take into account gravity and determine E.0× 10−6 C charge. A negative charge of 2.0 µC charged particle? 21.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22.020 mm remains stationary in the air. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth. When placed 1. which is about 1 × 105 N/C. RRHS Physics . Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations.2. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. Find the force on an electron. (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1.0 µC are 8. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. −Qo and −3Qo . (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross.0 × 10−6 C test charge. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons. A proton (m = 1. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby.

3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. Suppose you have two spheres. In this case. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. If the two spheres are touched together. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. For example. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. namely potential energy.4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. sphere B is said to be neutral. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. therefore. electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. Just as with gravitational potential energy. This will add energy to the system. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. you don’t have to do anything. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. 4. we say that it is at a high potential.3. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. The symbol for electric potential is V . This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. which is called the volt. since they are trying to get away from one another.3.3. so Vab = Wab q (4. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. The potential energy here will decrease. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . Remember that W = ∆E. because of the force of attraction between the two charges. for example. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum. If positive work is required to move the charge. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B).2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge. FIELDS 4.CHAPTER 4. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A.

there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 . that is. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3.4 Problems 1.0 C is raised in potential by 1. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9.3. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. at this point. A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge.3. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7.4.0 µC charge is moved towards a +45.3. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . as shown below. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A. The change in energy while doing this is 4.5 × 10−4 J.053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. FIELDS 2. What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. What work is done when 5. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point.5 × 107 V . the two spheres will be at the same potential. A force of 0. A -30. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes.5 V ? 3. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. if they were not. CHAPTER 4.0 µC charge. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). 4.

it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. As was discussed in the previous chapter.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. therefore. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. this is given a special name. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. In 1800. A wire is a conductor.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. In short.1. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. a battery is several cells connected together. A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. When people discussed current. Remember that in solids. an ampere (A). The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . Contrary to a common belief. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. at the same time. we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. little was known about the structure of the atom. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. also referred to as an amp. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. so its electrons are held very loosely.1 Electric Current Q (5. 5. 1 .

positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. however. In our gravity/water analogy above. In the same way. With a battery. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. it gains or loses energy. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. therefore. 3. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). For practical purposes. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. 2. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. CHAPTER 5. When charges are moved through a resistance. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. they lose potential. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). since each end of the pipe is at the same height. These materials are than said to be superconducting. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire).1. At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero).5. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. Temperature: In general. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. because of their atomic structure. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. insulators have a very high resistance. This makes sense. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. Resistance is measured in ohms. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. 46 . Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). In liquids and gases. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. Comparing this to electricity. If one end of the pipe is raised. the greater the ﬂow of water. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. we can use it here as well. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero.

Looking at this equation.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. so it will have a lower resistance.5) 5. 4. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time.1. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials.5.1. the current is proportional to voltage).4 with equation 5.3) 5. thereby increasing the resistance. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. the current also doubles.CHAPTER 5. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section).2 itself is not Ohm’s Law. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. the current is proportional to the voltage. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. the watt (W ).2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. That is. but I = q/t (equation 5. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words.3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. current can be expressed as V (5. Note that equation 5. the resistance must be constant.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat.1. if you double the voltage. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law. light. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer.1) so P = IV (5. 5. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. We RRHS Physics . Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. Consider a wire that is carrying a current. or mechanical). but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. it is really energy that we pay for. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device.

What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. A current of 1. A 1. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time.5 V battery. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. What voltage will produce 12. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω. When she connects it to a 1.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. What is the current through a 6. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5. Is Joe correct? Explain. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours.1. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it.5. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. but when a 3. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. 14. A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird.0 cm apart. How much charge passes through the battery? 2.0 V battery is used.1. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . at 20 mA.10 A ﬂows in a wire.6) CHAPTER 5. 5.085/kW h). Joe argues that. The line has a resistance of 1. 11. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3.5 A for 6. 5 mA can be painful. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. above 100 mA can be fatal. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. If the device obeys Ohm’s law. What is the voltage of the battery? 6.0 h. since R = V /I.4 Problems 1. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ).0 A? 5. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9.

