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Section. One: Ul1derslaftcl~IS'!ealdn.g:


Speamgas a skill

3 10

2.11. lttttoduarnon

'1.1I. .". oJ j[

~d JI:f).,i ...'

.. uctl:o.n




S.l I[ltroductlJon

R.OOtl.oo,on. smnegi.es


Copyrighled materia

Soodon 'Two~ ']be Mleitih(u:tolollY Icd!or::d inter,3(:rhlulI,
7 'Imtmduct:iiBrn







~!I!l.a:tingacruracy andin!eraooon :skilLs t2.4, Olassroomo,rpruutiio,R andol"al, 'skins '12.3


COP"frighted material

Contents 8'£0000 T.hree~Explorin:s IBrn~.m(;~doDin,lh.e 'HP~ann~ng.a.proiect 13.1


cl!assfO;um 1.03

-'--31 .....guge ~ponn,s __._ 1.4.1! 'C'~·-.-l-··'-C Q,r. '~",.,.-._~a - _ 14.2 ExptorlI1igo.ral.~nte,r:aro.on ..acd.vl,tles, 143 Exp,lorinBO((al~nte:racdon. allld.leamerst' level
c- .


Exp.l.o.r.~n.g,aspects .af,ora] methodology



14.. 4 14.5
'~~ _.t. •.







Copyrighled materia

'The author andseries editors

Martin .Byga.ttlS a gra,du!1I!te,of the Uni: ... e~sltyof Leiceste~, wher,e he read · :French. He holds ian MA in Linguistics from the University of .Manchester iand a Pb.D from. the Universi,ty of Lond,on 1nstiwn~ of .Eduadon. He has workro as a iW'ac.beriOttaine,r~n.a numoo't of coun;t~ies :induding: F MB "IS· dl1 .JJ th Ilntve,[.s!!;t)i (II' .... ~t· .. rallce) ~._CQw«"Q,~m·~t" '~parn, a:_il:~. !lUL:Y~, anYiU~.~e· 'U" Reading" Ind Qlrrendy [ea:Ulie8 lor'the School of Educat.ion~ Un.ivmlty .of :Leeds. His pro.fesstonal .interests ind,udesoc-ond. lang,uage acquislrlon, oral seeend language develop:men.t~ and. mksfor language .~ea[ning:and Ulch:~ng;. He is 'also Co.-editOr of Ap:plied' Linpi$tic,s Journal. . CAristophcrN.

CAndJin ~s Cbair Professo,r of .App~i~d l:inguis~jcs and n~r,eotor (!lEthe cen.ue€or En,glish Language Ed.u:cadol1 and COlllmu.nicanoARies:eardl atthe Ci,ty Unil'Y~:rs:i,tyofHOl!1lg :Kang. HIs pa,-

was as .Professor of .Linguistk;s in the Sc,hool oJ EngHs,h~ ,Unguisetit-s,and .Mcdia,and Execudv1:: Direccor of d~e NatiQnal C'en.tre: :£or :Sng:lis.b Larmuagt; Teachingand It~'archa:,tMaoquar~e Un~vers]~:i SydneY; ha.ving eadie't been "Professor of AplP~if!d Un,guistics andDlreeror of the Centre forl.angJUagein SocialUfe arrhe University .off Lancaster.

He, also (lO~folm:CWd. and diroct ... the [nstiuu·e for English Language d Ed.ucation. ae: Lan.caiiter, wher-e he fix:ULied on issues In. in-servlce ediIJeat~on far reachers and teacher pIof-ess:i.on.a~developm.ent .. :Lang,li.la~esa,t thcUurversity of Londou.ln_jsdnue of' Edue;ation,. and P'(Ofessei of Applied. LinguiBdcsatrhe Un~ver;Sittyof ~x',. is '(06~roi (If English LingU:l:sttCSa,I ~the Un~vt"LSity of Vieana. He "Mas plevious]y

H.enryWiddowso.n, previously Pmfesso.r of English. for Speakers of Oth.er

Lecturer (£I AppHed. Lingu~sdcsatthe Un~v,ers:[tyof Ed.inburgh. and has also workied as an El'iIgHs:hLal1iglua~e Offker for The Bddsh Council in Sri LatnJmand Ban.gladeSh.. .
Througbwo.rkwith;Thc .Brlt~sh Couneil, The. Council of EUlOpe~. and

ocher agencies, both Edltlo,ts ha ve .hadcxrensi.ve and. varied exper.ieoce of la~gu",gerea,eJMliIg",~ealcihe,r ,cdu.ca:~,i'on~and cuerlculum dev,e~opment overseas, and both conttiblue tOS'e:rnina:rs, conferences, and pro.f-esslon::d
joumals ..

