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Pilot c th c hiu nh nhng mu k t dn ng, lm hoa tiu.

Tn hiu bn pht khi truyn qua knh v tuyn th bin v pha b thay i. OFDM s dng pilot c lng v cn bng knh truyn. Nh c th thu li tn hiu c hnh dng ging nh bn pht. Bn cnh chc nng chnh , ngi ta cng c th s dng lun pilot cho khu ng b. Bn pht v bn thu u bit trc v pilot, bit trc v cch chn pilot, m hnh pilot. Fading la chn tn s (selective fading) ch loi Fading m suy hao a ng ca n ph thuc vo tn s. Nguyn nhn dn n kiu Fading ny l do hin tng phn tp a ng. Cc tia sng b khc x theo nhiu hng(c im khc x thay i), b phn x bi nhiu vt chn nn chng phi truyn t my thu n my pht theo nhng con ng khc nhau, chnh v vy nn thi im n my thu cng khc nhau => lch pha khc nhau => suy hao. Vi nhng h thng vo tuyn dung lng cao(c 70 -80 Mbps tr ln) th bng tn tn hiu kh rng (C ~ B ) nn s suy hao ph thuc vo tn s s r rt hn. Chnh v vy thng quan tm ti hin tng Fading la chn tn s trong cc h thng thng ti v tuyn s dung lng ln. sng mang con c bin bng 0 (l cc sng mang con khng b chim) - Ly mu tn hiu theo thi gian, v d nh 1 tn hiu Sin bn ly mu theo thi gian s c 1 dy ri rc, ln ca mi mu ng vi bin tn hiu ti thi im ly mu. Vy i ln ny ra s nh phn, ta c d liu dng s. - Sau dng cc thut ton x l. V d dng bin i Fourier. u tin ta c hc Fourier cho dy lin tc. Sau c hc Fourier cho dy ri rc, tc l ta c ly mu 1 s im c nh, bin i DFT. Tip sau , ta c hc bin i FFT, thc cht l DFT, nhng do p dng 1 vi li ch trong tnh ton nn nhanh hn. Vy tip theo l ti sao phi bin i FFT. Cng sut tn hiu t l vi tn s, bin i FFT tc l a tn hiu t min thi gian sang min tn s, nh vy ta thy c cc tn s tn hiu c th c, nh quan st c cng sut tn hiu. V d sin 2*pi*50t, khi cha bin i FFT ta ch thy 1 ng Sin, khi bin i FFT ta thy n l 1 vch thng tn s 50 Hz, ln ca vch th hin ln ca tn hiu.... Nh vy bin i Z, FT.. gip ta nhng cng vic x l tn hiu v sau, lin quan n tn s. Thay v t 2, 4 hoc 6 bit vi nhau nh trong v d OFDM to thnh tn hiu cho mt knh con, khi x l b sung trong SC-FDMA tri thng tin ca mi bit ra trn tt c cc knh con. iu ny c thc hin nh sau: Cng mt s bit (v d nh 4 i vi iu ch 16-QAM) c nhm li vi nhau, nhng trong OFDM, cc nhm bit ny l d liu nhp cho hm IFFT, cn trong SC-FDMA, cc bit ny c a vo mt hm FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) trc . D liu xut ca qu trnh ny l c s cho vic to ra cc knh truyn con cho hm IFFT theo sau. Bi v khng phi tt c cc knh con u c dng bi UE, nn nhiu knh c t mc khng (0) trong th. Nhng knh ny c th c dng bi cc UE khc hoc khng.

Nhng khc bit gia OFDM v SC-FDMA c th c tng kt nh sau: OFDM to ra cc nhm bit nhp (cc con s 0 v 1) lp rp vo cc knh con; sau cc knh con ny c x l bi hm IFFT c c mt tn hiu min thi gian. Ngc li, SC-FDMA trc ht chy mt hm FFT trn cc nhm bit d liu nhp ri a kt qu vo hm IFFT hm ny to ra tn hiu min thi gian. y l l do khin i khi SC-FDMA cn c gi l phng thc OFDM tri FFT (FFT spread OFDM).