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XC NH CC THNG S TI U CHO

TUYN THNG TIN SI QUANG WDM S DNG EDFA


DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL PARAMETERS IN WDM OPTIC
FIBER COMMUNICATION LINK USING EDFA
NGUYN VN TUN
Trng i hc Bch khoa, i hc Nng
TRN NHT LINH
Trung tm Dch v Vin thng khu vc 3 - GPC Nng
TM TT
Bi bo xy dng thut ton, tnh ton m phng nhm xc nh cc thng s ti u nh
cng sut ca ngun pht, h s khuch i v v tr t b khuch i EDFA trn tuyn thng
tin si quang a knh ghp knh theo bc sng (WDM) c khong cch truyn dn 250km
s dng khuch i quang si EDFA sao cho t s tn hiu trn nhiu quang OSNR ti u
my thu ln nht. Sau , xy dng bng kt qu v v th cho php xc nh ngay cc
thng s ti u tng ng vi cc khong cch truyn dn khc nhau t 100km n 250km.
Kt qu ny c th c s dng hiu qu trong cng tc thit k tuyn v khai thc mng.
ABSTRACT
In this paper, we built the algorithm, simulated fiber optic communication link using WDM and
EDFA for determination optimal parameters such as power of optical source, gain of EDFA
and its location on the link in order to achieve the maximum of OSNR at the receiver. We then
calculated and found out the set of optimal parameters corresponding to the different
distances (from 100km to 250km) and presented the results through tables and the graphs.
The results can be applied effectively in designing fiber optic communication link as well as in
exploitation its operation.
1. Gii thiu
Cng ngh ghp knh quang phn chia theo bc sng WDM kt hp vi b khuch
i quang si EDFA cho php tng dung lng truyn dn ln ng k m khng cn s dng
thm si quang, nn c s dng hiu qu v rng ri trn th gii v c ng dng bc
u Vit Nam. Thng thng, khong cch gia cc thnh ph khng qu 250km, nn
phm vi ca bi bo l kho st tuyn WDM c t mt EDFA vi khong cch truyn dn
250km.
Bi ton c a ra l t EDFA v tr no trn tuyn t s tn hiu trn nhiu
quang OSNR ti my thu t gi tr cc i? t ngay sau my pht v b ghp knh MUX
(gi l phng n BA), t trc my thu v b gii ghp knh DEMUX (gi l PA) hay t
trn ng truyn (gi l LA). Ni dung ca bi bo nhm gii quyt bi ton nu trn, ng
thi xc nh cc thng s ti u khc nh cng sut ca ngun pht, h s khuch i EDFA
tng ng vi cc khong cch truyn dn khc nhau t 100km n 250km.
2. Ni dung
S khi tuyn WDM in hnh c t EDFA 3 v tr khc nhau c biu din
nh hnh sau:
Trong : TX
1
...TX
n
, RX
1
...RX
n
, ln lt l cc my pht quang v my thu quang.
MUX, DEMUX l b ghp v gii ghp bc sng.
1
...
n
: l cc bc sng ca cc knh
c ghp theo WDM.
V tuyn truyn dn ang xt ch s dng mt b khuch i EDFA trn ng truyn
nn c 3 trng hp t b khuch i EDFA l t ngay sau b ghp knh (BA), t trn
ng truyn (LA) v t ngay trc b gii ghp knh (PA) nh hnh 1. Ta xt trng hp
tng qut l t b EDFA trn ng truyn (LA) cch my pht mt khong L
1
v my thu
mt khong L
2
(vi L
1
=L
1
(1)
+L
2
(1)
; L
2
=L
1
(2)
+L
2
(2)
), khi BA v LA l 2 trng hp c bit:
BA tng ng vi L
1
= 0, L
2
= L v PA tng ng vi L
1
= L, L
2
= 0.
S khi ca tuyn truyn dn quang xt i vi tng knh thng tin c biu din
nh hnh 2 sau y:

