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MC LC

LI NI U.............................................................................................. 4
CHNG I....................................................................................................................................4
CHNG I....................................................................................................................................5
TN HIU RI RC V H THNG RI RC........................................................................5
1.1. M U...............................................................................................................................5
1.2. TN HIU RI RC..........................................................................................................5
1.2.2. Phn loi tn hiu: ........................................................................................................5
1.2.3. Tn hiu ri rc - dy ................................................................................................6
1.3. H THNG RI RC.....................................................................................................10
1.3.1. Khi nim...................................................................................................................10
1.4. H THNG TUYN TNH BT BIN THEO THI GIAN (LTI: Linear Time-
Invariant System).....................................................................................................................14
1.4.1. Khi nim...................................................................................................................14
1.4.2. Tng chp (CONVOLUTION SUM)........................................................................14
1.4.3. Cc h thng LTI c bit..........................................................................................18
1.5.PHNG TRNH SAI PHN TUYN TNH H S HNG........................................20
1.5.2. Nghim ca LCCDE..................................................................................................21
1.6 TNG QUAN CA CC TN HIU RI RC...........................................................26
1.6.3. Mt s tnh cht ca tng quan cho v t tng quan:..........................................28
1.7. X L S TN HIU TNG T................................................................................29
1.7.1. Cc h thng x l tn hiu:.......................................................................................29
1.7.2. H thng x l s tn hiu tng t:..........................................................................29
BI TP CHNG 1.................................................................................................................35
CHNG II.................................................................................................................................38
BIU DIN TN HIU V H THNG RI RC TRONG MIN Z.....................................38
2.1 M U: ..........................................................................................................................38
2.2 CC KHI NIM V BIN I Z.................................................................................38
2.2.2. Min hi t (ROC: Region of Convergence).............................................................39
2.3 CC TNH CHT CA BIN I Z..............................................................................46
V d V d 2.Xc nh bin i Z ca tn hiu: ...................................................... 47
(a) x(n) = (cosw0n)u(n) .......................................................................................... 47
(b) x(n) = (sinw0n)u(n) .......................................................................................... 47
................................................................................................................................ 49
V d 2.8: Xc nh bin i Z ca cc tn hiu: ................................................... 49
(a) x(n) = an ()u(n) ................................................................. 49
(b) x(n) = an ()u(n) ................................................................. 49
V d 2.10: Xc nh bin i Z ca tn hiu x(n) = nanu(n) . ................................................ 50
2.4 CC PHNG PHP TM BIN I Z NGC ........................................................53
2.4.1. Phng php tra bng:...............................................................................................53
2.4.2. Phng php trin khai thnh cc phn thc ti gin. ..............................................54
2.5 GII PHNG TRNH SAI PHN TUYN TNH H S HNG DNG BIN I
Z MT PHA..........................................................................................................................59
2.5.2. Gii phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s hng:....................................................61
2.6 PHN TCH H THNG LTI TRONG MIN Z ..................................62
2.6.1. Hm truyn t ca h thng LTI..............................................................................62
2.6.2. p ng ca h thng cc-zero ngh.........................................................................65
2.6.3. p ng ca h thng cc-zero vi iu kin u khc 0.........................................66
2.6.4. p ng qu (TRANSIENT RESPONSE) v p ng xc lp (STEADY -
STATE RESPONSE)...........................................................................................................68
2.6.5. H thng n nh v nhn qu....................................................................................69
2.7 THC HIN CC H THNG RI RC......................................................................70
1
2.7.1. M u: .....................................................................................................................70
2.7.2. H thng IIR .............................................................................................................71
2.7.3. H thng FIR ............................................................................................................73
BI TP CHNG 2.................................................................................................................74
CHNG III...............................................................................................................................78
PHN TCH TN S CA TN HIU......................................................................................78
3.1 M U............................................................................................................................78
3.2 TN S CA TN HIU RI RC.................................................................................78
3.2.1. Tn hiu tng t tun hon theo thi gian................................................................79
3.2.2. Tn hiu ri rc tun hon hnh sin............................................................................80
3.2.3 Mi lin h ca tn s F ca tn hiu tng t xa(t) v tn s f ca tn hiu ri rc
x(n) c ly mu t xa(t)...................................................................................................82
3.2.4. Cc tn hiu hm m phc c quan h hi.................................................................83
3.3 PHN TCH TN S CA TN HIU LIN TC........................................................84
3.3.1. Phn tch tn s ca mt tn hiu lin tc tun hon theo thi gian chui fourier. .85
3.3.2. Ph mt cng sut ca tn hiu tun hon.............................................................86
3.3.3. Phn tch tn s ca tn hiu lin tc khng tun hon bin i fourier.................89
3.3.4. Ph mt nng lng ca tn hiu khng tun hon...............................................92
3.4 PHN TCH TN S CA TN HIU RI RC..........................................................94
3.4.1. Chui fourier ca tn hiu ri rc tun hon..............................................................94
3.4.2. Ph mt cng sut ca tn hiu ri rc tun hon..................................................96
Ph mt cng sut Ph bin Ph pha: ...................................................................... 97
3.4.3. Phn tch tn s ca tn hiu ri rc khng tun hon bin i fourier...................99
3.4.4. Ph mt nng lng ca tn hiu khng tun hon............................................100
V d 3.5 ................................................................................................................................. 101
3.4.5. Cc tnh cht ca bin i fourier ca tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian......................105
Mt s tnh cht khc ca bin i Fourier ............................................................................ 105
Tnh cht ................................................................................................................................. 105
Bng 3.3: Mt s cp bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc khng tun hon thng dng. .... 111
3.5 LY MU TN HIU TRONG MIN THI GIAN V MIN TN S....................111
3.5.1. Ly mu trong min thi gian v khi phc tn hiu tng t.................................111
3.5.2. Ly mu trong min tn s v khi phc tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian.................116
3.6 BIN I FOURIER RI RC (DFT DISCRETE FOURIER TRANFORM)............120
3.6.1. Khi nim.................................................................................................................120
3.6.2. Quan h gia DFT v cc bin i khc..................................................................127
3.6.3. CC TNH CHT CA BIN I FOURIER RI RC ...................... 129
BI TP CHNG 3...............................................................................................................135
CHNG IV.............................................................................................................................138
BIU DIN, PHN TCH H THNG RI RC TRONG MIN TN S.......................138
4.1 CC C TNH CA H THNG LTI TRONG MIN TN S..............................138
4.1.1. p ng tn s ca h thng LTI.............................................................................138
4.1.2. p ng qu v p ng xc lp vi tn hiu hnh sin .......................................146
4.1.3. p ng xc lp vi tn hiu vo tun hon.............................................................147
4.2. PHN TCH H THNG LTI TRONG MIN TN S..............................................147
4.2.1. Quan h vo-ra trong min tn s............................................................................148
4.2.2. Tnh hm p ng tn s..........................................................................................149
4.3. H THNG LTI V MCH LC S.........................................................................153
4.3.1. Lc chn tn l tng. ............................................................................................153
4.3.3. Mch lc thc t......................................................................................................157
BI TP CHNG 4...............................................................................................................158
TI LIU THAM KHO..........................................................................................................160
PH LC...................................................................................................................................161
2
MT S CHNG TRNH MU DNG NGN NG MATLAB TRONG X L TN
HIU S....................................................................................................................................161
3
LI NI U
X l tn hiu s (Digital Signal Processing - DSP) hay tng qut hn, x l tn hiu
ri rc theo thi gian (Discrete-Time Signal Processing - DSP) l mt mn c s khng
th thiu c cho nhiu ngnh khoa hc, k thut nh: in, in t, t ng ha, iu
khin, vin thng, tin hc, vt l,... Tn hiu lin tc theo thi gian (tn hiu tng t) cng
c x l mt cch hiu qu theo qui trnh: bin i tn hiu tng t thnh tn hiu s
(bin i A/D), x l tn hiu s (lc, bin i, tch ly thng tin, nn, lu tr, truyn,...)
v sau , nu cn, phc hi li thnh tn hiu tng t (bin i D/A) phc v cho cc
mc ch c th. Cc h thng x l tn hiu s, h thng ri rc, c th l phn cng hay
phn mm hay kt hp c hai.
X l tn hiu s c ni dung kh rng da trn mt c s ton hc tng i phc
tp. N c nhiu ng dng a dng, trong nhiu lnh vc khc nhau. Nhng cc ng dng
trong tng lnh vc li mang tnh chuyn su. C th ni, x l tn hiu s ngy nay tr
thnh mt ngnh khoa hc ch khng phi l mt mn hc. V vy, chng trnh ging
dy bc i hc ch c th bao gm cc phn c bn nht, sao cho c th lm nn tng cho
cc nghin cu ng dng sau ny. Vn l phi chn la ni dung v cu trc chng
trnh cho thch hp.
Nhm mc ch xy dng gio trnh hc tp cho sinh vin chuyn ngnh in t -
Vin thng ti khoa Cng ngh thng tin mn hc X l tn hiu s I, II, cng nh lm ti
liu tham kho cho sinh vin chuyn ngnh Cng ngh thng tin mn hc X l tn hiu
s, gio trnh c bin son vi ni dung kh chi tit v c nhiu v d minh ha. Ni
dung ch yu ca gio trnh X l tn hiu s I bao gm cc kin thc c bn v x l tn
hiu, cc phng php bin i Z, Fourier, DFT, FFT trong x l tn hiu, phn tch tn
hiu v h thng trn cc min tng ng. Ni dung ch yu ca gio trnh X l tn hiu
s II bao gm cc kin thc v phn tch v tng hp b lc s, cc kin thc nng cao
nh b lc a vn tc, x l thch nghi, x l thi gian tn s wavelet, cc b x l tn
hiu s v mt s ng dng ca x l s tn hiu.
Do hn ch v thi gian v s phc tp v mt ton hc ca mn hc, cc kin thc l
thuyt trong gio trnh ch yu su tm, chn lc t cc ti liu tham kho, nhng c b
sung cho ph hp vi yu cu o to, c bit phn ph lc cc chng trnh v d x l
s tn hiu trn MATLAB, cc chng trnh x l tn hiu s trn DSP TMS320 c
tc gi xy dng kh chi tit v y . Nhng thiu st cn phi iu chnh v b sung s
c sa cha trong ln ti bn sau. Xin n nhn s ng gp kin ca qu thy c v
cc em sinh vin. Xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c v cc bn gip chng ti
hon thnh gio trnh.

CHNG I
4
Nhm tc gi:
Ths. Huy Khi
Ths. Phng Trung Ngha
B mn TVT- Khoa CNTT - i hc Thi Nguyn
CHNG I
TN HIU RI RC V H THNG RI RC
1.1. M U
S pht trin ca cng ngh vi in t v my tnh cng vi s pht trin ca thut
ton tnh ton nhanh lm pht trin mnh m cc ng dng ca X L TN HIU S
(Digital Signal Proccessing). Hin nay, x l tn hiu s tr thnh mt trong nhng
ng dng c bn cho k thut mch tch hp hin i vi cc chip c th lp trnh tc
cao. X l tn hiu s c ng dng trong nhiu lnh vc khc nhau nh:
- X l tn hiu m thanh, ting ni: nhn dng ting ni, ngi ni; tng hp ting ni /
bin vn bn thnh ting ni; k thut m thanh s ;
- X l nh: thu nhn v khi phc nh; lm ni ng bin; lc nhiu; nhn dng; th gic
my; hot hnh; cc k xo v hnh nh; bn ;
- Vin thng: x l tn hiu thoi v tn hiu hnh nh, video; truyn d liu; kh xuyn
knh; iu ch, m ha tn hiu;
- Thit b o lng v iu khin: phn tch ph; o lng a chn; iu khin v tr v tc
; iu khin t ng;
- Qun s: truyn thng bo mt; x l tn hiu rada, sonar; dn ng tn la;
- Y hc: no ; in tim; chp X quang; chp CT(Computed Tomography Scans); ni soi;

C th ni, x l tn hiu s l nn tng cho mi lnh vc v cha c s biu hin bo


ha trong s pht trin ca n.
Vic x l tn hiu ri rc c thc hin bi cc h thng ri rc. Trong chng 1
ny, chng ta nghin cu v cc vn biu din, phn tch, nhn dng, thit k v thc
hin h thng ri rc.
1.2. TN HIU RI RC
1.2.1. nh ngha tn hiu:
Tn hiu l mt i lng vt l cha thng tin (information). V mt ton hc, tn
hiu c biu din bng mt hm ca mt hay nhiu bin c lp.
Tn hiu l mt dng vt cht c mt i lng vt l c bin i theo qui lut ca
tin tc. V phng din ton hc, cc tn hiu c biu din nh nhng hm s ca mt
hay nhiu bin c lp. Chng hn, tn hiu ting ni c biu th nh mt hm s ca
thi gian cn tn hiu hnh nh th li c biu din nh mt hm s sng ca hai bin
s khng gian. Mi loi tn hiu khc nhau c cc tham s c trng ring, tuy nhin tt c
cc loi tn hiu u c cc tham s c bn l ln (gi tr), nng lng v cng sut,
chnh cc tham s ni ln bn cht vt cht ca tn hiu.
Tn hiu c biu din di dng hm ca bin thi gian x(t), hoc hm ca bin tn
s X(f) hay X(

). Trong gio trnh ny, chng ta qui c (khng v th m lm mt tnh


tng qut) tn hiu l mt hm ca mt bin c lp v bin ny l thi gian.
Gi tr ca hm tng ng vi mt gi tr ca bin c gi l bin (amplitude) ca
tn hiu. Ta thy rng, thut ng bin y khng phi l gi tr cc i m tn hiu c
th t c.
1.2.2. Phn loi tn hiu:
5
Tn hiu c phn loi da vo nhiu c s khc nhau v tng ng c cc cch phn
loi khc nhau. y, ta da vo s lin tc hay ri rc ca thi gian v bin phn
loi. C 4 loi tn hiu nh sau:
- Tn hiu tng t (Analog signal): thi gian lin tc v bin cng lin tc.
- Tn hiu ri rc (Discrete signal): thi gian ri rc v bin lin tc. Ta c th thu
c mt tn hiu ri rc bng cch ly mu mt tn hiu lin tc. V vy tn hiu ri rc
cn c gi l tn hiu ly mu (sampled signal).
- Tn hiu lng t ha (Quantified signal): thi gian lin tc v bin ri rc. y
l tn hiu tng t c bin c ri rc ha.
- Tn hiu s (Digital signal): thi gian ri rc v bin cng ri rc. y l tn
hiu ri rc c bin c lng t ha.
Cc loi tn hiu trn c minh ha trong hnh 1.1.
1.2.3. Tn hiu ri rc - dy
1.2.3.1. Cch biu din:
Mt tn hiu ri rc c th c biu din bng mt dy cc gi tr (thc hoc phc).
Phn t th n ca dy (n l mt s nguyn) c k hiu l x(n) v mt dy c k hiu
nh sau:
x = {x(n)} vi - < n < (1.1.a)
x(n) c gi l mu th n ca tn hiu x.
Ta cng c th biu din theo kiu lit k. V d:
x = { ..., 0, 2, -1, 3, 25, -18, 1, 5, -7, 0,...} (1.1.b)
Trong , phn t c ch bi mi tn l phn t rng ng vi n = 0, cc phn t
tng ng vi n > 0 c xp ln lt v pha phi v ngc li.
6
Hnh 1.1 Minh ho cc loi tn hiu
Nu x = x(t) l mt tn hiu lin tc theo thi gian t v tn hiu ny c ly mu cch
u nhau mt khong thi gian l Ts, bin ca mu th n l x(nTs). Ta thy, x(n) l
cch vit n gin ha ca x(nTs), ngm hiu rng ta chun ho trc thi gian theo TS.
Ts gi l chu k ly mu (Sampling period).
Fs = 1/Ts c gi l tn s ly mu (Sampling frequency).
V d:
Mt tn hiu tng t x(t) = cos(t) c ly mu vi chu k ly mu l Ts = (/8. Tn
hiu ri rc tng ng l x(nTs) = cos(nTs) c biu din bng th hnh 1.2.a. Nu ta
chun ha trc thi gian theo Ts th tn hiu ri rc x = {x(n)} c biu din nh th
hnh 1.2.b.
Ghi ch:
- T y v sau, trc thi gian s c chun ha theo Ts, khi cn tr v thi gian
thc, ta thay bin n bng nTs.
- Tn hiu ri rc ch c gi tr xc nh cc thi im nguyn n. chng c gi tr
bng 0.
- n gin, sau ny, thay v k hiu y , ta ch cn vit x(n) v hiu y l
dy x = {x(n)}.
1.2.3.2. Cc tn hiu ri rc c bn
1/. Tn hiu xung n v (Unit inpulse sequence):
y l mt dy c bn nht, k hiu l, c nh ngha nh sau:
2/. Tn hiu hng ( Constant sequence): tn hiu ny c gi tr bng nhau vi tt c
cc gi tr cha n. Ta c:
7

'

0 , 0
0 , 1
) (
n
n
n
(1.2)
{ } ,... 0 ...., 0 , 1 , 0 ,...., 0 ..., ) ( n
(1.3)
Dy
) (n
c biu din bng th nh hnh 1.3 (a)
Hnh 1.2 Tn hiu ri rc
x(n)=A, vi
< < n
(1.4)

{ } { } A A A A A n x ...., , ., ,... ..., ) (
(1.5)
Dy hng c biu din bng th nh hnh 1.3.(b)
3/. Tn hiu nhy bc n v (Unit step sequence)
Dy ny thng c k hiu l u(n) v c nh ngha nh sau:

'

<

0 , 0
0 , 1
) (
n
n
n u
(1.5)
Dy u(n) c biu din bng th hnh 1.3 (c).
Mi quan h gia tn hiu nhy bc n v vi tn hiu xung n v:
) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (


n u n u n k n u
n
k

(1.6)
vi u(n-1) l tn hiu u(n) c dch phi mt mu.
8
4/. Tn hiu hm m (Exponential sequence)
x(n) = A
n
(1.7)
Nu A v l s thc th y l dy thc. Vi mt dy thc, nu 0 < < 1 v A>0 th
dy c cc gi tr dng v gim khi n tng, hnh 1.3(d). Nu 1< < 0 th cc gi tr ca
dy s ln lc i du v c ln gim khi n tng. Nu
1 >
th ln ca dy s
tng khi n tng.
5/. Tn hiu tun hon (Periodic sequence)
Mt tn hiu x(n) c gi l tun hon vi chu k N khi: x(n+N) = x(n), vi mi n.
Mt tn hiu tun hon c chu k N=8 c biu din bng th hnh 1.3(e). D nhin,
mt tn hiu hnh sin cng l mt hiu tun hon.
V d:
1
]
1

+ ) 3 (
5
2
sin ) ( n n x

l mt tn hiu tun hon c chu k l N=5, xem
hnh1.3(f)
1.2.3.3. Cc php ton c bn ca dy
Cho 2 dy x
1
= {x
1
(n)} v x
2
= {x
2
(n)} cc php ton c bn trn hai dy c nh
ngha nh sau:
1/. Php nhn 2 dy: y = x
1
. x
2
= {x
1
(n).x
2
(n)} (1.8)
2/. Php nhn 1 dy vi 1 h s: y = a.x
1
= {a.x
1
(n)} (1.9)
3/. Php cng 2 dy: y = x
1
+ x
2
= {x
1
(n) + x
2
(n)} (1.10)
4/. Php dch mt dy (Shifting sequence):
- Dch phi: Gi y l dy kt qu trong php dch phi n
0
mu mt dy x ta c:
y(n) = x(n-n
0
), vi n
0
> 0 (1.11)
- Dch tri: Gi z l dy kt qu trong php dch tri n0 mu dy x ta c:
z(n) = x(n+n
0
), vi n
0
> 0 (1.12)
Php dch phi cn gi l php lm tr (delay). Php lm tr mt mu thng c k
hiu bng ch D hoc Z-1 . Cc php dch tri v dch phi c minh ha trong cc hnh
1.4.
9
Hnh 1.3 Cc dy c bn
a) Dy xung n v
b) Dy hng
c) Dy nhy bc n v
d) Dy hm m
e) Dy tun hon c chu k N=8
f) Dy hnh sin c chu k N=5
Hnh 1.4:
(a) Dy x(n)
(b) Php dch phi 4 mu tr n tn hiu x(n)
(c) Php dch tri 5 mu trn tn hiu x(n)
Nhn xt: Ta thy, mt tn hiu x(n) bt k c th biu din bi tn hiu xung n v
nh sau:

+


k
k n k x n x ) ( ) ( ) (
(1.13)
Cch biu din ny s dn n mt kt qu quan trng trong phn sau.
Ghi ch:
Cc php tnh thc hin trn cc tn hiu ri rc ch c ngha khi tn s ly mu ca
cc tn hiu ny bng nhau.
1.3. H THNG RI RC
1.3.1. Khi nim.
1.3.1.1. H thng thi gian ri rc (gi tt l h thng ri rc):
H thng thi gian ri rc l mt ton t (operator) hay l mt ton thut (algorithm)
m n tc ng ln mt tn hiu vo (dy vo l ri rc) cung cp mt tn hiu ra (dy ra
l ri rc) theo mt qui lut hay mt th tc (procedure) tnh ton no . nh ngha theo
ton hc, l mt php bin i hay mt ton t (operator) m n bin mt dy vo x(n)
thnh dy ra y(n).
K hiu: y(n) = T{x(n)} (1.14)
Tn hiu vo c gi l tc ng hay kch thch (excitation), tn hiu ra c gi l
p ng (response). Biu thc biu din mi quan h gia kch thch v dp ng c gi
l quan h vo ra ca h thng.
Quan h vo ra ca mt h thng ri rc cn c biu din nh hnh 1.5.
V d 1.1: H thng lm tr l tng c nh ngha bi phng trnh:
y(n) = x(n n
d
) , vi - < n < (1.15)
n
d
l mt s nguyn dng khng i gi l tr ca h thng.
V d 1.2: H thng trung bnh ng (Moving average system) c nh ngha bi
phng trnh:

{ } ) ( ... ) 1 ( ) ( ... ) 1 ( ) (
1
1
) (
) (
1
1
) (
2 1 1
2 1
2 1
M n x n x n x M n x M n x
M M
n y
k n x
M M
n y
M
M k
+ + + + + + + +
+ +

+ +



vi M1 v M2 l cc s nguyn dng.
10
Hnh 1.5. K hiu mt h thng ri
rc
(1.16)
H thng ny tnh mu th n ca dy ra l trung bnh ca (M1 + M2 + 1) mu ca dy
vo xung qu../Anh mu th n, t mu th n-M2 n mu th n+M1 .
1.3.1.2. p ng xung (impulse response) ca mt h thng ri rc
p ng xung h(n) ca mt h thng ri rc l p ng ca h thng khi kch thch l
tn hiu xung n v ((n), ta c:
{ } ) ( ) ( n T n h
hay
[ ] ) ( ) ( n h T n
(1.17)
Trong cc phn sau, ta s thy, trong cc iu kin xc nh p ng xung ca mt h
thng c th m t mt cch y h thng .
V d 1.3: p ng xung ca h thng trung bnh ng l:

'


+ +

+ +



n
M n M
M M
k n
M M
n y
M
M k
, 0
,
1
1
) (
1
1
) (
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
1

(1.1.8)
1.3.1.3. Biu din h thng bng s khi
c th biu din mt h thng bng s khi, ta cn nh ngha cc phn t c
bn. Mt h thng phc tp s l s lin kt ca cc phn t c bn ny.
1/. Phn t nhn dy vi dy (signal multiplier), tng ng vi php nhn hai dy, c
s khi nh sau:
2/. Phn t nhn mt dy vi mt hng s (Constant multiplier), tng ng vi php
nhn mt h s vi mt dy, c s khi nh sau:
3/. Phn t cng (Adder), tng ng vi php cng hai dy, c s khi nh sau:
4/. Phn t lm tr mt mu (Unit Delay Element): tng ng vi php lm tr mt
mu, c s khi nh sau:
Trong cc phn sau, ta s thnh lp mt h thng phc tp bng s lin kt cc phn t
c bn ny.
11
1.3.2. Phn loi h thng ri rc
Cc h thng ri rc c phn loi da vo cc thuc tnh ca n, c th l cc thuc
tnh ca ton t biu din h thng (T).
1/. H thng khng nh (Memoryless systems):
H thng khng nh cn c gi l h thng tnh (Static systems) l mt h thng m
p ng y(n) mi thi im n ch ph thuc vo gi tr ca tc ng x(n) cng thi
im n .
Mt h thng khng tha mn nh ngha trn c gi l h thng c nh hay h
thng ng (Dynamic systems).
V d 1.4:
- H thng c m t bi quan h vo ra nh sau: y(n) = [x(n)]2 , vi
mi gi tr ca n, l mt h thng khng nh.
- H thng lm tr trong v d 1.1, ni chung l mt h thng c nh khi n
d
>0.
- H thng trung bnh ng trong v d 1.2 l h thng c nh, tr khi M
1
=M
2
=0.
2/. H thng tuyn tnh (Linear systems)
Mt h thng c gi l tuyn tnh nu n tha mn nguyn l chng cht (Principle
of superposition). Gi y1(n) v y2(n) ln lt l p ng ca h thng tng ng vi cc
tc ng x1(n) v x
2
(n), h thng l tuyn tnh nu v ch nu:
T{ax
1
(n)+bx
2
(n)}=aT{ax
1
(n)}+bT{bx
2
(n)}=ay
1
(n)+by
2
(n) (1.19)
vi a, b l 2 hng s bt k v vi mi n.
Ta thy, i vi mt h thng tuyn tnh, th p ng ca mt tng cc tc ng bng
tng p ng ca h ng vi tng tc ng ring l.
Mt h thng khng tha mn nh ngha trn c gi l h thng phi tuyn
(Nonliear systems).
V d 1.5: Ta c th chng minh c h thng tch ly (accumulator) c nh
ngha bi quan h:

n
k
k x n y ) ( ) (
(1.20)
l mt h thng tuyn tnh. H thng ny c gi l h thng tch ly v mu th n ca
p ng bng tng tch ly tt c cc gi tr ca tn hiu vo trc n thi im th n.
Chng minh: t

n
k
k x n y ) ( ) (
1
v

n
k
k x n y ) ( ) (
2
th
{ } { }
{ } { } ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 1 1
2 1 2 1
n by n ay k x b k x a k bx k ax
k bx k ax n bx n ax T n y
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
n
k
+ + +
+ +



vi a v b l cc hng s bt k. Vy h thng ny l mt h thng tuyn tnh.
3/. H thng bt bin theo thi gian (Time-Invariant systems)
12
Mt h thng l bt bin theo thi gian nu v ch nu tn hiu vo b dch n
d
mu th
p ng cng dch n
d
mu, ta c:
Nu y(n) =T{x(n)} v x1(n) = x(n-n
d
)
th y
1
(n) = T{x
1
(n)} = {x(n-n
d
)} = y(n - n
d
) (1.21)
Ta c th kim chng rng cc h thng trong cc v d trc u l h thng bt bin
theo thi gian.
V d 1.6: H thng nn (compressor) c nh ngha bi quan h:
y(n) = x(M.n) (1.22)
vi - < n < v M l mt s nguyn dng.
H thng ny c gi l h thng nn bi v n loi b (M-1) mu trong M mu (n
sinh ra mt dy mi bng cch ly mt mu trong M mu). Ta s chng minh rng h
thng ny khng phi l mt h thng bt bin.
Chng minh: Gi y
1
(n) l p ng ca tc ng x
1
(n), vi x
1
(n) = x(n n
d
), th:
y
1
(n) = x
1
(Mn) = x(Mn n
d
)
Nhng: y(n-n
d
) = x[M(n-n
d
)] ( y
1
(n))
Ta thy x
1
(n) bng x(n) c dch n
d
mu, nhng y
1
(n) khng bng vi y(n) trong cng
php dch . Vy h thng ny khng l h thng bt bin, tr khi M = 1.
4/. H thng nhn qu (Causal systems)
Mt h thng l nhn qu nu vi mi gi tr n
0
ca n, p ng ti thi im n=n
0
ch
ph thuc vo cc gi tr ca kch thch cc thi im n n
0
. Ta thy, p ng ca h ch
ph thuc vo tc ng qu kh v hin ti m khng ph thuc vo tc ng tng
lai. Ta c;
y(n) = T{x(n)} = F{x(n),x(n-1),x(n-2),. . .}
vi F l mt hm no .
H thng trong v d 1.1 l nhn qu khi n
d
0 v khng nhn qu khi n
d
< 0.
V d 1.7: H thng sai phn ti (Forward difference systems) c nh ngha bi
quan h:
y(n) = x(n+1)- x(n) (1.23)
R rng y(n) ph thuc vo x(n+1), v vy h thng ny khng c tnh nhn qu.
Ngc li, h thng sai phn li (Backward difference systems) c nh ngha bi
quan h: y(n) = x(n) x(n-1) (1.24)
l mt h thng nhn qu.
5/. H thng n nh (Stable systems)
Mt h thng n nh cn c gi l h thng BIBO (Bounded-Input Bounded-
Output) nu v ch nu vi mi tn hiu vo b gii hn s cung cp dy ra gii hn.
Mt dy vo x(n) b gii hn nu tn ti mt s dng hu hn Bx sao cho:
|x(n)| Bx < + , vi mi n (1.25)
Mt h thng n nh i hi rng, ng vi mi dy vo hu hn, tn ti mt s dng
By hu hn sao cho:
13
|y(n)| By < + , vi mi n (1.26)
Cc h thng trong cc v d 1.1; 1.2; 1.3 v 1.6 l cc h thng n nh. H thng tch
ly trong v d 1.5 l h thng khng n nh.
Ghi ch: Cc thuc tnh phn loi h thng trn l cc thuc tnh ca h thng
ch khng phi l cc thuc tnh ca tn hiu vo. Cc thuc tnh ny phi tha mn vi
mi tn hiu vo.
1.4. H THNG TUYN TNH BT BIN THEO THI GIAN (LTI: Linear Time-
Invariant System)
1.4.1. Khi nim
H thng tuyn tnh bt bin theo thi gian l h thng tha mn ng thi hai tnh
cht tuyn tnh v bt bin.
Gi T l mt h thng LTI, s dng cch biu din pt(1.13) v pt(1.14), ta c th
vit:
y(n)=T{x(n)}=

'

k
k n k x T ) ( ) (
(1.27)
vi k l s nguyn.
p dng tnh cht tuyn tnh, pt(1.27) c th c vit li:



K
k n T k x n y )} ( { ) ( ) (
(1.28)
p ng xung ca h thng l: h(n) = T{((n)}, v h thng c tnh bt bin, nn:
h(n - k) = T{ (n - k)} (1.29)
Thay pt(1.29) vo pt(1.28) ta c:



k
k n h k x n y ) ( ) ( ) (
(1.30)
T pt(1.30), ta thy mt h thng LTI hon ton c th c c t bi p ng xung
ca n v ta c th dng pt(1.30) tnh p ng ca h thng ng vi mt kch thch bt
k. H thng LTI rt thun li trong cch biu din cng nh tnh ton, y l mt h
thng c nhiu ng dng quan trng trong x l tn hiu.
1.4.2. Tng chp (CONVOLUTION SUM)
1.4.2.1. nh ngha: Tng chp ca hai dy x1(n) v x
2
(n) bt k, k hiu: * , c
nh ngha bi biu thc sau:



k
k n x n x n x n x n y ) ( ) ( ) ( * ) ( ) (
2 1 2 1
(1.31)
Pt(1.30) c vit li: y(n) = x(n)*h(n) (1.32)
Vy, p ng ca mt h thng bng tng chp tn hiu vo vi p ng xung ca n.
1.4.2.2. Phng php tnh tng chp bng th
Tng chp ca hai dy bt k c th c tnh mt cch nhanh chng vi s tr gip
ca cc chng trnh trn my vi tnh. y, phng php tnh tng chp bng th
14
c trnh by vi mc ch minh ha. Trc tin, d dng tm dy x
2
(n-k), ta c th
vit li:
x
2
(n-k) = x
2
[-(k - n)] (1.33)
T pt(1.33), ta thy, nu n>0, c x
2
(n-k) ta dch x
2
(-k) sang phi n mu, ngc li,
nu n<0 ta dch x
2
(-k) sang tri |n| mu. T nhn xt ny, Ta c th ra mt qui trnh tnh
tng chp ca hai dy , vi tng gi tr ca n, bng th nh sau:
Bc 1: Chn gi tr ca n.
Bc 2: Ly i xng x
2
(k) qua gc ta ta c x
2
(-k).
Bc 3: Dch x
2
(-k) sang tri |n| mu nu n<0 v sang phi n mu nu n>0, ta c
dy x
2
(n-k).
Bc 4:Thc hin cc php nhn x1(k).x
2
(n-k), vi - < k <
Bc 5: Tnh y(n) bng cch cng tt c cc kt qu c tnh bc 4.
Chn gi tr mi ca n v lp li t bc 3.
V d 1.8: Cho mt h thng LTI c p ng xung l :

'



n
N n
N n u n u n h
, 0
1 0 , 1
) ( ) ( ) (
(1.34)
tn hiu vo l: x(n) = a
n
u(n). Tnh p ng y(n) ca h thng, vi N> 0 v |a|<1.
Gii:
T phng trnh ta c:



k
k n h k x n h n x n y ) ( ) ( ) ( * ) ( ) (
, ta s tnh y(n) bng
phng php th.
@ Vi n < 0: Hnh 1.5(a). trnh by hai dy x(k) v h(n-k) torng trng hp n < 0
(vi N = 4 v n = -3). Ta thy trong trng hp ny, cc thnh phn khc 0 ca x(k) v
h(n-k) khng trng nhau, v vy:
y(n) = 0, vi mi n < 0. (1.35)
@ Vi 0 n < N-1: Hnh 1.5(b). trnh by hai dy x(k) v h(n-k), trong trng ny, ta
thy:
x(k).h(n-k) = a
k
nn:

n
k
K
a n y
0
) (
(1.36)
Ta thy, y(n) chnh l tng (n+1) s hng ca mt chui hnh hc c cng bi l a, p
dng cng thc tnh tng hu hn ca chui hnh hc, l:
a
a
n y
N M
q
q q
q
n
M
N k
M N
K

>

1
1
) (
,
1
1
1
15
(1.37)
(1.38)
Hnh 1.5 : Cc dy xut hin trong qu trnh tng chp. (a);(b);(c)Cc dy x(k) v h(n-
k) nh l mt hm ca k vi cc gi tr khc nhau cu n (ch cc mu khc 0 mi c
trnh by ); (d) Tng chp y(n) = x(n) * h(n).
- Vi (N-1) < n: Hnh 1.5(b). trnh by hai dy x(k) v h(n-k), tng t nh trn ta
c: x(k).h(n-k) = ak

,
_

>
+
+ +
+

a
a
a
a
a a
n y
N n a n y
N
N n
n N n
n
N n k
k
1
1
1
) (
1 , ) (
1
1 1
1
Tng hp cc kt qu t cc phng trnh trn ta c:

'

,
_

<

+
+
n N
a
a
a
N n
a
a
n
n y
N
N n
n
, 1 ,
1
1
1 0 ,
1
1
0 , 0
) (
1
1
V d ny tnh tng chp trong trng hp n gin. Cc trng hp phc tp hn,
tng chp cng c th tnh bng phng php th, nhng vi iu kin l 2 dy phi c
mt s hu hn cc mu khc 0.
1.4.2.3. Cc tnh cht ca tng chp
16
(1.39)
(1.40)
V tt c cc h thng LTI u c th biu din bng tng chp, nn cc tnh cht ca
tng chp cng chnh l cc tnh cht ca h thng LTI.
a) Tnh giao hon (Commutative): cho 2 dy x(n) v h(n) bt k, ta c:
y(n) = x(n)*h(n) = h(n)*x(n) (1.41)
Chng minh: Thay bin m=n-k vo pt (1.33), ta c:




m k
m h m n x k n h k x n y ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
(1.42)
hay :
) ( * ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( n x n h m h m n x n y
m


(1.43)
b) Tnh phi hp (Associative): Cho 3 dy x(n), h1 (n) v h2(n), ta c:
y(n) = [x(n)*h
1
(n)]*h
2
(n) = x(n)*[h
1
(n)*h
2
(n)] (1.44)
Tnh cht ny c th chng minh mt cch d dng bng cch da vo biu thc nh
ngha ca tng chp.
H qu 1: Xt hai h thng LTI c p ng xung ln lc l h1(n) v h2(n) mc lin
tip (cascade), ngha l p ng ca h thng th 1 tr thnh kch thch ca h thng th 2
(hnh 1.6(a)). p dng tnh cht phi hp ta c:
y(n) = x(n)*h(n) = [x(n)*h
1
(n)]*h
2
(n) = x(n)*[h
1
(n)*h
2
(n)]
hay h(n) = h
1
(n)*h
2
(n) = h
2
(n)*h
1
(n) ( tnh giao hon) (1.45)
T pt(1.45) ta c c cc h thng tng ng nh cc hnh 1.6 b, c.
(a)
c) Tnh cht phn b vi php cng (Distributes over addition): tnh cht ny c
biu din bi biu thc sau:
y(n) = x(n)*[h
1
(n) + h
2
(n)] = x(n)*h
1
(n) + x(n)*h
2
(n) (1.46)
v cng ny c th chng minh mt cch d dng bng cch da vo biu thc nh
ngha ca tng chp.
17
Hnh 1.6 Hai h thng mc ni tip v
cc s tng ng
h
1
(n)
x(n) y(n)
h
2
(n)
h
1
(n)
x(n) y(n)
h
2
(n)
h
1
(n)*h
2
(n)
x(n) y(n)
(b)
(c)
H qu 2: xt hai h thng LTI c p ng xung ln lt l h
1
(n) v h
2
(n) mc song
song (parallel), (hnh 1.7(a)). p dng tnh cht phn b ta c p ng xung ca h
thng tng ng l:
h(n) = h
1
(n) + h
2
(n) (1.47)
s khi ca mch tng ng c trnh by trong hnh 1.7(b).
1.4.3. Cc h thng LTI c bit.
1.4.3.1. H thng LTI n nh:
nh l: Mt h thng LTI c tnh n nh nu v ch nu :


<
k
k h s ) (
(1.48)
vi h(n) l p ng xung ca h thng.
Chng minh:
- iu kin : xt mt tn hiu vo hu hn, ngha l:

x
b n x ) (
, vi b
x
l mt s dng.
th



k k
k n x k h k n x k h n y ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
hay :
<

k
x
k h B n y ) ( ) (
Vy |y(n)| hu hn khi iu kin pt(1.48) tha mn, hay pt(1.48) l iu kin
h thng n nh.
- iu kin cn: chng minh iu kin cn ta dng phng php phn chng.
Trc tin ta gi s rng h thng c tnh n nh, nu ta tm c mt tn hiu vo no
tha mn iu kin hu hn v nu tng s phn k (s ) th h thng s khng n nh,
mu thun vi gi thit.
Tht vy, ta xt mt dy vo c ngha nh sau:

