Lighting people and places

Thorn Lighting Main Offices
Australia Thorn Lighting Pty Limited 43 Newton Road, Wetherill Park NSW 2164 Tel: (02) 8786 6000 Fax: (02) 9612 2700 E-mail: infoaustralia@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.com.au Austria Thorn Licht GmbH Donau-City-Straße 11, 1220 Wien, Austria Tel: (43) 1 202 66 11 Fax: (43) 1 202 66 11 12 E-mail: office.at@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.at China Thorn Lighting (Guangzhou) Operations Ltd, No.12 Lian Yun Road, Eastern Section, GETDD, Guangzhou 510530, China Tel: (86) 20 3228 2706 Fax: (86) 20 3228 1777 E-mail: sales.cn@thornlighting.com Thorn Lighting (Tianjin) Co. Ltd 332 Hongqi Road, Tianjin 300190, China Tel: (86) 22 8369 2303 Fax: (86) 22 8369 2302 E-mail: info.tj@thornlighting.com Czech Republic Thorn Lighting CS spol. s.r.o., Na Březince 6/930, 150 00 Praha 5 Czech Republic Tel: (420) 224 315 252 Fax: (420) 233 326 313 E-mail: thorn.cz@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.cz Denmark Thorn Lighting A/S Albuen 44, 6000 Kolding, Denmark Tel: (45) 7696 3600 Fax: (45) 7696 3601 E-mail: info.dk@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.dk France Thorn Europhane SA 156 Boulevard Haussmann, Cedex 08, Paris 75379, France Tel: (33) 1 49 53 6262 Fax: (33) 1 49 53 6240 Website: www.thornlighting.fr Hong Kong Thorn Lighting (Hong Kong) Limited Unit 4301, Level 43, Tower 1, Metroplaza,223 Hing Fong Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., Hong Kong Tel: (852) 2578 4303 Fax: (852) 2887 0247 E-mail: info.hk@thornlighting.com India Thorn Lighting India Pvt. Ltd RH-2 Nirav CHS, 636A, 90 Ft. D.P. Road, Near Thakur Polytechnic 400 101 Mumbai, India Tel: (91) 22285 41056 Fax: (91) 22285 1120 E-mail: international_sales@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.com Ireland Thorn Lighting (Ireland) Limited 320 Harold’s Cross Road, Dublin 6W, Ireland Tel: (353) 1 4922 877 Fax: (353) 1 4922 724 E-mail: dublinsales@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.co.uk Italy Thorn Europhane Spa Via G Di Vittorio, 2, Cadriano di Granarolo, Bologna 40057, Italy Tel: (39) 051 763391 Fax: (39) 051 763088 E-mail: info@thornlighting.it Website: www.thornlighting.it New Zealand Thorn Lighting (NZ) Ltd 399 Rosebank Road, P O Box 71134, Rosebank, Auckland 7, New Zealand Tel: (64) 9 828 7155 Fax: (64) 9 828 7591 E-mail: info.NZ@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.co.nz Norway Thorn Lighting AS Strømsveien 344, 1081 Oslo, Norway Tel: (47) 22 82 07 00 Fax: (47) 22 82 07 01 E-mail: info.no@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.no Poland Thorn Lighting Polska Sp.z.o.o., Ul. Gazowa 26A, Wrocław 50-513, Poland Tel: (48) 71 7833 740 Fax: (48) 71 3366 029 E-mail: thorn.pl@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.pl Russia Thorn Lighting Novoslobodskaya Str., 21, office 406 Business Center “Novoslobodskaya 21”, Moscow 127030, Russia Tel: (7) 495 981 35 41 Fax: (7) 495 981 35 42 E-mail: anna.kisteneva@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.ru Singapore Thorn Lighting (Singapore) Pte Ltd 5 Kaki Bukit Crescent, 04-02 Koyotech Building, 416238 Singapore Tel: (65) 6844 5800 Fax: (65) 6745 7707 E-mail: info.sg@thornlighting.com Sweden Thorn Lighting AB Industrigatan, Box 305, SE-261 23 Landskrona, Sweden Tel: (46) 418 520 00 Fax: (46) 418 265 74 E-mail: info.se@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.se United Arab Emirates Thorn Lighting Ltd Dubai Al Shoala Building, Office 301, Block E, Airport road, P.O. Box 1200, Deira, Dubai, UAE Tel: (971) 4 2940181 Fax: (971) 4 2948838 E-mail: tlluae@emirates.net.ae Website: www.thornlighting.com Thorn Gulf LLC Al Shoala Building, Office 301/2, Block E, Airport road, P.O. Box 22672, Deira, Dubai, UAE Tel: (971) 4 2948938 Fax: (971) 4 2948838 E-mail: thorng@emirates.net.ae Website: www.thornlighting.com United Kingdom Thorn Lighting Limited Silver Screens, Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FE, UK Tel: (44) 20 8732 9800 Fax: (44) 20 8732 9801 E-mail: brochures.uk@thornlighting.com Thorn Olympics Sports Lighting Team Tel: 07796 303176 E-mail: olympicsteamuk@thornlighting.com International Sales Thorn Lighting Limited Silver Screens, Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FE, UK Tel: (44) 20 8732 1915 Fax: (44) 20 8732 1911 E-mail: international_sales@thornlighting.com Website: www.thornlighting.com

Technical Handbook

Technical Handbook

www.thornlighting.com

Thorn Lighting is constantly developing and improving its products. All descriptions, illustrations, drawings and specifications in this publication present only general particulars and shall not form part of any contract. The right is reserved to change specifications without prior notification or public announcement. All goods supplied by the company are supplied subject to the company’s General Conditions of Sale, a copy of which is available on request. All measurements are in millimetres and weights in kilograms unless otherwise stated. Publication Date: 07/09

Glossary
Editor Peter Thorns BSc(Hons) CEng MCIBSE MSLL Contributors Patricia El-Baamrani; Lou Bedocs; Karl Flax; Stefan Hauer; Pat Holley; Hugh King; Jan-Erik Jerleke; Iain Macrae; Robin Ostlin; Paul Stranks This is the fifth edition of the Technical Handbook Copyright © Thorn Lighting. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, without prior permission in writing from Thorn Lighting, except for the quotation of brief passages in reviews. While Thorn has made every effort to credit the copyright owners for the illustrations and photographs used herein, there may be omissions, for which the company apologises. Spill Light Stray light from a luminaire that incidentally illuminates nearby objects or surfaces within the public environment. Can be a cause of ‘light trespass’. Spine See batten Track A linear bus bar system providing one to three main circuits or a low voltage supply to which display lighting (spotlights) can be connected and disconnected at will along the length of the system. Transformer Transformers reduce the line voltage (for instance 230V) to the lower voltage required for operating low-voltage halogen lamps. This will generally be 12V. Trunking Trunking usually provides mechanical fixings for the luminaires as well as electrical connection. Uniformity The ratio of the minimum illuminance to the average illuminance over the specified area. Visual performance The ability to perceive detail and carry out the visual tasks. Visual comfort Our feeling of ease or well being within the visual field. Visual satisfaction The qualitative impression of a lit space.

Picture credits: Danny Maddocks; Chris Gascoigne; Mike Gee; Richard Seymour and Alan Turner

Graphics: Juice Creative

Price £15 GBP/€20 EUR. Not for resale.

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Glossary

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Contents
1 2 Introduction The 2.1 2.2 2.3 Mechanics of Seeing What is light? The eye and vision Lighting fundamentals 5 7 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 41 41 44 50 57 64 71 80 88 96 107 111 127 127 133 135 139 147 151
Contents

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Controlling Light 3.1 Reflection 3.2 Transmission 3.3 Refraction Australian Standards 4.1 Luminaire Manufacture 4.2 Interior Lighting Standards 4.3 Building Code of Australia 4.4 Exterior Lighting Standards Recommendations for Good Lighting 5.1 Indoor workplaces 5.2 Outdoor workplaces 5.3 Sports 5.4 Emergency 5.5 Roads 5.6 Tunnel Applications and Techniques 6.1 General Considerations 6.2 Office 6.3 Education 6.4 Industry indoor 6.5 Industry outdoor 6.6 Healthcare 6.7 Super/hypermarket 6.8 Road lighting 6.9 Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas 6.10 Urban – architectural floodlighting 6.11 Sports lighting Specific Techniques 7.1 Indoor lighting controls (ILC) 7.2 Lighting for display screen equipment 7.3 Light for learning 7.4 Emergency lighting 7.5 Low mount road lighting 7.6 Road tunnel lighting

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7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 8

Lighting maintenance Control of obtrusive light Lighting for crime prevention Lighting and health Sustainability Outdoor lighting controls (OLC)

154 164 169 173 176 179 183 183 185 187 193 193 195 195 198 199 200 201 202 202 206 208 221 221 225 227 228 229 231 235 235 237 239 242 245 245 248

Checklists 8.1 Life cycle analysis 8.2 Economics 8.3 Lighting energy numeric indicator (LENI) Lamps, LEDs and Circuits 9.1 Choosing the right lamp 9.2 Tungsten halogen lamps 9.3 Fluorescent lamps 9.4 Compact fluorescent lamps 9.5 Metal halide lamps 9.6 Sodium vapour high pressure lamps 9.7 Mercury vapour lamps 9.8 Induction lamps 9.9 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 9.10 Lamp coding systems – LBS/ILCOS 9.11 Characteristic values of the major lamps 9.12 Energy efficiency of luminaires 9.13 Circuits 9.14 Properties of electronic ballasts 9.15 Voltage drop 9.16 Fusing 9.17 Wiring regulations 9.18 Fault detection

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10 Standards and Directives 10.1 Directives 10.2 Standards 10.3 Quality and safety marks 10.4 Product/corrosion compatibility guide 11 Tools 11.1 Tools 12 Glossary

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1 Introduction
Light is life, without light we could not live. Our human physiology is based upon light and the complex structure of our earth relies upon light to function. And as we have progressed technologically we have taken this further, turning the dark into light, from using fire to the electric light. Electric lighting is the basis for our modern society, turning darkness into light in windowless or deep-plan offices, in our city streets at night, in numerous leisure and amenity facilities. Our society exists as it does because of light. Our patterns of work and leisure are made possible through our ability to control our environment and supply light on demand. As we have developed the technology of lighting we have also developed our understanding of how to use light. Through standards we lay down limits for safety and adequacy, through guides we direct lighting toward established good practice, show how to transcend the adequate. We have learnt how to give light meaning, transforming spaces by giving them a lit atmosphere, applying light to give beauty to a scene. But the use of light is constantly challenging us. It is no longer enough to ensure good task visibility, or a comfortable environment. It is not even enough to produce an environment that gives a sense of well-being. We need to do all these, but also in a way that minimises harm to the environment. Therefore stricter rules are being applied to product design, use and disposal. We have to minimise the carbon footprint of a product or an installation and maximise sustainability. Therefore, all aspects of design, whether for a luminaire or lighting installation, is a balance of factors, a balance of performance, efficiency and comfort (PEC). Performance is the achievement of visual effectiveness, meeting requirements and targets. It is quantifiable through known lighting measures such as illuminance, luminance, glare rating, colour rendition and uniformity. These measures are generally defined through national and international standards and recommendations.

Fig. 1.1 Amenity lighting creating a pleasant balanced scene

Introduction

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welcoming and pleasant. This is the PEC philosophy. such as cost. fulfilling? Does it have a pleasing flow of light and give a well balanced ambient? Do all parts of the design complement each other. through units such as lumens/watt. The criteria for assessing comfort are subjective and are the criteria that differentiate the design. operate and maintain. the architecture of the space. the lit effect. Efficiency can also be quantified. Is it calming/stimulating/inspiring. producing a system that is practical and efficient to install. such as energy efficiency or the ecodesign of products. its own character.Efficiency is conserving energy and effort. and in this handbook we supply some of this information to help the designer in their task. providing a stimulating atmosphere that gives sustainable wellness. So in their job the designer needs to know a wide selection of information and how to blend this to deliver better lighting. percent maintenance link. reassuring. percent recycled element. with better efficiency and a better environment in a sustainable manner. cost/m2. Some of these measures are defined through national and international standards and recommendations. reducing CO2 emissions and waste. Comfort is the achievement of complete satisfaction. and the physical design of the luminaires? This is the point where the engineering and art are blended to produce good lighting. that give the design its individuality. CO2 kg/year. whilst others are concerns for the end-user. 6 | Introduction . and many others.

1 The importance of vision WAVELENGTH (nanometers) 500 600 700 380 400 760 2. However. 2. say to that of a well-lit street. But how do we see? 2. hearing. These concepts are important as we consider the appearance of a space under different lighting conditions with respect to the amount of light and the colour spectrum of the light. At much lower light levels. and light is an emission of electromagnetic radiation.2 The eye and vision Rays of light entering the eye are directed onto the retina. This is the part of the spectrum whose rays are visible to the human eye and lies between infrared and ultra-violet. from blue at 400nm to red at 700nm. Cones operate during the day and enable us to see in detailed colour (photopic vision). X-rays and finally to gamma rays. and light is a very small part of this spectrum with wavelengths from 380 to 760 nanometres (1nm=10-9m).1 What is light? To see we need light. which is a layer of light sensitive cells within the eye.3 Photopic and Scotopic visual response curves The Mechanics of Seeing |7 . the rods only give black and white vision. the cones become less effective and are assisted by the more sensitive rods (mesopic vision). 2. the relative mixture varying depending upon the actual light level. Light may be further divided as the wavelength of the light relates to the colour we see. GAMMA X RAYS RAYS VISIBLE LIGHT ULTRA VOILET INFRA RED RADIO Fig. taste. Of these sight is the most important. These cells have different properties. touch and smell.2 The Mechanics of Seeing Our discernment of the world is via our five senses of sight. 2. ultra-violet. the cones cease to function at all. The unit for this measure of light is the lumen. say that of dim moonlight. The retina is composed of two basic types of light sensitive cells. Over 80 per cent of our experience of the world comes via our sight. The electromagnetic spectrum varies from radio waves through infrared. As the wavelength changes so does the colour of the light. and our vision becomes totally monochromatic using just the rods (scotopic vision). Vision 80% Other senses 20% Fig. As the light level drops.2 The electromagnetic spectrum 100% Photopic vision (day) 400 500 600 700 800 Scotopic vision (dark adapted eye) 100% Photopic vision (day) 400 500 600 700 800 Fig. Therefore we see a less brightly coloured view as we are using a mixture of the rod and cone cells. the rods and the cones.

See section 3 on controlling light).3. It is the amount of luminous flux (F. The effect may vary from mild discomfort to an actual impairment of the ability to see.6 Glare from indoor luminaires with poor optical control E Fig. 2.This is a measure of the amount of light falling onto an object. When the ability to see is impaired this is called disability glare. whilst using different parameters are essentially the ratio of luminaire brightness to background brightness. and is measured in lux. reflection. 2. The value of luminance at a point on a surface can therefore vary dependant upon the observer viewpoint. It is the amount of luminous flux (F) that is received by a surface of given area. 2.3. lumens) that is emitted by a surface of given area and is dependant upon the properties of the surface (e.Glare is the result of excessive contrasts of luminance in the field of view.2.g. 2. refraction and transmission.1 Illuminance (E) . 2. Discomfort glare refers to the discomfort or distraction caused by bright windows or luminaires. All of these methods.3 Lighting fundamentals 2. Fig.This is a measure of the amount of light reflected by an object and is measured in cd/m².5 Luminance 8 | The Mechanics of Seeing .3. Similarly for sports lighting applications Glare Rating (GR) is used and for street lighting Threshold Increment (TI) is calculated.2 Luminance (L) . Glare may be calculated in a variety of ways depending upon the application.4 Illuminance L Fig. So for example in interiors the Unified Glare Rating (UGR) is calculated.3 Glare .

the principal ways materials react to light. 3. for example paper reflects light differently to polished metal and the lit effect is different again for glass. To understand how a surface or object will look we need a basic understanding of reflection. For this the peak reflection still obeys the rule of angle of incidence equals angle of reflection but light is also diffusely scattered around this peak.3 Controlling Light When we light an object. With specular reflection the light reflects from a surface as if from a mirror. showing a fuzzy mirrored image. 3. Fig. 3. This is because paper exhibits what we term matt or diffuse reflection whilst polished metal exhibits what we term specular reflection. 3. What we actually see is the effect of light upon the object.3 Mixed specular and diffuse reflection Controlling Light |9 . producing a sharp-mirrored image. or part of a luminaire such as a louvre or diffuser. For any ray of light striking a specular surface the angle of incidence of the light is equal to the angle at which the ray of light is reflected. Some surfaces exhibit a mixture of diffuse and specular reflection. transmission and refraction.2 Specular reflection Fig. Different materials affect light in different ways. With diffuse reflection the light reflected from a surface is scattered equally in all directions.1 Diffuse reflection Fig. we do not see the light that falls onto a surface or object. be it a space such as a room or a sports field.1 Reflection As mentioned above paper reflects light differently to polished metal.

(See Fig. for example using prisms.3.3. 3. the light will pass through with a minimum of scattering. In luminaires prisms are used to direct light away from areas that could cause glare or waste light and into areas that produce more useful light. 3.5 Refraction of a ray of light through a prismatic panel 10 | Controlling Light . For a clear material.2 Transmission Certain materials have the ability to transmit and diffuse light.5) Fig. When light falls on a translucent (light transmitting) material some light will be reflected in a specular manner. such as clear glass.4 Transmission of a ray of light through a translucent material Fig. (See Fig. and some light will pass through the material. air to glass) it bends. therefore spreading the brightness of the light ray over a larger area.3 Refraction When light passes from one transparent medium to another of different density (e. However for materials such as opal plastic the light is scattered or diffused. This is known as refraction and this principle is used to control light.4) 3. 3.g. thereby making the luminaire more efficient at illuminating a task or object.

abcb. designs and products outlined in other sections within this Technical Handbook may not be applicable in Australia. Controlling Light | 11 .1 AS1680. This information has been included as a general guide only.2.3 Building Code of Australia Part J6.2.5 General principles and recommendations Circulation spaces and other general areas Office and screen based tasks Educational and Training Facilities Industrial tasks and purposes Hospital and medical tasks 4.2.au or refer to Thorn’s Building Code of Australia .1 AS1680.2. ASNZS CISPR15 Compliance with electromagnetic radiation standard as in C-Tick. 4.2. For more information visit www.3 AS1680.4 AS1680.minimum efficiency requirements.4 Australian Standards This section of the Technical handbook outlines some of the key standards that apply to lighting installations in Australia. 4.A Contractor’s Guide handbook.2 AS1680.2 Interior Lighting Standards AS1680.2 Provisions for all new constructions and refurbishments projects .gov. Standards.1 Luminaire Manufacture ASNZS60598 Safety Compliance verified by self-certification based on in-house or NATA report. Note that other regulations may also apply and it is the responsibility of the respective party to ensure compliance with all Australian standards.

8 AS4282 General Tennis Multipurpose Sports Hall Football Netball & Basketball Swimming Pools Baseball & Softball Hockey Bowling Greens Control of the obtrusive effects of outdoor lighting 12 | Controlling Light .1 Lighting for roads and public spaces Vehicular traffic (Category V) lighting .4 AS2560.5 AS2560.4 Exterior Lighting Standards ASNZS 1158. 4.4. ASNZS 1158.1 AS2560.2.5 Sports Lighting AS2560.Performance and design requirements.3 AS2560.7 AS2560.2 AS2560.1 AS2560.2.4 The lighting of urban roads and other public thoroughfares .2.2.2. ASNZS 1158.2.Supplementary lighting at pedestrian crossings AS4282 Control of the obtrusive effects of outdoor lighting.2.Performance and design requirements.2.6 AS2560.3 Lighting for roads and public spaces Pedestrian area (Category P) lighting .

5 Recommendations for Good Lighting The recommendations for good lighting give practical values for various lighting criteria. depending upon the application.4 Emergency EN 1838:1999 and CIE S 020/E:2007 Emergency Lighting Section 5. the principle documents being: Section 5.3 Sports EN 12193: 2007 Light and Lighting – Sports Lighting Section 5.6 Tunnel CR 14380:2003 Lighting Applications – Tunnel Lighting Note that these recommendations are based upon the European norms and local regulations may stipulate different values.1 Indoor workplaces EN 12464-1:2002 Light and Lighting – Lighting of work places – Part 1: Indoor work places and CIE S 008:2001 Section 5.2 Outdoor workplaces EN 12464-2:2007 Lighting of work places – Part 2 : Outdoor work places and CIE S 015:2005 Section 5.5 Roads EN 13201 1-4 Road lighting practice Section 5. The recommendations are drawn from a variety of documents. Recommendations for Good Lighting | 13 .

Recommendations for good lighting Whilst these limiting values may be considered to be the minimum design criteria additional factors should be taken into account to ensure a good lighting installation. This is maximum value of glare rating that is permissible in any direction within any measurement or calculation grid. being defined as the minimum illuminance value within a line of measurement points divided by the average illuminance value of the line of measurement points (Emin_line/Em_line). Uo 14 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . This is the colour rendering index for a lamp and defines the ability of a lamp to show different colours correctly. This is the uniformity of illuminance across any calculation or measurement grid. Emin GRL Lm Ra SR TI UGRL This is the limiting maximum value of glare calculated by the unified glare rating method. Some of these factors are described in other sections of this book. This is the surround ratio. Ul This is the uniformity of illuminance along a line. The criteria used in the recommendations are defined below. being defined as the minimum illuminance value within a grid of measurement points divided by the average illuminance value of a grid of measurement points (Emin/Em). This is the minimum value of illuminance that is permissible within any calculation or measurement grid. It is the ratio of the average illuminance of a strip just outside the carriageway compared to the average illuminance of a strip just inside the carriageway This is the threshold increment. This is the maintained average luminance. which is a value used in the design of road lighting applications. that is the minimum value for average luminance provided during the maintenance cycle of the installation. that is the minimum value for average illuminance provided during the maintenance cycle of the installation. Em This is the maintained average illuminance. which is a measure of the loss of visibility caused by the disability glare of the luminaires in an installation.

switchboard Store rooms. manufacture of glass instruments Grinding of optical glass. glass.1 Indoor workplaces Type of task or activity Traffic zones and general areas inside buildings Traffic Zones Circulation areas and corridors Stairs. switch gear rooms Post room. work on kilns and mixers General machine work Rough forms Ceramics. glazing. engraving. cold stores Store and stockrooms Dispatch packing handling areas Storage rack areas Gangways : unmanned Gangways : manned Control stations Industrial activities and crafts Agriculture Loading and operating of goods. concrete. decorative grinding. pantries Rest rooms Rooms for physical exercise Cloakrooms. escalators. travalators Loading ramps/bays Rest. tiles. bathrooms. glazing. glass blowing Grinding.g. rolling. sanitation and first aid rooms Canteens. glassware Drying Preparation.Recommendations for good lighting 5. dairy. pressing. shaping precision parts. cement goods. utensil washing Bakeries Preparation and baking Finishing. calving stalls Food preparation. general machine work Enamelling. decorating Cement. hand painting Manufacture of synthetic precious stones Em UGRL Ra 100 150 150 200 100 300 200 500 500 200 500 100 300 20 150 150 28 25 25 22 22 22 25 19 16 25 19 25 25 22 22 40 40 40 80 80 80 80 80 90 60 80 60 60 40 60 60 200 50 200 200 300 500 50 200 300 300 50 300 300 750 750 1000 1500 25 25 25 22 22 28 28 25 25 28 25 25 19 16 16 16 80 40 80 80 80 80 20 40 80 80 20 80 80 80 80 90 90 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 15 . bricks Drying Preparation of materials. hand grinding and engraving Precision work e. shaping simple parts. glass polishing. toilets Sick bay Rooms for medical attention Control rooms Plant rooms. crystal. washrooms. handling equipment and machinery Buildings for livestock Sick animal pens.

barrel filling. sorting. telephones -Precision e. on filtering floor in sugar refineries Cutting and sorting of fruit and vegetables Manufacture of delicatessen foods. large transformers -Medium e.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Chemical. inspection Electrical industry Cable and wire manufacture Winding -Large coils -Medium-sized coils -Small coils Coil impregnating Galvanising Assembly work -Rough e.5. etc. plastics and rubber industry Remote-operated processing installations Processing installations with limited manual intervention Constantly manned work places in processing installations Precision measuring rooms. switchboards -Fine e. finishing. cellars.g.g. manufacture of cigars and cigarettes Inspection of glasses and bottles. mixing. adjusting Food stuffs and luxury food industry Work places and zone in -Breweries. milling. malting floor -For washing. trimming. decoration Laboratories Colour inspection Foundries and metal casting Man-size underfloor tunnels.g. cleaning. kitchen work. measuring equipment Electronic workshops. dairies mills. sieving. laboratories Pharmaceutical production Tyre production Colour inspection Cutting. butchers. peeling -Cooking in preserve and chocolate factories -Work places and zones in sugar factories -For drying and fermenting raw tobacco. Platforms Sand preparation Dressing room Work places at cupola and mixer Casting bay Shake out areas Machine moulding Em 50 150 300 500 500 500 1000 750 300 300 300 500 750 300 300 300 500 750 1000 1500 UGRL 28 25 19 22 22 16 19 25 25 25 22 19 25 25 25 22 19 16 16 Ra 20 40 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 200 200 200 200 200 300 500 300 500 500 500 1000 50 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 22 22 19 16 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 90 20 40 80 80 80 80 80 80 16 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . packing Work places and critical zones in slaughter houses. product control.g. testing. fermentation cellar Sorting and washing of products.

punching Sorting Leather dyeing (machine) Quality control Colour inspection Shoe making Glove making Metal working and processing Open die forging Drop forging Welding Rough and average machining: tolerances ≥ 0. pulp mills Paper manufacture and processing.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Hand and core moulding Die casting Model building Hairdressers Hairdressing Jewellery manufacturing Working with precious stones Manufacture of jewellery Watch making (manual) Watch making (automatic) Laundries and dry cleaning Goods in. cutting. barrels. cardboard manufacture Standard bookbinding work e. inspection Wire and pipe drawing shops.1mm Precision machining. polishing. paper and corrugating machines.g.5. folding.1mm Scribing. sorting. sewing. cold forming Plate machining: thickness ≥ 5mm Sheet metalwork: thickness < 5mm Tool making. marking and sorting Washing and dry cleaning Ironing. shaping. pressing Inspection and repairs Leather and leather goods Work on vats. micromechanics Paper and paper goods Edge runners. cutting equipment manufacture Assembly • Rough • Medium • Fine • Precision Galvanising Surface preparation and painting Tool. grinding: tolerances < 0. embossing. pits Fleshing. precision mechanics. stitching. skiving. cutting. shoe manufacturer. template and jig making. tumbling of skins Saddlery work. gluing. sewing Em 300 300 500 500 1500 1000 1500 500 300 300 300 750 200 300 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 200 300 300 300 500 750 300 200 300 750 200 300 500 750 300 750 750 200 300 500 UGRL 25 25 22 19 16 16 16 19 25 25 25 19 25 25 22 22 22 19 16 22 22 25 25 25 22 19 19 25 26 22 19 25 25 22 19 25 25 25 25 25 22 Ra 80 80 80 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 80 80 40 80 80 90 80 80 90 80 80 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 17 . rubbing.

Textile manufacture and processing Work places and zones in baths. iron and steel works Production plants without manual operation Production plants with occasional manual operation Production plants with continuous manual operation Slab store Furnaces Mill train. bale opening Carding. cellars. plywood manufacturing Steam pits Saw frame Work at joiners bench. coiler. pump rooms. etc. sizing. shear line Control platforms. belt sections. picking. retouching. reeling. etc. weaving. matrix making Paper sorting and hand printing Type setting. winding Warping. knitting Sewing. gilding. drawing. combing. inspection Upholstery manufacture (manned) Final inspection Wood working and processing Automatic processing e. dyeing Drying room Automatic fabric printing Burling. braiding. ironing. washing.. work on stones and platens. condenser rooms. plying. fabric control Invisible mending Hat manufacturing Vehicle construction Body work and assembly Painting.g.g. block engraving. polishing chamber Painting. taking up stitches Manual design. drying. measurement and inspection Underfloor man-sized tunnels. pre-spinning. touch-up. assembly Em 50 100 200 200 500 20 500 500 1000 1500 2000 50 150 200 50 200 300 300 500 50 200 300 500 500 750 750 500 100 500 1000 1000 1500 500 500 750 1000 1000 1000 50 150 300 300 UGRL 28 25 25 16 19 19 19 16 16 28 25 25 25 22 22 25 22 22 22 22 22 22 28 25 19 16 19 22 22 22 19 19 19 28 28 25 25 Ra 20 40 80 60 80 20 80 80 80 90 80 20 40 80 20 20 40 80 80 20 60 80 80 80 80 90 80 60 80 80 90 90 80 80 80 90 80 80 40 40 60 80 18 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Power stations Fuel supply plant Boiler house Machine halls Side rooms e. trimming Colour inspection. devilling machine work.5. gluing. fine knitting. printing machines. drawing patterns Finishing. switchboards (inside buildings) Control rooms Outdoor switch gear Printers Cutting. lithography Colour inspection in multicoloured printing Steel and copper engraving Rolling mills. jute and hemp spinning Spinning. control panels Test. card cutting. spraying chamber. embossing.

sinking Selection of veneer woods Marquetry. grooving. Writing. copying. porters desk Kitchen Restaurant.5. dining room. sawing. inlay work Quality control. dressing rooms Trade fairs.g. reading. data processing Technical drawing CAD work stations Conference and meeting rooms Reception desk Archives Retail premises Retail premises Sales area Till area Wrapper table Places of public assembly General areas Entrance halls Cloakrooms Lounges Ticket offices Restaurants and hotels Reception/cashier desk. turning. etc. cinemas Practice rooms. fluting. dressing. inspection Offices Offices Filing. concert halls.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Polishing. function room Self-service restaurant Buffet Conference rooms Corridors Theatres. rebating. painting. exhibition halls General lighting Libraries Bookshelves Reading area Counters Public car parks (indoor) In/out ramps (during the day) In/out ramps (at night) Traffic lanes Parking areas Ticket office Em 750 500 750 750 1000 UGRL 22 19 22 22 19 Ra 80 80 90 90 90 300 500 750 500 500 300 200 19 19 16 19 19 22 25 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 300 500 500 22 19 19 80 80 80 100 200 200 300 300 500 200 300 500 100 300 300 200 500 500 300 75 75 75 300 22 25 22 22 22 22 22 22 19 25 22 22 19 19 19 25 25 25 19 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 20 20 20 20 80 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 19 . cutting. typing. fancy joinery Work on wood working machines e.

5. observation lighting Bathrooms and toilets for patients Em UGRL Ra 300 300 300 300 500 500 500 500 500 750 750 500 500 500 300 300 300 500 200 100 150 200 300 200 500 100 300 200 500 500 750 200 200 50 200 500 300 100 300 300 1000 5 200 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 16 19 19 19 19 19 19 22 22 25 25 22 19 19 19 25 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 19 19 19 19 19 19 22 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 20 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Educational premises Nursery school. gymnasiums. corridors Stairs Student common rooms and assembly halls Teachers rooms Library: bookshelves Library: reading areas Stock rooms for teaching materials Sports halls. swimming pools (general use) School canteens Kitchen Health care premises Rooms for general use Waiting rooms Corridors (during the day) Corridors (at night) Day rooms Staff rooms Staff office Staff rooms Wards. maternity wards General lighting Reading lighting Simple examinations Examination and treatment Night lighting. tutorial rooms Classroom for evening classes and adult education Lecture hall Black board Demonstration table Art rooms Art rooms in art schools Technical drawing rooms Practical rooms and laboratories Handicraft rooms Teaching workshop Music practice rooms Computer practice rooms (menu driven) Language laboratory Preparation rooms and workshops Entrance halls Circulation areas. play school Play room Nursery Handicraft room Educational buildings Classrooms.

5.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Examination rooms (general) General lighting Examination and treatment Eye examination rooms General lighting Examination of the outer eye Reading and colour vision tests with vision charts Ear examination rooms General lighting Ear examination Scanner rooms General lighting Scanners with image enhancers and television systems Delivery rooms General lighting Examination and treatment Treatment rooms (general) Dialysis Dermatology Endoscopy rooms Plaster rooms Medical baths Massage and radiotherapy Operating areas Pre-op and recovery rooms Operating theatre Intensive care unit General lighting Simple examinations Examination and treatment Night watch Dentists General lighting At the patient Operating cavity White teeth matching Laboratories and pharmacies General lighting Colour inspection Decontamination rooms Sterilisation rooms Disinfection rooms Autopsy rooms and mortuaries General lighting Autopsy table and dissecting table Em 500 1000 300 1000 500 750 300 1000 300 50 300 1000 500 500 300 500 300 300 500 1000 100 300 1000 20 200 500 1000 5000 5000 500 1000 300 300 300 500 5000 UGRL 19 19 19 16 22 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 25 19 19 19 22 22 22 19 Ra 90 90 80 90 90 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 80 90 80 80 80 90 90 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 21 .

baggage claim areas Connecting areas.5. travolators Information desks.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Transportation areas Airports Arrival and departure halls. escalators. check-in desks Customs and passport control desks Waiting areas Luggage store rooms Security check areas Air traffic control tower Testing and repair hangers Measuring areas in hangers Railway installations Covered platforms and passenger subways Ticket hall and concourse Ticket and luggage offices and counters Waiting rooms Em 300 200 150 500 500 200 200 300 500 500 500 50 200 300 200 UGRL 22 22 22 19 19 22 25 19 16 22 22 28 28 19 22 Ra 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 40 40 80 80 22 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .

40 0.25 0.e. urban) Air pressure and water checking points and other service areas Meter reading area Industrial sites and storage areas Short term handling of large units and raw materials.20 0.40 0. loading and unloading of solid bulk goods Continuous handling of large units and raw materials.2 Outdoor workplaces Type of area.40 0.40 0.25 0. demanding electrical. task or activity General circulation areas Walkways exclusively for pedestrians Traffic areas for slowly moving vehicles (max 10km/h) e. lifting and descending location for cranes. covered loading platforms.10 0. loading and unloading of freight.g.10 0. vehicle turning. locks and harbours Waiting quays at canals and locks Gangways and passages exclusively for pedestrians.40 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.40 0. ordinary reinforcement and casting tasks in concrete plants Demanding electrical.40 0.50 55 50 45 45 Uo 0. wooden mould and framework mounting.25 0. excavation and loading Drain pipes mounting. pipes and ropes Dangerous part of walkways and driveways (see also parking areas) Farms Farm yard Equipment shed (open) Animals sorting pen Fuel filling service stations Vehicle parking and storage areas Entry and exit driveways – dark environment Entry and exit driveways – light environment (i.50 0. inspection Em 5 10 20 50 20 30 50 50 200 50 20 50 100 200 10 10 20 20 50 50 50 50 20 50 50 5 20 50 150 150 500 20 50 100 200 Ra 20 20 20 20 20 40 40 40 60 20 20 20 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 20 20 20 60 0.40 0.25 0. waiting areas Outport embankment ballasting at canals and locks Lock control area Cargo handling. use of tools.40 55 50 45 45 50 50 55 55 55 50 50 45 55 55 45 50 45 45 45 45 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 23 .25 0. bicycles.40 0. machine and piping installations.40 0. open loading platforms Reading of addresses. machine and pipe mountings Canals.20 0.20 0. loading and unloading points Airports Hanger apron Terminal apron Loading areas Fuel depot Aircraft maintenance stands Building sites General lighting at building sites Clearance.5. loading and unloading Passenger areas in passenger harbours Coupling of hoses.50 GRL 50 50 45 50 55 50 50 50 45 0. transport. trucks and excavators Regular vehicle traffic (max 40km/h) Pedestrian passages. light reinforcement work.40 0.40 0.50 0.25 0. auxiliary and storage tasks Framework element mounting. electric piping and cabling Element jointing.40 0.20 0.

wellhead Process areas Pumping areas Crude oil pumps Treatment areas Ladders. suburban and regional trains Open platforms . rural and local trains Open platforms .large stations.2 Outdoor workplaces (continued) Type of area.50 0. shale shaker. gas and heat plants Pedestrian movements within electrically safe areas Handling of servicing tools. task or activity Off-shore gas and oil structures Drill floor and monkey board Rotary table Regular vehicle traffic (max 40km/h) Pedestrian passages. piping and packing Filling and emptying of container trucks and wagons with dangerous substances.40 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40 55 50 45 45 45 50 55 50 45 45 45 50 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 24 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . stairs.40 0.25 0. replacements of pump packing.small and medium size stations Stairs .25 55 50 50 20 50 100 200 100 5 20 50 100 100 200 15 20 50 50 100 50 100 20 20 20 40 60 20 20 20 20 40 40 60 20 20 20 40 40 40 40 20 0. inspection of leakage. inter-city services Covered platforms .40 0.40 0.25 0.25 0. vehicle turning.50 0.25 0.40 0.40 0. parking areas of shops. terraced and apartment houses Medium traffic e.g.40 0. starting and stopping motors. parking areas of department stores.50 0. major sports and multipurpose building complexes Petrochemical and other hazardous industries Handling of servicing tools.medium size stations.5.medium size stations. churches.50 0.50 0. general service work.40 0.25 0.40 0.40 0. electricity. office buildings.large stations. sports and multipurpose building complexes Heavy traffic e.50 0.40 0.small stations.50 0. schools.25 0.25 0.large stations Walkways Em 300 500 20 50 100 300 200 200 300 100 100 300 100 200 30 100 Ra 40 40 20 20 40 40 40 20 40 40 20 40 20 20 20 20 Uo 0. parking areas of major shopping centres.50 0.50 0. walkways Plant areas Boat landing areas transport areas Life boat areas Sea surface below the rig Helideck Parking lots Light traffic e.40 0.50 0. reading of instruments Repair of machines and electrical devices Fuel loading and unloading sites Power.g. loading and unloading points Derrick Mud sampling room Test station.g. suburban and regional trains Covered platforms .25 0.40 GRL 40 40 45 50 45 40 45 45 45 45 45 40 50 50 50 45 5 10 20 20 20 20 0.40 0. lighting of burners Filling and emptying of container trucks and wagons with risk free substances.25 0. inter-city services Stairs . utilisation of manually regulated valves. coal Overall inspection General servicing work and reading of instruments Wind tunnels – servicing and maintenance Repair of electric devices Railway areas Open platforms .

40 0. including stabling Servicing trains and locomotives Level crossings Saw mills Timber handling on land and in water.25 GRL 50 50 50 45 45 50 50 45 40 45 50 50 45 55 50 45 45 45 55 50 45 45 55 50 100 200 20 40 60 0. mechanical lifting to timber conveyor Reading of addresses and marking of sawn timber Grading and packaging Feeding into stripping and chopping machines Shipyards and docks Short term handling of large units Cleaning of ship hull Painting and welding of ship hull Mounting of electrical and mechanical components General lighting of shipyard area.25 0. timber unloading points and sawn timber loading points.40 0.40 0.2 Outdoor workplaces (continued) Type of area. sawdust and chip conveyors Sorting of timber on land or in water.50 0. utilisation of manually operated valves. task or activity Freight areas Freight track – short duration operations Freight track – continuous operation Open platforms Covered platform – short duration operations Covered platform – continuous operation Railway yards handling areas Railway yards – flat marshalling.40 0. general servicing work.40 0.40 0. storage areas for prefabricated goods Water and sewage plants Handling of service tools.40 0. changing of pumps.25 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.40 0. piping packing and raking plants Handling of chemicals.50 45 45 45 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 25 .50 0. inspection of leakage.40 0.50 0. reading of instruments Repair of motors and electric devices Em 10 20 20 50 100 30 10 10 100 30 10 20 20 20 50 100 200 300 20 50 100 200 20 Ra 20 20 20 20 40 20 20 20 40 20 20 40 20 20 20 40 40 40 20 20 60 60 40 Uo 0.40 0. starting and stopping of motors.40 0. retarder and classification yards Hump areas Wagon inspection pit Coupling area Tracks in passenger station areas.40 0.40 0.40 0.5.25 0.

50 0.3 Sports This table contains lighting recommendations for a variety of sports.70 0. task or activity Aerobics (recreational) Archery (lane/target) Athletics (indoor) 26 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . all disciplines) Class I Class II Class III Badminton Class I Class II Class III 750 500 300 60 60 20 0.60 0.50 0.50 GRL Class II Class III Level of competition III International or national Regional Local Training Recreational/education Type of area. Professional level training may also be class II.70 0.8 0.50 50 55 55 500 300 200 Ra 20 60 60 60 20 Uo 0.70 500 200 100 60 60 20 0.5/0. There are three lighting classes: Class I Top level competition that will generally involve a large amount of spectators and may involve long viewing distances Medium level competition that will generally involve a medium amount of spectators and may involve medium viewing distances. Low level competition that will generally involve small amounts Lighting Class I II 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Class Em 200 200/Ev 750 Class I Class II Class III Athletics (outdoor.70 0.70 0. and therefore requirements are shown for different lighting classes.5. Lighting requirements may differ according to the level of competition of a sport.

80 0.80 0.50 0.70 0.50 200 100 50 60 20 20 0.60 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 GRL Basketball 50 50 55 Billiards Class I Class II Class III Boccia (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Boccia (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Boules (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Boules (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III 10 pin/9 pin bowling Lanes Pins 25m lane Pins 50m lane Boxing Class I Class II Class III Climbing Class I Class II Class III Cricket (infield/outfield) Class I Class II Class III Cricket nets Class I Class II Class III 1500 1000 750 60 60 20 0.70 0.80 200 100 50 60 20 20 0.80 0.70 0.70 0.80 0. task or activity Basketball (indoor) Class Class I Class II Class III Class I Class II Class III Em 750 500 200 500 200 75 750 500 500 300 200 200 Ra 60 60 20 60 60 20 80 80 80 60 60 20 Uo 0.50 200 Ev 1000 Ev 2000 60 0.70 0.80 0.70 0.70 50 50 55 750 500 300 60 60 20 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.Type of area.80 50 50 55 750/500 500/300 300/200 60 60 20 0.50 0.50 50 50 55 300 200 200 60 60 20 0.50 2000 1000 500 80 80 60 0.50 50 50 55 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 27 .80 0.80 0.70 0.70 0.80 0.