T s OSNR ca mt knh thng tin h bt k trong h thng WDM c xc nh theo
biu thc:

) (
) (
) (
h noise
h sig
h
f P
f P
f OSNR
(1)
trong OSNR(f
h
), P
sig
(f
h
),P
noise
(f
h
) ln lt l t s tn hiu trn nhiu quang, cng sut tn
hiu hu ch v cng sut cc loi nhiu gy ra trn knh h ti u vo my thu quang.
Trong cc h thng WDM s dng EDFA, cc loi nhiu thng xut hin l nhiu
pht x t pht c kch thch (ASE) do EDFA gy ra v nhiu do cc hiu ng phi tuyn
nh trn bn bc sng (FWM), tn x Brillouin kch thch (SBS), tn x Raman kch thch
(SRS), t iu ch pha (SPM), iu ch cho pha (XPM)... Khi cng sut quang mi
knh <20mW v tc bit <10Gbit/s th 2 loi nhiu chnh tc ng n cht
My
Pht
quan
g
My
Pht
quan
g
G
My
Thu
quan
g
My
Thu
quan
g
L
1
(1)
,
L
2
(1)
P
in
(f
h
)
LA
L
1
(2)
, L
2
(2)
B
0
P
sig
(f
h
)
Hnh 2. Cc thnh phn chnh trong tuyn WDM khi xt mt knh thng tin ring l

1
,..

n
Si dn
quang

1
,..

n BA LA
PA
MUX
DEMUX

n
RX
1
RX
n
TX
n
TX
1
Hnh 1. S khi tuyn WDM in hnh c EDFA
lng tn hiu trong h thng l nhiu ASE v nhiu FWM [2]. V vy t s OSNR c vit
li nh sau:

) ( ) (
) (
) (
h ASE h FWM
h sig
h
f P f P
f P
f OSNR
+


(2)
Trong :
+ Cng sut tn hiu ca knh thng tin ti b thu (b suy hao trn ng truyn v ti
cc mi ni) c biu din bi biu thc:

[ ]
0
2
. 10
.
) 2 (
2
) 2 (
1
) 1 (
2
) 1 (
1 1
10 . ) ( exp . ). ( ) (
L
L
h in h Sig
L L L L G f P f P


+ + +
(3)
+ Cng sut nhiu ASE gy ra trn knh thng tin [4](cng b suy hao trn ng
truyn v ti cc mi ni):
[ ]
0
) 2 (
2
) 2 (
1 2
. 10
) .(
) 2 (
2
) 2 (
1 1 . 0
10 . ) ( exp ). 1 .( . . . ) (
L
L L
sp t h ASE
L L B G n h m f P
+


(4)
+ Cng sut nhiu FWM gy ra trn knh thng tin (cng b suy hao trn ng
truyn v ti cc mi ni) c suy ra t [1], [2], vi mt b EDFA trn tuyn:


+

h j i k i j
f f f f f f
h pqr h FWM
f P f P ) ( ) (
(5)
Vi:

[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
2
2 1
) 2 (
2 2 1
) 2 (
1 1 1
1
) 2 (
1 1 1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
) 1 (
1 1
3
2 1
) 1 (
2 2 1
) 1 (
1 1 1
1 1
) 1 (
1 1 1
. 1 0
.
) 2 (
2
) 2 (
1
) 1 (
2
) 1 (
1 1
2
3
2
2 2 4
0
6
.
) . ( e x p 1
. ) . ( e x p
.
) . ( e x p 1
. . ) ( e x p .
) ( e x p 1
) ( e x p
.
) . e x p ( 1
.
1 0 . ) ( e x p . . ) . (
. .
1 0 2 4
) (
0
2

,
_


+
+ +
+

+
+ + +
+

,
_


+
+ +

+
+ + + +













i
L i
L i
i
L i
i L L G
i
L i
L i
i
L i
G
L L L L
A
P
d
c n
f f f f P
L
L
e f f
i n
k j i h p q r