'

0 ) ( , 0
0 ) ( ) , ( / ) (
) (
*
n h
n h n h n h
n x
y, h*(n) l lin hp phc ca h(n), r rng |x(n)| b gii hn bi 1, tuy nhin, nu s
, ta xt p ng ti n = 0:
18
Hnh 1.7. Hai h
thng mc song
song v s tng
ng


k k k
S k h
k h
k h
k x k h y ) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) 0 (
2
Ta thy, kt qu ny mu thun vi gi thuyt ban u (h thng n nh). Vy, s phi
hu hn.
1.4.3.2. H thng LTI nhn qu
nh l: Mt h thng LTI c tnh nhn qu nu v ch nu p ng xung h(n) ca n
tha mn iu kin:
h(n) = 0 , vi mi n < 0 (1.49)
Chng minh:
- iu kin : T pt(1.30),
) ( ) ( ) ( k n h k x n y
, vi iu kin (1.49) ta c th
vit li:



n
k
k n h k x n y ) ( ) ( ) (
(1.50)
T pt(1.50), ta thy gii hn trn ca tng l n, ngha l y(n) ch ph thuc vo x(k)
vi k ( n, nn h thng c tnh hn qu.
- iu kin cn: Ta s chng minh bng phng php phn chng. Gi s rng, h(m)
0 vi m < 0. T pt(1.42):



m
m h m n x n y ) ( ) ( ) (
, ta thy y(n) ph thuc vo x(n-m)
vi m < 0 hay n-m > n, suy ra h thng khng c tnh nhn qu.
V vy, iu kin cn v h thng c tnh nhn qu l: h(n)=0 khi
n <0.
V d 1.9: H thng tch lu c nh ngha bi :

n
k
k x n y ) ( ) (
, c p ng xung l
) ( ) ( ) ( n u k n h
n
k


(1.51)
T pt(1.51) ta thy h(n) ca h h thng ny khng tha iu kin pt(1.48) nn khng
n nh v h(n) tha iu kin pt(1.49) nn n l mt h thng nhn qu.
1.4.3.3. H thng FIR (Finite-duration Impulse Response) v h thng IIR
(Infinite-duration Impulse Response)
H thng FIR (H thng vi p ng xung c chiu di hu hn) l mt h thng m
p ng xung ca n tn ti mt s hu hn cc mu khc 0.
Ta thy, h thng FIR lun lun n nh nu tt c cc mu trong p ng xung ca n
c ln hu hn.
Ngc li, mt h thng m p ng xung ca n c v hn s mu khc 0 c gi l
h thng IIR (H thng vi p ng xung c chiu di v hn).
Mt h thng IIR c th l h thng n nh hoc khng n nh.
V d1.10: Xt mt h thng c p ng xung l h(n) = a
n
u(n), ta c:
n
n n
a n h S


0
) ( (1.52)
Nu |a| < 1, th S hi t v S = 1/(1-|a|) v vy h thng c tnh n nh.
19
Nu |a| 1, th S v h thng khng n nh.
1.4.3.4. H thng o (Inverse systems)
nh ngha: Mt h thng LTI c p ng xung l h(n), h thng o ca n , nu tn
ti, c p ng xung l h
i
(n) c nh ngha bi quan h:
h(n)*h
i
(n) = h
i
(n)*h(n) = (n) (1.53)
V d 1.11: Xt mt h thng gm hai h thng con mc ni tip nh hnh 1.8:
p ng xung ca h thng tng ng l:
h(n) = u(n)*[ (n) - (n - 1)] = u(n) - u(n - 1) = (n) (1.54)
Kt qu p ng xung ca h thng tng ng l xung n v, ngha l p ng ca
h thng lun bng vi tc ng, v x(n)* (n) = x(n), nn h thng vi phn li l h thng
o ca h thng tch ly v ngc li, do tnh giao hon ca tng chp, h thng tch ly
l h thng o ca h thng vi phn li.
Hai h thng o ca nhau mc ni tip, c p ng xung tng ng l (n), nn
c gi l h thng ng dng (Identity systems).
1.5.PHNG TRNH SAI PHN TUYN TNH H S HNG
(LCCDE: Linear Constant-Coefficient Difference Equations)
1.5.1. Khi nim:
Mt h thng bt k khi m t ton hc u c th vit:



N
k
M
r
r k
r n x n b k n y n a
0 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
Phng trnh m t trn gi l phng trnh sai phn. Khi a
k
v b
r
l cc hng s th c
khi nim phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s hng.
Mt h thng LTI m quan h gia tc ng x(n) v p ng y(n) ca n tha mn
phng trnh sai phn truyn tnh h s hng bc N di dng:



N
k
M
r
r k
r n x b k n y a
0 0
) ( ) (
(1.55)
c gi l h thng c phng trnh sai phn truyn tnh h s hng (LCCDE). Trong
, cc h s ak v br l cc thng s c trng cho h thng.
H thng LTI c LCCDE l mt lp con quan trng ca h thng LTI trong x l tn
hiu s. Ta c th so snh n vi mch R_L_C trong l thuyt mch tng t (c c
trng bng phn trnh vi tch phn tuyn tnh h s hng).
V d 1.12: Xt h thng tch ly, nh ta bit, y l mt h thng LTI, v vy c th
biu din bi mt LCCDE. Thy vy, ta xem li hnh 1.8, trong y(n) l p ng ca h
thng tch ly ng vi tn hiu vo x(n), v y(n) ng vai tr tn hiu vo ca h thng vi
phn li. V h thng vi phn li l h thng o ca h thng tch ly nn:
20
y(n) - y(n-1) = x(n) (1.56)
Pt(1.56) chnh l LCCDE ca mt h thng tch ly, vi N=1, a
0
=1, a
1
=-1, M=0 v b
0
=1.
Ta vit li: y(n) = y(n-1) + x(n) (1.57)
T pt(1.57), ta thy, vi mi gi tr ca n, phi cng thm vo x(n) mt tng c tch
ly trc y(n-1). H thng tch ly c biu din bng s khi hnh 1.9 v pt(1.57)
l mt cch biu din qui ca h thng.
1.5.2. Nghim ca LCCDE
Phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s hng l mt dng quan h vo ra m t h
thng LTI. Trong phn ny, ta s tm biu thc tng minh ca p ng y(n) bng phng
php trc tip. Cn mt phng php khc tm nghim ca phng trnh ny l da trn
bin i z s c trnh by trong chng sau, ta gi l phng php gin tip.
Tng t nh phng trnh vi tch phn tuyn tnh h s hng ca h thng lin tc
theo thi gian. Trc tin, ta tm nghim ca phng trnh sai phn thun nht
(homogeneous diference equation), l pt (1.55) vi v phi bng 0. y chnh l p
ng ca h thng vi tn hiu vo x(n) = 0. Sau , ta tm mt nghim ring (particular
solution) ca pt(1.55) vi x(n)(0. Cui cng, nghim tng qut (total solution) ca LCCDE
(1.55) l tng nghim ca phng trnh sai phn thun nht vi nghim ring ca n. Th
tc tm nghim nh sau:
1.5.2.1 Tm nghim ca phng trnh sai phn thun nht (p ng ca h thng khi
tnh hiu vo bng 0)
Phng trnh sai phn thun nht c dng:
0 ) (
0

N
k
k
k n y a
(1.58)
(Bng cch chia 2 v cho a0 c dng (1.58) vi a
0
= 1)
Ta bit rng, nghim ca phng trnh vi phn thng c dng hm m, v vy, ta
gi s nghim ca phng trnh sai phn thun nht c dng:
y
h
(n) =
n
(1.59)
Ch s h c dng ch rng l nghim ca phng trnh thun nht.
Thay vo pt(1.58) ta thu c mt phng trnh a thc:
hay:
n N
(
N
+ a
1

N-1
+ a
2

N-2
+ + a
N-1
+ a
N
) = 0 (1.60)
a thc trong du ngoc n c gi l a thc c tnh (characteristic polynomial)
ca h thng.
21
Hnh 1.19- S khi h
thng tch lu
Ni chung, a thc ny c N nghim, k hiu l
1
,
2
,,
N
, c gi tr thc hoc
phc. Nu cc h s a
1
, a
2
,, a
N
c gi tr thc, thng gp trong thc t, cc nghim
phc nu c s l cc cp lin hp phc. Trong N nghim cng c th c mt s nghim
kp (mutiple-order roots).
Gi s rng, tt c cc nghim l phn bit, khng c nghim kp, th nghim tng
qut ca phng trnh sai phn thun nht l :
y
h
(n) = C
1

n
1
+ C
2

n
2
+ + C
N

n
N
(1.61)
y, C
1
, C
2
,,C
N
l cc hng s tu nh. Cc hng s ny c xc nh da vo
cc iu kin u ca h thng.
V d 1.13: Xc nh p ng vi tn hiu vo x(n) = 0 ca mt h thng c m t
bi LCCDE bc 2 nh sau:
y(n) - 3y(n-1) - 4y(n-2) = 0 (1.62)
Gii:
Ta bit nghim ca pt(1.62) c dng: yh(n) = (n, thay vo pt(1.62), ta thu c:

n
- 3
n-1
- 4
n-2
= 0 hay
n -2
(
2
- 3

- 4) = 0
v phng trnh c tnh l: (
2
- 3 - 4) = 0
Ta c 2 nghim
1
= -1 v
2
= 4, nghim ca phng trnh thun nht c dng tng
qut l:
y
h
(n) = C
1

n
1
+ C
2

n
2
= C
1
(-1)
n
+ C
2
(4)
n
(1.63)
p ca h thng vi tn hiu vo bng 0 c th thu c bng cch tnh gi tr cc
hng s C
1
v C
2
da vo cc iu kin u. Cc iu kin u c cho thng l gi tr
ca p ng cc thi im n=-1; n = -2;...; n = -N. y, ta c N=2, v cc iu kin
u c cho l y(- 1) v y(-2). T pt(1.62) ta thu c:
y(0) = 3y(-1) + 4y(-2)
y(1) = 3y(0) - 4y(-1) = 13y(-1) + 12y(-2)
Mt khc, t pt(1.63) ta c:
y(0) = C
1
+ C
2
y(1) = -C
1
+ 4C
2
Suy ra: C
1
+ C
2
= 3y(-1) + 4y(-2)
-C
1
+ 4C
2
= 13y(-1) + 12y(-2)
Gii h 2 phng trnh trn ta c:
C
1
= (-1/5)y(-1) + (4/5)y(-2)
C
2
= (16/5)y(-1) + (16/5)y(-2)
Vy p ng ca h thng khi tn hiu vo bng 0 l:
y
h
(n) = [(-1/5)y(-1) + (4/5)y(-2)](-1)
n
+ [(16/5)y(-1) + (16/5)y(-2)](4)
n
(1.64)
Gi s, y(-2)=0 v y(-1)=5, th C1=-1 v C2 =16. Ta c:
yh(n) = (-1)n+1 + (4)n+2 , vi n 0
22
Ch rng, trong trng hp phng trnh c tnh c nghim kp, pt(1.61) phi c
sa li, chng hn, nu (1 l nghim kp bc m, th pt(1.61) tr thnh:
y
h
(n) = C
1

n
1
+ C
2
n
n
1
+ C
3
n
2

n
1
+ + C
m
n
m-1

n
1
++ C
m+1

n
m+1
++ C
N

n
N

(1.65)
1.5.2.2. Nghim ring ca phng trnh sai phn
Tng t nh cch tm nghim ca phng trnh thun nht, tm nghim ring ca
phng trnh sai phn khi tn hiu vo x(n) 0, ta on rng nghim ca phng trnh c
mt dng no , v th vo LCCDE cho tm mt nghim ring, k hiu y
p
(n). Ta
thy cch lm ny c v m mm!. Nu tn hiu vo x(n) c cho bt u t thi im n
0 (ngha l x(n)=0 khi n<0), th dng ca nghim ring thng c chn l:
y
p
(n) = Kx(n) (1.66)
vi K l mt hng s m ta s tnh.
V d 1.14:
Tm p y(n), vi n 0, ca h thng c m t bi LCCDE bc hai nh sau:
y(n) - 3y(n-1) - 4y(n-2) = x(n) + 2x(n-1) (1.67)
tn hiu vo l: x(n) = 4
n
u(n). Hy xc nh nghim ring ca pt(1.67).
Gii:
Trong v d 1.13, ta xc nh nghim ca phng trnh sai phn thun nht cho h
thng ny, l pt(1.63), ta vit li:
y
h
(n) = C
1
(-1)
n
+ C
2
(4)
n
(1.68)
Nghim ring ca pt(1.63) c gi thit c dng hm m: y
p
(n) = K(4)
n
u(n) . Tuy
nhin chng ta thy dng nghim ny c cha trong nghim thun nht (1.68). V
vy, nghim ring ny l tha (th vo pt(1.67) ta khng xc nh c K). Ta chn mt
dng nghim ring khc c lp tuyn tnh vi cc s hng cha trong nghim thun nht.
Trong trng hp ny, ta x l ging nh trng hp c nghim kp trong phng trnh
c tnh. Ngha l ta phi gi thit nghim ring c dng: y
p
(n) = Kn(4)
n
u(n). Th vo
pt(1.67):
Kn(4)
n
u(n) - 3K(n-1)(4)
n-1
u(n-1) - 4 K(n-2)(4)
n-2
u(n-2) = (4)
n
u(n) + 2(4)
n-1
u(n-1) xc
nh K, ta c lng phng trnh ny vi mi n 2, ngha l vi nhng gi tr ca n sao
cho hm nhy bc n v trong phng trnh trn khng b trit tiu. n gin v mt
ton hc, ta chn n = 2 v tnh c K = 6/5. Vy:
y
p
(n) = (6/5)n(4)
n
u(n) (1.69)
1.5.2.3. Nghim tng qut ca phng trnh sai phn:
Tnh cht tuyn tnh ca LCCDE cho php ta cng nghim thun nht v nghim ring
thu c nghim tng qut. Ta c nghim tng qut l:
y(n) = y
h
(n) + y
p
(n) (1.70)
V nghim thun nht yh (n) cha mt tp cc hng s bt nh {Ci}, nn nghim tng
qut cng cha cc hng s bt nh ny, xc nh cc hng s ny, ta phi c mt tp
cc iu kin u tng ng ca h thng.
V d 1.15: Tm p ng y(n), vi n 0, ca h thng c m t bi LCCDE bc
hai trong v d 1.14 vi iu kin u l y(-1) = y(-2) = 0.
23
Gii:
Trong v d 1.13 ta tm c nghim thun nht, trong v d 1.14 ta tm c
nghim ring. Vy nghim tng qut ca pt(1.67) l:
y(n) = y
h
(n) + y
P
(n) = C
1
(-1)n + C
2
(4)n + (6/5)n(4)
n
, vi n0 (1.71)
vi cc iu kin u l cc gi tr y(-1) = y(-2) = 0, tng t nh trong v d 1.13, ta
tnh y(0) v y(1) t cc pt(1.67) v (1.71) v thnh lp c h phn trnh:
C
1
+ C
2
= 1
-C
1
+ 4C
2
+ 24/5 = 9
suy ra: C1 = -1/25 v C2 = 26/25.
Cui cng ta thu c p ng y(n) ca h thng vi cc iu kin u bng 0, vi tn
hiu vo l x(n) = (4)nu(n) c dng:
n n n
n n y ) 4 (
5
6
) 4 (
25
26
) 1 (
25
1
) ( + +
(1.72)
1.5.3. H thng ri rc qui (RECURSIVE) v khng quy (NONRECURSIVE)
1.5.3.1. H thng ri rc qui :
Mt h thng ri rc qui l h thng m p ng y(n) mi thi im n ph thuc
vo mt s bt k cc gi tr y(n-1); y(n-2);... cc thi im trc .
Ta thy, mt h thng qui c th c m t bng mt LCCDE c bc N 1. tm
nghim ca LCCDE, ngoi phng php trc tip trnh by phn trn v phng php
gin tip dng bin i z s trnh by trong chng sau, ta cn c th xc nh y(n) bng
phng php qui, ngha l tnh p ng y(n) ca h thng khng ch da vo tn hiu
vo m cn da vo cc gi tr ca p ng cc thi im tnh c trc .
Gi s cc iu kin u cho l y(-1), y(-2),..., y(-N), ta s dng phng php
qui tnh y(n) vi n 0 v vi n < -N.
- Tnh y(n) vi n 0:
Phng trnh 1.55 c vit li :


+
N
k
M
r
r k
k n x b k n y a n y a
1 0
0
) ( ) ( ) (
Hay


N
k
M
r
r k
k n x
a
b
k n y
a
a
n y
1 0
0 0
) ( ) ( ) (
(1.73)
Ta thy pt(1.73) biu din y(n) theo tn hiu vo v cc gi tr ca p ng cc thi
im trc . Cc mu y(n) c tnh vi n tng dn, th tc ny c gi l php qui
tin.
V d 1.16: Xt mt h thng c m t bi LCCDE c dng:
y(n) - ay(n-1) = x(n) (1.74)
v tn hiu vo l x(n) = K((n), vi a v K l cc hng s. iu kin u l y(-1) = c, c
cng l mt hng s.
Ta tnh y(n) vi n 0, bt u vi n = 0:
y(0) = a.c + K
24
y(1) = a.y(0) + 0 = a.(a.c + K) = a
2
c + a.K
y(2) = a.(a
2
c + a.K) = a
3
c + a
2
K
y(3) = a.( a
3
c + a
2
K) = a
4
c + a
3
K
: :
: :
T cc kt qu trn ta c th tng qut ha thnh cng thc tnh y(n)
y(n) = a
n+1
c + a
n
K, vi n 0 (1.75)
- Tnh y(n) vi n < 0
Trong trng hp ny Pt(1.55) c vit li


+
1
0 0
) ( ) ( ) (
N
k
M
r
r k N
k n x b k n y a N n y a
,hay


+ +
1
0 0
) ( ) ( ) (
N
k
M
r
N
r
N
k
k n x
a
b
k n y
a
a
N n y
(1.76)
Cc gi tr ca p ng y(n) vi -N n -1 c cho bi cc iu kin u, v ta
tnh c ln lt cc gi tr y(-N -1), y(-N -2), y(-N - 3),... bng cch thay ln lt cc
gi tr n = -1, -2, -3,... vo pt(1.76). Cc mu y(n) c tnh vi n gim dn, th tc ny
c gi l php qui li.
V du 1.17: Xt mt h thng c m t bi LCCDE (1.74) vi cng iu kin u
trong v d 1.16 . xc nh gi tr ca p ng vi n < 0, ta vit li phng trnh (1.74)
nh sau:
y(n-1) = a
-1
[y(n) - x(n)] (1.77)
p dng iu kin u y(-1) = c, ta c th tnh y(n) vi n <-1 mt cch ln lt nh sau
:
y(-2) = a
-1
[y(-1) - x(-1)] = a
-1
c
y(-3) = a
-1
a
-1
c = a
-2
c
y(-4) = a
-1
a
-2
c = a
-3
c
: :
: :
T cc kt qu trn ta tng qut ha thnh cng thc tnh y(n) vi n < 0 nh sau:
y(n) = a
n+1
c , vi n < 0 (1.78)
T kt qu ca 2 v d 1.16 v 1.17, ta tng kt thnh cng thc tnh p ng y(n) vi
mi n ca h thng c m t bi phng trnh sai phn (1.74), tn hiu vo l x(n) =
K(n), vi a v K l cc hng s, v iu kin u l y(-1) = c, nh sau:
y(n) = a
n+1
c + a
n
Ku(n), vi mi n (1.79)
Nhn xt:
(1) Ta thc hin th tc qui tnh p ng theo chiu dng v chiu m ca
trc thi gian, bt u vi n = -1. R rng y l mt th tc khng nhn qu.
25
(2) Khi K=0, tn hiu vo lun c gi tr bng 0, nhng p ng c gi tr l y(n)=a
n+1
c. Nhng mt h thng tuyn tnh i hi rng, nu gi tr ca tn hiu vo bng 0, th gi
tr ca p ng cng bng 0 (tnh cht ny c chng minh nh mt bi tp). V vy, h
thng ny khng tuyn tnh.
(3) Nu ta dch tn hiu vo n0 mu, tn hiu vo lc ny l x1(n) = K (n-n
0
), ta tnh
li p ng theo th tc nh trn, kt qu l:
) ( ) (
0
1
1
0
n n Ku a c a n y
n n n
+
+
, vi mi n (1.80)
Ta thy y1(n) y(n-n
0
), vy h thng khng bt bin theo thi gian.
Theo phn tch trn, h thng khng phi l h thng LTI m chng ta mong i,
ngoi ra n cng khng c tnh nhn qu. S d nh vy l v trong cc iu kin u
cho khng bao hm cc tnh cht ny. Trong chng 2, ta s trnh by cch tm nghim ca
LCCDE bng cch dng bin i z, ta s ngm kt hp cc iu kin cho tnh cht tuyn
tnh v bt bin, v chng ta s thy, ngay c khi cc iu kin bo m tnh cht tuyn
tnh v bt bin c a vo, nghim ca phng trnh sai phn cng s khng duy nht.
c bit, c hai h thng LTI nhn qu v khng nhn qu c th cng c m t bi mt
phng trnh sai phn.
Nu mt h thng c m t bi mt LCCDE v tha mn iu kin u h thng
c cc tnh cht tuyn tnh, bt bin v nhn qu th nghim s c xc nh duy nht.
iu kin ny thng c gi l iu kin ngh (initial-rest conditions) v ni dung ca
n nh sau: " Nu tn hiu vo x(n) = 0 khi n 0 th p ng phi bng 0 vi n 0".
Ta xt li v d 1.14 v 1.15, nhng vi iu kin ngh, ngha l y(n) = 0 vi n < 0,
tng ng vi x(n) = K (n) = 0 khi n < 0. Ta s thy h thng l mt h thng LTI nhn
qu.
1.5.3.2. H thng ri rc khng qui:
Mt h thng m p ng y(n) ch ph thuc vo kch thch thi im hin hnh v
cc thi qu kh l mt h thng khng qui.
Ta thy mt h thng khng qui c biu din bi mt LCCDE c bc N = 0,
l:


M
r
r
k n x b n y
0
) ( ) (
(1.81)
(H s a
0
c a vo cc h s b
r
, bng cch chia 2 v cho a0 ).
p ng xung ca h thng l:

'

# , 0
0 ,
) ( ) (
0
n
M n b
k n b n h
n
M
r
r

(1.82)
Ta thy y l mt h thng LTI c p ng xung di hu hn (FIR) v nhn qu.
1.6 TNG QUAN CA CC TN HIU RI RC
26
Tng quan ca hai tn hiu l mt thut ton o lng mc ging nhau gia hai
tn hiu . N c ng dng trong nhiu lnh vc khoa hc k thut nh: radar, sonar,
thng tin s,. . .
V d nh trong lnh vc radar, radar pht ra rn hiu tm mc tiu l x(n), tn hiu
ny sau khi p vo mc tiu (nh my bay chng hn) s phn x tr li . Radar thu li tn
hiu phn x nhng b tr mt thi gian l D = n
0
T
s
(T
s
l chu k ly mu), tn hiu thu
c s b suy gim vi h s suy gim l a , tc l radar thu li c tn hiu ax(n-n
0
).
Ngoi tn hiu phn x ny cn c nhiu cng (n). Vy tn hiu m radar thu c khi
c mc tiu l:
y(n) = ax(n-n
0
) + (n)
Cn nu khng c mc tiu trong khng gian hoc radar khng pht hin c mc
tiu th radar ch thu c nhiu cng, khi :
y(n) = (n)
So snh hai tn hiu x(n) v y(n) ta s pht hin c c mc tiu hay khng, v xc
nh c thi gian tr D = n
0
T
s
, t ta xc nh c khong cch t mc tiu n
radar.
1.6.1. Tng quan cho (CROSSCORRELATION)
Xt 2 dy x(n) v y(n), gi s rng t nht mt trong hai dy c nng lng hu hn,
khi tng quan cho ca x(n) v y(n) c nh ngha nh sau:
.... 2 , 1 , 0 , ) ( ) ( ) ( t t


n k n y k x n r
k
xy
(1.83)
V d 1.18: Hy xc nh tng quan cho rxy(n) ca 2 dy sau:
x(n) = { , 0, 0, 2, -1, 3, 7, 1, 2, -3, 0, 0, }
y(n) = { , 0, 0, 1, -1, 2, -2, 4, 1, -2, 5, 0, 0, }
Gii: Theo nh ngha ta tnh rxy vi tng gi tr n:
Vi n=0, ta c:

k
xy
k y k x n r ) ( ) ( ) (
v
0
(k) = x(k)y(k) = {, 0, 0, 2, 1, 6, -14, 4, 2, 6, 0, 0,}
Sau ly tng tt c cc mu ca v
0
(k), ta c: r
xy
(0) = 7
Vi n > 0, ta dch y(k) sang phi n mu, tnh tch v
n
(k) = x(k)y(k-n) v sau cng
tt c cc mu ca v
n
(k), ta thu c:
r
xy
(1) = 13 r
xy
(2) = -18 r
xy
(3) = 16 r
xy
(4) = -7
r
xy
(5) = 5 rxy(6) = -3 v r
xy
(n) = 0, vi n 7
Vi n < 0, ta dch y(k) sang tri n mu, tnh tch v
n
(k) = x(k)y(k-n) v sau cng
tt c cc mu ca vn(k), ta thu c:
r
xy
(-1) = 0 r
xy
(-2) = 33 r
xy
(-3) = 14 r
xy
(-4) = 36
r
xy
(-5) = 19 r
xy
(-6) = -9 r
xy
(-7) = 10 v r
xy
(n) = 0, vi n-8
Kt qu tng quan cho ca hai dy x(n) v y(n) l:
27
r
xy
(n) = {, 0, 0, 10, -9, 19, 36, -14, 33, 0, 7, 13, -18, 16, -7, 5, -3, 0, 0,}
1.6.2. T tng quan (AUTOCORRELATION)
Trong nh ngha tng quan cho, nu x(n) = y(n) th ta s c t tng quan. Vy t
tng quan ca dy x(n) c nh ngha nh sau:



k
xx
n k x k x n r ) ( ) ( ) (
(1.84)
V d 1.19: Tnh t tng quan ca dy x(n) = u(n) u(n 4).
Gii: Cch tnh t tng quan bng th c trnh by trong hnh 1.10
Ta thy, t tng quan ca mt dy lun lun c gi tr cc i ti n = 0, bi v mt
dy bao gi cng ging chnh n.
1.6.3. Mt s tnh cht ca tng quan cho v t tng quan:
Xt 2 dy c nng lng hu hn x(n) v y(n), ngha l:


<
n
x
n x E ) (
2
v


<
n
y
n y E ) (
2
(1.85)
28
Hnh 1.10 Minh ho cch tnh t
tng quan
Ta d dng chng minh c cc tnh cht sau y (Phn chng minh xem nh bi
tp):
(1) E
x
= r
xx
(0) v E
y
= r
yy
(0)
(2) r
xy
(n) = r
yx
(-n)
(3) r
xx
(n) = r
xx
(-n) (r
xx
l mt hm chn)
(4)
y x yy xx xy
E E r r n r ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) (

suy ra
E r n r
xx xx
) 0 ( ) (
(5) Nu y(n) = t c
x
(n-n0), c l mt hng s bt k v n
0
l s nguyn, th
R
xy
(n) = t cr
xx
(n-n0) v r
yy
(0) = c2r
xx
(0) v cr
xx
(0) r
xy
(n) cr
xx
(0)
1.7. X L S TN HIU TNG T
1.7.1. Cc h thng x l tn hiu:
Chng ta c th phn loi cc h thng theo chnh tn hiu cn x l. Theo , ta c
cc loi h thng x l nh cc s sau y:
Ch rng, v tn hiu s l mt trng hp ring ca tn hiu ri rc, nn h thng ri
rc cng c th x l tn hiu s.
1.7.2. H thng x l s tn hiu tng t:
X l s tn hiu tng t l x l tn hiu tng t bng h thng s. thc hin
vic ny, ta cn phi bin i tn hiu tng t thnh tn hiu s v sau khi x l dy kt
qu c th c phc hi tr thnh tn hiu tng t. V d nh trng hp x l tn hiu
thoi. Trong nhiu trng hp, mc tiu ca vic x l l trch ly cc tham s ca tn
hiu hay cc thng tin cn thit t tn hiu. Khi , khng cn chuyn i tn hiu tr
v dng tng t. V d : X l tnh hiu radar hoc sonar. H thng x l s tn hiu
tng t c trnh by trong hnh 1.12.
1.7.2.1. Bin i A/D (Analog-to-Digital Conversion)
29
Hnh 1.11- Cc h thng x l tn
hiu
Hnh 1.12 - H thng x l s tn hiu
tng t
Bin i A/D l bin i tn hiu tng t thnh tn hiu s. Bin i A/D c s
khi nh sau:
Ly mu v gii mu (Sampling and hold)
Ly mu l qu trnh bin i lin tc(tng t) sang tn hiu ri rc. C nhiu cch
ly mu mt tn hiu lin tc. Trong , thng dng nht l cch ly mu tun hon
(periodic sampling), cn gi l ly mu u (uniform sampling). l cch ly nhng mu
bin tn hiu lin tc ti nhng thi im ri rc cch u nhau mt khong thi gian
TS, m ta gi l chu k ly mu. Nu xa(t) l tn hiu tng t ng vo b ly mu th tn
hiu ri rc ng ra ca b ly mu l x
a
(nT
S
) (Gi tt l tn hiu ly mu), n l s nguyn.
M hnh vt l ca b ly mu c minh ha trong hnh 1.14.
Trong , b phn ly mu c m t nh l mt b kha c iu khin ng m
bi tn hiu xung ng h Ck c tn s l FS= 1/TS. x l bng k thut s hoc bng
my tnh, thng thng tn hiu ri rc cn phi c lng t ha c th biu din
bin ca cc mu bng mt tp hu hn cc m nh phn. Tuy nhin, vic lng t ha
v m ha khng th thc hin tc thi. Thng thng, tin trnh lng t ha v m ha
mt mu c thc hin trong khong thi gian TS. V vy, gi tr ca ca mt mu phi
c duy tr trong thi gian TS. y l chc nng ca b gia mu. B gia mu tiu biu
l Zero-order-hold. B ly mu v gi mu kiu zero-order-hlod ny tng ng vi mt
b iu ch dy xung ch nht theo sau bi mt b lc tuyn tnh, m tn hiu ng ra ca
n (Gi tt l tn hiu gi mu) c dng bc thang hnh 1.15.
30
Hnh 1.13 Cc thnh phn ca b bin
i A/D
gi mu
Tn hiu
ri rc
C tn s F
s
=1/T
s
Tn hiu lin tc
dng bc thang
Tn hiu
tng t
Hnh 1.14. M hnh vt l ca b ly mu
Lng t ha v m ha (Quantizer and Coder)
y l b bin i tn hiu ri rc sang tn hiu s c bin c biu din bng cc
m nh phn. Gi tr mi mu ca tn hiu ly mu c gn bi mt gi tr c la chn
t mt tp hu hn cc ga tr. Trong tin trnh m ha, mi gi tr ri rc c gn bi
mt m nh phn m bit, tng ng c 2m mc lng t. Nu bin ca tn hiu ly mu
c chun ha trong khong -X
0
x(n) X
0
th bc lng t ha (khong cch gia hai
mc lng t k nhau) s l:
= 2X
0
/2
m
= X
0
/2
m - 1
(1.86)
V d1.19: Vi X0 = 1volt v m =3 bit, ta c 8 mc lng t v:
= 1/4 = 0,25 volt
Cc mc lng t c th c m ha theo hai loi m nh phn: Twos
-complement code v Offset binary code nh sau:
Gi tr ca cc
mc lng t
Twos
-complement
code
Offset binary code
0.75 011 111
0.50 010 110
0,25 001 101
0 000 100
-0,25 111 011
-0,50 110 010
-0,75 101 001
-1 100 000
sai bit gia nhng mu x(n) ca tn hiu ri rc cha c lng t ha v tn
hiu lng t ha xq(n) gi l sai s lng t (quantization eror). S bt m ha cng ln
th s mc lng t cng nhiu, sai s lng t cng nh.
1.7.2.2. Bin i D/A (Digital to Analog Conversion)
31
Hnh 1.15 Tn hiu lin tc, tn hiu ly
mu, tn hiu gi mu v 8 mc lng t,
, l khong cch gia 2 mc
Trong nhiu ng dng thc t, tn hiu s sau khi c x l cn phi c phc hi
li thnh tn hiu tng t. hi lm vic ny, ta cn c b bin i s sang tng t
(D/A converter).
Nguyn tc chung ca bin i D/A l ni cc im ri rc bng mt phng php ni
suy (Interpolation) no . Hnh 1.16 trnh by mt kiu bin i D/A n gin, kiu xp
x bc thang (staircase approximation), cn c gi l zero-order hold.
C nhiu kiu bin i D/A khc, nh: ni suy tuyn tnh (linear interpolation), ni
suy bc hai (quadratic interpolation),.... Vi mt tn hiu c bng tn hu hn, l thuyt ly
mu s xc nh mt hnh thc ni suy ti u.
1.7.2.3. Hin tng h danh (Aliasing)
minh ha, ta xt 2 tn hiu tng t hnh sin ln lt c tn s l F
1
= 10 Hz v F
2
=
50 Hz nh sau:
x
1
(t) = cos2(10)t v x
2
(t) = cos2 (50)t (1.87)
Hai tn hiu ny cng c ly mu vi tn s F
S
=40 Hz. Cc tn hiu ri rc tng
ng l:
x
1
(n) = cos2 (10)(n/40) = cos( /2)n
x
2
(n) = cos2 (50)(n/40) = cos(5 /2)n (1.88)
Tuy nhin, v cos(5/2)n = cos(2n + n/2) = cosn/2, nn x
1
(n) = x
2
(n). Vy, hai tn
hiu ri rc hnh sin c ly mu t hai tn hiu lin tc cho l khng th phn bit
c. iu ny c ngha l, khi phc hi tn hiu tng t t tn hiu ri rc cos(/2)n, ta
khng th bit tn hiu tng t c khi phc l x
1
(t) hay x
2
(t). V x
2
(t) cho mt kt qu
ly mu ng nh ca x
1
(t) tn s ly mu F
S
= 40 samples/second (s trng mu), ta ni
thnh phn tn s F
2
=50Hz l mt h danh (alias) ca thnh phn tn s F
1
=10Hz tn s
ly mu 40 samples/second.
Tht ra, khng ch c thnh phn F
2
l h danh ca F
1
m cc thnh phn tn s F
k
=
(F
1
+ 40k) cng l h danh ca F
1
, vi k l mt s nguyn. Tht vy, ta xt tn hiu tng
t c tn s F
k
l:
x
2
(t) = cos2 F
k
t = cos2 (F
1
+40k)

t (1.89)
Tn hiu ly mu ca n vi cng tc F
S
= 40Hz l:
x
k
(n) = cos2 (F
1
+ 40k)(n/40) = cos(2 kn + n/2)= cos n/2 = x
1
(n)
Mt v d v hin tng h danh c minh ha trong hnh 1.17. Trong , 2 tn hiu
tng t hnh sin c tn s ln lt l F
1
= 1/8Hz v F
k
= -7/8 Hz c cc mu ng dng
32
Hnh 1.16 - Bin i A/D kiu zero-oder - hold
khi c ly mu tn s F
S
= 1Hz. T pt(1.89), ta thy, vi k = -1 th F1 = F
k
+ F
S
= (-7/8
+ 1) Hz = 1/8Hz.
1.7.2.4. nh l ly mu:
Cho mt tn hiu tng t bt k, vn l chn chu k ly mu TS hay tn s ly
mu FS nh th no cho hp l? Xu hng chung l chn tn s ly mu thp, bi v tn
s ly mu cao s lm tng s mu, t lng php tnh trong qu trnh x l tn hiu s
tng ln, ko di thi gian x l, ng thi lng b nh cn thit cng tng theo. Tuy
nhin, nu tn s ly mu qu thp s xy ra hin tng bit d../Anh, khng th khi phc
li tn hiu tng t mt cch chnh xc. Chng ta s tr li vn ny trong chng 3,
khi phn tch tn hiu trong min tn s, t chng minh nh l ly mu, m ta s pht
biu sau y.
Tn hiu lin tc trong thc t c di hu hn (tn ti trong mt khong thi gian
hu hn) l t hp tuyn tnh ca nhiu thnh phn hnh sin. Ta xt cc tn hiu c bng
tn hu hn, ngha l tn s cao nht trong bng tn c th xc nh. V d: tn hiu thoi
c cc thnh phn tn s t vi trm Hz n 3KHz, tn hiu hnh c tn s cao nht l
6MHz.
Nu ta bit thnh phn tn s cao nht Fmax, ta c th chn tn s ly mu thch hp.
nh ly ly mu c pht biu nh sau:
nh l : Nu tn s cao nht cha trong mt tn hiu tng t x
a
(t) l Fmax th tn
hiu ch c th c khi phc mt cch chnh xc t cc mu ca n nu tn s ly mu
F
S
2F
max
,.
cho gn, ta t F
max
= B. nh l trn cng ch ra rng x
a
(t) c th c khi phc
t cc mu x
a
(nT
S
) bng cch dng hm ni suy:
Bt
Bt
t g

2
2 sin
) (
(1.90)
v x
a
(t) c xc nh bi biu thc :

,
_


n s s
a a
F
n
t g
F
n
x t x ) ( ) (
(1.91)
y x
a
(n/F
S
) = x
a
(nT
S
) = x(n) l cc mu ca x
a
(t). Nu tn s ly mu F
S
=2F
max
=2B,
th cng thc khi phc (1.91) tr thnh:

