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Sau khi c ti liu v PPPoE ti link http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2516.html em c mt s khi nim c bn v PPPoE. Anh em ai c hng th v ch ny th post bi cng bn lun . 1.

. PPPoE l mt giao thc vi c hnh thnh bi s ng gi d liu ca gi tin PPP trong gi tin Ethernet 2. PPPoE gm hai giai on Discovery stage v PPP Session stage a) Ti sao li c giai on ny Discovery stage: - PPP l giao thc ng gi d liu truyn gia hai im Point to point, trong khi mi trng ethernet gi tin c rt nhiu im n nn giai on ny nhm xc inh im n duy nht cho gi tin PPP. b) Cch thc hot ng - Gi tin ethernet bao gm cc thnh phn: DESTINATION_ADDR. SOURCE_ADDR, ETHER_TYPE , payload, CHECKSUM. Ban u v cha xc nh c im truy cp ca nh cung cp dch v nn client s thc hin giai oan discover xc nh im n bng cch gi gi tin ethernet vi SOURCE_ADDR l a ch broadcast. PPPoE client s nhn c s tr li ca nhiu Server v s chn 1 thc hin kt ni PPP (PPP session stage).Sau khi PPP Session thit lp th PPPoE client v server s lin lc vi nhau qua 1 interface o c to trn my client.

Trong mng my tnh, Point-to-Point Protocol (hoc PPP) l mt giao thc lin kt d liu, thng c dng thit lp mt kt ni trc tip gia 2 nt mng. N c th cung cp kt ni xc thc, m ha vic truyn d liu... PPP c s dng bng nhiu kiu mng vt l khc nhau, bao gm cp tun t (serial cable), dy in thoi, mng in thoi, radio v cp quang ging nh SONET. a phn cc nh cung cp dch v Internet u s dng PPP cho khch hng truy cp Internet. Hai kiu ng gi d liu ca PPP l PPPoE (Point-toPoint Protocol over Ethernet) v PPPoA (Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM), chng c s dng bi cc nh cung cp dch v Internet kt ni ti dch v Internet.

PPPoE, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet, is a network protocol for encapsulating PPP frames in Ethernet frames. It is used mainly with ADSL services. It offers standard PPP features such as authentication, encryption, and compression. Unfortunately it has an MTU lower than that of standard Ethernet which can sometimes cause problems with badly configured firewalls. PPPoE is a tunnel protocol which allows one to layer IP, or other protocols that run over PPP, over a connection between two Ethernet ports, but with the software features of a PPP link, so it is used to virtually \"dial\" to another Ethernet machine and make a point to point connection with it, which is then used to transport IP packets, based on the features of PPP. It allows the use of traditional PPP-based software to handle a connection which does not use a serial line, but a packet-oriented network like Ethernet, to provide a classical connection with login and password for Internet connection accounting. Also, the IP address on the other side of the link is only assigned when the PPPoE connection is open, allowing the dynamic reuse of IP addresses. PPPoE is the protocol used by Bell Sympatico and many other ADSL carriers for connecting high-speed modems to the service provider http://vntelecom.org/diendan/showthread.php?t=4498&page=3

http://athena.edu.vn/cisco-ccna-ccnp-ccie/5823-cau-hinh-pppoe-server-vapppoe-client.html

cc bc post g m lon c ln. khng chnh khng chu ni. Nguyn tc chung ca vic xc thc v tnh cc trong dch v ADSL/ADSL2+ nh sau: modem-------->DSLAM------BRAS-------ISP hin nay tt c cc nh cung cp dch v ti Vit Nam khi cung cp dch v ADSL u dng c ch PPPoE to kt ni PPP (layer 2) tunnel t BRAS n modem. 1-khi mt user mun vo mng n s gi mt bn tin yu cu c kt ni n BRAS

