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Tech (NTC) Roll No- 19 Assignment – Broadband and Multimedia Technology
xDSL Introduction •xDSL is the term for the Broadband Access technologies based on Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology –“x” signifies that there are various flavors of DSL •Provides always-on, high-speed data services over existing copper wires to residences & businesses –POTS service and DSL coexist on same copper line •Lower rate xDSL (up to 1.5 Mbps) is gaining popularity in the residential market; will get faster and cheaper •High performance xDSL (up to 52 Mbps) targets business and high-end users Benefits & Applications Benefits •High-speed data service–DSL typically >10x faster than 56-kbps analog modem •Always on connection–No need to “dial-up” •Uses existing copper wires–Co-exists w/ POTS service •Reasonably priced today and getting cheaper Applications •High speed Internet access •Multimedia, Long distance learning, gaming •Video on Demand •VPN •VoDSL
a. upstream –Suitable for applications such as web-browsing.Lite or DSL Lite •Expedites and reduces cost of deployment process by moving the splitting process from the CP to the CO •Splitter-less nature slows the bit rate considerably xDSL 15 –Rate-Adaptive DSL (RADSL) •Detects highest possible line rate & adjusts accordingly –Very High Bit-rate DSL (VDSL) •Used to get high speed over short local loops •Typically used in conjunction with Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) •Still in development phase Symmetric xDSL •“Symmetric” => downstream & upstream rates are equal –Suitable for office type apps like Video conferencing •Types of symmetric xDSL –Symmetric DSL (SDSL) •Based on HDSL but single pair •Spectral compatibility an issue (crosstalk& interference) –High bit-rate DSL (HDSL) •The first of the symmetric DSL technologies •Uses multiple wire pairs (2 or 3) to achieve high bit rates –HDSL 2 •Single-pair version of HDSL •More standards driven to improve interoperability and spectrallycompatible with other loop services (ISDN. HDSL) •also takes into consideration diminishing amount of copper pairs .k. G.Asymmetric xDSL •“Asymmetric” => faster downstream rate vs. T1. Video on demand (VoD) •Types of asymmetric DSL –Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) •The original and most popular •Other asymmetric DSL technologies derived from ADSL –Universal ADSL (UDSL). a. MP3 downloading.
–Single-pair HDSL (SHDSL) •Similar to HDSL 2. ISDN. flat rate billing. ATM. okay to pass through repeaters &DLCs •Always-on. and IP –ISDN DSL (ISDL) •DSL over ISDN. but more generalized •Business class DSL for transporting T1/E1. and transmit data over data network .
The asymmetric data streaming profile of the uADSL technology matched the data flow profile of web browsing. • • VoD service was out of reach for many consmers due to equipment & operational cost. . Basic Components of ADSL: • • Basic components: DSL Modem & a splitter Splitter separates the ADSL traffic from regular POTS traffic. Downstream rate higher than the upstream rate. • • • A distinguishing feature of ADSL is its ability to transport POTS along with broadband services.ADSL: • Motivating factor for the development of ADSL was the desire of telephone carriers to compete with cable service providers in the delivery of VoD services. Rate adaptation was included to allow the 2 modems on an ADSL link to adjust their rates according to the line conditions. This was achieved using a guard band to separate the voice-band & broadband frequencies.
. RADSL theoretically has an additional feature which is not in modern ADSL. The architecture of RADSL. DMT modulation techniques are rate adaptive in nature. Earlier versions of ADSL were needed to be balanced to the conditions of the line. so modern DSL modems inherently have the capability. • • • Any variation in line conditions after installations was not addressed. RADSL & current ADSL technology automatically adapt to changing line conditions each time the link becomes active. An alternative is to use a combination of fiber cables feeding neighborhood optical network units (ONUs) & leverage the existing copper loops to home or business.• On customer premises. splitter takes a single copper loop & splits into 2 pairs: one to telephone handset & second to DSL modem (ADSL termination unit-remote) • On CO side. maximum speed. & distances supported are same as ADSL. or DSL access multiplexer. multiple ATU-Cs are aggregated into a single box called as DSLAM. • Technicians on both ends of the connection had to fix the speed of the link to match the conditions that existed on the line at the time of the installation. splitter splits the single pair into two pairs: one to voice switch & other to DSL modem (ADSL termination unit-Central) • RDSL: In the CO. Capability to adapt changing line conditions on the fly for both the upstream & downstream channels. • VDSL: • • Fiber all the way to the home (FTTH) is still prohibitively expensive.
was intended to be an economical solution to growing demand for T1 carriers. was the first DSL technology put into the operation.544 Mbps & 2. • ONU serves as a central distribution point where the fiber from the local distribution terminates & many VDSL copper loops aggregate. The first version was placed into service in 1992. at every 3000-6000 feet . HDSL operates at symmetric speeds of 1.048 Mbps. VDSL is asymmetric with downstream speeds that range from 13 Mbps to 52 Mbps across copper loops ranging from 1000 feet to 4000 feet. the same as T1/E1. remaining loop to the local served by fiber.• VDSL depends on very short runs over copper loops of up to 6000 feet in order to maximize the available frequency range of the wire. T1/E1 Transmission Systems: • • T1/E1 operates over telephone wires but the loop had to be conditioned and loading coils & bridged taps had to be removed. The line had to be spliced & repeaters inserted. • HDSL: • • • • • Upstream rates range from 1. • • VDSL is full-service access network that addresses a full range of services from POTS & ISDN to linking high-speed LANs. Is becoming preferred option over T1/E1 service. • The DSL forum refers to this arrangement as fiber to the neighborhood (FTTN) & extends the concept to include fiber to the basement (FTTB) for high rise buildings with vertical drops & fiber to the curb (FTTC) for short drops. High Bit-Rate DSL. Developed by Bellcore in the late 1980s.5 to 6 Mbps.
Repeaters were normally line-powered from the CO. called as “repeaterless or nonrepeatered” T1/E1 replacement technology. The resistance in the loop wasted a lot of power being sent to repeater. requiring a special power supply at the central office. • • • • A customer premises location 18.000 feet away from the CO would require atleast 6 repeaters for a T1/E1 line.• The power levels required for T1/E1 service created crosstalk for other services. A comparison of T1/E1 HDSL . In spite of its challenges. T1/E1 service was popular for digital access to the PSTN. so had to be separated into separate binder groups. HDSL as a Solution to T1/E1 Service: • Elimination of midspan repeater.
Symmetric DSL or single-line DSL uses a single pair. each capable of carrying voice & data in both directions. In ISDN 2 B channels are circuit switched. Using multiple copper pairs to provide residential digital services is not the ideal solution to Service Provider. The D channels carries control signals & customer call data in a packet switched mode & operates at 16 Kbps.4 Km). entire ISDL is provided by the DSL equipment hence called as “BRI without the switch” or “switchless BRI Some versions of ISDL allow full use of 144 Kbps BW while others allow only 2B operation or 128 Kbps. SDSL uses a single transceiver & a single copper pair to fractional T1 services. uses 2B+D. Instead of using 2 transceivers & 2 copper pairs. SDSL fits in where customers require higher data speeds but not a full T1 service. Higher data rates than the 784 Kbps of the original HDSL transceivers are due to advances in technology. A variation on ISDL exists that is based on the PRI ISDN model . Traditional ISDN requires a connection to a voice switch in the CO.4 miles or 5.SDSL: • • • • • IDSL: • • Technology functions the same way as basic rate ISDN. • • • • ISDL runs on a single pair of wires at a maximum distance of 18 kft (3. provides a data capacity of 144 Kbps.
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