50 0. task or activity Curling (target / playing area) Cycling (indoor) Class Em 300/200 Ra 0.70 0.60 0.70 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 Uo 0.70 0.50 0.Type of area.50 50 50 55 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.70 50 50 55 50 50 55 50 50 55 28 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .50 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 GRL 50 Class I Class II Class III Cycling (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Dancing Class I Class II Class III Darts Class I Class II Class III Fencing Class I Class II Class III Football (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Football (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Gymnastics Class I Class II Class III Handball (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Handball (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Hockey (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Hockey (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III 750 500 200 500 300 100 500 300 200 Eh 200/Ev 750 Eh 100/Ev 500 Eh 50/Ev 300 Eh 750/Ev 500 Eh 500/Ev 300 Eh 300/Ev 200 750 500 200 500 200 75 500 300 200 750 500 200 500 200 75 750 500 300 500 200 200 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.

70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.50 GRL Ice hockey (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Ice skating Class I Class II Class III Judo Class I Class II Class III Kendo / Karate Class I Class II Class III Netball (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Netball (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Petanque (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Petanque (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Racketball Class I Class II Class III Roller skating Class I Class II Class III School sports Class I Class II Class III 50 50 55 50 50 55 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 29 .70 0.50 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0. task or activity Ice hockey (indoor) Class Class I Class II Class III Em 750 500 300 750 500 200 750 500 300 750 500 200 750 500 200 750 500 200 500 200 75 300 200 200 200 100 50 750 500 300 500 300 200 750 500 200 Ra 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 20 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 Uo 0.Type of area.60 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.

70 0.70 0.70 0. task or activity Shooting (lane/target) Snooker Class Em 200/Ev 750 Ra 60 80 80 80 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 Uo 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.Type of area.70 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.8 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.80 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.5/0.80 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.80 0.70 0.50 GRL Class I Class II Class III Speed skating Class I Class II Class III Squash Class I Class II Class III Swimming Class I Class II Class III Table tennis Class I Class II Class III Tennis (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Tennis (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Weight lifting Class I Class II Class III Wrestling Class I Class II Class III 750 500 500 500 300 200 750 500 300 500 300 200 750 500 300 750 500 300 500 300 200 750 500 200 750 500 200 50 50 55 30 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .50 0.

5.5s. and 100% within 60s with a minimum duration of 1 hour CIE S 020/E:2007 50% of the required illuminance within 20s.5lx ≥ 10% maintained level but not less than15.5 ≤ H < 3.0 ≤ H < 4.5 2. For example.2lx in central band ≥ 0.5 ≤ H < 4.1lx Recommendations for Good Lighting | 31 . depending upon the application with a minimum duration of 1 hour Note that these values may differ across countries.5 4.0 3. depending upon the application with a minimum duration covering the time the risk exists CIE S 020/E:2007 Either 100% required illuminance permanently or within 0.025 (1:40) 0.0lx In central band ≥ 0.5 3.1 (1:10) Disability glare limits (CEN 1838:1999 and CIE S 020/E:2007) Mounting height above floor level H in m H < 2.5s.0 4. CEN 1838:1999 50% of the required illuminance within 5s. UK (CEN 1838:1999) Escape route along centre line ≥ 0.0lx Diversity limits (Imin / Imax) 0.025 (1:40) 0.5 ≤ H Escape route and open area (anti panic) lighting maximum luminous intensity Imax in cd 500 900 1600 2500 3500 5000 High risk task area lighting maximum luminous intensity Imax in cd 1000 1800 3200 5000 7000 10000 For escape routes and open areas response times and durations are.0 ≤ H < 3.4 Emergency Illuminance limits (CEN 1838:1999 and CIE S 020/E:2007) Description of space Escape route Open area High risk task area Illuminance limits (lux) Along centre line ≥ 1.5lx Across area ≥ 0. and 100% within 60s (if the visual task or risk to people requires a shorter response time then it should be shortened to 50% of the required illuminance within 5s) with a minimum duration of 1 hour (if the visual task or risk to people requires a longer duration then it should be extended to 3 hours) For high risk task areas response times and durations are. CEN 1838:1999 Either 100% required illuminance permanently or within 0.

40 0.50 cd/m2 ≥ 0.50 0.50 0. typical volumes of traffic flow.15 ≥ 0.35 ≥ 0.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.75 cd/m2 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.5 cd/m2 ≥ 1. For wet road conditions the MEW classes go from MEW1 to MEW6.60 ≥ 0.50 0.50 0. The basic lighting classes are defined as: ME This class is intended for users of motorised vehicles on traffic routes.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.40 0.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.50 0.70 0.75 cd/m2 ≥ 0.60 0.15 KEY Emin Em Lm Uo UL TI SR - minimum illuminance maintained average illuminance maintained average luminance overall uniformity longitudinal uniformity threshold increment surround ratio ME1 ME2 ME3A ME3B ME3C ME4A ME4B ME5 ME6 MEW1D MEW1W MEW2D MEW2W MEW3D MEW3W MEW4D MEW4W MEW5D MEW5W Lm ≥ 2.40 ≥ 0.50 ≥ 0.5 cd/m2 ≥ 1.40 ≥ 0.50 32 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .35 ≥ 0.50 0. Traffic speeds are medium to high.50 ≥ 0.3 cd/m2 ≥ 2.50 ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ TI 10% 10% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 10% ≤ 10% ≤ 15% ≤ 15% ≤ 15% - ≥ 0.60 - ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ SR 0. etc.50 0. In some countries this class also applies to residential roads.15 ≥ 0. difficulty of the navigational task.50 0.50 0.70 0. whilst these values may be used for guidance local regulations should be consulted.Escape route and open area duration may be extended from 5s to 15s in premises for the most part likely to be occupied by persons who are familiar with them France (CEN 1838:1999) Certified luminaires only may be used On escape routes maximum spacing of luminaires is 15m For open areas 5lm/m2 (luminaire lumens) is required and luminaires may not be spaced more than 4 times their mounting height apart.0 cd/m2 ≥ 0. 5.15 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0. with ME1 defining the strictest requirements.15 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.75 cd/m2 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.60 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.5 Roads For road lighting the lighting criteria are selected dependant upon the class of road being lit.40 ≥ 0.50 0.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.40 ≥ 0.50 0.35 ≥ 0.5 cd/m2 - ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ UL 0. from the strictest to the most relaxed.60 0.50 ≥ 0.50 0. The ME classes go from ME1 to ME6. Luminance U0 ≥ 0.70 0.0 cd/m2 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.50 0.50 ≥ 0.60 0. The class has a range of sub-classes. such as typical speed of users.50 0. and these are chosen dependant upon factors.40 ≥ 0. with a minimum of 2 luminaires per room Therefore.

0 lux ≥ 0.0 lux ≥ 0.0 lux ≥ 3.0 lux ≥ 0.5 lux ≥ 0.0 lux. The EV classes go from EV1 to EV6. with S1 defining the strictest requirements. EV1 EV2 EV3 EV4 EV5 EV6 Vertical illuminance Emin ≥ 50. parking areas.0 lux. with EV1 defining the strictest requirements. ≤ 15. for example toll booths.0 lux ≥ 2. ≤4.15 ≥ 2. ≤ 11. ≤ 22.CE This class is intended for users of motorised vehicles in conflict areas such as road intersections. with ES1 defining the strictest requirements.6 lux Uo - A This class is intended for cyclists and pedestrians on footpaths.25 lux ≥ 1. with A1 defining the strictest requirements. residential roads.0 lux ≥ 7.0 lux ≥ 0. The S class and the A class are for similar situations. A and S classes for those situations requiring good visibility of vertical surfaces.0 lux ≥ 0.0 lux ≥ 0. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Horizontal illuminance Em Emin ≥ 15. ≤ 3. etc.0 lux ≥ 10.0 lux.50 lux ≥ 0.0 lux ≥ 3.0 lux ≥ 10.40 15.0 lux ≥ 7.5 lux. pedestrian streets. A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Hemispherical illuminance Uo Em ≥ 5.5 lux ≥ 5. The A classes go from A1 to A5. The criteria are in terms of vertical illuminance and are used in addition to the CE. cycle paths.0 lux ≥ 0.6 lux ≥ 2. The S classes go from S1 to S6. ES1 ES2 ES3 ES4 ES5 ES6 ES7 ES8 ES9 Semi-cylindrical illuminance Emin ≥ 10. These areas also allow provision for cyclists and pedestrians.0 lux ≥ 0.40 S This class is intended for cyclists and pedestrians on footpaths.0 lux ≥ 7. etc.75 lux ≥ 0.5 lux ≥ 5.40 30. The criteria are in terms of semi-cylindrical illuminance and are used in addition to the S or A class criteria. S or A class criteria.0 lux ≥ 30. pedestrian streets.5 lux ≥ 5. The A class and the S class are for similar situations but the A class criteria are defined in terms of hemispherical illuminance as preferred by certain countries.0 lux.0 lux.50 lux EV This class is an extension of the CE. but the S class criteria are defined in terms of horizontal illuminance as preferred by certain countries.40 20.15 ≥ 1.15 ES This class is an extension of the A and S classes for those situations where the identification of people or objects is particularly necessary. cycle paths.5 lux ≥ 1.0 lux ≥ 0.5 lux ≥ 1. with CE0 defining the strictest requirements. residential roads. ≤ 7.5 lux Recommendations for Good Lighting | 33 .5 lux ≥ 0.15 ≥ 1. roundabouts. CE0 CE1 CE2 CE3 CE5 ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ Horizontal illuminance Em Emin Uo 50.0 lux ≥ 1. The ES classes go from ES1 to ES9.0 lux ≥ 0. etc. for example in high crime risk areas.0 lux ≥ 3.0 lux ≥ 0.5 lux ≥ 5.40 7.15 ≥ 3. parking areas. The CE classes go from CE0 to CE5.

A class (hemispherical illuminance) compared to S class (horizontal illuminance) Reference class Alternative class S1 S2 A1 S3 A2 S4 A3 S5 A4 S6 A5 ES class (semi-cylindrical illuminance) and EV class (vertical illuminance) compared to CE and S class (horizontal illuminance) Reference class Alternative class CE0 ES1 CE1 ES2 EV3 CE2 ES3 EV4 CE3 S1 ES4 EV5 CE4 S2 ES5 CE5 S3 ES6 S4 ES7 S5 ES8 S6 ES9 34 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . The following two tables show comparable alternative lighting classes to aid in designing to local preferences. To help apply this when adjacent area are lit to different lighting classes the table below shows lighting classes for comparable lighting levels. ME1 MEW1 CE1 ME2 MEW2 CE2 ME3 MEW3 CE3 S1 ME4 MEW4 CE4 S2 ME5 MEW5 CE5 S3 ME6 CE0 S4 S5 S6 Lighting classes of comparable lighting level In some countries there is a preference for a particular measure of illuminance over others (for example hemispherical illuminance in preference to horizontal illuminance).Recommended lighting levels When lighting adjacent areas there should not be a difference greater than two comparable classes between the areas. with the area with the highest recommended lighting level being taken as the reference area.

6 Amenity There is little standardised information for lighting requirements in amenity areas. Local standards and regulations should be checked to ensure compliance.0 10. corners.10 0.08 0. Lighting classes for pedestrian areas in urban centres (see road section above) Traffic flow pedestrians Normal Environmental zone E3 Pedestrian only traffic Mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic CE3 CE2 E4 CE2 CE1 High Environmental zone E3 CE2 CE1 E4 CE1 CE1 Pedestrian zones Area Pedestrian precincts Squares/open areas Squares (high pedestrian use) Level footpaths Footpaths with steps Outdoor staircase Underpass Em (lux) 5. and therefore this information should be considered guidance. intersections Entrance/exit zones (vehicular) Pedestrian areas.0 0.0 15 30 30 Eminimum (lux) 50 75 50 5 10 10 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 35 .30 Diversity (Emin/Emax) 0.0 15.30 0.0 5. multi-storey and outdoor car parks zones Type Underground and multi-storey excluding roof level Area Parking bays. stairs.0 Eminimum (lux) 1. access area Ramps.10 Lighting levels for underground.5.0 5. lifts Outdoor and multi-storey roof level Rural zones E1 and E2 Urban zones E3 and E4 Multi-storey roof level Em (lux) 75 150 75 night 300 day 100 60.0 60.

7 Tunnel For guidance on tunnel lighting you should also refer to section 7.lane) > 1500 500 – 1500 < 500 Two way traffic (vehicles/hour.5:1 Note: During night hours the entire tunnel is treated as one interior zone Uniformity requirements Minimum luminance to average luminance for road surface and lower 2m of tunnel walls ≥ 0.5.6 36 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .4 Longitudinal uniformity along centre line of each lane ≥ 0. Glare restriction Time of day Day-time Night Threshold zone TI <15% TI <15% Interior zone TI <15% TI <15% Exit zone TI <15% Traffic flow classification Traffic flow High Medium Low One way traffic (vehicles/hour.6 on road tunnel lighting.lane) > 400 100 – 400 < 100 Interior zone average luminance levels (Lav) Stopping distance (≅ speed in m/s) 160m 100m 60m Low ≥ 5 cd/m² ≥ 2 cd/m² ≥ 1 cd/m² Traffic flow Medium ≥ 10 cd/m² ≥ 4 cd/m² ≥ 2 cd/m² High ≥ 15 cd/m² ≥ 6 cd/m² ≥ 3 cd/m² Threshold zones average luminance levels (Lav) Maximum permitted average luminance ratio passing between transition zones is 3:1 Maximum permitted average luminance ratio passing from transition zones to interior zone is 1.

8 Lighting scheme surveys When a lighting scheme has been designed and installed it is normally necessary to perform a survey as part of the commissioning process. So to measure emergency light levels a more sensitive meter would be necessary that could measure low light levels. with a current calibration certificate from a competent company with traceability to national standards. model. These grid points are the measurement points at which a reading of light will be taken. A survey would also be necessary in the case of any dispute over the performance of an installation. This is generally either an illuminance meter or a luminance meter. manufacturer. dependant upon the criteria used during the design of the installation. It also needs to have a suitable range of sensitivity to be able to measure the light levels present in the installation.5. When making a scheme survey it is essential to keep a complete and accurate record of the state of the whole installation at the time of the survey. To perform a survey adequate equipment is required. (Photographs are a valuable addition to a written record. etc. It is essential that the equipment used is suitable for the task. tape measures. It therefore needs to be calibrated. When performing a survey a grid of points is generally placed over the area to be surveyed. type and age) − The supply voltage (value and stability) − The state of maintenance of the installation (lamps and luminaires) − Details of luminaire control systems being used − Geometric details of the luminaire positioning Recommendations for Good Lighting | 37 . such as tripods.) Examples of information of note are: With regard to the measuring equipment − Type of meter. serial number and calibration date − Details of any additional equipment. which is the lighting equipment and the space the lighting is in. should be noted With regard to the luminaires − The luminaire manufacturer and manufacturers’ code − Details of the lamps (number.

including a background reading of luminance/illuminance with daylight only (luminaires turned off). the measurement points for verification of the design should be in the same location and plane as the calculation points used during the design. and at least 30 minutes. Therefore.With regard to the space − The condition of reflective surfaces − The surface reflectances − The presence of any significant obstructions − The presence/absence of daylight. Additionally to ensure the stability of the meter photocell it should be exposed to the stable light levels for approximately five minutes before taking any measurements. When defining a measurement grid this is dependant upon the application being surveyed. Note that during design it should be ensured that the grid spacing does not coincide with the spacing of the luminaires in the installation as this can distort the calculated results. if no specific requirements exist. if a measurement plane was calculated which was tilted to mimic the orientation of the task. and therefore the scheme performance. or the installation is not a sports facility. However. so for an indoor sports facility any requirements specific to a particular sport should be used. the same measurement plane should be used for verification. 38 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . Interior measurement grids Frequently for sports lighting the grid definition is defined by the sports governing body. Note that the quantity of daylight may vary significantly over time so ideally daylight should be excluded from measurements of electric light unless the aim is to measure a constant illuminance installation (daylight control) − The ambient temperature in the space − Any other factors which could influence the measurement Before taking any measurements it is important that the output of the luminaires is stable. Therefore the lighting should ideally be operated for one hour before taking any measurements.

To record the measured values a diagram should be used to assign reference numbers to each grid point. When taking luminance readings in a road lighting installation the position of the meter will be a significant distance from the measurement point. the same measurement plane should be used for verification. When measuring illuminance small markers (such as sticky dots) may be placed upon the surface to show the measurement point. the measurement points for verification of the design should be in the same location and plane as the calculation points used during the design. − The grid markings must be visible from a large distance. A table of values may then be completed containing the grid reference number and the measured value. The method of marking out the grid should be recorded with details of equipment used and fixed reference points used to locate the grid. However. and then moved before the reading is taken. or the installation is not a sports facility.Exterior measurement grids – sports and area Frequently for sports lighting the grid definition is defined by the sports governing body. This has two implications: − The luminance meter must be able to restrict the angle of measurement to allow only the relevant grid position to be measured. Recommendations for Good Lighting | 39 . When marking the measurement grid in the area to be measured the method of marking is dependant upon the measurements to be taken. However when measuring luminance this would invalidate the reading and so for luminance readings markings should be used to sight the luminance meter. Therefore. Exterior measurement grids – road For road lighting the grid is normally defined in the relevant standard and is generally related to the spacing of the road lighting lanterns. typically to two minutes of arc in the vertical plane and 20 minutes of arc in the horizontal plane. so any requirements specific to a particular sport should be used. if no specific requirements exist. if a measurement plane was calculated which was tilted to mimic the orientation of the task. Therefore three-dimensional objects should be used to mark the grid points and removed individually as each grid point is measured. Therefore the relevant standard should be referenced for the grid definition which should be the same as the grid used for calculation during design.

Even moonlight can have a noticeable effect on light levels. − When taking measurements it is advisable to wear dark matt clothing to prevent light reflecting from clothing onto the photocell. highly coloured or monochromatic light sources will give erroneous readings using conventional light meters. as the background light levels may vary considerably during the warm-up time for the lighting. − The use of a tripod is advisable. can help ensure a photocell is correctly positioned at a measurement position. especially for luminance readings or readings using heavy equipment. care should be taken to minimise light reflection onto the photocell. − Correction factors should be applied to readings to compensate for the lamp type used in the schemes. giving abnormally high readings. even if this is not a true representation of the ground. Also to take these measurements after measuring the installation with the lights turned on.Some points of note when taking the readings are − When taking measurements it should be ensured that no additional shadowing is introduced due to the measurement technique. at the correct height and orientation for the task plane. 40 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . if safety requirements require high visibility clothing. However. Care must be taken to ensure the photocell is horizontal. − For measurement grids that are not at ground level the use of a stand. especially in outdoor applications. − It is good practice to measure the background light levels without the lighting installation turned on. However. − When measuring horizontal illuminance it cannot be assumed that the ground is horizontal.

roads. duration. The list of application segments is not exhaustive but the main types covered include the lighting of indoor and outdoor industry. The individual elements may not carry equal weight. offices. It recommends the most appropriate lighting design techniques and suitable lighting solutions. In the holistic framework the key elements for consideration are visual function. colour. architectural elements and healthcare premises. It is very important to assess these parameters and to formulate the right design objectives for the specific lighting application area. education buildings.6 Applications and Techniques 6. The visual tasks can differ in character. This section of the handbook gives an insight to the activities and visual tasks found in the various lighting application segments and gives advise on the important points to consider. Once the task analyses have been completed and listed the required lighting design criteria can be selected and the lighting design process can start. See also the list of recommendations within the appropriate lighting application standards referenced in this book. The simple golden rule for design considerations is to provide the right light to the right place at the right time. energy efficiency. location. This means addressing all the lighting design parameters and balancing the requirements and constraints to yield the best possible solution. visual amenity. amenity areas. For each case the lighting techniques employed should start by considering a holistic approach to design and should include PEC – performance. efficiency and comfort . The specific lighting requirements of people and places vary according to the type of place. super and hypermarkets. but they Applications and Techniques | 41 . dynamics and ergonomics.1 General Considerations The application of the right light is paramount in lighting design. size. installation costs and maintenance. activity and people involved. This rule is valid for all places where lighting for people is needed so that they can see and perform the visual tasks efficiently and in comfort.attributes and fulfilment. architectural integration.

manage and service the scheme through it’s life. lighting maintenance and tunnel lighting. PEC extends this consideration to include the changing human factors and environmental challenges. with high operating energy efficiency. emergency lighting. and give people comfort. 42 | Applications and Techniques . without this the human activity will be seriously impaired and valuable energy and resource will be wasted. In the section “Specific Techniques” guidance is given on techniques that are applicable to several application segments. lighting controls. It is well proven that good lighting is essential to mankind. By fulfilling PEC we ensure that quality lighting will be provided that gives effective light for visual performance. be sustainable and kind to the environment. lighting for crime prevention. selecting the right equipment and providing adequate instructions on how to operate. lighting for education. lighting for display screen equipment. lighting for health. The consideration of these form an integral part of the design process to yield the most appropriate lighting solution. road and amenity lighting.Applications and Techniques all need consideration separately and combined with each other. controlling obtrusive light. Much of the success of a lighting installation depends on making the right decisions at the design stage. It is also important to recognise that this lighting not only illuminates the task but will also contribute to the quality of the visual environment and wellbeing of the people. stimulation and total satisfaction. These include.

8 Super/ Hypermarket Section 5.5 Fig.1 City plan showing the diversity of lighting needs.7 Urban – architectural floodlighting Section 5. 6.Healthcare Section 5.6 Education Section 5. helping the reader to tackle such everyday projects with greater understanding. This section gives hints on lighting techniques for each of these application areas. Applications and Techniques | 43 .2 Sports lighting Section 5.4 Industry – outdoor Section 5.11 Road lighting Section 5.3 Urban – decorative roadlighting & amenity areas Section 5.10 Industry – indoor Section 5.9 Office Section 5.

Ensuring light falls onto the walls and ceiling helps prevent dark surfaces creating an oppressive atmosphere.2 Office Techniques General Office lighting is a general term that covers many tasks. A balanced ambience creates a pleasant work environment. These tasks can use different mediums such as paper. Poor lighting can cause various health problems. from headaches due to discomfort glare to muscle strain due to sitting at an awkward angle to avoid reflections in computer screens or glossy publications. or involve face-to-face meetings. computer screen. If the positions of the workstations are known and fixed it is more efficient to design the lighting to supply the correct amount of lighting to the task. Therefore they will be looking in essentially the same direction for large amounts of time. Lamps with a colour-rendering index of 80 or more should be used to enhance visual performance and visual satisfaction. ensuring wall lighting levels are 50% of the horizontal task lighting level and ceiling levels are 30% of the horizontal task level will give a good balance. For rooms containing display screen equipment luminaires with suitable optical control to remove any bright luminance above 65° should be used.6. Careful use of wall-washing luminaires and indirect lighting can help produce a positive environment. 44 | Applications and Techniques . Additionally the tasks can vary in content and may be mainly clerical in nature or may be more specialised such as engineering tasks and CAD work. Generally. but less lighting to circulation areas. Points of note are: Office workers tend to have a sedentary work routine. For areas that may be reconfigured lighting controls may be used to set the light levels for individual luminaires in an array of luminaires to achieve the same effect. Care must be taken to design a lighting installation that minimises discomfort caused by lighting.

Luminaires should be placed to help orientation by providing a luminous pathway Entrances with high ceilings lend themselves to the use of uplighting or suspended lighting. In such cases the lighting should provide adequate light levels over a reasonable range of tilt angles of the board. For CAD workstations luminaires should be chosen which have a minimal luminance at high angles from the downward vertical (e.Office Drawing office Lighting for technical areas is critical to minimise errors. Light naturally attracts people so a well lit reception area and reception desk will help orientate visitors by giving them a visible point of reference.g. When using indirect or direct/indirect luminaires care should be taken to ensure that the ceiling luminance is not too high as this can produce images on the computer screen. both of which tend to provide good modelling. angles close to the horizontal plane of the luminaire). and be positioned so as to minimise shadowing onto the board. Although drawing boards are becoming less common some offices do still use them. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 45 . Any error in a drawing could be costly and potentially dangerous. Key luminaires: Reception desk Main objective is to provide visitors with a visible first point of contact and employees with a transition zone from exterior and interior lighting levels.

46 | Applications and Techniques . For work involving small or complex detail lighting levels required for accurate working will be higher than those necessary for more general office tasks. Flexible luminaire controls should be employed to allow the use of projectors or other audio-visual equipment and to set a luminous environment suitable for the meeting purpose. These luminaires should not cause glare for the user of the whiteboard and should be positioned to minimise shadowing during use. If audio-visual projectors are used the luminaires should not impede the projector beam and cause shadowing. A good vertical illuminance component should exist to aid the visibility of wall-displays and improve modelling. Specialised lighting for whiteboards may be installed to ensure good visibility for all participants. Moderately strong modelling is desirable for formal communication. Modelling is of special importance in areas that may be used by people with special needs who may utilise lip-reading or signing. writing). whilst softer modelling is more suitable for informal or close contact. and that modelling is suitable to allow good communication between people. Whilst recommendations and standards define suitable lighting levels for office based work consideration should also be given to the demands of the task. that any presentation aids used are clearly visible. Key luminaires: General office Main objective is to ensure that people have adequate light to perform their tasks quickly and accurately without any stress or strain caused by poor light levels or poorly positioned lighting causing visual disability or discomfort. If a minority of people in a large office perform these tasks local lighting may be suitable for these workers.Office Conference rooms Main objectives are to ensure that people have adequate light to perform their tasks (such as reading.

In many instances special attachments are used to hold the paper next to the computer screen in a vertical or near vertical orientation. When filing or retrieving information from a storage system it is frequently necessary to read information on a vertical surface. When writing. adequate vertical illuminance levels should be provided. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 47 . This indicates how effectively the lighting system minimises unwanted shiny reflections in the task. whiteboards. It should be ensured that light levels on the walls are suitable for comfortable use of notice boards. Ensuring that all workstations are lit by more than one luminaire and from a variety of directions can prevent this occurring. overly aggressive or poorly designed lighting of shiny artefacts on the walls (such as whiteboards or glazed pictures) may result in some workers having problems with reflected glare. typing or reading paper-based material the contrast rendering factor (CRF) of the task is important. However. The CRF is sensitive to the geometry between the luminaires. Therefore. etc. Tasks frequently involve the transfer of paper-based information onto a computer. such as the front of a drawer of a filing cabinet. If the CRF is too low altering the lighting layout or moving the location of the task should be considered.Office Care should be taken when positioning luminaires and workstations to ensure that the worker does not create shadows on the task. Therefore it must be ensured that the vertical illuminance is sufficient to allow good visibility of the paper-based task. Luminaires should be positioned to ensure that the user does not create shadowing over filing systems or copiers when standing in front of them. task and observer and should either be calculated or measured.

5m x 2. 4.4m x 4. Emin/Eav = 0.41 Scheme: Boardroom.8m Luminaire(s) used: 23 MenloSoft 3x24W T16 and 5 Planor 2x24W T16 wall mounted Workplane: Eav = 569 lux.4m x 2.86 Scheme: Circulation routes.8m high Luminaire(s) used: Indi-Quattro 2x36W TC-L on 3m centres Desk: Eav = 255 lux .Office Schemes Office lighting Scheme: Meeting room. 7m x 6.5m x 2. Emin/Eav = 0.8m wide x 2. (1m above floor) 48 | Applications and Techniques .8m Luminaire(s) used: 12 Corsa 200 2x26W TC-D and 16 Chalice LV 50W Desk: Eav = 479 lux . Emin/Eav = 0. 2.62 Scheme: Civil circuit judge court.8m Luminaire(s) used: 9 Corsa 200 2x26W TC-D Desk: Eav = 468 lux . 7m x 6.

Recessed luminaires controlled by the SensaLink system (see Section 6. Quattro T Line luminaires with reflector optics in a large open plan office.1). This minimises potential problems of the lighting causing reflections in computer screens (see Section 6. making the space feel larger and more cheerful.Office Recessed MenloSoft luminaires lighting a large open plan office. The luminaires have integrated detectors allowing them to adjust the lighting levels according to the amount of daylight flowing in from the large window on the edge of the office. A good distribution of light prevents walls appearing dark and uninviting. which might otherwise appear uninteresting.2) and allows a clean uncluttered feel to the ceiling. The light distribution from the luminaire lights the ceiling and walls. The appearance of the luminaire gives a lively feel to the ceiling. Small offices frequently feel enclosed and cramped. Care needs to be taken to prevent dark walls and ceiling making the room feel gloomy and uninviting. and the fittings seem to float in the space. Applications and Techniques | 49 . Pendant Planor luminaires lighting a small office area.

3 Education Techniques: General The purpose of a school or college building is to provide a facility that aids and promotes learning for all age groups in a safe and fulfilling environment. Additional consideration should be given to any uses of the teaching space for extra-curricular activities or adult learning classes.6. not easily damaged. Luminaires should be placed to help orientation by providing a luminous pathway Entrances with high ceilings lend themselves to the use of uplighting or suspended lighting. taking into account deterioration of the eye with age. For example by treating an art or music room as more than just another classroom the lighting can contribute to providing an inspiring atmosphere. Entrance hall Main objective is to provide visitors with a visible first point of contact and students and staff with a transition zone from exterior and interior lighting levels. both of which tend to provide good modelling. Key luminaires: 50 | Applications and Techniques . If a large number of older students use the space light levels should be suitable. Light naturally attracts people so a well lit reception area and reception desk will help orientate visitors by giving them a visible point of reference. Emergency lighting will be required in many parts of the building. The lighting should support this aim in all teaching and ancillary areas. Luminaires need to be physically robust. and easy to maintain The ambience of different areas should be suitable for the activity performed there.

Modelling is of special importance in areas for students with special needs who may utilise lip-reading or signing. whilst softer modelling is more suitable for informal or close contact. that students can see any teaching aids used (such as a whiteboard or projected information). writing). that modelling is suitable to allow good communication between students and staff. Luminaires should be placed to help orientation by providing a luminous pathway For walls with an interesting texture using luminaires with a significant downlight component positioned close to the wall can create an interesting effect. As corridors and staircases are also main exit routes for emergency situations good emergency lighting with way-guidance is necessary. Special care is needed near stairs to prevent display lights causing glare to people on the staircase. Points of note are: Bright ceilings and walls can make corridor areas seem more open and appealing. Key luminaires: Classrooms/Lecture halls Main objectives are to ensure that students and staff have adequate light to perform their tasks (such as reading. Lighting should prevent heavy shadowing of steps. Stairs should be well lit and glare free. Applications and Techniques | 51 . A good vertical illuminance component should exist to aid the visibility of wall-displays and improve modelling.Education Corridors/Staircases Main objective is to allow students and staff to move around the building safely. Wall mounted fittings can model peoples faces better. but must allow sufficient contrast for people to easily identify changes in level. Display lighting in corridors should be glare free for corridor users. Moderately strong modelling is desirable for formal communication.

If audio-visual projectors are used the luminaires should not impede the projector beam and cause shadowing. However a general drift of light should be present to help with modelling. Points of note are: Light falling on any position should be from multiple sources to prevent heavy shadowing of the task by the student. For rooms containing display screen equipment luminaires with suitable optical control to remove any bright luminance above 65° should be used Flexible luminaire controls should be employed to allow the use of projectors or other audio-visual equipment. Flexible controls can also maximise the benefits of daylight by dimming selected luminaires under good daylight conditions. Specialised lighting for blackboards and whiteboards should be installed to ensure good visibility for all students. These luminaires should not cause glare for the user of the blackboard or whiteboard and be positioned to minimise shadowing during use. Key luminaires: 52 | Applications and Techniques . Good colour rendering is required.Education To help in the visibility of written text and diagrams a high contrast rendering factor (CRF) should exist at all desks. as patterns of light and shade are essential to allow objects to be correctly discerned and to create an interesting environment. Key luminaires: Laboratories/Workshops Main objectives are to ensure that students and staff have adequate light to perform their tasks (such as science experiments or craft projects) and that the lighting aids good visibility and therefore safety. For areas using machinery high frequency control gear should be used to prevent any problems with stroboscopic effects resulting in rotating machinery appearing to be stationary.

a space for formal written examinations. The lighting should illuminate the entire three dimensional space. Luminaires should be robust and have protection against stray objects striking them (such as a wire guard to protect the lamps). Key luminaires: Assembly halls Main objectives are to produce a suitable visual environment for all activities required within the space. A good component of vertical illuminance should exist to aid the modelling of objects and people. Points of note are: This is a place where the school presents itself to visitors at open events such as school open days. These may be school meetings. rehearsals and performances of school productions. etc. Lighting should be designed to project a suitable image for the school. Applications and Techniques | 53 . These may require visibility of relatively small objects moving at high speed. meetings with parents or school productions and concerts. Points of note are: All required sports should be defined and a design produced for the most stringent requirements. against the hall background. or others. or visual conditions suitable for the use of gymnastic equipment. The infinitely variable viewing positions of sports participants require good glare control. Good colour rendering aids in the discrimination of team colours and sporting equipment such as balls. allowing high objects to be easily seen. Lighting controls should be flexible to produce optimum conditions for all required sports.Education Sports halls Main objectives are to ensure that students and staff have adequate light to safely participate in sporting activities. Ideally luminaires should be designed and mounted to minimise the risks of object becoming trapped within or behind them.

Lighting should also gives a good CRF to ensure good visibility of written text and diagrams. Lighting should have no flicker to minimise possible stress in examination conditions. Glare free viewing in this direction should be ensured under all lit conditions. and also lighting that provides the flexibility of a small theatre for public productions and concerts. For areas designed for presentations or performances. Lighting should prevent shadowing of the task by the student. Generally a viewing direction is defined by the hall design. such as staging. such as question papers in formal examinations.Education Lighting control should be flexible to allow for lighting suitable for public meetings. good vertical illuminance and colour rendering are required to aid in modelling and discrimination. Key luminaires: 54 | Applications and Techniques .

7m Luminaire(s) used: 15 custom 2x35W T16 luminaire Floor: Eav = 558 lux . E min /E av = 0.8m Floor: E av = 143lux.7m x 3. E 2.5m x 2.Education Schemes Classrooms Scheme: Design and Technology classroom.5m x 2. 7.4m varies x 2. 15m x 7m x 2.6m Luminaire(s) used: 6 Omega BD/MB 4x18W T26 and 2 Punch 1x58W T26 lighting front board Desks: Eav = 518 lux . varies x 2.88 Scheme: Circulation routes. Emin/Eav = 0. Emin/Eav = 0.70 Applications and Techniques | 55 .4m = ntres.75 Sche m e: Circul ation rout es.22 Luminaire(s) used: 1 Diffusalux II 1x35W T16 Floor: Eav = 96 lux . Emin/Eav = 0.22 190 2x26W TC-D .5m x 5. Scheme: Storeroom.7m high Lumi naire(s) use d: Ch alice Floor: Eav = 143 lux o n min/Eav ce 0. 1.7m high Scheme: Classroom. Luminaire(s) used: Chalice 190 2x26W TC-D on 2.

Lyric ceiling mounted luminaires lighting a school corridor. Recessed fluorescent luminaires lighting a classroom.Education Suspended linear direct/indirect luminaires in a university library. The line of luminaires helps give guidance as to the shape of the corridor. and their appearance brightens the space and visually lifts the ceiling. making the corridor appear pleasant and airy. The ceiling adds significantly to the visual interest of the scene and the linear luminaires mimic the architecture of the ceiling beams. However. also producing a component of uplight that lights up the ceiling and give it life. a lack of controls mean luminaires remain lit in unused sections of the room. The luminaires are laid out to permit maximum flexibility within the space and the walls are pleasantly lit to exhibit poster and displays children’s work. 56 | Applications and Techniques . and are unable to save energy by using the daylight spilling in from windows on the right of the photograph.

safely. even though the normal lighting has failed. Illuminance on a vertical surface is much more sensitive to changes in the spacing between luminaires than illuminance on a horizontal surface. An exception is high bay applications where HST/HSE lamps are acceptable. If the space contains multiple or extensive obstructions the spacing between luminaires will need to be reduced to counteract these and additional low level supplementary lighting may be required. For overhead obstructions where possible install lighting below the obstruction.4 Industry indoor Techniques General The purpose of industrial lighting is to enable quick and accurate work. Therefore the extent of the task area needs to be determined. Applications and Techniques | 57 . In all cases care should be taken to ensure obstructions do not cause shadowing on the task. For others there is a need to continue operations. Emergency lighting will be required to aid in the safe evacuation of the building when the normal lighting fails. Points of note are: Illuminance on the task is the main criteria used for industrial lighting. Illuminance is often required for a vertical task. Alternatively lighting of the machinery may be supplemented using local luminaires.6. In areas containing rotating machinery stroboscopic effects should be eliminated or reduced by either using high frequency control gear (if available) or by having alternate luminaires on different electrical phases and ensuring that critical areas receive light in approximately equal proportions from more than one luminaire. For lamps used in industrial lighting a colour-rendering index of not less than 80 is required for all continuously occupied spaces. and in a good visual environment. The extent and nature of the emergency lighting required is determined by the type of occupancy. Industrial areas generally contain obstructions that affect the lighting. the size and complexity of the site and the processes involved. If the area contains a few large obstructions ensure that all parts of the space are lit by at least two luminaires. In some industrial applications there is an additional requirement to ensure all processes are in a safe and stable state before evacuating the area.

High bay lighting is most suitable in these areas. Linear fluorescent lighting is suitable for these areas and a selection of mounting methods exist. In conditions with poor quality of power low loss magnetic ballasts should be considered instead of electronic ballasts as they could be more durable and tolerant. Factory spaces . At the design stage consideration should be given as to how the lighting installation is to be maintained. Many industrial environments have impurities in the power supply due to electrical motors running. Traditional factory spaces for heavy engineering and manufacturing have high ceilings combined with a dirty environment. access to light fittings is difficult and methods to improve ease of access should be considered. Many industrial spaces have conditions of excessive heat. Additionally in hazardous environments the lighting equipment has to be carefully selected to ensure it does not pose a risk of fire or explosion (see chapter on directives and standards).Industry indoor Luminaires should be chosen to ensure they are suitable for the environmental conditions in the space. cold. Frequently. Alternatively industrial high frequency circuits with extra protection may be available. Lighting should take into account the possibility of moving overhead gantries and moving vehicles such as forklift trucks. or couplers connecting/disconnecting huge loads giving spikes and voltage fluctuations.Points of note are. Information on any airborne chemicals is important as plastics and rubbers have differing resistance to specific chemicals. Key luminaires: 58 | Applications and Techniques . vibration or a corrosive atmosphere. from track mounting to catenary systems. More modern manufacturing areas tend to have lower ceilings and a cleaner environment. along with use of technology that minimises the necessity for intervention for maintenance.

For ceiling heights of 6m or less.Points of note are. The advantages of this are the ability to produce fairly shadow free conditions. care should be taken when using low bay luminaires to prevent excessive glare. In areas with lower ceilings fluorescent lighting is most suitable.Points of note are.Points of note are. and uniform lighting is required across the entire space. A reasonable illuminance on vertical surfaces is required if the reading of identification marks or labels is frequently necessary. a wide choice of lamps of different colour rendering capabilities and colour appearance. Tasks in a workshop vary from large tasks with little visual difficulty to small task with high visual difficulty. Assembly work can vary from large tasks with little visual difficulty to small task with high visual difficulty. The designer needs to understand the degree of difficulty of the task to ensure that the task is adequately lit for the degree of difficulty. For bulk storage at floor level it is generally important to avoid dense shadows. Therefore either linear fluorescent reflector luminaires or low bay luminaires with HID lamps are suitable Key luminaires: Assembly work . The designer needs to understand the degree of difficulty of the task to ensure that the task is adequately lit for the degree of difficulty. Generally ceiling heights are intermediate to low. Lighting should take into account the safety of pedestrians in the presence of moving vehicles such as forklift trucks. Applications and Techniques | 59 . and the ease of using lighting controls and emergency lighting.Industry indoor Workshops . Additionally colour discrimination may be of little importance or essential. Store rooms .

The luminaire should be easily cleaned. maintained and re-lamped. Storage rack areas . Therefore an empty space calculated for 300 lux will only achieve approximately 150 lux if high racks are installed with narrow aisles. Alternatively high pressure sodium lamps can operate reliably at –40°C. It must be ensured that the lamp and luminaire chosen are capable of operating within the low temperatures involved. For mounting heights above 15m HID lamps may be used in luminaires with a narrow lighting distribution across the aisle and a wide lighting distribution along the aisle. from oil or fat vapour laden atmospheres to hazardous environments where the lighting equipment has to be carefully selected to ensure it does not pose a risk of fire or explosion. having minimum horizontal surface area upon which dust can rest and smooth lines with no crevices in which fungus can grow (IP55 minimum). 60 | Applications and Techniques . Lighting should take into account the safety of pedestrians in the presence of moving vehicles such as forklift trucks. Where food product is processed luminaires near the product should be housed in an enclosure that prevents the lamp or any part of the luminaire accidentally falling into the product. It is good practice to light narrow aisles with runs of fluorescent luminaires with narrow distributions arranged along the aisles to even out the vertical illuminance from top to bottom of the racking whilst giving adequate illumination along the aisle. The food and drink industry covers a vast range of working areas. where ambient temperatures can range from –30°C to 50°C.Points of note are.Points of note are. Food and drink processing plants .Points of note are.Industry indoor A suitable method of lighting these spaces is to use a closely spaced overhead layout of luminaires with a wide distribution. High racking can reduce lighting levels by up to 50%. Thermally insulated fluorescent lamps may be used. Cold stores . Therefore great care must be taken to ensure a suitable luminaire is chosen for the specific conditions.

Industry indoor Schemes Aircraft Hanger Scheme: Aircraft maintenance hanger. 125m x 40m. Concavia L 400W HIE. mounting height 7m Hanger area floor: Eav = 591 lux . varying height Luminaire(s) used: Concavia XL 1000W HIE. mounting height 9m and Concavia L 250W HIE.71 Applications and Techniques | 61 . mounting height 15m. Emin/Eav = 0.