2-bn tin ny i ngang qua DSLAM s c DSLAM forward tip m khng can thip vo hoc c can thip vo thay i mt s thng s tuz theo yu cu cu hnh (v d thay i a ch MAC ca modem, thm tag option 82 vo)//ci v ny cc bc c t t nghin cu tip i n cng ging nh DHCP option 82 vy! 3-khi n BRAS, BRAS l mt PPPoE sever cn modem l PPPoE client, cc bc c vo cu hnh con modem u thy PPPoE v yu cu nhp username v password. Ti y (BRAS) s c bn tin yu cu thit lp kt ni m modem gi ln (bn tin bc 1 ), ni s ly nhiu tham s trong c 2 tham s chnh dng xc thc l username v password. 3'- Cc thng s ny (username & PW) s c BRAS chuyn n RADIUS sever lm nhim v AAA (xc thc, phn quyn, tnh cc). Lc ny BRAS ng vai tr l RADIUS client ni chuyn vi RADIUS sever nh. 4- RADIUS sever s kim tra trong CSDL ca mnh (tc l cc thng s lin quan n khch hng khi ng k dch v), CSDL thng dng l Oracle: + nu xc thc username v PW sai, hoc n cc chng hn th khng vo c mng u nh. Cc bc s thy n PPP trn modem ti thui. + nu xc thc OK th RADIUS server s bo cho BRAS bit l cho php thit lp PPP section, ng thi s cp pht cho modem mt a ch IP public ra internet 5- BRAS s gi bn tin thit lp PPP tunnel xung modem c km theo a ch IP, ng thi n cng s gi cc trng start time, stop time, ...cho RADIUS bt u m lu lng ca user nh. Mt ci na khng th thiu l BRAS s lm vic nh mt router bin (Edge router) nh tuyn a ch ny ra internet theo chnh sch ca ISP. 6-Bc ny l bc tnh tin n, RADIUS server s c kt ni vi Billing server tnh cc t lu lng ra thnh tin VND. Tm li khi tham gia vo qu trnh xc thc user chc nng ca cc phn t l: -modem: PPPoE client -DSLAM: PPPoE forwarding -BRAS: + PPPoE sever + RADIUS client

+ Router + DHCP sever (nu dng BRAS pht a ch cho modem) : option - RADIUS server: AAA - Billing server: traffic -> money Tt c mi ch l nguyn l chung.

DSLAM c cu trc gm khi giao tip pha xa (RT remote terminal) (ti khch hng) v khi giao tip pha tng i (CO center office) nh anh ni. Theo em c hc th c 3 th h DSLAM nh sau: + Th h th nhtHng bit c up c nh ln ko)

c im: H tr tc gia RT v CO l lung E1 hoc DS3 , gia CO v tng i s dng cp ng vi cc lung DS0 (64kbps). +Th h th 2 gm 2 th h con: - th h con th nht:

-Th h con th 2: c im:H tr giao din STM1 (155,52 Mbps) s dng cp quang gia RT v

CO. S khc nhau gia 2 th h con ch l giao din vi tng i th h th nht s dng cc lung DS0, cn loi th 2 s dng tc E1. + Th h th 3:

c im: S dng cp quang, h tr tc STM-1/4/16, c thm b truy nhp tch hp pha khch hng cho php nhiu dch v (thoi, fax, ISDN...)c th c s dng.:d C g thiu st anh em b xung nha)

Em a thm ci m hnh kt ni ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL cho cc bc tham kho:

Trong : + CPE: thit b u cui khch hng Thc hin chc nng bin i tn hiu ngi s dng thnh tn hiu xDSL v ngc li nh cc thit b: PC NIC, DSL modem, DSL bridge, router. + DSLAM: Thit b ghp knh truy nhp. C chc nng trc tip cung cp cng giao tip n khch hng, tp trung ng dy thu bao ring l truyn ti lp cao hn (DSLAM-Hub/BRAS) v ngc li. + DSLAM-Hub: Thit b tp trung lu lng truy nhp. Chc nng tp trung lu lng t cc DSLAM truyn ti ln lp trn (BRAS) v ngc li. Ngoi ra c chc nng ghp knh truy nhp v trc tip cung cp cng kt ni ti khch hng trong khu vc phc v.

+ BRAS: Thit b truy nhp bng rng t xa. C chc nng tp trung cc kt ni v trung tm t cc DSLAM-Hub.