,
_

n
a a
B n t B
B n t B
B
n
x t x
) 2 / ( 2
) 2 / ( 2 s i n
2
) (

(1.92)
33
Hnh 1.17 minh ho aliasing
Tn s ly mu F
S
=2B = 2F
max
c gi l tn s Nyquist. Hnh 1.18 minh ha mt
cch bin i A/D l tng dng hm ni suy (1.90).
Trong s hnh 1.12, mch lc trc c tc dng chng hin tng h danh. y l
mt mch lc thng thp c chc nng lc b cc thnh phn tn s cao hn FS/2, trong
trng hp ph tn ca tn hiu vt qu kh nng ca b ly mu (khi ta phi chp
nhn kt qu gn ng ca tn hiu ra). Ngay c khi thnh phn tn s cao nht ca tn hiu
nh hn FS/2, nhiu tn s cao cng gy ra hin tng h danh v cn phi lc b.
Mch lc sau s trong hnh 1.12 cng l mt mch lc thng thp. N c chc nng
lm trn (smoothing) sa dng tn hiu tng t thu c ng ra chnh xc hn.
34
Hnh 1.18 Minh ho php ni suy
theo pt (1.92) ca nh l ly mu
BI TP CHNG 1
1.1. Xt mt h thng tuyn tnh bt k vi kch thch l x(n) v p ng l y(n). Hy
chng minh rng, nu x(n) = 0 vi mt gi tr n no th y(n) = 0.
1.2. Hy xc nh cc h thng c cho c cc tnh cht sau y hay khng: n nh;
nhn qu; tuyn tnh; bt bin theo thi gian; khng nh.
1.3. H thng L c bit l c tnh cht tuyn tnh v c p ng y
1
(n), y
2
(n), y
3
(n)
tng ng vi cc tn hiu vo x
1
(n), x
2
(n),x
3
(n) nh sau:
a) Tm p ng xung h(n) ca h thng.
b) L c bt bin theo thi gian hay khng?
1.4. Cho cc cp dy x(n) v h(n). Hy tm p ng y(n) trong tng trng hp sau:
1.5. p ng xung ca mt h thng LTI c gi tr bng 0 ngoi khong N
0
n N
1
.
Tnh hiu vo x(n) c gi tr bng 0 ngoi khong N
2
n N
3
. Kt qu l tn hiu ra y(n)
bng 0 ngoi khong N
4
n N
5
. Hy xc nh N
4
v N
5
theo N
0
, N
1
, N
2
v N
3
.
1.6. Tnh v v th p ng xung ca h thng c quan h vo ra nh
sau:
1.7. Xc nh p ng bc (kch thch l u(n)) ca h thng c p xung h(n) =
a
n
u(n).
1.8. Cho mt h thng LTI c p ng xung nh sau:
35
Hy dng th xc nh p ng ca h thng i vi tn hiu vo l x(n)=u(n)
- u(n-4).
1.9. Xt mt h thng LTI c p ng xung l h(n). Nu dy vo tun hon vi chu k
N. Hy chng t rng tn hiu ra y(n) cng l mt dy tun hon vi chu k N.
1.10. Xt mt h thng c kch thch v p ng tha mn LCCDE:
y(n)=n.y(n-1) + x(n)
c bit h thng c tnh nhn qu v tha mn iu kin ngh.
a) Xc nh p ng xung ca h thng.
b) H thng c tuyn tnh hay khng? Chng minh.
c) H thng c bt bin theo thi gian hay khng?
1.11. Xt tn hiu tng t: x
a
(t)=3.cos(100..t)
a) Xc nh tn s ly mu nh nht trnh hin tng bit d../Anh.
b) Gi s tn hiu c ly mu tn s F
S
=200 Hz (sample/second). Xc nh tn
hiu ri rc thu c sau khi ly mu?
c) Ga s tn hiu c ly mu tn s F
S
=75 Hz. Xc nh tn hiu ri rc thu
c sau khi ly mu?
d) Xc nh tn s F<F
S
/2 (F
S
= 75Hz) ca tn hiu sin m kt qu ly mu ng
dng vi kt qu thu c cu c).
1.12. Xt tn hiu tng t x
a
(t)=3.cos(50..t)+ 10.sin(300. .t)- cos(100. .t). Xc
nh tn s Nyquist ca tn hiu ny.
1.13. Cho cc dy sau y:
x(n) = u(n) - u(n-5)
y(n) = (1/2)
n
u(n) - (1/2)
n
u(n-4)

s(n) = (-1/2)
n
u(n) - (-1/2)
n
u(n-4)
Hy tnh tng quan cho cho tng cp dy v tnh t tng quan ca cc dy ny.
Nhn xt.
1.14. Cho cc h thng con c p ng xung h
1
(n), h
2
(n) v h
3
(n) c lin kt nh
sau :
36
Cho bit h
2
(n) = u(n) u(n 3);
h
3
(n) = (n) + 4 (n-1) - (n-2).
Tnh p ng xung h(n) ca h thng tng ng .
1.15. Lp lu thut ton v vit chng trnh (Pascal, Matlab,...) tnh tng chp ca
hai dy c di hu hn.
1.16. Lp lu thut ton v vit chng trnh tnh p ng ca mt h thng qui.
1.17. Lp lu thut ton v vit chng trnh tnh p ng ca h thng khng
qui.
1.18. Lp lu thut ton v vit chng trnh tnh tng quan cho ca hai dy c
di hu hn.
1.19. Lp lu thut ton v vit chng trnh tnh t tng quan ca hai dy c
di hu hn.
37
CHNG II
BIU DIN TN HIU V H THNG RI RC TRONG MIN Z

2.1 M U:
Chng 1 trnh by cch tnh p ng ca mt h thng trc tip t p ng xung
ca n, bng cch tnh tng chp ca kch thch vi p ng xung. Cch tnh tng chp
trc tip da vo cng thc nh ngha nh lm tn rt nhiu thi gian v cng sc.
Hn na , trong thc t s mu khc khng ca kch thch v p ng xung l rt nhiu
nn ta khng th tnh bng tay. Tuy nhin, phng php tnh tng chp bng th nh
trnh by cho ta mt thut ton ca chng trnh tnh tng chp bng my tnh. Vic
gii phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s hng bng phng php qui cng ch c
ngha khi s dng my tnh.
K thut bin i l mt cng c hu hiu phn tch h thng LTI. Bin i Z i
vi tn hiu ri rc c vai tr tng t nh bin i Laplace i vi tn hiu lin tc, v
chng c quan h ging nhau vi bin i Fourier. Tng chp ca hai dy trong min thi
gian s bin thnh tch ca hai bin i Z tng ng trong min bin phc z. Tnh cht
ny s lm n gin ha vic tnh p ng ca h thng vi cc tn hiu vo khc nhau.
Phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s hng cng c gii mt cch d dng hn khi
dng cng c bin i Z.
Nh ta s thy trong cc chng sau, bin i Fourier gia vai tr cha kha trong
trong vic biu din v phn tch cc h thng ri rc. Tuy nhin, trong mt s trng hp
cn phi s dng dng tng qut ha ca bin i Fourier, l bin i Z.
2.2 CC KHI NIM V BIN I Z.
2.2.1. Bin i Z ( THE Z - TRANSFORM):
Bin i z ca mt dy x(n) c nh ngha nh l chui ly tha:

n
n
Z n x Z X ) ( ) (
(2.1)
, vi z l mt bin phc.
Ta c th coi bin i Z nh l mt ton t (operator) m n bin mt dy thnh mt
hm, k hiu Z |.|, ta vit li:
ZT [x(n) ] = X(z) (2.2)
hay: x(n)----Z----> X(z) (2.3)
Bin i Z c nh ngha bi pt (2.1) c gi l bin i Z hai pha (bilateral Z-
transform) do bin n chy t - n . Bin i Z mt pha (unilateral Z-transform) c
nh ngha nh sau:

n
n
n
Z n x z X
0
) ( ) (
(2.4)
trong trng hp ny bin n chy t 0 n .
Ta thy bin i Z hai pha v mt pha ch bng nhau khi x(n) = 0 vi mi n 0 (x(n)
l dy nhn qu). Trong ti liu ny, khi ni n bin i Z m khng xc nh r l mt
pha hay hai pha, th ta ngm hiu rng l bin i Z hai pha.
38
Nu biu din Z theo ta cc z = r.e
j
, pt (2.1) tr thnh:

n
n
n j
re n x z X ) )( ( ) (

(2.5)
c bit, nu r =1 ( ngha l |z| = 1), th bin i Z tr thnh bin i Fourier:

n
n
n j
e n x z X ) )( ( ) (

(2.6)
Ta s cp n chng sau.
V bin i Z l hm ca mt bin phc, nn n thng c biu din trn mt phng
phc ca bin z (hnh 2.1). Ta thy, bin i Z ly trn vng trn n v chnh l bin i
Fourier.
2.2.2. Min hi t (ROC: Region of Convergence)
Pt (2.1) l mt chui ly tha, gi l chui Laurent, do khng phi lc no bin i
Z cng hi t vi mi tn hiu hay vi mi gi tr ca z, v vy phi xt n min hi t
ca n.
1/. nh ngha:
Vi mt dy x(n) xc nh, tp hp cc gi tr ca z sao cho hi t c gi l min
hi t (ROC) ca X(z).
nh ngha trn hm rng: |X(z)| < , vi mi z trong ROC.
iu kin bin i Z hi t l:

<
n
n
z n x ) (
(2.7)
Nu mt gi tr z = z
1
no trong ROC, th vng trn c bn knh l |z|=|z
1
| cng
nm trong ROC. iu ny cho thy rng ROC l mt min hnh vnh khn bao quanh
gc ta (Hnh 2.2).
39
Hnh 2.1 Vng trn n v trn mt
phng phc z
2/. Cc v zeros :
Mt loi bin i Z thng dng v quan trng l bin i Z m X(z) ca n c dng
l mt hm hu t vi mi z trong ROC, ngha l:
X(z) = P(z)/Q(z) (2.8)
Trong , P(z) v Q(z) l cc a thc bin z hay z
-1
.
Cc gi tr ca z sao cho X(z) = 0 c gi l cc zeros ca X(z), v cc gi tr ca z
sao cho X(z) = c gi l cc cc (poles) ca X(z). Cc cc l cc nghim xc nh ca
a thc mu s Q(z) v thm vo cc gi tr z = 0 hay z = .
th cc-zero l th trn mt phng phc, ta v cc im cc, k hiu x , v cc
im zero, k hiu o.
V d 2.1: Xt dy x(n) = ((n). Thay vo pt (2.1), ta c:
1 ) ( ) (
0

n
n
z z n z X
(2.9)
Min hi t ca X(z) trong trng hp ny l ton b mt phng z.
V d 2.2: Xt dy x(n) = a
n
u(n), a l mt hng s thc hoc phc. Thay vo pt (2.1),
ta c:
( )



n n
n
n n
az z n u a z X
0
1
) ( ) (
(2.10)
X(z) hi t th:
( ) <

0
1
n
n
az
(2.11)
Ta thy, ROC l min m z c gi tr sao cho |az-1| < 1 hay |z| > |a|, v trong ROC,
X(z) hi t n:
( )
az
z
az
az z X
n
n

1 1
1
) (
1
0
, vi
a z >
(2.11)
( p dng cng thc tnh tng v hn ca chui hnh hc).
Vi a = 1, x(n) l dy nhy bc n v, c bin i Z l:
40
Hnh 2.2 - Min hi t ROC l hnh
vnh khn trong mt phng z.
z
z
z
z X

1 1
1
) (
1
, vi
1 > z
(2.12)

Hnh 2.3 trnh by min hi t ca bin i Z trong v d 2.2 vi cc v tr ca cc v
zeros. Nu |a| > 1, ROC khng cha vng trn n v, iu ny hm rng, vi gi tr
ny ca |a|, bin i Fourier ca mt dy ly tha anu(n) l khng hi t.
V d 2.3: Xt dy x(n) = -anu(-n-1), th:





0
1
1
) ( 1 ) (
) 1 ( ) (
n
n
n
n n
n n
n n n n
z a z a z X
z a z n u a z X
(2.14)
Nu |a
-1
z| < 1, hay |z| < |a|, th tng (2.14) hi t, v:
a z
z
az z a
z X


1 1
1
1
1
1
1 ) (
(2.15)
th cc-zero v min hi t ca bin i Z trong v d 2.2 c trnh by trong
hnh 2.4.
Nhn xt:
Hai dy trong v d 2.2 v 2.3 hon ton khc nhau nhng biu thc X(z) v th
cc-zero l nh nhau. Nh vy khi ni n bin i Z th cn xc nh c biu thc ln
ROC.
41
Hnh 2.3 Min hi t ca
bin i Z
Hnh 2.4 th cc zeros v min hi t
ca bin i Z trong v d 2.3.
V d 2.4: Xt trng hp tn hiu l tng ca hai hm m thc:
x(n) = (1/2)
n
u(n) - (-3)
n
u(-n-1) (2.16)
Bin i Z s l:
n
n
n
n
z n u n u z X

'


,
_

) 1 ( ) 3 ( ) (
2
1
) (
( )




,
_

0
1
3
2
1
) (
n n
n n n
n
z z z X (2.17)
[ ]
n
n
n
n
z z z X

+
,
_

0
1
0
1
) 3 ( 1
2
1
) ( (2.18)
X(z) hi t, hai tng trong pt (2.18) phi hi t, iu kin l:
|(1/2)z
-1
| < 1 v |(-3)
-1-
z| < 1 hay |z| > 1/2 v |z| <3 . V vy, ROC l min 1/2 < |z| <
3. th cc-zero v ROC c trnh by trong hnh 2.5. V:
) 3 )(
2
1
(
)
4
5
( 2
3 1
1
2
1
1
1
) (
1
1
+
+

+
+

z z
z z
z
z
z X
(2.19)

Hnh 2.5
Nhn xt:
T cc v d trn ta thy rng: vi cc dy ly tha di v hn, bin i Z ca n c
th c biu din bng t s ca cc a thc bin z hay z
-1
. Cch biu din ny c bit
thun li.
V d 2.5 :Xt tn hiu :
42

'

# , 0
1 0 ,
) (
n
N n a
n x
n
c bin i Z l:
( )
a z
a z
z az
az
az z a z X
N N
N
N
n
N
n
N
n
n n


1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
) ( 1
) (
(2.20)
ROC c xc nh bi tp hp cc gi tr ca z sao cho: <

1
0
1
N
n
n
az
V ch c mt s hu hn cc s hn khc 0, nn tng trong bt phng trnh (2.21) s
hu hn khi |az-1| hu hn, iu ny i hi rng |a| l hu hn v z 0. V vy, ROC bao
gm ton b mt phng z, ngoi tr gc ta (z = 0).
Hnh 2.6 l th cc-zero v ROC ca v d 2.4, vi N =16 v a l mt s thc v
0<a<1. N nghim ca a thc t s ca X(z) l:
z
k
= ae
j(2(k/N)
vi k = 0, 1, 2,. . ., N-1. (2.22)
Zero k = 0 b trit tiu bi cc z = a, v vy, khng c cc no khc ngoi gc ta
v cn li (N-1) zero tng ng vi k = 1, 2,. . ., N-1.
3/. Tnh cht ca ROC:
Gi s rng x(n) c bin hu hn, ngoi tr ti n = v biu thc ca bin i Z
c dng hu t. T kho st thc t, ta c th tng kt c cc tnh cht ca ROC nh
sau:
(1) ROC khng cha cc im cc, v ti X(z) khng hi t.
(2) Nu x(n) c di hu hn, th ROC l ton b mt phng z, ngoi tr cc im
z=0 hoc z= (V d 2.5).
(3) Nu x(n) l dy bn phi (right-sided sequence), ngha l x(n) = 0 vi mi
43
Hnh 2.6 - Cc v zeros trong v
d 2.4
n < N
1
< , th ROC l min bn ngoi ca vng trn i qua im cc hu hn ngoi
cng (V d 2.2).
(4) Nu x(n) l dy bn tri (left-sided sequence), ngha l x(n)=0 vi mi n>N
2
>-,
th ROC l min bn trong ca vng trn i qua im cc trong cng khc 0 (V d 2.3)
(5) Nu x(n) l dy hai bn (two-sided sequence) v c chiu di v hn v pha phi
cng nh v pha tri th ROC c dng hnh vnh khn, cc vng trn gii hn trong v
ngoi i qua hai im cc trong cc im cc ca X(z) (V d 2.4)
(6) ROC phi l mt min khng b chia ct.
Hnh 2.7 minh ha cc tnh cht ca ROC, cng cc v tr ca cc cc (z
1
=2/3, z
2
=-
3/2, z
3
=2) v zeros (z
1
=0, z2=-1/2) c th ng vi 4 bin i z .
2.2.3. Bin i Z ngc . (The inverse Z -transform)
2..2.3.1. nh ngha:
Nu X(z) l bin i Z ca x(n), th x(n) l bin i Z ngc ca X(z), ta c cp bin
i Z:

Bin i Z ngc cn c nh ngha l mt th tc bin i t min z sang min
thi gian. V mt ton hc, bin i Z ngc l mt ton t m n bin mt hm X(z)
thnh dy x(n).
Ch rng, ta ch c th xc nh bin i Z ngc ca X(z) khi min hi t ca X(z)
c xc nh.
Cng thc tnh dy x(n) t X(z) c thnh lp da vo nh l tch phn Cauchy.
1. nh l tch phn Cauchy, c pht biu bi cng thc sau:
44
Hnh 2.7. T nh cht ca ROC

'

C
k
k
k
d Z Z
j 1 # , 0
1 , 1
2
1

(2.23)
vi C l ng cong kn c chiu ngc chiu kim ng h v bao qu../Anh gc ta
.
2.Thit lp cng thc tnh bin i z ngc
T cng thc nh ngha ca bin i z:
Nhn hai v ca cng thc trn cho z
k-1
v ly tch phn trn ng cong kn C bao
qu../Anh gc ta , ngc chiu kim ng h v nm trong min hi t ca X(z), ta c:

C
k n
C
k
dz z n x
j
dz z z X
j
1 1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1

(2.24)
V tng trong v phi hi t, nn ta c th hon i v tr ca du tch phn v du tng
:

C
k n
n
C
k
dz z
j
n x dz z z X
j
1 1
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1

(2.25)
p dng nh l Cauchy, pt(2.25) tr thnh:

C
k
k x dz z z X
j
) ( ) (
2
1
1

(2.26)
i bin k thnh bin n, ta c cng thc bin i z ngc mong mun.

C
n
dz z z X
j
n x
1
) (
2
1
) (

(2.27)
Tch phn ng trong pt(2.27) c tnh bng nh l gi tr thng d ca Cauchy
(Cauchys residue theorem) nh sau:




C
n
dz z z X
j
n x
1
) (
2
1
) (

(gi tr thng d ca X(z)z


n-1
tt c cc cc ca n trong
C. (2.28)
Gi tr thng d (residue) ti mt im cc d
0
, bc s ca X(z)zn-1 , k hiu l
j
d
s
0
Re
,
l :
[ ]
j n
s
j
j
d
d z z z X
dz
d
s
s ) ( ) (
)! 1 (
1
lim Re
0
1
1
1
0

(2.29)
i vi cc im cc n, pt(2.29) tr thnh:
) ( ) ( Re
0
1
lim
0
0
d z z z X s
n
d s
j
d

(2.30)

45
V du 2.6:
1
1
1
) (

az
z X
, vi
a z >
, tm dy x(n) tng ng.
Gii:
ng cong kn C nm trong ROC ca X(z) nn c bn knh ln hn |a|.
- Vi n 0, C bao quanh mt cc duy nht ti z = a, ta c:
n n
a s
n
a s
a
a z a z z z X s

lim lim
) ( ) ( Re
1 1
kt qu l: x(n) = a
n
- Vi n < 0 , c cc kp bc n ti z = 0.
- Khi n = -1, c 2 cc trong C l z = a v z = 0
1 1
0
1
0
1 1 1 1
) (
1
) 0 ( ) ( Re
) ( ) ( Re
lim lim
lim lim


1
]
1



a
a z
z z z X s
a z a z z z X s
a s
n
s
a s
n
a s
a

Kt qu l x(-1) = a-1 - a-1 = 0
- Khi n = -2, c 1 cc n z = a v mt cc kp bc 2 ti z = 0 trong C.
2
2
2 1
0
1
0
2 2 1 1
) (
1
) 0 ( ) ( Re
) ( ) ( Re
lim lim
lim lim


1
]
1



a
a z
z z z X s
a z a z z z X s
a s
n
s
a s
n
a s
a
Kt qu l x(-2) = 0
Tnh tip tc vi n = -3, -4, -5, ta thy x(n) = 0, vi mi n < 0.
Vy, kt qu cui cng l: x(n) = a
n
u(n).
2.3 CC TNH CHT CA BIN I Z
Gi s ta c cc cp bin i Z nh sau:
46
Hnh 2.8 Vng trn tch
phn C
Cc k hiu ROC = Rx c ngha l rL < |z| < rH
ROC = R
x1
c ngha l rL1 < |z| < r
H1

ROC = R
x2
c ngha l r
L2
< |z| < r
H2

trong r
L
, r
H
, r
L1
, r
H 1
, r
L2
, r
H 2
l cc s thc dng, tng t cho R
y
.
Bin i Z c cc tnh cht nh sau:
1. Tuyn tnh (Linearity):
trong a v b l cc hng s bt k. Tnh cht ny c chng minh trc tip t nh
ngha ca bin i z (xem nh mt bi tp).
Min hi t Ry ca a X
1
(z) + b X
2
(z) nh nht l phn giao nhau gia R
x1
v R
x2
. Nu
t hp tuyn tnh a X
1
(z) + b X
2
(z) pht sinh cc im zeros kh i mt s im cc th
min hi t Ry c m rng ra (Ta s tr li s kh cc trong phn sau).
V d V d 2.Xc nh bin i Z ca tn hiu:
(a) x(n) = (cosw
0
n)u(n)
(b) x(n) = (sinw
0
n)u(n)
Gii:
(a) Tn hiu x(n) c th c biu din bi cc hm m phc theo cng thc Euler:
Ta thy, x(n) l t hp tuyn tnh ca 2 tn hiu
) (n u e
n j
v
) (n u e
n j
, tnh bin i
Z ca hai dy ny, ta c:
1 : ,
1
1
) (
1 : ,
1
1
) (
1
1
0
0
0
0
>

>

z ROC
z e
n u e
z ROC
z e
n u e
j
n j
j
n j

p dng tnh cht tuyn tnh, ta c:


1 1
0 0
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
) (

z e z e
z X
j j
vi ROC:
1 > z
Cui cng ta c:

47
(b) Tng t , tn hiu x(n) c th c biu din bi cc hm m phc theo cng
thc Euler:

p dng tnh cht tuyn tnh, ta c:
Sau mt s thao tc i s c kt qu:

2 . Dch thi gian (Time shifting)
ROC ca z-k X(z) l Rx tr ra z = 0 nu k > 0 hoc tr ra z = nu k < 0.
Chng minh:
t y(n)=x(n-k), ta c:


n
n
z k n x z Y ) ( ) (
, i bin m=n-k, ta c:


+

n m
k m k k m
z X z z m x z z m x z Y ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
Nhn xt: Dch phi k mu tc l lm tr tn hiu k mu s tng ng vi nhn cho z
-k
trong php bin i z. Vi k = 1, ta k hiu ton t z
-1
tng ng vi php lm tr mt
mu, y l k hiu c dng biu din phn t lm tr mt mu.
Tnh cht tuyn tnh v tnh cht dch thi gian lm cho bin i z tr thnh cc k
hu dng trong vic phn tch h thng LTI.
3/. Thay i thang o trong min z (Scaling in the z domain).
vi a l hng s thc hoc phc bt k.
ROC ca X(z/a) l |a|.R
x
= |a|.rL < |z| < |a|.r
H
.
Chng minh:
T nh ngha ca bin i Z ta c:
V ROC ca X(z) l R
x
= r
L
< |z| < r
H
nn ROC ca X(a-1z) l r
L
< | a
-1
z| < r
H
hay
|a|r
L
< |z| < |a|r
H
.
48
(2.34)

V d 2.8: Xc nh bin i Z ca cc tn hiu:
(a) x(n) = a
n
(
n
0
cos
)u(n)
(b) x(n) = a
n
(
n
0
sin
)u(n)
Gii:
(a) T kt qu (2.32) trong v d 2.7 kt hp vi tnh cht (2.35) ta thu c kt qu
mt cch dng:
4/. o thi gian (Time Reversal)
vi k l s nguyn.
ROC ca X(z
-1
) l
L x
r
z
R
1 1
< <
Chng minh: t nh ngha bin i z ta c:
{ }




m
m
n
n
z m x z n x n x Z ) )( ( ) ( ) (
1
Trong biu thc trn ta i bin m = -n.
ROC ca X(z-1) l : r
L
< |z
-1
| < r
H
hay 1/r
H
< |z| < 1/r
L
V du 2.9: Xc nh bin i Z ca tn hiu x(n) = u(-n)
Gii: v d 2.2 ta bit :
p dng pt (2.38) ta c :
5/. Vi phn trong min z (Differentiation in the z-domain)

Vi Ry = Rx (Ngoi tr trng hp thm vo hay loi b cc im cc ti z = 0 hay
z=.
49
Chng minh:
Bng cch ly o hm 2 v ca biu thc nh ngha bin i Z, ta c:

V d 2.10: Xc nh bin i Z ca tn hiu x(n) = na
n
u(n) .
Gii:
t x
1
(n) = a
n
u(n), ta c x(n) = nx
1
(n) . T v d 2.2 ta bit:
1
1
1
1
) ( ) (


az
n u a n x
n
; vi ROC:
a z >
p dng (2.39):
2 1
1
1
) 1 (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (


az
az
dz
z dX
z z X n u na n x
n
, vi R
x
=R
x1
, ngha l
a z > .
Nu a = 1, ta c bin i Z ca dy hm c n v (unit ramp signal).
2 1
1
) 1 (
) ( ) ( ) (


z
z
z X n nu n x
, vi R
x
=
1 > z
(2.40)
6/. Tch Chp (Convolution)
vi ROC R
x
ca X(z) nh nht l min giao nhau ca ROCx
1
v ROCx
2
Nu c cc zeros c sinh ra kh i mt s im cc th min hi t R
x
c m
rng ra.
Chng minh:
Theo nh ngha, tng chp ca 2 dy x
1
(n) v x
2
(n) l:

Bin i z ca x(n) l:

Hon i v tr ca 2 tng v p dng tnh cht dch thi gian ta thu c :
V d 2.11: Tnh tng chp x(n) ca 2 dy :
50

v x
2
(n) = u(n) u(n 6)
Gii:
T nh ngha ta tn c bin i Z ca x
1
(n) v x
2
(n) nh sau:
X
1
(z) = 1 2z
-1
+ z
-2
X
2
(z) = 1 + z
-1
+ z
-2
+ z
-3
+ z
-4
+ z
-5
Theo tnh cht (2.41), ta nhn X1(z) vi X2(z) v suy ra x(n) = x1(n)*x2(n):
X
1
(z). X
2
(z) = 1 - z
-1
- z
-6
+ z
-7
Suy ra:

Tnh cht c p dng tnh tng chp mt cch c hiu qu.

7/. Tng quan (Correlation)
Chng minh: Ta nhc li nh ngha ca tng quan gia 2 dy x
1
(n) v x
2
(n), l:
p dng tnh cht o thi gian v chp ta c:
ROC ca R
xx
(z) nh nht l phn giao ca min hi t ca X
1
(z) v X
2
(z-1).
Ging nh trng hp tnh tng chp, tng quan gia hai tn hiu c th tnh mt
cch d dng hn bng cch p dng tnh cht (2.42), sau tm bin i Z ngc thu
c kt qu.
8/ Tch cu hai dy (Multiplication of two Sequences)

y C l ng cong kn bao qu../Anh gc ta v nm trong min hi t ca
X
1
(v) and X
2
(1/v).
Chng minh:
t: x
3
(n) = x=(n).x
2
(n), bin i Z ca x
3
(n) l:

thay th bin i Z ngc ca x
1
(n):
51

l kt qu mong mun.
thu c ROC ca X
3
(z), ta ch rng, nu X
1
(v) hi t trong min r
1L
<|v|<r
1H
v
X
2
(z) hi t trong min r
2L
<|z|<r
2H
, th ROC ca X
2
(z/v) l: r
2L
<|z/v|<r
2H
, v min hi t ca
X
3
(z) s nh nht l:
R
1L
.r
2L
<|z/v|<r
2H
. r
1H
(2.44)
9/. nh l gi tr u (The initial value theorem):
Nu x(n) l mt dy nhn qu (ngha l: x(n) = 0 vi mi n < 0), th:

Chng minh:
V x(n) l mt dy nhn qu, nn t nh ngha bin i z ta c:
R rng, khi z , th z
-n
0 v n > 0 v X(z) x(0).
Tt c cc tnh cht c trnh by trn s c tng kt trong bng 2.1 thun tin
khi tham kho.
n y, ta tm c hu ht cc cp bin i Z c bn. Cc cp bin i Z ny
c tng kt trong bng 2.2.
Bng 2.1: Cc tnh cht ca bin i Z

Hm gc Hm nh Min hi t
( ) x n ( ) X z
x x
R z R
+
< <
( ) y n ( ) Y z
y y
R z R
+
< <
. ( ) . ( ) a x n b y n + . ( ) . ( ) a X z bY z +
Max
,
x y
R R z

1 < <
]
min
,
x y
R R
+ +
1
]
( ) x n k
( )
k
z X z

x x
R z R
+
< <
( )
n
a x n
1
( ) X a z
x x
a R z a R
+
< <
( ) x n
1
( ) X z

1 1
x x
z
R R
+
< <
52
. ( ) n x n
( )
.
dX z
z
dz

x x
R z R
+
< <
( ) ( ) x n y n ( ). ( ) X z Y z
Max
,
x y
R R z

1 < <
]
min
,
x y
R R
+ +
1
]
( ). ( ) x n y n
1
1
( ). ( ). .
2
C
z
X Y v v dv
j v


Max
,
x y
R R z

1 < <
]
min
,
x y
R R
+ +
1
]
( ) x n
( ) X z

x x
R z R
+
< <
( )
xy
r m
1
( ) ( ). ( )
xy
R z X z Y z

Max
,
x y
R R z

1 < <
]
min
,
x y
R R
+ +
1
]
Bng 2.2: Cc cp bin i z c bn

Tn hiu x(n) Bin i z, X(z) ROC
(n)
1 Tt c mt phng z
u(n)
1
1
1

Z
|z| > 1
nu(n)
2 1
1
) 1 (

Z
z |z| > 1
a
n
u(n)
1
1
1

az
|z| > |a|
na
n
u(n)
2 1
1
) 1 (

aZ
az |z| > |a|
-a
n
u(-n -1)
1
1
1

az
|z| < |a|
-n a
n
u(-n -1)
2 1
1
) 1 (

aZ
az |z| < |a|
(cos
0
n)u(n)
2
0
1
0
1
cos 2 1
cos 1

z z
z

|z| > 1
(sin
0
n)u(n)
2
0
1
0
1
sin 2 1
sin 1

z z
z

|z| > 1
(a
n
cos
0
n)u(n)
2 2
0
1
0
1
cos 2 1
cos 1

z a az
az

|z| > |a|


(a
n
sin
0
n)u(n)
2 2
0
1
0
1
sin 2 1
sin 1

z a az
az

|z| > |a|


2.4 CC PHNG PHP TM BIN I Z NGC
Phng php da trn nh l tch phn Cauchy tm biu thc ca bin i z ngc
nh trnh by trong phn nh ngha bin i z ngc. Phng php ny c v kinh
in, nhng kh phc tp. By gi, ta s trnh by mt s phng php khc, n gin
hn, tm bin i z ngc t mt biu thc X(z) kt hp vi mt ROC xc nh.
2.4.1. Phng php tra bng:
y l phng php n gin v nhanh chng nht, tm bin i z ngc ta ch cn
da vo bng cc cp bin i z c sn (bng 2.2).
53
V d 2.12:
Tm bin i z ngc ca X(z) 1
2
1
1
1

z
,vi
2
1
> z
Ta tra bng, tm c cp bin i:
[ ] a z
az
n u a
n
>

,
1
1
1
p dng cng thc bin i ny vi a = , ta c x(n) = (1/2)
n
u(n).

2.4.2. Phng php trin khai thnh cc phn thc ti gin.
(PARTIAL FRACTION EXPANSION)
Trng hp X(z) khng c sn mt cch tng minh trong bng cc cp bin i z. Ta
c th bin i biu thc X(z) thnh tng ca cc s hng n gin c th tra bn. y l
trng hp X(z) c dng hu t, ngha l X(z) = P(z)/Q(z), vi P(z) v Q(z) l cc a thc
theo bin z hay z-1, bi v trong trng hp ny ta c th khai trin X(z) thnh cc phn
thc hu t n gin.
Gi s rng X(z) c biu din bng t s ca 2 a thc ca z-1, nh sau:

+ + + +
+ + + +

N
k
k
k
M
k
k
k
N
N
M
M
z a
z b
z a z a z a a
z b z b z b b
z X
0
0
2
2
1
1 0
2
2
1
1 0
...
...
) (
(2.46)
Bin i z c dng ny thng gp khi nghin cu h thng tuyn tnh bt bin pt (2.46)
c th vit li:

+ + + +
+ + + +

N
k
k
k
M
k
k
k
N
M N N
M
M M M
M
N
z a
z b
a z a z a z a
b z b z b z b
z
z
z X
0
0
2
2
1
1 0
2
2
1
1 0
...
...
) (
(2.47)
Pt (2.47) ch ra rng, s c M zeros v N cc cc v tr khc 0 trn mt phng phc.
Thm vo, cng s c M-N cc z = 0 nu M > N hay c N-M zeros z=0 nu N > M.
Ni khc i, bin i z c dng pt(2.46) lun lun c s cc v zero bng nhau trong mt
phng z hu hn, v khng c cc v zero z = .
Pt (2.46) cn c th biu din dng:

N
k
k
M
k
k
z d a
z c b
z X
1
1
0
1
1
0
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
(2.48)
y, c
k
l cc zeros khc 0 v dk l cc cc khc 0 ca X(z).
- Trng hp M < N, bng cch chia a thc t s cho a thc mu s ta c th a
X(z) v dng:

+
N M
k
ht
k
k
z X z c z X
0
) ( ) (
(2.49)
54
Trong , ta c th d dng tm bin i z ngc ca a thc bng cch tra bng kt
hp vi p dng tnh cht tuyn tnh v tnh cht dch thi gian; cn X
ht
(z) l mt hm hu
t c bc ca t s nh hn bc ca mu s, Cc hm hu t c dng nh X
ht
(z) c gi l
hm hu t tht s (Proper rational function). Vy, vn l tm bin i z ngc ca cc
hm hu t tht s.
- Trng hp M > N, X(z) l hm hu t tht s v c N cc khc 0 phn bit
(khng c cc kp):
Khi X(z) c th vit li:
X(z)=

N
k
k
k
z d
A
1
1
1
(2.50)
vi A
k
l cc h s m ta cn phi tnh. tnh cc h s A
k
, ta nhn hai v phng
trnh (2.49) vi (1 d
k
z
-1
) v cho z = d
k
, ta tnh c cc h s A
k
:
k k k
d z
z
z X
x d A
) (
) 1 (
1
V d 2.13: Gi s x(n) c bin i z l:
( )
1 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
1
2
1
1
2 1
2
1
2
3
1
2 1
) (





,
_

+ +

+
+ +

z z
z z
z z
z z
z X
(2.52)
vi ROC l |z| > 1. Tm x(n).
Gii:
T ROC ca X(z), ta thy x(n) l mt dy bn phi. V M = N v tt c cc cc u l
bc nht. Ta c th biu din X(z) di dng:

H s b
0
c tm bi php chia a thc t s cho a thc mu s:
1
2
3
2
1
1 2
+

z z
2

2 3
1 2
1 2
1 2
+
+ +


z z
z z
5z
1
-1
X(z) c vit li:
( )
1 1
1
1
2
1
5 1
2 ) (


,
_

+
+
z z a
z
z X
t
( )
1 1
1
1
2
1
1
5 1
) (


,
_

z z
z
z X
ht
, ta s khai trin X
ht
(z) thnh tng ca 2 phn thc n
gin, cc h s
A
1
v A
2
c tnh bng cch p dng pt(2.51), nh sau:
) 1 (
5 1
1
1
1

z
z
A

z=
1
2
=9
55
8
1
)
2
1
1 (
5 1
1
1
2

z
z
z
A
X(z) tr thnh : ) 1 (
8
)
2
1
1 (
9
2 ) (
1
1


+


z
z
z X
Tra bng ta c: 2 2(n)
)
2
1
1 (
9
1
z
) (
2
1
n u
n

,
_


) 1 (
8
1
z
u(n)
p dng tnh cht tuyn tnh, ta c:
x(n) = 2*(n) 9 (1/2)
n
u(n) + 8 u(n)
- Trng hp M > N, X(z) l hm hu t tht s v c N cc khc 0, trong c
cc kp:
Pt(2.47) c th c vit li:

N
2 N
2
1 N
1
N
0
1 M N
M
3 N
2
2 N
1
1 N
0
a ... z a z a z a
z b ... z b z b z b
z
) z ( X
+ + + +
+ + + +



(2.53)

Sau khai trin X(z)/z thnh tng cc phn thc hu t n gin. Gi s, X(z) c cc
kp bc s ti d
j
. Pt(2.53) s c trin khai di dng:




+

N
j lk k
s
l m
m
j
m
k
k
d z
C
d z
A
z
z X
) (
) (
(2.54)
T pt(2.54), ta vit li X(z) i dng:
X(z)=

N
j lk k
s
l m
m
j
m
k
k
d z
C
z d
A
) ( 1
1
(2.55)
Cc h s A
k
c tnh nh trn, ta c th tm cng thc tng qut tnh cc h s
Cm , tuy nhin cng thc ny kh phc tp. Trong thc t, thc hin mt h thng ln,
ngi ta thng lin kt nhiu h thng bc 2. V vy, n gin, ta ch cn kho st
trng hp nghim kp bc 2 nh trong v d 2.14. Sau khi tm c cc h s A
k
v C
m
,
ta p dng phng php tra bng kt hp vi cc tnh cht tuyn tnh v tnh cht vi phn
trong min z tm bin i z ngc.
V d 2.14: Hy xc nh dy nhn qu x(n) c bin i z l:
X(z)=
( )( )
2
1 1
1 1
1

+ z z
Vi ROC:
1 > z
56

Gii: Ta thy X(z) c mt nghim kp bc 2 ti z = 1, ta vit li X(z) di dng:
( )( )
2
2 1
2
2
) 1 ( 1 1
1 1
) (

+
+

z
C
z
C
z
A
z z
z
z
z X
Cc h s A v C
2
c th tnh c mt cch d dng nh sau:
A =
4
1
1
) (
) 1 (

+
z z
z X
z
2
1
1
) (
) 1 (
2
2


z z
z X
z C
tnh C
1
, ta vit li:
2 1
2 2
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
) (
) 1 ( C C z
z
A
z
z
z X
z + +
+

V ly o hm 2 v ca phng trnh v cho z=1, ta c:
4
3
1
) (
) 1 (
2
1

1
]
1


z z
z X
z
d z
d
C
Thay cc h s tnh c v biu thc ca X(z)/z:
2
) 1 ( 2
1
) 1 ( 4
3
) 1 ( 4
1 ) (

+
+

z z z z
z X
Cui cng X(z) c khai trin thnh cc phn thc hu t n gin, nh sau:
2 1
1
1 1
) 1 ( 2
1
1
1
4
3
1
1
4
1
) (

+
+

z
z
z z
z X
p dng phng php tra bng kt hp vi cc tnh cht tuyn tnh, vi phn trong
min z, vi x(n) l mt dy nhn qu, ta thu c:
x(n) = (-1)
n
u(n) + u(n) + n u(n) = [ (-1)
n
+ + n/2]u(n)
2.4.3. Phng php trin khai thnh chui lu tha (POWER SERRIES EXPANSION)
T nh ngha ca bin i z, ta thy X(z) l mt chui ly tha, trong x(n) chnh l
h s ca z-n . Ta vit li:
X(z)
... ) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 ( ... ) (
2 1 1 2
+ + + + + +

z x z x x z x z x z n x
n
n
(2.56)
Vy, nu ta c th a X(z) v dng ny, ta s xc nh c gi tr ca x(n) tng
ng vi gi tr ca n.
57
1/. Khai trin mt tch s:
V d 2.15: Hy xc nh dy x(n) m bin di z ca n l:
X(z)
) 1 )( 1 )(
2
1
1 (
1 1 1 2
+ z z z z
Ta thy X(z) cng c dng hm hu t, nhng ch c mt cc l z = 0, Ta c th khai
trin thnh mt chui ly tha nh sau:
X(z)
1 2
2
1
1
2
1

+ z z z

Vy x(n) l: x(n)=
,... 0 , 0 ,
2
1
, 1 ,
2
1
, 1 , 0 , 0 ...,
2/. Khai trin Taylor
Phng php ny thng c p dng khi X(z) c dng logarit, sin, hyperbolic, hm
m. Ta nhc li cng thc Taylor ca mt hm f(x) ti im x = x
0
, nh sau:
1
0
) 1 (
0
0
) (
0
0
0
) (
)! 1 (
) (
) (
!
) (
... ) (
! 1
) (
) ( ) (
+
+

+
+ + + +
n
n
n
n
x x
n
c f
x x
n
x f
x x
x f
x f x f

(2.57)
trong , c nm gia x v x
0
.
Nu trong cng thc (2.54), ta cho x0 = 0, ta c:
1
) 1 (
0
) (
0
0
) (
)! 1 (
) (
) (
!
) (
... ) (
! 1
) (
) ( ) (
+
+
+
+ + + +
n
n
n
n
x
n
c f
x
n
x f
x
x f
x f x f

(2.58)
trong , c nm gia 0 v x, cng thc (2.58) c gi l cng thc Mac Laurin.
V d 2.16:
Hy xc nh dy x(n) c bin i z l: X(z) = ln(1 + az
-1
), vi ROC l |z| > |a|.
Gi:
Khai trin Taylor ca X(z) theo z
-1
, vi n n , ta c:

1
1
) 1 (
) (
n
x x n
n
z a
z X
Vy:
n
a
n
n 1
) 1 (
+
n>0
x(n) =
0 0 n
3/. Khai trin bng php chia:
Phng php ny thng c thc hin khi X(z) c dng hu t: X(z) = P(z)/Q(z). Ta
c th thc hin php chia a thc P(z) cho Q(z) c c mt chui ly tha, t ,
nhn c tng mu ca dy x(n).