The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. 18. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water.0o C.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4.CHAPTER 5. How many 100 W light bulbs. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20.) 49 .0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. What is the eﬃciency of a 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω.2 Ω lines. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0.0o C to 55.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h. operated at 120 V . A modern television set draws 2. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0.06 per kWh? 19. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17. It is observed that it takes 12. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 .000 V ? 21. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40.4 A from a 120 V line? 27. At $0. How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.08 per kW h.29 kg/m3 .0 minutes. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. What is its increase in temperature during the 30.0 s? 25. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23.11 per kW h. by means of a converter. RRHS Physics 5. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee. (a) 220 V are applied across it. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.1. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V . The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2.0 A when operated on 120 V .5 kg of water.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0.20 kg of water.000 V rather than 12. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C.

7) 5. in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. I1 . currents. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery.1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up.2. when we put several resistance in series.2.2. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. Knowing the equivalent resistance. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense. If V1 . 5. V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . V2 = IR2 . and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . R2 . the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel.9) RRHS Physics . R3 respectively. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. V2 . there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other. and voltages throughout the circuit. you increase the total resistance. each resistor has its own path. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. When you add more resistances. then by applying equation 5. By conservation of energy. Of course. R2 . I2 . and V3 = IR3 . the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. and R3 . I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. Because charge must be conserved.2 we know that V1 = IR1 .5. applying equation 5.2 to analyze the resistances.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits. since there is only one path.8) (5.

This combination is then in series with R1 . RRHS Physics 51 . so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance.2. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω.2. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. Again. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor.3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. however. then they are not in series. If any resistors are in series. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. Remember. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ). equation 5. *CIRCUITS 2. In this example. so they can be combined using equation 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. if there is a junction between the resistors. 3. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. R3 . If any resistors are in parallel. Remember. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 .10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5. Consider the following example.10) 5. R1 and R2 are not in series. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. every time you add a resistance in parallel. but are often some combination of the two.CHAPTER 5. Also. For example. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). 5. This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. since there is a junction in between the two. R3 is in series with R4 . R2 . resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them.

breaking the circuit.7. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. For example. RRHS Physics 5. 2. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. too complicated for this analysis. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. a system of equations can then be found and solved.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). At any junction point.5.2. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. 1. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. These rules actually apply to all circuits. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. If too much current ﬂows. This is just an expression of equation 5. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. 5. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1. for example. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. For example. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. To deal with these circuits. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. 2. If this strip melts. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 .5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. however. Houses are wired in parallel. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows.2.2. Some circuits4 are. A third type of safety device is slightly different. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit.9. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced.

Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. 4. 5. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. Find each resistance. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. 5.2. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.6 *Problems 1.50 A. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6. Find the current in each branch. Find the unknown currents and voltages. What is the resistance in each case? 53 .CHAPTER 5. Find V. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9. 7. 3. 2.2. 8. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0.

Find the current in each branch.0 V input? 15. Suppose that you have a 6. 13. and P1 . 17.0 Ω.5. CHAPTER 5. or 150 W at 120 V . 16. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.0 54 .0 V . If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. how could you connect them so as to produce a 1.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1. 100 W .V2 .I3 . A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W . and I4 . ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Find R3 . Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel. If each resistor is 10 Ω. Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. If each resistor is 10 Ω.0 V output for a 6. Given an unlimited supply of 1.I3 . 12. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. *CIRCUITS 10. 11.2.I2 . Find It . what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14.

which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. which is brighter? 21.2.8 kΩ. Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24.CHAPTER 5. Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). RRHS Physics 55 23. and I3 in the following circuit. determine the currents I1 . (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. one larger than the other. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. If one resistor is 2. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. what is the resistance of the other? . (a) If they are connected in parallel. what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. 5. Consider the circuit below. *CIRCUITS 22. I2 .

MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. In most materials. 5. in ferromagnetic materials. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. This will be seen in the next section.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. for example. and cobalt. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. however. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. As a result. each with a north and south pole. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. however.5. the domains are more lined up in one direction. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. magnetic forces act over distances. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. the same as electric charges.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. however. If you cut a magnet in two. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. the result is two magnets. Since these forces do behave similarly. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely.3. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. In an unmagnetized piece of iron.3. In a magnetized piece of iron. Magnetic poles are not. 5. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. RRHS Physics 56 . The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. nickel. since an electric current will always produce both. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. A compass needle is really a small magnet. On a small scale. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. almost as if they were spinning on their axis.

electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. It was only with a moving charge. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. tangent to a circle drawn around the wire.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. By using more than one loop. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. the second right hand rule can be used. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. around 1820.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted.3. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. This is an electromagnet. then. the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. it makes sense. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. In fact. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire.3. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet. In other words. when using left hand rules. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . To use this hand rule.3. or a current. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.3. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current.CHAPTER 5. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. 6 5. 5. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. but this was found to have no eﬀect. it often7 experiences a force. To use this hand rule. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst).

where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. the force will be out of the page. This loop of wire will rotate.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. There will be no force between b and c. Between c and d. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. To do this. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. you may also use the left hand rule. to 58 RRHS Physics .8 8 Remember. have to be moving through a wire. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. as shown below.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb). but l/t is just the speed of the particle. If the moving particle is negative. To use this rule. so F = qvB sin θ (5. As we learned before. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. The charges do not. use left hand rules. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld.4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page. substituting this into equation 5.3. as shown in the side view below.3. however. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld.5 Electric Motor 5. CHAPTER 5. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. Remember that I = q/t.5. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current.3. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. 5.

Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes.3. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. Many loops of wire are usually used. 5.6 Problems 1. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). In reality. Also.3. if the loop goes past this point.CHAPTER 5. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . we want it to turn continuously. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. As the armature turns. As a result. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. In order to make the loop continue turning. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. but just touch one another. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. as well as a ferromagnetic core. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. MAGNETISM other brush. (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. (b) Two opposite poles. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. but no force acts on the wire. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). as shown below.

What is the force on the wire? 7. A proton having a speed of 5. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. 11. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. If the force on the wire below is into the page. A straight 2. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld.3. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o .0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. identify the poles of the magnets.0 A and weighs 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west.5. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 . The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. (b) 10. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15. What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13. MAGNETISM 5. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East. A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.35 N .9 × 103 kg/m3 .0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8.0 × 10−5 T .67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. it feels zero force.90 T . (a) CHAPTER 5.

If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. B=0.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld.000 V . An electron (m = 9. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. A force of 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. what must be the speed of the ion? 26. Calculate the mass of the particle. 23.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward. 61 . 21. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0.5 cm. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. Explain. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. (a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. If the velocity of the particle is 5. 17.10 T magnetic ﬁeld.02 T.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20.08 m. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . Calculate the energy of the proton. The radius of its path is 4.CHAPTER 5.3.385 T magnetic ﬁeld.25 T . what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. A particle with a charge of 2. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes.4 mm? 24. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. 16. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. E=1000 N/C.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0.6 × 10−13 N .032 T . Protons move in a circle of radius 8. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld.10 cm in a 0. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. which exists between the two parallel plates below. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19.25 × 106 m/s. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22. MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron.

suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. For example. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. v. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5. ∆φ ∆t (5. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil. Fill in the direction of the current in this example. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). when the magnet is removed. In other words.5. and not a force where B. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire. 5. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. opposing the motion of the bar magnet. Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit.4. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. Magnetic ﬂux (φ. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. For example. it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge.4. Such a current is called an induced current.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. We call this an induced emf.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld.