Phn bit DSLAM v BRAS DSLAM (DSL Access Multiplexer) c th hiu l thit b c th tp hp nhiu kt ni thu bao ADSL (c th nhiu ti hng trm thu bao) v t li trn mt kt ni cp quang. Si cp quang ny thng c ni ti thit b gi l BRAS (Broadband Access Server), nhng n c th khng ni trc tip ti BRAS v BRAS c th c t ti bt c u. DSLAM l thit b t pha tng i, l im cui ca kt ni ADSL. N cha v s cc Modem ADSL b tr v mt pha hng ti cc mch vng v pha kia l kt ni cp quang. BRAS (Broadband Access Server) c th hiu l thit b t gia DSLAM v POP ca ISP. Mt thit b BRAS c th phc v nhiu DSLAM. Mc ch ca BRAS l m gi hon tr li cc giao thc trc khi i vo Internet, n cng m bo cho kt ni ca bn ti ISP c chnh xc ging nh bn s dng Modem quay s hoc ISDN.

cho cc bn mnh c m hnh nh sau: khch hng->router adsl->dslam->bras->ISP CHO MNH hi: -y c ng l m hnh ADSL ang s dng khng -nu ng th t DSLAM ni ti BRAS bng cp chun g v t BRAS ni n ISP bng phng thc no.chi tit th no -IP public do thit b no cp DSLAM hay BRAS, Nu ai c ti liu cu hnh 2 thit b no th cho mnh xin vi. -C bn no lm bn vin thng(buu din) c th post m hnh cung cp ADSL tng t nh m hnh trn cho anh em thao kho vi(cch lp t, chi tit cng tt) cm n cc bn quan tm n topic ca mnh

1. M hnh bn a ra gn ging vi m hnh cung cp dch v ADSL ca mt ISP. Trong thc t th gia Dslam v Bras c thm cc Switch Agg, cc Dslam s kt ni ti cc Switch Agg ny ri mi n Bras, mc ch l tit kim port cho Bras. 2. Dslam s kt ni ti cc Switch Agg dng cp FE hay GE ty thuc vo loi card gn trn Switch Agg h tr, tng t nh vy cho on t Bras n ISP. 3. Dslam l mt thit b Layer2, n ch chuyn mch d liu. IP public s do Bras cp cho modem ADSL. 4. Cn v vn post m hnh (cch lp t, cu hnh thit b) th khng c ri, bi v vn ny c lin quan n s nghip, b ui vic ch chng chi,kekeke, cho nn thng cm nh!!! ADSL l g ? Hiu mt cch n gin nht, ADSL l s thay th vi tc cao cho thit b Modem hoc ISDN gip truy nhp Internet vi tc cao v nhanh hn. Cc biu sau ch ra cc tc cao nht c th t c gia cc dch v cung cp. ADSL c ngha nh th no? ADSL vit tt ca Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line - l ng thu bao s khng i xng, k thut truyn c s dng trn ng dy t Modem ca thu bao ti Nh cung cp dch v. Asymmetric: Tc truyn khng ging nhau hai chiu. Tc ca chiu xung (t mng ti thu bao) c th nhanh gp hn 10 ln so vi tc ca chiu ln (t thu bao ti mng). iu ny ph hp mt cch tuyt vi cho vic khai thc dch v Internet khi m ch cn nhn chut (tng ng vi lu lng nh thng tin m thu bao gi i) l c th nhn c mt lu lng ln d liu ti v t Internet.

Digital: Cc Modem ADSL hot ng mc bt (0 & 1) v dng chuyn thng tin s ho gia cc thit b s nh cc my tnh PC. Chnh kha cnh ny th ADSL khng c g khc vi cc Modem thng thng. Subscriber Line: ADSL t n ch hot ng trn ng dy thu bao bnh thng ni ti tng i ni ht. ng dy thu bao ny vn c th c tip tc s dng cho cc cuc gi i hoc nghe in thoi cng mt thi im thng qua thit b gi l "Splitters" c chc nng tch thoi v d liu trn ng dy. NG DNG CA ADSL ADSL dng lm g ? ADSL xc lp cch thc d liu c truyn gia thu bao (nh ring hoc cng s) v tng i thoi ni ht trn chnh ng dy in thoi bnh thng. Chng ta vn thng gi cc ng dy ny l local loop. Thc cht ca ng dng ADSL khng phi vic truyn d liu i/n tng i in thoi ni ht m l to ra kh nng truy nhp Internet vi tc cao. Nh vy, vn nm vic xc lp kt ni d liu ti Nh cung cp dch v Internet. Mc d chng ta cho rng ADSL c s dng truyn d liu bng cc giao thc Internet, nhng trn thc t vic thc hin iu nh th no li khng phi l c trng k thut ca ADSL. Hin nay, phn ln ngi ta ng dng ADSL cho truy nhp Internet tc cao v s dng cc dch v trn Internet mt cch nhanh hn. C CH HOT NG ADSL vn hnh ra sao? ADSL tm cch khai thc phn bng thng tng t cn cha c s dng trn ng dy ni t thu bao ti tng i ni ht. ng dy ny c thit k chuyn ti di ph tn s (frequency spectrum) chim bi cuc thoi bnh