Copyr·ghtcd rneleria'


Developmen.t in i~oguag~ t~(hing must depc_ndpanly on our a'bUity to understand. the elfects (If our metJmdotogy. UsuaUyresponsiMnty for evaluating~aDpa8~leaming tasks is len -tcO the s.peaalist _r,esear.cllers~. materials -writ~ an.d medl.odo!ogis1:s. However" an. alternative view wCHJi~dlbe~hat-g;v,en the ,difficulties in ,o!h~irdng, gencra~izin& and win· municating raca:rcl1 .results" as, well as ~be fa.ct Ib;1;t I.D .any ease sophlsdattedtca.cldng ,depends: Yery' largely on licadlets! self~critica] awaunas ~ the rcsuhs of specialist rcseardt ,can hayconl.ylim~ted ulev.ana::; me most impQ.rtarlits~n81efactor .Is rbeteaC!he:rs~' own un.dentanwng of the:effeas (.if ~heir aeCIst.ons. It is ~hemlo[c worth. Wcusing oa the cl,3;ssroom effects of lilQguage-J.eaming ta"ks. This, isd1c a.ppr,oarn adopted tEll this book O~course i.t is nm~ssib~e 'f~Ounderstand aU !~C .oonsequ~nRSof eve9'mm-i dut,t we as teachers do Ul the:,dassroo,m. HorYj!'ever~of OU[repenOIFe ·oJ ,eX·erdses a.ndaaiviti:cs,somc· occur :~llIffidendyomnfo'f it to, be wo.rth explo,dngth-C:h: cffcc;ts.The part~~~I;ilirexerdK$ of inttttsl her,c ani: tho!re dccVoted to developing :spea.king .. Speaking is~n many wa.ys an undenraJued. skill, Perhaps this is because
,.. :.-; -11,-,-." 3_ r~--~ __. ~o _ __ we~.. cm. almO'£.. ·-0 ·SnPa~ and '"_ take the
t ~1.. __ '"~ M'i.!!

S.peaking is often t'hOl:lighrof as aipopuJai .lorm of ,expJessio.n wWen U~ me unpmtigioU'S 'coUnquial:" .I!egi$tef~t~ter.aryskiliis lfie o!Ome whQle more pr.ized. Thi$ relad.ve ne~ectmay pc[naps also, be due m tbe.f-act that
spealdn8ts uansient and imp.rovisedi,. and can therefu.re bevlewed a'S fadle, 8upe.rDclal"Q,r glib. And. oou~d ic be that~hern.bve aspects of behaviou;rist

~ill_ ... m''';'L· ·~o--"""'~:"~..1 _uw .~.r.,... __~..eu.

tea.ching w:hmiques ~ wbi.ch.focus.ed lu:ge~y on thC!~ud!ing of oral language ~ havc- beeemeassociared with. dleskiU .LtseU? -

Speaking is, how"~r~. a sknl. whim. de$tt'lesa.ttendon ,ev'elYbit as .much. asl~teraryskins~,in both. Drsl.and seoond.lan:guaps. Ourl.eamers often. need to be: ab1:e tos.peaik with. confidenoe inarder: to carry out many of ,heir: m.ost basic transact10.ns. J.t is: Ihe sk.U by which tbeyare mos!tfrequ,endy judge<\ ilJOJdd\rQugh vihkh they maymak.iC or lose frjiends. It ische 'vehicle par exrellem:e of 5Qcial sO~idarl.ty"10il' me~a~ ra:_nkjn·8~.ofproftssional adva:_n.cc~
ment and ofbustDCM. I,t is also a mediulill du:oughw:hich mum. language is;

ieam,t, and which for many is partiicu~adycondudv,e In! I,ear.rung. Perhaps" ch.en,. :rhc:tea.ching of spcaldng. men;tsm.or-e thought. -

Copyriphted materia'