Industry indoor Schemes Storage racking Scheme: Storage racking. Factory lighting using Popular Range luminaires.1m long x 6m high Luminaire(s) used: 12 Indus RDx 2x49W T16. 62 | Applications and Techniques . It may therefore be easily adjusted to suit the requirements or any changes to the layout of the factory space. The luminaires are positioned between the trains to give a good vertical component of light falling on the sides of the carriages. racks 5. The luminaires are track mounted to allow easy modification of the lighting layout. mounting height 6m Racking: Eav (vertical) = 137 lux A train workshop lit using fluorescent battens mounted on trunking.

The luminaires need to be able to cope with the relatively hostile and dirty environment. allowing work upon complex machines with minimum shadowing. The shape of the luminaire aids in self-cleaning. Note that this task has no special requirement for colour discrimination. and the use of high pressure sodium lamps ensures a long lamp life. Hi-bay luminaires lighting a large factory space. directing air within the reflector to help remove dirt. Applications and Techniques | 63 . If this was the case the lamp type should be chosen to show colours correctly.Industry indoor Low-bay luminaires lighting a machine workshop. and due to problems of access maintenance requirements for the luminaires need to be minimal. The Lopak luminaires provide a good even illumination.

Illuminance is often required for a vertical task. Luminaires should be chosen to ensure they are suitable for the environmental conditions in the space. In conditions with poor quality of power low loss magnetic ballasts should be considered instead of electronic ballasts as they could be more durable and tolerant. or couplers connecting/disconnecting huge loads giving spikes and voltage fluctuations. Additionally in hazardous environments the lighting equipment has to be carefully selected to ensure it does not pose a risk of fire or explosion (section 9 . Alternatively industrial high frequency circuits with extra protection may be available. Industrial areas generally contain obstructions that affect the lighting. If the space contains multiple or extensive obstructions the spacing between luminaires will need to be reduced to counteract these and additional low level supplementary lighting may be required. and in a good visual environment. 64 | Applications and Techniques . along with use of technology that minimises the necessity for intervention for maintenance. safely. Therefore the extent of the task area needs to be determined. Illuminance on a vertical surface is much more sensitive to changes in the spacing between luminaires than illuminance on a horizontal surface. If the area contains a few large obstructions ensure that all parts of the space are lit by at least two luminaires. In all cases care should be taken to ensure obstructions do not cause shadowing on the task. Frequently access to light fittings is difficult and methods to improve ease of access should be considered. Many industrial spaces have conditions of excessive heat. Points of note are: Illuminance on the task is the main criteria used for industrial lighting. cold.5 Industry outdoor Techniques General The purpose of industrial lighting is to enable quick and accurate work.Directives and Standards). At the design stage consideration should be given as to how the lighting installation is to be maintained.6. For overhead obstructions where possible install lighting below the obstruction. vibration or a corrosive atmosphere. Information on any airborne chemicals is important as plastics and rubbers have differing resistance to specific chemicals. Many industrial environments have impurities in the power supply due to electrical motors running.

This can include direct light and reflected light from other surfaces. motorised vehicles and pedestrians. Higher light levels are required in areas where goods are loaded/unloaded and for potential conflict areas where cargo is sorted into handling bays or railway sidings. in that it is common for a maximum permissible voltage of 110V to be stipulated for all equipment that is accessible to site workers. excavations and incomplete structures. and should not be in too close proximity to electrified lines. along with building materials. Temporary lighting is normally by special linear fluorescent or tungsten halogen luminaires.Industry outdoor Building sites Main objective is to provide a safe work environment in an area which may contain machinery. Lighting equipment should be sited to ensure it does not obstruct movement of cargo handling equipment. storage areas Main objective is to provide a safe work environment in an area which may contain machinery. Applications and Techniques | 65 . Luminaires should be sited to allow for vehicular access to all necessary areas. Care should be taken to avoid lighting obscuring or decreasing the visibility of signalling equipment. This excludes the use of high-pressure discharge fixtures except where installed at a height that excludes access by normal site personnel. Key luminaires: Cargo handling. Building sites can provide a special environment. motorised vehicles and pedestrians and in which the size and position of obstructions may vary over time.

High mounted floodlights in a number of positions situated outside the main area can provide adequate light for safe movement and some task work. It should be ensured that the transition between areas with higher light levels to those with lower light levels is gradual to allow the eye to adapt to the changed light level. Luminaires used should be correct for the environment they are used in. machinery. Additional task lighting may be required for specific locations. Additional task lighting in the form of floodlights mounted on crane structures. 66 | Applications and Techniques . For petrochemical facilities and tank farms plant layout is normally complex with major light obstruction and work being performed at many levels above ground level. motorised vehicles and pedestrians and in which the consequences of safety issues may be especially serious. Directives and Standards).Industry outdoor For large container storage areas general area lighting may be insufficient for giving adequate light on the task. Key luminaires: Petrochemical and other hazardous areas Main objective is to provide a safe work environment in an area which may contain a hazardous atmosphere. Environments are classified using the ATEX system and luminaires should be adequate for the ATEX classification of the environment (section 9. Additional local lighting can also be used mounted on fixed hoppers and conveyors. or low voltage sealed beam units mounted on forklift trucks can be used.

safety is also very important and local regulations for these should be consulted. As the workings increase in size re-aiming of existing luminaires may be required. This will help prevent the need to relocate lighting masts. Additionally the colour rendering qualities of the lighting should be chosen to ensure the goods are displayed with a good colour appearance. and to allow customers to examine and purchase goods. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 67 . motorised vehicles. and will allow forward planning for additional lighting to be installed as the workings increase in size. Therefore the lighting installation should be designed for the expected maximum dimensions of the excavations.Industry outdoor Quarries and open cast workings Main objective is to provide a safe work environment in an area that may contain machinery. both in size and depth of workings. If the sales area is adjacent to a road care should be taken to ensure the lighting does not introduce glare to motorists or pedestrians. A high vertical component of light is generally required to show the sales goods. The illuminance of the sales area should be proportional to the brightness of the surrounding district and should respect the requirements for the environmental lighting zone classification (see section on control of obtrusive light). For areas such as petrol filling stations. Key luminaires: Sales areas Main objective is to advertise the presence of the sales area. With quarries and open cast mines the dimensions of the area to light will change over time. pedestrians and uneven and loose ground conditions.

Lighting should be mounted as high as possible (12m or more above ground level) to minimise shadowing from lorry trailers. Key luminaires: 68 | Applications and Techniques .Industry outdoor Lorry parks Main objective is to provide a safe environment in an area that contains large motorised vehicles and pedestrians. Ease of maintenance should be considered during design. This minimises the risk of columns and lighting being damaged by manoeuvring vehicles. Where possible lorry parks should be lit from the boundaries of the parking area. and head-frames that may be raised and lowered should be considered. If columns have to be mounted within the parking area they should be protected by crash barriers or similar.

Industry outdoor Schemes Transformer sub-station Scheme: Transformer sub-station Luminaire(s) used: Troika 400W HST (main building) and PRT 500W QT-DE with 3m mounting height (transformer areas) Typical transformer area: Eav = 23 lux Applications and Techniques | 69 .

3 luminaires per wire. Columns spaced at 25m Track area: Eav = 41 lux . The floodlights mounted on the top of the structure light the suspended walkway.Industry outdoor Schemes Railway lighting Scheme: Railway lighting.22 Floodlighting at a port facility. and 250W HST mounted columns with 10. Emin/Eav = 0.3m mounting height. whilst additional floodlights mounted below the walkway prevent deep shadows being cast by the walkway onto the dockside.3m mounting height. section 100m x 24m Luminaire(s) used: Victor Stora 150W HST catenary mounted with 7. 1 luminaire per column. 70 | Applications and Techniques .

circadian rhythms and recovery rates form many illnesses. Applications and Techniques | 71 . The choice of lighting can affect task performance.6. the use of lighting controls offers not only added comfort but also impacts heavily on energy. transmission by the touch of a hand can add to the spread of infection. lighting both for an enormous range of tasks. and also designed with suitable ingress protection for dust and moisture both into the luminaire and from the ceiling void through the luminaire into the clean space. In addition. Airborne particulates as small as 0. administration. waiting. some times requiring extreme levels of visual performance and yet creating a space that satisfies today’s energy requirements and just as importantly the comfort needs of the patients. The information given below is in two sections.5µm can transfer harmful bacteria. In lighting terms we need to defend against this by using luminaires that have the minimum area of horizontal or near horizontal surfaces on which dust may collect. changes in daylight and add levels of user comfort to a space. Such luminaires will utilise materials impervious to bacteria. Thus it is common practice for modern spaces to include good daylight design. the fundamental requirements for lighting for healthcare and lighting requirements for specific locations. staff and visitors. their sleep patterns. Daylight Research shows that daylight and window view can have positive effects on patients. Given that good levels of daylight should be expected in areas for treatment. circulation and overnight stay. The fundamental requirements for lighting for healthcare could be as follows: Cleanliness Infection control is of prime importance in all healthcare buildings. luminaires with only downward and vertical faces or those specifically designed for clean environments.6 Healthcare Techniques General The lighting of healthcare spaces presents one of the most difficult tasks for any lighting designer. The addition of lighting controls can allow for changing tasks. well-being and whether patients and visitors feel the space is clean and safe. In areas of high infection risk. All luminaires that could collect dust or be touched by hand should be designed to be easily cleaned.

All lamps within these areas should have an Ra of at least 90. In this case it is likely that the condition of patients will mean it is difficult to evacuate them in an emergency. This is extended to include flesh and other colours during invasive treatments. but in areas where there is a wish to provide a more homely feel. Apart from the above emergency lighting should be designed to meet the requirements of EN1838. In other spaces where diagnosis and treatment is not carried out colour rendering can be relaxed to an Ra of 80. high quality source of colour rendering should be provided. The point of view of a recumbent patient will need to be thought about to limit discomfort glare in many circulation and treatment spaces. A generator will generally supply standby lighting and special account of the changeover and run up time will be needed. for example nearer 2700K for the UK. Escape routes generally will be covered by luminaires with integral emergency control gear. Emergency lighting Emergency lighting is required for the movement of patients. 72 | Applications and Techniques . The other aspect to colour is that of colour temperature. Colour Skin tone and eye colour in many healthcare establishments are often important in diagnosis. In certain healthcare buildings the emergency lighting will need to take account of tasks that have to continue even when other spaces may be evacuated. the colour temperature may need to be matched to that prevalent at home. this is called Standby lighting. the illuminance provided by the standby lighting should equal 90% of the normal mains illuminance or there about. but on no account should lamps of different colour rendering be mixed in the same space. Some patients will almost certainly be physically or mentally incapacitated. or to allow time at points of refuge. Emergency lighting for these situations should be sufficient to allow progressive evacuation. such as operating theatres. staff and visitors to a place of safety. delivery rooms and high dependency units.Healthcare Fields of view Remember that the field of view in many healthcare spaces may include the ceiling and upper walls and often may include luminaires. Hence the ability of light sources to render true colours is vital in all areas where diagnosis and treatment is carried out. Other important tasks but in non-critical areas will require standby lighting generally to 50% of the normal level. Common practice is to use 4000K lamps in all healthcare spaces. In critical areas. and a consistent. Similarly different colour temperatures should not be mixed in any one space.

Additionally the circadian functions may be compromised through age and damage caused by small strokes. especially at the blue end of the spectrum. to preserve the bodies sleep cycle. However the use of blue biased white light for health is still a relatively new concept with limited knowledge on benefits and potential side-effects so at present blue biased white light should be used sparingly and with care. Artificial lighting should incorporate features to help provide sufficient light during waking hours for health benefits. soft lighting enhances this.Healthcare Light for comfort Recent research shows strong links between good lighting. All of these result in poor quality of sleep. Equally areas of strong colour. clinical background and has been shown to relax and reduce stress. But the effect of surface colour can be immense. using both artificial light and by designing the environment to aid access to natural light and to make the outdoor environment more attractive and friendly. Applications and Techniques | 73 . Recent research also indicates that light therapy may have potential for improving the quality of life for elderly people. Also in the elderly the reduction in mobility and tolerance of adverse weather (such as cold. Use of blues and green (used for calming effect in mental health institutions) may actually exacerbate depression. preferable amber. if boring. the modern fashions (greys and browns) may be under stimulating for long-term patients. the consequences of any artificial lighting on the carers should be carefully considered to prevent further problems. but care must be taken to prevent compromising the ability for clinical diagnosis. Importantly. Light therapy may be used to help improve sleep quality. will need to be well lit to give full vibrancy. For instance colour should be chosen to flatter the patients appearance. not only in terms of reflected light but also energy efficiency and wellbeing.g. The reception of blue light decreases with age due to the aging of the eye reducing its efficiency. wind and rain) mean elderly people experience a reduction in ability to go out of doors. otherwise the surface and hence the space itself will appear dark. Therefore they receive less exposure to bright light. the colour of light and human comfort. and especially bright light of the correct wavelengths. Also consider colour psychology e. Colour and reflectance High reflectance materials are required to give visual lightness. High chroma colours will affect clinical diagnosis – Grey is a good. such as murals in children’s wards. orange or red in colour. but during the night only provide minimum light for safety. For instance warm colour temperatures make patients look healthier and improve patient moral.

the latter being achieved through asymmetric luminaires mounted along one side of the corridor. 74 | Applications and Techniques . Entrance halls. and so on. access for wheel chairs. Streets will have relatively high use and will be wider and often higher than conventional corridors. unloading ambulances. An approach focused on the many tasks and points of view is important. Hospital streets and other circulation routes Hospital “streets” form the major links between clinical departments with smaller corridors often running off to other areas. the lighting will require dimming or switching to a lower level at night. This will provide good facial recognition for CCTV. Lighting solutions should provide good vertical illumination avoiding down lights with harsh cut-offs. including enquiry and patient reception. the lighting should enhance this where ever possible Reception These areas. Staff here will often have to use computer display screens. care being needed to maintain uniformity above 0. This is can be achieved either through dimming or switching. Spill light and glare to patient rooms and to trolley bourn patients must also be considered. In many corridors. waiting areas and lift lobbies Lighting here should emphasise points of interest such as reception desks. Where there is sufficient daylight savings can be made using daylight linked dimming controls.Healthcare The lighting requirements for specific locations could be as follows: Entrance canopies It is important that entrances are clearly lit to advertise the way into the building whilst providing sufficient light for the task perhaps including driving. signage and onward routes. certainly those in areas occupied by patient’s overnight. Where there are a number of routes to different departments signage may take the form of coloured lines. should make the patient and visitor feel welcome and provide both staff and visitors with good facial modelling through good vertical illuminance. flooring or other decoration. but the emphasis on this should never out weigh user comfort.2.

The lighting near the doors to bedded wards will require careful illuminance and luminance control. Suspended luminaires: The ceiling height for suspended luminaires should not be less than 3m to ensure adequate clearance for mobile apparatus used at the bedside. The mounting height above the floor should not be less than 2. In wet or humid environments the lighting should be of a suitable ingress protection.7m nor greater than 3. Stairs Stairs require careful lighting and tread colour design to ensure the tread is clear to all users including those with visual disability. Lighting should be positioned for lockers.2 for the floor. However. washrooms and changing areas Lighting should be sympathetic avoiding harsh directional light or shadowing. measured at floor level. note that in some countries additional luminaire luminance limits are also specified.5 for the walls and 0. Lighting of bedded areas The general lighting must be adequate for the care of the patients by the nursing staff. To achieve this the reflectance of the major surfaces should be of the order of 0. Three hour self-contained emergency lighting is needed on all escape routes. For these duties to be performed efficiently the illuminance inside a curtained bedded area should be no less than 300 lux from a combination of ambient and task lighting and the illuminance in the central space between the bed foot rails should be not less than 100 lux (75 lux when all curtains are closed). WCs. The balance of brightness and colour of the surroundings should help to provide a visually pleasing interior.7 for the ceiling. facial modelling and veiling reflections in mind. Stairs will need careful emergency lighting. Good glare control is needed with UGR limited to 19. though higher ceiling and wall reflectance is essential when lighting the ward from the bed head position. Applications and Techniques | 75 . mirrors sinks and make up areas with the task. 0.5m. Treads need clear and reasonably uniform lighting with some element of contrast to the riser. whereas soffit mounted luminaires often create installation and maintenance problems.Healthcare Ward corridors need specific night lighting techniques to allow safe movement of staff without affecting patient rest. Glare from wall-mounted fittings should be limited by using lower brightness light sources. normally IP54 or better.

An illuminance of 15-20 lux is adequate.7m. Night lighting: Night lighting is required to provide enough light for safe movement of patients and staff. without the disturbance. the cut off angle being 20° within the curtained area and 35° in central zones.4m and 3m high.7m. Dual systems: For dual systems in which supplementary lighting along the side walls of the bedded area is used. It should not disturb lightly sleeping patients. it is possible to provide the recommended illuminance at the bedhead only by using ceiling mounted luminaires. If these luminaires will not provide the illuminance required at the bedhead a dual system will be required. ceiling mounted luminaires may still be suitable. In areas with ceiling heights between 2. if used. The illuminance on the bedhead should not exceed 0. The most suitable height for wall-mounted luminaires is a minimum of 1. Reading lights/examination lighting: The patient’s reading light is required to give 300 lux directly on a task area in front of the patient.4m and 2. The luminance of any luminaire left on during the night should not exceed 30 cd/m2 as seen by patients from their beds. Hand-held switches. high-level wall or ceiling mounted luminaires should be used and the switches should be out of the patient’s reach. Recessed and semi-recessed luminaires: Recessed and semi-recessed luminaires may be used in ceilings between 2. should be of the extra low voltage type. Staff or nursing tasks at the bedhead can also use the reading light. If treatment is given at the bedside requiring an illuminance exceeding 300 lux.5 lux Watch lighting: The purpose of watch lighting is to allow continuous observation of a particular patient after the general lighting has been switched off. either a mobile examination luminaire is required or the reading light is to be designed to provide this illuminance by switching.Healthcare Ceiling mounted luminaires: The ceiling height may be 3m or less. 76 | Applications and Techniques . Reading lights are usually provided for all beds in hospitals. Wall mounted luminaires: Modern lighting systems comply with the general recommendations using only semi direct wall mounted luminaires with fluorescent lamps. 0. The illuminance for the circulation space should be an average 5 lux on circulation spaces. but it may be undesirable to have them within easy reach of children and mentally ill patients. For such circumstances.85m off the floor and a maximum of 10lux. which would be caused by the patient’s reading light.

greeting visitors and PC use. Applications and Techniques | 77 . Many of these are covered elsewhere. Dimming control is essential to allow staff to reduce the illuminance at night. preparation. The theatre surgical lights are specialist and should be provided as part of the overall theatre equipment. Improved IP ratings or luminaires suitable for regular wash down and cleaning may need to be considered. treatment and movement. such as dimming and glare control in ophthalmic rooms. Luminaires chosen for these spaces must be easy to clean and maintain and should have an IP rating of 65 from below and 54 or better from above. Ancillary areas & other specialist spaces Healthcare buildings contain many ancillary areas to do with the efficient and safe functioning of the whole building. this will include good vertical illuminance from the ambient lighting. noise and EMC control in scanner and audiology and electromedical screening rooms. In specialist treatment and examination rooms not mentioned above there may be other requirements too. be dimmable to suit the surgical need and take account of the high number of monitoring screens. Lighting also needs to provide good uniformity. Operating Theatres and associated clinical spaces Lighting here needs to provide for clinical examination. Lighting colour rendering and temperature should be chosen for clinical diagnosis rather than energy efficiency. In an emergency all lighting should be retained at full brightness. often using negative polarity displays.Healthcare Nurses’ stations and staff bases Nurses’ stations provide for a number of tasks including dispensing medicine. Lighting should allow for all these tasks both during the day and at night. but special care may need to be paid to protecting healthcare environments from hospital bourn diseases. ad hoc meetings. To do so will require lighting that has good luminance control both to reduce glare to PC users and patients sleeping nearby.

Emin/Eav = 0. 7.7m Luminaire(s) used: Bedhead mounted uplight and reading light Ward floor: Eav = 141 lux .7 78 | Applications and Techniques . 8m x 3m x 2.6m x 2. Emin/Eav = 0.7m Luminaire(s) used: 3 Diffusalux Hospital 2x35W T16 Desk height: Eav = 440 lux .6m x 6.68 Scheme: Consulting room.Healthcare Schemes Healthcare rooms Scheme: 4-bed ward.

An additional advantage for bed head systems is ease of access for maintenance and cleaning.Healthcare Lighting in hospital wards may use bed head luminaires with integrated services such as oxygen. they do not rely on uplight being reflected from the ceiling to give ambient lighting to the room. When using ceiling recessed lighting it is important that it is planned in conjunction with other services to ensure a clear space in the ceiling void for the luminaire. Corridors and circulation areas should be well lit and airy. Applications and Techniques | 79 . and looking into luminaires whilst travelling down the corridor may create an unpleasant flicker effect. etc. unlike bed head systems. or ceiling mounted luminaires (either surface mounted or recessed). The advantage of a bed head luminaire is the flexibility of lighting. and differing amounts of down light allowing a patient to read or a doctor to examine the patient. electricity. Ideally ceiling mounted lighting should avoid the centre of the corridor as recumbent patients being wheeled along the corridor should not be looking directly into a luminaire as this may be glaring. Ceiling mounted luminaires allow easier centralised control of lighting by nursing staff and may be a more energy efficient solution as. with uplighting supplying ambient light to the ward.

Creating interest: using accent lighting to create areas that make a customer curious and wanting to see more. Luminaires have to be chosen in order to underline and reinforce the individual character of the shop brand or chain of stores. 80 | Applications and Techniques . especially in the case of frequent modifications to the store layout or promotions. As well as good horizontal light levels vertical light levels are important as shop goods tend to be held in vertical shelving units As this is background store lighting a high uniformity is required Luminaires should be placed perpendicular to shelving in order to facilitate any reorganisation of the shelving and the possibility of variable spacing of shelving due to different types of goods being sold in different areas. Visual guidance: the lighting must help the customer navigate around the shop. Flexibility: marketing trends and initiatives change frequently and in order to influence customers into rediscovering a shop it should be possible to easily adapt the lighting to new requirements. Colour appearance of the light determines the overall ambience but colour rendering characteristics have a direct impact on ensuring that the objects are shown to their best advantage. can positively influence a customer. It also needs to satisfy more down-to-earth requirements such as facilitating orientation or to attract customer attention to special displays or points of interests. General lighting Main objective is to provide a background ambience and to give light for guidance.6. as well as the general atmosphere.7 Super/hypermarket Techniques General The purpose of a super/hypermarket lighting scheme is to make the store as appealing as possible to customers. The fundamental requirements for shop lighting could be as follows: Creating atmosphere: the way goods are presented and lit. Lighting should allow consumers to examine the merchandise and should help complete the sale.

Accent lighting should be at least 3x brighter than the surround to be noticeable or 5x brighter to be meaningful. and also the possible options for display. which highlights a specific central display with feature merchandise. product and customer in order to enhance the prospects of a sale. such as vertical shelving and can use valance systems or linear wall-washing systems Key luminaires: Lighting clothing The primary purpose of lighting is to make merchandise look good. The aim of this is to give a maximum expression to merchandise. enhancing form.Super/hypermarket Key luminaires: Accent lighting By locally increasing or decreasing the quantity of light it is possible to create variation in shadows and brightness. mid. The market positioning of the store (high. It can be linear fluorescent or spotlighting depending on the type of display Perimeter lighting provides vertical illumination for merchandise along walls. Focal-point lighting. should be 10x brighter than the surround and generally uses spotlighting Display case lighting illuminates merchandise in glass or open cases and shelves. When lighting clothing a flexible lighting solution is needed to allow the lighting to be reconfigured when displays are altered or moved. texture and colour in contrast with the surroundings. increasing the desirability of the item leading to a sale. as clothing Applications and Techniques | 81 . Ideally this should optimise the relationship between space. low-tier) should be considered when designing the installation.

However. Key luminaires: 82 | Applications and Techniques . New generations of metal halide lamp offer a wide choice of warm or cool white light. One of the main issues with clothing is colour rendering and colour temperature. Any post purchase dissatisfaction when seeing the article in the daylight must be avoided. and should be as efficient as practicable. Differing materials used in the design of the display fittings and the size of the displays will require differing lighting techniques. Customers need to see the items they are thinking of buying in a quality of light that shows the garment correctly. LED luminaires can be smaller and easy to blend into the background.Super/hypermarket may be hung on rails. Also note that the UV characteristics of the lamp should be checked to ensure that it is suitable for the material being lit and will cause no effects such as fading of colours. This kind of light is often realised with suspended structures hanging above the displays allowing spotlights integration. downlights and track mounted spotlights remain the most common fixtures. The Ra of the lamp must be at least 85 so that colours are reproduced as faithfully as possible. Key luminaires: Greengrocery Main objectives are to ensure that fruits and vegetables are shown under the best colour rendering bright light. Warm accents are preferred with a low content of actinic radiations (to prevent fading of colour in goods) and low heat radiation. LEDs with their improved performance are also becoming more widely used. displayed on shelves or shown in an entirely novel way. However lighting should remain discrete to ensure the main focus is the merchandise. Using specific type of lamps that create colourful accents can bring out freshness of produce.

Super/hypermarket Bakery. Recessed luminaires provide a good illuminance level. oven-fresh appearance can be created on the bread. Key luminaires: Wines and spirits A lower lighting level helps to recreate the atmosphere of a wine cellar. cheese and delicatessen A warm. Key luminaires: Fresh food counters The ceiling is often lower than in the rest of the hypermarket. while cream pastries appear appetising when illuminated by halogen lamps or warm white metal halide. With lower dark ceilings mounted with fluorescent downlights the atmosphere may be emphasised further. accentuating the freshness of the displays with a combination of different high Ra colour lamps. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 83 .

Particular attention has to be paid to avoid any glare at the cashier position in order to assure a comfortable activity with no mistakes. communication. help present the sales policy and brand positioning.Super/hypermarket Task lighting This provides illumination for a specific functional area such as the checkout counter. etc. Key luminaires: Signage Additional to guidance the use of lighting to signal locations and features is important. graphemes. Key luminaires: Guidance Indoor guidance . This is not to be confused with accent or focal-point lighting. The area beyond the checkout should be lit to a level that provides a transition zone for shoppers leaving the supermarket and going into daylight or the dark of night. For outdoor lighting. logos. This guidance is sometimes mandatory for safety reasons: exit ways being indicated in case of emergency evacuations. facades. and lighting has to be established in order to guide customers. Key luminaires: 84 | Applications and Techniques .due to the diversity of goods a clear communication with colours.

Sirios 150W HIT-DE (spotlight) and 2x55W Voyager Twinspot (emergency lighting) Sales area: Eav = 802 lux .Super/hypermarket Schemes Super-store Scheme: Computer super-store. 37m x 51m x 7m Luminaire(s) used: Primata II 2x58W T26 with 5m mounting height.68 Applications and Techniques | 85 . Emin/Eav = 0.

76 Scheme: Hypermarket. It is important to ensure a good level of vertical illuminance on shelving so that products are adequately lit. 80m x 63m Luminaire(s) used: Arena 2x70W T26 Floor: Eav = 980 lux .Super/hypermarket Schemes Hypermarket Scheme: Hypermarket. Emin/Eav = 0. Colour of light can make a large impact on the appearance of goods and should be carefully matched to the requirements of the product on display. Emin/Eav = 0. 86 | Applications and Techniques . 80m x 63m Luminaire(s) used: Arena 2x70W T26 Floor: Eav = 560 lux .83 Wall-washing luminaires illuminating food products on shelving.

Applications and Techniques | 87 .Super/hypermarket The lighting should allow for large obstructions such as signage and seasonal decorations to be displayed without causing shadowing. light appearing to come from inside the object. Glass and crystal objects should be made to sparkle. Lighting demands may vary across the store. Consideration should be given as to the goods being lit. Accent lighting along the front of counters can make them stand out and appear more welcoming. with differing store configuration and colour needs. whilst solid objects such as clothes need to have light projected onto them.

and research has shown that good road lighting will significantly reduce accidents. the speed of the traffic and if pedestrians are present – mixed usage areas.e. Crime rates also determine the lighting level required. vehicles. Additionally latest technology has improved efficacy in lamps with a higher colour rendering such as CFL and HIT-CE and some of the latest standards benefit this technology and allows using a lower class but improving the quality of the light. As one of main concerns in road lighting is extended maintenance operations luminaires with high IP ratings are recommended In addition to extended maintenance periods it is also desirable to reduce the maintenance and installation operations to a minimum. Operating costs and environmental impact are important and the use of photocells to reduce the number of hours the lighting is used can be very economical. therefore the use of a tool-free lantern is suggested. pedestrians and obstructions depends upon the amount or density of traffic. poorer colour discrimination and a much lower tolerance to disability glare – hence the increased accident risk to drivers and pedestrians.6. This can be reinforced by the use of different lamp colours to distinguish a change of road classification or area definition. Road lighting provides guidance through conflict areas such as junctions. Lighting control systems can provide even further savings by allowing switching or dimming of lamps at of-peak or night time situations.8 Road lighting Techniques General The human eye does not perform well in the dark or at dusk when visual performance is impaired by lower visual acuity. The amount of light required on a road to reveal objects i. 88 | Applications and Techniques . If illuminance has to be considered all the involved areas have to be taken into account including vehicles and pedestrian. preferably HST/E ones. For traffic routes a silhouette vision system is used. so the road characteristics and the observer positions needs to be determined. Road lighting plays a very important role in reducing accidents. Road lighting can also have a secondary effect of preventing crime. Lamps with a high luminous efficacy are mainly used. Points of note are: Luminance is the main criteria for traffic route lighting.

Highways and high speed roads . Multiple fitting enclosures are available although each has an optimal application. shallow glass maximises optical performance and flat glass reduces possible glare issues. These roads are designed for high speeds (>60km/h) and no pedestrians. Although this increases initial investment it is shortly repaid by extending lamp life and maintenance periods. mounting height. from a single fitting controlled by a photocell to a large-scale installation monitored from a remote control point and managing luminaire data in real time. in all cases the adjacent areas should be taken into account and that will define the best option.Points of note are. Better optical fittings can be used but try to keep a similar layout. At the design stage not only the requirements for the road have to be considered. Brackets should be considered to optimise performance. When considering a possible proposal for a road it is recommended to have information of the existing road lighting. etc.Road lighting The use of electronic control gear is recommended. Therefore lighting controls should be considered because in addition to reducing power consumption they extend lamp life and give the possibility to remotely identify failures and optimise maintenance operations. a polycarbonate bowl is highly recommended and the use of vandal proof screws to fix the luminaire to the column and reinforced closing clips secured by special screws are also recommended. Lighting controls for road lighting applications cover a wide range of applications. Applications and Techniques | 89 . Polycarbonate enclosures are more resistant to vandal attacks. When houses and the road are close to each other low mounting heights. cyclists or slow vehicles are involved. In these cases it is good to introduce newer technologies without confusing the users. There are no intersections and access is controlled. In low mounting height installations with a risk of vandal attacks. use of brackets and low glare fittings are a highly recommended although this may not lead to be the best functional solution. Traditional mounting heights are above 12 m to properly light a twin carriageway with 3 or 4 lanes plus a hard shoulder at either side. Many projects are a continuation of previous installations or new parts from a previously light area.

Key luminaires: Main Roads . A common installation is using columns around 10m high and in an opposite or twin central configuration but it needs to always be related to the road layout. an opposite installation with columns behind the hard shoulder can improve maintenance operations and reduce traffic disruption when in process.Road lighting Although traditionally columns have been installed in a central reservation. Where cycle and pedestrian pathways are present the use of luminaires with different lamp settings is beneficial to comply with requirements for the road and also to be able to correctly light the pathways without needing to change the pole characteristics. As glare becomes a major concern an optimised designed optic and/or the use of flat glass enclosures are necessary. The main usage of the road is for vehicles at high speed (>60km/h) but pedestrians. Key luminaires: 90 | Applications and Techniques . cyclists or slow vehicles may also be present on footpaths. the number of lanes involved and the lighting criteria to achieve. cycle paths and slow lanes.Points of note are. Intersections can be present and need special attention. As in all road lighting applications a high IP rating has to be considered to extend maintenance periods.

As these roads can be of multiple lanes the main concern is the common use by cyclist and pedestrians usage. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 91 . Luminaire mounting heights around 8 and 10m in a staggered or single sided arrangement are usual. In some cases. Intersections are very common. although many other possibilities can be considered due to the multiple layouts of these roads. These are normally medium to low speed roads with a large number of slow vehicles and pedestrians. Key luminaires: Mixed traffic roads . For regional roads low luminance classes should be applied and illuminance classes where pedestrian usage is relevant.Road lighting Ring roads and radial roads . although in some commercial streets with wide footpaths an additional column and luminaire may be used to achieve high quality lighting and differentiate areas. when a road has many lanes and cycle and/or pedestrian pathways are also present the use of twin poles may be considered (i.Points of note are. using an additional luminaire at a separate mounting height to light the adjacent pathways) or alternatively the use of bollards which also provide a physical separation between traffic types. Regional roads and urban roads are mainly part of this group as well as commercial streets. Columns no higher than 8m are commonly used in a single sided or staggered layout.Points of note are.e. These are usually medium speed roads and high-speed urban roads where pedestrians and cyclists are common. In these cases using different light sources for motorised and other traffic (such as high pressure sodium and a white light lamp) can help to differentiate between the two areas.

Pedestrian areas and local and residential roads are mainly part of this group. These roads are normally used by low speed mixed traffic. Single sided layouts may be used to reduce installation costs although layouts may vary due to multiple access points to private car parks or properties. Low mounting heights are common. Low glare luminaires should be considered to reduce light trespass onto adjacent residential housing. 92 | Applications and Techniques . Additionally the location and the orientation of the luminaires can help avoid any light trespass into houses. In these areas traffic. In terms of lighting the highest applicable class should be used in these areas. Lighting in these areas has to increase awareness and guidance to drivers and pedestrians regarding the geometry of the area and the position of other users. Lighting classes tend to be from lower categories and in residential areas the use of high colour rendering lamps to improve perception is recommended. The use of staggered layouts is common when parking lanes and wide footpaths are present. either motorised or pedestrian.Points of note are.Road lighting Residential and local roads . with column height usually under 6m.Points of note are. converges from many directions. Key luminaires: Conflict areas and junctions . In applications where crime ratios are high and facial recognition is required vertical and semi-cylindrical illuminance classes should be applied. using the highest class of the incoming roads.

Columns can play a major role not only in terms of providing lighting but also to give guidance to the geometry of the area.Road lighting Access and exit lanes should be highlighted. When positioning the luminaires the main aim is to help the incoming vehicles visibility. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 93 . When entering a junction from a minor road a luminaire should be positioned to make vehicles visible as they approach the conflict area. including a short section of these lanes away from the conflict area. This is to ensure any obstacle in these areas is visible. On roundabouts columns placed in a single sided configuration around the outer part of a curve provide a clear guidance for a driver as they approach the area. A common technique is to increase the height of the columns in the conflict area and on the approaches.

10m mounting height. Threshold increment = 2% Scheme: Access ramp.95m Luminaire(s) used: Triumph 1 150W HST. Total width 10.75 cd/m² . 0. 36m spacing. opposite arrangement. width 4m Luminaire(s) used: Orus 70W CDM-T. Emin/Eav = 0. 5° tilt Road: Lav = 5.5m spacing Road: Eav = 33 lux .Road lighting Schemes Traffic Scheme: Traffic route. 3 lanes.59. Emin = 15 lux 94 | Applications and Techniques .9m mounting height. 10.

Windage is directly related to the surface area of any furniture mounted on or fixed to the column. and therefore adding additional objects to the column will increase the windage loading. a column height that is too low will reduce installation performance and require additional lanterns. This can create a less cluttered environment at street level. Lighting columns are constructed to withstand a defined windage (that is the force of the wind on the column). However. Catenary lighting solutions in which the lanterns are suspended along the centre of the carriageway are popular in many countries and remove the need for lighting columns and brackets.Road lighting Lighting columns and fixtures may be themed to blend into and complement the area they are situated within. as well as the performance of the lighting during darkness. although in architecturally interesting areas thought should be given as to the effect of the additional cabling on the field of view. Frequently lighting columns collect additional street furniture. and may cause weakening of the column and structural failure. Careful choice of column height is necessary to prevent lighting becoming excessively visible and detracting from the view. such as banners or signage. Whenever designing an installation the impact of the lighting hardware on a scene during daylight hours should be considered. Applications and Techniques | 95 .

The mix of slow moving vehicles and pedestrians creates a challenge and the main emphasis is towards pedestrians. partially sighted and handicapped pedestrians are present. whether by using styled lighting equipment or by the use of different colour appearance light sources to provide aesthetic interest. reducing accidents and helping prevent crime and the fear of crime. 96 | Applications and Techniques . Feeder Roads generally use asymmetric light distribution street lanterns on 8–10m columns with outreach arms to position the lantern in the optimum location for road geometry. underpasses and general security lighting. particularly where children. car parks both indoor and outdoor. Correctly designed lighting systems however will help drivers and pedestrians recognise potentially dangerous situations and will also help reduce crime against people.6. vehicles and property. precincts. For dual carriageway installations lanterns mounted back to back on centrally mounted lighting columns provide good economy and lighting efficiency. residential streets. Good amenity lighting can provide guidance through city or town areas by the use of themed lighting.Points of note are. Feeder Roads . Lighting control systems can provide even further savings by allowing switching or dimming of lamps at of-peak or night time situations. Lighting can fulfil both functional and decorative elements by providing sufficient lighting to provide orientation and direction with security after dark. pedestrian crossings. cycle paths. town squares. Alternatively lanterns can be post top mounted (without the outreach arm) but the lanterns will need the ability to re-direct the lantern peak intensity (typically using an adjustable lampholder) into road centre to improve efficiency and reduce installation and running costs.9 Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Techniques General Amenity lighting provides the essential lighting for the city or town shopping centres. The risk of accidents is much greater on feeder roads from the high volume and speed of vehicles. Operating costs and environmental impact are important and the use of photocells to reduce the number of hours the lighting is used can be very economical. elderly. However it is important to ensure the pavements are adequately illuminated. parks.

White light sources provide good colour rendering conditions for drivers and pedestrians improving visual perception and helping to provide early warning of impending situations. improve efficiency and create less glare to drivers and residents. Narrow pavements may need lanterns mounted using wall brackets. Lanterns can be themed or styled to suit neighbourhood road and architectural layout.Points of note are. Vandalism should not be a problem to lanterns mounted at 8-10m but in extreme cases polycarbonate bowls might be required. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 97 . High-pressure sodium light sources are more efficient but suffer from poorer colour rendering characteristics. For local and residential roads post top lanterns on 5-8m poles with a symmetric or asymmetric distribution will help provide good vertical illuminance. Vandal and impact resistant luminaires may be required using polycarbonate. Light above the horizontal should be avoided to reduce sky glow. compact fluorescent and induction lamps provide good colour rendering conditions for drivers and pedestrians. Key luminaires: Local and residential roads . improving visual perception and helping to provide early warning of impending situations. Strongly themed lanterns may require a lower mounting height 4-5m.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas White light sources – Metal halide.

Creating visual interest can help to highlight architectural features within the areas and can also provide guidance through the area. Points of note are: For arcades and canopied areas lighting levels should be relatively high to match those of the surrounding shop windows. Points of note are: Access to squares is often through mixed vehicle and pedestrian access routes requiring high levels of illuminance for safety. Key luminaires: Squares/Open areas The object of the lighting should promote easy movement of pedestrian’s with a feeling of general security and well-being. 98 | Applications and Techniques . A pleasing effect may be created using decorative or themed post top lanterns mounted on 5-6m high columns with architectural/themed styling. Vandal and impact resistant luminaires may be required. Good colour rendering is important and therefore compact fluorescent and metal halide white light sources are preferred.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Open Pedestrian/Shopping Precincts The object of the lighting should promote easy movement of pedestrian’s with a feeling of general security and well-being. This is especially important where daytime integration needs to be considered in architecturally sensitive areas. Post top lanterns on 4-6m high columns with a symmetric lighting distribution will help provide a good balance between the horizontal and vertical surfaces. improve the efficiency of the installation and help prevent glare to drivers. Wall mounted luminaires or recessed IP rated downlights can be used to reduce installation costs associated with lighting columns. Architecturally/period styled lighting equipment will provide a good integration into the surrounding building architecture. Light above the horizontal should be avoided to reduce sky glow.

Light and shadow can be effective particularly on trees. but too much colour will reduce the efficiency of the lighting system. The lighting of areas adjacent to footpaths will help to improve the feeling of safety. The use of colour filters will also help the effect. helping to attract pedestrians into the square.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Additional feature lighting for fountains. Shrubberies. Dark patches and high light/dark contrasts should be avoided as they can affect adaptation and impair visibility. The use of internal louvres or refractors will help reduce glare by shielding the bare lamp. The use of colour filters can also help. The lighting of statues and adjacent buildings must be co-ordinated with the general ambient lighting level within the square so they compliment the overall effect. The use of LED or low wattage metal halide ground inset uplights can create exciting lighting effects. even in winter. trees and flowerbeds can benefit from localised lighting to provide a contrasting effect at night. Key luminaires: Footpaths The object of the lighting should promote easy movement of pedestrian’s with a feeling of general security and well-being. guidance and interest. Applications and Techniques | 99 . particularly when using colour and movement. trees/shrubs and pathways should be used. Care must be taken to ensure good drainage is allowed for all inset uplights. However care must be taken in positioning high brightness light sources at almost the same height as a car driver’s eye-line. Fountains can be effectively lit using submersible floodlights beneath the falling water to make the light refract and spread over a wider area. Lighting bollards can help to reduce the visual impact of lighting equipment during the day. Points of note are: The level of lighting is primarily determined by the crime risk whilst also providing guidance and the ability to negotiate obstructions and stairways. particularly if the light emitting elements are positioned adjacent or inside the fountain spouts. Fibre optics and LED’s can be used to create colour and movement.

Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas For open areas such as parks the same lighting principles apply however crime prevention may require a higher uniformity and extra lighting to the sides of the footpath to create a safer feel to the pathway. 100 | Applications and Techniques . However. This can comprise 5-6m high columns with asymmetric post top lanterns that have a wide angled distribution to provide a minimum number of lighting points. the use of “white” light is preferred. For areas with a high crime rate high level floodlighting may be required. The wide beam distribution will also provide a good vertical illuminance helping guidance along the path. potholes or bumps on the pathway. or by low-level bollards.Points of note are. Key luminaires: Cyclepaths . With increasing numbers of cycle paths being built from re-claimed railway track beds and new build in city centres and housing developments it is important that the safety of the cyclist is considered against possible collisions with other cyclists. Good vertical light onto adjacent areas to reveal shrubs and risk areas will help create a feeling of safety. high-pressure sodium and compact fluorescent light sources will provide the correct optical and economic running cost solutions. If cycle paths are set back from a main road or outside built up areas a separate lighting system is required. White light sources provide good colour rendering conditions for pedestrians. Vandal and impact resistant luminaires will be required. bulkhead or amenity lanterns mounted on adjacent walls or surfaces. Lighting is generally either by post top symmetric lanterns mounted on 5-6m columns. Metal halide. At speeds of up to 40km/h good uniformity of the cycle path surface is paramount to allow reasonable perception of danger as early as possible. improving visual perception.

whether they are routes with heavy volumes of traffic. In the dark it must be as safe as during the daytime and safety is enhanced by the use of additional signalling and the use of a separate lighting system.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Key luminaires: Pedestrian crossings .Points of note are. Light sources having a different colour to the general road lighting create additional alertness or signalling effects. By positioning lighting columns 0. In some instances additional baffling may be required on the lanterns. High-pressure sodium light sources should be considered if white light metal halide or compact fluorescent lamps are used for the general road lighting.6m and need to have a double asymmetric light distribution with good glare control to ensure drivers are not dazzled. When lighting a pedestrian crossing the lanterns are normally mounted between 5. or relatively rural areas where traffic density is much lower. The lighting distribution should be narrow along the road axis and wider along the axis of the pedestrian crossing to ensure pedestrians on the edges of the crossing are visible.5 -1. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 101 . It is important to ensure that all pedestrian crossings are lit to provide a safe route to users across all traffic routes.0 times the mounting height from each side of the pedestrian crossing good positive contrast is achieved in the zone helping motorists quickly see pedestrians.

Good vertical lighting is required for all these criteria. Integration of emergency lighting is a normal requirement. Metal halide and high-pressure lamp luminaires may be used but care must be taken to control glare and to ensure a separate lamp emergency lighting system is provided. and induction lamps all have good colour rendering and will provide good colour perception. The provision of good lighting will aid in user orientation. ensure high levels of visibility of vehicles and pedestrians and give a feeling of safety to pedestrians. Fluorescent. metal halide. Emergency lighting will be required to allow the safe evacuation of pedestrians in the event of an emergency. The orientation and location of luminaires in the driver’s line of sight should be arranged to prevent glare or distracting visual effects. corners and intersections for additional guidance.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Indoor multi-storey car-parks . Additional or supplementary lighting should be installed in the access and exit zones of the car park and also on ramps. entrances and exits.Points of note are. especially for approach roads. This is particularly important in multi-storey car parks that identify floors by colour theme. All lighting equipment should be vandal-resistant. Key luminaires: 102 | Applications and Techniques . When using T16 luminaires additional thermal protection of the lamps may be necessary. Good quality T16 or T26 fluorescent luminaires will provide good uniformity and levels of vertical illuminance combined with low luminaire brightness to prevent glare issues.

stations. railway lines or other sensitive transport areas. however more centrally positioned lanterns will be required to achieve good illuminance uniformity across the car park. Metal halide. The use of street lanterns with double asymmetrical light distribution is also suitable. Outdoor car parks are more likely to be subject to high crime rates of both car theft and robbery. entrance barriers and exits all need good lighting to ensure pedestrians and drivers safety. schools and retail centres. A common approach for lighting is to use 6–8m lighting columns. Access routes.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Outdoor car-parks . Supplementary white lighting at ticket dispensers. either on the edge of the car park or centrally mounted using double asymmetric low glare flat glass floodlights to provide a good level of horizontal and vertical illuminance at ground level. entrance barriers and exits will help colour and perception. Luminaires should be double asymmetric distribution street lanterns as they have better glare and spill light control. Care must be taken to avoid spill light onto adjacent housing. Multi-storey car park roof levels use a similar approach to outdoor car parks where the column height is 6-8m and their location is co-ordinated into the structural elements of the roof structure. high-pressure sodium and compact fluorescent lamps are the preferred lighting sources to ensure low running and maintenance costs as many car parks are illuminated through the night. particularly if reading is required.Points of note are. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 103 . All lighting equipment should be vandal-resistant. ticket dispensers. They are normally situated on the periphery of towns.

As underpasses can remain illuminated throughout the night metal halide. Discharge lamps may be used but good glare control is important to prevent any loss of discrimination by pedestrians of other users of the underpass due to glare. Adaptation is less of a problem for pedestrians as they move slowly compared to motorists. Fluorescent cornice mounted luminaires generally provide good uniformity of illuminance and a good vertical component of illuminance. All pedestrian underpasses require artificial lighting as they have a small cross section. Key luminaires: 104 | Applications and Techniques . Lighting should help pedestrians see the faces of other people to help give a feeling of security. Easy access with a security key is essential to ensure good maintenance practice. either individually or in a continuous line. even so the entrance zone of an underpass should be well lit. Lighting equipment can be surface mounted or recessed. high-pressure sodium and fluorescent lamps are the preferred lighting sources to ensure low running and maintenance costs. These can be inset into cladding or decorative mouldings to create a clean appearance with additional security protection against vandalism. All equipment must be fully vandal proof including electrical feeds.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Underpasses / pedestrian tunnels .Points of note are. Care should be taken in the use of high-pressure sodium lamps where good colour rendering is required. which means daylight decreases rapidly. Depending upon the size and complexity of the underpass emergency lighting may be required to allow the safe evacuation of pedestrians in the event of an emergency. Light wall surfaces improve the vertical illuminance important for facial recognition.

Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Schemes Footpaths Scheme: Amenity park area. path width 8. Emin/Eav = 0.4m Luminaire(s) used: 27 x Avenue Virtual. 1m mounting height Footpath: Eav = 8 lux . 70W HIT-CE. Emin/Eav = 0. path width 2m Luminaire(s) used: 26 x Promenade 42W CFL bollards.25 Applications and Techniques | 105 . 3m mounting height Footpath: Eav = 21 lux.26 Scheme: Amenity park area. 10m spacing.

as far as is possible. Splashes of light on the wall reveal the texture and warmth of the stone and provide visual interest. 297m x 163m Luminaire(s) used: 96 x Dyana 2 150W HIT. Lighting hardware should. 106 | Applications and Techniques .Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Schemes Shopping centre car parking Scheme: Shopping centre car parking. 0° tilt Park area: Eav = 21 lux . The pools of light give guidance and reassurance whilst still allowing darker more intimate areas. Emin/Eav = 0. blend into the surroundings and enhance the appearance of a space even when not in use. whilst the lighting also provides good illumination for the steps.32 Mica recessed luminaires illuminating a pathway. The daylight appearance of lighting can be as important as the lit effect. 8m mounting height.

6.10 Urban – architectural floodlighting
Techniques
General The purpose of architectural floodlighting is to reveal the beauty of a structure or in some cases add a dimension by showing a structure in a new way. Architectural lighting adds an aesthetic quality to a scene. Points of note are: Generally a structure will have one or more principal viewing positions. Therefore the lighting should be sympathetic for an observer positioned at these viewpoints. The light levels used on a structure should be in harmony with the light levels of the surrounding area. In darker areas comparatively little light can be used to good effect, but in areas with a large amount of ambient lighting higher light levels will be required. A coherent flow of light across a structure is often desirable, implying one general aiming orientation for the main floodlights. This direction should not coincide with the most common viewing direction for the structure as no shadows will then be visible and the scene will appear flat and uninteresting. Care should be taken when mounting the floodlighting equipment to ensure that the lighting units do not appear in silhouette against the lit scene, as this will spoil the overall effect. Structural detail The main objective is to highlight significant features of the structure whilst ensuring the structure still appears as a coherent whole. Points of note are; Light naturally attracts peoples attention so highlighting specific features will help an observer read the structure. Care should be taken to only light those details that are required, as too many highlights will destroy the effect and either makes the structure appear bland and uninteresting or disjointed and incoherent. Completeness of lighting is an important consideration to ensure a coherent whole. Care should be taken to avoid a floating appearance, caused by the base of the structure being under lit, or high level lit detail seeming unconnected due to the upper parts of the structure being insufficiently lit. Shadows can make as useful a contribution to the final lit effect as do illuminated areas. A good technique is to highlight specific features and to give a low-key wash of light to the rest of the structure. Therefore smaller lighting units are needed to highlight the detail, as well as units with a more general distribution to cover the broader area.
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Positioning floodlights at a distance from a structure and therefore giving light closer to the horizontal will tend to reduce the visibility of the textures of the materials used in the construction of the structure. Conversely positioning floodlights in a close offset position, and therefore giving light closer to the vertical will tend to enhance the visibility of the textures of the materials used in the construction of the structure. Daylight has a generally downward bias, forming shadows from architectural details below the detail itself. Floodlighting a structure from above can mimic this effect, whilst floodlighting from below will reverse the shadows and can often give a fresh appeal to a structure by giving it an individual day time and night time appearance. Lighting laterally will enhance any vertical features of the structure. Showing features in silhouette may enhance the lit appearance of a structure. Lighting behind features such as columns will show the form of the structure and display the columns in silhouette against the lit structure. Obtrusive light The main objective is to maximise the amount of useful light (that is light falling onto the structure) and minimise waste light that spills light onto the surroundings or upwards into the sky. Points of note are: Close off set lighting will reduce waste light by minimising light lost through scatter in the air, especially in urban areas with lower air quality. When uplighting a structure the upward light ratio (ULR) is not very useful as an indication of obtrusive light. A more useful measure is the utilisation factor, that is the amount of light actually lighting the structure compared to the total amount of light produced by the scheme. This gives the percentage useful light, and therefore the percentage waste light. It should be remembered that any reflected light will be in a predominantly upward direction and can give a significant contribution to obtrusive light. Therefore where possible uplighting should be used for structures that use low reflectance materials in their construction. To minimise obtrusive light additional attachments should be used on the floodlight such as louvres or visors to shape the floodlight beam and help it conform to the shape of the structure. Where possible niches and overhangs should be used to contain obtrusive light.

108 | Applications and Techniques

Urban – architectural floodlighting
Floodlight technology The main objective is to ensure that the correct technology in terms of lamp, optic and floodlight body is chosen for the application. Points of note are: The fabric of a structure has a colour, or in many cases a mixture of colours. Light sources that are monochromatic or strongly biased towards a small range of colours can distort the structure appearance. Therefore, light sources with a wide spectrum, (such as metal halide) or with a colour temperature that blends with the structure materials (such as high-pressure sodium on sandstone) should be used. Colour filters or RGB colour mixing should be used with care but can be very effective for dramatic effects or seasonal/festive events. Floodlights have a beam distribution that is mainly relative to the shape of the reflector. A round reflector will produce a conical beam useful for long-throw requirements, typically to pick out a single feature. A rectangular reflector will produce an asymmetrical beam useful for lighting areas rather than small points. Constraints in mounting position or specific application requirements often require a modified beam distribution. Additional optical components such as refractor glasses that vary the beam shape, or louvres that reduce obtrusive light are useful in getting the correct result. Floodlighting set-ups are generally aimed at night to enable fine-tuning of the finished appearance. However maintenance will be done in daylight, and often the floodlight will need to be moved to allow access to the lamp, etc. Floodlights with a re-positioning lock system are helpful to ensure the lit appearance is maintained over successive maintenance operations. Key luminaires:

Schemes – Building facade

Scheme: Building façade Luminaire(s) used: Avenue Deco bollard 50W MBF, Avenue Deco 125W MBF at 3m mounting height, Efact LED, Mica B 70W HIT-DE and Contrast Pinspot 70W Par 30. Road Eav = 7lux Pavement: Eav = 15lux away from the façade, Eav = 35lux along store façade

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The curved roof is washed with light, making it appear to float over the building. The structure itself glows from the interior light spilling through the glass facades. Lighting of glass facades is difficult and it is more usual to let spill light from the interior light up the building and define its night-time appearance.

The suspension tower and cabling are lit to provide a distinctive appearance. Narrow beam floodlights are directed along the cables to make then glow, whilst the central tower is washed with light. The structure seems to float above the surface of the water.

The appearance is built up using layers of light. The lower section of the building has a general wash of light with highlighting above the central columns. Lighter and darker areas give depth to the façade. The upper storey mainly comprises grand window openings, and these are lit with a white light to accentuate the detail of the window surrounds. The detail around the top of the façade (below the roof line) is lit to define the transition to the roof space, and additional windows within the roof space are lit, along with chimney work, with a small amount of spill light showing the roofline.

110 | Applications and Techniques

6.11 Sports lighting
Techniques
General The purpose of sports lighting is to provide lighting that allows a sport to take place safely (i.e. designed to suit the speed of play and size of any objects used in the sport) and provide good viewing conditions, both in visibility of the sports action and comfort of the audience. Points of note are: For all sports a good level of modelling is required. Modelling is the effect of light and shadow produced when light flows from one main direction (known as key light) and additional lower levels of lighting flow from other directions (known as fill light), producing a coherent three-dimensional image of a scene. If there is insufficient key light and all the lighting is fill light objects become flat with little discernable detail. If there is insufficient fill light harsh shadowing will occur, obscuring areas in the field of view. Both cases will cause a reduction in the ability of sports participants to correctly see and react to events on the field of play, and will also cause problems for spectators and television cameras. For high-speed sports the elimination of any stroboscopic effects from high intensity discharge sources is important. Stroboscopic effects may make a moving object appear stationary, or make the object seem to jump from one position to another. For these sports the use of high frequency control gear is recommended. Lighting requirements are defined by EN 12193. Additional requirements may be defined by sports governing bodies such as FIFA, Olympic Delivery Authorities, etc. and by television authorities, such as Sky. Some sports (notably FIFA regulations for football) also define requirements for uniformity gradient (UG). This is measure of the rate of change of illuminance across an area, and is expressed as the ratio between the illuminance levels of two adjacent measurement points. That is UG = Emeasurement point 1 Emeasurement point
2

EN 12193 defines requirements based on the lighting class (I, II, or III). This is derived from the level of competition, international and national, regional, local, training and recreational. At the lower standard of play there is flexibility with the light source options (i.e. high pressure sodium, metal halide) but at class I and II metal halide or fluorescent light sources with high colour rendering abilities are required.

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Sports lighting
Each sport has a playing area that is the principal playing area (the area inside the line marking for tennis or football for example) and a total area that is defined as the principal playing area, plus an additional safety outside the principal playing area. Lighting levels for sports are normally defined in terms of the minimum average horizontal illuminance on a reference plane, and a uniformity of illuminance. In some instances the plane of illuminance will be relevant to the sport and the spectator viewing distance, or TV camera-viewing plane. Here the normal to camera illuminance and vertical illuminance will be relevant. As some sporting areas are large, have the need for high levels of illuminance or are used for a long period in the day, highly efficient lighting systems are required to keep energy consumption low. Maintenance is also important to ensure system efficiency and functionality and therefore all lighting equipment should be safely accessible and maintainable throughout life. When lighting exterior sports facilities to achieve good uniformity lighting equipment must be mounted on masts of sufficient height to ensure floodlight aiming angles are no greater than 70°. This will ensure a high utilisation of lamp flux, minimum electrical load, and lower installed costs. When designing lighting for sports facilities it is important to minimise obtrusive and spill light. For guidance on this see section 6.8. All sports facilities require safety lighting (that is lighting designed to allow safe movement of players and spectators in the event of a power failure or emergency). Relevant guidelines form the sports governing bodies should be consulted for this information. Sports halls - Points of note are; Most sports halls are suitable for different sports and non-sporting events, all requiring different visual requirements. The most demanding visual activity should dictate the lighting design layout and light levels. One lighting layout will generally not be sufficient to meet all requirements, as specific sports require different lighting configurations. Therefore it is essential that lighting controls are used to switch a selection of luminaires for different requirements. Luminaires should be impact resistant against balls and projectiles, and designed and mounted to minimise the risk of objects becoming trapped within or behind them.

112 | Applications and Techniques

with and without the partitions.g. badminton and volleyball.Sports lighting The layout of a sports hall may be altered using partitions. Pendant. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 113 . Fluorescent lighting systems provide the best arrangements for high levels of horizontal and vertical uniformity over the playing areas. A low ceiling reflection factor will help to improve the visibility of the shuttlecock. e. and therefore care should be taken to ensure glare is controlled along all lines of sight. the positioning of the luminaires outside the playing area may be necessary to avoid disability glare for players looking upwards. This allows competitors to quickly and accurately monitor an opponent’s movement. A good level of vertical illuminance is required to ensure visibility of any high balls. For aerial sports. For competition table tennis it is important that excellent uniformity is achieved over the table top and up to five metres from the table edges.Points of note are. particularly important in combat sports. The elimination of any stroboscopic effects from high intensity discharge sources is important. Additional lighting may be required when partitions are in place and this should be checked during design. As a sports hall can support many types of activity it is important to ensure good uniformity is achieved throughout the hall. Key luminaires: Table tennis and badminton . surface or recessed T16 or T26 luminaires with a parabolic louvre are suitable. Players are continually required to visually follow the trajectory of the shuttlecock and there are therefore specific recommendations for luminaire positions and requirements for good vertical illuminance. Badminton shuttlecocks are small and fast.

Narrow beam luminaires should be used to provide the necessary high levels of illuminance efficiently. Pendant or surface narrow/medium beam metal halide floodlights are suitable with baffle/louvre attachments to control glare.Sports lighting Fencing .Points of note are. Key luminaires: 114 | Applications and Techniques . This also ensures that the referee. Fluorescent pendant. Normally a purpose made lighting assembly will support the lighting equipment above the ring. which is recommended to be metal halide with an Ra of 85+. Fencing has specific requirements for both horizontal and vertical illuminance as the movements are very fast with a fine foil blade and the visual task is the torso of the players. surface or recessed T16 or T26 luminaires with a parabolic louvre are suitable. judges and spectators can see adequately and comfortably. In boxing the speed and force of movement over extremely short distances requires very high lighting levels at competition levels. High colour rendering qualities are required from the light source.Points of note are. normally between 1000 lux and 2000 lux average horizontal illuminance. Key luminaires: Boxing . This is also required for video and CTV transmissions.

Points of note are. The lighting will also need to extend beyond the playing area to cover the important zones behind the baselines and sidelines.Points of note are. Therefore good illuminance and uniformity with the elimination of shadows and glare are a requirement from the lighting system. Alternatively pendant or surface mounted low-bay metal halide luminaires with a louvre assembly and protective grill. Good illuminance on all four vertical planes together with high horizontal illuminance uniformity is needed against a light vertical background to improve perception of the ball. and not positioned behind the baseline up to a distance of three metres where serving takes place. Applications and Techniques | 115 . its speed and anticipated bounce position on the court. Tennis can be a very fast sport demanding good visual conditions to allow judgement of the ball trajectory. Luminaires should be impact resistant against balls and projectiles. Key luminaires: Squash courts . is dark coloured. Fluorescent lighting is most suitable with two asymmetric distribution luminaires mounted parallel to the front to wash the wall. Pendant or surface mounted T16 or T26 fluorescent reflector luminaires with a protective grille are suitable. travels up to 200 km/h and bounces in any plane. The ball used for squash is smaller than a tennis ball. and designed and mounted to minimise the risks of object becoming trapped within or behind them. To prevent players being dazzled when looking at high balls the luminaires should be positioned outside the playing area.Sports lighting Indoor tennis halls . Additional wall colouring or screening with low reflectance matt material will help players to get additional information about the balls position on the court. Mounting the luminaires at 1m from the wall prevents reflected glare. As the walls are used to create complex trajectories with players moving very quickly across each other’s line of sight early anticipation and vision are required to hit the ball accurately. and an asymmetric distribution luminaire washing each of the sidewalls.

Sports lighting
Surface mounted or recessed T16 or T26 fluorescent asymmetric reflector luminaires with a protective grille are most suitable. Key luminaires:

Figure skating and ice hockey - Points of note are; Most indoor rinks are used for recreational purposes with additional events carried out on specific occasions. Therefore the lighting installation needs to be flexible. Luminaires are normally mounted over the ice in a regular array to provide good uniformity of illuminance and general average horizontal illuminance. The ice hockey puck is black and to help spectators see it when it is flying through the air high reflectance surroundings should be used around the ice. Decreasing the spacing between luminaires near the goal increases illuminance in this critical area. Luminaires should be impact resistant if mounted less than 5m above the ice. High bay style luminaires with prismatic optics and metal halide lamps will help provide a good level of vertical illuminance and a high uniformity of illuminance on the horizontal plane whilst using the minimum number of luminaires. Floodlights can also be used but care should be taken to control both direct glare and reflected glare from the surface of the ice. The use of double asymmetric beam floodlights will help. Key luminaires:

116 | Applications and Techniques

Sports lighting
Swimming pools - Points of note are; Swimming pool lighting caters for a variety of visual tasks. The competitive swimmer has a much different seeing task to other swimmers where the main attention is focussed on staying in lane and the turning point at the end of the lane. Water polo players need lighting with a good ambient lighting effect. Swimming instructors, coaches, pool attendants and spectators all need to see across the pool and into the water to identify swimmers and situations. For recreational swimming pools themed or decorative lighting effects may be required. Because water reflects direct incident light the positioning of the luminaires needs to be carefully selected to avoid luminaire reflections and disability glare. Luminaires positioned around the pool help to reduce unwanted reflections. When this is not possible asymmetric distribution luminaires positioned above the water may be used but maintenance of the luminaires should be considered. Underwater lighting will help to reduce reflected glare from the pool surface as well as improving viewing conditions on the pool bottom. Synchronised swimmers need underwater lighting to help monitor the movement and position of other swimmers. However for competitive swimming and water polo underwater luminaires should be switched off. For diving pools supplementary lighting is required to improve the vertical illuminance, particularly for judges who need to assess the divers performance at the point of entry into the water. For springboard diving the lighting in the diving zone requires a good ratio of horizontal to vertical illuminance. Luminaires for indoor swimming pools must be protected against chlorinated and possibly salty air and as such need to meet high standards of electrical reliability and protection against corrosion. Luminaires should be protected to IP65 and have fixings that are made of stabilised austenitic stainless steel. High ambient temperatures may require control gear to be mounted remotely to ensure long life and reliability. The use of floodlights will help resolve some of these issues as floodlights are mainly designed for exterior use and have a high degree of protection and resistance to the elements built in. Good colour rendering lamps are required to provide the correct ambience and visual comfort for competitors and bathers. Metal halide lamps with a warm or cool appearance can be used to good effect. Surface mounted or recessed fluorescent luminaires with an acrylic panel/ bowl are suitable, as are metal halide or high pressure sodium floodlights wall mounted or pendant mounted for uplighting or direct lighting of the pool.

Applications and Techniques

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Sports lighting
Key luminaires:

Outdoor football and rugby - Points of note are; The most common approach is the use of lighting masts, approximately four each side of 12m–20m height to achieve a minimum angle above the pitch centre of 20° to the lowest floodlight, but preferably 25°. These are spaced along the long axis of the playing area, positioned away from the touchlines to avoid collisions. For football they are also positioned away from the corners to avoid glare to goalkeepers. The floodlights are normally rated 1kW– 2kW and have a double asymmetric beam shape to ensure good uniformity and glare control. An alternative option is four corner masts where long throw symmetrical narrow beam floodlights are used. The same conditions apply to mast positioning and height to achieve high utilisation of lamp flux and the avoidance of glare. For rugby pitches the dead-ball zone, which can be up to 22m long, will need to be adequately illuminated. In some instances the spill light from the playing area will be sufficient but only to a depth of 6m. This is in addition to the playing area length of up to 100m between goal lines. A total area shall include a strip the length of the pitch including the dead ball area of no less than 6m wide on each side of the pitch. Lighting can be positioned on the roofs of adjacent grandstands if they are of sufficient height and location to comply with floodlight positional requirements, and of sufficient structural strength to allow the weight of the floodlights. Double asymmetric or symmetrical beam floodlights using high-pressure sodium or metal halide lamps are suitable for this application. Key luminaires:

118 | Applications and Techniques

Sports lighting
Hockey - Points of note are; The playing area for hockey is slightly smaller than for football, but the lighting principles are the same with regards to mast positions and heights. The use of a smaller ball and the speed of the sport require a higher lighting level for Class III installations and a better uniformity for Classes II and III than for football and rugby. Double asymmetric or symmetrical beam floodlights using high-pressure sodium or metal halide lamps are suitable for this application. Key luminaires:

Track and field - Points of note are; For track and field stadiums the most cost effective solution is to locate 6-8 masts around the whole perimeter of the track with a clearance of 4.5m from the track edge. The mast height is determined as for football but with the additional requirement of a maximum mast height to ensure adequate vertical illuminance for competitors on the outside of the track. The masts mounted along the straight section of track illuminate the centre field area providing good vertical illuminance for javelin, shot, hammer and discus events. Double asymmetric or flat glass double asymmetric beam floodlights using high-pressure sodium or metal halide lamps are suitable for this application. Key luminaires:

Applications and Techniques

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Sports lighting
Freestyle skiing and ski jumping - Points of note are; Downhill skiers require the whole piste uniformly illuminated from beginning to end so depressions and surface irregularities are revealed. As high speeds can be achieved the position of floodlights are important to provide the correct visual conditions, therefore floodlights are placed either side of the piste whilst being aimed across and down the slope to reduce glare to the skiers. Wide horizontal and narrow vertical angle floodlights metal halide lamps mounted on masts up to 12m high are suitable for this application. Ski-jumpers require good horizontal lighting at the take-off and at the landing or touchdown point for judging and safety. The landing area needs to have a high level of uniformity (0.7) for the class III standard of skiing. The illuminance on the jump hill is measured on the surface of the snow. Key luminaires:

120 | Applications and Techniques

Emin/Eav = 0.81 Lighting from the edges helps prevent glare to players.Sports lighting Schemes Tennis court Scheme: Double tennis court. 24m x 11m Luminaire(s) used: 4 x Champion 2kW HQI-TS/N/L. 12m mounting height Pitch: Eav = 397 lux. Applications and Techniques | 121 .

Emin/Eav = 0. and a mix of light distributions is used to correctly illuminate all the playing area. The luminaires are mounted along the roof of the stand down two sides of the pitch. Lighting levels for television are supplied by ensuring good levels of vertical illumination in the camera directions. Additional luminaires on the inside of the canopy lights the seating areas and ensures the security and safety of spectators. 122 | Applications and Techniques .Sports lighting Schemes Football Stadium Scheme: Football stadium with 4 x 25m corner columns Luminaire(s) used: 48 x Mundial R 2kW HQI-TS Pitch: Eav = 538 lux.76 A football stadium lit using Mundial floodlights.

2 x 80WT16.Sports lighting Schemes Ice Hockey Stadium Scheme: Ice hockey stadium. Lighting levels by the goals are increased to aid the ability of the goalkeeper. Emin/Eav = 0.5m x 17. 17m mounting height Pitch: Eav = 422 lux .07 A relatively high level of illumination is required due to the fast moving nature of the game and the small size of the puck. 117.3m x 23m Luminaire(s) used: 316 x Indus XS. officials and spectators to see the puck. Applications and Techniques | 123 .

Emin/Eav = 0.35 Indoor tennis courts lit using the Sporting luminaire.Sports lighting Schemes Indoor tennis court Scheme: Indoor tennis court. preventing players having to look directly at a luminaire. 36m x 18m x 6m Luminaire(s) used: 32 x Titus Sport. 124 | Applications and Techniques . 3x49W 5m mounting height Tennis court: Eav = 531 lux . The luminaires are integrated into the architecture of the roof and are positioned to light from the edges of the playing areas.

02 A ski slope lit using 270 Mundial 2kW floodlights. whilst revealing the texture of the surface of the slope to ensure safety.Sports lighting Schemes Ski shute Scheme: Ski shute.24 lux. Additional care should be taken to prevent reflected glare from the snow.02 HST 400W Eav = 1. Applications and Techniques | 125 . The floodlights are positioned and aimed to prevent glare to skiers.41 lux. 30m x 150m Luminaire(s) used: Either 36 x Sonpak 25/40 with HIT400W or 27 x Sonpak 25/40 with HST400W Ski slope: HIT 400W Eav = 1. This requires aiming away from the direction of view of skiers. Emin/Eav = 0. and the use of glancing angles to show surface texture. Emin/Eav = 0.

17m x 18m x 7. Emin/Eav = 0. Therefore emergency lighting should be installed that complies with the relevant requirements and standards. 17m x 18m x 7.61 Scheme: Multi-purpose sports hall. Emergency lighting Luminaire(s) used: 2 x Voyager Twinspot. Emin/Eav = 0.6m Luminaire(s) used: 18 x Titus Sport 4 x 49W.46 lux.6m. 6m mounting height Floor: Eav = 2. 7. 126 | Applications and Techniques .6m mounting height Floor: Eav = 364 lux.Sports lighting Schemes Sports hall Scheme: Multi-purpose sports hall.23 When lighting sports venues it is essential to consider the safety of the participants and spectators in the event of loss of power or an emergency.

In offices up to 40 per cent of the energy used is needed for lighting. into corners or onto walls. lecture and conference rooms. within schools this percentage can be even higher. a very simple recess wall mounted rotary DSI dimmer that can be connected to Thorn High Frequency DSI dimmable (HFD) luminaires. This product combines digital dimming with the intuitive operation known from domestic lighting controls. sport halls. and switch the light on and off. mounted onto ceilings. Different SwitchLite presence Fig. 7. switch it off when vacancy is detected. installed into recessed ceilings. Industrial installations may also benefit from the energy savings provided by ILC if fluorescent luminaires such as trunking systems are being used. Typically used in offices lit with suspended luminaires. saving as much energy as possible. school classrooms. The lighting can be raised. Potential energy savings are: Electronic ballasts + dimming: 30% Dimming + presence link: 50% Dimming + presence link + daylight link: 70% There are many different levels of controls to choose from. One of the most basic controls and the first step into manual dimming is “RotaryDIM”. controlling up to 20 DSI ballasts in total.1 RotaryDIM DSI dimmer Specific Techniques | 127 . or in hospitals and supermarkets. such as offices.1 Indoor lighting controls (ILC) The purpose of Indoor Lighting Controls (ILC) is to provide the right light at the right time and place. dimmed and dimmed to off. The easiest way to automate lighting is the use of “SwitchLite” presence detectors. Thorn Pull SwitchDIM (PSWD) luminaires come with integrated pull cord momentary action switches. and. by turning the control knob. Using the pull cord momentary action switch the user may manually set the light level from 100% down to 1%. In industrial applications that figure is between 10 and 15 per cent depending on the lighting technology used. These should be chosen to fit the needs and activities within an application and to achieve the required energy saving and comfort.7 Specific Techniques 7. whilst simultaneously providing the comfort expected for any application. These detectors switch the lighting on when movement is detected. after a configurable Off delay time.

Some products additionally provide an integrated photocell that can be set so that the detector only switches lighting on when the ambient light level is below a preset level. maintained illuminance level and many other settings. and can reduce the energy usage by up to 90 per cent. and using passive infrared (PIR) or microwave technology to detect presence and absence.3 HFS luminaire Fig. This multi-sensor head can control a group of HFD luminaires incorporating up to eight DSI ballasts in total.g.2 Presence detector Fig. The number of DSI ballasts incorporated in the master as well as the slave luminaires can be up to four in total: E. Alternatively for the control of a larger space with more luminaires.4 Handheld controller 128 | Specific Techniques . operation mode. These luminaires provide an integrated miniature multi-sensor head.Specific Techniques detectors are available suitable for various mounting needs and detection patterns. reflecting the flow of daylight within a bigger area Fig. Thorn High Frequency SensaDigital (HFS) luminaires combine manual dimming with daylight and presence link. This portfolio is called SensaDigital. as well as an infra-red programming tool “SENSA SENP” for the configuration of Off delay time. 7. or several master-slave arrangements of SensaDigital luminaires with standard dimmable luminaires can control several luminaire groups individually. Depending upon the connections provided within the luminaire HFS luminaires may also be used to control standard HFD luminaires in a so-called master and slave arrangement. and additionally can provide a presence-link function as described above. in an office or a meeting room up to four single-ballast luminaires can be linked to maintain illuminance during the whole day (taking into account the available daylight as well as the ageing of lamps and dirt on the luminaires). For the manual control of SensaDigital an infra-red handheld controller “SENSA SENRC” is available. and incorporates the same functionality as described above for the SensaDigital luminaires. for example the “SENSA MRE SEND DSI”. Instead of lamps being switched on for the whole day they are automatically switched off when not needed. storerooms or lavatories. staircases. 7. warehouses. For applications such as classrooms and open plan offices either several remote SensaDigital heads connected to standard dimmable luminaires. This kind of presence detection is typically used in spaces such as corridors. a remote SensaDigital head can be used. 7.

7. or 0% 25% 50% Daylight Artificial light Fig.Specific Techniques and the presence of people within the different zones lit by the luminaire groups.1 SensaModular Controller Capacity To keep commissioning and maintenance simple.1 shows the number of ballasts that can be connected: 3-fold output controller Using DSI ballasts only Using DALI ballasts only Using DSI and DALI ballasts 50DSI + 50 DSI + 50DSI 25DALI + 25DALI + 25DALI 25DSI + 25DSI + 25DALI.a polarity-free 2-pole connection . For versatile one-room applications the “SensaModular” system may be used. ideal in larger and zoned applications such as open plan offices. The large SensaModular controller shows three digital outputs. or one multi-sensor head for all groups. single momentary action or centre-off retractive switches to manually dim. brighten and switch each output individually.5 Look down sensors 0% 25% 50% 500lx Artificial light Daylight Fig. and accessories for automation and operation.the system can be extended. This is a Lego-like portfolio consisting of two differently sized control modules. for example a SwitchLite detector. can be connected to the controllers. A standard 230VAC presence detector. Both controllers show inputs for the connection of standard double. or 25DALI + 25DALI + 25DSI 2-fold output controller 50DSI + 50DSI 25DALI + 25DALI 25DSI + 25DALI Table 7. semi-automatic or corridor) can be set via integrated rotary switches. all reflecting the daylight flow: • Either one look down multi-sensor head per group. the addressing feature of DALI is not used with SensaModular when DALI ballasts are connected (so called “broadcast” operation). 7. To link the luminaire groups to the incoming daylight. and the Off delay time and operation mode (automatic. SensaModular provides three possibilities. the small controller two digital outputs for controlling luminaire groups: Table 6. Using the intelligent interface . ideal for smaller applications such as single offices.6 Look out sensors • Specific Techniques | 129 . Both control modules have DSI/ DALI auto detection outputs for the use of either HFD or HFX luminaires (“HFX” stands for High Frequency DALI dimmable). The large controller also shows a switch input for the joint operation of all three outputs.

The configuration of Off delay time and operation mode happens the same way as when a standard detector is used (described above). blackout blinds and projection screens may also be controlled using SensaAdvanced. allowing the control of up to 99 luminaire. In some countries Thorn offers the “SensaAdvanced” portfolio. such as classrooms and sports halls.7 SensaAdvanced components 130 | Specific Techniques . the SensaModular recess wall mounted scene plate enables manual control of the luminaire groups and the setting and recall of three scenes as well. Time automation enables the installation to be switched at Fig. This remote control can also be used to set and recall three scenes. but especially any application with ceiling heights above 3m. and the active scene is visualised via LED indicators. DALI. Both the multi-sensor head and the photocell are part of the SensaModular offer. ideal for applications comprising rows of luminaires and not requiring infrared control. as well as infrared control and software to use a PC or laptop for recalling scenes. and the possibility to create up to 20 scenes per room. Different illuminance levels for the the two or three luminaire groups can be set and stored. Different operation and commissioning units. blind and screen groups. and to switch. Alternatively. such as wall mounted scene plates and touch panels are available. Blinds. or additionally. This portfolio works with any type of luminaire and provides different DSI. With the multi-sensor heads the luminaire groups are not only linked to daylight. in up to 99 rooms. but also to presence and absence. relay outputs and phase dimmers. one of the most versatile systems on the market. 7.Specific Techniques • one look out photocell for all groups. With the SensaModular infra-red handheld controller the multi-sensor heads are allocated to the luminaire groups. dim and brighten each luminaire group individually.

In some countries Thorn offers the “SensaLink” portfolio. This portfolio also provides relay outputs for switchable luminaires. please contact your Thorn representative where applicable.8 SensaLink components Specific Techniques | 131 .Specific Techniques certain times and days and. 7. and in staircases and common zones while one of the adjacent areas reports presence. Scheme design and commissioning of SensaAdvanced is available as a service. please contact your Thorn representative where appropriate. The partition management functionality enables the system to adapt to partition walls being closed or opened. dynamic changes of light levels. The sensor groups work as described for SensaDigital above. throughout the floor of a building or through the whole building. and enables individual or joint control of the adjacent areas. enabling the linking of several groups of multi-sensors. with sequence automation. direction and colour can be achieved. Different operation units are available such as wall mounted scene plates and infrared control. During commissioning DSI outputs can be changed to DALI broadcast outputs if required. either remote sensors or sensors integrated into HFL luminaires (“HFL” stands for high frequency SensaLink) within a larger space. and enables the individual or joint control of the adjacent areas. Scheme design and commissioning of SensaLink is available as service. A versatile infra-red commissioning tool is used to configure and address the system. This feature is used to keep lights on in corridors or notional corridors. Fig. Blackout blinds and projection screens may also be controlled via SensaLink. Partition management enables the system to adapt to partition walls being closed or opened. allowing storing and recall of up to six scenes. Additionally these groups can be linked such that a group listens to other groups.

7.10 An electronic transformer 132 | Specific Techniques . DSI compatible transformers and phase dimmers are available and can be connected to any DSI output: • Phase dimmers allow the dimming of luminaires with high voltage incandescent or tungsten halogen lamps. • Fig. 7. can be daylight-linked.Specific Techniques Instead of HFD luminaires containing DSI ballasts. Fig. as well as luminaires incorporating low voltage tungsten halogen lamps plus electronic or magnetic transformers.9 A phase dimmer Using these DSI controllable devices the connected luminaires can be part of any scheme incorporating Indoor Lighting Controls. Electronic transformers allow the control of luminaires incorporating low voltage tungsten halogen lamps without transformers. can contribute to lighting scenes and much more.

This table gives luminance limits dependant upon whether modern screen technology (type I and II) or older screen technology (type III) is being used. To help a designer in choosing a suitable luminaire for DSE applications a table of luminance limits has been produced for angles of 65° or higher. measuring equipment or specialist applications. Fig. 7. Additionally the type of information being displayed has an impact on the susceptibility of the screen to bright images. Yet. for instance air traffic control screens. If the glare source is a luminaire this tends to be the light emitted by the luminaire above 65° (above the black lines in Figure 6. screen and user allowing the image of the glare source to be reflected into the users eyes. This information can be used along with a luminaire manufacturers data to ensure that the luminaires chosen for an installation that contains DSE are suitable. thereby removing unwanted reflections.12 A polar curve showing light emitted above 65° Specific Techniques | 133 . Display screen equipment is any screen used for displaying information. or the display screen should be moved (either rotated or tilted) to alter the geometry.11 Reflections in a computer screen caused by lighting Fig. These reflections are caused by the geometry between the glare source. as the geometry of small office spaces normally means that luminaires are unlikely to be seen in a display screen.12). this is more critical in large rooms or open plan areas. To prevent this either the luminaire should have optical control to remove any bright luminance above 65°.Specific Techniques 7. bright text on a dark background) is more susceptible to disturbing images than positive polarity information (dark text on a light background).2 Lighting for display screen equipment In areas containing display screen equipment (DSE) special care must be taken to prevent bright images being reflected in the screen from bright surfaces such as windows or luminaire. in reconfigurable areas care is still needed as removing walls may convert small office spaces into an open plan area. whether it is attached directly to a personal computer.e. Negative polarity information (i. Note. 7.

This is due to matt screen technology tending to blur images very slightly. these limits may need to be applied for angles of 55° or higher. Consequently to correctly show audio-visual content in high definition matt screen technology is not used. but highly reflective. mean these screens are more susceptible to problems from glare sources.). reducing their sharpness. However increasing the degree of glare control can produce gloomy spaces unless additional lighting is used to illuminate the ceiling and upper walls. some new screens (notably for laptops) are improving technology and are no longer matt. and also the technology having limited capability to correctly show black. that whilst newer screen technology has been less likely to reflect disturbing images due to anti-glare coatings and matt screens. such as air traffic control screens. Table 7. Note.Specific Techniques For critical applications.1 Luminance limit recommendations 134 | Specific Techniques . unfortunately. This will. This development will continue as computers develop as entertainment systems (for watching DVD’s etc.

Our lighting design for the future of educational facilities needs to consider the following: • • • The proven link between improved school environments and student/staff morale and staff retention The need to create schools which would represent good value for money and have a long functional life A requirement to diversify the school curriculum and to extend community use of educational facilities Fig. It is now widely accepted that good lighting in schools can have an important effect on educational attainment and rates of learning. 7. which would have a low impact on the environment. We also need to consider the impact of our designs on the wider environment. and can do so by using the equipment and complying with the legislation around product application and performance. to continue to serve the needs of the community and future students.13 A PC intensive university teaching space lit with direct/indirect luminaires There is now. from the use of material resources to the impact on the community and the pupil. exploit natural light and ventilation and reduce use of natural resources. taking into account likely changes in curriculum. computer use and so on.Specific Techniques 7. demographics.3 Light for learning The importance of light in our learning environments cannot be under estimated. more than ever. methods of teaching. Research shows that light impacts our health and level of alertness and this extends to those spaces in which we are taught. Specific Techniques | 135 . Lighting in schools needs to be sustainable. an imperative to create sustainable schools. Lighting has a large part to play in each of these.