(6)
Trong :
1,2
: phi hp pha ca si 1 v 2

[ ]
1
]
1

d
dD
c
f f f f D
c
f f f f
k
k
k j k i k
k
k j k i
) (
2
) ( ) ( ) (
2
) )( (
2 , 1
2
2 , 1
2
2 , 1
) (
2 2
) (
1 1
) ( m m m
L L + : phi hp pha tch lu trong phn on m;
n
0
: chit sut ca si; : bc sng [m]; L
0
: chiu di mi cun cp quang [m];
c: vn tc nh sng [m/s]; P
l
(l=i, j, k): cng sut ca cc knh c a vo u si quang
[W];
d: h s suy gim (d =3 nu i = j k, d = 6 nu i j k); G: h s khuch i EDFA [ln];
: nhy cm phi tuyn bc 3 [m
3
/W.s];
2
: suy hao mi hn [dB];
A
eff
: din tch hiu dng ca li si [m
2
], cho gn ng bng din tch tht ca li;

1
: suy hao ca 2 loi si [1/m], 2 loi si c tn sc khc nhau nhng c cng suy hao.
D
1,2
(
k
): tn sc ca 2 loi si ti bc sng
k
[s/m
2
];
3.Thut ton tnh ton cc thng s h thng
Da vo cc biu thc t (2) n (6) chng ti tin hnh xy dng thut ton xc nh
cc thng s ti u nh cng sut ca ngun pht, h s khuch i v v tr t EDFA nh
hnh 6.
4. Kt qu tnh ton m phng v tho lun
kt qu tnh ton l thuyt st vi thc t nhng khng lm mt tnh tng qut ca
bi ton, gi tr ca cc tham s tnh ton c la chn da vo cc gi tr tiu biu ca
chng trong thc t. Phn mm tnh ton m phng c s dng l Mathcad2001 v Excel.
L
1
(1)
, L
2
(1)
l chiu di ca 2 loi si quang c tn sc khc nhau c s dng trong phn on
ng truyn t trc EDFA v L
1
(2)
, L
2
(2)
t sau. Chng tng ng vi si quang n mode
SMF c tn sc D
1
=18ps/nm.km v si dch chuyn tn sc DSF c tn sc D
2
= -2ps/nm.km
vi t l chiu di ca 2 loi si ny trong mi phn l 4,76/45,24 [2] thc hin b tn sc
ti bc sng 1550nm. bin thin tn sc theo bc sng ca 2 loi si l
dD
1,2
( )=0,07ps/nm.km.
Cc tham s c bn ca tuyn truyn dn c trnh by trong bng 1 sau y [1][2],
[3],[4]:
Tham s Gi tr
8 bc sng c a vo s dng 1550nm, 1551nm... 1557nm.
Phm vi h s khuch i ca EDFA
G = 1dB 40dB
Chiu di tuyn truyn dn L = 150km
Suy hao ti mi mi ni

2
= 0,1dB
Suy hao ca 2 loi si quang

1
= 0,21dB/km
D tr suy hao 4dB
Chiu di mi cun cp si quang 4km
Chit sut li si quang n
0
= 1,5
cm ng phi tuyn bc 3
= 4.10
-15
m
3
/W.s
Din tch hiu dng ca li si A
eff
= 50.10
-12
m
2