The aim 0 £' tAis book is to audie.e some ways in wMch,we ma.l" ibeaMe~o

language t1twugb the ·v;an.om: tasks w.hjch.can be .made avallah.te~o them. The beok :j;s ,indJreepam. In the fiDitpan we ronsjdcr SOin,e o,fthetnings that aee involved in th.e appano:ntiy s~mple (ask of spca1clng '~oso:meofie.l.n. me Sl:oond part we revi,ew' some n:t the plrindpal.rypes of aiCti.vides and exercises usedte teach speaking. In iheHnal ,p'an of me book we outUne ways in which the teacller eu) exp~Otewhat I.camen do. and vi.hat they ~.eam
through. eral classroom activ.iri.es. ,In ea,CDpart O1f~h,c book the eeaderteaGha is invill!cd.tocn:tdt the a~lIJmcn~ by m:ca.nsocf sm~dl.activities 0,[ by' oibSUVJn,g wha:~his or her leamers do in. v.adousi rtasks..


a 'berm: undf'~rstandiing of nowallr ~eam.eJ.s:learn to s:pMka fo:re:ign,

Manypeop~e: naveoorn:ribured ,djrecd.y or i,ndh:eaIYlDo the wddng of tIl.is 'book. They indudenotabl.y dll.e English. staff and snuients of the Lan· Dcpanme.rn at thePedera]Univc:r~slCY of S.anta.Cailar~na~Bm"li1;

P:eter an.d! Fe~~r Skehan at the UntV~irslty of Lond.on.I:t:!ls,tltore of Educ3],tion;Cris~Ma Wb~t«ross and Sim()n Murimn ..·Bawieo:f Oxford Univcrsiq' -Press; Ohr.~s Ca.ndJil1ll and Henry Widdow,SOIl" who hav,e of - ..".' ,-, . ·fthb OOQ.tse~-'f., '·.d ~ mflunl .... onm·,SQ_ " ....... ce and";ha,~ Q_ .. e,. 00 ik· 3:n,]I'l···t· d:n a.ee!IL .. _JC .. _ .... _.c bPll"",o· ... _!'lL.pc: .. ,. _...'1.1,,$ but: most endu.ringly myw.ife .Anne. To all I express, my appre,ci.a.tion; and my apol.ogies for an., .inadequacies.

Copyr'ghted materia'


Understanding speaking

Copyriphted rnmeria'


Speaking as a. skill

1...1 Knowledge and skill

learners to be able touse the~angtlage. How dids preparation [5 do:nc,and hOWSUCClessful,~t:s.,depends. nrym:ud1 on. how We asteachers understand i
alm;s •. f10.[ ~nstanlcel ,~tis dbvious th.3!t in. o[lderm

the basicp.roblc.ms

,in wreign·lan.gllagc=lea,cltll1lg

,is to p.rcpar~


v;oeabula:ry.Part of a language course is thc~cforegcncrally devoted to dds obi~aivc. But there are other things iflivo~ved ,in speaking, and it is i.mportanl to know what ilihesel m~ght be, so that they too can,bc included. in
our tcachin,g. Fhr :[nstailtce~mtest whether learaers can s.peak, itis mec:.mary togetlhem to aauaUysay ;SQmcthi.n:g. 'To do lilts they must act on, a. kno,w.ledge of gran:l'mar and vocabulary., By giving I.eame[:s ~speakin:g p,[.a,erice and ~Oiral

wrejgn ~~page, it i~nec~atytt" k~ow a ~ettaifiamoun.t Qfgr.a_mmtt and

be alblcIQ speak a

exa:~:~we ~gni~th!;lt

langua,ge, and S'k:ill in us.ing ~t.This d~sd.ncti(ln. between kn.owledg:e and &knt iscrllJ,clal in tll!t teadling,of speaking:. An analogywim. the dr.i.vler. ala. car maybe'help,fulWhat know:ledg,edocs a car dri.ver .need? Cleadyhe or she needs to know tbeoames; of'rAe ooAltrols,

the~ is a w~oe



too slorw[y<),f; hcsita:ntly); YO[l. have to, dri.ve ilimootihlly and. w.~thou.t getrin,g too dose to an.y dangerous. ebstades, And i.t tSA,ot ,cno"gh fOdrivein a :sn.aight line: the dri¥cr .alsob.as to be abl,elOll1Ianag,e the variaEions in. road

whetethcya;re;. wh~ttbey do and how they ue operated (you. move tb,e pedalswith your feet, .. ot wIth, your hands.). Howevectmedriver also needs n the skill to be ,aMeto use m@ Ico.Dtro~sto guIde: the ,cat along: a road wimnult hiwng the various. oibj!ect5.Ihllt fend]to gelt inrhe way; you han ttl, beahle 'to. ~~,!:,_ .. -..ed 100l!k mJS ata __ _. y ~ _I mUll 8:', ",.-". - .(or !l],VIn.g .mam" ",d'I:":" d o .:L." - '-,.-,- no,_._ __pee_. ,}Ii __ tn_,n lana _tLrdriYln'-~:""