14 Lighting in large lecture rooms should be flexible to allow different scene setting options to be used to suit the teaching requirements 136 | Specific Techniques . initially by the windows. Fig. give flexibility of use and deliver energy savings. the more traditional formal instruction. time of day and the age of the pupil.the teacher. to see facial features and to lip-read. individual practical and project work.8 is desirable. The second is more focused on the tasks within the space . To give true sustainability lighting controls must be provided that are simple to understand and operate. and even here their use should be restricted and satin. an ‘interactive’ approach to learning. The first requires flexible lighting. whilst general targets to aim for. Each creates different requirements for the space in which they happen. Lighting application Generally there are two recognised illuminance levels required in classrooms and these. rather than full mirrored louvres used.Specific Techniques Methods of teaching There a generally considered to be three methods of teaching: • • • Teacher-led discussions. To maintain this level and maximise efficiency all teaching spaces should use daylight as a primary source and dim the artificial light accordingly. or hearing impaired. the need to specifically light the task. rather than creating high overall ambient lighting levels) Specular. where the task lighting will be local to the student and varied according to their need.e. Small group learning. but should be focused on 300 lux for the young and 500 lux for the mature student. The last is most specifically about ambient and task. Specific requirements will require task lighting (i. need to be varied to account for task. except perhaps in dedicated computer suites. Levels of ‘300-500 lux should not be exceeded. creating a relaxed informal atmosphere. 7. Large group teaching. the board and the ambient. louvred fittings are not required. A task uniformity of 0. Use of down lighting with a tight cut-off should be avoided as this will lead to strong modelling of facial features making it difficult for the visually.

Effective Distribution Lighting for visual comfort is not just about the light sources – it is also about the distribution of light: • • Walls and ceilings need lighting with both direct and interreflected light This requires relatively high reflectance surface finishes – e. task and accent lighting Specific Techniques | 137 . so that true communicative learning can take place. All light fittings must be flicker-free and provide a Limiting Glare Index of 19. but note that it has been shown recently that students do not learn well with a high proportion of self-motivated PC teaching alone. to create the effect of directional light that feeling of dappled sunlight through a window for instance Average supplementary wall illuminance should be around 2/3rds of the task illuminance Fig. Primary artificial lighting choice should be direct/indirect in nature to create the right balance of performance.Specific Techniques It is recommended that light sources should be between 2000-4000K with a colour rendering in excess of Ra80. efficiency and comfort in learning spaces. light the face of the teacher and pupils. 7. and growing. Lighting for computer screens should not impinge on lighting for effective teaching. >70% for the ceiling. While PC use is widespread. The important thing is to put light onto all surfaces.15 Direct/indirect lighting with good light distribution onto wall displays • • • The design approach should concentrate on providing ambient. modern screen technology can easily handle high luminance well beyond that covered by EN 12464-1.g. >60% for the walls (display boards may lower this to 30-50%) and as high as practical on the floor Gloss finishes should be avoided as they can cause veiling reflections and glare Some walls and displays should have accent lighting. and in particular.

students will probably be receiving information from a teacher at the same time. distracting lighting contrasts. for instance. with good brightness management.16 An example of lighting with good vertical illuminance at the board Fig. or the board. In fact. All schools need to use daylight as their primary light source. Lighting a light skin tone against a white background presents different problems to a dark skin tone against a white background. increased attendance and 20 per cent higher results in reading and maths. so providing good vertical lighting on the face. Recent research in the US showed that high levels of daylight are associated with improvements in learning rates. So ecologically and on a human level we cannot ignore daylight. Good design will have to cater for all the diverse ethnicities of teaching staff. be unable to lip read. About 80% of the information we take in is visual and in a teaching space most of that happens on the desk or within the 40° band (20° above and below the horizontal from the eye). As well as letting in daylight. 7. Get the lighting wrong and it becomes difficult to see the teacher. If we can’t see the teachers face because contrast or vertical illuminance is poor. Also consider the colour of the background compared to the teacher’s skin tone. which avoids sharp. good vertical illuminance is important in all teaching spaces – being able to see the face of the teacher and the facial expressions of other students is a key component of good communication – and is vital to effective learning. Using Daylight Good daylighting is also paramount -. this allows students and staff to retain a link to the outside weather. environment and changing light conditions throughout the day. This helps to improve morale and concentration and to maintain their circadian rhythms.artificial lighting makes up 25 per cent of the energy costs of a typical school. It also can also lead to energy savings of 30-60 per cent (70 per cent if automatic blinds are used). Fig.17 A classroom with ample daylight 138 | Specific Techniques .Specific Techniques The basic principle is to achieve a well-balanced lighting environment. with daylight factors of 4-5 per cent and a minimum 20 per cent of glazing on external walls. It is important to remember that while working on PCs. which might be viewed from any position in the classroom. then we may fail to read their body language. 7. or in the case of the hearing-impaired. is equally important.

Emergency lighting should be provided in all areas where. To provide adequate illumination they need to be mounted close to potential hazards on the route. complexity.4 Emergency lighting Emergency lighting is provided when the supply to the normal lighting fails. kind of activities and type of people involved. Specific Techniques | 139 . such as first aid posts. An emergency lighting scheme should be designed with sufficient consideration to the type of premise. Also for places where people may need reassurance in the event the normal lights failing. restores confidence and enables specific tasks to be made safe. size. It also avoids panic. such as lifts. there is insufficient daylight or borrowed light available for those people on the premises. a change of direction or crossings and places requiring emphasis. There are four main points to consider for an effective emergency lighting scheme: 1 – Exit Signage Visible safety signs and signage to indicate the escape route and final exit should be available at all material times (luminance of the sign’s safety colours must be at least 2 cd/ m²). Special consideration should be given to places where the elderly and those with disabilities may be present. fire fighting appliances and marshalling points. when the normal lights fail. A risk assessment should be made to identify the places and routes where people may be at risk and need evacuating in the event of the normal lighting failing. It helps people to see their way and move to evacuate quickly to a safe place out of the building. 2 – Mandatory Points Emergency luminaires have to be carefully positioned to ensure a compliant emergency lighting scheme. toilets or closets.Specific Techniques 7. such as stairs. The escape route signs must be located so that occupants from any part of the premises can see and identify the direction for evacuation.

Also assess and plan a schedule for servicing the lamps and batteries at required intervals. Illumination should be carried out with light sources having a colour rendering index of at least Ra 40 so that safety colours in an escape area or on an escape route can be seen and discriminated.5 lx) and escape routes (minimum on centre line 1.Specific Techniques 3 – Illumination levels and infill lighting In addition to the lighting of mandatory points. Therefore consideration should be given at the design stage to the intended method .5 seconds of the normal lights failing for as long as required to complete making the task safe or whilst people pass by if it is by the escape route.0 lx) should be made available within 5 seconds of the mains failing to avoid anxiety. remember the commissioning and certification requirements for both the design and the installed scheme. An adequate level of illuminance on the floor of escape areas (minimum 0. automatic self-testing or an automatic remote/central controlled testing system. and remain operative for at least 1 hour. or longer if required. They can be self-contained or central power fed depending on the size and complexity of the premises. for safe evacuation. Stylish luminaires should be chosen to blend in with the design of the overall lighting scheme.be it local switch. 4 – Maintenance and testing Once the scheme is installed and commissioned. The luminaires may be dedicated standalone types or integrated into standard lighting luminaires. infill luminaires may be required to achieve the correct lighting levels. To make sure installed emergency products are always fit for purpose. but they must suit the environmental conditions of the location. 140 | Specific Techniques .0m) through which people move during evacuation by mounting luminaires above head height. High-risk task areas should be illuminated to an adequate level (minimum 15 lx) within 0. Finally. the operation and servicing and practicalities and through life economics of the installation. Additionally take care to illuminate the volume of space (from floor up to a height of 2. For example use IP65 emergency lighting luminaires outside the final exit. regular testing has to be conducted by the building operator. it is essential that the luminaires are properly maintained and ready to perform in the event of an emergency.

or some other process that requires unbroken lighting conditions for safe shut down.18 Specific forms of emergency lighting Specific Techniques | 141 . open plan office or multi purpose hall. When it does it must follow the rules governing escape lighting.Specific Techniques Emergency lighting system considerations Standby lighting is used as an alternative to normal lighting but it can also form the emergency escape lighting solution. passenger ships) low location way guidance systems are provided to supplement the escape route lighting. such as a chemical dip process. Emergency Lighting Emergency escape lighting Standby lighting Escape route lighting Low location way guidance Open area (anti-panic) lighting High risk task area lighting Fig. 7. A high-risk task area is where some uninterruptible activity is ongoing. Escape lighting covers the need for clearly defined escape routes in the premises formed by corridors or paths indicated by painted lines. In some places where there is high risk of smoke accumulation (airlines. Open areas are defined as places where there is no clear route or where the routes are changing such as a large shop.

The diversity of illuminance should not exceed 40:1. To avoid dazzling people the intensity limits for the luminaire should not be exceeded for the mounting height in the scheme.5 lx up to border of 0. illuminance ratio not greater than 40:1. 7. Large areas require min 0. Wider routes may be treated as 2m wide strips of escape routes but preferably as open areas. 7. It is important that during an emergency only signs that give a positive indication to the way out should be illuminated and that the signs are mounted high enough (above 2. The signs should conform to the graphic design. The design illuminance is to be provided within 60 seconds. To avoid dazzling people it is important not to exceed the intensity limits related to the mounting height of the luminaires. 100 per cent being provided within 60 seconds of the normal lights failing. Max. but preferably within 5 seconds of the supply failure.20 Escape route illuminance requirements 142 | Specific Techniques . colour and luminance criteria given in the EN1838 standard. Safety signs Strategically placed signs permanently indicating the escape directions from the premises are essential to alleviate anxiety and confusion by the people present.0m) so that they are not obscured.5 lx not less than 1. and the centre band of at least 50 per cent of the route width should be illuminated to at least half the centre line value.0 lx along centreline Fig.19 Escape route plan (up to 2m wide) Exit sign must be visible from all parts of open area Fig. to min. The diversity of illuminance should not exceed 40:1.Specific Techniques Clearly defined escape routes Clearly defined escape routes are taken to be up to 2m wide. In these the illuminance on the floor should be a minimum 0.5 lux anywhere up to 0.5 lx not less than 0.5m of the perimeter area. Here the horizontal illuminance at floor level on the centre line should be not less than 1 lux. Open areas Areas where the furnishing or equipment on the floor is frequently reconfigured will not have clearly defined escape routes and are therefore treated as open areas. as defined above. Exit signs should be located so that they are visible from any part of the space. 50% of width not less than 0.5m from the walls and 50 per cent should be provided within 5 seconds.

The mains supply charges the battery. if so the box should be within 1m of the luminaire.5 seconds. In some cases the escape route may be alongside these hazardous tasks and therefore needs to be highlighted. The system duration or category is defined by the period the system is able supply power to the load. The uniformity should not be less than 0. The high risk tasks areas should be illuminated as required by the task and in any event the maintained illuminance should be not less than 10 per cent of the required maintained illuminance for that task and should not be less than 15 lux and be available in full within 0. charger. emergency lighting is required in places where machinery. The system may include a self. There are also places where the task activity cannot be halted and needs standby emergency light (such as in an operating theatre).Specific Techniques High risk task areas During the failure of the normal lighting supply. Self-contained systems are easy to install and extend. Fig. They can also be connected to a central managed automatic testing system and can give printed report of any defects. Power systems for emergency lighting Emergency lighting systems are usually powered from batteries or generators that are automatically triggered by a detection system as soon as the mains system fails. and that must be shut down before evacuating the area. For this a no-break or maintained system should be considered. These elements may be integral to the luminaire or housed in a separate unit mounted less than 1m from the luminaire. indicator and changeover device.1. Usually given as 60 minutes (1 hour) or 180 minutes (3 hours).21 Self-contained system Specific Techniques | 143 . The two main types of electrical systems in use are self-contained and central power: Self-contained systems Each luminaire is equipped with battery. which cuts in when the mains system fails. plant or other processes may present a hazard if left in operation.testing facility that can carry out the routine monthly and annual operational tests and give local indications of the status. Each luminaire is equipped with batteries and inverter to power one lamp on mains failure The gear may be remote mounted. and require minimal maintenance. 7.

when the mains fail. an emergency power source cuts in to power the lamp. In an emergency.21mSu m marymode s of s of oper ation 6.216. 144 | Specific Techniques . The system must include monitoring of the mains supply and detection of failure of local circuits in each part of the premises to bring on the emergency lighting. They will require space to house the large battery sets or generator. of oper memergencypresent. of of mode oper ation Su mary emergency Maintained (M) The lamp is lit at all material times and is powered by the mains supply under normal conditions.21m mary of mode slamlam p on on Fig . These systems are best suited for large premises.21 Su m mary of mode s of oper ation The lamp is only lit when the mains fail and is operated by an Fig .23 Summary of modes of operation (C) on lamp is lamp is on lamp i (M)lam p is Su mary lamp is on of is .22 Central system Mains mode Em ergency mode Mains mode Em ergencyEmergency mode mode Mains mode Non-ma inta Non-ma inta inedined Non-maintained (NM) (NM) (NM) Mains mode Em ergency is off mode mode Mains is Em ergency on lamp lamp lamp is mode lamp is off off lamp is onlamp is on Non-ma inta ined Maintained Maintained (M) Maintained (NM) Mains mode Em ergency is on mode Mains mode Em ergenc (M) (M) lamp is lamp is off lamp lamp on is off is lamp lamp is on on lamp lamp is lamp is onmode Mains is on Em ergency mode MainsNon-ma inta ined ergency on on mode Em lamp is mode Combined (C) Maintained (NM) Combined Combined ined ined Non-ma Non-ma inta inta lamp(M) off lamp is on lamp is off lamp i (C) (C) (NM) (NM) is on lamp is lamp lamp is on is on lamp is p mains lam on emergency p on is on mains lam poffispoff on is lam lam on mainsMaintained emergency is on is lamp is on lamp is on is emergency lamp lamp is on lamp is lamp Combined (M) Maintained Maintained Fig. 7.Fig(M) Su on memergency of soperoper ation Luminaire mode of operation lamp is on lamp lampCombined is on lamp is onis on (C) There are a number of ways that emergency luminaires can Combined Combined operate. The wiring of the sub-circuits has to be protected and be of high-integrity.Specific Techniques Central systems Here the power is provided by remote central batteries or generators and is distributed through sub-circuits to a number of slave luminaires. Fig . ofmains p is ation emergency lam p is on mode mains 6.21 onation a battery mode s of on ation mains lam p is on emergency mode s(C)allis Suwhere Fig . alternatively the luminaires may be treated as an individual spur connection to a protected emergency power ring sub-circuit. mary of is lam p is oper (C) In p cases. 6. As part of the high integrity considerations the luminaires with loop-in/out wiring facility must also have protected glands and terminal blocks. mains lam p emergency lam p mains lam p is onis on emergency lam p is onis on Non-maintained (NM) y of mode s of oper ation Fig .21 power source. itis charged y ofmains lam 6. During design due allowance should be made for voltage drops. by the mains supply. 6. 7. Fig.

Identify open areas and special locations 6. Mark escape routes 5. with the output in the worst (minimum) condition. 10. control rooms. 7. (It is most important that consultation with relevant bodies over the specific plans is carried out early in the design process). Examine building plans 3. Identify closets. Prepare logbook. Planning Sequence There is no precise sequence to be followed. A second lamp operates only under emergency conditions powered by an emergency power source. Identify small toilets with no windows and toilets over 8m². Planning Schemes The lighting calculations involved in emergency lighting are straightforward. Mark location of hazards. 15. Prepare operation testing service instructions. Select signs and escape luminaires fit for the purpose. Note illuminance and other specification requirements. It is important to base all calculations on real photometric data for the specific lamp and luminaire. including illuminance checks. 8. Mark exits and final exits 4. but this checklist indicates a possible course. fire-fighting appliances. Prepare installations instruction. The EN 13032-3 European standard gives the format of the photometric data and defines the critical factors for to be used in calculations. Add extra luminaires to complete scheme. 1. 11. Prepare commissioning procedure. 17. Check uniformity and glare. and alarm call points.Specific Techniques Combined (C) This is a variant of the maintained luminaire in which one lamp is powered by the mains supply during normal conditions. 14. 13. Establish licensing requirements 2. special plant rooms and lifts 9. This type of luminaire provides light at all material times and is best suited for signage. Position luminaires at essential locations. 16. Specific Techniques | 145 . 12.

The batteries or fuel tank for the generator may need topping up. The onus for these activities falls on the competent person of the owner/user of premises.Specific Techniques Inspection and Servicing Regular inspection and servicing of emergency lighting schemes is essential. Servicing considerations are straightforward. the lamp in maintained luminaires is functioning and the signs are visible. Regular servicing will keep the systems effective and reliable for operation at all material times. The standards EN 1838 and EN 50172 provide the framework for certification of completion of installation and certification for periodic testing and servicing. The inspection needs to confirm that the luminaires are in place as designed. The testing may be made by automatic systems but these must provide noticeable feedback and warning if action is required. 146 | Specific Techniques . Any faults noticed should be recorded in the logbook To verify that adequate emergency lighting is available at all material times the system needs to be inspected and tested monthly and to make full duration tests annually. In the scheme design these matters must be considered and adequately documented. At the end of each test the circuit is restored to charge conditions and the charge indicator should glow to show that the battery is on charge. failed lamps changing and the batteries in self-contained luminaires replaced at the manufacturers recommended interval. The luminaires need cleaning.

In situations such as these conventional lighting is often deficient and an alternative solution is to use a luminaire that incorporates flat beam technology. Fig. In the case of the Orus lantern a mounting height of 0. or maintenance may have to be completed at very high speeds – for example to reduce operators’ exposure to fast-moving traffic.24 A flat beam installation on a road bridge Specific Techniques | 147 . Mounting heights may be restricted by structures or local regulations. and therefore offers engineers a new resource in road lighting. Therefore where the use of high columns or other structures is an issue flat beam lanterns can deliver optimised performance without glare for road users. A flat beam lantern is designed to satisfy standard lighting criteria in a low height format.5 Low mount road lighting When lighting roads there are a number of cases where conventional lanterns do not provide the best solution to the real road situation. or where downtime for service has to be reduced to the absolute minimum.Specific Techniques 7.9m is standard. such as the Thorn Orus lantern. 7. obtrusive light may be an issue.

By positioning the optical light engine below the driver’s eye line the risk of direct glare is reduced. which is important to prevent a flicker effect from the lanterns.2. An added benefit is that the low mounting height acts as a good optical and visual guide to the road layout.26 Conventional versus low mount lighting 148 | Specific Techniques . keeping driver discomfort to an acceptable minimum.25 A flat beam lantern mounted on a bridge structure 8m 8m 24m New concept 0.5 and 5. whilst with flat beam technology the figure improves to between 8 and 13. glare and performance.Specific Techniques The flat beam concept Flat beam technology must address two issues unique to low-level mounting. 7. 7. Therefore flat beam technology can give road users the benefits of increased perceived ‘brightness’ and visibility. and by projecting light transverse to the road the optical system can offer a very sharp and controlled light distribution. but with a flat beam lantern the figure is between 10 and 18. between 8m and 15m for Orus.90m 8m 24m Fig.8 and 1. This allows increased spacing of the lanterns.5Hz. practically nil when the lantern is installed at the optimum height below the driver’s eye line. maximising performance. and drivers perceive higher levels of road lighting because the peak of the reflected beam is roughly in the direction of the eye. Conventional Installation Fig. This controlled distribution lights a road surface at ‘grazing’ incidence angles. Similarly taking the ratio of lit width to mounting height conventional luminaires produce a figure between 0. This does not mean higher glare because the light distribution is sharply reduced. With these spacings the eyes can adjust dependent on speed. the ratio of spacing to mounting height is between 3. With conventional luminaires. meaning that the flicker effect is maintained below 4Hz and in most cases less than 2.

Tamper resistant screws will be needed and the lantern and mounting will need a suitable IK rating. 8m 10m Fig. Where pedestrians are present an alternative optical design that creates a ‘circle’ of light around the luminaire helps drivers to detect a pedestrian’s entire body. Durability Obviously a potential problem when using flat beam technology is the additional rigors imposed through the lanterns closeness to the road and therefore the harsh effects of road usage.27 Flat beam lighting in road configurations (upper) and pedestrian configuration (lower) Specific Techniques | 149 . Flat beam lighting is also an excellent solution where obtrusive light has to be reduced. the optical design can direct light entirely onto the road. for reasons such as: • • • • • • • Ease of access Extreme weather Structural fragility Maintenance difficulties In the vicinity of airfields or other sensitive areas Risk of obtrusive light Other environmental or resource issues 8m 10m Flat beam lanterns can be specified for use on roads with or without pedestrian traffic. Without pedestrians. This option also allows for facial recognition by other pedestrians. it can be specified in certain residential areas. Flat beam technology is also suitable for use in parks and gardens. For example. UV stabilised and scratch resistant. or in areas where the surrounding buildings are illuminated and road lighting should therefore be unobtrusive. It is essential that the lanterns are constructed from high quality materials and engineered for low maintenance and a long operating life. Here the luminaires can spread light at low level without distracting attention from other illuminated features. and also the ease of access for vandalism. 7. such as IK10/40 joules. Optical components such as the visor need to be strong.Specific Techniques Application of flat beam technology As mentioned flat beam lanterns can be used where traditional road lighting using columns or façade mounting is not feasible. As the lantern is close to the road and therefore the spray caused by road traffic both optic and gear should comply with IP66.

Spacing options between 8 and 15m also reduce any ‘pools’ of darkness. Because they use white light they can be used to highlight sections of the highway where care is required. while light emitted from the system is distributed ahead of. with luminaire spacing between 8 and 15m. In a complete installation. behind and beneath vehicles. Light output from Orus luminaires is surprisingly resistant to obstruction by queues of traffic. It is also reflected by the road surface. Calculations show that TI is considerably below 10 per cent while luminance and uniformity exceed relevant standards. giving ample coverage for roads with multiple lanes including cycle lanes and central reservations.Specific Techniques Lighting Data for the Thorn Orus lantern When flat beam technology was integrated into Orus. or on both sides of the road with the same spacing. 7. Orus luminaires mix perfectly with classic column mounted systems. Fig. priority was given to the limitation of glare. ahead and behind.9m. In the latter configuration it will cover roads up to 20m wide. while lighting from vehicles further maintains lighting levels.28 The Orus lantern 150 | Specific Techniques . as in a hazard black spot or area of restricted speed. Tests have shown that there is no occultation nor distracting shadows. The system is designed with a specific lamp burner cap so that direct light cannot reach the eyes of a driver or the rear mirrors of a car when installed at the compulsory height of 0. Orus offers drivers a unique ‘guidance’ effect which tracks the contours of the road. or 60W HIT-CE PGZ12 CosmoWhite – gives planners ample scope to adjust Orus to any project. Orus can be installed either single-sided. The wide choice of lamps – from 35 to 70W HIT-CE G12.

the interior zone and the exit zone. and it has a length equal to the stopping distance of a car at the traffic design speed. During daylight hours the driver is adapted to the high luminance outside the tunnel. Luminance values (Lth) should be calculated according to the calculation method shown in the document CIE 88:2004 and this is related to the luminance outside the tunnel and the speed of the traffic passing through the tunnel. The road luminance can be reduced after a distance of half of the stopping distance into the tunnel. The most critical requirement is to detect obstacles on the road.Specific Techniques 7. the threshold zone. the threshold zone. The threshold zone is the first zone inside the tunnel and has a length equal to the stopping distance of a vehicle at traffic design speed. To help in the design process tunnels are normally divided into five zones. suitable lighting must be installed in the tunnel entrance.29 The five zones of a tunnel The entrance zone is the part of the tunnel just before the entrance. To avoid the entrance to the tunnel appearing as a black hole and to ensure that a driver approaching the tunnel entrance can detect obstacles on the road.30 The entrance zone Specific Techniques | 151 . Entrance zone Threshhold zone Transition zone Interior zone Exit zone Portal Exit Fig. 7. especially when you are entering and leaving the tunnel. the transition zone. the entrance zone. and the lighting needs to be suitable for both daytime and night-time hours. Fig. 7.6 Road tunnel lighting The aim of lighting a tunnel is to create a safe environment that allows road users to pass through the tunnel without any accidents.

For example: For a traffic design speed of 60Km/h (16. For very long tunnels the interior zone may be split into two subzones.2Hz. The interior zone is the longest part of the tunnel and the luminance level should comply with the recommendations given in the standard. To minimise flicker discomfort it should be ensured that the flicker frequency is either below 2. The first sub-zone is equivalent to the distance of travel of a vehicle at traffic design speed. but the last step from transition zone to interior zone should not be greater than two times the interior zones values.5 Hz or above 15Hz. 7. These recommendations give the luminance level as a function of the stopping distance and traffic flow. Fig.31 The interior zone of a tunnel lit from one side by a continuous row of luminaires Fig. A longitudinal uniformity of 0. or in long tunnels. 7. This generally occurs when the luminaires are not mounted in a continuous row when discomfort from flicker occurs due to the luminance changes from that of the bright luminaires to the darker surface between luminaires. it is recommended to increase the luminance level immediately prior to the exit.6/4 = 4.4 (minimum to average on the road and walls up to a height of 2m above the road surface). The exit zone has to follow the same luminance level as the interior zone.6 is required along the centre of each lane of the road.6m/sec) and a luminaire spacing of 4m the flicker frequency is 16. but where additional hazards may occur in the tunnel. In these transition zones the luminance is gradually reduced until it reaches the level of the interior zone.Specific Techniques Between the threshold zone and the interior zone a number of transition zones occur. the amount of light (peak value and duration) and flicker frequency has an impact on the experience. The perception of flicker can occur in a tunnel. The second sub-zone contains the remaining length of the interior zone. The length of the experience. Uniformity of luminance in the zones must be a ratio of 0. The luminance values can be reduced in steps of 3:1.32 A tunnel lit using floodlights in an opposite configuration 152 | Specific Techniques . For all zones the lighting levels on the walls is recommended to be at least 60 per cent of the road luminance values of the relevant zone up to a height of 2 meters above the road surface.

giving a different distribution. The international document CIE 88:2004 gives information on designing a tunnel lighting scheme. Symmetrical optics may sometimes be placed in the junction between wall and ceiling making maintenance of the luminaires easier and removing the need to close the tunnel during maintenance time.34 Counter beam optics Fig. Fig. Luminaires are placed above the traffic lanes To design a complete tunnel lighting installation takes a high amount of knowledge and experience. Counter beam optics This optic type is asymmetrical and main beam is orientated against the traffic. For this luminaires may be placed either above the road surface.Specific Techniques Optics for a tunnel The main aim for the lighting is to provide a good contrast between the object and the road. Two main types of luminaire optics exist for tunnel lighting. 7. 7. to create a maximum contrast between the object and the road. Symmetrical optics This optic type is often placed above the lanes and the light distribution is symmetrical both along the road and transverse to the road.33 Symmetrical optics Specific Techniques | 153 . and local standards should be consulted for relevant national requirements. or at the side of the road surface.

Through the life of the installation these conditions will deteriorate as age and dirt reduce the effectiveness of the lighting. lamps and reflective surfaces are at their oldest or dirtiest. However in applications such as tunnels and underpasses. 2. To calculate maintained lighting levels it is necessary to calculate the light loss at the point when the luminaires. This means that the maintenance cycle for the installation must be defined. that is the luminaires. In exterior area lighting the impact of reflective surfaces may be negligible. 3. lamps and reflective surfaces in the space are new and clean. Consequently when designing a lighting installation it is common to design for a maintained lighting value. that is the lighting level achieved when the luminaires. Cleaning and maintaining the luminaire Cleaning and maintaining the lamp Cleaning and maintaining the reflective surfaces in the lit space. and also the lighting of building facades regular cleaning can improve the performance of the lighting scheme. 154 | Specific Techniques . Fig. lamps and reflective surfaces are at their oldest or dirtiest.Specific Techniques 7.35 The maintenance cycle The maintenance cycle consists of three main activities: 1. 7.7 Lighting maintenance When a lighting installation is first commissioned conditions are at their optimal.

• • Specific Techniques | 155 . Different lamp types have different characteristics with respect to lumen maintenance and lamp life and deciding when to relamp is a compromise between these two factors. as deterioration of some of the components within the luminaire. Note. or the installation maintenance factor must include an adjustment for the percentage of broken lamps expected before relamping. Therefore. So either a spot lamp replacement system must be used where any failed lamps are immediately replaced. the installation performance also relies on all (or at least the majority) of lamps working. The main factors that influence the loss of lighting performance through life for an installation are: • The cleanliness of the environment. and is cleaned and re-lamped and the reflective surfaces are cleaned every six years. The lamp technology used within the installation. so at worst case only 67 per cent of the initial lighting level is being realised. Using a sealed unit prevents dirt from entering the luminaire and therefore only the external surfaces require cleaning and may be cleaned more vigorously. in which the luminaire is cleaned every two years. The type of luminaire specified within the installation. However. Therefore either the luminaires and reflective surfaces within the space will need cleaning more often or the maintenance factor for the installation will be reduced. relamping must be done when the lamp lumens have reached a minimum acceptable value and the number of failed lamps in the installation has reached a maximum acceptable level.Specific Techniques An example is shown in Figure 7. In this example the installation maintenance factor is 67 per cent. In dirty environments using an open luminaire will allow dirt deposition within the luminaire that is very difficult to clean. the installation will never reach the initial lighting levels achieved when new. Selecting a lamp with good lumen maintenance through life will reduce the light loss due to lamp aging. and of the surface finishes within the space. cannot be fully recovered by cleaning. In industrial or urban environments airborne dirt will be much higher than in clean room or rural environments.35.

clean. normal or dirty. They rely on the classification of the environment being lit into very clean.Maintenance of Indoor Electric Lighting Systems and CIE 154:2003 . and classification of the luminaire according to its resistance to the effects of dirt (type A to G). However the data will assume the unit is operating within normal conditions as specified by the manufacturer.The Maintenance of Outdoor Lighting Systems Standard tables for luminaire and room surface maintenance factors exist in CIE 97 and in the absence of more comprehensive manufacturers data these may be used.Specific Techniques The installation maintenance factor is then the product of all the maintenance factors of the installation components. Many lighting design software allow the maintenance schedule to be defined and use this to calculate an installation maintenance factor. 156 | Specific Techniques . However further guidance on calculating and using maintenance factors may be found in publications CIE 97-2006 . Operating outside these conditions could (and probably will) alter the characteristics of the unit. MFinstallation Where luminaire MF = luminaire MF x lamp lumen MF x lamp survival MF x reflective surface MF the amount of light lost due to the luminaire through aging and dirt deposition on the luminaire the amount of light lost due to a reduction in lamp flux as the lamp ages the amount of light lost due to failed lamps which are not immediately replaced the amount of light lost due to reduced reflection from surfaces within the installation lamp lumen MF lamp survival MF reflective surface MF Data for these factors should be available from manufacturers. For example operating a lamp in a hot environment may increase the lumen output of the lamp. but at expense of lumen maintenance and lamp life.

wall mounted uplighters with closed base. wallwashing luminaires (vertical opening). Inspection interval 3 years 2 years 1 year Environment Very Clean Clean Normal Dirty Activity or Task area Clean rooms. Type A B C D E F G Luminaire type Bare batten Open top housing (natural ventilated and “self cleaning” types) Closed top housing (unventilated) Enclosed IP2X Dust proof IP5X Indirect lighting and uplight Air handling and forced ventilated Bare lamp luminaires Direct-indirect luminaires without cover. with louvres). spotlights General purpose luminaires with closed covers and optics Dust proof IP5X (protected. which is then used in the luminaire maintenance table to determine the luminaire maintenance factor. schools.2 Typical inspection periods for differing environmental conditions *In clinical areas more frequent inspections may be required Table 7. laboratories. assembly areas. chemical works. cove lights Air handling body and optic used with air-conditioning or ventilation systems Luminaire description Table 7. along with advice on typical cleaning intervals. workshops Steelworks. polishing. restaurants. foundries. pendant. which is defined as DFF = downward light output ratio / total light output ratio. hospital clinical areas*. Specific Techniques | 157 .2 gives help in deciding which environment should be used. welding.3 Luminaire type and description When the environment and luminaire type have been determined the tables shown below may be used to give the luminaire maintenance factor and room surface maintenance factor.Specific Techniques Table 7. hospital wards Shops. computer centres Offices. wall mounted luminaires open top and base. The room surface maintenance factor depends upon the downward flux fraction (DFF) for the luminaire. warehouses.g.3 gives guidance on deciding the type of luminaire. downlights with open top Recessed and surface mounted luminaires (e. downlights. woodwork Table 7. semi conductor plants. clean room luminaires) Free standing. direct-indirect luminaires with indirect reflector and closed optical device.

79 0.74 0.98 VC 0.89 0 2.92 0.75 0.95 0.59 0.93 0.92 1.95 0.96 0.87 0.96 0.93 0.55 0.89 0.88 0.83 0.81 0.94 0.94 0.93 0.99 D 0.86 0.89 0.87 0.94 1.78 0.98 0.84 0.79 0.95 N 0.89 0.92 0.68 0.92 0.98 C 0.76 0.91 0.90 D 0.87 0.89 0.83 0.75 0.90 0.4 Luminaire maintenance factors based upon type and environment 158 | Specific Techniques .99 C 0.81 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.91 0.60 0.65 0.87 0.92 0.86 0.Specific Techniques Elapsed time between cleanings in years Environment Luminaire type A B C D E F G Elapsed time between cleanings in years 0 0.87 VC 0.86 VC 0.73 0.5 1.70 0.81 0.93 0.85 0.69 0.82 0.45 0.74 0.96 0.57 0.84 0.88 0.82 0.92 0.51 0.92 D 0.85 0.68 0.81 0.92 0.90 0.96 0.90 0.73 0.84 0.93 0.99 N 0.96 D 0.85 0.73 0.94 0.93 VC 0.91 0.75 0.83 0.0 1.83 0.85 0.79 0.77 0.5 Any 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 VC 0.92 0.80 0.91 0.61 0.89 0.93 0.85 Table 7.93 1.95 N 0.81 0.0 Environment Any Luminaire type A 1 B C D E F G 1 1 1 1 1 1 VC 0.80 0.89 0.88 0.00 C 0.88 0.77 0.79 0.90 0.5 3.91 D 0.86 0.94 0.95 0.75 0.85 0.90 0.98 C 0.79 0.89 0.91 0.52 0.83 0.86 0.83 0.64 0.94 0.80 0.94 D 0.77 0.99 C 0.80 0.85 0.93 0.89 0.0 2.91 0.77 0.91 0.54 0.65 0.66 0.92 0.94 0.94 0.87 0.74 0.96 N 0.73 0.00 C 0.71 0.66 0.97 N 0.71 0.91 0.95 0.74 0.88 0.00 N 0.79 0.73 0.95 0.

80 0.97 0.95 0.96 0.95 0.92 0.84 0.91 0.97 0.91 0.95 0.96 0.30/0.90 0.86 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.00 1.97 0.95 0.97 0.95 0.91 0.97 0.99 0.88 0.95 0.97 0.00 4.85 0.95 0.85 0.70/0.98 0.93 0.94 0.90 0.91 0.95 0.85 0.00 1.80 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.80/0.96 0.84 0.97 0.00 reflectances ceiling/walls/floor environment 0.96 0.89 0.80 0.98 0.00 1.93 0.90 0.85 0.93 0.0 (direct luminaires) 1.95 0.88 0.96 0.87 0.91 0.90 0.90 0.86 0.92 0.81 0.91 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.88 0.93 0.00 1.5 Room surface maintenance factors for DFF=1.93 0.81 0.00 1.97 0.93 0.98 0.92 0.98 0.97 0.00 1.90 0.91 0.00 1.92 0.92 0.93 0.98 0.20 0.98 0.97 0.00 0.93 0.96 0.95 0.97 0.80 0.81 0.98 0.93 0.90 0.50/0.00 1.94 0.96 0.94 0.94 0.50 4.93 0.00 1.98 0.98 0.85 0.00 1.88 0.96 0.85 0.94 0.81 0.00 1.94 0.98 0.93 0.85 0.96 0.96 0.98 0.94 0.90 0.20 Table 7.85 0.00 1.88 0.97 0.93 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.92 0.98 0.90 0.00 1.99 0.50 5.96 0.90 0.85 0.95 0.90 0.81 0.98 0.00 3.00 1.92 0.20 0.93 0.20 Specific Techniques 0.97 0.00 1.20 very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty | 159 .93 0.95 0.97 0.00 1.90 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.89 0.93 0.91 0.86 0.94 0.97 0.94 0.92 0.89 0.93 0.94 0.81 0.93 0.93 0.96 0.98 0.90 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.92 0.96 0.91 0.00 1.97 0.96 0.95 0.98 0.81 0.85 0.97 0.94 0.93 0.89 0.98 0.97 0.86 0.50 1.91 0.96 0.92 0.95 0.91 0.87 0.85 0.97 0.96 0.70/0.97 0.98 0.90 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.90 0.86 0.00 1.97 0.94 0.70/0.95 0.81 0.96 0.87 0.89 0.88 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.98 0.96 0.90 0.92 0.98 0.85 0.91 0.99 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.80 0.97 0.81 0.00 1.97 0.87 0.84 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.20 Specific Techniques 0.92 0.50/0.00 1.84 0.89 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.86 0.96 0.85 0.92 0.30/0.97 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.97 0.80 0.50/0.94 0.90 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.92 0.94 0.91 0.91 0.95 0.20 0.91 0.94 0.86 0.84 0.92 0.80/0.83 0.98 0.97 0.98 0.00 1.94 0.88 0.92 0.90 0.98 0.70/0.93 0.50 2.92 0.91 0.20 0.00 0.97 0.00 1.20 0.93 0.84 0.95 0.97 0.87 0.89 0.89 0.97 0.96 0.00 1.93 0.96 0.85 0.90 0.98 0.87 0.85 0.92 0.90 0.91 0.50 3.93 0.87 0.98 0.87 0.96 0.89 0.80 0.00 1.84 0.98 0.94 0.00 5.96 0.00 1.81 0.95 0.97 0.93 0.97 0.91 0.00 1.95 0.98 0.96 0.70/0.97 0.96 0.88 0.92 0.95 0.81 0.87 0.80 0.92 0.97 0.88 0.84 0.84 0.92 0.97 0.50 6.80/0.98 0.70/0.80 0.92 0.90 0.00 1.93 0.50/0.90 0.00 1.98 0.98 0.90 0.87 0.85 0.84 0.86 0.00 2.92 0.87 0.90 0.95 0.85 0.00 1.84 0.80 0.93 0.90 0.91 0.98 0.97 0.98 0.89 0.95 0.87 0.92 0.92 0.81 0.97 0.95 0.00 1.93 0.91 0.00 1.89 0.time/yrs room surface maintenance factors – utilisation plane 0.89 0.86 0.90 0.95 0.94 0.00 1.89 0.91 0.00 1.98 0.92 0.50/0.00 1.91 0.92 0.86 0.99 0.86 0.30/0.92 0.97 0.80 0.86 0.94 0.90 0.92 0.98 0.85 0.92 0.50/0.86 0.96 0.00 1.92 0.96 0.90 0.95 0.95 0.98 0.94 0.90 0.95 0.89 0.94 0.85 0.00 1.96 0.94 0.96 0.97 0.94 0.96 0.95 0.86 0.93 0.92 0.88 0.97 0.92 0.98 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.