S mode truyn ca qu trnh phn cc m
t
= 2
H s pht x t pht ca EDFA n
sp
= 1,26
Bng thng quang ca b lc quang i trc mi b thu
B
0
= 0,1nm 12,5GHz
Di cng sut ngun pht quang
-10dBm 5dBm
Di cng sut ca my thu ti mi knh thng tin
-25dBm -10dBm.
Kt qu tnh ton v m phng c th hin nh sau:
V tr t EDFA ti u trn tuyn l t cch b pht quang 56km tng ng vi mc
cng sut pht quang tng knh (sau b MUX) l 2dBm, h s khuch i ca EDFA l 13dB
v khi t s OSNR thu c ca knh thp nht (knh s 4) trong 8 knh l 42,9dB (hnh
1).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
42. 9
42. 95
43
43. 05
Vi tr i kenh
T
i

s
o

O
S
N
R

(
d
B
)
.
.
Hnh 3. Quan h gia OSNR theo cc knh tng ng vi Ptx=2dBm, G=13dB v b EDFA
t cch b pht quang 56km. Knh s 4 tng ng vi OSNR thp nht nn l knh c
chn kho st thm mi quan h gia cng tn hiu, nhiu, OSNR theo h s khuch i G
ca EDFA
0 10 20 30 40
100
81. 25
62. 5
43. 75
25
6. 25
12. 5
31. 25
50
Co n g s ua t n h ie u FWM
Co n g s ua t n h ie u ASE
Co n g s ua t tin hieu
He so khuech dai (dB)
C
o
n
g

s
u
a
t

n
h
i
e
u

F
W
M
,


A
S
E
,

t
i
n

h
i
e
u
(
d
B
m
)
.
Hnh 4. Quan h gia cng sut nhiu FWM, ASE v
cng sut tn hiu ca knh 4 vi Ptx=2dBm theo h
s khuch i G
0 10 20 30 40
0
20
40
60
He so khuech dai (dB)
T
i