,condjtions; safdy.

how to assemMe senten~$ in the ab$ttact;we hilive to produce them and
peCtedpmbJe:ms ap~af in ,our path.

In a way, the job we do when. we speak iss~milar..We do not mt!-RlykHOW

adaprt them~ome citl~umstances. Th:i5 means making decisions rapidly, im,plementing them smoorhlYi and ad.jUlsring our co:nversarlon. as unex.~



..... TASK 1
Knowledge itself is Dot ,en·· .~.~:know,fedg~ has ro~e used in aaiou. . Thisislllieioot: .oniy of ust, ngu ... but of any other a.cdvity .•Here are som,eenmples~M the sta:tements true or fa:~se~ t It is pastIMe: 'CuknuW'tnerulcs of focnball bue not be much good at play.ing. 2 It is po.5I5iblc to Ilea good. ,coolk brut .mol!:bow many recl~S,,, 3, J1 you explain to some(nlC just .bow to .ride a. biqde" fhen they ough.t to, be ,abile to get :straight on to eneand dde 8w.ay. 4 You. can be sur,e mat ,if a le.arn,ct 'QlBits the thi:rdperKI'n .~.:$1'en the verb it ls because he o.f's'h.e does nort know it. SAil yQiU n«dto flea. ;good! teacber is.~o,btow ynUf sub~Qct w~n. Can you find any cw:~dfnal-fro:m. yourcxper.i.ena:: or from cemmoa knowledge-whi.d!. wiUhelp you &:Ode whethetthese statements ar,e true olr fidse? Can you mink of tvro other examples. of acti.vides

where :kn.owtcdg:eis nm ,en.ough.mr I§;uccessfi.dpcrformance?

Uwe t'ill.nk..ahou.lh.ow we use our firc5tla"luage, then it is obvious that we spend most of our dmellSJng, SCf!!l1c!lo~a.ndv~ry HnJe of ourliJt:ne[~viewi",g o~.u·lcno:w~e<1geor trying; to .oom:.poR:pcrfecr :sentences,. We would. find. it most diffic,ult to describca,nd ~xp']aini1!n the dedsi.o.ns we take wbcn we speak. Soknowlcdge: is. only a pan: o.f the dfa:k: we also need s,ldl.l.

"Wbat is the dj~r:!~ betW~e:.n,,knowledge anosl:dU?A fund:lmtmil:a~ difference: is ·tfulltwfiHe botheanbeufiderstooda.nd mem.(u:iZ!ed"only a skiU
can. be im:ita.ted andpraetlsed .


This can be iUunratea. There arevanous wayso.f helping a lcame~lT; cx:plinadon;tmemomaticmj dem.ofls'tmtion; an.dipr.actiiee. t Which 'ta.on.c 'You1d you. use ~f you though.t fhatthe leamer~

a. was

.had.not understood .:1po,in~·; b. had. (o.mp~ele~Y'f.Q.rgotten. 5Onl(!th~ng~ Co did. not know of the: existence of a rule or word;
not usedm doIng the ,activity;


.2 .BeloW'~sa Hst of ~:UffiClllties a leamerrnight encounter in a V:J:riel1r (Ilf ~~iviri¢$,. lil each ~.~ decide wha~sol't of remedies would be usc::hd:
a, wnen ~a:~ging: gC(Ill,:!,a f~e(!l.dlea,ming a horrible ,graring SOl!jnd..
to diriv,e


b. A childlsl~amIBg.tQ.break an. ,eggj bUI smashes: the she~l.into Unite bIts, losing halfth.e 'egg on the tahte aRd mi$$l:oBf.Jie bowl.