72 0.96 0.78 0.83 0.96 0.90 0.97 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.94 0.90 0.75 0.96 0.86 0.00 1.80 0.91 0.89 0.96 0.90 0.69 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.90 0.96 0.50/0.88 0.90 0.00 1.96 0.69 0.95 0.97 0.90 0.83 0.97 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.00 3.00 1.83 0.73 0.88 0.20 0.93 0.80/0.92 0.86 0.80 0.97 0.83 0.94 0.82 0.95 0.83 0.80 0.96 0.74 0.90 0.93 0.20 0.70/0.93 0.82 0.20 0.79 0.97 0.92 0.30/0.73 0.86 0.69 0.96 0.95 0.82 0.90 0.87 0.77 0.94 0.83 0.90 0.88 0.78 0.50 4.96 0.00 1.94 0.50 1.90 0.86 0.84 0.79 0.93 0.75 0.79 0.84 0.74 0.83 0.80 0.88 0.90 0.93 0.97 0.95 0.96 0.83 0.82 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.98 0.83 0.96 0.75 0.80 0.95 0.50/0.69 0.00 reflectances ceiling/walls/floor environment 160 | Specific Techniques 0.90 0.96 0.91 0.96 0.87 0.78 0.93 0.78 0.79 0.93 0.86 0.30/0.79 0.92 0.92 0.97 0.92 0.00 1.95 0.69 0.93 0.92 0.00 0.79 0.95 0.93 0.87 0.00 5.93 0.20 Table 7.80 0.79 0.20 0.95 0.93 0.00 1.92 0.97 0.90 0.91 0.87 0.84 0.97 0.95 0.96 0.92 0.77 0.00 1.73 0.79 0.78 0.96 0.00 1.82 0.79 0.67 0.74 0.73 0.94 0.74 0.87 0.70/0.83 0.86 0.80 0.70/0.74 0.00 1.67 0.82 0.96 0.93 0.86 0.97 0.79 0.87 0.20 0.78 0.86 0.90 0.87 0.87 0.75 0.74 0.90 0.50 3.95 0.70/0.77 0.00 2.90 0.80 0.69 0.84 0.00 1.00 1.90 0.80 0.90 0.93 0.90 0.97 0.83 0.76 0.88 0.92 0.97 0.73 0.77 0.75 0.time/yrs room surface maintenance factors – utilisation plane 0.00 1.93 0.00 1.90 0.93 0.90 0.20 very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty .94 0.87 0.96 0.97 0.83 0.95 0.93 0.86 0.00 1.5 (direct/indirect luminaires) 1.93 0.79 0.79 0.94 0.95 0.93 0.00 1.92 0.6 Room surface maintenance factors for DFF=0.81 0.79 0.84 0.92 0.83 0.70 0.84 0.94 0.90 0.00 1.79 0.67 0.87 0.82 0.93 0.93 0.82 0.90 0.00 0.93 0.97 0.82 0.90 0.96 0.79 0.00 1.92 0.90 0.97 0.67 0.50/0.98 0.88 0.92 0.86 0.83 0.75 0.93 0.87 0.93 0.87 0.87 0.95 0.73 0.96 0.00 1.00 4.89 0.70/0.93 0.00 1.94 0.00 1.00 1.95 0.93 0.00 1.00 1.82 0.88 0.69 0.69 0.83 0.94 0.84 0.95 0.67 0.86 0.90 0.67 0.79 0.93 0.95 0.91 0.20 Specific Techniques 0.90 0.89 0.96 0.84 0.83 0.86 0.90 0.50 5.93 0.95 0.83 0.50/0.91 0.95 0.94 0.96 0.00 1.95 0.77 0.91 0.74 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.78 0.86 0.92 0.73 0.78 0.79 0.84 0.86 0.77 0.93 0.91 0.86 0.87 0.96 0.75 0.91 0.77 0.93 0.75 0.81 0.00 1.79 0.00 1.78 0.83 0.50/0.93 0.86 0.20 0.90 0.92 0.00 1.96 0.77 0.00 1.87 0.96 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.75 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.86 0.74 0.86 0.77 0.50 6.73 0.86 0.70/0.93 0.93 0.88 0.74 0.87 0.90 0.88 0.91 0.96 0.92 0.00 1.96 0.94 0.80 0.73 0.00 1.00 1.84 0.80 0.79 0.67 0.87 0.85 0.00 1.85 0.76 0.81 0.96 0.95 0.75 0.30/0.77 0.75 0.82 0.90 0.79 0.78 0.87 0.67 0.90 0.88 0.69 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.69 0.86 0.92 0.97 0.80/0.93 0.91 0.80 0.87 0.69 0.67 0.00 1.50 2.79 0.92 0.92 0.77 0.87 0.74 0.80/0.95 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.96 0.00 1.74 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.67 0.00 1.79 0.96 0.88 0.83 0.87 0.96 0.91 0.94 0.73 0.67 0.88 0.00 1.92 0.87 0.84 0.87 0.84 0.50/0.92 0.

time/yrs room surface maintenance factors – utilisation plane

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

reflectances ceiling/walls/floor

environment

0.80/0.70/0.20

0.80/0.50/0.20

0.80/0.30/0.20

Specific Techniques

0.70/0.70/0.20

Table 7.7 Room surface maintenance factors for DFF=0 (indirect luminaires) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.72 0.54 0.94 0.88 0.76 0.59 0.96 0.90 0.80 0.64 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.55 0.95 0.89 0.77 0.60 0.96 0.91 0.80 0.65 0.94 0.87 0.75 0.57 0.95 0.90 0.78 0.61 0.96 0.91 0.81 0.66 0.91 0.82 0.67 0.50 0.93 0.85 0.72 0.55 0.94 0.88 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.68 0.51 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.56 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.92 0.84 0.70 0.52 0.93 0.87 0.74 0.57 0.95 0.89 0.78 0.62 0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.92 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.82 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.85 0.72 0.55 0.94 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.92 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.85 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.92 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

0.70/0.50/0.20

0.70/0.30/0.20

0.50/0.70/0.20

0.50/0.50/0.20

Specific Techniques

0.50/0.30/0.20

very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty

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Specific Techniques
To determine the lamp lumen maintenance factor and lamp survival factor data published by lamp manufacturers should be used. Examples are shown below.
Lumen maintenance FH/FQ and FC 120

100

80 Maintenance %

60

40

20

0 100 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Lifetime hours 12000 14000 16000 FC 18000 20000 FH/FQ

Figure 7.36 Example lumen maintenance curve (courtesy Osram)
Lumen maintenance T5 FQ HO, FH HE and FC 120

100

80 Maintenance %

60

40

20

0 100 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Lifetime hours 12000 14000 16000 FC 18000 20000 FH/FQ

Figure 7.37 Example lamp survival curve (courtesy Osram)

162 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques
For example, a closed top recessed louvred luminaire with an upward light output ratio of zero uses 14W T16 lamps (Osram FH), and is installed in an office with surface reflectance’s of ceiling:70%, walls:50% and floor:20%. The room and luminaires are cleaned every three years, and the lamps are replaced every 8000 hours. Therefore: Luminaire maintenance factor (LMF) Luminaire is a closed top recessed louvred fitting, which is type C. As the luminaire is installed in an office this is a clean environment. Therefore, from Table 7.4 for a cleaning interval of three years the luminaire maintenance factor is given as 0.74. Room surface maintenance factor (RSMF) As the luminaire has an upward light output ratio of zero the downward light output ratio must be the same as the total light output ratio, and therefore the DFF equals one. Using Table 7.5 for reflectance’s 0.80/0.50/0.20 gives a room surface maintenance factor of 0.94. Lamp lumen maintenance factor (LLMF) From Figure 7.36 when the lamp has been running for 8000 hours the lamp lumens has reduced to 92% of the original output (red curve). Lamp survival factor (LSF) From the red curve on Figure 7.37 when the lamps have been operating for 8000 hours 96% of the lamps will still be functional (e.g. 4% of the lamps will have failed). Thus the maintenance factor is: MF = = = MF * 0.74 * 0.614 RSMF * 0.94 * LLMF * 0.92 * LSF 0.96

Specific Techniques

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Specific Techniques
7.8 Control of obtrusive light
Obtrusive light is the light that does not illuminate a task or reference area but spills onto other non-related areas. This not only reduces the efficiency of the lighting installation as a proportion of the light produced is being wasted, but can also cause inconvenience or damage in the surrounding areas. Obtrusive light may be thought of as having three components; • Spill light, which is light emitted by a lighting installation that falls outside the boundaries of the property for which the lighting is designed. Sky glow, which is light that contributes to the brightening of the night sky. Light trespass, which is a special case of spill light when light spills onto surrounding properties. An additional form of light trespass is when the direct view of bright luminaires from normal viewing directions causing annoyance, distraction or discomfort.
Fig. 7.38 An example of an installation producing sky glow

• •

Waste light Waste light ULOR DLOR Sky glow direct and reflected flux

Spill light

Light trespass

Reference area

Immediate surrounds

Surrounds

Fig. 7.39 The components of obtrusive light

164 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques
A selection of lighting technical parameters are used to define limits for obtrusive light, depending upon the type of obtrusive light being experienced or measured. All the parameters depend upon the environmental zone the installation is within, which effectively defines the amount of background brightness from the surround area. The environmental zones are shown in Table 7.8.
Zone Surrounding Lighting Environment Examples

E1 E2 E3 E4

Natural Rural Suburban Urban

Dark Low brightness Medium brightness High brightness

National parks and protected sites Industrial or residential rural areas Industrial or residential rural suburbs Town centres and commercial areas

Table 7.8 Definitions of environmental zones

The lighting technical parameters used to define limits for obtrusive light are; • ULR, the upward light ratio. This is the proportion of light that is emitted at or above the horizontal when a luminaire is mounted in its installed position. For an installation it is the sum of individual luminaire upward light ratios in their installed orientation and this indicates the contribution of an installation to sky glow.

Light Technical Parameter Upward Light Ratio (ULR)

Environmental Zones Application Conditions Ratio of luminous flux incident on horizontal plane just above luminaire in its installed position, to total luminaire flux. E1 0 E2 0–5 E3 0 – 15 E4 0 – 25

Table 7.9 Upward light ratio limits

Specific Techniques

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Specific Techniques • Ev. Mind you. Limits apply to nearby dwellings and special attention should be taken to vertical illuminance on windows. this only applies where the viewing direction is not short-term. Limits apply to every luminaire in an installation.11 Luminous intensity limits in a designated direction 166 | Specific Techniques . If land has been designated for dwellings but no construction has occurred these limits still apply for the potential dwellings. the vertical illuminance on surrounding properties. the maximum intensity of a luminaire in a designated direction. and are evaluated from every direction where views of bright surfaces of luminaires are likely to be disturbing to residents. Light Technical Parameter Illuminance in vertical plane (Ev) Environmental Zones Application Conditions Pre-curfew: Post-curfew: E1 2 lux 0 lux E2 5 lux 1 lux E3 10 lux 2 lux E4 25 lux 5 lux Table 7. but is likely to be maintained. Light Technical Parameter Luminous intensity emitted by luminaires (I) Environmental Zones Application Conditions Pre-curfew: Post-curfew: E1 2500 cd 0 cd E2 7500 cd 500 cd E3 10000 cd 1000 cd E4 25000 cd 2500 cd Table 7.10 Vertical illuminance limits on properties • I.

and limiting values are for positions and viewing directions relevant to the direction of travel for users of the transport system. using the average illuminance and reflectance values for the sign. or for self-luminous signs the average luminance. the luminance of a sign. Taken as the product of the design average illuminance and reflectance factor divided by . Threshold increment is a measure of the loss of visibility caused by the disability glare from a luminaire installation.12 Threshold increment limits • Lb.05) No road lighting 15 % based on adaptation luminance of 0.13 Luminance limits for building facades and signs Specific Techniques | 167 . the luminance of a building façade. This is the average luminance of the building façade. the value of threshold increment. This is the average luminance of a sign and may be approximated similar to that described above. Environmental Zones Application Conditions Taken as the product of the design average illuminance and reflectance factor divided by . • Ls. and may be approximated using Lb = Eav x   Where Eav is the average illuminance of the building façade and  is the reflectance of the building façade.Specific Techniques • TI. Road classification (see section 4. E1 0 E2 5 cd/m2 E3 10 cd/m2 E4 25 cd/m2 Light Technical Parameter Building Facade Luminance (Lb) Sign Luminance (Ls) 50 cd/m2 400 cd/m2 800 cd/m2 1000cd/m2 Table 7.1 cd/m2 M5 15 % based on adaptation luminance of 1 cd/m2 M4 / M3 15 % based on adaptation luminance of 2 cd/m2 M2 / M1 15 % based on adaptation luminance of 5 cd/m2 Light Technical Parameter Threshold Increment TI Table 7. The limits apply where users of a transport system are subject to a reduction in visibility caused by a non-transport installation.

Using floodlights that allow the luminaire to be aimed close to the vertical (i. with the face of the floodlight nearly horizontal and pointing downwards) reduces the impact on sky glow due to reduced upward light. Applications which can use specialist “flat-glass” floodlights (which are designed to be mounted with the front face of the floodlight horizontal) should do so. which helps reduce spill light. the structures will be more intrusive during daylight hours. Therefore the best level of beam control for the application should be used. This allows better control of glare and spill light. • Using floodlights that have a tightly controlled beam allows more precise control of the light. therefore less light overall may be required. and can allow floodlights with tighter beam control to be used. more luminaires will be required which may reduce the efficiency of the installation (but consider that if the control of light is better then more of the light is being usefully utilised within the scheme. • • • • Relevant publications for further reading are CIE S 015/E:2005 Lighting of Outdoor Work Places EN12464-2:2007 Lighting of workplaces – part 2: outdoor work places 168 | Specific Techniques . Similarly the closer a column is to the area to be lit the better the control of the lighting as this allows floodlights to be aimed closer to the vertical and floodlights with a wide distribution can be used with simplified shielding (such as a visor). A higher mounting height can allow floodlights to be aimed closer to the vertical. Using luminaires with lamps that have a lower lumen output leads to a reduced mounting height.e. as these are ideal for controlling obtrusive light. This is because a scheme that has less light control is over lighting to compensate for the spill light). However. However.Specific Techniques To control obtrusive light various strategies may be used depending upon the application.

This is the act of a criminal event occurring. 7. This is the mental worry of a criminal act occurring. a perfect hiding place. Fig. or aid in the identification of a suspect. How can lighting be used as a tool in the fight against crime? Some general points can be made. and it should be accepted that improvements in lighting cannot overcome bad design of structures or of a space. Knowledge of crime that occurs in a different geographical area can induce fear of crime in a totally unrelated area. for example over perimeter fencing/walls.Specific Techniques 7. Lighting columns/fixtures should not aid access. (For example the pedestrian tunnel shown has untended shrubs. With the increasing prevalence of CCTV cameras in shops and public spaces lighting also has an important role in aiding the authorities in identifying suspects. The effect of lighting should not be restricted. and an overhang ideal for a person to hide on. either by internal fixtures and furnishings or by exterior structures or landscaping. For exterior areas. including car parks.9 Lighting for crime prevention A firm body of evidence now exists to support the theory that lighting can have a positive effect on crime prevention.40 A forbidding entrance to a pedestrian tunnel • It is important to understand that when considering lighting for a space it is not always possible to understand the problems of the space without seeing it in all conditions. Lighting can be used to create a safe and reassuring atmosphere. even before the pedestrian has entered the blackness of the tunnel). These benefits however have to be designed into a lighting installation. however irrational. Fear of crime tends to be more prevalent than it used to be due to improved communications. Frequently the daytime appearance is completely different to that at night. Lighting can either inhibit crime. light fixtures and fittings should incorporate vandal resistant features such as polycarbonate or reinforced glass fittings with sources positioned out of reach. Specific Techniques | 169 . And cables and wiring serving lighting systems should be enclosed to restrict accidental damage or criminal attacks. The fear of crime. Lighting can be used to affect two aspects related to crime • Actual crime.

and lamp type should be chosen carefully to ensure a good colour of light and colour rendering (white light has been shown to increase peoples feelings of security. Generally street lighting is designed for maximum efficiency. more general increases in lighting seem to have crime prevention effects but this outcome is not universal. posture or objects carried (such as a knife) allowing them sufficient time to react to the threat. whilst a lamp that obviously renders colour incorrectly reduces a person’s confidence in the lighting). lower wattage lamps spaced closer together are preferable. It should Fig. Hence. or with combined lighting units (Figure 7. Lighting should provide maximum quality and reduce shadows. lighting should be designed for both road users and pedestrians. either from facial expression. Care should be taken where necessary to illuminate beyond the boundaries of the path in order to increase the visual area and provide more confidence to people using those routes. However. using the fewest lanterns/columns and switching lanterns dependant on time. To increase visibility and modelling requires consideration to the illumination on the vertical or semi-cylindrical planes. However.41). to be able to perceive any possible threat. It must be understand that whilst precisely targeted increases in lighting generally have crime reduction effects. If lighting units are dimmed or switched off during the night high levels of maintenance are essential as the failure of a lighting unit will have a larger effect if only some of the lighting units are lit compared with the case if all the lighting units were on. or by separate lighting units for each task.Specific Techniques When lighting for crime prevention the main requirement of lighting is to ensure a high level of visibility and modelling. even untargeted increases in lighting generally make people less fearful of crime and more confident of their own safety. 7. either by using lanterns that have a high level of performance in lighting both the road and paths.41 Combined lighting units with high mount lanterns and bollard height lighting 170 | Specific Techniques . When considering street lighting a change in design approach is required. When lighting footpaths and cycle paths they should be lit in a manner that shows the direction that the path takes. Pedestrians need to be able to see other people clearly at a maximum distance.

columns and walls to maximise and reflect the effect of the lighting system Fig.Specific Techniques be recognised that steps and changes in level are also part of the path and they should not be considered as independent areas. As lighting units in pedestrian subways are generally accessible by the public they should be vandal-resistant and maintained to a high standard. If possible light coloured surface treatments should be applied to ceilings. N. The lighting needs to be controllable to adjust to the different lighting requirements (e. higher light levels during the day and lower light levels at night with lighting outside the tunnel matched to the light levels inside the tunnel). or light inside and dark outside during the night. For open areas such as parks or large pedestrian spaces the lighting should give guidance on the configuration of the space. • • • Cars are generally stationary at entrance and exit points. Lighting of commercial buildings should be controlled to prevent high levels of illumination resulting in adjacent areas appearing gloomy or dark (as shown).42 Façade lighting creating areas of deep shadows Specific Techniques | 171 . lift areas and areas with payment machines. A specific hazard for footpaths are pedestrian tunnels. 7. This has implications for visibility as the eye has to adjust to the different conditions which takes time. dark inside and light outside during the daytime.B. especially when passing from relatively bright light into darkness.g. Special consideration should be given to stairwells. Therefore these areas need higher lighting levels. These generally have two problems.. In urban areas it is important not to rely on lighting from commercial premises to supplement the amenity lighting as if the commercial lighting is switched off heavy shadows may occur. Car parks should also be considered as pedestrian areas.

Cameras should not be directed toward any bright light source. Ratio 1 = Ratio 2 = Ratio 3 = Ratio 4 = Upward horizontal illuminance Downward horizontal illuminance Downward horizontal illuminance Vertical illuminance towards camera Average luminance of subject Average luminance of background Vertical illuminance left Vertical illuminance right Ratio 5 = Vertical illuminance to the back Vertical illuminance toward the camera Ideally Ratio 3 > 0.g.43 CCTV images taken using different lighting systems 172 | Specific Techniques .3 For interiors a luminaire with a batwing distribution will give good facial modelling. ensure the camera is not aimed so that dark black sky is the background. Consider daylight as this can cause problems due to colour differences or high contrast between subject and background For exteriors the relationship between subject and background brightness should be controlled with a maximum of 3:1 (ratio 3) and the relationship between horizontal and vertical toward camera illuminance should ideally be no greater than 5:1 (ratio 2).0 Ideally Ratio 5 <3. etc. right to left. between light fittings and with a low contrast background. Vertical illuminances at head height on the three sides of the head should not exceed a ratio of 3:1 between themselves (e. 7.0 Ideally Ratio 2 < 5. It may be possible to channel customers and would be criminals using a roped queuing system to between luminaires where more acceptable light conditions are available. Fig.0 Ideally Ratio 4 > 0.3 and < 3.3 and < 3.).Specific Techniques When lighting for CCTV cameras additional points need consideration. right to front and left to front. To aid in the production of a good image the following ratios should be checked. Therefore lighting should not cause heavy contrast patterns down the wall used as a backdrop to the camera sight).0 Ideally Ratio 1 > 0. Finally always ensure the lamp used has good colour rendering capabilities to aid in discriminating colour of garments. Therefore for example.g. Additionally when considering the camera position better quality may be achieved by mounting the camera in a position sympathetic to photography (e.

10 Lighting and health When producing a lighting design the ability of lighting to provide an atmosphere by manipulating the lit effect is one of the key skills of the designer. and has descriptors such as calm. inspiring. balanced. reassuring. Fig. welcoming. lively.44 The photic. This use of the lit experience whilst possibly affecting our mood does not normally affect our health. The feel of a space can affect the experience of an observer within that space. has shown that how we design luminaires and lighting installations does have implications on our health. glitter. except under inappropriate use of lighting for a given situation. however.Specific Techniques 7. 7. Research has discovered a third receptor in our eye. Within the Thorn PEC philosophy this is the Comfort attribute. This receptor does not produce a visual effect and has an action spectrum towards the blue end of the visible light spectrum (the yellow curve labelled NI in the diagram).45 The pho tic. which exists along with the rods and cones that allow us to see. 6. Recent research. etc. scotop ic and non -im age forming rece ptor respon se curves | 173 Specific Techniques . scotopic and non-image forming receptor response curves Fig .

It is also possible to give a burst of blue light at suitable times during the day to enhance alertness.Specific Techniques The third receptor has direct implications on our feelings of wellness and well-being. mood and others. However research also raises questions as to possible side effects. The red and blue lines indicate light signal paths through the head. and light has shown promise in treating sleep disorders caused by illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease. • Biological clock • Mood and depression • Alertness Nevertheless it is a large step from using light therapy for treatment of specific conditions in a controlled environment to applying this knowledge in general lighting applications to aid health. Indeed this is already used in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) when very high levels of blue rich light are used to help alleviate this condition. in treating sufferers of delayed phase sleep disorder which is characterised by late sleep onset and late awakening (generally younger people) and in treating advanced phase sleep disorder which is characterised by early sleep onset and early awakening (generally elderly people). or in a nursing home to increase sleep quality at night. alertness. with a consequent shift of responsibility towards rigorous medical ethics and testing. It links into the body’s hormone mechanisms. This opens up the possibilities of using light and designing lighting to modify the operation of the body. 7.45 Effects due to the visual and non-visual pathways. Vision roads and cones • Visual acuity • Visual performance • Emotions • Hormones (melatonin) • Sleep quality Non-vision wellness 3rd receptor Fig. affecting the body clock. Research shows it is quite possible to modify the biological clock to optimise its timing for night shift workers. thereby affecting a person’s physical health. 174 | Specific Techniques .

in blue enriched light some workers found white paper to be a glare source. Yet. practical problems arise. which would be inappropriate for rapidly changing shift patterns. this would inhibit the effects of trying to reset the body clock. but at the expense of care staff that may be working shift patterns at odds with their patients sleep patterns. until more is known about the effects and side effects of the non-visual effects of lighting. Equally using lighting for health in situations such as residential care homes or nursing homes could be beneficial to the patients. However. The implication of this is that by manipulating the bodies hormone production we would also be affecting the bodies defence against some diseases. As an example. for example. Additionally there was a case of a worker who had had eye surgery finding the blue enhanced light uncomfortable when returning to work immediately after the operation. Also given a worker will probably travel to or from work in daylight conditions. As well as medical factors. taking a period of approximately 15 nights for adaptation. With respect to the shifting of the body clock for night workers the process of shifting the body clock can take several days. and daylight normally supplies a much larger illuminance at the eye than that achieved by artificial lighting.Specific Techniques A body of knowledge indicates. that during periods of darkness the body produces hormones which act as inhibitors to cancer. It is necessary to understand and accept that people react differently to a stimulus and internal research within Thorn indicates that some people are more sensitive to blue enhanced light than others. Manipulating the lit effect to produce stimulating and interesting environments or controlling light to give dynamically changing spaces can improve the quality of life for users of the space. Specific Techniques | 175 . designing to modify biological mechanisms should be treated with extreme caution. evidence suggests that the body clock does become adjusted without any direct intervention for those doing semipermanent night shift work. producing headaches.

whilst operation is when the product is put into service in lighting schemes. All these considerations are to protect our natural environment and life for the future. limit harmful emissions. End of life is when the product is no longer required or is unable to fulfil its function. is essential to life and needs to be taken seriously. Eco-design is practiced in the creation of a lighting product. A sustainable approach will ensure that the needs of today are fulfilled without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. just like light. Extraction Refining raw materials Sustainable design Fig.47 Product life cycle analysis (LCA) 176 | Specific Techniques . So what is “sustainability? Sustainability.11 Sustainability One of the worlds most pressing concerns is achieving a sustainable environment. reduce energy demands. The key to sustainability in lighting is ecodesign. efficient operation and planned recycling at the end of the product life. 7. These are fundamental considerations in the Thorn PEC programme. Electric lighting has a major impact on sustainability. reused or renewed with no waste. The ideal sustainable arrangement is when a solution can be perpetually used. The urgent need for action is recognised by all and there are an increasing number of national and international initiatives and legislations to drive for sustainable living. reduce waste and encourage renewable processes. It encompasses the need to conserve resources.46 Maintain End of life Recycle LCA Design Manufacture Package Distribute Install Operate Fig. 7.Specific Techniques 7.

Electronic ballasts. Employing life cycle assessments will check the environmental impact of the solution through life. however. The controls maybe a simple on/off switch or a sophisticated computer programmed system.42kg * of CO2 is liberated and added to the “greenhouse” gases in the atmosphere. Lighting controls add much to operational efficiency. use less energy. which can be magnetic or electronic. Consider also the energy efficiency during the operation phase and the need to dismantle the product quickly and without waste at the end of life.Specific Techniques Eco-design is design of product with the entire life cycle in mind. Fig. when dismantling and recycling of the materials commences. For every kWh of energy 0. 7. manufacture.48 Fig. Today the most useful and efficacious light source is the fluorescent lamp. can operate the lamp at high frequencies. 7. and are lightweight one-piece control gear that can be dimmable and automatically controlled. The key elements of this selection are lamps and control circuit including ballast type. Luminaires should be designed for disassembly and dematerialisation (eg use of snap fit connectors rather than screws) and making parts multifunctional. installation. increasing global warming. The generation of electrical energy required for lighting is a major contributor to CO2 emissions. through design. The proportion of energy demand by lighting products can be split into three phases: creation (12%). The lamp requires a ballast to operate. The life cycle covers consideration of the product from extraction and refining of raw materials.49 * EU average Specific Techniques | 177 . are more efficacious. in excess of 10 kHz thus eliminating flicker. All products should be marked for easy identification and removal. It ensures that care is taken during design to employ absolutely the minimum amount of restricted hazardous substances and that the minimum amount of virgin materials. use and maintenance to the end of useful life. The most energy consumption by the product is clearly during operation and much of this can be influenced by prudent design and component selection. It can be linear or compact and employ poly-phosphor coatings yielding good colour and light output. water and energy are used during manufacture. use (80%) and disposal (8%). Magnetic ballasts (copper and iron) have the advantage of being lower in cost and recyclable.

51 Recycling plant 178 | Specific Techniques . correct lighting scheme design and the use of control systems substantial energy saving can be made without jeopardising the quality of the required lighting condition. daylight availability and presence of people. The next obvious step is to protect the rapid depletion of raw materials.50 Fig. increased energy efficiency. employment of new technologies and the drive for renewable energy generation will ensure good future for light and lighting. 7. 7. Controls can link up to respond to constant illuminance. Fig.Specific Techniques Controls save energy use by providing electric light only where and when needed. In this process sustainable product designs must use less material. With such practice of good management of resource. make greater use of more recycled materials and plan to use more recyclable materials. With efficient products.

Benefits of using lighting controls can be • A reduction in unnecessary night-time lighting by providing facilities to dim or turn-off luminaires based upon user needs. The use of modern outdoor lighting controls can overcome these difficulties and supply many additional benefits. motorway exits or areas of mixed pedestrian and motorised traffic.12 Outdoor lighting controls (OLC) The prevalent technology used in conventional outdoor lighting has minimal control. Time clocks or photocells determine if a luminaire is on or off and monitoring and reporting of luminaire faults is dependant upon local residents or street patrols. so that defective components may be replaced when they fail. Allowing energy needs to be more accurately defined and optimised.Specific Techniques 7. • Specific Techniques | 179 . The lighting is therefore inflexible and the quality of maintenance can be poor. For example during a street festival lighting can be controlled to ensure suitable light levels based on the needs of the event (this may involve increased lighting or even a decrease in light levels if festival lights are being used). Contributing to the reduction of traffic accidents and crime rates by providing needs-specific lighting. for example increasing lighting levels during busy times at road junctions. Allowing maintenance schedules to be rationalised based upon computer records of lamp burning hours. etc. luminaire cleaning schedules. reducing energy consumption and therefore CO2 emissions and also saving money. To allow lighting to easily adapt to special occasions. • • • Additional benefits in the management of the lighting equipment may be • Allowing the status of luminaires to be monitored and failures to be automatically reported.

In both cases there is no need to install new cables. TCP/IP Powerline Data Communication Fig.Specific Techniques • Reducing travel costs through automatic reporting of faults. and both systems allow instant reporting of fault conditions using SMS messages to an assigned person. e.g. 7. Telea offers the flexibility of two communication technologies : • • A Powerline communication system uses the mains cabling to transmit signals An RF communication system uses radio frequency to transmit data. A Telea installation consists of: • • • Luminaire controllers Comboxes Central Management server Powerline Data Communication Radio Frequency Data Communication Network connection.52 Components of a Telea installation 180 | Specific Techniques . removing the need for street patrols Lighting control and monitoring are the two central abilities of the Thorn Telea system.

The RF Combox does not actually need to be contained within a switch cabinet.53 Telea Powerline luminaire controller Installed at the switch cabinet. The controller allows various operating parameters to be measured (such as burning hours. It integrates all switching programmes and feedback from the controllers and feeds information back to the central server. used respectively for Powerline or Radio Frequency luminaire controllers. 7. either inside the lantern or within the column. only requiring power to operate. lamp faults. Combox features A Combox consists of the following components : • • • • • one Combox controller one transceiver (PL or RF) one 24V power supply three filters (PL only) one GSM modem Fig. The two types of controller (Powerline and Radio Frequency) may be mixed on one single installation. Maximum distances between the Combox and the first luminaire controller. the Combox controls up to 255 luminaire controllers.Specific Techniques Luminaire controllers These are installed in each individual luminaire. It contains an astrological clock and internal memory enables programmes to continue to operate in the event of signal breakdown. Fig. or between two controllers are approximately 200m for Powerline and 100m for Radio Frequency installations.54 Telea Combox RF SMS Specific Techniques | 181 . 7. The controller switches the lamp on and off and depending on the capabilities of the ballast may also control power reduction/dimming. There are two types of Comboxes. Both types can control up to 255 luminaire controllers. etc) and feeds the information back to the Combox. but the use of a switch cabinet is normal practice. It can send error messages reporting luminaire faults to one or several designated mobile phones. Repeater functionality integrated into Telea controllers make the communication extremely reliable and adaptable to any grid topology and also remove the need for external relays.

7. all Powerline controllers can be supplied in boxes designed for installation in poles. including Electro-Magnetic Compliancy (EMC). enabling retrofit installation when mechanical and temperature constraints prevent the integration into the gear compartment.Specific Techniques CME central server features Installed in the control room this comprises a hardware and the CME software. Please contact your Thorn representative for further information. Telea for new lighting installations For new installations Thorn can integrate Telea luminaire controllers into several Thorn streetlighting luminaires. Fig.55 Telea CME software 182 | Specific Techniques . This completely in-house service guarantees the conformity of all of the luminaires to existing standards. The CME server is optional (an installation may run with only Comboxes and luminaire controllers) but is necessary for central monitoring and offers an intuitive interface for configuring and monitoring the installation. Data transfer between the server and Comboxes is achieved through telephone (GSM) or computer network (TCP/IP) communication protocols. In addition. For example. Upgrading existing luminaires The Telea system can be implemented into existing as well as new lighting installations. In the case of GSM communication the data transfer is usually programmed to occur at the end of night. The CME server can be interfaced with existing servers within technical limitations. For example the RF switch controller (LSRF) fits into any luminaire equipped with a NEMA socket. adding Telea functionality to the standard photocell. the Geographical Information System (GIS) enables lighting points to be visualised on a map and faults or maintenance data such as burning hours to be easily recognisable using colour coding. so that errors that might have arisen during the night can be visualised on the screen the following morning.

These values can be compared and the most favourable option chosen. (Note that the most favourable option from a financial viewpoint may not be the best option from a lighting viewpoint.1 aids life cycle analysis. Worksheet 8.2. Checklists | 183 . These benefits are quantified in terms of a life cycle calculation for each lighting system.8 Checklists 8. that is over the planned life of the installation how much will each system cost. it is important to quantify and compare the benefits of possible alternative replacement lighting systems.1 Life cycle analysis When installing new lighting. as shown Section 8. or refurbishing an existing scheme. Formulae used is this worksheet are: Luminaire costs = Number of luminaires x cost of one luminaire Lamp costs = number of luminaires x number of lamps per luminaire x cost of one lamp Installation costs = number of luminaires x installation cost per luminaire Room cleaning costs = cost of room cleaning x service life of system (years) room cleaning interval (years) Luminaire cleaning costs = cost of luminaire cleaning x service life of system (years) luminaire cleaning interval (years) Lamp replacement costs = cost of lamp replacement x service life of system (years) lamp replacement interval (years) Energy costs = (number of luminaires x system power of luminaire x service life of system x annual burning hours x energy cost per kWh x %energy savings due to controls)/1000 Operating costs = room cleaning costs + luminaire cleaning costs + lamp replacement costs + energy costs Annual operating costs = operating costs/service life of system (Note that the model given on the following page is a static model in that it ignores the costs of depreciation of equipment and interest payments). If the chosen system is to be a replacement for an existing installation a cost benefit of the new system compared to the existing installation may be made by calculating the pay back period. At some point a decision will have to be made as to the relative importance of these factors and a compromise reached).

1 184 | Checklists .Checklists Building Project Option 1 Option 2 Luminaire type Luminaire data Number of lamps per luminaire System power of luminaire (W) Operating data Service life of system (years) Annual burning hours Lamp replacement interval (years) Luminaire cleaning interval (years) Room cleaning interval (years) Number of luminaires Lamp lumens maintenance factor Lamp survival factor Luminaire maintenance factor Room surface maintenance factor Maintenance factor [ (9)x(10)x(11)x(12) ] Number of luminaires Itemised investment costs Cost of one luminaire Cost of one lamp Installation costs per luminaire Itemised operating costs Cost of lamp replacement Cost of luminaire cleaning Cost of room cleaning Energy costs per KWh %Energy savings due to control system Investment costs Luminaire costs [ (14)x(15) ] Lamp costs [ (14)x(2)x(16) ] Installation costs [ (14)x(17) ] Investment costs [ (23)+(24)+(25) ] Operating costs Room cleaning costs [ (20)x(4) / (8) ] Luminaire cleaning costs [ (19)x(4) / (7) ] Lamp replacement costs [ (18)x(4) / (6) ] Energy costs [ (14)x(3)x(4)x(5)x(21)x(22) / 1000 ] Operating costs [ (27)+(28)+(29)+(30) ] Annual operating costs [ (31) / (4) ] Total costs over installation life [ (31)+(26) ] (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) Worksheet 8.

2 Economics When refurbishing an existing installation it is important to be able to quantify the benefits of the new lighting system compared with the existing system.Checklists 8.2 aids in the calculation of this value. Checklists | 185 . This is a comparison of the expenditure in terms of investment costs to buy and install a new system.2 is a static model in that it ignores the costs of depreciation of equipment and interest payments). These benefits are quantified in terms of the payback period. Formulae used is this worksheet are: Luminaire costs = Number of luminaires x cost of one luminaire Lamp costs = number of luminaires x number of lamps per luminaire x cost of one lamp Installation costs = number of luminaires x installation cost per luminaire Room cleaning costs = cost of room cleaning x service life of system (years) room cleaning interval (years) Luminaire cleaning costs = cost of luminaire cleaning x service life of system (years) luminaire cleaning interval (years) Lamp replacement costs = cost of lamp replacement x service life of system (years) lamp replacement interval (years) Energy costs = (number of luminaires x system power of luminaire x service life of system x annual burning hours x energy cost per kWh x %energy savings due to controls)/1000 Operating costs = room cleaning costs + luminaire cleaning costs + lamp replacement costs + energy costs Annual operating costs = operating costs / service life of system Pay back period = investment cost proposed installation – investment cost existing installation annual operating costs existing installation . Thus if a payback time is 5 years this means that after 5 years the savings from using the new system have cancelled out the costs of buying the new system. compared with the savings in annual operating costs through having the new system.annual operating costs proposed installation (Note that the model given in Worksheet 8. Worksheet 8.

2 (years) = years 186 | Checklists .Building Project Existing installation Proposed installation Luminaire type Luminaire data Number of lamps per luminaire System power of luminaire (W) Operating data Service life of system (years) Annual burning hours Lamp replacement interval (years) Luminaire cleaning interval (years) Room cleaning interval (years) Number of luminaires Lamp lumens maintenance factor Lamp survival factor Luminaire maintenance factor Room surface maintenance factor Maintenance factor [ (9)x(10)x(11)x(12) ] Number of luminaires Itemised investment costs Cost of one luminaire Cost of one lamp Installation costs per luminaire Itemised operating costs Cost of lamp replacement Cost of luminaire cleaning Cost of room cleaning Energy costs per KWh %Energy savings due to control system Investment costs Luminaire costs [ (14)x(15) ] Lamp costs [ (14)x(2)x(16) ] Installation costs [ (14)x(17) ] Investment costs [ (23)+(24)+(25) ] Operating costs Room cleaning costs [ (20)x(4) / (8) ] Luminaire cleaning costs [ (19)x(4) / (7) ] Lamp replacement costs [ (18)x(4) / (6) ] Energy costs [ (14)x(3)x(4)x(5)x(21)x(22) / 1000 ] Operating costs [ (27)+(28)+(29)+(30) ] Annual operating costs [ (31) / (4) ] Pay back period* = (26)Proposed – (26)Existing (32)Existing – (32)Proposed Pay back period* = – – *excludes depreciation and interest (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) 0 0 0 0 Worksheet 8.

Ppc = Pci i where Pci is the parasitic power consumed by the controls when the lamps are off. Checklists | 187 .3 Lighting energy numeric indicator (LENI) It is becoming increasingly important to estimate the energy requirements of lighting in buildings and to quantify these requirements against best practice. Note that whilst responsible use of energy is important it must not lead to inadequate lighting schemes being produced. Pn = Pi i where Pi is the luminaire power in watts. The document also provides guidance with notional limits derived from reference standards. Pem = Pei i Where Pei is the emergency lighting charging power in watts. which introduces the Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator (LENI). therefore. in watts. the CEN EN 15193 document has been produced. To help. of all emergency lighting luminaires in an area. given below. Total installed charging power for emergency lighting (Pem) – installation input charging power. Non-daylight operating hours (tN) – installation operating hours where daylight is not present. of all control systems within luminaires in an area when the lamps are not operating. Units: W/m2.Checklists 8. in watts. Both the lighting requirements and energy usage requirements should be fulfilled. Units: kWh/(m2 x year). Daylight operating hours (tD) – installation operating hours when daylight is present. Total installed lighting power (Pn) – installation power in watts of all luminaires in an area. Units: hours. Some terminology used in the LENI calculation may be unfamiliar and is. in watts. Total installed control circuit parasitic power (Ppc) – installation input power. Units: hours. Units: kWh/(m2 x year).

W A 188 | Checklists . Units: hours. Units: none The LENI formula is LENI = where W is the total energy used for lighting a room or zone in kWh/ year and A is the total useful floor area of the building in m2. When constant illuminance control is not in operation this has the value of 1. Units: none Daylight dependency factor (FD) – this is a factor relating the usage of the total installed lighting power to daylight availability in the area. WP is the annual parasitic energy required to provide charging energy for emergency lighting systems and standby energy for lighting control systems. Occupancy dependency factor (FO) – this is a factor relating the usage of the total installed lighting power when occupancy control is in operation in the area.Checklists Annual operating time (tO) – the annual number of hours with the lamps operating (i. W is composed of two components W=WL+WP where WL is the annual lighting energy required to provide illumination so that the building may be used. When occupancy control is not in operation this has the value of 1. When daylight control is not in operation this has the value of 1. Emergency lighting charge time (te) – the operating hours during which the emergency lighting batteries are being charged. Constant illuminance factor (FC) – this is a factor relating to the usage of the total installed power when constant illuminance control is in operation in the area . taken as 8760 hours. turned on) to=to+tn where tD and tN are defined above.e. Standard year time (ty) – the time taken for one standard year to pass. Units: none.

Checklists WL may be calculated using the formula WL = {(PnxFC)x[(tDxFOxFD)+(tNxFO)]}/1000 where the individual terms are defined above.3 helps calculate the LENI value. WP may be calculated using the formula WP = {{PPCx[ty – (tD + tN)]} + (Pemxte)}/1000 where the individual terms are defined above. Checklists | 189 . This summed value should then be used to calculate the LENI value. Worksheet 8. If more than one luminaire type is used the total energy usage value (18) should be calculated for each luminaire type and the results summed. Note that values entered in the spreadsheet are the total values for all luminaires in the installation.

Checklists Building Project Installation 1 Installation 2 Parasitic power Total emergency charging power (Pem) Total lighting controls standby power (Ppc) Luminaire data Total installed power (Pn) Operating hours Daylight operating hours (tD) Non-daylight operating hours (tN) Standard year time (ty) Emergency lighting charge time (te) Factors Constant illuminance factor (FC) Occupancy dependency factor (FO) Daylight dependency factor (FD) Parasitic energy Lighting controls parasitic power (2) x [ (6) .( (4) + (5) ) ] Emergency lighting parasitic factor (1) x (7) Total parasitic energy usage ( (11) + (12) ) / 1000 Illumination energy Energy usage without daylight/occupancy control (3) x (8) Daylight energy usage (4) x (9) x (10) Non-daylight energy usage (5) x (9) Total energy usage for illumination { (14) x [ (15) + (16) ] } / 1000 Total annual energy usage (13) + (17) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 8760 8760 (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) Total useful floor area in m2 Lighting energy numeric indicator (LENI) (18) / (19) (19) Worksheet 8.3 190 | Checklists .

5 W/luminaire Standby power for DALI ballast in the Primata II – 0.15) + 0.4)/1000 x {(2500 x 0.55 + {0.8 x 0.4 W/m² Fc (constant illuminance control MF = 0.4 x 260 x 8760)/(2640 x 1000) = 0.55 + 0. H = 6m.4 W/luminaire Charge power for Exit sign luminaires – 10 W/luminaire Estimations Pem – {(3.55 + (0.35 kWh/ m²/year Pn – (106 x 260)/2640 = 10.9)} + 0.36 x 3.19 = 30.9 Fd (daylight link control medium daylight supply) – 0.Checklists Worked example – LENI calculation Project – Electronic device assembly plant Location North East England Size Length = 55m. Ra > 80.5 x 30 x 8760) + (10 x 6 x 8760)}/(2640 x 1000) = 0. UGR <19.7.35/8760 x 4760) = (9.22 kWh/m²/year LENI = 30. Lighting quality class – medium (two star) Lighting solution – 230 off Primata II 2x49W T16 lamps battens with slotted white reflector optic and DALI controlled dimmable HF ballast linked daylight detection and auto off control 30 off as above but with E3 emergency lighting capability 6 off 1x18W T26 Exit signs Required data – Circuit watts of the Primata II luminaire – 106 W Charge power for Primata II emergency lighting circuit – 3. Width = 48m.55 kWh/m²/year Ppc – (0.4/1000) x (1800 + 1350) + 0. 1500 no daylight) Standard year hours = 8760 hrs/year Lighting requirements – 500 lx on work plane.9 LENI = (0.9) + (1500 x 0.8 Fo (presence control manual on/auto off) – 0.22 kWh/m²/year Checklists | 191 . Useful area = 2640m² Roof 20% glazed to allow entry of daylight Walls 2 sides 30% glazed to allow daylight Interior Light colour with open plan assembly line layout Operational hours = 4000 hrs/year (2500 daylight.9 x 10.8) – 0. Uo > 0.35/8760 x (8760 – (2500 + 1500)]} = (8.