s
o

O
S
N
R

(
d
B
)
.
Hnh 5. Quan h gia OSNR ca knh 4 tng
ng vi Ptx = 2dBm theo h s khuch i G ca
EDFA
_Nhp cc thng s si quang: no, ,
, D1, D2, Aeff, dD/d .
_Nhp cc thng s khc: m
t
, h, c,
,
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
,
5
,
6
,
7
,
8
.
_Nhp vo chiu di ca tuyn: L
L
_Tnh cng sut tn hiu ti u vo my thu:
P(Ptx,G)
_Tnh cng sut nhiu FWM ti knh m:
Ptot(m,L1,Ptx,G)
_Tnh cng sut nhiu ASE ti knh m:
Pase(m,L1,G)
_Tnh t s tn hiu trn nhiu quang ca knh
m:
OSNRdB(m,L1,Ptx,G)
_Tnh OSNRdB nh nht trong cc
knh:
OSNRdBmin(L1,Ptx, G)
_Bt u vi Ptx = -1dBm; G = 10dB;
L1 =50km
_Tnh OSNRdBmin(50,-1,10) K
For Ptx = -10,
-9..2
For G = 1, 2..40
(G+Ptx-0,21.L1-0,1.L/4)
2
-25 < G+Ptx-0,21.L-7,7
<-10?
For L1 = 0,1, 2..L
Tnh OSNRdBmin (L1,Ptx,G)
OSNRdBmin(L1,Ptx,G)
> K?
OSNRdBmin(L1,Ptx,G)
K.
Nhn cc gi tr
L1,Ptx,G
_V tr t EDFA: L1 _Cng sut
pht: Ptx
_H s khuch i G _T s OSNR
_Cng sut tn hiu thu c.
Bt
u
Kt
thc
Yes
Yes
No
No
Hnh 6. Lu thut ton xc
nh cc thng s ti u ca
tuyn truyn dn
Da vo 2 th hnh 4 v 5 ta thy cng sut tn hiu tng gn nh tuyn tnh theo G,
trong khi trong on G = 1dB 22dB, nhiu ASE l nhiu tri so vi nhiu FWM nn tc
ng chnh n t s OSNR, loi nhiu ny c tc tng tng t nh i vi tn hiu nn
OSNR trong on ny gim khng ng k. Trong on cn li G = 23dB 40dB, cng sut
nhiu FWM tng nhanh v ln hn nhiu so vi nhiu ASE nn n l nhiu tri v lm OSNR
gim i ng k. Nh vy, OSNR ln nht t ti G = 1dB. Tuy nhin h s khuch i ny
lm cng sut tn hiu thu c ti my thu qu nh (khng nm trong di cng sut lm vic
ca my thu) nn phi tng G n 13dB.
th hnh 7 v 8 cho thy cng sut tn hiu v cng sut nhiu FWM u tng
theo Ptx, cng sut nhiu ASE khng thay i theo Ptx, tuy nhin cng sut nhiu FWM d
tng ln vn nh hn nhiu so vi nhiu ASE do tng cng sut nhiu nh hng n h
thng ch yu l nhiu ASE gn nh khng i v vy t s OSNR tng ln theo Ptx. Nh trn
th ta thy t s OSNR ln nht t ti mc Ptx = 2dBm.
Tin hnh cc bc tnh ton tng t nh trn cho cc tuyn c chiu di thay i t
100km n 250km vi bc thay i l 10km, chng ti xc nh c cc thng s ti u, t
lp thnh bng 2 v v th nh hnh 9. T y ta c th kt lun h s khuch i v v
tr t EDFA ti u tng t l vi chiu di tuyn, trong khi t s tn hiu trn nhiu OSNR
ti u th li gim khi khong cch tuyn truyn dn tng ln.
Bng 2. Cc thng s ti u ng vi cc tuyn truyn dn c chiu di khc nhau.
Chiu di
tuyn (km)
Mc cng sut
pht ti u (dBm)
H s khuch
i ti u (dB)
V tr t EDFA
ti u (km)
T s OSNR
ti u (dB)
100 2 1 5 57,72
110 2 3 13 53,48
120 2 6 26 50,13
130 2 8 35 48,03
140 2 10 43 46,04
150 2 13 56 42,92
160 2 15 64 40,98
170 2 17 73 38,83
180 2 20 86 35,76
190 2 22 94 33,87
3
Hnh 7. Quan h gia cng sut (CS) nhiu FWM,
ASE v CS tn hiu ca knh 4 ng vi G=13dB
theo CS Ptx.
Hnh 8. Quan h gia OSNR ca knh th
4 ng vi G=13dB theo cng sut pht Ptx
200 2 25 107 30,81
210 2 27 115 28,92
220 2 29 124 26,81
230 2 32 137 23,75
240 2 34 145 21,87
250 2 36 154 19,75
5. Kt lun
Kt qu nghin cu ny c th c s dng hiu qu trong cng tc thit k v khai
thc mng. ng vi mi tuyn truyn dn c th c chiu di khc nhau ta c th xc nh
ngay c mc cng sut pht, h s khuch i ca EDFA v v tr t EDFA ti u trn
tuyn thng tin truyn i t cht lng tt nht.
TI LIU THAM KHO
[1] Nguyn Vn Tun, Nguyn Tn Hng, "Tnh ton s knh truyn cc i trong h
thng WDM c EDFA mc chui di tc dng ca hiu ng FWM v nhiu ASE
tch lu", Chuyn san tp ch Bu chnh Vin thng, s 12, thng 8 nm 2004, trang
25-32.
[2] Wolgang Zeiler, Fabrizio Di Pasquale, member IEEE, Polina Bayvel, Member IEEE,
and John E. Midwinter, IEEE, Modeling of Four-Wave Mixing and Gain Peaking in
Amplified WDM Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Journal of
Lightwave Technology, Vol. 14, No. 9, September 1996.
[3] Nortel Networks Optera Long Haul 1600G, December 2002.
[4] P.C. Becker, N. A. Olson, Erbiumdoped fiber amplifiers, Fundamentals and
Technology, Academic Press, 1999.
V tr t EDFA ti u
T s OSNR ti u
H s khuch i G ti u
Hnh 9. th biu din mi quan h gia h s khuch i G,
OSNR v v tr t EDFA ti u theo chiu di cc tuyn truyn dn
khc nhau.