V d 2.17: Hy xc nh bin i Z ngc ca:

58
X(z) =
2 1
5 . 0 5 . 1 1
1

+ z z
khi: (a) ROC l |z| > 1 (b) ROC l |z| < 0.5

Gii:
(a) T ROC ca X(z) ta thy x(n) l mt dy bn phi. V vy , ta s tm mt khai
trin chui ly tha vi s m m. Bng cch chia t cho mu xp theo s m m dn, ta
c:

So snh vi pt(2.56), ta c:


(b) T ROC ca X(z), ta thy x(n) l mt dy bn tri. V vy, ta phi thc hin php
chia sao cho thu c khai trin ly tha dng ca z. Mun vy, ta xp cc a thc t s
v mu s theo th t sao cho ly tha ca z-1 gim dn (tc s m t m dn cho n 0).
Ta thc hin php chia nh sau:



Ta thu c:

2.5 GII PHNG TRNH SAI PHN TUYN TNH H S HNG DNG BIN
I Z MT PHA
2.5.1. Bin i Z mt pha (UNILATERAL Z-TRANSFORM)
nh ngha:
59
Bin i z mt pha ca tn hiu x(n) c nh ngha pt(2.4), ta nhc li:

N khc vi bin i z hai pha ch ch tnh cc gi tr x(n) vi n ( 0, gii hn di
ca tng l 0.
Ta thy, nu x(n) l mt tn hiu nhn qu (ngha l x(n) = 0 vi mi n < 0) th bin
i z mt pha v bin i z hai pha l ng nht, ngc li, nu x(n) ( 0 khoi n < 0 th
chng khc nhau.
ROC ca tt c cc bin i z mt pha l |z| > r
H
(r
H
l mt s thc dng), vi bin
i z mt pha c dng hu t th rH l modul ca cc xa gc ta nht. V vy, khi s
dng bin i z mt pha, ngi ta thng khng cp n ROC .
V d 2.18: Xt tn hiu x(n) =(n)
Bin i Z hai pha:
[ ] 1 ) ( ) (
0


n
n n
n
z n z n x z X
Bin i Z mt pha:
[ ] 1 ) ( ) (
0 0


+
n
n
n
n
z n z n x z X
Ta thy, v x(n) = 0 vi mi n < 0 nn bin i z hai pha v mt pha l ging nhau.
V d 2.19: Xt tn hiu x(n) = (n + 1)
Trong trng hp ny, xung n v xut hin thi im n = -1.
Bin i z hai pha:
[ ] z z n z n x z X
n
n n
n
+


) 1 ( ) (
0

Bin i Z mt pha:
[ ] 0 ) 1 ( ) (
0 0
+

+
n
n
n
n
z n z n x z X
Ta thy, v x(n) khng nhn qu, nn bin i z hai pha v mt pha l phn bit
nhau.
Tnh cht:
Hu ht cc tnh cht ca bin i z hai pha u ng vi bin i z mt pha.
Tnh cht dch thi gian:
Khi dch tr dy x(n) i k mu th hm nh Z ca n c nhn thm
tha s z
-k
Nu : ZT[x(n)] = X(n) vi [ ]
( ) :
x x
RC X z R z R
+
< <
Th : Y(z) = ZT[y(n)=x(n-k)] = z
k
X(z) [2.60]
Vi RC[Y(z)] = RC[X(z)] , tr im z = 0 nu k >0 v im z =

nu k
< 0
Chng minh : Theo biu thc bin i Z thun [2.1-1] c :
60
( )
( ) ( ). ( ). ( )
n k n k k
n n
Y z x n k z z x n k z z X n





Tnh cht tr thng c s dng tm bin i Z ca cc dy tr .
V d 2.20:
p ng xung ca mt h thng LTI ngh l h(n) = a
n
u(n), vi |a| < 1. Hy xc nh
p ng ca h thng vi tn hiu vo l tn hiu nhy bc n v khi n .
Gii: p ng ca h thng l:
y(n) = h(n)*x(n)
vi : x(n) = u(n). R rng, nu ta kch thch mt h thng nhn qu vi mt tn hiu
vo nhn qu th tn hiu ra cng nhn qu. V x(n), h(n) v y(n) u l cc dy nhn qu,
nn bin i Z mt pha v bin i Z hai pha l ng nht. p dng tnh cht chp ta
c:
( )( ) a z z
z
z az
z Y


1 1
1
1
1
) (
2
1 1
ROC:
a z >
Suy ra: (z-1)Y(z)=
) (
2
a z
z

V |a| < 1 nn ROC ca (z-1)Y(z) cha vng trn n v. p dng nh l gi tr cui,


ta c:
a
a z
z
n y
z
n


1
1
2
lim
) ( lim
1
2.5.2. Gii phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s hng:
Mt cng dng quan trng ca bin i z mt pha l phn tch h thng c m t
bi phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s hng khng c iu kin ngh. V kch thch
c a vo mt thi gian xc nh, ta coi nh n = 0, nn tn hiu vo cng nh tn hiu
ra ch c kho st cc thi im n 0, iu ny khng c ngha l cc tnh hiu ra
bng 0 cc thi im n < 0. Ta thy, bin i z mt pha l mt cng c thch hp trong
trng hp ny. Ta xt v d sau y:
V d 2.21: Xc nh p ng nhy bc n v ca h thng c m t bi phng
trnh sai phn sau:
y(n) = ay(n-1) + x(n) , vi 1 < a < 1
vi iu kin u l: y(-1) = 1.
Gii: Ly bin i Z mt pha hai v ca phng trnh sai phn ta c:
Y
+
(z) = a[z
-1
Y
+
(z) + y(-1)] + X
+
(z)
Vi x(n) = u(n) ta c X
+
(z) = 1/(1-z-1). Thay th y(-1) v X
+
(z) vo phng trnh trn
v sp xp li ta c:
( )( )
1 1 1
1 1
1
1
) (

+

+

z az az
a
z Y

61
Tm bin i Z ngc bng phng php khai trin thnh cc phn thc hu t n
gin, ta c:
2.6 PHN TCH H THNG LTI TRONG MIN Z
2.6.1. Hm truyn t ca h thng LTI
2.6.1.1. Hm truyn t (hm h thng)
T chng I, ta thy rng mt h thng LTI hon ton c th c trng trong min
thi gian bi p ng xung h[n] ca n, vi tn hiu vo x[n], p ng ca h thng c
tnh bi tng chp:
y[n] = x(n) * h(n) (2.64)
Chng ta cng thy c cc kh khn khi xc nh p ng ca h thng trc tip
bng tng chp.
Gi X(z) v H(z) ln lt l bin i z ca x(n) v h(n), p dng tnh cht chp ca
bin i Z, ta c bin i Z ca y(n) nh sau:
Y(z) = X(z).H(z) (2.65)
vi mt min hi t thch hp.
Vy, thng qua php bin i Z, tng chp ca hai dy bin thnh php nhn n
gin. Sau khi c c Y(z), ta dng php bin i Z ngc tnh p ng y(n). Cch lm
ny r rng l d dng hn cch tnh trc tip t tng chp.
Pt(2.65) c th c vit li: H(z)=
) (
) (
z X
z Y
(2.66)
H(z) c gi l hm h thng (System function) hay hm truyn t (Transfer
function). V H(z) v h(n) l mt cp duy nht, nn mt h thng LTI bt k hon ton c
th c c t bi hm h thng ca n.
2.6.1.2. Hm truyn t ca mt h thng c c trng bi LCCDE
Xt mt h thng LTI m quan h vo ra ca n tha mn phng trnh sai phn tuyn
tnh h s hng (LCCDE) nh sau:



N
K
M
K
K K
K n y b K n y a
0 0
) ( ) (
(2.67)
Chng ta cng bit rng, t phng trnh sai phn (2.67) ta c th tm c y(n)
theo phng php qui. Nu iu kin ban u ngh c tha mn, h thng s l tuyn
tnh, bt bin v nhn qu.
p dng bin i Z cho c hai v ca pt(2.67) v n tnh cht tuyn tnh, dch
thi gian ca bin i Z, ta
Thu c :


N
K
M
K
K
K
K
K
z X z b z Y z a
0 0
) ( ) (
Hay:
) ( ) (
0 0
z X z b z Y z a
M
K
K
K
N
K
K
K

,
_


,
_

(2.68)
Suy ra hm truyn t ca h thng c dng:
62

N
K
K
K
M
K
K
K
z a
z b
z X
z Y
z H
0
0
) (
) (
) (
(2.69)
T cc iu kin u ca LCCDE, nu ta xc nh c ROC ca H(z) th H(z) c t
duy nht mt h thng.
Mt cch biu din khc:

,
_

N
k
K
M
k
K
z d
z c
a
b
z H
1
1
1
1
0
0
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
(2.70)
Mi tha s (1-c
k
z
-1
) trong t s gp vo mt zero z=c
k
. Tng t, mi tha s (1-
d
k
z
-1
) trong mu s ng gp vo mt cc z=d
k
.
C mt mi quan h r rng gia phng trnh sai phn v biu thc i s ca hm
truyn t tng ng. Nh ta thy, trong a thc t s ca pt(2.69) c cng cc h s vi
v phi ca pt(2.67) v a thc mu s ca pt(2.69) c cng cc h s vi v tri ca
phng trnh (2.67). Nh vy, bit hm truyn t ta c th suy ra phng trnh sai phn
v ngc li.
V d 2.22: Gi s rng hm truyn t ca h thng LTI l:
( )

,
_

+
,
_

1 1
2
1
4
3
1
2
1
1
1
) (
z z
z
z H
vi ROC:
4
3
> z
(2.71)
T ROC ca H(z), ta thy y l mt h thng nhn qu.
tm phng trnh sai phn biu din h thng, ta a H(z) v dng ca pt(2.69):
) (
) (
8
3
4
1
1
2 1
) (
2 1
2 1
z X
z Y
z z
z z
z H
+
+ +



Suy ra:
( ) ) ( 2 1 ) (
8
3
4
1
1
2 1 2 1
z X z z z Y z z

+ +
,
_

+
v phng trnh sai phn l:
) 2 ( ) 1 ( 2 ) ( ) 2 (
8
3
) 1 (
4
1
) ( + + + n x n x n x n y n y n y
(2.72)
V y l h thng LTI nhn qu nn pt(2.72) tha iu kin u ngh.
V d 2.23: Hy xc nh hm truyn t H(z) ca h thng m t bi LCCDE:
) ( 2 ) 1 (
2
1
) ( n x n y n y +
Nu iu kin u cha xc nh, LCCDE hoc H(z) cho c th m t bao nhiu h
thng khc nhau? Trong mi trng hp hy tnh p ng xung tng ng (xem nh bi
tp).
63
2.6.1.3. S kt ni ca cc h thng LTI
C hai loi kt ni c bn: kt ni lin tip (cascade) v kt ni song song. chng I
ta nh ngha cc phn t c bn ca mt h thng ri rc nh: cng, nhn, nhn vi h
s, tr mt mu v cng xc nh p ng xung ca h thng tng ng ca hai h
thng mc lin tip hoc mc song song. y, ta s m t h thng tng ng bng
hm truyn t.
Cho hai h thng c p ng xung l h1(n) v h
2
(n), hm truyn t tng ng l H
1
(z)
v H
2
(z) vi cc min hi t xc nh.
- Mc lin tip (Cascade):
h thng tng ng:

Mc song song (parallel)
H thng tng ng:
T 2 kt ni c bn trn ta c th cu trc 1 h thng phc tp. Ngc li ta c th
phn chia 1 h thng ln, phc tp thnh nhiu h thng nh hn kt ni nhau tin thit
k.
V d 2.24: Hy xc nh hm truyn t ca h thng tng ng ca h thng
c kt ni bi cc h thng con nh sau:
64
Hm truyn t ca h thng tng ng l:H(z) = H4(z)+H1(z)[H2(z)+H3(z)]
2.6.2. p ng ca h thng cc-zero ngh
Xt mt h thng cc- zero c th c m t bi LCCDE v hm truyn t ca n
l:
) (
) (
) (
z A
z B
z H
(2.73)
Gi s tn hiu vo x(n) c bin i Z l X(z) c dng hu t:
) (
) (
) (
z Q
z N
z X
(2.74)
(Hu ht cc tn hiu trong thc t m ta quan tm thng c dng hu t).
Nu h thng ta xt l mt h thng ngh, cc iu kin u ca phng trnh sai phn
bng 0, ngha l, y(-1) = y(-2) = ... =y(-N) = 0. Bin i Z ca tn hiu ra l:
) ( ). (
) ( ). (
) ( ) ( ) (
z Q z A
z N z B
z X z H z Y
(2.75)
trnh trng hp cc kp, ta gi s rng H(z) ch c cc cc n p
1
,p
2
,...,p
N
v tn
hiu vo cng ch c cc n q
1
,q
2
,...,q
L
, sao cho tho iu kin p
k
( q
m
vi tt c k =
1,2,...,N v m=1,2,...,L . trnh s kh cc, ta gi s cc zero ca B(z) v N(z) cng
khng trng vi cc cc {p
k
} v {q
m
}. Nh vy, cc cc v zero khng kh nhau. Khi
Y(z) s c khai trin thnh cc phn thc hu t n gin:


N
K
L
K
K
K
K
K
z q
Q
z p
A
z Y
1 1
1 1
1 1
) (
(2.76)
Thc hin bin i Z ngc, ta c tn hiu ra c dng (ch iu kin ngh):
( )


+
N
K
L
K
n
K K
n
K K
n u q Q n u p A n y
1 1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
(2.77)
Ta thy y(n) c th chia lm 2 phn:
- Phn th nht l hm ca cc cc p
K
ca h thng c gi l p ng t nhin
(natural response) ca h thng. S nh hng ca tn hiu vo ln phn ny thng qua cc
tha s {A
k
}.
- Phn th hai l hm ca cc cc {q
K
} ca tn hiu vo, c gi l p ng p
(forced response) ca h thng. nh hng ca h thng ln phn p ng ny thng qua
cc tha s {Q
k
}.
Ch :
- Cc tha s {A
k
} v {Q
k
} l hm ca c hai tp cc {p
k
} v {q
k
} (xem li cch tnh
cc tha s ny).
65
- p ng t nhin ca h thng khc vi p ng ca h thng khi kch thch bng 0.
Tht vy, nu tn hiu vo x(n) = 0 th X(z) = 0, suy ra Y(z) = 0 v kt qu p ng ca h
thng l y(n) = 0.
- p ng t nhin ca mt h thng cng ph thuc vo kch thch. iu ny th hin
ch cc tha s {A
k
} l hm ca c hai tp cc {p
K
} v {q
K
}.
Khi X(z) v H(z) c chung mt hoc nhiu cc, hay khi X(z) v/hoc H(z) c cc kp,
th Y(z) s c cc kp. Kt qu l khai trin phn thc hu t ca Y(z) s cha cc tha s
c dng, vi k=1,2,...,s. y s l bc ca cc kp pi . Bin i Z ngc ca cc s hng
c cha tha s ny s cha cc tha s c dng
n
i
1 k
p n

.

2.6.3. p ng ca h thng cc-zero vi iu kin u khc 0.
Gi s tn hiu x(n) c a vo h thng cc-zero thi im n=0. Nh vy, tn
hiu x(n) c gi s l nhn qu. nh hng ca cc tn hiu vo trc ln h
thng c phn nh qua cc iu kin u y(-1),y(-2),y(-3),... , y(-N). V tn hiu vo l
nhn qu v ta ch quan st tn hiu ra y(n) cc thi im n 0, nn chng ta phi dng
bin i Z mt pha.
Tn hiu ra c dng (ta lun lun c th a LCCDE v dng ny):


+
N
K
M
K
K K
K n x b K n y a n y
1 0
) ( ) ( ) (
v bin i Z mt pha ca n l:

+

+ +
+
1
]
1

+
M
K
K
K
N
K
K
n
n K
K
z X z b z n y z Y z a z Y
0 1 1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

+
+


N
K
K
K
K
n
n
N
K
K
N
K
K
M
K
K
z a
z n y z a
z X
z a
z b
z Y
0
1 0
1
0
1
0
1
1
) (
) ( ) (
(V x(n) nhn qu nn X
+
(z) = X(z)
) (
) (
) ( ). ( ) (
0
z A
z N
z X z H z Y +
+
(2.78)
Vi:


N
K
K
n
n
K
z n y z a z N
1 1
1
0
) ( ) (
T pt(2.78) ta thy p ng ca h thng vi iu kin u khc 0 c th c chia
lm 2 phn:
- Phn th nht l: Y
zs
(z) = H(z)X(z) c gi l p ng trng thi zero (zero - state
response) ca h thng. y chnh l p ng ca h thng khi n tha iu kin ngh.
- Phn th hai l: c gi l p ng tn hiu vo zero (zero - input response) ca
h thng.
p ng tng c xc nh bi bin i Z ngc y
zs
(n) ca Y
zs
(z) v y
zi
(n) ca Y
zi
(z),
l:
66
y(n) = y
zs
(n) + y
zi
(n).
V mu s ca
), ( , z A Y
zi
+
c cc cc l p1,p2,,pN. Kt qu, p ng tn hiu vo
zero c dng:

N
K
n
K K zi
n u p D n y
1
) ( ) ( ) (
(2.79)
Kt qu ny c thm vo pt( 2.77) v cc s hng c cha cc cc {p
K
} c th c
lin kt p ng tng c dng:


+
N
K
L
K
n
K K
n
K K
n u q Q n u p A n y
1 1
,
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
(2.80)
y,A
k
=

A
k
+D
k
T nhng g trnh by trn, ta thy rng nh hng ca iu kin u lm thay i
p ng t nhin ca h thng thng qua vic lm thay i cc tha s {A
K
}, khng c cc
cc mi c a vo vi iu kin u khc 0, hn na khng c s nh hng n p
ng p ca h thng.
V du 2.25: Xc nh p ng vi hm nhy bc n v ca h thng c m t bi
phng trnh LCCDE sau:
y(n)=0,9y(n-1) - 0,81y(n-2) + x(n)
vi cc iu kin u nh sau:
(a) y(-1) = y(-2) = 0
(b) y(-1) = y(-2) = 1
Gii:
Hm h thng
2 1
8 . 0 9 . 0 1
1
) (

+

z z
z H
, h thng ny c hai cc phc 3
1
9 . 0
j
e p

v
3
9 . 0
2
j
p

.
Hm h thng :
2 1
8 , 0 9 , 0 1
1
) (

+ z z
z H
H thng ny c hai cc c hai cc phc
: P
1
= 3
9 , 0
jx
e
v P
2
= 3
9 , 0
jx
e

Bin i z ca hm nhy bc m v u(n) l:


1
1
1
) (

z
z X

Vy:
( )
1 1
3 3
1 9 , 0 1 9 , 0 1
1
) (

,
_

,
_

z z e e
z Y
je jx
( p ng trng thi zero:
) ( ) 2 , 5
3
cos( ) 9 , 0 ( 089 , 1 099 , 1 ) (
0
n u n n y
n
z
1
]
1

(a) V iu kin u bng 0 nn y(n) = y


zs
(n).
(b) Vi iu in u y(-1) = y(-2) = 1, thnh phn thm vo trong bin i z l:
67
5 1
1
0
81 , 0 9 , 0 1
81 , 0 09 , 0
) (
) (
) (


z z
z
z A
z N
z Y
zi
=
1
3
1
3
9 , 0 1
4936 , 0 026 , 0
9 , 0 1
4936 , 0 26 , 0

+
+

+
z e
j
z e
j
jz jz
Kt qu, p ng tn hiu vo bng 0 l:
Trong trng hp ny, p ng tng c bin i z l:
Y(z) = Y
zs
(z) + Y
zi
(z)
Ly bin i z ngc ta c p ng tng:
) ( ) 38
3
cos( ) 9 , 0 ( 44 , 1 ) ( 099 , 1 ) (
0
n u n n u n y
n
+

2.6.4. p ng qu (TRANSIENT RESPONSE) v p ng xc lp (STEADY -
STATE RESPONSE)
Nh ta trnh by phn trc, p ng ca h thng vi mt tn hiu vo xc nh
c th c tch ra lm 2 phn, p ng t nhin v p ng p. p ng t nhin ca mt
h thng nhn qu c dng:

N
K
n
K K nr
n u p A n y
1
) ( ) ( ) (
(2.81)
Trong ,
{ } N k p
K
,..., 2 , 1 ,
l cc cc ca h thng v A
K
l cc tha s ty thuc vo tnh cht ca kch thch v
iu kin u.
Nu p
k
< 1 vi mi k, th y
nr
(n) s hi t n 0. Khi n . Trong trng hp ny, ta
gi p ng t nhin l p ng qu (transient respone). Tc gim ph thuc vo
ln ca cc cc. Nu tt c cc cc nh, tc suy gim nhanh. Ngc li, nu c mt
hoc nhiu cc gn vng trn n v, th p ng qu c duy tr trong mt thi
gian di.
p ng p ca h thng c dng:
) ( ) ( ) (
1
1 1
n u q Q n y
L
l
n
n

(2.82)
y,
{ } L k q
K
,..., 2 , 1 ,
l cc cc trong bin i z ca tn hiu vo v Q
k
l cc tha s ph thuc
c tnh ca h thng v tn hiu vo. Nu tt c cc cc ca tn hiu nm trong vng
trn n v, y
fr
(n) gim v 0 khi n ,nh trong trng hp p ng t nhin. Ta khng
nn ngc nhin v tn hiu vo cng l 1 tn hiu qu . Ngc li, khi tn hiu vo l mt
tn hiu nhn qu hnh sin, cc cc s nm trn vng trn n v, v kt qu l p ng p
l mt tn hiu iu ha (sin) khi n0. Trong trng hp ny p ng p c gi l p
ng xc lp (steady-state respone) ca h thng. V vy, duy tr p ng xc lp vi
n0, tn hiu vo cng phi c duy tr trong sut thi gian .
V d 2.26: Xc nh p ng qu v p ng xc lp ca h thng c m t bi
LCCDE:
68
y(n)=0,5y(n-1)+x(n)
Khi tn hiu vo
) ( )
4
cos( 10 ) ( n u
n
n x

H thng tha iu kin ngh.


Gii:
Hm truyn t:
1
5 , 0 1
1
) (

z
z H
Suy ra h thng c cc z=0,5

Bin i z ca kch thch c dng:
V Y(z) = H(z)X(z) , suy ra:
( )

,
_

,
_


1
]
1

1
4
1
4
1
1
1 1 5 , 0 1
)
2
1
1 ( 10
) (
z e z e z
z
z Y
j j
=
1
4
7 , 28
1
4
7 , 28
1
1
78 , 6
1
78 , 6
5 , 0 1
3 , 6
0

z e
e
z e
e
z
j
j
j
j

p ng t nhin hay p ng qu l: y
nr
(n)=6,3(0,5)
n
u(n)
p ng p hay p ng xc lp l:
ta thy p ng xc lp tn ti trong sut thi gian n 0 khi tn hiu vo tn ti.
2.6.5. H thng n nh v nhn qu.
Khi thnh lp pt(2.69) t pt(2.67) chng ta gi s rng h thng l LTI, nhng
khng cp n tnh cht n nh v nhn qu. Tng ng, t phng trnh sai phn ta
c th thu c biu thc i s ca hm truyn t, nhng khng thu c min hi t.
iu ny ph hp vi thc t, nh thy trong chng I, l phng trnh sai phn
khng xc nh mt cch duy nht p ng xung ca h thng LTI, khi cha xc nh iu
kin u. V vy, hm truyn t nh phng trnh (2.69) hay (2.70), s c nhiu s chn
la khc nhau cho min hi t tng ng vi cng mt phng trnh sai phn.
Tuy nhin, nu chng ta gi s rng h thng c tnh nhn qu, ngha l h[n] l mt
dy bn phi v v vy ROC ca H(z) phi bn ngoi ca vng trn i qua im cc
ngoi cng.
Nu chng ta gi s h thng l n nh, ngha l p ng xung phi tha mn
<

n
n h ) (
(2.83)
pt(2.83) ng ngha vi
<

n
n h ) (
ti
1 z
(2.84)
vy:
iu kin n nh l ROC ca H(z) cha vng trn n v, vy, tng hp li iu kin
h thng n nh v nhn qu l tt c cc im cc phi nm trong vng trn n v.
69
V d 2.27: Xt mt h thng LTI c LCCDE nh sau:
) ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
2
5
) ( n x n y n y n y +
(2.85)
H(z) c cho bi:
( )
1 1 2 1
2 1
2
1
1
1
2
5
1
1
) (


,
_

z z z z
z H
(2.86)
th cc-zero ca H(z) c v hnh 2.9, c 3 kh nng chn ROC:
- Nu h thng c gi s l h nhn qu, th ROC:
2 > z
Trong trng hp ny h thng khng n nh v ROC khng cha vng trn n v.
- Nu h thng c gi s l n nh, th ROC:
- Nu chn ROC:
th h thng s khng n nh v cng khng nhn qu.

2.7 THC HIN CC H THNG RI RC
2.7.1. M u:
Nh mc 2.6.2 ta thy rng mt h thng LTI c hm truyn t hu t th c th
c biu din bi mt phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s hng (LCCDE). Phng
trnh sai phn ny c th suy ra mt cch trc tip t hm truyn t, ngc li, nu cho
trc LCCDE ta c th suy ra hm truyn t.
thc hin cc h thng ri rc, t hm truyn t hay LCCDE ta s biu din cu
trc h thng bng s khi hoc gin (graph), bao gm s kt ni ca cc phn t c
bn l cng, nhn, nhn vi hng s v php tr n v.
Cc php tr hm rng cn phi lu tr cc gi tr ca dy trong qu kh v v vy
chng l cc thanh ghi hay b nh.
V d: 2.28: Ta xt h thng c phng trnh sai phn:
y(n)=a
1
y(n-1)+a
2
y(n-2)+bx(n) (2.87)
S tng ng vi mt hm truyn t l:
2
2
1
1
1
) (

z a z a
b
z H
(2.88)
S khi biu din h thng c trnh by trong hnh 2.10. y l mt h thng bc
2.
70
Hnh 2.9: th cc-zero trong v d 2.27
Hnh 2.10: S khi biu din h thng trong v d 2.28
Mt s khi l c s xc nh cu trc phn cng cho mt h thng hay xy
dng mt thut ton cho phn mm.
2.7.2. H thng IIR
1. Dng trc tip I (Direct form I)



M
K
K
N
K
K
k n x b k n y a n y
0 1
) ( ) ( ) (
(2.89)
Vi hm truyn t tng ng:

M
K
K
k
M
K
K
K
z a
z b
z H
1
0
1
) (
Pt(2.89) c vit li di dng cng thc truy hi:


+
M
K
k
N
k
K
k n x b k n y a n y
0 1
) ( ) ( ) (
(2.91)
S khi hnh 2.11 biu din bng hnh nh ca pt(2.91)

71
Hnh 2.11 : dng trc tip I , s khi ca h thng c phng trnh sai phn bc N
2. Dng trc tip II (Direct form II)
Pt(2.90) c th vit li:
) ( ) (
1
1
) (
1 2
0
1
z H z H z b
z a
z H
M
k
k
k
N
k
k
K

,
_

,
_

(2.92)
Pt(2.92) cho thy rng ta c th xem h thng nh l gm hai h thng con (phn bn
tri v phn bn phi) mc lin tip nhau. Do tnh giao hon ta c th hon chuyn v tr
ca hai h thng con, ta c cch biu din trc tip II (dirrect form II) nh hnh 2.12.
3. Dng chun tc (Canonic Direct form)
Ta thy cc s hnh 2.11 v 2.12 c (N+M) phn t tr mt mu. tit kim cc
phn t tr, ta c th thc hin s hnh 2.13, gi l dng chun tc (canonic dirrect
form) (gi s N >M)R rng, dng chun tc ch cn N phn t tr (nu N > M) hoc M
phn t tr (nu M > N), ta tit kim c b nh cng nh thi gian dch chuyn tn hiu
trn ng tr so vi dng trc tip I v II.

72
Hnh 2.12: Dng trc tip II
2.7.3. H thng FIR
i vi h thng FIR khng qui, vi phng trnh sai phn biu din h thng l:


M
r
r
r n x b n y
0
) ( ) (
(2.93)
Ta c s nh hnh 2.14 :
73
Hnh 2.13: Dng chun tc

Trong thc t, i vi cc mch qui, t khi ngi ta thc hin c mt s c bc N
> 2, v khi mch d mt tnh n nh do sai s. Mt khc, thit k cc khu bc 2 c
phn thun li hn. V vy, ngi ta chia h thng ra thnh nhiu mch con c bc ln
nht l 2 mc lin tip hoc song song vi nhau. Mt h thng bc 2 c trnh by
trong v d 2.28.
BI TP CHNG 2

2.1. Hy xc nh bin i Z ca cc tn hiu sau y:

(a) x(n) = {3,0,0,0,0,6,1,-4}
5 ,
2
1

,
_

n
n
(b) x(n) =
0 4 n

2.2. Tnh bin i Z ca cc tn hiu sau y v v th cc - zero tng ng:
(a) x(n) = (1+n)u(n)
(b) x(n) = (an + a-n)u(n) , vi a thc.
(c) x(n) = (-1)
n
2
-n
u(n)
(d) x(n) = (na
n
sin
0
n)u(n)
(e) (1/2)
n
[u(n)-u(n-10)]

2.3.Tm bin i Z v v ROC tng ng ca cc tn hiu sau y:
0 ,
3
1

,
_

n
n
(a) x
1
(n) =
n

,
_

2
1
, 0 < n
0 , 2
3
1

,
_

n
n
n
(b) x
2
(n) = 0 0 < n
(c)
) 4 ( ) (
1 3
+ n x n x
(d)
) ( ) (
1 4
n x n x
2.4. Xc nh bin i Z ca cc tnh hiu sau y:
(a) x(n) = n(-1)
n
u(n)
(b) x(n) = n
2
u(n)
(c)
) (
3
cos ) 1 ( ) ( n u n n x
n

,
_



2.5. (a) Xc nh bin i Z ca tn hiu: x(n) = a|n| vi |a| < 1
74
Hnh 2.14 : H thng FIR khng quy
(b) Xc nh bin i Z ca tn hiu hng x(n) = 1, - < n <

2.6. Tnh tng chp ca 2 tn hiu sau y bng cng c bin i Z:

n

,
_

3
1
,n 0
) (
1
n x
=

n

,
_

2
1
,n 0 <
V ) (
2
1
) (
2
n u n x
n

,
_

2.7. Hy dng tnh cht vi phn v dch thi gian tm bin i Z ngc ca:
X(z) = log(1 + az
-1
) , vi ROC : |z| > |a|

2.8. Xt mt h thng LTI c c trng bi phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s
hng nh sau:
y(n) - 1/2 y(n-1) = x(n)
Tm y(n) khi tnh hiu vo l x(n) = u(n) vi iu kin u l y(-1) = 1.

2.9. Hy xc nh p ng xung ca h thng c m t bi phng trnh sai phn:
y(n) = 0.9y(n-1) - 0.81y(n-2) + x(n)
vi cc iu kin u nh sau:
(a) y(-1) = y(-2) = 0
(b) y(-1) = y(-2) = 1

2.10. Cho mt h thng LTI c biu in bi hm truyn t:

Hy xc nh ROC v tm p ng xung h(n) tng ng vi cc iu kin sau:
(a) H thng n nh.
(b) H thng nhn qu.
(c) H thng c h(n) l dy bn tri (phn nhn qu):
0 ,n 0
h(n) =
0 ,n<0
2.11. Xc nh p ng xung h(n) ca mt h thng LTI nhn qu c m t bi
phng trnh sai phn:
y(n) = 2.5y(n-1) - y(n-2) + x(n) - 5x(n-1) + 6x(n-2)

2.12. Xc nh p ng y(n) ca mt h thng ngh c m t bi phng trnh sai
phn:
) ( ) 2 (
6
1
) 1 (
6
5
) ( n x n y n y n y +
vi tn hiu vo
) 1 (
3
1
) ( ) ( n n n x
2.13. Cho mt h thng c m t bi hm truyn t sau:
2 1
2
1
4
7
1
1
) (

z z
z H
75
H thng ny c th n nh khng? Chng minh.

2.14. Cho mt h thng c m t bi phng trnh sai phn nh sau:
y(n) = ny(n-1) + x(n)
bit rng h thng c tnh nhn qu. Tm p ng xung h(n).

2.15. Xc nh dy x(n) c bin i Z l:
X(z) = (1+2z)(1+3z
-1
)(1-z
-1
)

2.16. Hy xc nh bin i z ca dy:
n ,0 1 N n
2N-n , N n N 2
x(n) =
0 , n N 2
0 ,n<0
2.17. Xt mt bin i Z l X(z) c th cc - zero nh hnh v:
(a) Xc nh min hi t ca X(z) sao cho bin i Fourier tn ti. Trong trng hp
ny bin i Z ngc tng ng l dy bn phi hay bn tri hay hai bn?
(b) C bao nhiu dy hai bn tha mn th cc - zero ny?
(c) C th tn ti h thng c ng thi 2 tnh cht nhn qu v n nh tng ng vi
th cc - zero ny hay khng?
(d) Vit biu thc X(z) v tm bin i Z ngc khi ROC: |z| > 2.

2.18. p dng cc tnh cht ca bin i Z tm bin i Z ngc ca cc bin i Z
c cho sau y:
(a)
2
1
3
4
1
1
3
) (

,
_

z
z
z X
,vi x(n) l dy bn tri
(b) X(z) = sin(z) ,ROC:
1 > z

(c)
7
7
1
2
) (

z
z
z X ,ROC:
1 > z

2.19. Tn hiu vo ca mt h thng LTI nhn qu l: x(n) = u(-n-1) + (1/2)
n
u(n)
Tn hiu ra c bin i Z l
2 1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
) (

z z
z
z Y
76


(a) Hy xc nh hm truyn t H(z) v ROC tng ng.
(b) Hy xc nh p ng y(n).

2.20. Cho mt h thng LTI nhn qu c hm truyn t l:

(a) Xc nh ROC ca H(z).
(b) H thng c n nh khng? Gii thch.
(c) V s khi ca h thng dng trc tip I v dng chun tc.
(d) Tm p ng xung h(n) ca h thng.