13. The primary coil has the incoming current. that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage.2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. Remember. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. conservation of energy tells 63 . There is. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). however. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. however. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil. Just like before. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). But remember.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer.4. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current.CHAPTER 5. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary. From equation 5. Notice that if Ns > Np . So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion. the two wires are insulated from one another. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. therefore. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. This is called perpetual motion. this is called a step-up transformer. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. therefore. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation. 5. If Ns < Np .4. Combining these two equations. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. this is a step-down transformer. In the example shown below.15) 5.

with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above.16) CHAPTER 5. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. Since P = V I. so the current must ﬂow from c to d. INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire. we see what happens to the current. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. Consider the picture below. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation. this means that if the voltage goes up.5. at position 3. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. out of the page). so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. The wire ab is moving out. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. At position 1. at positions 2 and 4. and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse. therefore. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. the force on cd must be out of the page. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. into the page).3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. RRHS Physics .4. then the current must be lowered. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case. Similarly.4.

When a motor is operating. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire.707Imax (5. Alternating Current As we have seen. If we square an AC electric current graph. we get a sin2 θ graph. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0. value.707Vmax (5.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers.18) Since power is P = V I. As we turn the generator. Back EMF As was previously stated. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. we take a root mean square average (rms). Since the current is not constant.17) Similarly. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction.4. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). giving Pavg = 0. we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction). ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.CHAPTER 5. This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 .5Vmax Imax In North America. as were used with the DC motor. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. The greater the speed of the motor. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly.5Imax To make a DC generator. the greater the back (or counter) emf. This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. however. The more current that is drawn. or eﬀective. INDUCTION called a counter torque. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. In a generator. Instead. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished. as was seen in a previous graph.11 we cannot just average the current over time. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. the situation is the reverse.

15 Ω. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. Hence. If the rod is 12.10 s. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.5Pmax (5. If the wire has a resistance of 0.60 T magnetic ﬁeld.5 Ω. calculate the emf developed. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V . It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8. In what direction is the induced current? 3. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. A square coil of sides 5.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0.4 s. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms. A 12.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0.4.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. What is the average induced emf ? 2. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9.4 Problems 1.4. with its plane perpendicular to B. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7. It takes 0.50 T magnetic ﬁeld. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. 6.350 T to zero. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics . Also note that since P = V I.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8. What is the induced emf ? 4. 5.19) CHAPTER 5. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10.0 cm/s. It is initially in a 0.5.800 T .405 T magnetic ﬁeld. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.

how many turns are on the primary side? 15. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. What is the rms voltage across it? 27.0 A. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. Calculate the peak current in a 2. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC).0 V and the input current is 11.4. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. An ac voltage. and an output current of 0. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. If the primary and secondary were reversed. What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source. Frequently. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. Why is this true? 18. INDUCTION 17. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. It is used with a transformer in England.0 V source and measures 8. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16.CHAPTER 5. Why? 21. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil. whose peak value is 90 V . What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9.0 V and an output current of 5. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. where the line voltage is 240 V . and (c) the power transformed 13.0 V AC. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V . The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA. is across a 35 Ω resistor. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5.0 V at the secondary. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12.75 A. what would the new output voltage be? 16.0 A.0 A respectively. (b) the current in the primary.0 A. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. the coil will swing. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3. 19. 26. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire.

At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5.4. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. INDUCTION 28. a 700 W hair dryer. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs.5.25 A. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties.4 and 6. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature.1 however. He suggested in 1923 that. however. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. are small enough that wave properties can be observed. The photon does not actually slow down. Objects such as electrons.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. The difﬁculty here. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. 1 RRHS Physics . The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small. after the collision. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties.1.4). since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. only its frequency is lowered. By making careful measurements.6. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. such as diﬀraction and interference. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. however.1. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves.6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. If he was correct. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. In fact.5).