4 10.2 75.55 0.2 33.8 1 Building LENI LENI LENI LENI no constant illumination Manual kWh/(m2/year) Manufacture 42.5 83.9 1 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.1 shows the parameters and results for this project in line B.35 5 10.1 38.35 0.7 Auto constant illumination Manual Auto Gain % 10 21 0 kWh/(m2/year) 38. Building Q Pm Ppc Pload tD tN Fc no constant constant illuminance illuminance 1 1 1 0.3 42.Checklists Table 8.4 20 Manual Auto Manual Auto - h 2500 2500 2500 h 1500 1500 1500 1 1 1 0.9 0.9 0. It shows that the addition of the controls will yield a 21% reduction in the energy requirements.55 1 Parasitic Control kWh/ (m2 x year) W 0. Line A shows the energy requirements if daylight was not admitted into the building and Line C show the Benchmark values for this type of project taken from EN 15193-2007 Annex F Table F1.9 FO FD Quality Parasitic class Emergency kWh/ (m2 x year) Manufacture ** A ** B ** C 0.2 75.7 192 | Checklists .2 38.7 34.7 Table 8.3 83.4 30.

Luminous flux/luminous efficacy The total amount of light generated by the lamp. The greater the efficacy for a given output. 9.1 Considerations in choosing a lamp Increasing colour rendition Table 9. the better the colour rendition.1 Colour rendering groups linked to lamp Ra Lamps. Light colour The light colour relates to the correlated colour temperature (CCT) of a white light source. The rated luminous flux is measured under standard conditions at 25°C in units of lumen (lm). This is the time by which statistically half of a test sample of lamps are still working (e. Colour rendering group 1A 1B 2 3 4 Ra 90-100 80-89 60-79 40-59 20-39 <20 Luminous flux/ luminous efficacy Rated life Light colour Colour rendition Luminous flux maintenance Burning position Lamp power Warm-up time Re-start time Dimming capability Fig.g.1 Choosing the right lamp Part of the expertise of the lighting designer is the ability to find the most suitable combination of lamp and luminaire to light a given environment. the lower the electricity cost. Choosing the correct lamp depends upon what is required of the lighting. Colour rendition The spectral components present in light produced by a lamp determine how well the lamp reproduces object colours. half have failed) under standardised conditions. This describes the colour impression made by a light source. and therefore the lower the contribution of the power station to global warming. The relevant key lighting characteristics of lamps are given below.9 Lamps. The ratio of luminous flux to electrical power consumption gives the luminous efficacy (lm/W). LEDs and Circuits | 193 . The system luminous efficiency also includes the power consumption of the control gear. Rated life The average rated life is normally specified. or the lower the colour rendition group number. The higher the colour rendition index (Ra or CRI). LEDs and Circuits 9. from relatively warm (low colour temperature with predominant red) to cool (high colour temperature with predominant blue).

These include highpressure discharge lamps and fluorescent lamps. lamps) are turned off they need to cool down for several minutes before they can be started again. but in a more limited fashion and generally only by discrete levels. Luminous flux maintenance As a lamp ages through life the peak luminous flux output by the lamp decreases due to deterioration in the performance of the lamp chemicals and in the physical lamp structure.I.D. Manufacturers specify these permitted burning positions for their lamps. The output of high-pressure sodium and mercury vapour lamps may be varied.Lamps. Re-start time When high-pressure discharge lamps (also known as highintensity discharge lamps or H. 194 | Lamps. This has implications in applications where after a dip in the power supply instant re-strike is required. whilst compact fluorescent lamps may generally be mounted in any orientation (although luminous flux output may vary with burning position). tungsten halogen. Metal halide lamps are not approved for dimming by most manufacturers due to the effect this may have on light quality and lamp life. Dimming capability Incandescent. LEDs and Circuits . Warm-up time Many lamps need between 30 seconds and several minutes to warm up and output their full luminous flux. For example for some metal halide lamps only certain burning positions are allowed to prevent unstable operating conditions. Manufacturers produce lumen maintenance curves for their lamps showing how the luminous flux depreciates over time. Lamp power The electrical power consumed by the lamp. as opposed to the electrical power consumed by a system consisting of lamp and control gear. fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps may all be dimmed over almost any range. LEDs and Circuits Burning position Certain lamps only permit a restricted selection of mounting orientations for correct operation.

2 Tungsten halogen lamps Key attributes For mains or low-voltage operation Longer rated life and higher luminous efficacy than incandescent lamps Easy to dim Brilliant light Low-voltage types are very small and are ideal for precise direction of light (but do require a transformer) Excellent colour rendition Key application areas Retail and domestic Restaurants and catering How they work Current flows through a filament and heats it up. thereby increasing the filament life. The halogen cycle increases the efficiency and extends the rated life compared with traditional incandescent lamps. These lamps therefore generate a relatively large amount of heat. LEDs and Circuits Fig 9.Lamps.3 Fluorescent lamps Key attributes High to very high luminous efficacy Good to excellent colour rendition Long rated life Extensive range of types Dimmable Key application areas Extensively used in most application areas How they work An alternating electric field generates UV radiation (which is in itself invisible to the human eye) between the two electrodes in the discharge tube. LEDs and Circuits 9. Chemicals used in the halogen cycle also slow down the rate of diffusion of filament material. (The halogen cycle is a chemical mechanism that causes tungsten that evaporates from the filament during operation to be deposited back onto the filament.2 Tungsten halogen lamps 9. which is the principal failure mechanism) Fig 9. thereby reducing blackening of the bulb wall. This UV radiation is converted into Lamps. just as in incandescent lamps.3 Fluorescent lamps | 195 .

which may be combined in an electronic ballast. LEDs and Circuits . temperature curve As with all fluorescent lamps. Both the T16 and T26 lamps have the same basic shaped curve. The reason for this is that the lamp cool spot for a T16 lamp is at the end of the tube with the manufacturers label printed on it. 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Relative luminous flux % T16 T26 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Ambient temperature ˚C Fig. whereas the optimum temperature for a T26 lamp is 25°C. 1. The luminous flux is highly dependent on the ambient temperature around the lamp. An optimum ambient temperature exists for which the light output is a maximum.4 Curves relating luminous flux to ambient temperature for T16 and T26 linear fluorescent lamps 196 | Lamps. LEDs and Circuits visible light in the phosphor coating on the tube wall. Application notes T16 fluorescent lamps differ from T26 versions in several characteristics that the user should be particularly aware of. and therefore the luminaire light output ratio (LOR) may have levels greater than 100%. however the optimum temperature for a T16 is 35°C. The colour rendering and colour temperature attributes of the light produced depend upon the chemical composition of the phosphors. 9. whereas the cool spot for a T26 lamp is in the centre of the tube.Lamps. The lamp needs a starting aid and a current limiting device. the luminous flux produced by the lamp is temperature dependant. and the light output decreases as the ambient temperature moves away from this optimum. Luminous flux vs. For the T16 lamp the maximum value of flux lies above this value. One effect of this differing optimum temperature is that the rated luminous flux quoted by manufacturers is at a standard temperature of 25°C.

To ensure perfect operation a period of two to four days of operation without switching or dimming should be allowed. and may exhibit flickering at low dimming levels. when the initially encapsulated mercury is vaporised and evenly distributed throughout the lamp. In cold environments it could be a benefit to lamp output to have the lamp labels at opposite ends to aid heating of the lamp cold spot. lamp ends should always have the same orientation (so that the lamp labels should be at the same lamp ends for all luminaires). LEDs and Circuits 2. 3. One should also wait for proper ageing before assessing an installation for illuminance levels and light quality. Lamp Orientation Owing to the two electrodes (tube ends) not being identical in design it matters how one or more lamps are fitted in the luminaires. In general. Unstabilised lamps may differ in brightness and light colour.Lamps. Ageing/burning in Brand new lamps stabilise during the initial aging phase.2 Summary of selected lamps Lamps. particularly in installation which allow dimming. T16 Length 549mm 849mm 1149mm 1449mm Power 14W 24W 21W 39W 28W 54W 35W 49W 80W Rated luminous flux (25°C) 1200lm 1750lm 1900lm 3100lm 2600lm 4450lm 3300lm 4300lm 6150lm 1500mm 58W 5200lm 1200mm 36W 3350lm Length 590mm 895mm T26 Power 18W 30W Rated luminous flux (25°C) 1350lm 2350lm Table 9. LEDs and Circuits | 197 . This is the period immediately after the lamps are switched on for the first time.

Application notes 1.5 Compact fluorescent lamps 198 | Lamps. Above and below this range however. Note that amalgam lamps are comparatively slow to run-up and should not be used for emergency lighting of dangerous workplaces (100% luminous flux required after 0. Amalgam lamps are also unsuitable for installations with high quality dimming requirements since lamps may not dim uniformly.5 seconds). typically about +5 to +70°C. This helps to check the steep drop-off of luminous flux at higher or lower temperatures so that at least 90% of the maximum luminous flux is achieved over a wide temperature range. the light level still falls off sharply. so that self-heating and convection may lead to a temperature rise here. Lamp orientation The luminous flux from compact fluorescent lamps is highly dependant upon the burning position. (In amalgam lamps the cool spot lies in the base). LEDs and Circuits . The luminous flux depends upon the burning position and ambient temperature around the lamp.Lamps. In compact luminaires with Fig. hotels and many exteriors How they work These lamps are compact versions of the linear or circular fluorescent lamps and operate in a very similar way. Amalgam lamps The strong temperature dependence of the luminous flux of traditional and compact fluorescent lamps can be compensated by adding amalgam that helps to trap mercury and slow its release. 9.4 Compact fluorescent lamps Key attributes Compact designs High luminous efficacy Excellent colour rendition Extensive range of types Dimmable Key application areas Commercial Domestic. LEDs and Circuits 9. Ensuring the lamps are correctly inserted can therefore optimise the light output ratio. Standard types of lamp have a cool spot in the exposed lamp bend. 2.

9. such as downlights.6 Metal halide lamps Lamps. Ballasts The manufacturers of metal halide lamps use a range of operating principles. it is therefore recommended to fit the lamps with electrodes uppermost wherever possible. In both cases suitable ignitors are required. The composition of the chemicals in the tube determines the quality of light produced. and the current must be controlled by a ballast. that lamp side on which adjacent tubes are not connected should be placed uppermost – these are the two tube ends containing the internal electrodes. 9. The use of ceramic discharge tubes further improves the lamp properties.5 Metal halide lamps Key attributes High luminous efficacy Good to excellent colour rendition High colour stability for ceramic discharge-tube lamps Limited dimming. LEDs and Circuits | 199 . Fig. LEDs and Circuits horizontal lamp arrangement. Some lamps are therefore approved for operation with both ballasts for metal halide lamps and with ballasts for high-pressure sodium vapour lamps. The higher operating current then leads to higher luminous flux levels for the same lamps. together with slightly altered light quality. An ignitor is needed to switch on the lamp. Application notes 1. Some manufacturers advise no dimming of this lamp Key application areas Industrial Spotlighting Floodlighting Retail areas How they work In metal halide lamps a highly compact electric arc is produced in a discharge tube. Since the lamp end does not allow consistent identification of the electrode position.Lamps. resulting in different electrical operating values.

This normally happens after the ignitor has tried to start the lamp a few times. LEDs and Circuits .7 Sodium vapour high pressure lamps 200 | Lamps. LEDs and Circuits 2. 4. 9. They also depend on the switching frequency and the position of use.Lamps. and for metal halide lamps this is generally after approximately 15 minutes. Suitable safety devices are installed in the lamps for this purpose (e.g. 9. Glass covers In general metal halide lamps require a glass cover to protect people and property in the event of the lamp exploding. outer protective coating). integral safety tube. 3. A basic ignitor will do this until the lamp strikes. Detailed data from the manufacturer should be used to determine suitable maintenance factors for the operation of the lamp (lamp survival factor and lamp luminous flux maintenance factor). The detailed information from the manufacturer must be observed without fail. (For high pressure sodium lamps this will be after approximately 5 minutes). Modern ignitors therefore normally incorporate anti-cycling control that can sense the normal end-of–life mode of a lamp and disables the ignitor. Rated life characteristics The average rated lamp life and the reduction in luminous flux with age can vary markedly between lamp types.Good colour rendition Warm light Fig. Ignitors An ignitor is a starting device that generates voltage pulses to start a discharge lamp. It is the manufacturers responsibility to decide whether to permit individual lamp types to be used in uncovered luminaires.6 Sodium vapour high pressure lamps Key attributes High luminous efficacy and long rated life Satisfactory to poor colour rendition Can be dimmed in discrete steps Colour improved sodium lamp . which means that if there is a problem with the lamp or circuit that prevents the lamp starting the ignitor will continue to try to start the lamp until the circuit is turned off or potentially the ballast is damaged.

The lamps can be started at mains voltage.7 Mercury vapour lamps Key attributes No starter required.Lamps. LEDs and Circuits | 201 . They are often used for street lighting. Note. An ignitor is needed to switch on the lamp (although some lamps have a built-in ignitor and do not need any external starting aids). 9. just a ballast Satisfactory to poor colour rendition Can be dimmed in discrete steps Low efficacy Key application areas Industrial Street lighting Walkways How they work The almost obsolete high-pressure mercury lamp is actually the forerunner to the modern metal halide lamp. and so only need a ballast to limit the current.Retail areas How they work The discharge in the linearly extended ceramic discharge tube is defined by sodium. although it provides poorer colour rendering and efficacy. so the light is yellowish and only suitable for certain applications although colour improved versions of the lamp do exist. 9. sodium vapour low pressure lamps generate poor quality yellow light with extreme high efficacy.8 Mercury vapour lamps Lamps. LEDs and Circuits Key application areas Industrial Street lighting Colour improved sodium lamp . Fig. and the current must be controlled by a ballast.

The LED consists of a diode chip that is encased in an epoxy. 9. display and directional lighting Dynamic colour effects How they work An LED is a small solid-state semiconductor device that emits light when an electric current passes through it. LEDs and Circuits .9 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Key Attributes Good luminous efficacy Long service life Low voltage Durable Emit very little heat Small dimensions Key application areas Exterior signage.8 Induction lamps Key attributes Rotationally symmetrical light distribution Long rated life Not dimmable Key application areas Areas where it is difficult to replace lamps Commercial and industrial interiors Retail Indoor and outdoor public areas How they work A very high-frequency electromagnetic field is coupled into the glass bulb using an antenna protruding into the bulb. however the effects of lumen depreciation should still be considered. As yet there are no dimmable electronic ballasts available.9 Induction lamp 9.Lamps. 9. plastic. Systems have a very long service life due to the absence of any electrodes.10 LED 202 | Lamps. just as in fluorescent lamps. Fig. LEDs and Circuits 9. The lamps can only be operated with special electronic ballasts and have a built in microwave screen. resin Fig. This field excites the mercury to produce UV radiation that is then converted into visible light using phosphors. The amalgam technology used in these lamps makes their luminous flux only very slightly temperature dependant.

This driver must be correctly matched to the LED it is powering as incorrect voltage and current will at best provide poor light.Lamps. which is then embodied into a housing. 9. LEDs and Circuits or ceramic housing. generally being supplied as a complete electrical and optical system. Finally to operate LEDs requires a regulated direct current supply. allowing dimming down to 0%. and with a cluster of different coloured diodes and the use of technology such as DMX protocols linked to a light mixing console extremely complex lighting effects may be produced. and may severely reduce the life of the LED or cause instantaneous failure of the system. The driver must also protect the LED system from voltage fluctuations that may cause damage. Generally a second optical controller is used in the form of a lens mounted on the epoxy housing. and the overall characteristics of the system. LED chip Cathode pin Heat – Copper cladding + Fig. and excess heat will shorten the life of the LED or cause failure.11 Structure of an LED Lamps. designing using LEDs requires careful control of heat removal from the package. This LED housing may be in a variety of shapes and sizes and helps determine the optical characteristics of the LED.e. the power input to the driver compared with the light produced by the LEDs) and they are improving all the time but currently they do not compare with the high values from discharge lamp technology. as LEDs are very sensitive to the junction temperature of the internal diode. LEDs and Circuits | 203 . So the LED is not a true lamp. As well as the optical control of the system. LEDs have reasonable electrical efficiency in terms of lumens per watt (i. This heat must be removed from the LED using heat sinking. usually supplied by a self-contained “driver” which converts the AC mains electricity to the correct DC voltage. The driver can provide a quite advanced level of control. from the shape and size of the LED to the configuration of the lens and distance from the diode chip to the lens define the final optical performance of the system. Whilst the ratio of light to heat produced by LEDs is much higher than for an incandescent light source (such as a GLS light bulb) they do still produce a significant amount of heat.

in principal similar to a fluorescent lamp. However. When buying LEDs. especially for white LEDs. green and blue) or through a multicolour LED that incorporates two or more different colour chips within the same epoxy package. in which the LEDs are sorted into groups of similar colour appearance. either through the use of three or more different coloured LEDs (such as a mixture of red. To produce white light a variety of methods are used.Lamps. They may also be supplied with or without a secondary lens. LEDs and Circuits The light produced by an LED is monochromatic and the colour of the emitted light depends on the material used in the fabrication of the LED and varies from red through orange.13 White LED using colour blending 204 | Lamps. When using groups of LEDs or LED luminaires it is essential that the LEDs come from the same bin to give a consistent appearance. The use of a phosphor does. yellow. This gives flexibility in application. LED packages may also be configured to produce mixed or blended light. decrease the efficiency of the system. RYGB white Phosphor downconversion RYG(B) Phosphers Blue or UV LED Fig. a larger bin size will contain a wider spread of colour appearance than a smaller bin size. varying from individual LEDs to clustered or linear formats. 9. If a random set of LEDs was taken which were all nominally white they would have differing appearances. either as a component to insert into a fixture or as a complete luminaire the LEDs may be supplied in various configurations. These blended systems whilst suitable for lighting within the entertainment industry or in colour changing applications should be used with caution in the wider lighting environment as while they may visually produce white light the actual spectrum of the light is still three or more monochromatic peaks of light and therefore accuracy of colour rendering can be poor. green and blue. The best method in terms of quality of the spectrum of light is produced using a blue LED with a yellowish phosphor coating. LEDs and Circuits . To overcome this a process called binning is used. decreasing the bin size increases manufacturing and LED costs. An additional consideration is that the process for producing LEDs cannot accurately reproduce LEDs with identical colour appearances. however. 9. yellow. the configuration being chosen to suit the fixture it is to be used within. The accuracy of the colour match depends upon the bin size.12 White LED using phosphor coating RYGB white Colour mixing Mixing optics RYGB LEDs Fig. This is termed a phosphor down conversion.

At the moment the technology is not suitably advanced to allow extensive use in the general lighting environment or more specialized applications such as streetlighting or floodlighting. a limitation of LEDs for this type of lighting is their monochromatic nature. care should be taken to ensure that there is still sufficient light output at end of life. This depreciation of light output is mainly due to discoloration of the epoxy housing of the LED over time. but with future developments this may come. LEDs and Circuits A benefit of LED technology is the relatively long life of the systems. Additionally as the light produced by an LED is “cold” it has major benefits in applications such as museums where heat produced by the lighting of an artifact may cause significant damage to that artifact.14 Examples of LED package use of LEDs in emergency lighting is becoming more common. but other factors should be considered. So how is an LED luminaire used? A major advantage of LEDs is their small size and long life. 9. Lumen depreciation and LED life varies between manufacturers. configurations Fig . 8. This makes them ideal for effects lighting where hidden lights are used to create an atmosphere in a space.14 Exam ples of LED packa ge and LED luminaires are good for providing guidance and configura tions emphasis due to their small size and availability in many colours of light. LEDs and Circuits | 205 . However. Therefore. Impressive applications of LEDs may be seen. Fig. The Fig. 8. and even between colours of LEDs so manufacturers data should be consulted. 9. except for phosphor white LEDs. LEDs are already used extensively in signage and signaling. and in the exterior lighting of buildings.Lamps.000 hours life for LEDs. including domestic residences.15 An exampl e of an LED syst em in tegra ted w ith buil ding arch itectu re Lamps. and in the entertainment industry. retail and social environments. Additionally. manufacturers quote upwards of 50. Whilst an LED may produce light for a long period the amount of light produced will deteriorate over time. and especially in critical applications such as emergency lighting.15 An example of an LED system integrated with building architecture Fig .

called the International Lamp Coding System or ILCOS. The standard code “ILCOS D” gives the complete designation of the lamp. published in 1993 as IEC TS 61231.16 LED lighting providistinctive 9. A selection of ILCOS and equivalent LBS codes with their meanings are given in Table 9. 9. to cover several features of the lamp. but it is not supported by all lamp-makers or by international standards. LBS lamp code system In 1994 the Zentralverband Elektrotechnik und Elecktronikindustrie. The system is directly linked to the IEC standard for specific lamps. The responsibility for maintaining the ILCOS system is with the IEC lamp technical committee.17 An LED ground recessed luminaire 206 | Lamps.Lamps.3. the Industry Federation in Germany. 8.10 Lamp coding systems – LBS/ILCOS ILCOS lamp code To support the worldwide identification of compatible lamp types the IEC has produced a generic lamp coding system standard. LEDs and Circuits 9. ILCOS offers a short code “ILCOS L” that can be expanded. The lamp standard has data sheets that are identified by the ILCOS code. The codes are widely used by luminaire makers and clients in Europe. Fig. LEDs and Circuits . The system is of simple codes and has short descriptions and is maintained by ZVEI. in code. All lamp manufacturers made a direct link between their private brand code and the ILCOS system.16 LED lighting providing a ding a atmosphere to a space dis tinctive atmosp here to a space Fig. produced a lamp coding system called Lampenbezeichnungssystem or LBS for short.Fig . better known as ZVEI.

increased light output (MF = more luminous flux) Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp improved colour rendering (Philips SON Comfort Pro type) Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp improved colour rendering (Philips SON-T Comfort Pro type) Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp with high colour rendering (e. LEDs and Circuits LBS (ZVEI) A R QT QT-DE QPAR QR QR-CBC T16 T26 T16-R TC-S TC-SEL TC-L TC-D TC-DEL TC-T TC-TEL TC-DD LMG-lHf HIT-DE HIT-DE-CE HIT HIE HIE-CE HME HSE HSE-I HST HSE-MF HST-MF HSE-CRI HST-CRI HST HST-DE LST ILCOS IA IRR HSG HDG HA HAG / HMG HRG FDH FD FSC FSD FSDH FSD FSQ FSQH FSM FSMH FSS FSS MD MT MT ME ME QE SE SE/I ST SE ST SEM STH STH SD LS Description General purpose incandescent lamp Reflector lamps Halogen incandescent lamps Halogen incandescent lamps. LEDs and Circuits | 207 . Iwasaki NHT-SDX) Double ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp Single ended tubular low pressure sodium lamp Table 9.g. Philips SDW-T. linear double-ended Halogen incandescent lamps for mains voltage with reflector Low voltage halogen incandescent lamps with reflector Low voltage halogen incandescent lamp with dichroic reflector and glass cover Fluorescent lamps Ø16mm Fluorescent lamps Ø26mm Circular fluorescent lamps Ø16mm Compact fluorescent lamps (1 tube) Compact fluorescent lamps (1 tube) for electronic ballast up to 80W Compact fluorescent lamps (1 tube) up to 36W Compact fluorescent lamps (2 tubes) Compact fluorescent lamps (2 tubes) for electronic ballast Compact fluorescent lamps (3 tubes) up to 36W Compact fluorescent lamps (3 tubes) for electronic ballast up to 120W Compact fluorescent lamps (double D) Induction lamps (Philips QL type) Double ended tubular metal halide lamp Double ended tubular metal halide lamp with ceramic burner Single ended tubular metal halide lamp Single ended elliptical metal halide lamp Single ended elliptical metal halide lamp with ceramic burner High pressure mercury discharge lamp Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp with internal ignitor Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp.3 Selection of LBS and ILCOS lamp coding systems Lamps. increased light output (MF = more luminous flux) Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp.Lamps.

TL5 HO Starcoat.White(23).7 79.TL5 HO Lumilux FQ.Lumilux FQ.Super 80/840 Polylux 830.Lumilux FH.TL5 HE 85.Lumilux FQ.White TL 65.TL5 HO Starcoat.White TL 37.Lumilux FH.8 39 49 54 80 18 38 36 58 70 T16 T16 FDH FDH T5 (T16) T5 (T16) G5 G5 66.4 13 450mm T26 FD T8 (T26) G13 Warm White.Warm 63.TL5 HO Polylux XLR 840. Tri-phosphor (other colour temperatures available. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd 208 | Lamps.4 73.Lumilux FQ.TL5 HE 90.Super 80/830 Polylux XLR 840.Lumilux L840.5 4 300mm T16 FD T5 (T16) G5 White. especially 6500K) 550mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) G5 Starcoat.TL5 HO Starcoat.Lumilux FQ.5 21 Fluorescent lamps Linear fluorescent.8 93.Super 80/840 . standard .9 75.TL5 HO Lumilux FQ.TL5 HE 94.5 65/80 Linear fluorescent.3 15 White(30).Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.Lumilux FH.TL5 HE 92.White(23).9 24 Starcoat.9 28 Starcoat.1 87.Warm White TLD 1500mm T38 FD T12 (T38) G13 White 76.Lumilux L840. LEDs and Circuits 3500 3500 3500 2950 3450 1B 1B/1A 1B 1B 1B 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 3 9000 5000 1200 1900 2600 3300 1750 3 3 3 3 5000 5000 5000 9000 150 400 850 950 G5 G5 G5 G5 72.9/62.7 88.7 14 850mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 1150mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 1450mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) Lamps.Lumilux L840.Super 80/840 Polylux XRL 840.Lumilux L840.White(23).1 89. LEDs and Circuits 550mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 850mm G5 G5 G5 G5 G13 G13 G13 G13 G13 76.3 35 Starcoat.Lumilux FH.halophosphate (other colour temperatures available) 150mm T16 FD T5 (T16) G5 White.Super 80/840 Polylux XLR 840.6 82.TL5 HO Starcoat.Lumilux FQ.White TL 50 8 530mm T16 FD T5 (T16) G5 White.0 86.5 24 39 - 1B 1B 20000 20000 1600 3100 - T16 1450mm T16 FDH FDH T5 (T16) T5 (T16) - 1B 1B/1A 1B/1A 1B 1B 3000 4000 4000 4000 1B 1B 1B 1B 20000 20000 20000 20000 15000 12000 15000 15000 15000 2850 4300 4450 6150 1350 3300 3350 5200 6200 - 1150mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 1150mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 600mm T26 FD T8 (T26) 2700 4000 2700 4000 2700 4000 2700 4000 2700 4000 6000 2700 4000 6000 2700 4000 2700 4000 2700 4000 4000 1050mm T26 FD T8 (T26) 1200mm T26 FD T8 (T26) 1500mm T26 FD T8 (T26) 1800mm T26 FD T8 (T26) Starcoat.

CFL Square TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E.1 66.8 55 1B 40 1B 22 1B 16000 16000 16000 1800 3300 4500 - Lamps.0 55.Dulux L.1 50.PL-S/2p TC-S FSD 2L 2-pin G23 Biax S.Dulux L.Dulux S.Lumilux de Luxe 940.Dulux S. Multi-phosphor (other colour temperatures available) 600mm T26 FD T8 (T26) G13 Polylux Dlx 940.TL5C (T16-R) Compact fluorescent lamps (other colour temperatures available) TC-EL FBT E27 Dulux EL Integral gear TC-S FSD 2L 2-pin G23 Biax S.8 66.Dulux S.0 57.6 87.Lumilux de Luxe 940.2 75.8 82.PL-L TC-DD FSS 2D 2-pin GR8 Biax 2D.7 81.PL-L TC-L FSD 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L TC-L FSD 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.PLS/4p TC-SEL FSD 2L 4-pin 2G7 Biax S/E.CFL Square TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E.PLS/4p TC-L FSD 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.Lumilux de Luxe 940. LEDs and Circuits 2400mm T38 FD T12 (T38) G13 Polylux 840 Linear fluorescent.CFL Square TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E 69.9 18 24 34 36 40 55 80 16 28 16 21 28 38 55 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3000 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 12000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 1250 1800 2800 2900 3500 4850 6000 1050 2050 1050 1350 2050 2850 3900 | 209 .4 80.7 58 4000 1A 12000 3750 36 4000 1A 12000 2350 18 4000 1A 12000 1000 100 4000 1B 12000 9400 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.CFL Square TC-DD FSS 2D 2-pin GR8 Biax 2D.6 65.6 73.Dulux L.PL-S/2p TC-SEL FSD 2L 4-pin 2G7 Biax S/E.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) 94.Dulux L. LEDs and Circuits 2700 4000 2700 4000 3000 4000 2700 3500 3500 3500 3500 4000 4000 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 57.Dulux L.TL5C (T16-R) T16-R FSCH T5-C 2GX13 FC.3 64.5 81.PL-S/2p TC-S FSD 2L 2-pin G23 Biax S.6 64.90 deluxe/940 1500mm T26 FD T8 (T26) G13 Polylux Dlx 940.Dulux S/E.90 deluxe/940 1200mm T26 FD T8 (T26) G13 Polylux Dlx 940. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd 81.0 70.90 deluxe/940 Circular fluorescent lamps T16-R FSCH T5-C 2GX13 FC.Dulux S/E.2 75.Dulux L.3 73.4 75.8 11 7 5 7 9 11 9 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 400 250 400 600 900 600 900 - Lamps.Dulux S.CFL Square TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E.PL-L TC-L FSD 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.7 81.PL-S/2p TC-S FSD 2L 2-pin G23 Biax S.0 65.TL5C (T16-R) T16-R FSCH T5-C 2GX13 FC.PL-L TC-L FSDH 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax HLBX.0 82.2 65.PL-L TC-L FSDH 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.PL-L TC-L FSDH 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.5 88.

PLC/4p Biax D.Dulux T Plus Biax T/E amalgam.Dulux T/E IN Plus.PL-C/2p Biax D/E.Dulux T/E IN Plus.2 26 26 3500 3500 1B 1B 10000 12000 10000 10000 12000 10000 12000 10000 12000 12000 10000 10000 10000 20000 20000 20000 66.6 75. LEDs and Circuits GX24d-2 GX24q-2 GX24d-3 GX24q-3 GX24q-3 GX24q-4 GX24q-5 Dulux T/E IN Plus GX24q-6 Dulux T/E IN Plus 2G8-1 2G8-1 2G8-1 PL-H PL-H Dulux HO Constant.Dulux T Plus.5 Powerball HCIR111.PLC/4p Dulux F Biax T.9 63.PL-C/2p Biax D/E.Dulux D/E.Dulux D/E.PL-C/2p Biax D/E.Dulux D/E.PL-T/2p amalgam Biax T/E.7 18 18 3500 3500 1B 1B 10000 12000 1200 1200 1800 1800 2800 890 890 1150 1150 1710 1710 2200 3200 4300 5200 4000 6000 9000 69.PL-H TC-D TC-DEL FSQ FSQ 4L 2-pin 4L 4-pin TC-D TC-DEL FSQ FSQ 4L 2-pin 4L 4-pin TC-D TC-DEL FSQ FSQ 4L 2-pin 4L 4-pin TC-F TC-T TC-TEL FSS FSM FSM Flat 4L4-pin 2G10 6L 2-pin GX24d-1 6L 4-pin GX24q-1 TC-T FSM 6L 2-pin Lamps.8 76.0 32 42 57 70 60 85 120 26 26 18 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3000 4000 3000 3000 3000 18 3500 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 36 13 13 3500 3500 3500 1B 1B 1B 69.Dulux D.0 10 10 3500 3500 1B 1B 10000 12000 600 600 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp. LEDs and Circuits TC-TEL amalgam TC-T FSM 6L 4-pin FSM 6L 2-pin 4-pin 4-pin 4-pin Biax D.5 68.Dulux D.8 68.PLC/4p Biax D.Dulux D.2 75.Dulux T/E Plus Biax T.8 65.7 70.PL-T/4p Dulux T/E IN Plus.3 66.Dulux D.2 69.PLC/4p Biax D.2 69. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd TC-D TC-DEL FSQ FSQ 4L 2-pin 4L 4-pin 210 | Lamps.4 74.PL-T/4p 4-pin 4-pin TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TELI FSM 8L TC-TELI FSM 8L TC-TELI FSM 8L Metal halide discharge lamps Reflector-ceramic HIR 35/10° MR GX8.PL-T/4p Biax T.Dulux T.5 63.7 66.8 68.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) G24d-1 G24q-1 G24d-1 G24q-1 G24d-2 G24q-2 G24d-3 G24q-3 77.PL-C/2p Biax D/E.0 60.CDM-R 111 35 4-pin 4-pin 4-pin 3000 1B 6000+ - 30000 .Dulux D/E.PL-T/2p amalgam Biax T/E.Dulux T/E IN Plus.PL-T/4p Biax T/E.2 13 13 3500 3500 1B 1B 10000 12000 900 900 60.9 65.

Powerstar HQI-T HIT MT MBI-T GY9.CDM-R 111 Powerball HCI-R111 (40°).ceramic (choice of colour 3000 . rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd HIR 35/24° MR - HIR 35/45° MR - GX8.Mastercolour CDM-TD Single ended compact (choice of colour 2600 .Powerstar HQITS.5 78.0 67.MH(N)-TD HIT-DE MD MBI-TD RX7s Arcstream.4200K) HIT-DE-CE MD MBI-TD RX7s CMH-TD.5 CMH-TC.Powerball HCITS.MHN-TD HIT-DE MD Fc2 Powerstar HQI-TS/D HIT-DE MD MBI-TD Fc2 Powerstar HQI-TS Double ended compact .Powerball HCITC.4200K) HIT MT MBI-T G12 Arcstream.Powerball HCITC.Powerball HCIPAR.5 114.3 80.CDM-R PAR20 HI-PAR 20/30° MR E27 CMH-PAR.9 85.1 88.0 80.Powerball HCIPAR.Mastercolour CDM-TC HIT-TC-CE MT MBI-T G8.CDM-R 111 HI-PAR 20/10° MR E27 CMH-PAR.Powerball HCIPAR.5 CMH-TC.CDM-R PAR20 HI-PAR 30/10° MR E27 CMH-PAR.0 80.Powerstar HQITS.5 CMH-TC.MH(N)-TD HIT-DE MD MBI-TD Fc2 Arcstream.7 150 70 250 400 5100 5400 3000 3000 250 4000 150 4200 1B 1B 1A 1A 1B 1B 70 4200 1B 6000 6000 6000 6000 15000 15000 15000 5500 12000 20000 20000 36000 7000 14500 - Lamps.5 35 35 35 70 70 3000 1B 6000 3000 1B 6000 3000 1B 6000 3000 1B 6000 3000 1B 6000+ 23000 5000 68000 10000 35 3000 1B 6000+ 8500 ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.CDM-R PAR30 HI-PAR 30/40° MR E27 CMH-PAR.2 117.CDM-R PAR30 Double ended compact (choice of colour 3000 .Mastercolour CDM-TD HIT-DE-CE MD MBI-TD RX7s CMH-TD.Powerstar HQI-T HIT MT MBI-T G12 Arcstream. LEDs and Circuits 74.ceramic HIT-TC-CE MT G8.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) GX8.Powerstar HQITS.0 70 150 200 60 140 20 35 70 20 4200 4200 5900 2800 2800 3000 3000 3000 3000 1B 1B 1B 2 2 1B 1B 1B 1B 6000 6000 2000 12000 12000 9000 10000 9000 9000 5200 12000 13500 6850 16500 1700 3400 6200 1500 - Powerball HCIR111.0 90.Powerball HCITS.5 MSD HIT MT PGZ 12 CosmoWhite HIT MT PGZ 12 CosmoWhite Single ended compact .0 100.6 80.Powerball HCIPAR.Powerball HCI-TC HIT-TC-CE MT MBI-T G8.0 96. LEDs and Circuits | 211 .6 75.0 97.5400K) HIT-DE MD MBI-TD RX7s Arcstream.Mastercolour CDM-TC HIT-TC-CE MT PGJ5 Mastercolour CDM-TM Lamps.

5 105.Powerstar HQI-T HIT MT MBI-T E40 HPI-T+ HIT MT MBI-T E40 HPI-T+ HIT MT E40 Powerstar HQI-T/N HIT MT E40 Powerstar HQI-T/N HIT MT MBI-T E40 HPI-T HIT MT MBI-T E40 Powerstar HQI-T HIT MT E40 Powerstar T 70 100 250 250 250 400 400 400 1000 3800 3200 4000 5200 3700 4000 3800 3700 3750 1B 2 2 1A 2 2 2 2 2B .for enclosed fittings only HIE ME HIE E40 Whitelux HIE ME HIE E40 Whitelux Tubular clear (other colour temperatures available) HIT MT MBI-T E27 Color Arc MT-SDW HIT MT MBI-T E40 Arcstream HIT MT E40 Arcstream.0 80.0 80.Powerball HCIT.0 71.4 93.0 90. LEDs and Circuits HIT-CE HIT-CE HIT-CE MT MT MT MBI-T Lamps.0 76.0 82.0 107.0 250 3000 1B 9000 9000 15000 12000 10000 14000 20000 12000 3700 3700 70 250 250 84.4 84.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) 85.Powerstar HQI-T/D HIT MT E40 HSI/TSX HIT MT MBI-T E40 Arcstream.0 250 400 250 400 400 400 1000 1000 2000 4500 4200 5300 4000 4200 4500 4300 3700 5200 4500 6000 6000 2 2 1A 2 1A 2 2 2 2 2B 1A 2 1A 1A 15000 20000 6000 6000 6000 9000 150 4200 1A 9000 150 3000 1B 12000 14000 12900 23000 4900 8500 19500 19000 20500 32000 43000 36000 110000 21800 38800 5000 21000 20000 21000 35000 19000 35000 42000 32000 85000 80000 180000 70 3000 1B 15000 6400 70 150 35 3000 3000 3000 1B 1B 1B 10000 6000 13000 3400 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.7 97.5 90.0 110.Mastercolour CDM-T HIT-CE MT G12 Powerball HCI-T.CDMSA/T HIT-CE MT G12 Mastercolour CDM-T Elliptical coated (ceramic versions also available) HIE ME MBIF E27 Powerstar HQI-E HIE ME MBIF E27 Arcstream HIE ME MBIF E40 Arcstream HIE ME E40 Powerstar HQI-E HIE ME HIE E40 WhiteLux HIE ME MBIF E40 Kolorarc HIE ME E40 Powerstar HQI-E HIE ME HIE E40 Whitelux HIE ME HIE E40 Powerstar HQI-E Elliptical coated .0 87.Powerball HCIT.Mastercolour CDM-T HIT-CE MT MBI-T G12 CMH-T. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd 212 | Lamps.5 76.7 86.0 87.0 87.2 97. LEDs and Circuits 70.0 85.0 92.0 80.Powerball HCIT.0 85.3 86.Mastercolour CDM-T HIT-CE MT MBI-T G12 CMH-T.0 250 400 PG12-2 Mastercolour CDM-TP PGX12-2 Mastercolour CDM-TP G12 CMH-T.0 78.1 91.0 80.

0 112.HQL DE LUXE.Powerball HCITT.HPL-N E40 Kolorlux Standard.HPL-N E40 Kolorlux Standard.0 100.0 80. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd HIT MT Tubular clear .HPL Comfort | 213 .HQL.HPL Comfort E27 Kolorlux Deluxe.CDO-TT CMH-TT.3 150 3000 1B 120 14000 91.0 95.0 50.0 40.HPL-N E27 Kolorlux Standard.4 52.CDO-TT MHN-LA MHN-LA Sportlight Sportlight MHN-LA MHN-LA Powerstar HQI-TS/D/S Powerstar HQI-TS MHN-SB Sylvania HSI-TD 76.0 47.0 100.HPL-N E27 Kolorlux Standard.0 110.0 36.5 100.HQIE.5 50.HQL.0 100.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) E40 E27 E40 93.0 100.HQL.0 56.HPL Comfort E27 Kolorlux Deluxe.HPL-N E40 Kolorlux Standard.high wattage HIT-DE MD HIT-DE MD HIT-DE MN MBIL HIT-DE MN MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL Compact metal halide lamps HIR 6° MR CSI High pressure mercury discharge lamps HME QE/R MBF Cable Cable RX7s Cable Cable Cable Cable Cable Cable Cable HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBFSD HME QE/R MBFSD Lamps.HQL DE LUXE.0 80 125 250 400 1000 50 80 125 50 1000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 3550 3500 3400 3350 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3500 12000 16000 20000 20000 20000 29000 16000 16000 20000 90.0 2000 4000 2B 240000 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.HQL.0 1000 1000 1500 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 5600 4200 5200 5200 5600 4200 5800 4400 5600 5600 1A 1B 2 2 1A 1B 1A 2B 1B 1A 6000 6000 4000 8000 3000 90000 100000 120000 200000 190000 220000 200000 225000 200000 200000 76000 1800 3800 6300 13000 22500 57000 2000 4000 6500 - - - HIT-CE MT - Lamps.HQL.ceramic HIT-CE MT CMH-TT. LEDs and Circuits Double ended .Powerball HCITT.HPL-N E27 Kolorlux Deluxe.3 57. LEDs and Circuits HME QE/R MBFSD G38 CSI/PAR 64 (colour temperatures vary) E27 Kolorlux Standard.0 52.HQL DE LUXE.4 70 3000 1B 12000 6400 Powerstar T/N 120.

250SON-T Lucalox E. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd HME QE/R MBFSD 214 | Lamps.250SON Lucalox T.0 85.Vialox NAVT.Vialox NAVT.Vialox NAVE.0 118.Vialox NAVT.Vialox NAVT.7 50 70 2000 2000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 85.Vialox NAVT.0 104.9 70 2000 4 82.0 130.0 50 2000 4 28500 3300 3400 5800 5800 6000 3400 6000 9200 9600 8800 14500 15000 26000 27500 47500 50000 90000 130000 Lucalox E.Vialox NAVE.Vialox NAVE.HQL DE LUXE. LEDs and Circuits Kolorlux Deluxe.HPL Comfort E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E40 E40 E27 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 110.150SON-T Lucalox E.Vialox NAVE.70SON-I Lucalox I.0 250 3350 3 24000 14000 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.70SON-T Lucalox E Lucalox T Lucalox E-Z.0 96.70SON-I HME QE/R MBFSD High pressure sodium discharge lamps Standard Tubular and Elliptical HSE SE HPS-E HSE-I SE HPS-E-I HSE SE HPS-E HSE-I Diffuse SE HSE-I Clear SC Lamps.150SON Lucalox T.9 70 2000 4 28500 12000 12000 28500 28500 28500 28500 16000 28500 28500 28500 28500 28500 28500 24000 24000 68.50SON-E Lucalox I. LEDs and Circuits HST HST ST ST HPS-E-I Diffuse HPS-E-I Clear HPS-T HPS-T HSE HST HSE HSE SE ST SE SE HPS-E HPS-T HPS-E HPS-E HST ST HPS-T HSE SE HPS-E HST ST HPS-T HSE SE HPS-E HST ST HPS-T HST ST HPS-T HST ST HPS-T Lucalox T Lucalox T.400SON-T Lucalox T.8 125.Vialox NAVE.HPL Comfort Kolorlux Deluxe.1000SON-T .Vialox NAV-E Lucalox E.HQL DE LUXE.0 400 3400 3 24000 24000 56.600SON-T Lucalox T.7 100 100 110 150 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 68.Vialox NAVT.7 70 2000 4 82.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) E40 E40 60.0 50 2000 4 12000 66.0 80.0 150.0 96.NAV-E 70/1.70SON-E Lucalox I.0 100.0 150 250 250 400 400 600 1000 92.400SON Lucalox T.50SON-I Lucalox E.NAV-E 50/1.