2.21. Hy xc nh bin i Z mt pha ca cc tnh hiu sau:
(a) x(n) = a
n
u(n)
(b) x
1
(n) = x(n - 2)
(c) x
2
(n) = x(n + 2)
2.22. Cho mt h thng LTI c lin kt bi cc h thng c p ng xung ln c l
h1(n),h2(n),h3(n) nh hnh v

Tm p ng xung h(n) ca h thng cho bit :
h
1
(n) = u(n) - u(n-6)
h
2
(n) = 2 (n) + 2 (n-1) + 3 (n-2)

h3(n) = {,0,0,-1,-4,-2,0,0,}

2.23. Cho mt h thng c s khi nh sau:

(a) Hy vit phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s hng biu din h thng.
(b) Hy xc nh hm truyn t ca h thng.
77
Tm p ng xung, cho bit h thng c tnh nhn qu.
CHNG III
PHN TCH TN S CA TN HIU
3.1 M U
Phn tch tn s (cn gi l phn tch ph) ca mt tn hiu l mt dng biu din tn
hiu bng cch khai trin tn hiu thnh t hp tuyn tnh ca cc tn hiu hnh sin hay hm
m phc.
Cch khai trin ny rt quan trng trong vic phn tch h thng LTI, bi v i vi
h thng ny, p ng ca mt t hp tuyn tnh cc tn hiu hnh sin cng l t hp
tuyn tnh cc tn hiu hnh sin c cng tn s, ch khc nhau v bin v pha.
Cng c phn tch tn s mt tn hiu l chui Fourier (cho tn hiu tun hon) v
bin i Fourier (cho tn hiu khng tun hon c nng lng hu hn).
3.2 TN S CA TN HIU RI RC
78
Khi nim tn s ca tn hiu tng t rt quen thuc i vi chng ta. Tuy nhin,
khi nim tn s ca tn hiu ri rc c mt s im cn lu . c bit, ta cn lm r mi
quan h gia tn s ca tn hiu ri rc v tn s ca tnh hiu lin tc. V vy, trong mc
ny ta s khi u bng cch n li tn s ca tn hiu lin tc tun hon theo thi gian.
Mt khc, v tn hiu hnh sin v tn hiu hm m phc l cc tn hiu tun hon c bn,
nn ta s xt hai loi tn hiu ny.
3.2.1. Tn hiu tng t tun hon theo thi gian
Mt dao ng n hi (simple harmonic) c m t bi mt tn hiu tng t (lin
tc) hnh sin:
x
a
(t) = Acos(t+ ) vi - < t < (3.1)
Trong , A l bin ; l tn s gc (rad/s); l pha ban u (rad). Ngoi ra, vi k
hiu: F l tn s (cycles/second hay Hertz) v T
p
l chu k (second), ta c:
= 2 F = 2 /T
p
(3.2)
Tn hiu lin tc hnh sin c cc tnh cht sau:
1) Vi mi gi tr xc nh bt k ca F hay Tp , xa(t) l mt tn hiu tun hon. Tht
vy, t tnh cht ca cc hm lng gic, ta chng minh c:
x
a
(t + T
p
) = x
a
(t).
F c gi l tn s c bn (fundamental frequency) v Tp l chu k c bn
(fundamental period) ca tn hiu lin tc. F v T
p
c th c cc gi tr khng gii hn (t 0
n ).
2) Cc tn hiu lin tc hnh sin c tn s c bn khc nhau lun phn bit vi nhau.
3) Khi tn s F tng th tc dao ng ca tn hiu tng, ngha l c nhiu chu k
hn trong mt khong thi gian cho trc.
Ta cng c th biu din mt tn hiu hnh sin bng hm m phc:
x
a
(t) = Ae
j(

T+

)
(3.3)
Ta c th thy c mi quan h ny qua cc cng thc Euler:

'

j j
j
j
e e
j e
j e
s i n c o s
s i n c o s

'


+


) (
2
1
s i n
) (
2
1
c o s
j j
j j
e e
e e
(3.4)
Theo nh ngha, tn s l mt i lng vt l dng, bi v tn s l s chu k trn
mt n v thi gian. Tuy nhin, trong nhiu trng hp, thun tin v mt ton hc,
khi nim tn s m c thm vo. r hn, pt(3.1) c vit li:

X
a
(t)=Acos(
) ( ) (
2 2
)

+ +
+ +
t t j
e
A
e
A
t
(3.5)
Ta thy, tn hiu hnh sin c th thu c bng cch cng hai tn hiu hm m phc
lin hp c cng bin , cn c gi l phasor. Hnh 3.1 biu din bng th trong mt
phng phc, 2 i lng phasor quay quanh gc ta theo hai chiu ngc nhau vi cc
vn tc gc l (rad/s). V tn s dng tng ng vi chuyn ng quay u ngc
chiu kim ng h, nn tn s m tng ng vi chuyn ng quay theo chiu kim ng
h.
79
thun tin v mt ton hc, ta s dng khi nim tn s m, v vy khong bin
thin ca tn s s l - < F < .
3.2.2. Tn hiu ri rc tun hon hnh sin
Mt tn hiu ri rc hnh sin c biu
din bi:
x(n) = Acos(n+ )
vi - < n < (3.6)
So snh vi tn hiu lin tc, ta thy t
c thay bi bin nguyn n, gi l s mu (sample number); tn s gc (rad/second)
c thay bng (rad/sample); pha v bin ging nh tn hiu lin tc.
Gi f l tn s ca tnh hiu ri rc, ta c: = 2f (3.7)
Pt(3.6) tr thnh: x(n) = Acos(2fn+ ) vi - < n < (3.8)
Tn s f c th nguyn l chu k/mu (cycles/sample).
Tn hiu hnh sin c tn s = /6 radians/sample (f =1/12 cycles/sample) v pha ban
u =/3 rad c biu din bng th hnh 3.2.
Khc vi tn hiu tng t, tn hiu ri rc hnh sin c cc thuc tnh nh sau:
1. Mt tn hiu ri rc hnh sin l tun hon nu v ch nu tn s f ca n l mt
s hu t.
T nh ngha, mt tn hiu ri rc x(n) tun hon vi chu k N (N > 0) nu v ch nu
x(n+N) = x(n) vi mi n, gi tr nh nht ca N tha iu kin ny c gi l chu k c
bn. mt tn hiu hnh sin c tn s f0 l tun hon chng ta phi c:
cos[2 f
0
(N + n) + ] = cos(2 f
0
n + )
Quan h ny ch ng nu v ch nu tn ti mt s nguyn k sao cho:
2 f
0
N = 2k hay f
0
= k/N (3.9)
Theo pt(3.9), mt tn hiu hnh sin ri rc ch tun hon khi ch khi f0 l t s ca hai
s nguyn, hay ni cch khc f
0
l mt s hu t.
xc nh chu k c bn N ca mt tn hiu hnh sin, ta biu in tn s f0 di
dng hu t ti gin, khi chu k c bn N ca tn hiu hnh sin bng vi mu s. V d:
nu f
1
= 31/60 c ngha l N
1
=60; trong khi , nu f
2
= 30/60 th N
2
= 2.
80
Hnh 3.2. Tn hiu ri rc hnh sin x(n) = 2sin
(
3 6

+ n )
Hnh 3.1. Biu din bng
th ca X
a
(t)
2. Cc tn hiu ri rc hnh sin m cc tn s gc ca chng sai khc nhau bi s
nguyn ca 2 th ng dng.
chng minh, ta so snh mt tn hiu hnh sin c tn s
0
vi tn hiu hnh sin c
tn s (
0
+ 2k), ta thy:
cos[(
0
+2k )

n + )] = cos(
0
n +2

kn + ) = cos(
0
n + ) (3.10)
Nh vy, tt c cc dy hnh sin : x
k
(n) = cos (
k
n + ) , y,

k
=
0
+ 2k vi 0 <
0
< 2 v k =0, 1, 2,l l ng nht.
iu ny hm rng, mt tn hiu hnh sin bt k c xc nh duy nht bi mt tn
s gc c bn duy nht trong khong [0 2], tng ng tn s f ca n trong khong
[0 1].
T nhn xt trn, ta c mt kt lun quan trng: i vi tn hiu ri rc tun hon, ta
ch cn kho st trong khong tn s 0 2 (hay 0 f 1). V vi cc tn s ngoi
khong ny, ch l cc mu chng lp (alias) ca cc tn hiu c tn s trong khong 0
2.
3. Mt dao ng c biu din bi mt tnh hiu hnh sin, n c tc dao ng
cao nht khi tn hiu ny c tn s gc l = , tng ng vi f = .
minh ha tnh cht ny, ta xt dy x(n) = cos
0
n khi tn s ( bin thin t 0 n .
Ta xt cc gi tr
0
= 0, /8, /4, /2 v , tng ng vi f = 0, 1/16 , 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 v dy
tun hon vi cc chu k N = , 16, 8, 4, 2 (xem th trong hnh 3.3). Ch rng, tc
dao ng tng khi chu k gim hay tn s tng.
Ta xem nhng g xy ra khi
0
2, xt tn s
1
=
0
v
2
= 2
0
Ta thy khi

1
tng t n 2 th
2
gim t n 0 v:
x
1
(n) = Acos
1
n = Acos
0
n
x
2
(n) = Acos
2
n = Acos(2 -
0
)n (3.11)
= Acos(-
0
n) = x
1
(n)
Vy, dy c tn s
2
trng vi dy c tn s
1
, nu ta thay hm cos bng hm sin th
kt qu cng ging nh vy, ngoi tr s lch pha 1800 gia x
1
(n) v x
2
(n). Trong mi
trng hp, khi ta tng tn hiu ri rc hnh sin t n 2, tc dao ng s gim, khi
0
= 2 ta c tn hiu hng ging nh khi

0
= 0. R rng, khi
0
= th tc dao ng cao nht.
81
Nh tn hiu tng t, khi nim tn s m cng c a vo tn hiu ri rc. V
vy, ta cng s dng cng thc Euler:
X(n) =Acos(
) ( ) (
2 2
)


+ +
+ +
n n j
e
A
e
A
tn
(3.12)
V tn hiu tun hon ri rc vi cc tn s sai khc nhau bi s nguyn ca 2 th
hon ton ging nhau. Ta thy rng, cc tn s trong mt di rng 2 bt k (ngha l
1

1
+ 2 , vi
1
bt k) c th m t tt c cc tn hiu ri rc hnh sin hay hm
m phc. V vy, khi kho st mt tnh hiu tun hon ri rc ta ch cn xt trong mt
khong tn s rng 2, thng thng ta chn di tn 0 2 (ng vi 0 f 1)
hoc l- (ng vi 1/2 f 1/2), di tn ny c gi l di tn c bn
(fundamental range).
3.2.3 Mi lin h ca tn s F ca tn hiu tng t x
a
(t) v tn s f ca tn hiu ri
rc x(n) c ly mu t x
a
(t)
thit lp mi quan h gia F v f, ta xt tn hiu tng t hnh sin
x
a
(t)=Acos(2 Ft + ) (3.13)
Gi TS l chu k ly mu , ta c tn hiu ly mu
x(n)=x
a
(nT
S
)=Acos(2 FnT
S
+ )
X(n) = Acos(2
) + n
Fs
F
(3.14)
Mt khc tn hiu hnh sin ri rc c biu diu theo tn s f l:
x(n)=Acos(2 fn + ) (3.15)
T pt(3.14) v pt(3.15) ta c:
f = F/ F
S
hay = T
S
(3.16)
T pt(3.16), ta thy f chnh l tn s chun ha (normalized frequency) theo FS cn
c gi l tn s tng i (relative frequency). Pt(3.16) cn hm rng: t tn s ca tn
hiu ri rc f, chng ta ch c th xc nh tn s F ca tn hiu lin tc tng ng nu v
ch nu tn s ly mu FS c bit.
82
Hnh 3.3. Tn hiu x(n) = cos
n
0

vi cc gi tr khc nhau 0

Chng ta bit khong bin thin ca bin tn s F hay ca tn hiu lin tc theo
thi gian l:
- < F < hay - < < (3.17)
v khong bin thin ca bin tn s f hay ca tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian
l: - 1/2 f 1/2 hay - (3.18)
T pt(3.16), (3.17) v (3.18) ta tm c mi quan h gia tn s F ca tn hiu hnh
sin lin tc theo thi gian vi tn s ly mu F
S
:
-
S S
S S
T
F
T
F
F
F
2
1
2
1
2 2

(3.19)
Hay: -
S S
S S
T T
F F


(3.20)
Cc mi quan h ny c tng kt trong bng 3.1
T cc mi quan ny chng ta thy rng, s khc nhau c bn gia tn hiu ri rc v
tn hiu lin tc l khong gi tr ca cc bin tn s f v F, hay v . S ly mu tun
hon mt tn hiu lin tc theo thi gian tng ng vi mt php nh xa t mt di tn
v hn ca bin F (hay ) vo di tn hu hn ca bin f (hay). V tn s cao nht ca tn
hiu ri rc l = hay f = 1/2, vi tc ly mu l F
S
, gi tr cao nht tng ng ca
F v l:
F
max
= F
S
/ 2 =1/ 2T
S
va
max
= / F
S
= / T
S
(3.21)
Kt lun ny ph hp vi nh l ly mu pht biu chng 1 v s c chng
minh trong chng ny. Bng 3.1 tng kt mi quan h gia F v f.
Tn hiu tng t Tn hiu ri rc
F 2
2
f
( Radians/sec)
F(hertz)

( Radians/sample)
f (cycles/sample)
- < <
S
T -

- < F <
f = F / F
S
-1/2 f 2 / 1
- S S
T T / /
S
T /
-
2 2
S
F
F
F

F=f.F S
Bng 3.1. Mi quan h gia tn s F v tn s f.
3.2.4. Cc tn hiu hm m phc c quan h hi
Tn hiu hnh sin v tn hiu hm m phc (iu ha phc) ng vai tr quan trng
trong vic phn tch tn hiu v h thng. Trong nhiu trng hp, ta x l vi mt tp hp
cc tn hiu hm m phc (hay tn hiu hnh sin) c quan h hi. l cc tp cc hm m
phc tun hon c tn s l bi s ca cng mt tn s dng. Mc d ta khng cp
nhiu n tn hiu hm m phc, nhng r rng chng tha mn tt c cc tnh cht ca tn
hiu hnh sin. Ta s xt tn hiu hm m phc c quan h hi trong c hai trng hp lin
tc v ri rc theo thi gian.
83
1/. Tn hiu hm m lin tc
Cc tn hiu hm m phc c quan h hi lin tc theo thi gian c dng c bn l:

Ch rng, vi mi gi tr ca k, sk(t) l mt tn hiu tun hon c chu k c bn l 1/
(kF
0
) = Tp/k hay tn s c bn l kF
0
. V mt tn hiu tun hon vi chu k T
p
/k th cng
tun hon vi chu k k(T
p
/k) = T
p
, vi k l mt s nguyn dng bt k, nn tt c cc tn
hiu sk(t) u c mt chu k c bn chung T
p
. Hn na, vi tn hiu tun hon lin tc, tn
s F
0
c th ly gi tr bt k v tt c cc thnh vin trong tp s
k
(t) l phn bit vi nhau,
ngha l, nu k
1
k
2
th s
k1
(t)

s
k2
(t).
T cc tn hiu c bn pt(3.22), ta c th xy ng mt t hp tuyn tnh cc hm
m phc c quan h hi di dng:
x a (t)=

t ik
k
k
k k
e c t s c
0
) (
(3.23)
vi ck l mt hng s phc bt k. Tn hiu sa(t) cng l mt tn hiu tun hon c chu
k c bn l T
p
=1/F
0
v tng trong pt(1.23) gi l chui Fourier ca x
a
(t). Cc hng phc
ck c gi l cc h s ca chui Fourier v cc tn hiu s
k
(t) c gi l hi th k ca
x
a
(t).
2/. Tnh hiu hm m ri rc
V tn hiu hm m phc ri rc l tun hon khi tn s f l mt s hu t, ta chn f
0
=1/N v nh ngha mt tp cc hm m phc c quan h hi nh sau:

n kf j
k
o
e n S
2
) (
, vi k = 0,
) 24 . 3 ,....( 3 , 2 , 1 t t t
Ngc li vi tn hiu lin tc theo thi gian, ta ch rng:

) ( ) ( ) (
2 ) ( 2
n S n S e e n S
k k
n j N f N k j
N k
o

+
+

iu ny c ngha l ch c N hm m phc tun hon phn bit trong tp cc hm m
phc c m t bi pt(3.24) Hn na, tt c cc thnh vin trong tp ny c mt chu k
chung l N samples. R rng, ta c th chn N hm m phc bt k lin tip nhau (ngha
l t k = n
0
n k = n
0
+ N 1) thnh lp mt tp cc quan h hi vi tn s c bn l f
0
= 1/N. Thng thng, thun tin, ta chn tp ny tng ng vi n
0
= 0, ta c:

knfN j
k
e n S
2
) (
, vi k= 0, 1 t , 2 t ,
, 3 t
(3.25)
Nh trong trng hp tn hiu lin tc, r rng, t hp tuyn tnh c thnh lp nh
sau:
x(n) =

1
/ 2
1
0
) (
N
N kn i
k
N
k
k k
e c n s c

(3.26)
cng l mt tn hiu tun hon vi chu k c bn l N. Nh chng ta s thy trong cc
chng sau, tng trong pt(3.26) l chui Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc tun hon theo thi
gian vi {ck} l cc h s Fourier. Dy s
k
(n) c gi l hi th k ca x(n).
3.3 PHN TCH TN S CA TN HIU LIN TC
nh sng trng c th c phn tch thnh mt ph nh sng mu bi mt lng
knh. Ngc li, tng hp tt c cc thnh phn nh sng mu vi mt t l nh khi
phn tch c ta s khi phc c nh sng trng (Hnh 3.4). Ta cng bit rng, mi nh
sng mu (nh sng n sc) tng ng vi mt sng in t n hi. y l mt s
84
minh ha cho s phn tch ph ca mt tn hiu, trong vai tr ca lng knh c thay
bng cng c phn tch Fourier.
3.3.1. Phn tch tn s ca mt tn hiu lin tc tun hon theo thi gian chui
fourier
Ta bit mt tn hiu lin tc tun hon bt k c th phn tch thnh t hp tuyn
tnh ca cc tn hiu hnh sin hay hm m phc. y, ta ch nhc li mt cch tm
lc.
Xt mt tn hu tun hon x(t) vi chu k c bn l c khai trin bi chui
Fourier nh sau :
X(t) =

t kF j
k
s
e X
2
( Cng thc tng hp) (3.27)
X

p
p
T
t kF j
p
k
dt e t x
T
2
) (
1
( Cng thc phn tch ) (3.28)
Trong , k = 0,
...... 3 , 2 , 1 t t t
Tng qut, cc h s Fourier X
k
c gi tr phc, c trng cho bin v pha ca
cc thnh phn tn s F = kF
p
. Nu tn hiu tun hon l thc, th X
k
v X-k l cc lin
hp phc, ta c th biu din di dng phasor.
X
k
j
k k
e X

v X
k
j
k k
e X

Kt qu l chui Fourier (3.27) c th biu din di dng lng gic :


x(t)= X
) 2 ( 2
1
0 k p
k
k
t kF Cos X + +

hay: x(t)= a
) 2 2 (
1
0
t kF Sin b t kF Cos a
p k
k
p k
+

(3.29)
y : a
0
= X
0
(c gi tr thc)
a k k k
Cos X 2
85
Hnh 3.4. (a) phn tch (b) tng hp nh sng mt tri dng lng knh
b k k k
Sin X 2
(3.30)
iu kin tn ti chui Fourier
- iu kin mt tn hiu tun hon c th khai trin thnh chui Fourier l
tn hiu ny c bnh phng kh tch trn mt chu k, ngha l :

<
p
T
dt t x
2
) (
(3.31)
- Mt tp cc iu kin khc cho s tn ti ca chui Fourier ca mt tn hiu tun
hon x(t) c gi l iu kin Dirichlet. l :
(1) x(t) c mt s hu hn im bt lin tc trong mt chu k ca n.
(2) x(t) c mt s hu hn cc cc i v cc tiu trong mt chu k ca n.
(3) Tch phn ca |X(t)| trong mt chu k l hu hn, ngha l :

<

dt t x
P
Y
) (
(3.32)
3.3.2. Ph mt cng sut ca tn hiu tun hon
Quan h Parseval:
Mt tn hiu hon c cng sut trung bnh c tnh bi :
P
dt t x
T
p
T p
x
2
) (
1

(3.33)
Ly lin hp phc ca phng trnh (3.27) v thay vo phng trnh (3.33) ta
c :

1
1
]
1


k
k
T
k k
T
kFt j
p
k
kFt j
k
p T p
x
X dt e t x
T
X dt e X t x
T
dt t x t x
T
P
p p p
2
2 * 2 * ^
) (
1
) (
1
) ( ) (
1

(3.34)

Ta thit lp c quan h :
P




k
k
T p
x
X dt t x
T
p
2 2
) (
1
(3.35)
Pt(3.35) c gi l quan h Parseval.
minh ha ngha vt l ca pt(3.35), ta gi s rng x(t) bao gm ch mt thnh
phn tn s F
k
= kF
p
(cc h s Fourier khc bng 0):
x(t) = X
t kF j
k
e
0
2
R rng, nu x(t) bao gm nhiu thnh phn tn s, th chnh l cng sut ca thnh
phn th k ca tn hiu. V vy, cng sut trung bnh tng ca mt tn hiu tun hon
n gin l tng cng sut trung bnh ca tt c cc thnh phn tn s ca tn hiu .
Ph mt cng sut Ph bin Ph pha:
86
|X
k
|
2
l mt dy ri rc theo tn s F
k
= kF
p
, k = 0, t 1, t 2, ..., c gi l ph mt
cng sut ca tn hiu tun hon x(t). Ta thy, ph mt cng sut c dng ri rc,
khong cch gia 2 mu k nhau l nghch o ca chu k c bn T
p
.
Ni chung, v cc h s ca chui Fourier c gi tr phc nn ta thng biu din
di dng phasor nh sau :

k
j
k k
e X X

Trong :
k
= X
k
(3.36)
Thay v v mt ph cng sut, ta c th v ph bin {|X
k
|}v ph pha
nh l mt hm ca tn s. R rng ph mt cng sut l bnh phng ca ph bin
. Thng tin v pha khng xut hin trong ph mt cng sut.
Nu tn hiu tun hon l tn hiu thc, cc h s ca chui Fourier tha mn iu
kin
X k = Xk
Kt qu l :
Khi , ph mt cng sut v ph bin l cc hm i xng chn (i xng
qua trc tung), ph pha l mt hm i xng l (i xng qua gc ta ). Do tnh cht
i xng, ta ch cn kho st ph ca mt tn hiu tun hon thc trong min tn s
dng. Ngoi ra, tng nng lng trung bnh c th biu din nh sau :
P

x X

+
1
2
2
0
2
k
k
X
(3.38)
= X

+ +
1
2 2 2
0
) ( 2
k
k k
b a
(3.39)
V d 3.1 : Xc nh chui Fourier v ph mt cng sut ca mt chui xung
hnh ch nht (hnh 3.5)
Gii :
Tn hiu tun hon c chu k c bn l T
p
, r rng tha mn cc iu kin Dirchlet.
V vy, ta c th biu din tn hiu bng chui Fourier (3.27) vi cc h s xc nh bi
pt(3.28).
V tn hiu x(t) l mt hm chn (ngha l x(t) = x(-t)) nn thun tin, ta chn
gii hn ca tch phn t n(T
p
/2) theo pt(3.28).
87
Hnh 3.5. chui xung hnh ch nht tun hon theo thi gian
Vi k= 0, ta c: X
P p T p
T
A
Adt
T
dt t x
T
p
T
p

2
2
2
0
1
) (
1
2
(3.40)
Cho k 0 :
=
Ae
j2 kF
p

T
p
j2 kF
p
t
X
k
=
1
T
p

T
p
2
T
p
2
Ae
j2 kF
p
dt

2
=
A
F
p
kT
p
e
j kF
p

e
kF
p

2j

=

P
kF Sin A
, k =
... 2 , 1 t t
(3.41)
V x(t) l hm chn v c gi tr thc, nn cc h s Fourier X
k
c gi tr thc. Ph
pha cng c gi tr thc, n c gi tr l 0 khi X
k
dng v l khi X
k
m.
Thay v v ph bin v ph pha tch ri nhau, ta v th ca X
k
(Hnh 3.6). Ta
thy X
k
l cc mu ca tn hiu lin tc theo tn s F:
F
sinF
) (
P
T
A
F X

, vi chu k ly mu l:
P
p s
T
F T


(3.42)
Hnh 3.6.a v dy X
k
(cc h s Fourier), vi chu k khng i T
p
= 0,25s hay
Hz
T
F
p
p
4
1

v cc gi tr khc nhau ln lt l : = 0,05T
p
; = 0,1T
p
v
=0,2T
p
. Ta thy khi tng v gi T
p
khng i th cng sut ca tn hiu s tri di
ra trn trc tn s.
Hnh 3.6.b v dy X
k
vi khng i v thay i chu k T
p
, vi T
p
= 5 ;T
p
=10
v T
p
=20 . Trong trng hp ny khong cch gia hai vch ph gim khi chu k T
p
tng. Khi T
p
v khng i) tn hiu ch l mt xung ch nht duy nht (khng
tun hon), lc tn hiu khng cn l tn hiu cng sut (power signal) m l tn hiu
nng lng (energy signal), cc h s Fourier X
k
0, cng sut trung bnh ca n bng
0. Ph ca mt tn hiu c nng lng hu hn s c kho st trong phn sau .
Ph mt cng sut ca chui xung ch nht l :

'

t t t

,
_

,
_

,
_

, . . . . . 3 , 2 , 1 ,
s i n
2 2
2
2
k
k F
k F
T
A
T
A
X
p
p
p
p
k

(3.43)
88
3.3.3. Phn tch tn s ca tn hiu lin tc khng tun hon bin i fourier
Xt mt tn hiu khng tun hon c di hu hn (finite duration) x(t) nh c
minh ha trong hnh 3.7.a. T tn hiu khng tun hon ny, ta c th to ra mt tn
hiu tun hon x
p
(t) chu k T
p
bng cch lp li tn hiu x(t) vi chu k T
p
(hnh 3.7.b).
R rng, khi T
p
th x
p
(t) = x(t) .
89
Hnh 3.6. ph ca dy xung ch nht, bin A = 1.
(a) chu k T = 0.25 khng i, (b) thay i
Cch biu din ny hm rng ta c th thu c ph ca x(t) t ph ca x
p
(t) bng
cch cho T
p
.
Chui Fourier ca tn hiu tun hon x
p
(t) l :

x
p
p
kF j
k P
T
F e X t
P
1
, ) (
2


(3.44)
vi

2
2
2
) (
p
p
p
T
T
kF j
p k
dt e t x X

(3.45)
V x(t) = 0, khi nn ta c th thay x
p
(t) bng x(t) v gii hn tch phn trong
pt(3.45) t - n +, ta c:

dt e t x
T
X
p
kF j
P
P
k
2
) (
1
(3.46)
nh ngha : Bin i Fourier ca tn hiu lin tc khng tun hon x(t) l mt
hm X(F) ca bin tn s lin tc F nh sau :

dt e t x F x
Ft j 2
) ( ) (
(3.47)
So snh pt(3.46) v pt(3.47) ta thy cc h s ca chui Fourier X
k
chnh l cc mu ca X(F) cc gi tr F = kF
p
khi chia cho T
p
, ta c:

) (
1
p
P
k
kF X
T
X
hay

,
_

P p
k
T
k
X
T
X
1
(3.48)
Thay pt(3.48) vo pt(3.44), ta c :

t kF j
k P p
p
P
e
T
k
X
T
t x
2
1
) (

,
_


c gii hn ca pt(3.48) khi T
p
= , trc tin ta t:
90
Hnh 3.7.(a)tn hiu tun hon x(t)
(b) tn hiu tun hon x
p
(t) c to ra bng cch lp li x(t) vi chu k T
p
P
T
F
1


sau thay vo pt(3.48) ta c :


k
Ft j
P
F e F k X t x
2
) ( ) (
(3.49)
R rng khi T
p
= th x
p
(t) x(t), F tr thnh vi phn dF v kF tr thnh
bin tn s lin tc F, tng trong pt(3.49) bin thnh tch phn vi bin tn s F v
pt(3.49) tr thnh :

+

dt e F X t x
Ft j 2
) ( ) (
(3.50)
Quan h (3.50) c gi l bin i Fourier ngc.
Tm li, ta c cp bin i Fourier ca tn hiu lin tc khng tun hon c di
hu hn l :
- Cng thc tng hp (bin i Fourier ngc)
x(t) =

+

dt e F X
Ft i 2
) (
(3.51)
- Cng thc phn tch (bin i Fourier thun)
X(F) =

dt e t X
Ft i 2
) (
(3.52)
Thay F = v dF = vo phng trnh (3.51) v phng trnh (3.52) ta c cp cng
thc bin i Fourier theo tn s gc.
X(t) =

d e X
t j
) (
2
1

( 3.53)
X( ) =

dt e t X
t j
) (
2
1

( 3.54)

iu kin bin i Fourier tn ti l tch phn trong phng trnh (3.54) phi hi
t. Tch phn ny s hi t nu :

+

< dt t x
2
) (
(3.55)
Mt tn hiu x(t) tha pt (3.55) l tn hiu c nng lng hu hn (Finite energy).
Mt tp iu kin khc cho bin i Fourier tn ti c gi l iu kin
Dirichlet.
Bao gm :
(1) Tn hiu x(t) c mt s hu hn cc im bt lin tc.
91
(2) Tn hiu x(t) c m hu hn cc cc i v c tiu.
(3) Tn hiu x(t) kh tch tuyt i, ngha l :

+

< dt t x ) (
(3.56)
3.3.4. Ph mt nng lng ca tn hiu khng tun hon
Xt mt tn hiu x(t) c nng lng hu hn v c bin i Fourier l X(F).
Nng lng ca n l :
E
x
=

+

+

1
]
1

d t d F e F X t x
F t j 2 ^
) ( ) (
hay E
x
=

+

+

1
]
1

dF dt e t x F X
Ft j 2 *
) ( ) (
Vi x*(t) l lin hp phc ca x(t).
Quan h Parseval:
Ly lin hp phc ca pt(3.51) v thay vo ta c :
E
x
=

+

+

1
]
1

d t d F e F X t x
F t j 2 ^
) ( ) (

hay E
x
=

+

+

1
]
1

dF dt e t x F X
Ft j 2 *
) ( ) (
Suy ra:
E
x =

+

dF F X
2
) (
Kt qu l : E
x =

+

dt t X
2
) (
=
E
x =

+

dF F X
2
) (

(3.57)
Pt(3.57) c gi l quan h Parseval ca tn hiu khng tun hon, chnh l
nguyn l bo ton nng lng trong min thi gian v min tn s.
92
Ph bin Ph pha:
Ph X(F) ca tn hiu ni chung c gi tr phc, do thng c biu din theo ta
cc :
X(F) =
) (
) (
F j
e F X

vi (F) = X(F)
Trong , l ph bin v (F) l ph pha.
Ph mt nng lng:
Mt khc, i lng: S
xx
(F) = (3.58)
biu din s phn b nng lng theo tn s, c gi l ph mt nng lng
(energy density spectrum) ca x(t).
Tch phn ca S
xx
(F) ly trn ton trc tn s l tng nng lng ca tn hiu. Ta
cng d dng thy rng, nu x(t) l tn hiu thc th :
(3.59)
X(-F) = - X(F) (3.60)
V S
xx
(-F) = S
xx
(F) (3.61)
Nh vy ph mt nng lng ca tn hiu thc c tnh i xng chn.
V d 3.2 :
Hy xc nh bin i Fourier v ph mt nng lng ca tn hiu xung ch
nht c nh ngha nh sau :

'

>

2
0
2
) (

t
t A
t x , c minh ho trong hnh (3.8a)
Gii :
R rng tn hiu ny l khng tun hon v tha mn iu Dirichlet.



F
F Sin
A dt Ae F X
F j

2
2
2
) (
(3.63)
p dng pt(3.52) :
93
Ta thy X(F) c gi tr thc, v ph bin c dng hm S
a
=

sin
. V vy ph
ca tn hiu ch nht x(t) l ng bao ca ph ri rc ca tn hiu tun hon c c
bng cch lp li tn hiu xung ch hiu ny vi chu k Tp nh hnh 3.6. Cc h s X
k
ca chui Fourier ca tn hiu tun hon xp(t) chnh l cc mu ca X(F) cc tn s F
= kF
p
= nh cp pt(3.48).
T pt(3.63), ta thy rng th ca X(F) i qua im 0 cc gi tr F =

k
vi k =
t 1, t 2, ... (hnh 3.8.b).
Ngoi ra, ta thy di tn s chnh

,
_



1 1
F
tp trung hu ht nng lng ca tn
hiu. Khi rng xung gim, di tn chnh m rng ra v nng lng phn b ln
vng tn s cao hn v ngc li.
Ph mt nng lng ca tn hiu xung ch nht l :
( )
2
2
) (
,
_

F
F Sin
A F S
xx
(3.64)
3.4 PHN TCH TN S CA TN HIU RI RC
Nh trnh by trong phn trc, chui Fourier ca mt tn hiu lin tc tun
hon c th bao gm mt s v hn cc thnh phn tn s, v hai thnh phn tn s
lin tip c tn s lch nhau 1/T
p
, vi T
p
l chu k c bn ca tn hiu. V di tn ca
tn hiu lin tc tri rng t - n + nn n c th cha ng v s cc thnh phn
tn s. Ngc li, di tn ca tn hiu ri rc gii hn trong khong [-, ] hay l [0,
2]. Mt tn hiu ri rc c chu k c bn l N c th bao gm cc thnh phn tn s
cch nhau radian hay f= cycles. Kt qu l chui Fourier biu din mt tn hiu ri rc
tun hon s bao gm nhiu nht l N thnh phn tn s. y l s khc bit c bn
gia chui Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc v tn hiu lin tc tun hon.
3.4.1. Chui fourier ca tn hiu ri rc tun hon
94
Hnh 3.8.a.tn hiu xung ch nht
b.bin i fourier ca tn hiu xung ch nht
Xt mt tn hiu ri rc tun hon x
p
(n) c chu k N. x
p
(n) c th biu din t hp
tuyn tnh ca cc hm m phc c quan h hi :

N kn j
N
k
P P
e k X n x
/ 2
1
0
) ( ) (

(3.65)
Pt(3.65) c gi l chui Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc tun hon x
p
(n). Ta s tm tp
cc h s ca chui Fourier {X
p
(k)}.
Ta bt u vi cc hm m phc : , vi k = 0, 1, ..., N-1
y cng l cc hm tun hon vi chu k N v trc giao nhau c, c th nh
sau :
(3.66)
Pt(3.66) c th c chng minh bng cch da vo cng thc tnh tng ca mt
chui hnh hc, l :

Bc tip theo l nhn hai v ca pt(3.65) cho vi r l mt s nguyn v ly
tng t n = 0 n n = N-1, ta c :


1
0
/ ) ( 2
1
0
1
0
/ 2
) ( ) (
N
n
N n k j
N
k
p
N
n
N n j
p
e k X e n x


i v tr cc tng v phi :

1
0
1
0
/ ) ( 2
1
0
/ 2
) ( ) (
N
n
N
n
N n k j
P
N
n
N n j
P
e k X e n x

(3.67)
p dng pt(3.66) ta c :

V vy, v phi ca pt(3.67) rt gn v NX
p
(r) v :

1
0
/ 2
) (
1
) (
N
n
N n j
P
e n x
N
r X

, vi r = 0,1,2,,N-1 (3.68)
Cc pt(3.65) v pt(3.68) l cc cng thc phn tch tn s ca tn hiu ri rc. Ta
vit li :
Cng thc tng hp :

1
0
/ 2
) ( ) (
N
k
N kn j
P
e k X n x

(3.69)
Cng thc phn tch :
95

1
0
/ 2
) (
1
) (
N
k
N kn j
P
e n x
N
k X

(3.70)
Nhn xt :
Cc h s Fourier X
p
(k) khi vt ra ngoi khong k = [0, N-1] cng tun
hon vi chu k N. T pt(3.70) ta d dng chng minh c :
X
p
(k+N) = X
p
(k) (3.71)
Kt lun: Ph ca mt tn hiu x
p
(n) tun hon vi chu k N cng l mt dy tun
hon vi chu k N. Vy N mu lin tip bt k ca tn hiu tun hon m t n mt
cch y tn hiu trong min thi gian, hay N mu lin tip bt k ca ph ca tn
hiu ny m t n mt cch y trong min tn s.
Trong thc t ta thng kho st trong mt chu k ng vi k = 0, 1, 2, ..., N-
1, tng ng vi di tn c bn 0
k
= 2/ < 2 .. Bi v, nu kho st trong di
tn - <
k
= 2/ tng ng vi s gp bt tin khi N l.
V d 3.3:
Hy xc nh ph ca tn hiu : : x(n) = Cos
0
n,khi: (a)
0
= , (b)
0
=/ 3
Gii :
(a) Vi
2
0

ta c f
0
=
2
1
. V f
0
khng l mt s hu t, nn tn hu x(n)
khng tun hon. Kt qu l ta khng th khai trin x(n) bng chui Fourier. Tuy nhin
tn hiu ny c mt ph ring ca n, ph ca n ch gm mt thnh phn tn s duy
nht =
0
=
2
(b) Vi
0
=/ 3 , ta c f
0
=, vy x(n) tun hon vi chu k N = 6.
T pt(3.70) ta c :

6 / 2
5
0
) (
6
1
) (
kn j
n
P
e n x k X

, k = 0, 1, ..., 5
Tuy nhin, x(n) c th biu din nh sau :

) (
2
1
6
2
6
2
6
2
cos ) (
n
j
n
j
e e
n
n x

iu ny c ngha l : X
p
(-1) = X
p
(5) ph hp vi pt(3.71). Ngha l X
p
(k) tun
hon vi chu k N = 6. Ph ca x(n) trong mt chu k l :
X
p
(0) = X
p
(2) = X
p
(3) = X
p
(4) = 0 ; X
p
(1) = 1/2; X
p
(5) = 1/2
v c minh ha trong hnh 3.9
3.4.2. Ph mt cng sut ca tn hiu ri rc tun hon
Quan h Parseval:
Cng sut trung bnh ca mt tn hiu ri rc tun hon vi chu k N c nh
ngha l :

1
0
2
) (
1
N
n
x
n x
N
P
(3.72)
96
Bng cc thao tc ton hc tng t nh khi thit lp quan h Parseval cho tn hiu
lin tc, nhng y tch phn c thay bng tng, ta c quan h Parseval cho tn
hiu ri rc :



1
0
2
1
0
2
) ( ) (
1
N
k
P
N
n
x
k X n x
N
P
(3.73)
Pt(3.73) l quan h Parseval ca tn hiu ri rc tun hon. Ta thy cng sut trung
bnh ca tn hiu bng tng cc cng sut ca ring tng thnh phn tn s.
Ph mt cng sut Ph bin Ph pha:
Dy
2
) (k X
P
vi k = 0, 1, ... , N-1 biu din s phn b nng lng theo tn s
c gi l ph mt cng sut ca tn hiu ri rc tun hon.
Nu x
p
(n) l tn hiu thc (ngha l
) ( ) (
^
n X n x
P P

) cng tng t nh trong tn hiu
lin tc ta c :
) ( ) (
*
k X k X
P
(3.74)
Pt(3.74) tng ng vi : ph bin
) ( ) ( k X k X
P P

(i xng chn)
v : ph pha - X
p
(-k) = X
p
(k) (i xng l)
Cc tnh cht i xng ny ca ph bin v ph pha lin kt vi tnh cht tun
hon cho ta mt kt lun quan trng v vic m t tn hiu trong min tn s. C th
hn ta c th kim chng li tnh cht i xng nh sau:

) ( ) 0 ( N X X
p p


) ( ) 0 ( N X X
p p


) 1 ( ) 1 ( N X X
p p
) 1 ( ) 1 ( N X X
p p (3.75)

)
2
(
N
X
p
)
2
(
N
X
p
0 )
2
(
N
X
p
(Nu N chn)

1
]
1

1
]
1


2
) 1 (
2
) 1 ( N
X
N
X
p p X
1
]
1

+

1
]
1


2
) 1 (
2
) 1 ( N
X
N
p p (Nu N l)