Copyriphted materia'

In any ofth.e,abolY'c

Your friend says she lino good at j:(gslwpuules. d. Y,ou are uyin:g to hel" sORlmneleam~o read,

parties, and that l.t is getting' em.·barr,assing..

be~snogoOO a,t rc:tnembering .namcs3lt sj.tua·c~Q!ns,did! you6nd that practilctwas

So one of the main feasons .for darifyingme distinaion berween knowledge~and. skill is matpl.robl,e;ms in each- arta may require different pedagogj.ca1 actions. W'ew.illl now lGO,kmore dose!y ;a,t what we mean by

1•. , Oral skiUs and interaction 2
There are t1NO bask wa.ys in whl.ch something we do can be; seen as a skin. f.jrs,t mer,e are m.oto'r.perce.p:t~ve skins. But in addition. to this rhere are also t:ntetacri(lii)skUI$:. Let us see we ,di~ee ~een the tWo,. Fint the
:m.oto,r--:percepn.ve :sL!c:iUs • .Mo~or-perap~~v~.skills;lnvOlVepclfalVing.. recalling, 3ndarticulati":"1l8: in . dl.c CQ,r.revt order sounds and stmcmres of th.e language.. TIds is the r·elarivelysu.pediiciaJ. aspect of sk.n whkh Is a bit: lLkc .leaming how to

manipula.t,c; dlcc;-ontrob Qf a car; on a dc:stm !piece:o,f road .far·from me flow of nOllllal. traffic ..It Is the ,contex,t-me ((joe!!of S:kiHtthe kind which has been recognized. inlanpage: teaching 'or many years .~D rationale of the mG audio-.lingual. app[Oach~o language teachin:S ...Fur ,example,.lWenty yeats ag,o, W •. 10. Mlck.ey summulz.'fd oral expr,e.s.s:iJonas;foll()iws;
Oral exp,ress~o:n.invo,],ves not only (•• ·.]1 use of the riigb.t ,sounds in the fight paucrAS· of :rhytbmand into.nadon, but a~so lile choice of words and .1n:nGa~oillsin~ne right orderto coRvcyche


dght meaniing.
(1965: 266}



Notice how much impoetance Mackey gives to doing th_~ngs~.rlgbt:'in order te be ,a,nygQQd uspealk_i_og: choostng the n;~t £onns;putting them in the cerreet o.rder:; sQU!ndin,g like a native speaker; even pr'Odiu.cing thecight



thls how peoplelearn ro handle ihe dUJtd!. and gearlevrer:?)

This view oftanguage skl~1loiuences the Ust ofexucises whicb Mackley dlseusses, model dial,ogues,. p.~:ttemprllctic~ oral dnntabIH~tDQk.-;iilind"5ay exercises, and ,oral. oompos~tii.on ...However,'}}]$. is a btl Uke leam[ngto ddv,e
without ever: going

on the road.

Tern.yeaG 1a~IR.cJ'QuriRg w.lhich time this app.roachm ~eadung oral skills. bad beenwMelyadopted,D.avldWUkil!lS; paiftted OUt there were so:me~[eaming problemstha.t CXtll\',ci:seslike these did not sohre. An important one is tbat o~f en5uring:a satisfactory tt,3nstdonbomsupe:rv~sed ~tea:.mln:g~nthe classroom to real~fife useofthe~ skUtThis ttanslrion is gft{:n~aUed ~he·nansfer: Q,f

Copyriphted materia'

Slcin5~• At.:WUklns: points, out, if .aJ/lang,ua,ge p,roducedin the dass.toom, is de~e[.mil,ed by the teacher, "we arc p.rou~cdn:gI[me leamedfWm the adliidona1J burden of havjllig~o maleie ,bis own, cholces'. He rondnues·: A'$w~th evetythinge't~e he will only learA wha:t faUs wiithiu his: experience. If aU his lan:IUlag~ P',rOOluction il5 oontroUed from outsidc,he; will1hardly be com~en;t to oontrol. his. own language prod:uaion .. He ,,!,ilt :~o:t ~e ab.le t~ trllmier h~ kn.0wl~dge from a lan~ge-Iearnmg $ttualrott toa ,km~ge-U$l"g ttUMtnm. (191S;76" my ita.Hcs)
Nor, presumably". will the leamer be abl,e to uans:ler m:uc:h. or any !mo~of. ercep[i.ve skill u) a. ~tangua:ge.using siruaclon' ...Th.e poin! is thu In .p addition to-me: mQ£or-per'Cepti'Vesl\:ilts - there are otberskillls to be developed, whIch, as Wilkins say.s, a:re those o,r ~oO:lilrroUing one's 'own language produ,ct:1,on:~and~havingmmak.e I(me~s uwn choim~. This kind of

skill we will call ;niteraction sldU. Th:i:sIs dle skill ofusingk~nowledge: and baslcmotor-pcroeptioft skills: to achieve (lommuutcanon.Lct us look ar whalt intcracdonskms basicaUy invo~ve.