35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. 14.5 Problems 1. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0. RRHS Physics 9. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6.0 eV electron? 73 . of a 3. λ = 450 nm. does it increase or decrease? 11.1.1. 7. does its wavelength change? If so. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves.0 km/h. 10. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. 12. 13. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light. 15. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron.0 eV photon and a 5. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light.80 nm.0 × 106 m/s.1 × 1013 Hz.40 Hz. in meters. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . 6. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. What are the wavelengths. Determine the wavelength of a 0. QUANTUM THEORY 8. 16. which has a shorter wavelength? 17. If energy is radiated by all objects.CHAPTER 6. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed.

the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. a ball thrown against a wall). • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. led by Christian Huygens. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. 6. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views. As the light gets closer to the water. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another. going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. As these particles passed through a prism. since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). the particles must be moving very fast. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. since all waves at this time required a medium. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. In a uniform medium. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. for example.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us.2. was putting forward a wave model of light. another group of scientists. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. As with Newton’s particle model.6.2. They proposed that light actually consists of waves.

without its problems. the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. This model was not.2. the resulting image is slightly blurred. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. The two aspects of light complement one another. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. 6.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light.2. however. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. which appear to be incompatible. By the middle of the nineteenth century. and interference where the particle theory fails. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. The two theories. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. however.CHAPTER 6. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening. however. refraction. indicating a spreading out of the light. but to understand light fully. Similarly.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light. For example. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. we must refer to both theories. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. in 1850. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. which contradicts Newton’s theory. According to Maxwell’s theory. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. Also. however. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). It states that to understand any given experiment. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves.

6. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. its behavior imitates that of a wave. or even a combination of the two. In terms of everyday language and images. 2 76 . light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. this duality extends to particles as well. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. You wouldn’t know where it is going. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. is the set of its properties that we can measure. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). This has some major implications. you would have to feel your way around. like light. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. 6. Applied to a smaller scale. To locate this.2. This would tell you where it is. In general. We cannot picture what they are. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. An electron. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. its behavior is more like that of a particle.2. CHAPTER 6. When this radiation interacts with the electron. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. but in the process would move it from that position. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”. you must interact with it. light reveals both wave and particle properties. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). In order to locate the ball. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. depending on which property of light is being measured. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. when light passes through space or a medium. macroscopic world. when light interacts with matter.2.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. negatively charged particles. however. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. but a visual picture is again not possible. or as a wave that has a mass. When we try to visualize light.

Thus.2. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. we must use a small wavelength. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. and not determinism. If. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. but according to equations 6. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple.4 and 6. it is still a probability and not a certainty. but has wave properties. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time.CHAPTER 6.5. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. however. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. In summary. however. For examRRHS Physics 6. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. 77 . on the other hand. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time.

WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics . WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.2.6.

the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. was accepted by scientists by 1900. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. 6. By analyzing these wavelengths. This became known as the Rutherford Model. Less dense gases. Using spectroscopy. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines.CHAPTER 6. scientists can analyze unknown materials. Although a major step forward. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. When viewing these spectra. 6. emit a discrete spectrum. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. This is known as an emission spectrum. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 .1. If they were at rest. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6. since they are unique to each atom. heated solids. not interactions between atoms.3. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. Around 1911. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation.3.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. in industry. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas. When energy is transferred to atoms.1. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. but a few were bounced almost directly back. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. This is how helium was discovered. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil. This is known as an absorption spectrum. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science.

both are therefore quantized. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. as it loses energy. 1. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. 2. Using quantum theory. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. Neils Bohr. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts.2.6.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. In 1911. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state. As the electrons spiraled inward. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. The higher the energy level.1 . The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus. and violet. blue. The radius increases with n2 . When changing energy levels. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second. they are accelerating. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths. Thus.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. as in solids). it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus.8). The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. as shown in the diagram in section 6.red. green. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. A student of Rutherford. however. The electron then drops back down to the ground state. in other words. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted.1). RRHS Physics . electrons can jump directly or in steps. The Rutherford model could not explain this.6 eV n2 (6. and also predicted an unstable atom.3. CHAPTER 6. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted.3. for example. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus.3. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels.8) 6. the atom would not be very stable. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom. If an electron absorbs energy. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon.

Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg. In quantum mechanics. Bohr did not know how to explain this. As a result. however. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example.8 that when n=1. applying his theory of matter waves. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. but is actually much harder to visualize. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. the energy is actually at a minimum. Louis de Broglie. suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus.3. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom. The electron. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun. This was a major problem with the model. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. since it has a wave nature. The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. however. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. however.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1. determined energy levels of the elements. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another.CHAPTER 6. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. If we consider the electron to be a particle. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). each independently. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. however. 6. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . electron can go from 3 to 1. Notice in equation 6. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules.3.