thng. Tuy nhin, n cng c th chuyn ti cc tn s cao hn di ph tng i hn ch dnh cho thoi. l di ph m ADSL s dng. Thoi c bn s dng di tn s t 300Hz ti 3,400Hz. By gi chng ta s xem xt, thoi v d liu ADSL chia x cng mt ng dy thu bao ra sao. Trn thc t, cc Splitter c s dng m bo d liu v thoi khng xm phm ln nhau trn ng truyn. Cc tn s m mch vng c th chuyn ti, hay ni cch khc l khi lng d liu c th chuyn ti s ph thuc vo cc nhn t sau: Khong cch t tng i ni ht. Kiu v dy ng dy. Kiu v s lng cc mi ni trn ng dy. Mt cc ng dy chuyn ti ADSL, ISDN v cc tn hiu phi thoi khc. Mt cc ng dy chuyn ti tn hiu radio. U IM CA ADSL ADSL: So snh vi PSTN & ISDN Vy s khc nhau c hu gia ADSL vi Modem quay s truyn thng v ISDN l nh th no? PSTN v ISDN l cc cng ngh quay s (Dial-up). ADSL l 'lin tc/always-on" kt ni trc tip. PSTN v ISDN cho php chng ta s dng Fax, d liu, thoi, d liu ti Internet,

d liu ti cc thit b khc. ADSL ch chuyn ti d liu ti Internet. PSTN v ISDN cho php chng ta tuz chn ISP no m ta mun kt ni. ADSL kt ni chng ta ti mt ISP nh trc. ISDN chy tc c s 64kbps hoc 128kbps. ADSL c th ti d liu v vi tc ti 8Mbps. PSTN ngt truy nhp ti Internet khi chng ta thc hin cuc gi. ADSL cho php va s dng Internet trong khi vn c th thc hin cuc gi ng thi. Kt ni Internet qua ng PSTN v ISDN bng phng thc quay s c tnh cc ni ht. ADSL khng tnh cc ni ht. Ghi ch: Mc d Modem ADSL lun ch kt ni thng trc, nhng vn c th cn phi thc hin lnh kt ni Internet trn my PC. Cc dch v nh Fax v thoi c th c thc hin cng trn kt ni d liu ADSL ti Internet. Trn thc t, tc Download tiu biu i vi dch v ADSL gia nh thng t ti (up to) 400kbps

Dng bao nhiu, tr by nhiu. Cu trc cc theo lu lng s dng (Hoc theo thi gian s dng). Khng hn ch s ngi s dng khi chia s kt ni Internet trong mng ni b. CC THNH PHN CA ADSL

Gii thiu Trong phn ny chng ta s ln lt m t chc nng ca tng thnh phn ca ADSL, bt u t Modem ADSL ti Nh cung cp dch v Internet. Chng ta cng xem xt pha ISP lc ra nhng thnh phn c bn m h s dng cung cp dch v ADSL. Modem ADSL l g? Modem ADSL kt ni vo ng dy in thoi (cn gi l local loop) v ng dy ny ni ti thit b tng i ni ht. Modem ADSL s dng kt hp mt lot cc k thut x l tn hiu tin tin nhm t c tc bng thng cn thit trn ng dy in thoi thng thng vi khong cch ti vi km gia thu bao v tng i ni ht.