Nh vy, vi mt tn hiu thc, ph X
p
(k), vi k = 0, 1, 2, ..., cho N chn
hay k = 0,1,2, ..., cho N l, hon ton c th c t c tn hiu trong min tn s, vi
0 k th 0
k
= .
Cng t tnh cht i xng ca cc h s Fourier ca mt tn hiu thc. Chui
Fourier (3.69) c th biu din vi dng khc nh sau :

,
_

+ +

k
M
k
P P
kn
N
k X X n x
2
cos ) ( 2 ) 0 ( ) (
1
(3.76)

,
_

+
M
k
k k
kn
N
Sin b kn
N
Cos a a
1
0
2 2
(3.77)
Vi a
0
= X
p
(0); a
k
= 2|X
p
(k)|cos(k v b
k
= 2|Xp(k)|sink v M =N/2 nu N chn,
M=(N-1)/2 nu N l.
V d 3.4
97
Hy xc nh cc h s chui Fourier v ph mt cng sut ca tn hiu tun
hon c trnh by trong hnh 3.10
Gii :
p dng pt(3.70), ta c :



1
0
2
1
0
/ 2
1
) (
1
) (
N
n
N
kn
j
N
n
N kn j
P
Ae
N
e n x
N
k X

, vi k= 0,1,,N-1
p dng cng thc tnh tng hu hn ca mt chui hnh hc ta c :
X
p
(k) =

'

1 , . . . 2 , 1 ,
1
1
0 ,
) (
2
2
1
0
2
N k
e
e
N
A
k
N
A L
e
N
A
N
k
j
N
L
k j
L
n
N
L
j


Ch rng :

N
k
j
N
kL
j
e
e

2
2
1
1

=
N
k
l
N
k
j
N
kL
j
N
kL
j
N
k
j
N
kL
l
e e
e e
e
e

,
_

,
_

N
k
Sin
N
kL
Sin
e
N
L k
j

) 1 (
Do :

'

t t

,
_

,
_

t t

. . . 2 , , 0 ,
. . . 2 , , 0 ,
) (
) 1 (
N N k
N
k
S i n
N
k L
S i n
e
N
A
N N k
N
A L
k X
N
L k
j
P

(3.78)
Ph mt cng sut ca tn hiu tun hon ny l :
98

'

t t

,
_

,
_

t t

,
_

. . . 2 , , 0 ,
. . . 2 , , 0 ,
) (
2
2
2
2
N N k
N
k
S i n
N
k L
S i n
N
A
N N k
N
A L
k X
p

(3.79)
Hnh 3.11 v th ca
2
) (k X
P
vi L = 5; N = 10 v A = 1
3.4.3. Phn tch tn s ca tn hiu ri rc khng tun hon bin i fourier
Tng t nh trong tn hiu lin tc khng tun hon, phn tch tn s ca mt tn
hiu ri rc khng tun hon c nng lng hu hn l bin i Fourier.
3.4.3.1. nh ngha bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc
Trong chng 2 ta cp n bin i Fourier ca mt tn hiu ri rc, l
trng hp c bit ca bin i Z, khi bin i Z c ly trn ng trn n v,
ngha l Z = e
j
. Ta c bin i Fourier ca mt dy x(n) l :

n
n j j
e n x e X

) ( ) (
(3.80)
Nht xt :
Bin i Fourier ca mt tn hiu ri rc v bin i Fourier ca mt tn hiu lin
tc c 2 s khc nhau c bn:
Di tn s ca bin i Fourier ca tn hiu lin tc (hay ph ca n) tri rng
t - n +, trong khi di tn ca bin i Fourier ri rc l [-, ](hay [0,2 ]),
vt ra ngoi di tn ny X() tun hon vi chu k 2 .
Tht vy :


+
+
n
n k j
e n x k X
) 2 (
) ( ) 2 (


Hay



+
n
kn j n j
e e n x k X


2
) ( ) 2 (
Ta c :
) ( ) ( ) 2 (

X e n x k X
n
n j
+

(3.81)
Vy X() tun hon vi chu k 2. Do , cc tn s bt k bn ngoi khong [-,
] hay [0, 2]) l tng ng vi mt tn s trong khong ny.
Trong bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc, tng c thay th cho tch phn,
v v X() l mt hm tun hon theo bin , n c dng ging nh mt khai trin
chui Fourier, cc h s ca chui Fourier ny l gi tr ca dy x(n).
3.4.3.2. Bin i Fourier ngc
99
T cng thc bin i Z ngc

dz x z X
j
n x
n 1
) (
2
1
) (

ta thay z = ej

v dz=je
j

d . Ta c bin i Fourier ngc nh sau :


d e e X n x
n j j
) (
2
1
) (
(3.82)
Tm li , ta c cp bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc nh sau :
Cng thc bin i ngc :

x
x
n j j
d e e X n x


) (
2
1
) (
(3.83)
Cng thc bin i thun :

n
n j
e n x X

) ( ) (
(3.84)
3.4.3.3. iu kin tn ti bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc
X() tn ti khi v phi ca phng trnh (3.84) hi t. Ta cng cp trong
chng 2, bin i Fourier tn ti khi bin i Z cha vng trn n v.
By gi ta xt c th hn, iu kin X() tn ti l :

< <


n n
n j
n x e n x ) ( ) (

(3.85)
V
Mt tn hiu ri rc tha mn iu kin (3.85) (gxi l kh tng tuyt i) l tn
hiu c nng lng hu hn. Thy vy :
Nng lng ca tn hiu ri rc x(n) c nh ngha nh sau :

n
x
n x E
2
) (
(3.86)
Ta c:

n
x
n x E
2
) (

V
<

n
n x ) (
nn nng lng E
x
ca tn hiu hu hn.
3.4.4. Ph mt nng lng ca tn hiu khng tun hon
Quan h Parseval:1
Ta xc nh mi qua2n h gia E
x
v X()
Ta c :


1
]
1


n
n j
n
x
d e X n x n x n x E

) (
2
1
) ( ) ( ) (
* *

Hon i v tr tng v tch phn :

1
]
1

d X d e n x X E
n
n j
x
2
*
) (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
Ta c mi quan h gia x(n) v X() l :
100

d X n x E
n
x
2 2
) (
2
1
) (
(3.87)
Phng trnh (3.87) l quan h Parseval cho tn hiu ri rc khng tun hon c
nng lng hu hn.

Ph bin - Ph pha - Ph mt nng lng:
Ni chung, X() l mt hm phc ca tn s. V vy ta c th biu din bi mt i
lng phasor.

) (
) ( ) (


j
e X X
(3.88)
Trong : l ph bin v ( ) = X( ) l ph pha.
Tng t nh trong trng hp tn hiu tng t i lng:
S
xx
( ) = (3.89)
biu din s phn b nng lng theo tn s c gi l ph mt nng lng
ca x(n). R rng, S
xx
() khng cha thng tin v pha.
c bit, nu x(n) l tn hiu thc th :
X
*
( ) = X(- ) (3.90)
hay (i xng chn) (3.91)
v : X(- ) = - X( ) (i xng l) (3.92)
T pt(3.89) ta cng c :
S
xx
(- ) = S
xx
( ) (i xng chn) (3.93)
Do tn i xng ta ch cn kho st tnh hiu ri rc trong di tn 0 .
V d 3.5
Xc nh v v ph mt nng lng S
xx
() ca tn hiu :
x(n) = a
n
u(n) vi -1 < a < 1, c th : a = 0,5 v a = -0,5
Gii :
Bin i Z ca x(n) l: X(z) =
1
1
1

az
, vi ROC : z > a (3.94)
V |a|< 1 nn ROC ca X(z) cha vng trn n v, v vy bin i Fourier tn ti.
Ta thay z = e
j
c c bin i Fourier ca x(n), l :

j
ae
X

1
1
) (
(3.95)
) 1 )( 1 (
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
*
2


j j
xx
ae ae
X X X S



Hay:
2
cos 2 1
1
a a
S
xx
+

(3.96)
Mt ph nng lng :
101
Ta thy S
xx
(-) = S
xx
(), ph hp vi pt(3.93).
Hnh 3.12 v tn hiu x(n) v ph tng ng vi a = 0,5 v a = -0,5. Ta thy vi
a=-0,5 tn hiu bin i nh../Anh hn v kt qu l ph ca n tp trung vng tn s
cao.
V d 3.6:
Xc nh tn hiu x(n), bit rng ph ca n l :

'

>

c
c
X

, 0
, 1
) ( (3.97)

Gii :
T pt(3.83) ta c :

0 ,
2
1
) (
2
1
) (

n
n
Sin
d e
d e X n x
c
c c
j
j
c
c


Khi n = 0, ta c :

c
c
c
d n x

2
1
) (

'

0 ,
0 ,
) (
n
n
n S i n
n
n x
c
c c
c

(3.98)
Vy:
102
Hnh 3.12. Dy x(n) =
n

,
_

2
1
u(n) v x(n) =
n

,
_

2
1
u(n)
(b) ph mt nng lng ca chng
Cp bin i Fourier c minh ha trong hnh 3.13. Ta thy, x(n) l mt tn hiu
c nng lng hu hn v E
x
=.
V d 3.7 :
Xc nh bin i Fourier v ph mt nng lng ca dy

'

n
L n A
n x
, 0
1 0 ,
) (
(3.99)
th ca tn hiu ny c v trong hnh 3.14
Gii : Tn hiu cho l tn hiu kh tng tuyt i tht vy :

<
x
L
x
A L A n x
1
0
) (
Do bin i Fourier ca n tn ti. Hn na, y l mt tn hiu c nng lng
hu hn, ta tnh c E
x
= A
2
L
Bin i Fourier ca tn hiu c th c tnh nh sau :

j
L j L
n
n j
e
e
A Ae X

1
1
) (
1
0
hay
( )
) 2 / (
2 /
) (
) 1 )( 2 / (


Sin
L Sin
Ae X
L j

(3.100)
103
Hnh 3.13. cp bin i fourier trong v d 3.6
Hnh 3.14.tn hiu ri rc xung ch nht
Cho = 0, ta c X(0) = AL (dng qui tc LHospital)
Ph bin ca x(n) l :

'

,
_

,
_

0 ,
2
2
0 ,
) (

S i n
L
S i n
A
L A
X (3.101)

,
_

,
_

+
2
2
) 1 (
2
) (

Sin
L
Sin
L A X
(3.102)
Ta nh rng, pha ca mt s thc l 0 nu l mt s thc dng v l (nu l s
thc m.
Hnh 3.15 trnh by ph bin v ph pha ca tn hiu (3.99) vi A = 1 v L=5
ph mt nng lng ch l bnh phng ca ph bin .
Nhn xt :

Cho cc gi tr tn s ri rc c quan h hi vi nhau, ngha l :
=
k
= , k = 0,1, ... N-1
Ta c :
104
Hnh 3.15.(a) ph bin v (b) ph pha ca bin i fourier ca tn hiu ri rc
xung ch nht

1
]
1

,
_

1
]
1

,
_


,
_

k
N
Sin
kL
N
Sin
Ae k N X
L k
N
j

) 1 (
) ) / 2 ((
So snh vi chui Fourier, pt(3.78) dy h s ca chui xung ch nht tun hon
v d 3.4 ta thy rng : X() = NX
p
(k), k = 0, 1, ... N-1
y ta xt mt tn hiu xung ch nht bng vi mt chu k ca chui xung
ch nht tun hon c chu k N. Gi tr ca bin i Fourier cc tn s = , k = 0,1,
... N-1 chnh l tch ca chu l N vi cc h s ca chui Fourier {X
p
(k)} cc hi
tng ng. Hay ni ngc li cc h s X
p
(k) ca chui Fourier bng vi mu th k ca
bin i Fourier X()(c ly mu u vi chu k ly mu l nhn cho N).
3.4.5. Cc tnh cht ca bin i fourier ca tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian
V bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc l trng hp c bit ca bin i Z. Nn
cc tnh cht ca bin i Z cng ng vi bin i Fourier. Ngoi ra, bin i Fourier
cn c mt tnh cht ring ca n.
Trc tin ta s tm tt cc tnh cht c trnh by trong phn bin i Z (xem
bng 3.2 trang sau). Sau , ta s phn tch thm mt s tnh cht khc ca bin i
Fourier.
Mt s tnh cht khc ca bin i Fourier
1. nh l Wiener - Khintchine
Nu x(n) l mt tn hiu thc th

) ( ) 1 (
xx
F
xx
S r
(3.104)
nh l ny l mt trng hp c bit ca tnh cht tng quan, theo , ph mt
nng lng ca mt tn hiu nng lng l bin i Fourier ca dy t tng quan
ca n.
y l mt h qu quan trng, n hm rng, dy t tng quan ca mt tn hiu
v mt ph nng lng ca n cha cng mt thng tin v tn hiu. V vy, n khng
cha thng tin v pha (ging nh mt ph nng lng), ta khng th phc hi tn
hiu mt cch duy nht t dy t tng quan hay ph mt nng lng ca n.

STT Tnh cht Min thi gian Min tn s
K hiu x(n)
X( )
x
1
(n)
X
1
( )
x
2
(n)
X
2
( )
1 Tuyn tnh a
1
x
1
(n) + a
2
x
2
(n) a
1
X
1
( ) + a
2
X
2
( )
2
Dch trong
min thi gian
x(n-k) e
-j

k
X( )
3
o trc thi
gian
x(-n) X(- )
105
4
Vi phn trong
min tn s
n x(n)
5 Chp x
1
(n)* x
2
(n) X
1
( )X
2
( )
6 Tng quan
) l ( x * ) l ( x ) l ( r
2 1 x x
2 1

) ( X ) ( X ) ( R
2 1 x x
2 1


=X
1
( )X
2
*
( )
7 Nhn x
1
(n).x
2
(n)
8 Lin hp phc x
*
(n) X
*
(- )
9
nh l
Parseval
Bng 3.2 : Mt s tnh cht ca bin i Fourier ri rc
2. Dch trong min tn s (Frequency Shifting)

) ( ) (
0
0

X n x e
F n j
(3.105)
Tnh cht ny c chng minh mt cch d dng bng cch thay x(n) trc tip
vo cng thc phn tch (3.84). Theo tnh cht ny, vic nhn dy x(n) vi tng
ng vi s dch chuyn trong min tn s ca ph X() mt khong
0
. S dch
chuyn ny c minh ha trong hnh 3.16. V ph ca X() l tun hon, nn ta ch
cn kho st trong mt chu k (hnh 3.16d)
3. nh l bin iu (Modulation Theorem)

) (
2
1
) (
2
1
cos ) (
0 0 0
+ + X X n n x
F
(3.106)

106
chng minh nh l bin iu, ta biu din cos
0
n di dng :

,
_

+
n j
n j
e e n
0 0
2
1
cos
0

V p dng tnh cht dch trong min tn s. nh l bin iu c minh ha


trong hnh 3.17
4. Tnh cht i xng
Cc tnh cht i xng ca bin i Fourier rt hu dng, gip ta c th tnh ton
hoc biu din ph ca tn hiu mt cch n gin hn.
Tng qut, c 2 tn hiu x(n) v X() u c gi tr phc. Ta c th biu din cc
tn hiu ny di dng :
x(n) = x
R
(n) + jx
I
(n) (3.107)
X( ) = X
R
( ) + jX
I
( ) (3.108)
Thay pt(3.107) v e
-jn
= cosn - jsinn vo cng thc bin i Fourier thun
(3.84) ta thu c :


+
n
I R R
n n x n n x X sin ) ( cos ) ( ) (
(3.109)

n n x n n x X
I R I
cos ) ( sin ) ( ) (
(3.110)

107
Hnh 3.16.Minh ha tnh cht dch trong min tn s ca bin i fourier

Tng t, thay pt(3.108) v e
jn
= cosn + j sinn vo cng thc bin i Fourier
ngc (3.83) ta thu c :
X
R
(n) =
[ ]

2
cos ) ( cos ) (
2
1
d n X n X
I R (3.111)
X
I
(n) =
[ ]

2
sin ) ( cos ) (
2
1
d n X n X
I R (3.112)
c bit, nu x(n) l tn hiu thc, ngha l x
R
(n) = x(n) v x
I
(n) = 0. Khi
pt(3.109) v pt(3.110) tr thnh :
X
R
(

) =

n
n n x cos ) (
(3.113)
X
R
(

) =

n
n n x sin ) (
(3.114)
V cos(-) n = cos n v sin(-) n = -sin n
Nn : X
R
(-) = X
R
() (i xng chn) (3.115)
X
I
(-) = -X
I
() (i xng l) (3.116)
Nu x(n) l tn hiu thc v l
Nu x(n) l tn hiu thc v l (ngha l x(-n) = -x(n)) th x(n)cosn l hm l v
x(n)sinn l hm chn.
T pt(3.113), pt(3.114) ta thu c :
(3.117)
v x(0) = -x(-0) = -x(0) = 0
X
I
(

) = -2

1
sin ) (
n
n n x
(3.118)
X(n) = -

d n X
I
) sin ) ( (
1
(3.119)
Nu x(n) l tn hiu thun o
108
Hnh 3.17. th minh ha nh l bin in
(a) ph ca tn hiu x(n)
(b) ph ca tn hiu y
1
(n) = x(n)cos
2

n
(c) ph ca tn hiu y
2
(n) = x(n)cos

n
Trong trng hp ny x
R
(n) = 0 v x(n) = jx
I
(n). Khi pt(3.109), pt(3.110) tr
thnh
X
R
(


n n X
I
sin ) ( )
(l) (3.120)
X
I
(


n n X
I
cos ) ( )
(chn) (3.121)
X
I
(n) =

1
[ ]


0
cos ) ( sin ) ( d n X n X
I R
(3.122)
Nu x
I
(n) l ngha l x
I
(-n) = x
I
(n)) th
X
R
(

)=2

1
sin ) (
n
I
n n X
(l) (3.123)
X
I
( ) = 0 (3.124)

X
I
(n)=

n X
R

sin ) (
1
d

(3.125)
Nu x
I
(n) chn ngha l x
I
(-n) = x
I
(n)) th :
X
R
( ) = 0
X
I
(

) = X
I
(0) +2

1
cos ) (
n
I
n n X
(chn) (3.126)
X
I
(n)=


0
cos ) ( n X
I
d

(3.127)
V d 3.8: Xc nh bin i Fourier ca tn hiu:
X(n)=

'


n
M n M A
, 0
,
(3.128)
Gii : R rng x(-n) = x(n). Vy x(n) l mt tn hiu thc v chn. ta c
X
R
(
( )
1
]
1

+ +
1
]
1

+ +
,
_

M
n
n j
M
n
n j
M
n
n j n j
M
n
e e A e e A n A
1 1 1 1
1 1 cos 2 1 )

,
_

,
_

1
1
1
]
1


1
]
1

+ +
+

+ +
2
2
1
) ( ) (
1
1 1
1
2 2
)
2
1
( )
2
1
(
2
) 1 (
2
2 2
) 1 (
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (


Sin
M Sin
A
e e
e e
A
e
e e e
e e
e e e
A
e
e e
e
e e
A
j j
M j M j
j
M j j
j
j j
M j j
j
j
M j j
j
M j j

109
(3.129)

V X() l thc, nn ph bin v pha c tnh nh sau :

,
_

,
_

2
2
1
) (

Sin
M Sin
A X
(3.130)
V

'

<
>

0 ) ( ,
0 ) ( , 0
) (

X
X
X
(3.131)
Hnh 3.18 trnh by th ca tn hiu x(n), bin i Fourier X() ph bin v
ph pha ca n.
110
Hnh 3.18. c tnh ph ca tn hiu xung ch nht trong v d 3.7
Bng 3.3: Mt s cp bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc khng tun
hon thng dng.

3.5 LY MU TN HIU TRONG MIN THI GIAN V MIN TN S
Nh cp chng 1, ly mu tn hiu trong min thi gian l khu quan trng
trong vic x l tn hiu tng t bng k thut x l tn hiu s. Mt khc, tn hiu cng
c th c x l trong min tn s. Trong trng hp tn hiu c x l l tn hiu
khng tun hon c nng lng hu hn, ph ca n l lin tc. V vy cng cn phi ly
mu trong min tn s.
3.5.1. Ly mu trong min thi gian v khi phc tn hiu tng t.
Gi x
a
(t) l tn hiu tng t cn x l. Gi s tn hiu ny c ly mu tun hon
vi chu k ly mu l T
S
, tn hiu ri rc thu c l :
x(n) = x
a
(nT
S
) , - < n < (3.132)
Cc mu sau c lng t ha tr thnh tn hiu s. Trong cc kho st sau
ny, ta gi s s mc lng t ln c th b qua sai s lng t trong qu trnh
bin i A/D.
Ta s nghin cu mi quan h gia ph ca tn hiu lin tc x
a
(t) v ph ca tn
hiu ri rc x(n).
Nu x
a
(t) l mt tn hiu khng tun hon c nng lng hu hn, th ph ca n
c cho bi cng thc bin i Fourier.

dt e t x F X
Ft j
a a
2
) ( ) (
(3.133)
Ngc li, tn hiu x
a
(t) c th c phc hi t ph ca n bng bin i Fourier
ngc :

dF e F X t x
Ft j
a a
2
) ( ) (
(3.134)
Ch rng, vic tnh ton c thc hin trn tt c cc thnh phn tn s trong
mt di tn v hn - < F < l cn thit cho s khi phc tn hiu tng t, nu tn
hiu c bng tn khng gii hn.
Ph ca tn hiu ri rc x(n) c cho bi :
111

n
n j
e n x X

) ( ) (
Hay:

n
fn j
e n x f X
2
) ( ) (
( 3.135)
Dy x(n) c th c khi phc t ph X() hoc X(f) bng bin i ngc:

x
x
n j
d e X n x

) (
2
1
) (

Hay

2
1
2
1
2
) ( ) ( df e f X n x
fn j
(3.136)
Quan h gia cc bin thi gian t v n trong s ly mu tun hon l :
t = nT
S
(3.137)
Tng ng ta c mi quan h gia cc bin tn s F v f.


dF e F X nT x n x
S
F
F
n j
a S a
2
) ( ) ( ) ( (3.138)
Suy ra :

2
1
2
1
2
2
) ( ) ( dF e F X df e f X
S
F
F
n j
a
fn j

(3.139)
T mi quan h gia F v f, l f =, ta thc hin mt s bin i n gin cho v
tri ca pt(3.139) v thu c :

dF e F X dF e
F
F
X
F
S
S
S
S
F
F
n j
a
F
F
F
F
n j
S S
2
2
2
2
) ( ) (
1
(3.140)
Tch phn trong v phi ca pt(3.140) c th vit di dng tng v hn ca cc
tch phn c ly trong khong F
S
, ta c :

k
F k
F k
F
F
n j
a
F
F
n j
S
a
s
s
s s
dF e F X dF e
F
F
X
) 2 / 1 (
) 2 / 1 (
2 2
) ( ) (

(3.141)
Ta thy rng X
a
(F) trong khong tn s
( ) ( ) [ ]
S S
F k F k 2 / 1 2 / 1 +
bng vi X
a
(F -
kF
S
) trong khong
1
]
1

2
,
2
0 0
F F
, kt hp vi tnh tun hon ca hon m phc: e
s S
s
F
F
n j
F
kF F
n j
e
2
) (
2

+
ta c kt qu l :
112

1
1
1
]
1



2
2
2
)
2
1
(
)
2
1
(
2
2
2
)
2
1
(
)
2
1
(
2
) (
) ( ) (
S
S
s
S
s
S
S
S
S
s
S
F
F
F
F
n j
F k
F k
s a
k k
F
F
F
F
n j
S a
F k
F k
F
F
n j
a
dF e kF F X
dF e kF F X dF e F X


(3.142)
Lin kt cc pt(3.142), pt(3.141) v pt(3.140) ta thu c :

) ( ) (
S
k
a S
S
kF F X F
F
F
X


(3.143)
Hay:
( ) [ ]



k
S a S
F k F X F F X ) (
(3.144)
T pt(3.143) hay pt(3.144) ta thy c mi quan h gia ph X(F/F
s
) hay X(f)
ca tn hiu ri rc vi ph X
a
(F) ca tn hiu lin tc. V phi ca cc phng trnh
ny bao gm s lp li mt cch tun hon ca F
s
X
a
(F) vi chu k F
s
. S tun hon ny
l hp l, bi v nh ta bit, ph X(f) hay X(F/F
s
) ca tn hiu ri rc l tun hon
vi chu k f
p
= 1 hay F
p
= F
S
.
Gi s ph X
a
(F) ca mt tn hiu c bng tn gii hn x
a
(t) c trnh by trong
hnh 3.19a. Theo , ph bng 0 khi|F|.
Nu tn s ly mu c chn F
s
> 2B th ph X(F/F
s
) ca tn hiu ri rc s xut
hin nh hnh 3.19b. Vy, nu tn s ly mu F
s
c chn ln hn tn s Nyquist (2B)
th :
X(F/F
s
) = F
S
X
a
(F) , |F| F
s
/2 (3.145)
Trong trng hp ny khng c s bit h danh(aliasing), v do ph tn hiu ri
rc ng dng vi ph ca tn hiu tng t nhn vi tha s F
s
trong di tn c bnF|
F
s
/2 ( tng ng vi |F| F
s
/2).
Ngc li, nu tn s FS c chn sao cho F
s
< 2B th s xp chng tun hon ca
X
a
(F) s a n s chng lp ph (spectral ovelap) (hnh 3.19c v d). Do , ph ca
X(F/F
s
) ca tn hiu ri rc cha cc thnh phn tn s bit h danh(aliasing) ca ph
X
a
(F) ca tn hiu tng t. Hin tng bit h danhxut hin v ta khng th khi
phc tn hiu tng t t cc mu ca n.Cho mt tn hiu ri rc x(n) vi ph l
X(F/F
s
) (hnh 3.19b), khng c hin tng bit d../Anh, ta c th khi phc li tn hiu
tng t t cc mu x(n).
Ta c:

'

>

2
, 0
2
) , (
1
) (
S
S
S S
a
F
F
F
F
F
F
X
F
F X (3.146)
Vi X(F/F
s
) l: X(

n
F
F
n j
S
S
e n x
F
F
2
) ( ) (3.147)
113
Bin i ngc ca X
a
(F) l :
X

2
2
2
) ( ) (
S
S
S
F
F
nF j
a a
dF e F X t

(3.148)
Gi s rng F
s
= 2B thay th phng (3.156) v phng trnh (3.147) vo phng
trnh (3.148) ta c :

114
Hnh 3.19.S ly mu ca mt tn hiu c bng tn gii hn v hin tng bit danh
X

,
_

1
]
1

,
_

1
1
]
1

n
S
S
S a a
n
F
n
nF j
F
F
S
a
F
F
n j F
F
n j
n S
a
nT t
T
nT t
T
nT x t X
dF e n x
F
t X
dF e e n x
F
t
S
S
S
S
S
S
) (
) ( sin
) ( ) (
) (
1
) (
) (
1
) (
) 1 ( 2
2
2
2
2
2
2

(3.149)
Trong : x(n) = x
a
(nT
s
) v T
B F
S
S
2
1 1

l thi khong ly mu. Pt(3.149) c
gi l cng thc ni suy l tng (ideal interpolation formula) dng khi phc x
a
(t)
t cc mu ca n.
Hm: g(t) =
t
T
t
T
S
S

,
_

,
_

sin
(3.150)
c gi l hm ni suy, nh cp chng 1.
Cng thc (3.149) l c s cho nh l ly mu c pht biu chng 1,
l:
Mt tn hiu lin tc c bng tn hu hn, vi tn s cao nht l B Hz, c th c
khi phc mt cch duy nht t cc mu ca n m c ly mu vi tc ly mu
l F
S
2B mu/giy.
Va ri, ta tho lun v vn ly mu v khi phc cc tn hiu tng t c
bng tn hu hn. Vn ny s nh th no i vi tn hiu c bng tn v hn, ta hy
xt trng hp ny trong v d sau y.
V d 3.9 : S ly mu mt tn hiu c bng tn khng gii hn
Xt tn hiu lin tc: x
a
(t) = x
a
(t) = e
-A

; A > 0
Ph ca n c cho bi :
Hy xc nh ph ca tn hiu ly mu : x(n) x
a
(nT)
Gii :
Nu ta ly mu x
a
(t) vi tn s ly mu l F
s
= 1/T
s
, ta c :
x(n) = x
a
(nT
S
) = e
-ATs|n|
= (e
-ATs
)

; - < n <
Ph ca x(n) tm c mt cch d dng bng cch p dng trc tip cng thc
bin i Fourier. Ta tnh c :

S S
S
AT
S
AT
aT
S
e FT e
e
F
F
X
2
2
2 cos 2 1
1
) (

115
V cos2 FT
S
= cos2 () tun hon theo F vi chu k F
s
, nn X(F) cng
tun hon vi chu k F
s
.
V X
a
(F) khng c gii hn bng tn, nn khng th trnh c hin tng bit
d../Anh, ph ca tn hiu c khi phc : (t) l :

'

>

2
; 0
2
) ; (
) (
'
S
S
S
S
a
F
F
F
F
F
F
X T
F X
Hnh 3.20a v tn hiu nguyn thy x
a
(t) v ph X
a
(t) ca n vi A = 1. Tn hiu
x(n) v ph X() ca n c v trong hnh 3.20b, vi F
s
=1Hz. Mo dng do bit h
danh(aliasing) r rng l ng ch trong min tn s. Tn hiu c khi phc
X
a
c v trong hnh 3.20c. S mo dng do chng ph c lm gim mt cch ng
k khi tng tn s ly mu. Chng hn tng tn s ly mu ln n F
s
= 20 Hz, tn hiu
c khi phc c dng gn ging vi tn hiu nguyn thy c v trong hnh 3.20d.

3.5.2. Ly mu trong min tn s v khi phc tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian
Nhc li rng, tn hiu nng lng hu hn khng tun hon c ph lin tc. Ta xt
mt tn hiu ri rc khng tun hon x(n) c bin i Fourier l :

n j
n
e n x X

) ( ) (
(3.151)
116
Hnh 3.20.(a) tn hiu tng t X
a
(t) v ph ca n X
a
(F)
(b) v ph ca X(n) vi A =1, Fs = 1
(c) tn hiu c khi phc X
a
(t) vi Fs =1
(d) tn hiu c khi phc X
a
(t) vi Fs =20
Gi s ta ly mu X() mt cch tun hon trong min tn s vi khong cch ly
mu l (radians). V X() tun hon vi chu k 2 nn ch cn kho st cc mu
trong mt chu k c bn, ta ly N mu cch u trong khong 0 < 2 , khong
cch ly mu tng ng lP (hnh 3.21)
Gi tr ca X() cc tn s
k
= l :
1 ,..., 1 , 0 , ) ( ) / 2 (
2

N k e n x N k X
n
N
kn
j
(3.152)
Tng trong pt(3.152) c th chia thnh tng ca v s tng con nh sau :



+ + +
l
N lN
lN n
N
kn
j
N
N n
N
kn
j
N
n
N
kn
j
N n
N
kn
j
e n x N k X
e n x e n x e n x N k X
1
2
1 2
2
1
0
2
1
2
) ( ) / 2 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ... ) / 2 (

i bin m = n - lN hay n = m + lN, ta c:



+ +
l l
N
m
N
km
j
N
m
kl j
N
km
j
e lN m x e e lN m x k
N
X
1
0
2
1
0
2
2
) ( ) ( )
2
(

Hon i v tr ca 2 tng v thay li k hiu bin m bng n, ta c :





1
]
1

+
1
0
2
) ( )
2
(
N
n
N
km
j
l
e lN n x
N
k
X

(3.153)
Vi k = 0, 1, 2, ... , N-1
t:


+
l
P
lN n x n x ) ( ) (
(3.154)
Tn hiu xp(n) thu c bng php lp tun hon x(n) vi mi on N mu, r rng
n tun hon vi chu k N. V vy, n c th khai trin thnh chui Fourier.
1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 , ) (
1
0
2

N n e X n x
N
k
N
kn
j
k P

(3.155)
Vi cc h s ca chui Fourier c xc nh bi :
117
Hnh 3.21 ly mu trong min tn s ca bin i fourier
1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 ; ) (
1
1
0
2

N k e n x
N
X
N
k
N
kn
j
P k

(3.156)
So snh pt(3.156) vi pt(3.153) ta thu c :
(3.157)
Do :
1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 ; )
2
(
1
) (
1
0
2

N n e k
N
X
N
n x
N
n
N
kn
j
P

(3.158)
Quan h (3.158) cho php ta khi phc x
p
(n) t cc mu ca ph X(). Tuy nhin,
n cha cho ta thy kh nng khi phc X() hay x(n) t cc mu ca X( ).
thit lp cng thc ni suy khi phc X() hoc x(n) t cc mu ca X()ta xt
mi quan h gia x(n) v x
p
(n).
V x
p
(n) l s m rng tun hon ca x(n) t pt(3.154), nn ta c th khi phc x(n)
t x
p
(n) nu khng c s bit h danhhay chng mu trong min thi gian . Xt trng
hp x(n) l mt dy c di hu hn v nh hn chu k N ca x
p
(n). Trng hp ny
c minh ha trong hnh 3.22 (khng lm mt i tnh tng qut), gi s cc mu khc
0 ca x(n) nm trong khong 0 n L-1 v L N th :
x(n) = x
p
(n) ; 0 n N-1
V vy x(n) c th khi phc t xp(n) m khng b nhm ln.
Ngc li nu L > N, chiu di ca dy x(n) ln hn chu k ca x
p
(n) ta khng th
khi phc x(n) t x
p
(n) bi v c s chng mu trong min thi gian.
Kt lun : Ph ca mt tn hiu ri rc khng tun hon c di hu hn x(n) hay
chnh x(n) c th c khi phc mt cch chnh xc t cc mu ca ph cc tn s,
nu chiu di L ca x(n) nh hn N, N l s mu c ly trong khong tn s 2.
Khi x
p
(n) c tnh t phng (3.168) v x(n) c khi phc nh sau :

'

n
N n n x
n x
P
; 0
1 0 ) ; (
) (
(3.159)
Sau cng X() c th c tnh t pt(3.161)
118
Ph X() c xem nh l mt tn hiu lin tc theo , n c th c biu din
bng cc mu X() ca n k = 0, 1, ...., N-1. Gi s rng N L, khi x(n) = x
p
(n) vi 0
n N-1, t pt(3.158) ta c :
1 0 ;
2 1
) (
1
0
2

,
_

N n e k
N
X
N
n x
N
k
N
kn
j

(3.160)
Thay pt(3.160) v pt(3.151) ta c :

1
]
1

,
_

1
0
1
0
2
2 1
) (
N
n
n j
N
k
N
kn
j
e e k
N
X
N
X


1
]
1

,
_

1
0
1
0
) / 2 (
1 2
N
k
N
n
n N k j
e
N
k
N
X

(3.161)
Tng bn trong du ngoc ca pt(3.171) l mt hm ni suy c bn c dch
trong mien tan so. Tht vy ta nh ngha hm:
2 / ) 1 (
1
0
2
sin
2
sin
1
1 1 1
) (

,
_

,
_

N j
j
N j
N
n
n j
e
N
N
e
e
N
e N
P

(3.162)
119
Hnh 3.22 (a) dy x(n ) nguyn thy khng hon ton c di L
(b) dy m rng tun hon x
p
(n) vi N>L khng chng mu
(c) dy m rng tun hon x
p
(n) vi N<L c chng mu
Pt(3.160) c vit li :


1
0
)
2
( )
2
( ) (
N
k
k
N
P k
N
X X

(3.163)
Pt(3.173) l cng thc ni suy dng khi phc X() t cc mu ca n.
Hm ni suy P() c dng th c v trong hnh 3.23
V d 3.10 :
Xt tn hiu : x(n) = a
n
u(n) , 0 < a < 1 ph ca tn hiu ny c ly mu cc tn
s (k =, k = 0, 1, ..., N-1. Xc nh ph c khi phc vi a=0,8 khi N=5 v N = 50.
Gii :
Bin i Fourier ca dy x(n) l :

j
n
n j n
ae
e a X

1
1
) (
0
Thay a = 0,8 v =
k
= , ta c :

N
k
j
k
e
N
k
X X

2
8 , 0 1
1
)
2
(



Dy tun hon x
p
(n) tng ng vi cc mu X(), k = 0, 1, ..., N-1 thu c t
pt(3.158), v:


1
0
2
)
2
(
1
) ( ) (
N
k
N
kn
j
p
e
N
k
X
N
n x n x

, vin = 0, 1, ..., N-1


Kt qu c minh ha trong hnh 3.24 vi N = 5 v N = 50. c s so snh, dy
nguyn thy x(n) v ph ca n cng c v. nh hng ca hin tng chng mu
kh r trong trng hp N = 5. Trong trng hp N=50 nh hng do s chng mu rt
yu v kt qu x(n) x(n), vi n=0, 1, 2, ..., N-1.
3.6 BIN I FOURIER RI RC (DFT DISCRETE FOURIER TRANFORM)
3.6.1. Khi nim
Trong phn trc, ta trnh by v s ly mu trong min tn s ca mt tn hiu
c nng lng hu hn khng tun hon. Ni chung, cc mu X() ca bin i Fourier
X(), vi k = 0,1, ... N-1 khng c trng cho s duy nht ca dy x(n) khi x(n) l mt
120
Hnh 3.23 th ca hm khi N =5
dy c di v hn. Thay vo , cc mu tn s X() ny li tng ng vi mt dy
tun hon x
p
(n) c chu k N. y, x
p
(n) l dy c to ra t s xp chng tun tun
ca x(n). Nh c xc nh bi phng trnh (3.154) l :



l
P
lN n x n x ) ( ) (
(3.164)
Khi x(n) c chiu di hu hn L N th x
p
(n) chnh l s lp li tun hon ca x(n),
trong mt chu k x
p
(n) c xc nh bi :

'

1 ; 0
1 0 ) ; (
) (
N n L
L n n x
n x
P
(3.165)
Ngc li, dy x(n) c th c khi phc li t xp(n) bng cch ct ly mt chu
k ca x
p
(n) ngha l :

'

n
L n n x
n x
P
; 0
1 0 ) ; (
) (
(3.166)
121
Cn khng nh li rng x(n) ch c th khi phc li t x
p
(n) khi L N v lc ny
ta coi nh x(n) c di N bng cch thm vo cc mu c gi tr 0 cc thi im L
n N-1. Khi , trong min tn s cc mu ca X() l X(), vi k = 0,1, ... N-1, biu
din mt cch duy nht dy c di hu hn x(n).
Ta c th c khi phc X() t cc mu



2 0 ; ) ( ) (
1
0

L
n
n j
e n x X

bng cng thc ni suy (3.163).
Tm li, mt dy x(n) c di hu hn c bin i Fourier l :