This is called ﬂuorescence. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful.3. spin (ms )). 6. Explain any discrepancies. 8. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. These materials are used. The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb.3. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). for example.6. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds.1. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4. magnetic (ml ). as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. In a group of these atoms. 5. in luminous watch dials. CHAPTER 6. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. however.3. How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms.3. At low temperatures. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics .5 Problems 1. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them.

an element is written as A X. Z is the atomic number. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. 7. A. and neutrons and neutrons. In 1932. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. protons and neutrons. and the weak nuclear force. called a neutron. this force is the same between protons and protons.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. This adds energy to the system. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. the electromagnetic force. however. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. so as the distance becomes greater.1. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. Sometimes. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus.1. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions. 1 . This is one of the four forces of nature. and A is the mass number. work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). the others being the gravitational force. for example. Z. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. the electric force becomes more important. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. This force only acts over short distances. In the last chapter. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7.

Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. In general. We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. the number of protons. Using equation 7.014102 u. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2. we are actually adding mass.1. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. u. which is iron. To be stable. This implies that by adding energy to the system. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. 5. In a nuclear reaction.1. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus.1) CHAPTER 7. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. and c is the speed of light in m/s. RRHS Physics .015123 u).3 Problems 1. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. where E is the energy in J. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. A nuclear reaction produces 9.49 MeV. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. We will look at this more in the next two sections.66 × 10 kg). NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . It is expressed as a negative number. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents.0 × 1011 J of energy.7. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). The mass of 2 H is 2. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931. Thus. the total number of nucleons. it could just fall apart. identify the element. m is the equivalent mass in kg. 84 7. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A. In other words. What mass was converted? 4. nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart.1.007276 u mn = 1. For each of the following.

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.CHAPTER 7. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 .1.

stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). These nuclei are very tightly bound. This is true for all alpha decays. as will be discussed in the following sections. 2 They are not very energetic.2.2. As a result. This is known as (natural radioactivity). We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. 7. there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. 7. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7.7.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896. 7. beyond this. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. these isotopes will decay spontaneously.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. and required no external stimulation. Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2. If the atomic number gets too large. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions.3. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). therefore. 4 He. there are not enough neutrons to do this. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons.2. RRHS Physics . 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped).

This electron disappears into the nucleus. 7. Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture.2.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force.CHAPTER 7. A positron has the same mass as an electron. Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino). by emitting a positron. they can be very dangerous. Other than releasing energy. One of the protons. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. This photon is known as a gamma ray. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum.2. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. when it drops down to a lower energy state. becomes a neutron. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction).2. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell. 7. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). Like an atom. In beta decay. This is a random process. For this reason. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. In 10 years. the nucleus does not undergo any change. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). it emits a photon. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. which has no charge and no mass. but the opposite charge. allowing a proton to become a neutron. A neutrino is also emitted. In some cases.

2. showing the element formed. 214 Bi. 84 emits a α particle. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. Write the complete nuclear equation. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. After one half-life. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. 8. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4.7. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2.2. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq). 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again.5 Problems 1. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. 88 RRHS Physics . CHAPTER 7. so it is closely related to half-life. β − . RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. In another 10 years. When 23 N e (mass=22. The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. A radioactive polonium isotope. 7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. Write the complete nuclear equation. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. showing the element formed.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. 210 P o.9898 u). 83 emits a β particle. A radioactive bismuth isotope. or β + emission. One Bequerel is one decay per second. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains).

developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima.3. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. the top scientists in Europe and the U.CHAPTER 7. or gamma rays. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C).S. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. 89 . because it resembled cell division. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. resulting in a transmutation. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei. 7. This was called nuclear ﬁssion.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. this is known as radioactive fallout.3. To detonate the bomb. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942.2) although there are many other possibilities. however. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II. 7. RRHS Physics 7. neutrons. electrons. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. following Fermi’s work. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released.3. the two masses would be brought together quickly. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U . It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. protons. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium.2 are moving too fast. but they can also occur in nature. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes.3% 238 U and only 0. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. This ended the war. 2.