Modem ADSL lm vic nh th no? ADSL hot ng bng cch vn hnh cng lc nhiu Modem, trong mi Modem s dng phn bng thng ring c th. S trn y ch m phng mt cch tng i, nhng qua ta c th nhn thy ADSL s dng rt nhiu Modem ring l hot ng song song khai thc bng thng ti a v cung cp mt tc rt cao. Mi ng k sc en trn th hin mt Modem v chng hot ng ti cc

tn s hon ton khc nhau. Trn thc t c th ti 255 Modem hot ng trn mt ng ADSL. im c bit ch ADSL s dng di tn s t 26kHz ti 1.1MHz trong 10MHz ca bng thng thoi. Tt c 255 Modems ny c vn hnh ch trn mt con chp n. Lng d liu m mi Modem c th truyn ti ph thuc vo cc c im ca ng dy ti tn s m Modem chim. Mt s Modem c th khng lm vic mt cht no v s gy nhiu t ngun tn hiu bn ngoi chng hn nh bi mt ng dy (local loop) khc hoc ngun pht v tuyn no . Cc Modem tn s cao hn thng thng li truyn ti c t d liu hn bi l tn s cng cao th s suy hao cng ln, c bit l trn mt khong cch di.

Mch vng / Local Loop l g ? 'Local loop' l thut ng dng ch cc ng dy in thoi bnh thng ni t v tr ngi s dng ti cng ty in thoi. Nguyn nhn xut hin thut ng local loop - l ngi nghe (in thoi) c kt ni vo hai ng dy m nu nhn t tng i in thoi th chng to ra mt mch vng local loop. CC THNH PHN ADSL T PHA NH CUNG CP DCH V By gi chng ta s tm hiu xem cc ISP thc hin cung cp ADSL nh th no. Nh ch ra trong khi vng trn, phm vi Nh cung cp dch v gm c ba thnh phn quan trng DSLAM - DSL Access Multiplexer. BAS - Broadband Access Server.

ISP - Internet Service Provider. DSLAM l g? Mt thit b DSLAM c th tp hp nhiu kt ni thu bao ADSL - c th nhiu ti hng trm thu bao - v t li trn mt kt ni cp quang. Si cp quang ny thng c ni ti thit b gi l BAS - Broadband Access Server, nhng n cng c th khng ni trc tip ti BAS v BAS c th c t ti bt c u. DSLAM l thit b t pha tng i, l im cui ca kt ni ADSL. N cha v s cc Modem ADSL b tr v mt pha hng ti cc mch vng v pha kia l kt ni cp quang. Vy BAS l g? Broadband Access Server (BAS) l thit b t gia DSLAM v POP ca ISP. Mt thit b BAS c th phc v cho nhiu DSLAM. Cc giao thc truyn thng c ng gi truyn d liu thng qua kt ni ADSL, v vy mc ch ca BAS l m gi hon tr li cc giao thc trc khi i vo Internet. N cng m bo cho kt ni ca bn ti ISP c chnh xc ging nh khi bn s dng Modem quay s hoc ISDN. Nh ch gii trn, ADSL khng ch r cc giao thc c s dng to thnh kt ni ti Internet. Phng php m PC v Modem s dng bt buc phi ging nh BAS s dng cho kt ni thc hin c. Thng thng ADSL s dng hai giao thc chnh l : PPPoE - PPP over Ethernet Protocol. PPPoA - Point to Point Protocol over ATM. KT NI MNG Cc thnh phn kt ni nh th no?

Di y s trnh by v nhng giao thc truyn thng c s dng trn kt ni ADSL. Khi kt ni vo Internet, bn s dng cc giao thc chy tng vn chuyn TCP/IP (chng hn nh HTTP - giao thc c s dng bi cc Web Browser). Qu trnh ny l ging nhau vi cc kiu truy nhp quay s qua PSTN, ISDN v ADSL. Cc giao thc c s dng gia Modem v BAS Khi quay s PSTN/ISDN truy nhp vo Internet, chng ta s dng giao thc gi l PPP vn chuyn d liu TCP/IP v kim tra cng nh xc thc tn v mt khu ngi truy nhp. Trong ADSL, PPP cng thng c s dng kim tra tn v mt khu truy nhp, v ATM th lun c s dng mc thp nht. Kt ni in hnh nh di y : Vai tr ca ATM ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode - c s dng nh l cng c chuyn ti cho ADSL mc thp. L{ do v l cch thun tin v mm do i vi cc cng ty thoi mun ko di khong cch kt ni t DSLAM ti BAS gip h c th t BAS bt c u trn mng. Cc tham s thit lp cu hnh ATM C hai tham s cn phi thit lp cu hnh mt cch chnh xc trn Modem ADSL m bo kt ni thnh cng ti mc ATM vi DSLAM: VPI - the Virtual Path Identifier. VCI - the Virtual Channel Identifier. CU TRC CA ADSL