2 0 ; ) ( ) (
1
0

L
n
n j
e n x X
(3.167)
Trong cc ch s trn v di ca tng hm rng x(n) = 0 vi cc gi tr ca n
ngoi khong [0, L1].
Khi ta ly mu X() ti nhng tn s cch u nhau
k
=,
vi k = 0,1,... N-1 vi N L ta c :
122


1
0
2
) ( ) / 2 ( ) (
L
n
N
kn
j
e n x N k X K X

(3.168)
thun tin, ch s trn ca tng c th c tng ln t L-1 n N-1, v x(n)=0, khi
n L.
Ta c :

1
0
2
) ( ) (
N
n
N
kn
j
e n x K X

(3.169)
Quan h (3.169) l cng thc bin i mt dy {x(n)} c di L N trong min
thi gian thnh dy {X(K)} c di N trong min tn s. V cc mu tn s ny thu
c bng cch tnh bin i Fourier X() mt tp N tn s ri rc (cch u nhau),
nn quan h (3.169) c gi l bin i Fourier ri rc (DFT) ca x(n). Ngc li,
quan h (3.158) cho php ta khi phc x(n) t cc mu tn s X(K)

1 ...., 2 , 1 , 0 ; ) (
1
) (
1
0
2

N n e k X
L
N
n x
N
n
N
kn
j
(3.170)
Pt(3.170) c gi l bin i Fourier ri rc ngc (IDFT: Inverse DFT). Khi x(n)
c chiu di L < N, IDFT N im s cho kt qu x(n)=0 vi LnN-1. Nh vy, ta c
cp cng thc bin i DFT nh sau :
V d 3.11 :
Xt mt dy c chiu di hu hn L c nh ngha nh sau :

'

n
L n
n x
; 0
1 0 ; 1
) (
Xc nh DFT N im ca dy ny vi N L
Gii :
Bin i Fourier ca dy ny l :

1
0
) ( ) (
L
n
n j
e n x X


( )
2
1
1
0
2
2
1
1

,
_

,
_

L
j
j
L j L
n
n j
e
Sin
L
Sin
e
e
e

Bin v pha ca X() c v trong hnh 3.25 vi L = 10. DFT N im ca x(n)


n gin l gi tr ca X() ti tp N tn s k =, k = 0,1, ..N-1 , vy

1 ,..., 1 , 0 ;
1
1
) (
) 1 (
2
2

,
_

,
_

N k e
N
k
Sin
N
kL
Sin
e
e
k X
N
L k
j
L
kN
j
N
kL
j

123
Nu N c chn sao cho N = L, th DFT tr thnh :

'

1 , . . . , 2 , 1 ; 0
0 ;
) (
L k
k L
k X
Ta thy, trong trng hp ny ch c mt gi tr khc 0 trong DFT. Ta c th kim
tra li rng x(n) c th c khi phc t X(K) bng cch thc hin bin i IDFT L
im.
Mc d DFT L im c trng mt cch duy nht cho dy x(n) trong min
tn s, nhng r rng n khng cung cp chi tit c mt hnh nh tt v c tnh
ph ca x(n). Nu mun c mt hnh nh tt hn, ta phi c lng X() cc tn s
c khong cch gn nhau hn, ngha l
k
= , vi N > L. Ta thy cch tnh ny tng
ng vi s ko di chiu di ca dy x(n) bng cch thm vo N - L mu c gi tr
bng 0.
Hnh 2.26 v th ca DFT N im, bin v pha vi L = 10, N = 50 v N =
100. Ta thy c tnh ph ca dy r rng hn.
124
Hnh 3.25. c tuyn bin i bin v pha ca bin i fourier trong v d
3.11(vi N=10)
Hnh 3.26a Bin v pha ca DFT N im trong v d 3.11 vi L=10 v N=50
125
Hnh 3.26 b : Bin v pha ca DFT N im trong v d 3.11 vi L=10 v
N =100
DFT v IDFT l cc bin i tuyn tnh trn cc dy {x(n)} v {X(K)}.
thy c tnh cht ny ta nh ngha mt vect X
N
(n) ca cc mu tn s v
mt ma trn W
N
bc N x N nh sau :


1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

) 1 (
.
.
) 1 (
) 0 (
N x
x
x
x
N

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

) 1 (
.
.
) 1 (
) 0 (
N X
X
X
X
N
(3.183)

N
W

1
.
.
1
1
1

1
2
.
.
1
N
N
N
N
W
W
W
) 1 ( 2
4
2
.
.
1
N
N
N
N
W
W
W

.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

) 1 )( 1 (
) 1 ( 2
1
.
.
1
N n
N
N
N
N
N
W
W
W

(3.184)
Vi cc nh ngha ny DFT N im c th c biu din di dng ma trn nh
sau : X
N
= W
N
X
N
(3.185)
y W
N
l mt ma trn ca s bin i tuyn tnh . Ta thy W
N
l mt ma trn
i xng. Gi s rng nghch o ca W
N
tn ti th pt(3.185) c th vit li nh
sau :

N N N
X W x
1

(3.186)
y chnh l biu thc cho IDFT
Thc ra, IDFT chobi phng trnh (3.182) c th biu din di dng ma
trn :

N N N
X W
N
X
*
1

(3.187)
y
*
N
W
l ma trn lin hp phc ca W
N
. So snh pt(3.187) v pt(3.156) ta suy
ra :

* 1
1
N N
W
N
W

(3.188)
126
Pt(3.188) hm rng : W
N
*
N
W
= NI
N
Vi I
N
l ma trn ng dng (n v) bc N x N. Do ma trn W
N
l mt ma trn
trc giao. Hn na ma trn o ca n tn ti v bng
*
N
W
/N
DFT v IDFT ng vai tr rt quan trng trong nhiu ng dng ca x l tn hiu
s nh: phn tch ph, c lng ph mt cng sut, phn tch tng quan, lc
tuyn tnh C nhiu thut ton c hiu qu tnh DFT v IDFT mt cch nhanh
chng v chnh xc. Trong thut ton c s dng rng ri gi l bin i fourier
nhanh (FFT : Fast Fourier Transform) (Tham kho [11], [4], [7]).
3.6.2. Quan h gia DFT v cc bin i khc
Trong phn ny ta s tng kt li mi quan h ca DFT vi mt s bin i khc.
3.6.2.1. Quan h gia DFT vi cc h s chui Fourier ca dy tun hon
Mt dy tun hon x
p
(n) vi chu k N c th biu din bng chui Fourier, ta vit
li:

1
0
/ 2
) ( ) (
N
k
N kn j
p P
e k X n x

, vi < n < (3.189)
Trong , cc h s ca chui Fourier c cho bi biu thc:

1
0
/ 2
) (
1
) (
N
n
N kn j
P
e n x
N
k X

, vi k = 0,1, , N-1 (3.190)
so snh, ta vit li cp bin i DFT:

1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 , ) (
1
) (
1
0
2

N n e k X
N
n x
N
k
N
kn
j
(3.191)
1 ,..., 1 , 0 , ) ( ) (
1
0
2

N k e n x k X
N
n
N
kn
j
(3.192)
Ta thy cc h s ca chui Fourier c cng dng vi DFT. Tht vy, nu ta nh
ngha mt dy x(n) bng mt chu k ca dy tun hon x
p
(n), th DFT ca dy ny l:
X(k) = N.X
p
(k) (3.193)
Hn na, pt(3.189) c dng ca IDFT. Vy, DFT cho ta s lin kt c tnh tn s
gia tn hiu tun hon v tn hiu khng tun hon c di hu hn.
Ghi ch: DFT ca mt dy ri rc tun hon
T nh ngha, ta thy DFT ca mt dy c di hu hn x(n) l cc mu X(k)
ca bin i Fourier X() ca tn hiu ri rc x(n). i n nh ngha ny, ta da
vo mi quan h gia X(k) v cc h s ca chui Fourier ca dy tun hon x
p
(n), vi
x
p
(n) c thnh lp bng cch xp chng tun hon x(n) vi chu k N. Ngc li, vi
mt dy tun hon x
p
(n) bt k, N mu trong mt chu k c th biu din tn hiu ny
mt cch y trong min thi gian, v DFT ca dy c chiu di bng mt chu k
(c quan h vi cc h s ca chui Fourier theo pt(3.193)) cng c th biu din tn
hiu mt cch y trong min tn s. V vy, cc cng thc nh ngha DFT (3.191)
v (3.192) cng c p dng cho tn hiu tun hon c chu k N.
3.6.2.2. Quan h gia DFT vi ph ca ca dy c di hu hn
127
Xt mt dy x(n) khng tun hon c nng lng hu hn, bin i Fourier ca n
l:

n
n i
e n x X

) ( ) (
(3.194)
nu X() c ly mu N tn s cch u nhau,
k
= 2k/N, k=0,1,,N-1, th:

1 ,..., 1 , 0 , ) ( ) ( ) (
/ 2
/ 2

N k e n x X k X
n
N kn j
N k

(3.195)
Cc thnh phn ph {X(k)} tng ng vi ph ca mt dy tun hon chu k N,
l:



n
P
lN n x n x ) ( ) (
(3.196)
Nu x(n) l tn hiu nng lng hu hn, nhng c di v hn, th x(n) khng th
khi phc chnh xc t mt chu k ca x
p
(n). Nu x(n) l mt dy c di L hu hn v
L N, th ta c th khi phc chnh xc x(n) t x
p
(n) nh sau:

'

n
N n n x
n x
P
; 0
1 0 ) ; (
) (
Trong trng hp ny, IDFT ca {X(k)} ng l dy nguyn thy x(n).
3.6.2.3. Quan h gia DFT v bin i Z
Xt mt dy x(n) c bin i Z:

n
n
z n x z X ) ( ) (
, vi ROC cha vng trn n
v. Nu X(z) c ly mu N im cch u nhau trn vng trn n v z
k
= e
j2k/N
, k
= 0, 1, 2, , N-1, ta thu c:


n
N nk j
e z
e n x z X k X
N kn j
/ 2
) ( ) ( ) (
/ 2

, k = 0, 1, 2, , N-1 (1.198)
Ta thy X(k) trong pt(1.198) ng dng vi bin i Fourier X() c ly mu
N tn s cch u nhau
k
= 2k/N, k = 0, 1, 2, , N-1, ngoi tr ch s trong tng
c ly trong khong v hn.
Nu dy x(n) c chiu di N hu hn, bin i Z ca n c th biu din nh l mt
hm ca DFT X(k). l:

( )

1
]
1


1
0
1 / 2
1
0
1
0
1 / 2
1
0
1
0
/ 2
1
0
1
) ( 1
) (
) (
1
) (
1
) ( ) (
N
k
N k j
N
N
k
N
n
n
N k j
N
n
n
N
k
N kn j
N
n
n
z
z
e
k X
N
z
z X
e k X
N
z e k X
N
z n x z X


(1.199)
V bin i Fourier l bin i Z ly trn vng trn n v, ta c:
128

1
0
) / 2 (
1
) ( 1
) (
N
k
N k j
N j
e
k X
N
e
X

(1.200)
pt(1.200) chnh l cng thc ni suy khi phc X() t DFT.
3.6.3. CC TNH CHT CA BIN I FOURIER RI RC
Ta thit lp c cc mi quan h gia DFT vi chui fourier, bin i Fourier
v bin i Z ca tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian. DFT l mt dng biu din c bit
ca cc bin i ny, nn n c cc tnh cht tng t nh bin i Fourier v chui
Fourier, tuy nhin, cng tn ti mt vi s khc bit quan trng.
Trc khi trnh by cc tnh cht ca DFT, ta cn tham kho mt s khi nim sau
y.
3.6.3.1. Php dch vng v tnh i xng vng ca mt dy:
Nh ta bit, DFT- N im ca mt dy x(n) c chiu di hu hn L, vi LN,
tng ng vi DFT N im ca dy tun hon x
p
(n), chu k N, m n c thnh
lp bng cch xp tun hon dy x(n) vi chu k N theo pt(3.196). By gi, gi s x
p
(n)
c dch phi k mu, dy tun hon thu c s l:



l
P p
lN k n x k n x n x ) ( ) ( ) (
(3.201)
V ta vn kho st tn hiu trong khong 0 n N 1, nn dy c chiu di hu
hn tng ng l:
x|(n) quan h vi dy nguyn thy x(n) bi php dch vng. Hnh 3.27 minh ha
php dch vng vi N = 4.
129
nh ngha php dch vng: dch vng ch s modulo N (ta s gi tt l dch vng
modulo N) mt dy x(n) c chiu di hu hn L, vi L N l php dch m theo cc
mu ra khi khong [0,N-1] s quay vng li u kia.
Nu x|(n) l tn hiu thu c trong php dch vng k mu modulo N ca dy x(n) ,
ta k hiu:
x
|
(n) = x(n k,(mod N)) (3.203)
V d: nu k = 2 v N = 4, ta c:
x
|
(n) = x(n 2,(mod 4))
c th l: x|(0) = x( 2,(mod 4)) = x(2)
x
|
(1) = x( 1,(mod 4)) = x(3)
x
|
(2) = x( 0 , (mod 4)) = x(0)
x
|
(3) = x( 1 , (mod 4)) = x(1)
Mt cch hnh nh, ta c th coi php dch vng nh l cc mu thu c trong mt
ca s c chiu di N ng yn khi dy tun hon x
p
(n) c dch ngang qua ca s
ny.
Thay v biu din N mu, t 0 n N 1, dc theo mt trc nm ngang, thun
tin ta xp chng trn mt vng trn v chn mt chiu dng. y, ta chn chiu
dng l ngc chiu kim ng h. Cc mu ca dy x(n) (hay x|(n)) v gi tr ca
chng c ghi bn cnh cc im tng ng (Hnh 3.28). Ta thy, nu gi c nh cc
im v quay tp cc gi tr k mu (theo chiu dng khi k>0, ngc chiu dng khi
k<0) ta thu c dy x|(n) trong php dch vng k mu modulo N.
130
Hnh 3.27 minh ha s dch vng mt dy
T vic sp xp mt dy c chiu di hu hn theo N im trn vng trn, ta c cc
nh ngha khc v s i xng chn, i xng l v o thi gian ca mt dy.
Mt dy N im c gi l chn nu n i xng xung qu../Anh im khng
trn vng trn. iu ny c ngha l:
x(N n) = x(n) vi 0 n N-1 (3.204)
Mt dy N im c gi l l nu n phn i xng xung qu../Anh im
khng trn vng trn. iu ny c ngha l:
x(N n) = - x(n) vi 0 n N-1 (3.205)
o thi gian ca mt dy N im l mt dy thu c bng cch nghch o
cc mu xung qu../Anh im khng trn vng trn. Nu ta k hiu dy o thi gian
ch s modulo N l x(-n,(mod N)), th nh ngha ny hm rng:
x( n, (mod N)) = x(N - n) vi 0 n N-1 (3.206)
Php o thi gian tng ng vi vic xp x(n) theo ngc chiu kim ng h
trn vng trn (Hnh 3.29.(b)).
3.6.3.2. Chp vng ca 2 dy:
Chp vng ch s modulo N ca 2 dy x1(n) v x2(n), k hiu l: ,
c nh ngha nh sau:
131
Hnh 3.28 (a) dy x(n) trong hnh 3.27a c xp li trn vng trn
(b) dy x(n) trong hnh 3.27d c xp li trn vng trn
Hnh 3.29 dy N im x(n) v x(-n)
Ghi ch: Cc khi nim v php dch vng, tnh i xng vng v php chp vng
c nh ngha cho cc dy trong min thi gian n cng c s dng cho cc dy
trong min tn s ri rc k.
3.6.3.3. Cc tnh cht ca DFT
Trong gio trnh ny, ta s trnh by cc tnh cht ca DFT m khng chng minh.
kho st cc tnh cht c bit ca DFT, ta k hiu cp DFT-N im x(n) v
X(k), nh sau:
1/. Tnh cht tuyn tnh
Nu
trong a
1
v a
2
l cc hng s bt k c gi tr thc hoc phc.
2/. Tnh cht o thi gian:
3/. Tnh cht dch vng thi gian

4/. Tnh cht dch vng tn s
5/. Tnh cht lin hp phc
6/. Tnh cht chp vng
132

7/. Tnh cht tng quan vng
8/. Tnh cht nhn hai dy
9/. nh l Parseval

10/. Tnh cht i xng ca DFT
Cc tnh cht i xng ca DFT c th thu c bng cc thao tc ton hc nh
dng phn 3.4.5 cho bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc.
Tng qut, ta xt trng hp dy N im x(n) v DFT X(k) ca n l cc dy gi tr
phc. Ta c th biu din cc tn hiu ny di dng :
x(n) = x
R
(n) + jx
I
(n) (3.220)
X(k) = X
R
(k) + jX
I
(k) (3.221)
Thay pt(3.220) vo cng thc DFT (3.181) ta thu c :

1
]
1

+
1
0
2
sin ) (
2
cos ) ( ) (
N
x
I k I
N
kn
n x
N
kn
n x k X

(3.222)

1
]
1


1
0
2
cos ) (
2
sin ) ( ) (
N
x
I k I
N
kn
n x
N
kn
n x n X

(3.223)
Tng t, thay pt(3.221) vo cng thc IDFT (3.182) ta thu c :

1
]
1


1
0
2
sin ) (
2
cos ) (
1
) (
N
k
I R R
N
kn
k X
N
kn
k X
N
n x

(3.224)
133

1
]
1

+
1
0
2
cos ) (
2
sin ) (
1
) (
N
k
I R I
N
kn
k X
N
kn
k X
N
n x

(3.225)
c bit, nu x(n) l dy thc, theo pt(3.181) ta c :
X(N k) = X*(k) = X(-k) (3.226)
Kt qu l |X(N k)| = |X(k)| v X(N k) = - X( k).. Hn na, x
I
(n) = 0 v v
vy x(n) c th xc nh bng pt(3.224). y l mt dng khc ca IDFT.
Nu x(n) l dy thc v chn
Nu x(n) l tn hiu thc v chn, ngha l x
I
(n) = 0 v x(n) = x(N - n), vi 0 n
N-1. Thay vo pt(3.223) ta c X
I
(k) = 0. V vy cng thc DFT tr
thnh:

1 0 ,
2
cos ) ( ) (
1
0

N n
N
kn
n x k X
N
n

(3.227)
Ta thy X(k) cng thc v chn. Hn na, v X
P
(k) = 0, nn cng thc IDFT tr
thnh:

1 0 ,
2
cos ) (
1
) (
1
0

N k
N
kn
k X
N
n x
N
k

(3.228)
Nu x(n) l dy thc v l
Nu x(n) l tn hiu thc v l, ngha l x
I
(n) = 0 v x(n) = -x(N - n), vi
0 n N-1. Thay vo pt(3.222) ta c X
R
(k) = 0. V vy cng thc DFT tr
thnh:

1 0 ,
2
sin ) ( ) (
1
0

N k
N
kn
n x j k X
N
n

(3.229)
Ta thy X(k) l thun o v l. Hn na, v X
R
(k) = 0, nn cng thc IDFT tr
thnh:

1 0 ,
2
sin ) (
1
) (
1
0

N n
N
kn
k X
N
j n x
N
k

(3.230)
Nu x(n) l dy thun o
Trong trng hp ny x
R
(n) = 0 v x(n) = jx
I
(n). Khi pt(3.222) v pt(3.223) tr
thnh :

1
]
1

1
0
1
2
sin ) ( ) (
N
n
R
N
kn
n x k X

(3.231)

1
]
1

1
0
1
2
cos ) ( ) (
N
n
I
N
kn
n x k X

(3.232)
Ta thy X
R
(k) l l v X
I
(k) l chn.
Nu x
I
(n) l l, th X
I
(k) = 0 v v vy X(k) l thun thc. Ngc li, nu
134
X
I
(n) l chn, th X
I
(k) = 0 v v vy X(k) l thun o. Tnh cht i xng c
tng kt trong bng 3.4.

x(n) X(k)
Thc Phn thc l chn
Phn o l l
o Phn thc l l
Phn o l chn
Thc v chn Thc v chn
Thc v l o v l
o v chn o v chn
o v l Thc v l

BI TP CHNG 3

3.1. Tnh v v ph bin v ph pha ca cc tn hiu sau y:
(a)

'

<
>

0 , 0
0 , , 0 ;
) (
t
a c o n s t A t a t A e
t x
a
(b)
t a
a
Ae t X

) (
3.2. Xt tnh hiu xa(t) = |Asin(t)| (A l mt hng s). Hy:
(a) Xc nh ph X
a
(F) ca tn hiu ny.
(b) Tnh cng sut ca tnh hiu.
(c) V mt ph cng sut.
(d) Kim chng li quan h Parseval.
3.3. Hy xc nh v v ph bin , ph pha ca cc tn hiu tun hon sau y:
(a)
3 / ) 2 ( sin 4 ) ( n n x
135
(b)
n n n x
5
2
3
2
sin cos ) (

+
(c)
n n n x
5
2
3
2
sin cos ) (

+
3.4. Xc nh cc tn hiu tun hon x(n), vi chu k c bn l N = 8, nu cc h s
Fourier ca chng c cho bi:
(a) 4
3
4
sin cos
k k
k
X +
(b) ,... 0 , , 1 , 2 , 1 , , 0 ...,
4
1
, 2
1
, 2
1
4
1

k
X
3.5. Hy tnh bin i Fourier ca cc tn hiu sau y:
(a) x(n) = u(n) u(n - 6)
(b) x(n) = 2
n
u(-n)
(c) (1/4)
n
u(n + 4)
3.6. Hy xc nh cc tn hiu tng ng vi cc bin i Fourier sau y:
(a)

'

<

0
0
; 1
0 ; 0
) ( X
(b) X( ) = cos
2

3.7. Gi s xp(n) l mt dy tun hon vi chu k N. Khi x


p
(n) cng tun hon
vi chu k 3N. Gi X
p
(k) l cc h s Fourier ca x
p
(n), dy X
p
(k) cng tun hon vi
chu k N. Gi X
p3
(k) l cc h s Fourier ca x
p
(n) nhng c coi nh tun hon vi
chu k 3N:
(a) Hy biu din X
p3
(k) theo X
p
(k)
(b) Cho
,... 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 ..., ) ( n x
P , tun hon vi chu k N = 2, tnh
X
p
(k) v X
p3
(k), kim tra li kt qu ca cu (a)
3.8. Cho tn hiu: ,vi bin i Fourier c biu
din di dng X() =X
R
() +j X
I
(). Hy xc nh v v tn hiu y(n) tng ng vi
bin i Fourier l Y() =X
I
() +j X
R
( )e
j2

.
3.9. Cho tn hiu:
vi bin i Fourier l X(). Hy tnh cc i lng sau y, m khng cn phi
xc nh X():
136
(a) X(0) (b) X(

) (c)

d X ) (
(d)X(

) (e)

d X
2
) (
3.10. Hy tnh cc DFT N im ca cc tn hiu:
(a) x(n) = (n)
(b) x(n) = (n n
0
), 0 < n
0
< N
(c) x(n) = a
n
, 0 n N 1
(d)

'

1 5 8 ; 0
7 0 ; 1
) (
n
n
n x
(e)
1 0 , ) (
) / 2 (
N n e n x
kn N i
(k l mt s nguyn)
(f)
1 0 ,
2
cos ) (
0
N n n k
N
n x

3.11. (a) Hy tnh bin i Fourier X() ca tn hiu:

(b) Hy tnh DFT 6 im V(k) ca tn hiu:
(c) Gia X() v V(k) c quan h g khng? Gii thch.
.3.12. DFT 8 im ca mt dy thc c 5 mu u tin l:
{0.25, 0.125 j0.3018, 0, 0.125 j0.0518, 0}. Hy xc nh 3 mu cn li.
3.13. Tnh chp vng 8 im (modulo 8) ca cc cp dy trong cc cu (a) v
(b) sau y:
(a)
{ } 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 ) (
1
n x
v
7 0 ,
8
3
sin ) (
2
n n n x

(b)
n
n x

,
_

4
) (
1

0 7 n v
n n x
8
3
cos ) (
2

7 0 n
(c) Tnh DFT ca dy
) ( 8 ) ( ) (
2 1 3
n x n x n x
3.14. Cho 2 dy
n
N
n x
3
cos ) (
1

v
n
N
n x
3
sin ) (
2

, vi 0 1 N n , xc nh N
im ca:
(a) Chp vng
) ( 8 ) (
2 1
n x n x
(b) Tng quan vng


1
0
*
2 1
*
2 1 2 1
0
)) 8 (mod , ( ) ( ) ( 8 ) ( ) (
N
m
n m x m x n x n x n x x r
(c) T tng quan vng ca x
1
(n).
137
(d) T tng quan vng ca x
2
(n).
3.15. Xc nh DFT 8 im X(k) ca tn hiu x(n) = {1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0}
V th bin v pha ca X(k).
3.16. Gi X(k) l DFT N im ca x(n), 0 n N 1. Tnh DFT ca dy
s(n) = X(n), 0 n N 1. Nhn xt.
CHNG IV
BIU DIN, PHN TCH H THNG RI RC TRONG MIN
TN S
4.1 CC C TNH CA H THNG LTI TRONG MIN TN S
kho st c tnh ca h thng LTI trong min tn s, ta s bt u bng cch xt
p ng ca h thng i vi cc kch thch c bn, l tn hiu m phc v tn hiu hnh
sin.
4.1.1. p ng tn s ca h thng LTI
Trong min thi gian, mt h thng LTI c c trng bi p ng xung h(n) ca n.
Vi mt tn hiu vo x(n) bt k, p ng ca h thng c xc nh bi cng thc
tng chp :
138
y(n) =

k
k n x k h ) ( ). (
(4.1)
Hoc phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s bng:

N
k
k
k n y a
0
) ( .
=

M
k
k
k n x b
0
) ( .
(4.2)
vi cc iu kin u xc nh.
Trong min z, h thng c c trng bi hm truyn t H(z) v p ng y(n) c tnh
thng qua bin i Z, Y(z), ca n :
Y(z) = H(z) X(z) (4.3)
vi : H(z) hm truyn t ca h thng v X(z) bin i z ca tn hiu vo.
By gi, nghin cu c trng ca h thng trong min tn s, ta xt trng hp kch
thch l tn hiu m phc, l :
x(n) = Ae
j

n
; - < n < (4.4)
vi A l bin v ( l tn s c gii hn trong khong [-, ].
Thay phng trnh (4.4) vo phng trnh (4.1) ta c :
y(n) =
) ( ] [
) (
k h Ae
k
k n j



(4.5.a)
hay: y(n) = A [

k
k j
e k h

). (
].e
n j
(4.5.b)
4.1.1.1. p ng tn s
Ta thy, tha s trong du ngoc ca phng trnh (4.5.b) l mt hm ca bin tn s .
y chnh l bin i Fourier ca p ng xung h(k) ca h thng. Ta t :
H(

) =

k
k j
e k h

). (
(4.6)
R rng H(

) tn ti nu h thng n nh, ngha l:

n
n h ) (
<
H( ) cng chnh l hm truyn t H(z) khi z c ly trn vng trn n v
H( ) c gi l p ng tn s ca h thng LTI
Phng trnh (4.5) c vit li :
y(n) = A H( )e
j

n
(4.7)
Ta thy, p ng vi tn hiu vo l hm m phc cng l mt hm m phc c cng tn
s vi tn hiu vo nhng c bin v pha thay i (do nhn vi H( ))
4.1.1.2. Hm ring (eigenfunction) v tr ring (eigenvalue) ca h thng
Xt mt tn hiu vo x(n) sao cho p ng y(n) tha iu kin :
y(n) = x(n) (4.8)
139
Vi l mt hng i vi bin n.
Khi x(n) c gi l hm ring ca h thng v tha s c gi l tr ring ca h
thng.
T phng trnh (4.7) ta thy tn hiu hm m phc x(n) = Aej(n chnh l hm ring ca
h thng LTI v H( ) c xc nh tn s ca tn hiu vo chnh l tr ring tng
ng.
V d 4.1 :
Hy xc nh tn hiu ra ca h thng c p ng xung l :
h(n) = ) (
2
1
n u
n

,
_

(4.9)
Vi tn hiu vo l 1 dy hm m phc :
) (n x
=
2
.
n
jx
e A
; -
< < n
Gii :
p ng tn s :
( )

j
n j
n
e
e n h H



2
1
1
1
) (
(4.10)
Ti tn s:
2

,ta c :
6 . 26
.
5
2
2
1
1
1
)
2
(
j
e
j
H

Tn hiu ra l :
2
6 . 26
. .
5
2
) (
0
n
jx
j
e e A n y

,
_

,
_

0
6 . 26
2
.
5
2
) (
n
x j
e A n y
;
< < n
(4.11)
Ta thy y(n) c cng tn s vi x(n) c bin thay i bi tn s
5
2
v pha dch
l -26,6
0
.
4.1.1.3. p ng bin v p ng pha
Ni chung, H( ) l mt hm c gi tr phc ca bin tn s. V vy n c th biu din
di dng cc :
H( ) = H( ) e
j

)
(4.12)
Trong |H( )| l bin v pha, = H( ) l s dch pha c truyn vo tn hiu
vo tn s .
lm ni cc mi bn (sidelobes) hay cc gn sng (ripples) trn c tuyn bin ,
ngi ta dng giai logarit hay decibel (dB) cho trc bin , cn trc tn s vn theo giai
s tuyn tnh. Bin theo dB c nh ngha nh sau :
H( )
dB
= 20log
10
H( )
Nhn xt:
140
(1) H( ) l mt hm tun hon vi chu k l 2 . y l mt tnh cht quan trng ca
H( ).
Thy vy, t nh ngha (4.6) vi mt s nguyn m bt k ta c :
H( + 2 m) = H( )
(2) T cng thc bin i Fourier ngc ta c :

( )

d e H n h
x
x
n j

2
1
) (
(4.13)
(3) V H( ) l bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc h(n) nn n tha mn cc tnh cht
ca bin i Fourier trnh by trong chng 3.
(4) V H( ) l bin i Z ca h(n) vi z trn vng trn n v nn cc phng trnh ca
H(z) cng c th p dng cho H( ), nu min hi t ca H(z) cha vng trn n v (h
thng n nh) v thay z = e
J

.
V d 4.2 :
Hy xc nh bin v pha ca H( ) cho mt h thng trung bnh di ng ba im c
biu din bi quan h vo ra nh sau :
[ ] ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (
3
1
) ( + + + n x n x n x n y
V v th ca 2 hm ny vi 0 .
Gii :
p ng xung ca h thng l :

'

3
1
,
3
1
,
3
1
) (n h
p ng tn s (s dng tnh cht dch trong min thi gian)
) cos 2 1 (
3
1
) 1 (
3
1
) (

+ + +
j j
e e H
Kt qu :
Bin :
cos 2 1
3
1
) ( + H

0
3
2
0 :

<
Pha :
) (
(4.14)

<
3
2
:
Hnh 4.1 v gin bin v pha ca H( ), ta thy |H( )| i xng chn v ( )i
xng l. R rng, t c tuyn p ng tn s H( ) ta thy h thng trung bnh ng ba
141
im ny l mt mch lc lm trn (smooth) tn hiu vo, iu ny cng c th hin trong
quan h vo ra. Ni chung cc h thng trung bnh di ng l cc mch lc lm trn.
By gi ta xt p ng ca h thng LTI vi tn hiu vo c dng sin. V tn hiu dng sin
l tng hay hiu ca cc hm m phc. V vy p ng ca h thng LTI i vi tn hiu
vo hnh sin c dng ging nh p ng ca h thng vi tn hiu vo l hm m phc.
Thy vy, nu tn hiu vo l : x
1
(n) = Ae
j

n
Tn hiu ra l : y
1
(n) = A H( ) e
j

)
e
j

n
Nu tn hiu vo l : x
2
(n) = Ae
-j

n
Tn hiu ra l : y
2
(n) = A H(- ) e
j

(-

)
e
-j

n
= A H( ) e
-j

)
e
-j

n
Trong biu thc ca y
2
(n), ta dng tnh cht i xng
|H()|= |H(-)| v ( ) = - (- ).
p dng tnh cht tuyn tnh

142
Hnh 4.1: p ng bin v pha ca h thng trung bnh di ng
Nu tn hiu vo l :
[ ] A n x n x n x + ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2 1
cos
n
Th p ng ca h thng l :
[ ] ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2 1
n y n y n y +
= A H( ) cos [ n + ( )] (4.14)
Nu tn hiu vo l:
[ ] ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2 1
n x n x
j
n x
Asin
n
p ng ca h thng l:
[ ] ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2 1
n y n y
j
n y

= A H( ) sin [ n + ( )] (4.15)
Nhn xt :
- T cc kt qu trn ta thy i vi h thng LTI, tn hiu vo l tn hiu sin th tn hiu ra
cng l tn hiu sin c cng tn s, ch thay bin v pha.
- p ng tn s H(), tng ng vi n l p ng bin |H()|v p ng pha
(), c trng mt cch y cho tc dng ca h thng vi tn hiu vo hnh sin c tn
s bt k.
V d 4.3 :
Hy xc nh p ng ca h thng trong v d 4.1 vi tn hiu vo l :
20
2
sin 5 10 ) ( + n n x

cos
n
;
< < n
Gii :
p ng tn s ca h thng c cho trong phng trnh (4.10)

j
e
H

2
1
1
1
) (

S hng u tin ca tn hiu vo l mt tn hiu hng, c tn s = 0, tn s ny:
2
2
1
1
1
) 0 (

H
S hng th hai trong x(n) c tn s
2

,
0
6 , 26
2
2
)
2
(
j
e H

Vy p ng ca h thng vi tn hiu vo x(n) l :


3
40
) 6 , 26
2
sin(
5
10
20 ) (
0
+ n n y

cos
n
;
< < n
V d 4.4 :
Mt h thng LTI c m t bi phng trnh sai phn nh sau :
y(n) = a
y
(n-1) + b
x
(n), 0 < a < 1
(a) Xc nh bin v pha ca p ng tn s ca h thng.
143
(b) Chn tham s b sao cho gi tr cc i ca |H()| l n v, v th |H()| v H()
vi a = 0,9.
(c) Xc nh p ng ca h thng vi tn hiu vo l :
20
2
sin 12 5 ) ( + n n x

cos
)
4
(

+ n
Gii :
p ng xung ca h thng l :
h(n) = ba
n
u(n)
V |a|< 1, nn h thng l BIBO, v vy H() tn ti
(a) p ng tn s:

j
ae
b
H

1
) (
V

sin . . ) cos 1 ( 1 a j a ae
j
+

Suy ra :

cos 2 1 ) sin ( ) cos 1 ( 1


2 2 2
a a a a ae
j
+ +

V

cos 1
sin
tan ) 1 (
1
a
a
ae
j



Do :

cos 2 1
) (
2
a a
b
H
+


cos 1
sin
tan ) ( ) (
1
a
a
b H



(b) V tham s a l dng, mu s ca |H()| ca tiu khi = 0. Vy |H()| s ca i ti
= 0. tn s ny ta c :
1
1
) 0 (

a
b
H
iu ny hm rng
) 1 ( a b t
Ta chn b= 1- a, kt qu l :

cos 2 1
1
) (
2
a a
a
H
+


cos 1
sin
tan ) (
1
a
a



p ng bin v p ng pha c v trong hnh 4.2. Ta thy, y l h thng lm suy
gim tn hiu tn s cao.
(c) Tn hiu vo gm cc thnh phn tn s 0,
2

Cho
074 , 0
1
1
)
2
(
2
2

+


a
a
H


0 1
42 tan )
2
(

a


Cho
053 , 0
1
1
)
2
(
+


a
a
H



( ) = 0
Tn hiu ra ca h thng l :
144
1
]
1

+ +
1
]
1

+ + ) (
4
cos ) ( 20 )
2
(
2
sin )
2
( 12 ) 0 ( 5 ) (


n H n H H n y
=
)
4
cos( 06 , 1 ) 42
2
sin( 888 , 0 5
0

+ + n n
;vi
< < n

Trng hp tng qut :
Tn hiu vo l mt t hp tuyn tnh ca cc tn hiu sin c dng nh sau

) cos( ) (
1
i i
L
i
i
n A n x +

;
< < n
Trong : A
i
v i l cc bin v pha ca thnh phn hnh sin c tn s
i
p ng ca h thng l :
)) ( cos( ) ( ) (
1
i i i i
L
i
i
n H A n y + +

(4.16)
145
Hnh 4.2: p ng bin v p ng pha ca h thng trong v d
4.4,vi a=0.9
R rng, ty thuc vo p ng tn s H() ca h thng, cc tn hiu hnh sin c tn s
khc nhau s b tc ng mt cc khc nhau bi h thng. V d : Mt s thnh phn tn s
hnh sin c th b nn hon ton, nu H() = 0 cc thnh phn tn s ny. Cc thnh
phn tn s khc c th thu c ng ra m khng b lm suy gim (hay c th c
khuch i) bi h thng. V mt tc dng, ta c th coi h thng LTI nh mt mch lc
i vi cc thnh phn hnh sin c tn s khc nhau. Bi ton thit k cc mch lc s c
bn bao gm vic xc nh cc tham s ca h thng LTI thu c p ng tn s H()
mong mun.
4.1.2. p ng qu v p ng xc lp vi tn hiu hnh sin
Trong cc phn trc, ta xc nh p ng ca mt h thng LTI vi tn hiu vo l tn
hiu hm m phc hoc tn hiu sin m n c a vo h thng thi m rt lu
trc (n = -). Ta thng gi cc tn hiu ny l cc tn hiu hm m hay sin thng
xuyn (eternal). Trong trng hp ny, p ng m chng ta kho st ng ra ca h
thng l p ng xc lp. Khng c p ng qu trong trng hp ny.
Ngc li, nu tn hiu sin hay hm m phc c cung cp mt thi im xc nh no
, gi l thi im n = 0, p ng ca h thng bao gm 2 thnh phn, p ng qu v
p ng xc lp.
ch r cc p ng ny, ta xt mt h thng c m t bi mt phng trnh sai phn
bc nht (nh l mt v d):
y(n) = a
y
(n - 1) + x(n), a l mt hng s. (4.17)
Tn hiu vo c cung cp thi im n = 0. Ta s dng th tc qui tin xc nh
p ng y(n) v thu c :
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
0
1
k n x a y a n y
n
k
k n
+

+
;n 0 (4.18)
Vi y(-1) l iu kin u.
By gi, ta gi s tn hiu vo l hm m phc :
x(n) = Ae
j

n
; n 0 (4.19)
Thay vo pt(4.18), ta c :

+
+
n
k
k n n j k n
e a A y a n y
0
) ( 1
) 1 ( ) (

=
jwn
k
n
k
j n
e ae A y a
1
1
]
1

+
0
1
) ( ) 1 (

=
n j
j
n j n
n
e
ae
e a
A y a

+ +
+

+
1
1
) 1 (
) 1 ( 1
1
;n 0
=
n j
j
n j n
n
e
ae
e Aa
y a

+ +
+


1
) 1 (
) 1 ( 1
1
+
n j
j
e
ae
A


1
;n 0 (4.19)
Ta cng bit rng, h thng n nh nu |a| < 1. Trong trng hp ny, hai s hng c
cha an+1 s gim v 0 khi n
Kt qu, ta tch ra c p ng xc lp (k hiu y
xl
)
146

j
j
n
x
e
ae
A
n n y
y




1
) ( lim ) (
1
n j
x
e AH n y

) ( ) (
1

(4.20)
Cc s hng cn li trong pt[4.19] l p ng qu ca h thng, l:
n j
j
n j
n
qd
e
ae
e
y a n y

+ +
+


1
Aa
) 1 ( ) (
) 1 ( 1 n
1
(4.21)
vi n 0
Ta thy y
qd
0 khi n
S hng u tin trong p ng qu (4.21) l p ng tn hiu vo bng khng (zero -
input response) ca h thng, s hng th hai l p ng qu c sinh ra bi tn hiu
vo hm m.
4.1.3. p ng xc lp vi tn hiu vo tun hon.
Gi s tn hiu vo x(n) l mt tn hiu tun hon c chu k c bn l N v h thng LTI
c tnh n nh. V tn hiu tn ti vi thi gian - < n < . p ng tng ca h thng
mt thi im n bt k bng vi p ng xc lp.
xc nh p ng y(n) ca h thng ta s dng chui Fourier ca tn hiu tun hon,
l :

1
0
2
) ( ) (
N
k
N
kn
n j
k
e k X n x ;k=0,1,2,,N-1 (4.22)
Trong : l cc h s ca chui Fourier. Ta xt tn hiu vo c dng hm m phc:
N
kn
n j
k
e k X n x
2
) ( ) (
;k=0,1, ,N-1
Th
N
kn
j
k
e k
N
H k X n y

2
2
) ( ) (
,
_

; k=0,1, ,N-1 (4.23)


y:
N
k
H k
N
H

2
) (
2


,
_

; k=0,1, ,N-1
p dng tnh cht tuyn tnh ca h thng LTI, ta thu c p ng ca h thng i vi
tn hiu tun hon x(n)
N
kn
j
N
k
e k
N
H k X n y

2
1
0
2
) ( ) (

,
_

;
< < n
(4.24)
Kt qu ny hm rng p ng ca h thng vi tn hiu tun hon x(n) cng tun hon
vi cng chu k N. Cc h s chui Fourier ca y(n) l :
)
2
( ) ( ) ( k
N
H k X k Y

; k=0,1, ,N-1 (4.25)


Ta thy, h thng LTI c th lm thay i dng sng ca tn hiu vo tun hon thng qua
vic thay i thang bin v s dch pha ca cc thnh phn tn s trong chui Fourier
nhng khng nh hng n chu k (hay tn s) ca tn hiu vo.
4.2. PHN TCH H THNG LTI TRONG MIN TN S
147
Trong phn trc, phng php trong min tn s c dng xc nh p ng
xc lp ca h thng LTI n nh vi tn hiu vo tun hon, phng php ny c th c
tng qut ha gii cc bi ton tnh p ng trng thi khng ca tn hiu c nng lng
hu hn khng tun hon. Cng c ton hc c dng l bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri
rc.
4.2.1. Quan h vo-ra trong min tn s.
Xt mt h thng LTI c p ng xung h(n) c kch thch bi tn hiu c nng lng
hu hn x(n). p ng ca h thng l :



k
k n x k h n y ) ( ) ( ) (
(4.26)
p dng tnh cht tch chp, ta thu c:
) ( ) ( ) ( X H Y
(4.27)
Pt(4.27) chnh l quan h vo - ra trong min tn s. Theo , ph ca tn hiu ra bng ph
ca tn hiu vo nhn vi p ng tn s ca h thng.
Quan h ny c th c vit c di dng cc :
( ) ) (
) ( ) ( ) (


x j j
e X e H Y
n

=
[ ] ) ( ) (
) ( ) (


n x j
e X H
+
(4.28)
Kt qu, bin v pha ca Y() l :
Y( ) = H( ) X( ) (4.29)
v Y( ) = X( ) + H( ) (4.30)
hay
y
( ) =
x
( ) +
h
( ) (4.31)
V bn cht, tn hiu khng tun hon c nng lng hu hn c ph bao gm mt di tn
lin tc. H thng LTI thng qua hm p ng tn s ca n, lm suy gim mt s thnh
phn tn s no ca tn hiu vo ng thi c th khuch i cc thnh phn tn s
khc. th ca |H()| c th cho ta bit c cc vng tn s ny. Mt khc, gc pha ca
H() xc nh s dch pha ca tn hiu vo khi i qua h thng nh mt hm ca tn s.
Ta thy, tn hiu ra ca mt h thng LTI khng cha cc thnh phn tn s m n khng
c trong tn hiu vo. Ngha l, h thng khng sinh ra cc thnh phn tn s mi (h
thng bin i theo thi gian hoc phi tuyn tnh s sinh ra cc thnh phn tn s khng
cha trong tn hiu vo)
Hnh 4.3 minh ha mt h thng LTI n nh (BIBO)-ngh vi cc phng php phn tch
trong min thi gian v min tn s. Ta thy, phn tch trong min thi gian x l bng
tng chp gia tn hiu vo v p ng xung thu c p ng ca h thng trong min
thi gian, ngc li, phn tch trong min tn s, ta s x l ph X() ca tn hiu v p
ng tn s H() thng qua php nhn thu c ph ca tn hiu ng ra ca h thng.
Mt cch tng ng, ta c th dng bin i Z ca tn hiu vo X(z) v hm truyn t
H(z) thu c bin i Z ca tn hiu ra Y(z) v tm p ng y(n) qua bin i Z ngc.