what to s:ay, how to say :l.t, andwhedtct to deVietop~t" in. accordance with. ene's lntentions,wkUe maintaining, the desiredr~lao,Q:ns with omen. Not't 'mat our notions of wha!t is! right 01' wrong now de,pend on such thin,gs:as what webave decided tiOlsay'~.h.ow su~ssful.'Wt:b.ave: been.sofar, whether It isusewl t()oon:tinue~he poinf,. wb.ilIt Q~f ifi{itnuons ~!t~ and what sons of
rce~a:riQ11S we intcn.d to ,establish O[ maintain wjtb our Ilnltcrlocuto<.B. TMs of 'CQur:se istese of comm!u:Il!&ca,ti01l!~ lUi ~spoech nr in. wril.ting •

]n~.i!1Iori()nsildn!j ,jn:volvcmaking &c-isio.FIIS aoout oornmunica,tion, such. as~



Here :is a. Ust 'of things: that we tend to teach and. test in language colittSeS.Wbi.ch.areonJy examples of m'Otolr~pet:t:eptive skill$. and whi,mare also examples of interlfm'on sk:iJls? 1. Show an. abilicy tn produce 3it least 3.5 of the 40 pbenemes in, British. Inglish~ ~ 2. Form the pcrfect tense cofiiect1y widl have followed by the past
..artlci lexical verb. p_._p -ile o.fthe .-~ .. 3, Be .a1bleto ~ask someone tile dme.,

4 Ha.ve the abiUty

to .'ntro<iu,-.c yourself tosaJllcoruC:yQu.

ha:'¥'t never

5 ,Be able to ~se at cClImed.y with express(Q[lS (lit. time ailld plac-e... 6 Sh.ow an. abiUty to describe your ihu or h.ome deady coa.
d«orator ,o,reseaee ,agen,t.

"7 .Ie able to' use ooniectly the three6mte


of lexieal verbs",



If nabv'e spcakersqrpicall.y

toprodl!lceoompletc:se.n,t~nces. Indeed it m.a!Y dem.and. ()if tb:em~,I,n rhe .fureign.lang.uage~ a. capadly for forwaro;-plaOieLng, and storage wbicbtb.ey ralfely mani£es~~nspaking ~hcir own.na~i!v~ I,anguag.e.

de~~ncil tiJiillt ro.rdgn '(tamers: shotdd be ,exl~

p.r.,oduceshorr,phraw ..s:iredchunks, it

P.~cxessing,conditiOfl:sar:c:: an~m'po.rtant influ.enoe. TheaMHty to' mauerthe proccssmgoondhiol1!5 o.f spceC'henabtesspealbers(D dealluendy wit~iIi given topic whlle Ming listened to ... 'This kind.,olf ahiUty ~,u:s roven (h,ebasic ,oommunica.tive sikin ,ofprodiud"g speech. at: a. n,ormallspeed. u.nder. p.re:ss:nr'e ,oiftime. This ~l.e~e:t3nYnot <1 pwblem in. 6f$t-lan,gua:gt~earnipg,bi:,1t itean bcw,ith lea(nC!n whoilaJvc used the I;ang,uage only in written, ,fQrm" or with
hea.vy empllasis on accuraq •

..... TASKS
ConsJder how fur the fulllowLng,,a.cti.v~~ies rop.rep:u:e learners for heIp this, dimmsi.oR of hlDgil13geuse::
1.I.'eadin.,g; aloud; :2 giving, a pl,eparcd. ndk; 3 feali.n~nga l.ong piece of~exlt 0.1.' di;alogu~ by hca.n.~ 4- Irlil:c"iewi~ng som,wn.eJ or ~ng Laterviewedt