Vai tr ca PPP PPP l giao thc dng vn chuyn lu lng Internet ti ISP dc theo cc kt ni Modem v ISDN. PPP kt hp cht ch cc yu t xc thc - kim tra tn/mt khu - v l l{ do chnh m ngi ta dng PPP vi ADSL. Mc d BAS thc thi giao thc PPP v tin hnh vic xc thc, nhng thc ra vic c thc hin bng cch truy nhp vo cc c s d liu khch hng t ti ISP. Bng cch , ISP bit c rng cc kt ni do BAS nh tuyn ti c xc thc thng qua giao dch vi c s d liu ring ca ISP. MODEM ADSL TRN THC T Cc loi modem ADSL thng minh v th ng Modem ADSL thng minh bn thn n tch hp sn cc giao thc truyn thng cn thit (Nh thit b Modem ADSL Router hoc Modem c s dng kt ni qua cng Card Ethernet 10/100Mb) nn ch vic la chn v khai bo VPI/VCI cho Modem. Cn Modem ADSL th ng th phi hot ng da trn h iu hnh ca my tnh cung cp cc giao thc cn thit. Cc loi Modem ny bt buc phi ci t phn mm iu khin Modem v thit lp cc giao thc PPP, VPI/VCI. Vic cu hnh nh vy phc tp v i hi thi gian nhiu hn. Ch c Windows 98SE, Windows ME v Windows 2000/XP l c ci sn c ch thc thi ATM, v th ngi ta t s dng cc Modem th ng trn thc t. Mc d cc Modem thng minh c h tr cc giao thc cn thit nhng chng vn c th c dng cho cc h iu hnh ni trn. Cc Modem th ng c th ni vi PC thng qua giao din USB, hoc c th c sn xut di dng PCI Card cm thng trn bng mch ch ca PC. Lu l vic khai thc giao thc ATM khng c ngha l cn phi c Card mng ATM cho PC - ch l c ch h tr bng phn mm trong h iu hnh. MI TNG QUAN GIA THOI V ADSL

Thoi v ADSL cng chung sng ra sao? ADSL cho php cng lc va truy nhp Internet tc cao li va c th thc hin cuc gi cng trn ng dy . Thit b chuyn dng Splitters c s dng tch ring cc tn s cao dng cho ADSL v cc tn s thp dng cho thoi. Nh vy, ngi ta thng t cc Splitters ti mi u ca ng dy - pha thu bao v pha DSLAM. Ti pha thu bao, cc tn s thp c chuyn n my in thoi cn cc tn s cao i n modem ADSL. Ti cc tng i, cc tn s thp c chuyn sang mng thoi PSTN cn cc tn s cao i n ISP. Tc a dng Tc ca kt ni gia modem ADSL v DSLAM ph thuc vo khong cch ng truyn v tc ti a c cu hnh sn trn cng ca DSLAM. Cn tc kt ni vo Internet li cn ph thuc vo nhiu yu t khc na nh di y : S ngi dng kt ni vo cng mt DSLAM v thc t c bao nhiu ngi dng ang khai thc kt ni. Tc kt ni gia DSLAM v BAS. Bao nhiu card DSLAM cng ni vo mt BAS v bao nhiu ngi dng ang khai thc thc t kt ni. Tc kt ni gia BAS v ISP. Bao nhiu BAS kt ni vo ISP v bao nhiu ngi dng thc t ang khai thc. Tc ca kt ni t ISP ti mng Internet ton cu.

Bao nhiu thu bao ca ISP ang khai thc (qua cc giao tip khc nhau nh quay s PSTN/ ISDN v ADSL). ISP t chc Caching v Proxy ra sao, liu thng tin m bn cn khai thc c lu tr trn Cache cha hay phi ti v t Internet. http://www.ptic.com.vn/adsl/