148
Tr li quan h (4.27), gi s rng ta c Y(), ta s tm biu thc ca tn hiu ra trong
min thi gian bng bin Fourier ngc.

d e Y n y
x
x
n j

) (
2
1
) (
(4.32)
T quan h vo-ra (4.28), bnh phng bin ca 2 v, ta c
2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( X H Y
S
yy
(

) =
2
) ( H
S
xx
(

) (4.33)
y S
yy
() v S
xx
() ln lt l ph mt nng lng ca y(n) v x(n) ta c quan h
Parseral cho nng lng ca tn hiu ra, l :
E
y
=

x
x
x
x
H d Y
2 2
) (
2
1
) (
2
1

S
xx
d ) (
(4.34)
V d 4.6 :
Cho mt h thng LTI c c t bi p ng xung :
) (
2
1
) ( n u n h
n

,
_

Xc nh ph v ph mt nng lng ca tn hiu ra, khi h thng c kch thch bi


tn hiu :
) (
4
1
) ( n u n x
n

,
_

Gii :
p ng tn s ca h thng l (xem v d 4.1):

j
e
H

2
1
1
1
) (
Bin i Fourier ca tn hiu vo:

j
e
X

4
1
1
1
) (
Ph ca tn hiu ra l:

,
_


,
_




j j
e e
X H Y
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
) ( ) ( ) (
Ph mt nng lng tng ng:
S
yy
2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( X H Y
=

,
_


,
_

cos
2
1
16
17
cos
4
5
1
4.2.2. Tnh hm p ng tn s.
149
Hnh 4.3 : Mi quan h vo ra trong min tn s v min thi
gian ca h thng LTI ngh
Nu p ng xung h(n) ca h thng LTI c bit, hm p ng tn s H() c tnh
t cng thc bin i Fourier

n
n j
e n h H

) ( ) (
(4.35)
Nu h thng c m t bi phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s bng :


+
N
k
M
k
k k
k n x b k n y a n y
0 0
) ( ) ( ) (
(4.36)
H() thu c bng cch tnh H(z) trn vng trn n v :

N
k
k
k
M
k
k
k
z a
z b
z H
1
0
1
) (
(4.37)
Suy ra:

N
k
k j
k
M
k
k j
k
e a
e b
H
1
0
1
) (

(4.38)
Ta thy H() ch ph thuc vo cc h s {a
k
} v {b
k
} ca phng trnh sai phn.
c bit i vi h thng thun zero (FIR) ngha l ak = 0, k = 1,2, ... N th H() c dng :

M
k
n j
k
e b H
0
) (

(4.39)
iu ny ph hp vi h thng FIR cp chng 1, c p ng xung l:

'

n
M n b
n h
n
0
, . . . , 1 , 0 ;
) (
(4.40)
Nu h thng thun cc hay thun qui ngha l b
k
= 0, k = 1,2, ..., M; H() c dng :

N
k
n j
k
e a
b
H
1
0
1
) (

(4.41)
Nu h thng l h cc - zero, c m t bi phng trnh sai phn (4.36). Hm truyn
t H(z) c th vit di dng tch :
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
N
M N M
p z p z p z
z z z z z z
Gz z H

+
...
...
) (
2 1
2 1
(4.42)
150
Trong z
1
, z
2
... z
M
l M zero khc khng ca H(z) v p
1
, p
2
, ... p
N
l N cc khc khng
ca H(z). G l mt hng s.
Hm p ng tn s H() c c bng cch tnh H(z) trn vng trn n v (thay z = e
j
).
Ta c :
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
N
j j j
M
j j j
M N j
p e p e p e
z e z e z e
Ge H

...
...
) (
2 1
2 1 ) (
(4.43)
Mi tha s trong (4.43) c th biu din di dng cc nh sau:
) (
) (

k
j
k k
j
e V z e
(4.44)
V
) (
) (

k
j
k k
j
e U p e (4.45)
vi Vk (

) = k
j
z e

;
) ( ) (
k
j
k
z e


(4.46)
Khi , bin ca H() l :
) ( )... ( ) (
) ( )... (
) (
2 1
1

N
M
U U U
V V
G H
(4.48)
(v bin ca e
j(N-M)
= 1)
Pha ca H() l tng pha ca cc tha s t s tr cho tng pha ca cc tha s mu
s cng cho pha ca G v cng (N - M). Ta c :
H( ) = G + (N - M) +
1
( ) +
2
( ) +
... +
M
( ) - [
1
( ) +
2
( ) + ... +
N
( )] (4.49)
Trong , pha ca G l 0 khi G dng v l khi G m.
R rng, khi bit c cc cc v zero ca hm h thng H(z), ta c th tnh p ng tn
s t cc pt(4.48) vpt(4.49), cch tnh ny r rng l kh phc tp, nhng n thun li khi
tm thut ton cho mt chng trnh my tnh.
Hnh 4.4 trnh by cch biu din tng ng ca cc h thng mc song song v mc
lin tip trong min thi gian v min tn s.
151
V d 4.7 : Lc Hanning
Xc nh v v th p ng bin , p ng pha ca h thng FIR c c t bi
phng trnh sai phn (h thng trung bnh di ng).
) 2 (
4
1
) 1 (
2
1
) (
4
1
) ( + + n x n x n x n y
Gii :
p dng phng trnh (4.39) ta c :

2
4
1
2
1
4
1
) (
j j
e e H

+ +
Hay
) 2 (
4
1
) (
2

j j j
e e e H

+ +
Suy ra


j
e H

+ ) cos 1 (
2
1
) (
Kt qu
) cos 1 (
2
1
) ( + H
(4.50)
Hnh 4.5 v th ca p ng bin v p ng pha ca h thng ny. Ta thy lc
Hanning c c tuyn p ng tn s ca mt b lc h thng.
152
Hnh 4.4: Cc h thng LTI
a) Mc song song
b) Mc ni tip
p ng bin bng 1 = 0 (dc) v suy gim n 0, =. p ng pha ca n l
mt hm tuyn tnh theo tn s. B lc n gin ny c dng lm trn (smooth) d
liu trong nhiu ng dng.
4.3. H THNG LTI V MCH LC S.
Trong x l tn hiu s, h thng ph bin nht l lc s (digital filter). Lc s c th l
mt mch in t (phn cng) hoc chng trnh (phn mm) hoc kt hp c hai. Nh
vy, lc s tht ra cha hn l mt mch in hay mt thit b c th, nhng thun tin
ta vn gi l mch lc hay b lc. Cng ging nh cc mch lc tng t, tc ng ca
mch lc gm lc b v lc chn cc thnh phn tn s khc nhau trong tn hiu vo to
mt tn hiu ra c ph khc vi ph ca tn hiu vo. Bn cht ca tc ng lc ny c
xc nh bi c tuyn ca p ng tn s H(). c tuyn ny ph thuc vo s chn la
cc tham s ca h thng (v d : cc h s hng
{ }
k
a
v
{ }
k
b
trong phng trnh sai phn
tuyn tnh h s hng). Nh vy bng cch chn mt tp cc tham s h thng, ta c th
thit k mt mch lc chn tn.
Nh ta thy trong mt s v d phn trc, h thng LTI c tc ng lc tn s. Tng
qut, mt h thng LTI bin i mt tn hiu vo c ph l X() theo p ng tn s H()
ca n cho mt tn hiu ra c ph l Y() = H()X(). Theo cch tip cn ny, H()
tc ng nh l mt hm sa dng ph (spectral shaping function) ca tn hiu vo. ng
tc sa dng ph ng ngha vi chn la tn s, v vy mt h thng LTI c th coi nh
l mt mch lc chn tn. Mch lc c dng ph bin trong x l tn hiu s vi nhiu
cc nng khc nhau. V d nh : loi b nhiu trong tn hiu, sa dng ph trong x l tn
hiu m thanh, hnh nh hay s cn bng cc knh truyn thng; tch tn hiu trong radar,
sonar v truyn d liu; thc hin phn tch ph ca tn hiu, ...
4.3.1. Lc chn tn l tng.
Trong nhiu ng dng thc t, ta phi gii quyt bi ton tch cc tn hiu m ph ca
chng khng c s chng lp vi yu cu l tn hiu mong mun khng b mo dng bi
tc ng ca cc mch lc c dng. Bi ton ny thng ny sinh trong truyn tin, ni
m nhiu tn hiu c ghp knh theo cch chia tn v c truyn trn mt knh chung
(chng hn nh cp ng trc, cp quang, hay knh truyn v tinh) u cui thu nhn
ca h thng truyn tin, tn hiu phi c tch ra bi cc mch lc chn tn v c
truyn i n ch cui cng ca chng. Mch lc chn tn phi c thit k sao cho s
mo dng khng ng k khi tn hiu i qua n.
Xt tn hiu x(n) c bng tn l
1
< <
2
ngha l : X() = 0 khi
2
v
1
Gi s tn hiu i qua mch lc c p ng tn s l :
153
Hnh 4.5 p ng bin
v pha ca mch
lc Hamming

k j
Ce

;
2 1
< <
) ( H
(4.51)
0 ;n khc
y C v k l cc hng s dng
Tn hiu ra ca mch lc c ph l :
Y( ) = X( )H( )
= C X( )e
-j

k
;
1
< <
2
(4.52)
p dng tnh cht dch trong min thi gian ca bin i Fourier nh sau :
k j
e X k n x


) ( ) (
y(n)
) ( k n Cx
(4.53)
Kt qu, tn hiu ra ca mch lc n gin l mt bn sao ca tn hiu vo c dch k
mu v thay i thang bin bi tha s C. Mt php tr thun ty khng lm mo tn
hiu. V vy mch lc c c trng bi hm truyn (4.51) c gi l mch lc l
tng. Ph bin l mt hng, l :
H( ) = C ;
1
< <
2
v ph pha l mt hm tuyn tnh ca tn s :
( ) = - k
c tuyn ca p ng tn s c minh ha trong hnh 4.6
vi C=1, k=4,
4
1


v
4
3
2


154
Hnh 4.6: c tuyn bin v pha ca mch lc di
thng l tng
Mt cch tng qut mi s sai lch ca c tuyn (ca p ng) tn s ca mt mch lc
tuyn tnh so vi c tuyn tn s l tng l s mo dng. Nu mt mch lc c c
tuyn ca p ng bin bin i theo tn s trong bng tn mong mun ca tn hiu th
mch lc to ra mt s mo dng bin (amplitude distortion). Nu c tuyn pha khng
tuyn tnh trong bng tn mong mun th tn hiu b mt s mo pha (phase distortion) v
s lch pha theo tn s ng ngha vi s tr, nn tr ca tn hiu c nh ngha nh
l mt hm ca tn s l :



d
d ) (
) (
(4.54)
Ta thy rng, mt mch lc pha tuyn tnh c tr l mt hng s, c lp vi tn s.
Nh vy, mt mch lc m n gy ra mt s mo pha th c tr bin thin theo tn s.
Ta ni mch lc a vo mt s mo tr (delay distortion). V vy, s mo tr l ng
ngha vi s mo pha.
Ging nh trong mch tng t, mch lc cng c phn loi theo c tuyn ca p ng
tn s, ta c cc loi mch lc nh sau :
- Lc thng thp l tng, c p ng tn s l :

k j
Ce

; c

) ( H
(4.55)
0 ;ngc li
y
c
c gi l tn s ct.
- Lc thng cao l tng, c p ng tn s l :

k j
Ce

; c

) ( H
(4.56)
0 ;ngc li
- Lc thng di l tng, c p ng tn s l :

k j
Ce

;
2 1
< <
) ( H
(4.57)
0 ;ngc li
- Lc trit di l tng, c p ng tn s l :
k j
Ce

; 1

v c

) ( H
(4.58)
0 ; 2 1
< <
155
c tuyn ca p ng tn s ca cc mch lc ny c minh ha trong hnh4.7


4.3.2. Tnh khng kh thi ca b lc l tng.
Trong thc t, ta c th thc hin mt b lc l tng hay khng? tr li cu hi
ny, ta hy kho st p ng xung h(n) ca mt b lc thng thp l tng c p ng
tn s l :
1 c

H
) (
= (4.57)
0
<
c
p ng xung ca b lc ny l:

c
;n=0
) ( H
= (4.58)
n
n
c
c c

sin
;n 0
th ca h(n) vi c

=
4

c v trong hnh 4.8


R rng b lc thng thp l tng l khng nhn qu. Hn na h(n) c chiu di v
hn v khng kh tng tuyt i. V vy, n khng th thc hin c trong thc t.
Chng ta cng quan st thy rng, rng ca mi chnh (main lobe) ca h(n) l t l
nghch vi bng tn
c
ca b lc. Khi bng tn ca b lc tng, p ng xung tr nn
156
Hnh 4.7: Cc loi mch lc
hp hn. Khi
c
=, b lc tr thnh b lc thng tt (All-pass) v p ng xung tr
thnh xung n v.
Nu p ng xung b tr n0 mu, b lc thng thp l tng l b lc pha tuyn tnh,
l:

0
) ( ) (
0
n j
e H n n h



Ta c th chn mt tr n0 kh ln (mt cch ty ) cho c th coi nh h(n)=0 vi
n < n0. Tuy nhin, h thng thu c s khng c p ng tn s l tng na.
Kt lun trn cng ng cho tt c cc b lc l tng khc. Tm li, tt c cc b lc
l tng u khng th thc hin v mt vt l.
4.3.3. Mch lc thc t
Mc d b lc l tng l iu chng ta mong mun, nhng trong ng dng thc t,
khng nht thit phi c s chnh xc tuyt i nh vy. Ta c th thc hin cc b lc
nhn qu c p ng tn s xp x vi mch lc l tng m ta mong mun. c bit,
khng nht thit phi c bin |H()| l hng trn ton b di thng ca b lc. Mt
lng gn sng nh trong di thng (hnh 4.9) thng c th chp nhn c. Tng
t, khng cn thit |H()| phi bng 0 trong di chn (stopband), mt gi tr nh hay
mt lng gn sng nh cng c th chp nhn.
Bin |H()|cng khng th gim t ngt t 1 xung 0 tn s ct. Nh vy phi c
mt di tn qu gia di thng v di chn, ta gi l di qu (transition band) hay
vng chuyn tip (transition region) ca b lc (hnh 4.9).
T c tuyn ca p ng bin ca mt b lc thc t (hnh (4.9)) ta nh ngha cc
thng s sau :

1
: l bin ca gn sng di thng gi tt l gn sng di thng (passband
ripple)
2 : l bin ca gn sng di chn gi tt l gn sng di chn (stopband
ripple)

p
: tn s cnh di thng.

s
: tn s cnh di chn.

s
-
p
: rng ca di qu .
157
Hnh 4.8: p ng xung ca 1 b lc thng
thp l tng
Bng tn ca mt mch lc chnh l rng ca di thng. Trong mch lc thng thp
ny, ta thy, bin H()| dao ng trong khong 1 t
1
Trong cc bi ton thit k mch lc, ta cn xc nh cc chi tit k
thut sau:
(1) Gn sng di thng cc i c th chp nhn.
(2) Gn sng di chn cc i c th chp nhn.
(3) Tn s cnh ca di thng.
(3) Tn s cnh ca di chn.
Nhc li rng, mt h thng LTI c m t bi phng trnh sai phn tuyn tnh h s
hng :


+
N
k
M
k
k k
k n x b k n y a n y
0 0
) ( ) ( ) (
(4.59)
C th l mt h thng nhn qu v c th thc hin trong thc t. p ng tn s ca
n l :

N
k
k j
k
M
k
k j
k
e a
e b
H
0
0
1
) (

(4.60)
T cc ch tiu c nu trn, ta chn cc h s
{ }
k
a
v
{ }
k
b
c mt mch loc vi
p ng tn s H(

) tng ng.
Mc xp x ca H(

) vi cc chi tit k thut trn tu thuc vo cc tiu chun chn


la cc h s
{ }
k
a
v
{ }
k
b
cng nh M v N.
BI TP CHNG 4
158
Hnh 4.9: c tuyn p ng bin ca b lc thc
t
4.1. Cho mt h thng LTI c p ng xung l
n
n h
,
_

3
1
) (
a - Hy xc nh bin v p ng xung |H( )| v p ng pha H( ).
b - Hy xc nh v v ph bin v ph pha ca tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra ln
lc cho cc tn hiu sau y
4.2 Hy xc nh v v p ng bin v pha ca cc h thng sau y :
a) y(n) = (1/2)[x(n) + x(n-1)]
b) y(n) = (1/2)[x(n) - x(n-1)]
c) y(n) = (1/2)[x(n) + x(n-2)]
d) y(n) = (1/2)[x(n) - x(n-2)]
e) y(n) = (1/3)[x(n) + x(n-1) + x(n-2)]
f) (f) y(n) = 2x(n-1) - x(n-2)
g) y(n) = (1/8)[x(n) + 3x(n-1) + 3x(n-2) + x(n-3)]
h) y(n) = x(n-4)
(a) y(n) = x(n+4)
4.3. Xt mt b lc s c s khi nh hnh 4.27

Hnh 4.27
(a) Hy xc nh quan h vo ra v p ng xung h(n).
(b) Hy xc nh v v ph bin , ph pha ca b lc v tm di tn
hon ton b chn bi b lc.
(c) Khi
0
= /2, xc nh tn hiu ra tng ng vi tn hiu vo l:
) 30
3
cos( 3 ) (
0
+ n n x

,
< < n
4.4. Xt b lc FIR: y(n) = x(n) - x(n-4)
(a) Tnh v ve p ng bin v p ng pha.
(b) Tnh p ng ca b lc vi tn hiu vo l:
159
n n n x
4
cos
2
cos ) (

+
,
< < n
(c) Gii thch kt qu cu (b) bng kt qu cu (a).
4.5. Hy xc nh p ng xc lp ca h thng c quan h vo ra nh sau:
y(n) = (1/2)[x(n) - x(n-2)]
vi tn hiu vo l:
) 45 sin( 4 ) 60
2
cos( 3 5 ) (
0 0
+ + + + n n n x

,
< < n

4.6. Cho cc h thng con c p ng xung h1(n), h2(n) va h3(n) c lin kt nh hnh
v
Cho bit: h1(n) = {0, 1, -2, 1, 0};
h
2
(n) = u(n) - u(n-6);
h
3
(n) = (n) + 2 (n-1) - (n-2) - (n-7).
(a) Tm h thng H(z) ca h thng tng ng
(b) Tnh p ng xung h(n) c h thng tng ng
(c) Xc nh p ng tn s H( ) ca h thng tng ng.
(d) Tm p ng ca h thng khi tn hiu vo l:
)
3 3
sin( 2 3 ) (
4

+ +

n e n x
n j

4.7. Mt h thng s c hm truyn t l
H(z)=0.15
2
2
7 . 0 1
1

z
z

(a) Xc nh p ng bin v p ng pha ca h thng.
(b) Tnh p ng ca h thng vi kch thch l:

,
_

+
,
_

+
,
_

4
cos
2
cos 3
8
sin 2 ) (


n n n n x

Nhn xt v gii thch. Chc nng ca h thng ny l g?
TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] Quch Tun Ngc - X L TN HIU S - NXB Gio Dc - 1995.
160
[2] Nguyn Quc Trung - X L TN HIU V LC S TP 1- NXB Khoa Hc K
Thut - 1999.
[3] Nguyn Quc Trung - X L TN HIU V LC S TP II- NXB Khoa Hc K
Thut - 2001.
[4] Don Ha Minh, X l tn hiu s, i hc Cn Th 2000.
[5] Alan V. Oppenheim, Ronald W. Schafer - DISCRETE-TIME SIGNAL
PROCESSING - Prentice-Hall, Inc. - 1989 .
[6] C. Sidney Burrus, James H. McClellan, Alan V. Oppenheim, Thomas W. Parks,
Ronald W. Schafer, Hans W. Schuessler - COMPUTER-BASED EXERCICES FOR
SIGNAL PROCESSING USING MATLAB - Prentice Hall International, Inc. - 1994.
[7] Emmanuel C. Ifeachor - Barrie W. Jervis - DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING A
PRACTICAL APPROACH - Prentice Hall - 2002.
[8] William D. Stanley - Gary R. Dougherty - Ray Dougherty - DIGITAL SIGNAL
PROCESSING - Reston Publishing Company, Inc. - 1984.
PH LC
MT S CHNG TRNH MU DNG NGN NG MATLAB TRONG X L
TN HIU S
161

Cc chng trnh c vit trong ph lc ny nhm mc ch minh ha v gip sinh
vin lm quen vi ngn ng MATLAB cng nh cc tin ch ca n dnh cho x l tn
hiu s. chng trnh n gin v d dng thy c thut ton ca n, ta s khng
thc hin giao din cho ngi dng v chng trnh c vit theo cch i thoi trc tip
trn ca s lnh (Command Window) ca MATLAB, bng cch dng cc lnh disp v
input. Hu ht cc chng trnh sau y c vit di dng Script v lu vo cc M-file
cng tn ca chng trnh. Sau khi nhp vo mt th mc no ca MATLAB v to
ng dn (nu th mc ny cha c sn ng dn), chy chng trnh, ta ch cn
nhp tn chng trnh vo, trn Command Window, v g Enter. Nu chng trnh c
vit di dng Function, ngi s dng cn nm c cc thng s vo, ra, nhp lnh
ng c php.

1. dsp13

% Nhp vo vector bin thi gian v biu thc ca tn hiu, v cc loi tn hiu: tng
t, ri rc, s.
%---------------------------------------------------
t=input('Nhap khoang thoi gian, VD:0:0.1:40, t= ');
y=input('Nhap ham so muon ve co bien t, VD:sin(t/4+1), y= ');
loai=input('(analog,type=1;discrete,type=2;digital,type=3)Type = ');
duong=input('(___,style=1;...,style=2;-.,style=3) stype = ');
if loai==1
DS1=figure('Name','Type of signal','Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 400 300]);
if duong = =1
plot(t,y,'r-');
elseif duong = =2
plot(t,y,'r:');
elseif duong = =3
plot(t,y,'r-.');
end;
elseif loai= =2
cham=input('(cham den,cham=1;cham trang,cham=2;...
khong,cham=3) cham= ');
DS1=figure('Name','Type of signal', 'Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 400 300]);
if cham= =1
stem(t,y,'fulled');
elseif cham= =2
stem(t,y);
elseif cham= =3
stem1(t,y);
end;
elseif loai= =3
[x,z]=stairs(t,y);
xt(1)=x(1);zt(1)=z(1);
for n=1:length(x)/2-1
162
ni=2*n+1;
xt(n)=x(ni);zt(n)=z(ni);
end;
cham=input('(cham den,cham=1;cham trang,cham=2;...
khong,cham=3) cham= ');
plot(x,z,'g:');hold on;
if cham= =1
stem(xt,zt,'fulled');
elseif cham= =2
stem(xt,zt);
elseif cham= =3
stem1(xt,zt);
end;
end
axis off;

2. function dsphinh3_26(N,L)

%Ve bien do va pha cua DFT n diem cua day co do dai L.
% Doan hoa minh 2001
%--------------------------------------------------------

function dsphinh3_26(N,L)
xn=ones(1,L);
X=fft(xn,N);
X1=abs(X);
theta1=angle(X);
DS2=figure('Name','DFT N diem,'Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 580 300]);
stem(X1,'filled')
DS2=figure('Name','Type of signal','Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 580 300]);
stem(theta1,'filled')

3. dsphinh5_16

% Ve dac tuyen cua mach loc thiet ke bang cua so co chieu dai bang 9 va bang 61.
% Do Huy Khoi and Phung Trung Nghia

syms w v;
y=sin((w-v)*9/2)/sin((w-v)/2);
z=int(y,v,-pi/4,pi/4);
z=simple(z)
w=0:0.01:pi;
for n=1:length(w)
Ht(n)=subs(z,'w',w(n));
end
H=exp(-j*4.*w)./(2*pi).*Ht;
163
tHt=abs(H);

Hdb=20*log10(tHt);
DS1=figure('Name','Type of signal','Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 200]);
plot(w,tHt)
grid on
DS1=figure('Name','Type of signal','Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 200]);
plot(w,Hdb,'k')
grid on
syms w v;
y1=sin((w-v)*61/2)/sin((w-v)/2);
z1=int(y1,v,-pi/4,pi/4);
z1=simple(z1)
w=0:0.01:pi;
for n=1:length(w)
Ht1(n)=subs(z1,'w',w(n));
end
H1=exp(-j*4.*w)./(2*pi).*Ht1;
tHt1=abs(H1);

Hdb1=20*log10(tHt1);
DS3=figure('Name','Type of signal',...
'Color','w','NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 200]);
plot(w,tHt1)
grid on
DS4=figure('Name','Type of signal',...
'Color','w','NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 200]);
plot(w,Hdb1,'k')
grid on

4.firequiripple
% Thiet ke bo loc FIR thong thap pha tuyen tinh dung thuat toan Remez exchange.
% Do Huy Khoi and Phung Trung Nghia

M=input('Nhap chieu dai cua dap ung xung, M = ');
dx=11; pdx=12;
disp('Chon dieu kien doi xung, neu doi xung thi nhap: dx')
disp(' , neu phan doi xung thi nhap: pdx')
dk=input('Dieu kien doi xung : ');
W=input('Nhap vector trong so,so phan tu bang so dai bang,...
Vd: W=[1.2 1],W= ');
disp('Nhap vector cac tan so c../Anh bang tan,...
mot cap tan so cho moi ')
disp('bang tan, cac tan so nay nam giua 0 va 1,...
Vd F=[0 .1 .15 1]')
F=input('F = ');
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disp('Nhap vector gia tri dap ung tan so mong muon A (gia tri thuc),')
disp('tai cac diem tan so bang c../Anh, A co kich thuoc bang F')
disp ('Vi du: A=[1 1 0 0]')
A=input('A = ');
N=M-1;
if dk= =11
[hn,err]=remez(N,F,A,W)
elseif dk= =12
[hn,err]=remez(N,F,A,W,'Hilbert')
end

w=0:0.001:pi;
f=w./pi;
H= freqz(hn,1,w);
H1=20*log10(abs(H));

DS1=figure('Name','Impulse Response','Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 300]);
n=0:1:M-1;
stem(n,hn,'filled','k')
axis off

DS1=figure('Name','Frequency Response', 'Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 300]);
plot(f,abs(H),'k')
grid on

DS1=figure('Name','Frequency Response (dB)','Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 300]);
plot(f,H1,'k')
ylim([-100 10])
grid on
5. firsample
% Thiet ke bo loc FIR thong thap pha tuyen tinh bang phuong phap lay may tan so.
% Do Huy Khoi and Phung Trung Nghia .
%---------------------------------------------------------
M=input('Nhap chieu dai cua dap ung xung, M = ');
dx=11; pdx=12;
disp('Chon dieu kien doi xung, neu doi xung thi nhap: dx')
disp(' , neu phan doi xung thi nhap: pdx')
dk=input('Dieu kien doi xung : ');
alpha=input('Chon he so alpha, alpha= ');
disp('Voi h(n) dx k=[0:(M-1)/2] neu M le,...
k=[0:(M/2)-1] neu M chan')
disp('Voi h(n) pdx k=[0:(M-3)/2] neu M le,...
k=[1:(M/2)] neu M chan')
disp('Nhap dac tuyen tan so mong muon,...
tai cac diem tan so wk=2*pi*k/M')
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if mod(M,2)= =0
U=M/2-1;
else
U=(M-1)/2;
end
for ii=1:U+1
%kk=int2str(ii);
%disp('k = 'kk);
Hrk(ii)=input('Hr(k) = ');
end
G=zeros(U+1,1);
hn=zeros(M,1);
for k=1:U+1
G(k)=((-1)^(k-1))*Hrk(k);
end
if alpha= =0
if dk= =11
for n=1:M
for k=2:U+1
hn(n)=hn(n)+G(k)*cos(pi*(k-1)*(2*(n-1)+1)/M);
end
hn(n)=(2*hn(n)+G(1))/M;
end
elseif dk = =12
if mod(M,2)= =1
for n=1:M
for k=1:U+1
hn(n)=hn(n)-2*G(k)*sin(2*pi*(k-1)*((n-1)+0.5)/M)/M;
end
end
else
for n=1:M
for k=1:U
hn(n)=hn(n)-2*G(k)*sin(2*pi*k*((n-1)+0.5)/M)/M;
end
hn(n)=hn(n)+((-1)^(n))*G(U+1)/M;
end
end
end
elseif alpha= = 0.5
if dk= =11
for n=1:M
for k=1:U+1
hn(n)=hn(n)+2*G(k)*sin(2*pi*(k-1+1/2)*((n-1)+0.5)/M)/M;
end
end
elseif dk= =12
for n=1:M
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for k=1:U+1
hn(n)=hn(n)+2*G(k)*cos(2*pi*(k-1+1/2)*((n-1)+0.5)/M)/M;
end
end
end
end
hn

om=0:0.01:pi;
if mod(M,2)= =0
Hr=hn(1).*cos(om.*((M-1)/2));
n=1;
while n<=U
n=n+1;
Hr=Hr+hn(n).*cos(om.*((M-1)/2-n+1));
end
Hr=2.*Hr;
else
Hr=hn(1).*cos(om.*((M-1)/2));
n=1;
while n<=(M-3)/2
n=n+1;
Hr=Hr+hn(n).*cos(om.*((M-1)/2-n+1));
end
Hr=2.*Hr;
Hr=Hr+hn(U+1);
end
modunH=abs(Hr);
DS1=figure('Name', 'Dap ung bien do', 'Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 400 300]);
plot(om,modunH,'k');
grid on

modunHdb=20.*log10(modunH);
DS2=figure('Name','Type of signal', 'Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 400 300]);
plot(om,modunHdb,'k');
grid on

teta=-om.*(M-1)/2+angle(Hr);
DS3=figure('Name','Dap ung pha','Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 400 300]);
plot(om,teta,'k');
grid on

DS4=figure('Name','Dap ung xung', 'Color','w',...
'NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 400 300]);
stem(hn,'filled','k');
167
grid on

6. dsphinh 5_15

% Ve dap ung tan so cua cua so chu nhat co chieu dai bang M=9,
% M=51 va m=101.
% Do Huy Khoi and Phung Trung Nghia

om=0:0.001:pi;
M=9;
W1=20*log10(abs(sin(om.*M/2)./sin(om./2)));
DS1=figure('Name','Dap ung tan so cua cua so chu nhat M=9',
'Color','w','NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 200]);
plot(om,W1,'k')
title('M = 9');
xlabel('w (rad)');
ylabel('|W(w)|(dB)');

axis on
grid on
M=51;
W2=20*log10(abs(sin(om.*M/2)./sin(om./2)));
DS2=figure('Name',' Dap ung tan so cua cua so chu nhat M=51',
'Color','w','NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 200]);
plot(om,W2,'k')
title('M = 51');
xlabel('w (rad)');
ylabel('|W(w)|(dB)');
axis on
grid on
M=101;
W3=20*log10(abs(sin(om.*M/2)./sin(om./2)));
DS2=figure('Name','Dap ung tan so cua cua so chu nhat M=101',
'Color','w','NumberTitle','off','Position',[50 50 500 200]);
plot(om,W3,'k')
title('M = 101');
xlabel('w (rad)');
ylabel('|W(w)|(dB)');
axis on
grid on
function hh = stem1(varargin)
% Hm ny c ci bin t hm stem ca MATLAB, v dy ri rc khng c chm
trm u.
%STEM1 Discrete sequence or "stem" plot.
% STEM1(Y) plots the data sequence Y as stems from the x axis
%
% STEM1(X,Y) plots the data sequence Y at the values specfied
168
% in X.
% STEM1(...,'LINESPEC') uses the linetype specifed for the stems and
% markers. See PLOT for possibilities.
%
% H = STEM(...) returns a vector of line handles.
%
% See also PLOT, BAR, STAIRS.

% Copyright (c) by Do Huy Khoi and Phung Trung Nghia.
% Date: 2000/6/4.
nin = nargin;
fill = 0;
ls = '-';
ms = 'o';
col = '';
% Parse the string inputs
while isstr(varargin{nin}),
v = varargin{nin};
if ~isempty(v) & strcmp(lower(v(1)),'f')
fill = 1;
nin = nin-1;
else
[l,c,m,msg] = colstyle(v);
if ~isempty(msg),
error(sprintf('Unknown option "%s".',v));
end
if ~isempty(l), ls = l; end
if ~isempty(c), col = c; end
if ~isempty(m), ms = m; end
nin = nin-1;
end
end
error(nargchk(1,2,nin));
[msg,x,y] = xychk(varargin{1:nin},'plot');
if ~isempty(msg), error(msg); end
if min(size(x))= =1, x = x(:); end
if min(size(y))= =1, y = y(:); end
% Set up data using fancing ../indexing
[m,n] = size(x);
xx = zeros(3*m,n);
xx(1:3:3*m,:) = x;
xx(2:3:3*m,:) = x;
xx(3:3:3*m,:) = NaN;
[m,n] = size(y);
yy = zeros(3*m,n);
yy(2:3:3*m,:) = y;
yy(3:3:3*m,:) = NaN;
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cax = newplot;
next = lower(get(cax,'NextPlot'));
hold_state = ishold;
h2 = plot(xx,yy,[col,ls],'parent',cax);
if nargout>0, hh = h2; end
170