6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. these control the rate of the reaction. and can be separated to be used as fuel. Quebec. which was discussed earlier. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. 92 7. There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. and New Brunswick. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . energy will be released. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. 3. this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. To slow the reaction down. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. helium is extremely tightly bound. It has a simpliﬁed design. 235 U . It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator.7. so it can be built where technology is limited.3. RRHS Physics 90 . the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. Because of its design. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. which is very expensive. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. Also present are control rods. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. however. For example. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. usually containing cadmium. 5 CHAPTER 7. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally.3. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor.

the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures.043925 u 238. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). 6. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. 91 RRHS Physics . Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. How much energy would this release? 8. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction.050786 u 1.016029 u 4.905625 u 135. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong.014102 u 3. 3. but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. Once this high temperature is achieved. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7.3.2? 5. 9.9250 u 87.9141 u 91. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. A few years ago. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors. How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. At present. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy.CHAPTER 7. List three medical uses of radioactivity. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7.3. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. 2.002603 140. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion.7 for this reason. but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction.007825 u 2. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy.90722 u 235. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium).016049 u 3. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. This is higher than any known material can stand. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld.

What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7.3.7. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1. The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV.00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics . The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.0 × 1014 J of energy.

1 mm. was friction considered to be constant. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. we might estimate it to be 2.37.3 cm and 2. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. this 7 is only an estimate. In other words. instruments are designed to measure within certain limits. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. and probably even more. . where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9.1 Experimental Data however. the ends of the stick may be chipped.3 and 2.4 cm. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. The wood may shrink or warp. It may be smaller or larger. the device is only calibrated in millimeters. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument. Some of these may be due to human errors.4. errors in calculation. therefore. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. For example. for example. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. errors due to rounding oﬀ. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. you will be expected to do an error analysis. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. In writing lab reports. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. In our meter stick example.3*. the thickness of the lines may vary. there are errors present. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). Take a meter stick.

2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. A. APPENDIX A.1. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error. It is a good idea. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. In this case. this is not an excuse to be careless. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). The more data points that we have. but it will not be very accurate. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge. this type of error is present in all experiments. A. For this reason. RRHS Physics . you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large.1 Standard Deviation A.2. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. Section A. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. that is.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. In our error analysis. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. In the case of systematic error. This type of error is generally more serious. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. In this case. the less precise our results are. The smaller this value. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order.A. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. It does not address any possible systematic errors. A.2. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. the smaller the standard deviation should be. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken.1. or too low. The more random error we have in our experiment.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. As long as these errors are random. the measurements are always too high. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). we may end up with a very precise estimate.

20 3. we would use t = 2.2. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits.98 1.70±0. If we have a theoretical value of 5.7 63.18 3. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.83 1.01 2.36 1.02 1. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.35.64 2.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ.08 6. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.94 1.92 3.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.80 1.86 1.26 3.35 to 5.48 2.31 3.40 1.77 1. if possible.96 2.29 1.31 1. however.4.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A.18 5.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results.58 A.92 1. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval.60 2. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies. When examining the data. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.8.16 3. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.36 1. Note. then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty.71 2.37 1.7 4.20.14 2. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement. and N is the number of measurements.11 2.53 2.78 1. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.1) where xi are the individual measurements.36 3. 95 RRHS Physics .35 1.05.45 3.44 1. and we took 12 measurements.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no. we would use t = 2.45.17 2. In this case. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.34 1. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate.78 4. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.25 2.13 1. and got an average value x of 4. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A.84 2.89 2. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values.30 9.06 2.76 1.81 1.03 2.57 4.APPENDIX A. x is the average of all the values.90 1. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.64 interval of 95% 99% 12. The relevant values for t are given in the table.36 2.38 1.42 1.35.50 2.23 3. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.35 1.2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.

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