Of ,course, time pressure :isnot the, onl.y·oons.ttaint that causes p.Jiob~emsto s:pcakers.We have alrea.dy men.tioned tb;Slt speakers; do not work from prepa red scripts. What mey decide rosay is .tdlectedby the second con.muon of speecll,the :reci,fJrocity ccmdi,t;ion.
The rcciPiOOci,ty oondii!tio[l, of speech refers to the relasion between. the those siruitions :rn.w.!bjch hoifD th.espeaker and hearer areaU:ow~d ws.pea!lct aad those whea: oo.n.ven.tional1y,o:nly the spcakerhas speaking .righ.ts, as duriAgas~. The .rmp.r~. diimmsiQf:! :afkrn· speech. bec;tuse there ,IS more than.o:nepam,cipanr •. 'Thebu.sloess. ol making;sur:ethat the: con.ver:sationwor.ks~s shared by both pamclpanlts~dlereareat least twO addresseesaad twO decision ..malfn . ' excbangt;. ,31.. speaker will often. ha.ve to adj U5t .his or: .heivocabulary -and ttu.~.$ugetotMC the listlm.erinto a,ccmmt. The
.FO.t' l.!OICample,.in. ,3 .r-edp'rocai.

!ipcaker and listener i:n dUlp.rooosso,f speeCh (see for ~mtance Widdowson 1:978:" Ch.apter 6)..The 1e.ml irecipmcitir enables us to dimnguisb between
j '

speaker' also has ~'parridpalte

ukin:g questions; rcacti.ng, and. 5() OR. This is somelhlmg, which .req~ulresao abititym be flexible in commuQ!~cation, an_d a learner ma.}' need to be p.repawl .for :~t.


In.tetl,ocu.to['S message-«

Copyriphted rnmeria'


Dif£eren,cesbetween speech and writing

.1..1 InttQdu,ction
Spt«b ls :not spoken.wdting. \Vhjte: (19'78) comments that we tefidr;o be ,critical about peo.ple who 'speak Uke!:a book',Tb.is is pardy because books a:re nOr!:.gmer ....ly addressed to il!uflvldual.people, o.f w.f.inen. in. the wOlythat: l spoken. Thevocabu~ary Alay befonnal Ot elabor.a.t~the .SC:111tences~(mg.and. (lomptCcL.lt may also'Sieem.l:!iS:though the s.peaiker w,as·FtI.or;n faotspeaking to, i

pooplemlk,and so the :style 01writ11etlllang~age IDa.' often sound odd wbeti

you,. but to a puhl~cg3ithe[ing:.

-T-'A' ·5····~'7. I,. -,


One featu:rc 0.1 books IS, that ihc .rcader can skimt :scan,tu.m:'p .fonvards. and ba.ckw.a:rds,andmnit secdcms heor she ~dl:eadyknows about. lr does :n.ot maner too much :if iboo.ks h~.d!Udehdormadon which 3. particul..ar r-eader abieadJy knows, ..How does dtis ,oompa:rt
witbthc, n()!l'm:dposiJti.OD ,of someone liswn~ng: w


Of'QOllt;SC iEyoyb~vle 3ct~:!'I!I_I'Y'n~ed to ·spe;:l._k; a book' YQuJ'seU~ may cUke yQIiJ ~.-:-~.cl;... ,',"._. • Fee tuaL~t can L~lt'r.d-w,."k- ', ),-,' ,·Il.,a~,dw;-:·-II..•. ··d.·'·-·····lc.-.J'fr--c,-c a be ;,'I~ he cu8_. . or. _t ISlL_L . 0.(", rea Utg a,ouu .,.om 0011. .. . 1. L__' ., 'L.' -~ b b may ee lJC\,;l:luse It IS net somenungweare usee to.; or eecause me seatenees can be a.wkwa:rd to read a]~ou:d.~too IOfl&.too ro.mpt,ex;, or roo tochnjJca).. ~t can be: trk'llcy to g~ the oorr.ett[ntonatlon"and you .m,ay find you onen, ha.ve to n:-l'ead b~:t::s m.ake the:msound .[j,gh~.Reading al.oud to




misltakes.. Then. consider the

Tryt,eading alcH.I!dt ,e.iEhec in your ewnor in, a :~ore~gf'l.lan,guage.Tape

your6rs,t attemp~" indudingany foll.aw.~ng qlll.es~ions;t

How did. b fee~.: asy, dr.img, cnloyah~e;? Try to ,explain your answer, e Were. you a:wa~ ,o,faJwy mLslabs~' On~isteill~n:g your n~oordin:g,did to you ffndany other mistakes?\Vhat were they., and why do you. think PQssible?

