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Code Division Multiple Access

(CDMA)
What Is Code Division Multiple Access?

• Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), is a


digital cellular technology that uses spread-
spectrum techniques.
• Unlike competing systems, such as GSM, that
use TDMA, CDMA does not assign a specific
frequency to each user.
• In CDMA every channel uses the full available
spectrum.
• CDMA in Technical Term IS-95.
History And Development Of CDMA
• CDMA is first used in military based communication technology used during
World War II by English allies to Stop German attempts to decode
transmissions.
• A Company named Qualcomm created communications chips and designs
for CDMA technology and later claimed patents on the technology.
• Claude Shannon and Robert Pierce had provided CDMA
framework in 1949.
• De-Rosa-Rogoff defined the direct sequence spread spectrum method in
1950.
• Cellular spread-spectrum application was suggested by Cooper
and Nettleton in 1978.
• IS-95, the narrow band CDMA mobile network, has been
standardized in 1993 and commercial networks were introduced
in 1995.
• 3G wideband CDMA systems, such as CDMA2000 in U.S. and
European WCDMA developed from 1990s and still ongoing.
CDMA Working Schemes
• For Wireless systems there are two simple and common
resources, frequency and time.
• Division by frequency, so that each pair of communicators
is allocated part of the spectrum for all of the time, results
in Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA).
• Division by time, so that each pair of communicators is
allocated all (or at least a large part) of the spectrum for
part of the time results in Time Division Multiple Access
(TDMA).
• In Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), every
communicator will be allocated the entire spectrum all of
the time. CDMA uses codes to identify connections.
Multiple Access Schemes
CDMA Coding Procedure
• CDMA is based on Coding Theory.
• Each station is assigned a code which is a
sequence of numbers called CHIPS.
• In this example we have four stations
each has a sequence of chips which
designate as A,B,C, and D.
Rules For Encoding
We Adopt the following Rules For Encoding.
• If a station needs to send a 0 bit it sends -1.
• If a station needs to send a 1 bit it sends +1.
• When a Station is idle, it sends no signal which
is represented by 0.
CDMA Multiplexer
CDMA Demultiplexer
CDMA Different Systems

• IS-95.
• CDMA-2000 (which is also called WCDMA
in Europe).
IS-95 System
• Mainly used in U.S.
• Standard was finished in 1993 and first commercially
launched in 1996
• Basic data rate is 9,6 kbps
• Chip rate of 1.2288 Mchip/s
• Allocated bandwidth is 1.25 MHz
• “CDMA-One” was launched in 1999 with data rates up to
115,5 kbps
• Fixed spreading code of length 64
• Uses pilot channel in downlink direction to provide
synchronization,
• channel tracking, and handover functions. In the uplink
direction,
• orthogonal modulation is used, which permits the more robust
non-coherent demodulation to be used.
CDMA-2000
The third generation evolution phase of IS-95A/B
• CDMA2000 1x
• Offer up to 307 kbps data rates (compare to EDGE)
• Use same 1.25 MHz as IS-95/CDMAOne
• CDMA2000 1xEV-DO
• CDMA2000 1xEV-DO delivers peak data speeds of 2.4Mbps and supports
applications such as MP3 transfers and video conferencing
• CDMA2000 1xEV-DV
• CDMA2000 1xEV-DV provides integrated voice and simultaneous high-
speed packet data multimedia services at speeds of up to 3.09 Mbps.
• 1xEV-DO and 1xEV-DV are both backward compatible with CDMA2000
• 1X and CDMAOne.
• The first 3G networks to be commercially deployed were launched in
Korea in October 2000.
Future Of CDMA
• CDMA has overcome most cynicism to dominate the
worldwide wireless voice market.
• What about data services? Scheduling vs.Inteference Averaging
• CDMA appears to be an underdog for 4G, but still may win
• Ongoing research on CDMA
• Increase capacity by joint decoding (multiuser detection &
interference cancellation)
• Applying CDMA to other applications: optical CDMA, adhoc
networks, dense wireless LANs etc.
• “MultiCDMA”: multiple antenna CDMA, multicarrier CDMA,
multicode CDMA etc.
Conclusion
• CDMA is probably the most interesting multiple access
method provided by spread-spectrum technology
• Nowadays systems such as CDMA2000, its evolution versions,
and European WCDMA are becoming more and more popular,
as the networks are open commercially around the world.
• CDMA appears to be an underdog for 4G, but still may win.
• Ongoing researches on CDMA are as follows.
• Increase capacity by joint decoding (multi-user detection &
interference cancellation)
• Applying CDMA to other applications: optical CDMA, ad hoc
networks, dense wireless LANs.
• “Multi-CDMA”: multiple antenna CDMA, multi-carrier CDMA, multi-
code CDMA