·t:hey ooourr-ed( Do you think your .flea,ding was as ~[Jj~enjgii'blc as

Copyriphted materia'

2>'· ._' - ,- - s·'s~-O' _ mdi . p..-, p ·c·- 'ih 2. .__:_ IOC-e_UAc .c.'o. ...:.0·· 'os- ·o.·f 'lE!'ne··e.L'U '
'.1 ,.. .


,. _'

.~ ~




,JI~wn.-- .-~,..,:-" .... guo

The main £earures ,of speak~£ilgwhich can be traeed to-the proocessil:ng conditions, of rommu:ni.cadon 'iRvolvetbetime factor. De words, are being
, .-,k,~'. ,-- ~h~,:.c spo ,en as 'I_~ey_ ali-e_being- decided, ;aJnd as: th.t!:-ca:""" __ __ _. y....
b-:'Ui)i Q~~ _...P;'JVQg_ Iin_ D -Cijlob--:-",:7-J•

The fad that they are bern,g spoken .as theJ ,are being dtei'd'ed affects, the speaker's ahnity to plan and orgaOlze:me messa:ge;. lind to ,connot the ian8U3Ige being used. The speake:r"s: sentences canDot be asians or as t' •, ..1.. 'I:. -• 'I lin. ~~~'l. complex as In Wnlln&, bee '_ causetne writer JJ8S mo.re ume ee pan. t sp~ of our 'IlMemn~ .. M~s,tak.es, are ,dso made In. 'both. tbe message. and the:

-o~ft----,-,-,~ab:~c--',a··/c __tal!!,~~ we ~_<:n~L __~ sytU ou_~mii!ll.··· 'l-es.'becau---we,'l,-- -:o~-,--·-I---~.·~,+.: ,-c.- --; - --~ ,- " 5C ._. ,Q$e ~"u'p_ac;;e~nmegramma_l' __

wDrding; we rorget things We! inwndcd. to say;; the~gels not so' eamo.miJcaHy o.rganized aSlt might be in. print;, we rna)" even :fo-rgetwhatwe ha V~ al:ready said, and rc!tpeillt eurselves,

Thewoeds are also, bein,8 spoken as tbey ,rt being understood'. Onc-c spokent they aee gone. wnitethe reader can reread) the Us.~enercan ba.ve memory problems whi.ch cm I.ead rolNi5UruiletstanWngs, ano,a requestror perhaps, mrough nOise,. or a mornen,t'sdistradicm.AU reasons fOE notspeaki.ngllke a book .
a repeddon,. F,u:the.nnor,e~ the UstG8.er .may miss a pan of what wa'!i said~

these :are'very good

.... TASK 9
was :s;'poken~ othe,r edited. Whim do y.nl dlinkw.as originally the

Of the following t;w·ostretches -ofdis.ceut5c by:a native speaker" one .

spoken ~ 'Whu indica!uons arc ~here!?

1 speaking imp.msi.onist~eaUyjt wou~d. ap'pear that Hit word is fairly hlgbo.n the frequmcyl~sc the ,chaJiioesare Y'o'll wouM ,get a compound 0.1 anoth.e:r phon!OilQgicaUy ·deviaAlt formfrequ.e:ndy of the sa:mepho:nQlo8~calshape: "'" 2 and itseenls~o be. if a wordis fairly high en tlhe&,eq,uenq list ~
haV'CllO( madcalfiY cmu:u bill!.tJust impressionisrtically urn urn the

chances are tbat ycru gtta com.pound or another phono.lo,gitcaUy deviant .farm with ab whithJsaJready inomer' words wmch is fairly :frequendr the :same phollologjad.sbape: ~ (,ame '.awley and S,yd!er" 1.983)1

The; :fo.lm, O!fspokenlan.gu,~g~~theo~~saffected. by the time Urnitati:.ons" and the associated pmble:ms o-f p1annin:g" memo.ry" and of prodiuaionuodn pressure., 'li]:d~IDa!y fi:Qtitwa,Y:!l go acc-otding, to the irlealplan •.At the sa.me



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