LEDs and Circuits | 215 .0 92. LEDs and Circuits 37.Vialox NAV Deluxe. SON Comfort HST-CRI ST HPS-T(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique. SON Comfort HST-CRI ST HPS-T(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.Vialox NAV Deluxe. SON Comfort “White” SON and Mini “White” SON HST-CRI STH HPSPG12-I SDW-T T(White) HST-CRI STH HPSPG12-I SDW-T T(White) Lamps.Vialox Super.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO. SON Comfort HSE-CRI SE HPS-E(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.Vialox NAV Deluxe.Vialox NAV Deluxe.SON-T PLUS 90000 80.Vialox Super.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO.Tubular and Elliptical HSE-CRI SE HPS-E(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.0 92.0 50 2000 4 28500 HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) Lucalox HO.0 90.9 70 2000 4 28500 NAV 80.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO.1 46.Vialox Super.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO.Vialox Super.3 400 2000 4 NAV 132.7 150 2000 4 28500 NAV 100.0 600 2000 4 NAV 141.Vialox Super.0 100 2000 4 28500 NAV 92.5 250 400 400 250 150 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 150 2200 2 2 2 2 2 2 14000 14000 14000 14000 14000 14000 12000 13000 22000 23000 36000 37000 - Lamps. SON Comfort HST-CRI ST HPS-T(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm 4000 6500 10000 17500 33000 56500 - Peak intensity cd Increased light output .SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO.Vialox Super.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.0 35 50 2500 2500 1B 1B 10000 10000 1300 2300 - Improved colour rendering .Vialox NAV Deluxe.0 250 2000 4 28500 28500 28500 NAV 116.Vialox NAV Deluxe.Tubular HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) E27 E27 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 NAV 150.7 88.Vialox Super.0 86.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO. SON Comfort HSE-CRI SE HPS-E(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.

0 70 2500 1B 6000 3500 SDW-TG 48.3 GU5.Standardline Precise MR11 35 35 35 50 2900 2900 3100 3100 1A 1A 1A 1A 3500 3500 4000 4000 - 6300 2070 2950 8000 HPSDE(HO) HPSDE(HO) HST-DE SD HPS-DE HST-DE SD HPS-DE Low pressure sodium discharge lamps LST LS SOX LST LS SOX LST LS SOX LST LS SOX LST-HY LSE SOX-E LST-HY LSE SOX-E LST-HY LSE SOX-E Halogen lamps Halogen reflector .Decostar 5l (24°).3 SOX SOX SOX SOX SOX-E SOX-E SOX-E 131.6 35 55 90 135 26 36 66 Vialox NAV-TS Vialox NAV-TS 102.1 141.0 100 2500 1B 6000 5000 7800 13500 NHT-SDX 50.0 150 1900 4 4 4 Vialox NAV-Super 91.Standardline (24°) Bright MR16.dichroic mirror (12V QRHRG M265 CBC35/10° QRHRG M266 CBC35/21° QRHRG M270 CBC51/18° QR-CBC51/8° HRG M249 Bright MR16. LEDs and Circuits RX7s RX7s-24 Fc2 Fc2 BY22d BY22d BY22d BY22d BY22d BY22d BY22d supply) GU4 GU4 GU5.0 50 2500 1B 10000 2300 SDW-T 50.Standardline (10°) .0 120.Decostar 35S.0 100 2500 1B 10000 4800 SDW-TG 46.0 250 2500 1B NHT-SDX 52.2 177.Decostar 5l (10°). LEDs and Circuits HST-DE SD Precise MR11.0 250 400 2100 2100 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 Vialox NAV-Super 96.4 70 1900 4 30000 30000 26000 26000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 6400 14400 25500 48000 4600 7650 12750 22000 4060 6400 10800 - HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) Double ended HST-DE SD Lamps.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) PG12-I GX12 GX12 E27 E27 E40 E40 NHT-SDX 54.0 100 2550 1B 10000 5000 ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.7 163.4 139. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH 216 | Lamps.0 156.0 150 2500 1B 9000 9000 NHT-SDX 50.8 163.

3 Bright MR16.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) 50 50 50 35 35 3000 1A 4000 3100 1A 4000 3100 1A 4000 3000 1A 4000 2100 950 7200 1300 3000 1A 4000 4750 ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp. 16. LEDs and Circuits 20 20 3000 3000 1A 1A 2000 2000 300 320 - QRHRG M250 GU5.ALUline PRO-111 QR111/24° HMG G53 AR111.Standardline QRHRG M271 GU5.0 frosted QT-LP 12-ax HSG G4 Q20T2.Halospot 111.ALUline PRO-111 Halogen capsule (12V supply).ALUline PRO-111 QR111/45° HMG G53 AR111. QRHRG M258 GU5.Standardline QRHRG M280 GU5.3 QR-C51/24° HAG Silver GU5.Halospot 111.aluminised (12V supply) QR-51/38° HAG M58A GU5.ALUline PRO-111 QR111/8° HMG G53 AR111.Decostar CBC51/60° 5l. Low pressure for use with open luminaires QT-LP 12-ax HSG G4 Halostar.Halospot 111 QR111/24° HMG G53 AR111.Decostar 51 CBC51/36° (38°).Halospot 111.Halospot 111.ALUline PRO-111 QR111/24° HMG G53 AR111.Halospot 111.Halospot 111. Halostar. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd 50 50 50 50 50 35 35 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 2950 3000 3000 1A 1A 1A 3000 3500 3500 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 - 1600 3000 3000 12500 2600 45000 2500 20000 3500 30000 5300 1700 48000 8500 2800 Lamps.Standardline CBC51/10° QRHRG M281 GU5.3 Bright MR16.ALUline PRO-111 QR111/8° HMG G53 AR111.3 Decostar ALU QR-C51/24° HAG Black GU5.0 Capsuleline Pro Lamps.Halospot 111.Halospot 111 QR111/8° HMG G53 AR111.Decostar CBC51/18° 51 (24°).Decostar 51 CBC51/36° (38°).3 Decostar 51.Standardline Halogen reflector .ALUline PRO-111 QR111/45° HMG G53 AR111.Capsuleline Pro 15.aluminium (12V supply) QR70/8° HMG BA15d Halospot 70 QR70/24° HMG BA15d Halospot 70 QR111/4° HMG G53 Halospot 111 QR111/24° HMG G53 AR111.3 Bright MR16.3 Halogen metal reflector . LEDs and Circuits | 217 .3 Bright MR16.

Halogen A QPAR20/25° HAPAR GU10 Hi-Spot ES63 QPAR20/50° HAPAR GU10 Hi-Spot ES63 QPAR25/10° HAPAR E27 Hi-Spot 80 QPAR25/25° HAPAR E27 Hi-Spot 80 QT-LP12-ax frosted QT-LP12-ax HSG - HSG - .1 35 3000 1A 2000 600 Halostar.0 20.0 20 3000 1A 2000 300 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd QT-LP 12-ax HSG - HSG - 218 | Lamps.35 GY6.35 GY6.3 150 35 50 50 50 50 75 75 50 50 3000 2900 2800 2800 2900 2900 2700 2700 2900 2900 35 50 50 75 100 100 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 90 100 3000 3000 1A 1A 75 3000 1A 19.Halostar QT 12-ax HSG M74 GY6.0 21.0 20 3000 1A 2000 340 Q20T3.Halostar.0 50 3000 1A 2000 2000 4000 2000 4000 3000 4000 4000 2000 4000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2500 2500 2000 2000 19.5 21.35 Q75T3.HiSpot 63.35 Capsuleline Pro Halogen capsule (12V supply) for use with closed luminaires QT 12-ax HSG M75 GY6.1 17. LEDs and Circuits Q20T3.35 M74 QT 12-ax HSG M73 GY6.35 Halostar QT-LP12-ax HSG GY6.Capsuleline Pro 18.Halostar.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) GY6.Halogen A QPAR20/25° HAPAR E27 50PAR20.35 M180 Halogen capsule (24V supply) for use with closed luminaires) QT 16-ax HSG GY6.Halopar 20.35 M32.Halopar 20 (30°).0 22.0 22.0 18.0 18.TWISTline Alu QPAR16/50° HARI GU10 MR16.TWISTline Alu QPAR20/10° HAPAR E27 50PAR20.35 GY6.35 GY6.35 GY6.35 18.0 17.Hi-Spot 50.35 M73 QT 12-tr HSG M28 GY6. Capsuleline Pro Capsuleline Pro QT-LP12-ax frosted QT-LP12-ax frosted QT-LP12-ax HSG - HSG - Lamps.5 50 3000 1A 2000 975 950 1350 1800 2200 600 850 900 1350 2200 2150 3200 17. LEDs and Circuits Q50T3.35 Halostar Halogen aluminised reflector (PAR) QPAR16/25° HARI GU10 Hi-Spot 80 QPAR16/25° HARI GU10 MR16.35 M28 QT 12-ax HSG M180 GY6. Capsuleline Pro QT-LP12-ax HSG GY6.0 35 3000 1A 2000 630 800 1250 600 3000 1000 2500 1000 4000 1100 Capsuleline Pro 17. Capsuleline Pro 15. Hi-Spot 50. Halostar. Capsuleline Pro QT-LP12-ax HSG GY6. Halostar.35 M75 QT 12-tr HSG M32 GY6.

0 22. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd QPAR25/10° QPAR25/25° HAPAR HAPAR - QPAR30/10° HAPAR - QPAR30/30° HAPAR - Hi-Spot 80 75PAR25.0 300 500 1000 1500 25 40 60/100 150/250 150 300 500 2900 3000 3000 3000 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2950 2950 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 2000 2000 2000 2000 1500 1500 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 4800 9500 22000 33000 255 490 820/1500 2500\ 4200 2500 5200 10000 - Lamps.Plusline 16.5 GY9.3 13. LEDs and Circuits QPAR30S/10° HAPAR QPAR30S/30° HAPAR QPAR30/10° HAPAR QPAR30/30° HAPAR QPAR30S/10° HAPAR QPAR30S/30° HAPAR Halogen dichroic reflector (PAR) QPARHR CB16/25° QPARHR CB16/50° QPARHRG1 CB20/25° QPARHRG1 CB20/50° Double ended halogen QT-DE 12 HDG K9 QT-DE 12 HDG K1 QT-DE 12 HDG K4 QT-DE 12 HDG K5 Single ended halogen QT-14 HS QT-14 HS QT-32 HSGT QT-32 HSGT R7s R7s R7s R7s G9 G9 E27 E27 B15d GY9.Plusline K4.HiSpot 95 75PAR30.TWISTline Dich Hi-Spot ESD63 Lamps.3 20.0 22.7/15 5.Halogen A 75PAR30.MV Capsules Halopin.5/16. LEDs and Circuits QT-18 QT QT HSGT HSGT HSGT M38 M40 | 219 .0 K9.TWISTline Dich Hi-Spot ESD50. Hi-Spot 80. Hi-Spot 95 100PAR30.Haloline.MV Capsules Halolux Ceram Halolux Ceram 10.Plusline K1.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 GZ10 GZ10 GZ10 GZ10 Hi-Spot ESD63 75 75 2850 2850 50 2700 1A 1A 1A 50 2700 1A 2500 2500 2500 2500 75 75 100 100 100 100 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 75 2900 1A 3000 75 2900 1A 3000 6900 2200 6500 2000 10000 3500 9000 3000 1250 500 2500 1000 75 75 2900 2900 1A 1A 2000 3000 5500 1300 ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.Halopar 30.2 12. Hi-Spot 95 Halogen A Halogen A Hi-Spot ESD50.7 17.Haloline.Haloline.5 Halolux Ceram M38 M40 Halopin.8 16.Haloline.Halopar 30.HiSpot 95 Halogen A Halogen A 100PAR30.0 19.Plusline K5.

6 55 60000 3500 6000 3 1B Choices 3 1B Choices Incandescent lamps A IA GLS E27 Spot (mains supply. LEDs and Circuits 11.6 85 60000 63.4 Characteristic values of the major lamps .Concentra Par38 PAR56 120 120 300 2700 2700 2700 1A 1A 1A 2000 2000 - 220 | Lamps. LEDs and Circuits NOTE.7/15 60/100 2700 1A 1000 QL QL 70. except where stated) PAR IPAR PAR38/15° E27 PAR IPAR PAR38/30° E27 PAR IPAR 12V/ GX16 PAR56/40° terminal Induction lamps (185-255V supply) LMG-Ihf FSG1 QL - LMG-lhf FSG1 QL Lamps. Table 9. For definitive values you should refer to lamp manufacturers data.Concentra Par38 PAR38.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm 700/1500 7000 3000 16000 Peak intensity cd GLS PAR38. Values given in this table are generic and are indicative of performance for a given type of lamp.

Lamps. LEDs and Circuits | 221 . very high loss (conventional ballast) Prohibited from sale since 21st May 2002 Table 9. They are split into fluorescent and sodium/metal halide lamp circuits as these have distinct wiring and control techniques.5 Fluorescent lamp ballast classifications 9. Lamps. thermal conditions altering the operation of the lamp/ballast system).12 Energy efficiency considerations Most of the electrical power consumed by a luminaire is due to the lamp and its control gear. in that they are not specific to any manufacturer or make of control gear but serve to illustrate the principles.6 and is used by the industry in ballast labelling.13 Circuits The circuits shown in this section are generic. Class A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 C D Ballasts Dimmable electronic ballasts Reduced-loss electronic ballasts Electronic ballasts Magnetic ballasts. moderate loss (conventional ballast) Prohibited from sale since 21st November 2005 Magnetic ballasts. LEDs and Circuits 9. The energy efficiency index (EEI) classifies fluorescent lamp ballasts into seven categories as shown in Table 8. Additionally minor luminaire losses may occur due to parasitic losses from electronic control or emergency lighting capabilities of the luminaire. However this power consumption may be modified slightly by the operating conditions inside the luminaire (i. low loss (low loss ballast) Magnetic ballasts.e. very low loss (low loss ballast) Magnetic ballasts.

Suppressing radio interference. which means that if there is a problem with the lamp or circuit that prevents the lamp starting the ignitor will continue to try to start the lamp until the circuit is turned off or potentially the ballast is damaged. (For high pressure sodium lamps this will be after approximately five minutes) 222 | Lamps. Modern ignitors therefore normally incorporate anti-cycling control that can sense the normal endof–life mode of a lamp and disables the ignitor. Providing a starting voltage.Lamps. Providing a pre-heating current. A basic ignitor will do this until the lamp strikes. which by means of inductance. Reducing stroboscopic effects. Ignitor A starting device. This normally happens after the ignitor has tried to start the lamp a few times. LEDs and Circuits . Correcting power factor. serves mainly to limit the current to the lamp(s) to the required value. singly or in combination. Improving cold starting. and for metal halide lamps this is generally after approximately 15 minutes. which does not provide for the pre-heating of electrodes. LEDs and Circuits Definitions Ballast The general term for control gear inserted between the mains supply and one or more discharge lamps or fluorescent lamps. capacitance or resistance. intended to generate voltage pulses to start discharge lamps. A ballast may also incorporate means of: Transforming the supply voltage.

18 Series ignitor circuit Ph Ballast Power factor capacitor Ignitor E A parallel ignitor circuit. Here the lamp is wired across the ballast and the neutral in parallel with the ignitor. 9. 9. LEDs and Circuits | 223 .19 Parallel ignitor circuit Lamps. Sodium/metal halide lamp circuits Ph Ballast Power factor capacitor Ignitor E A series ignitor circuit. Fig. LEDs and Circuits Starter switch A device which initiates a surge of high voltage across the lamp. This type of circuit is common when using highpressure sodium and metal halide lamps. This type of circuit is common when using low-pressure sodium lamps. Fig.Lamps. Here the lamp is wired across the ignitor and the neutral.

through one end of the lamp.21 Electronic circuit 224 | Lamps. 9. 9.20 Typical magnetic ballast circuit Ph Ballast N Lamp A circuit typical of electronic control gear. The circuit is essentially a series circuit.Lamps. LEDs and Circuits . incorporating a power factor correction capacitor and a starter. LEDs and Circuits Fluorescent lamp circuits Ph Power factor capacitor Ballast E Lamp Starter A circuit typical of magnetic ballast. Additional control lines may be used for ballasts incorporating dimming functionality. Wiring is according to the connector designations on the ballast with the lamp being wired across the ballast. Fig. Fig. Here no power factor capacitor or starter is required as this is dealt with by the electronics. from the input phase through the ballast. through the second end of the lamp and out to neutral. through the starter.

and the inverter controls the circuit. 9. 9. an inverter and a battery pack.22 shows a typical emergency lighting circuit for a maintained luminaire. The benefits of using electronic technology over magnetic ballasts are: • Energy savings 1. As the ballast receives no power supply during mains failure these lamps are extinguished and again the emergency lamp is lit using a supply from the batteries via the inverter. additional lamps being connected directly to the ballast.14 Properties of electronic ballasts With the implementation of European Directive 2000/55/ EC on energy efficiency requirements for ballasts for fluorescent lighting and the Energy using Products Directive 2005/32/ EC type C and D magnetic ballasts are banned for sale within the European Union. Two additional components are required. and further savings may be made using presence detection and dimming technology to ensure that light is not wasted by lighting empty spaces or over lighting an area. and the lamp is driven from the ballast. Under normal conditions with a mains supply present the inverter supplies the ballast with a phase supply from the mains. LEDs and Circuits Figure 8.22 Emergency lighting circuit For circuits with more than one lamp only the lamp used in emergency mode is connected to the inverter. When the mains supply fails the lamp is driven from the inverter. Energy costs are cut by using electronic control gear. via the inverter. Battery Lamp Ph N Ph Invertor N Ballast Fig. Lamps.Lamps. LEDs and Circuits | 225 . which receives power from the battery pack.

Using less energy reduces the heating effects in a space due to the installed lighting. Fewer components. reducing the frequency of re-lamping and therefore maintenance costs. fault conditions. Using electronic control gear removes the need for starter switches and power factor correction capacitors. Low noise operation. Flicker from lights has been shown to be a cause of headaches and discomfort. This prevents flickering lamps staying active or fault conditions causing a potentially dangerous situation. • • • • • For control of electronic control gear for dimming etc. Reduced maintenance costs. etc. or switch off in the event of a more general fault. and also helps prevent wiring faults as the digital control wires are polarity reversible. Flicker free light. Fault detection. such as a lamp failing. Electronic control gear operates at high frequencies. In the event of a fault occurring in a circuit. Electronic control gear ensures quiet operation with quiet starting and no background hum as may be produced by magnetic gear. and to use a computer based graphical interface to control installations. As DSI allows bidirectional communication it is possible to interrogate luminaires about their current operating state. producing flicker free light.Lamps. unlike an analogue input signal. Using control gear with cathode pre-heating ensures that the length of life of lamps in a luminaire is maximised. electronic ballasts may automatically shut off a faulty lamp. LEDs and Circuits • Energy saving 2. The main restriction on this method is interference caused by cable length or mains interference.. 226 | Lamps. Grouping of luminaires depends upon the hardwiring of the control lines. DSI This uses an 8-bit digital signal as a control input to the ballast. three main methods of control are used Analogue This uses a 1-10V analogue signal as a control input to the ballast. The use of a digital signal helps ensure interference free reliable communications. This reduces the load on air-conditioning and ventilation equipment. LEDs and Circuits .

Lamps. 9. LEDs and Circuits DALI DALI uses a digital communications protocol but is almost a programming language for lighting control gear. An effect of this. especially for Lamps. As DALI allows bidirectional communication it is possible to interrogate luminaires about their current operating state. Values are normally quoted in terms of voltage drop per ampere per metre. This can have a major effect upon the lighting installation as a relatively small voltage drop can reduce the light output of the luminaire or for larger voltage drops can even prevent the luminaire from operating. allowing complete flexibility of control of lighting units.15 Voltage drop When designing cabling for installation of luminaires it should be remembered that there will be a voltage drop along the length of the cable. etc. The voltage drop for a given current carried is related to the cable materials and manufacturing process and is therefore individual to each cable type and manufacturer. In the absence of manufacturers data the following formula for calculating voltage drop may be used. 2(Ix0.0175xL) A U is the voltage drop across the length of the cable where in volts I is the current being carried by the cable in amps L is the length of the cable in metres A is the cross-sectional area of a single conductor in mm2 U = Note this formula is for a twin copper conductor (phase and neutral) at 15˚C. This is due to the electrical resistance of the cable and means that the voltage measured at the end of the cable will be less than that measured at the start of the cable. and to use a computer based graphical interface to control installations. Note that the wiring regulations give limits on permissible voltage drop. Grouping of luminaires is via software as every luminaire is individually addressable. fault conditions. LEDs and Circuits | 227 ..

• • • 9. Increasing the number of transformers will allow the transformer sizes to be reduced and also allow the length of the cable runs to be reduced. circuit breakers are most commonly used for protecting circuits on high voltage and low voltage circuits. These are.g. Longer cable runs will produce a larger voltage drop. Therefore smaller cable runs should be used. is that luminaires closer to the supply transformer may produce more light than those furthest from the transformer. To help reduce the voltage drops in an installation the following steps may be considered. for floodlighting). low current applications typical of lighting installations miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) may be used to protect the final circuit. giving different levels of performance depending upon application.Lamps. LEDs and Circuits installations using high-pressure discharge lamps (e. Three different categories of MCB are defined. • The voltage drop of a cable is related to the cable gauge or cross-sectional surface area. Whilst they have generally been replaced by electromechanical methods of protection a benefit of fuses is that they can withstand much higher fault levels than other electromechanical methods of protection. The use of lower wattage lamps or fewer luminaires on each cable run will reduce the loading on the cabling and therefore the voltage drop (as voltage drop is related to circuit current). The voltage drop of a cable is related to the length of the cable. For low voltage. LEDs and Circuits . However.16 Fusing Fuses are the simplest form of circuit protection. A cable with a larger cross-sectional area will have less voltage drop than a smaller cable. Type B Type C Type D used with resistive loads such as tungsten lighting used where a mixture of light inductive and resistive loads are present used where strong inductive loads such as motors or switched mode power supplies are present 228 | Lamps.

Low-voltage electrical installations. Now however two voltage bands have replaced these categories and generally lighting installations will fall within the requirements of voltage band II. thereby causing a higher switch-on current peak than when using a choke/ starter circuit. This is of especial concern with lighting circuits using luminaires with electronic control gear. When a lighting circuit is switched on high transient current peaks occur due to parasitic capacitances that can accumulate with the number of luminaires. Previously three categories of electrical circuit were defined and lighting circuits generally fell within category 1. LEDs and Circuits | 229 . Lamps. and remember that a luminaire may contain multiple ballasts not necessarily of the same type. 9. international standards such as IEC 60364 . LEDs and Circuits For lighting circuits generally type B MCBs are commonly used although type C variants may be present depending upon the application area. When using a multi-pole fuse the number of ballasts that may be connected is typically reduced by 20% compared to a single pole fuse. Standards for this exist. as in a choke/starter circuit lamps do not ignite simultaneously. Therefore only surge-current-proof automatic cutouts should be used for lighting systems. Electronic control gear starts all lamps in a circuit simultaneously. You should always check manufacturers literature as to how many ballasts may be connected through one device.17 Wiring regulations It is of great importance that the electrical connections to any lighting equipment are correctly specified. It should be noted that IEC 60364 and associated local versions do not apply to public street lighting installations and these are considered part of the public power gird. This contains the requirements for supplies to households and most commercial and industrial installations. It should also be noted that the type of fuse used could influence the number of ballasts that may be used on one device. These high switch-on currents can cause problems with automatic conductor cutouts. and local standards such as BS 7671.Lamps.

Glands for cable entry into electrical equipment should be of a mechanical specification suitable for the cable type.Lamps. the second number is the maximum voltage allowable between any two conductors. or through the use of armoured cables. For long final circuits from a transformer or sub-main generally this is the voltage drop and this is especially true for large outdoor installations. When installing cable in areas with restricted airflow it is important to check with the cable manufacturers the effect this will have on the cable rating. Electrical currents cause a heating effect in the cable conductor. Protection for the cable can be either through a suitable containment system such as heavy-duty trunking or conduit. LEDs and Circuits . Whilst both the maximum current rating and voltage drop should be considered for all circuits generally only one of these factors will be the determining factor for cable selection. the maximum continuous current rating and the voltage drop within the circuit. 230 | Lamps. Glands should be also specified by IP rating (ingress protection). and the maximum temperature rating of the insulation determines the limit on allowable current and therefore heat. whilst glands for armoured cabling are normally brass. Glands for flexible cabling are normally made of nylon or plastic. suitable for the equipment they will be used with. The insulation material used in the cable determines the maximum continuous current rating. LEDs and Circuits When specifying electrical connections it is essential that the cabling used within the installation is correctly rated. Voltage rating for cables is expressed as two numbers. Extra care must be taken in situations where industrial installations use high voltages as the phase to earth voltage may exceed the rating of some cable types. An additional factor to consider is the degree of protection against mechanical shock required. The first number is the maximum allowable voltage between any conductor and earth. as preventing adequate heat removal from the cable may cause the insulation to fail within the nominal cable rating. for example 600/1000V. Two main factors determine the specification of cabling size or cross-section. In certain environments (such as industrial areas) the risk of mechanical damage to a cable is increased.

to fire with water and to fire with mechanical shock. For these circuits it is important to isolate the supply before changing the ignitor and to discharge capacitors by touching all exposed metal parts and terminals to earth using an insulated probe before commencing any examination of the circuit and components. For electrical connections to emergency services such as emergency luminaires powered from central battery systems or luminaires with external battery packs. 9. Lamps. Fire survival cables are defined by their resistance to fire. LEDs and Circuits When installing cables care should be taken to ensure that the minimum-bending radius quoted by the manufacturer for the cable is not exceeded. Note that whilst some checks do not require any specific qualifications most of these tests should only be performed by a qualified and competent person such as a commissioning engineer or where electricity is involved an appropriately qualified electrician.Lamps. LEDs and Circuits | 231 . or the failure of a luminaire to operate correctly. If a bend occurs close to the cable entry point into electrical equipment the cable should be firmly secured by the entry point to ensure that it is straight when passing through the cable entry gland. Be aware that high intensity discharge circuits incorporating an ignitor may generate 25kV pulses at the lamp holder and that components within the ignitor can operate up to 18kV. the wiring from the batteries to the luminaire should be with fire survival cables in separate or segregated circuits to minimise the risk of the loss of emergency lighting. and that no strain is being put on the gland due to the cable bend. as due to waveform distortion other meters may give false readings. Lighting circuits can generate extremely high and potentially fatal voltages and access to a lighting installation may be difficult or require specialist equipment and training. otherwise damage to the insulation and also the sheathing in multicore cables may occur.18 Fault detection The following lists give common reasons for the failure of a lighting installation to perform to the expected level. When measuring lamp voltages it is essential that they are measured using a true RMS meter.

LEDs and Circuits When faced with an inoperative luminaire it is usual first to replace the lamp with a new one. LEDs and Circuits .Lamps. current. Certain types of lamp must be operated with the front glass of the luminaire in position. tilt)? For floodlights have they been installed upside-down? Have the lamps been run for >100 hours to ensure lamp stability? Is the quality of the electrical supply suitable (voltage. Always check the lamp type and manufacturers recommendations before operating the lamp without the luminaire fully assembled. If the lamp has shattered or a fuse has blown it is advisable to inspect the ballast and wiring for incorrect installation or signs of overheating or damage before inserting a second lamp. as a possible catastrophic failure mode may cause the lamp to explode. Lighting installation does not perform to the expected level General Have the correct luminaires and attachments been installed compared to the specification? Are the luminaires installed at the correct mounting height? Are the luminaires installed at the correct mounting position? Are the luminaires correctly orientated (rotation. harmonics)? For high-pressure discharge lamps have they been on for > 20 minutes before measurement? For fluorescent lamps have they been on for > 4 hours before measurement? Is the light meter calibrated and does it have adequate accuracy of measurement? Are the measurements being made at the correct height and orientation? Are the measurement points correctly positioned? Interior Is the space empty or furnished and was the scheme calculation for the same condition? Are the surface reflection factors the same as used in the scheme calculation? Is the ambient temperature different to that expected and is this affecting the running temperature of the lamps? Has the protective film been removed from luminaire component such as louvres and diffusers Outdoor Has the electrical supply cable been correctly sized? Is the voltage and current supplied to the lamp correct? Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No 232 | Lamps. voltage surges or dips.

LEDs and Circuits High intensity discharge luminaire fails to operate correctly Symptom Possible cause Test and remedy Test lamp in a working luminaire and replace if necessary Check that the lamp is properly seated in the lamp holder(s). Check lamp is orientated according to manufacturers recommendations Check ballast operating temperature. Check any fuses and ensure cabling is correctly sized Check for voltage at lamp holder Check that the circuit is wired in accordance with manufacturers installation instructions For circuits incorporating an ignitor substitute a new ignitor Lamp could have developed a high striking characteristic towards the end of life. Check that there is no fault on the ballast. Check that the power factor capacitor is connected correctly Check that the lamp is properly seated in the lamp holder(s). Check that voltage is correct.Lamps. Check ballast for signs of overheating and damage to windings. LEDs and Circuits | 233 . For high voltage lamps with non-screw thread connection check lamp holders are in sound condition. Ballast may incorporate a thermal cut-out Lamp does not light but Faulty lamp is visibly intact Faulty lamp holder Supply interruption Open circuit in wiring or ballast Circuit misconnection Ignitor fault End of lamp life Insufficient re-strike time Poor light output End of lamp life Outer of lamp or luminaire dirty Low supply voltage Outer of lamp broken or cracked Explosion Outer of lamp broken or cracked Thermal shock Mechanical damage/transit damage Light output unstable /fluctuating End of lamp life Low supply voltage Circuit misconnection Lamp holder contact Light output unstable /fluctuating Supply voltage dip Lamp orientation Lamp extinguishing Temperature Lamps. Check for any signs of arcing. Lamp holders with pitting or corrosion must be replaced Lamp extinction could be associated with sudden dips in supply voltage. Check that the lamp has not completed a full life Some high intensity discharge lamps require a cooling period before they will re-ignite Test lamp in a working luminaire and relate to lamp usage Clean and try again Test voltage applied to luminaire/circuit. Check that the circuit is wired correctly and suitably tapped. Lamp holders with pitting or corrosion must be replaced Check for voltage at circuit input terminals. For high voltage lamps with non-screw thread connection check lamp holders are in sound condition. possibly caused by switching of heavy loads Some lamps are sensitive to burning position. Check that the ballast is correctly rated and tapped. For parallel ballast circuits check both ballasts are operating correctly Look for obvious signs of misuse/overload on the lamp. If in doubt replace ballast and test for impedance before reusing the luminaire Check for any internal moisture due to luminaire seals failing Lamps that have incurred damage during transit may operate for a period of time before failing due to a weakened construction. Damage and deterioration of inner lamp components should be visible after a short period of running if the outer envelope is faulty Test lamp in a working luminaire and relate to lamp usage Check voltage applied to the luminaire Check that the circuit is wired correctly and suitably tapped.

234 | Lamps. If satisfactory test starter associated wiring (non-electronic switch socket and associated wiring control gear) Faulty tube (end of life) Test tube in working luminaire. LEDs and Circuits . increased flicker and reddish glow from cathodes Test voltage at terminal block of luminaire. If low check external wiring for excessive voltage drop Test starter switch on working luminaire Screen open type luminaires Check that the correct lamp holders are connected to each tube Check installation of luminaire to manufacturers recommendations Check supply voltage Replace ballast Low voltage Faulty starter (non-electronic control gear) Low temperature Crossed leads in twin lamp luminaires Ballast overheats Lack of ventilation Supply volts high Fault in ballast It should be noted that some types of electronic control gear will detect fault conditions and prevent any attempt to start the lamp.Lamps. If the lamp fails to start the lamp. NOTE if one or more of the cathodes are broken check for faulty wiring (short circuit to earth or wrong control gear) before inserting a new tube Test for open circuit on control gear or short to earth between control gear and tube Check that the correct lamp holders are connected to each tube Test for short circuit across lamp holder lead or for short circuit to earth on wiring Test for internal short circuits on cathode of tube Open circuit Tube fails to strike – bright glow from one end of the tube Crossed leads in twin lamp luminaires Short circuit on lamp holder Short circuit on tube Tube does not attempt to strike – bright glow from both ends of the tube Tube flashes on and off – fails to maintain discharge Short circuit on starter switch or Test starter switch in working luminaire. LEDs and Circuits Fluorescent tube luminaire fails to operate correctly Symptom Tube does not attempt to strike – no end glow from tube Possible cause Fuse blown Faulty starter (non-electronic control gear) Faulty tube Test and remedy Check for voltage at circuit input terminals Insert starter switch in working luminaire Insert tube into working luminaire. ballast or wiring could be faulty and should be checked. At end of life other symptoms are reduced light output.

EMC and Ballast Efficiency conformity. Some of the directives appropriate to general lighting products are the Low Voltage Directive (LVD). Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EMC) The ElectroMagnetic Compatibility directive requires that the product are designed and operate so that they meet limits of electrical and magnetic interference by emission and conduction with other electrical devices. Also requires that adequate capacity is built in for immunity (rejection) to interference imposed by other electrical devices upon the lighting product. CE marking is compulsory to indicate LVD. This places responsibility for managing waste on the producer. Low Voltage Directive (LVD) Low Voltage directive for selling safe products. but directives that follow Article 95 apply equally and unaltered to all member states.1 Directives Directives are European laws that apply to all EU member states.0 Standards and Directives 10. CE Marking The CE mark signifies that a product conforms to the requirements of relevant EEC directives. the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive and the Energy Efficiency (Ballasts for Fluorescent Lighting) Directive. The prime purpose of the mark is to assist customs and market inspectors in facilitating the free trading and movement of products within the EEC. reseller (in cases of re-branded product) or importer of the product. This demands that products are designed.10. Directives that follow Article 175 permit member states some local variation. manufactured and tested to give proof of electrical safety. Conformity can be verified by the appropriate IEC standard. WEEE Directive Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is an Article 175 directive and defines requirements and responsibilities for the management of waste lighting equipment within the European Union. To fulfil these obligations many lighting companies have registered with third party recycling companies who then take on the Standards and Directives | 235 . Conformity to EN 60598 guarantees compliance.

etc. Therefore when purchasing lighting products it is important to ascertain how these products will be managed at their end of life. batteries. This will be performed within the overall waste management process). lead in the glass of fluorescent tubes and nickel cadmium in batteries for emergency lighting products. EPB 236 | Standards and Directives . and products purchased within the European Union must conform to these restrictions. Irrespective of the method of waste management. This is displayed using a label with energy details. (Note that when removing complete light fittings it is generally not necessary to separate out lamps. However these exempted items are still required to be correctly disposed of. EELP Energy Efficiency Labelling of Product directive This requires that manufacturers add an energy class label to relevant products (fluorescent lamp and ballast) Energy Performance of Buildings directive This requires that an estimate of the energy requirements of a building and its services is made. RoHS Directive Directive 2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment is and article 95 directive. However certain exemptions exist including mercury in lamps. and when removing exempted items it must be ensured that they are handled separately and the appropriate company is contacted to remove the product. If a company has not done this then they are themselves responsible for the recovery and handling of their waste products. Other Directives Other important European energy efficiency directives are. This applies both for existing buildings and new buildings which must pass design criteria during the planning permission process for approval to build. and when removing lighting units it must be ensured that they are handled separately and the appropriate company is contacted to remove the product. Therefore when purchasing exempted items it is important to ascertain how these items will be managed at their end of life.Standards and directives responsibility of handling the electrical waste. lighting products should be marked with the symbol shown to indicate that it may not be disposed of as unsorted waste.

Manufacturers must practice ecodesign.2 Standards A variety of documents exist to ensure a product conforms to relevant directives and safety requirements. and to minimise environmental impacts of products across the whole of their life cycle.1.Standards and directives EuP Ecodesign of Energy-using Products directive The aim of this directive is to reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy. give instruction on correct and efficient product use and limit power consumption including that by stand-by devices 10. Subject Luminaires – General requirements and tests Luminaires – General types Luminaires – Recessed Luminaires – Street lighting Luminaires – Floodlights Luminaires – with transformers Luminaires – Air handling Luminaires – Emergency Luminaires Track systems Photometric Measurements Photometry and data transfer Photometry for workplace luminaires Photometry for emergency luminaires EMC Emissions-Lighting EMC Immunity-Lighting Quality Systems Emergency Lighting Electronic transformers for lamps Safety Electronic transformers for lamps Performance Safety isolating transformers Lighting Columns EN 60742 EN 40 IEC 742 EN 61047 IEC 61047 EN 10302-1: 2004 EN 10302-2: 2004 EN 13032-3: 2007 EN 55015 EN 61547 EN ISO 9000 EN 1838 EN 61347-2-2 IEC 61347-2-2 CISPR 15 IEC 61547 ISO 9000 European Standard EN 60598-1 EN 60598 2-1 EN 60598 2-2 EN 60598 2-3 EN 60598 2-5 EN 60598-2-6 EN 60598 2-19 EN 60598 2-22 EN 60570 IEC 60598-2-1 IEC 60598-2-2 IEC 60598-2-3 IEC 60598-2-5 IEC 60598-2-6 IEC 60598-2-19 IEC 60598-2-22 IEC 60570 CIE 24/CIE 27 International Standard Standards and Directives | 237 . Some of the relevant standards are listed in Table 10.

2 CIE 99 CIE 117 CIE 150 CIE 154 Table 10. EN40 When designing an exterior lighting installation it must be ensured that the lighting columns are not only strong enough to support the weight of the equipment attached to them but are also strong enough to withstand the more significant loading effect from wind pressure against the project area of the complete structure. such as BSI. in the same way as a national approval mark.1 Selection of relevant standards CIE S 020/E:2007 CIE S 015/E:2005 ENEC Marking For luminaires and lighting components. because it indicates that the product is suitable for use throughout Europe and that all of the most onerous special national conditions of test standards have been complied with.Standards and directives Application Lighting of workplaces – indoor workplaces Lighting of workplaces – outdoor workplaces Light and lighting – Sports lighting Emergency lighting Emergency lighting – testing and inspection Road lighting practice Energy performance of buildings. VDE or SEMKO. ENEC is important however. the distance from the coastline and the degree of shelter provided by local obstructions and features as all of these 12 238 | Standards and Directives . The ENEC mark may be awarded by any one of the recognised European approval authorities. European harmonisation of national approval marks has been achieved through introduction of the ENEC mark. In Europe document EN40 is used to check suitability. allowing the structure to be verified against statistical data for a geographical area and thereby ensuring that the column can withstand the wind conditions. The calculation process takes into account variables such as the height of the site above local ground level. lighting Radiation exposure limits Maintenance of indoor electric lighting Lighting education Discomfort glare in interior lighting UGR Obtrusive light Maintenance of outdoor electric lighting EN 12464-1: 2003 EN 12464-2: 2007 EN 12193:1999 EN 1838 EN 50172: 2004 EN 13201-1/4: 2004 EN 15193: 2007 EN 14255 CIE 97. the height above sea level.

50V ac rms). environmental conditions and usage it will encounter. Some safety consideration and markings are given below. Quality Standard Marks (Kite Marks) A third party approval is an independent endorsement that product design is in accordance with published standards. 10. but applies to the complete system. and that controls to maintain quality in manufacture are applied.3 Quality and safety marks It is important that a product is suitable for the method of installation. Class III Here protection against electric shock relies on supply at Safety Extra . It must be emphasised that the calculation process is for the complete system.Standards and directives cause variations in the wind pressure at the location. including the column and all equipment attached to it (luminaires. Many products carry European Test House approvals such as those shown. This can assist wider market acceptance in Europe. Earthing protects exposed metal parts that could become live in the event of basic insulation failure. Class II Luminaires in this class are designed and constructed so that protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only. No provision for earthing is provided. brackets. It should also be noted that a CE mark cannot be applied to a column in isolation. Electrical safety classification Class I Luminaires in this class are electrically insulated and provided with a connection to earth.) so a column cannot be certified in isolation. This can be achieved by means of reinforced or double insulation. Standards and Directives | 239 .Low Voltage (SELV) and in which voltages higher than those of SELV are not generated (max. etc.

F mark (Thermal Insulation Covering) Recessed luminaires suitable for covering in the ceiling void with thermal insulating material (without causing overheating to the luminaire) are marked with this variation of the F mark symbol. 240 | Standards and Directives . (no dust deposit around live parts) Dust tight (no dust entry) Second digit of code denotes protection against moisture IPX0 IPX1 IPX2 IPX3 IPX4 IPX5 IPX6 IPX7 IPX8 No special protection Protection against drops of condensed water Drip-proof (vertical falling drops of liquid) Rain-proof (rain up to angles of 60°) Splash proof (spray from any angle) Water jet Heavy downpours Temporary immersion Submersion to declared depth Table 10. First digit of code denotes protection against dust and solid objects IP2X IP3X IP4X IP5X IP6X No entry of standard test finger to live parts No entry of 2.Standards and directives F mark F mark (mounting surface) Luminaires suitable for mounting on normally combustible surfaces (ignition temperature at least 200°C) are marked with the ‘F’ symbol.3. Equipment for use in these environments is classified according to the expected conditions using the ATEX group category. Ingress Protection The ingress protection (IP) code denotes the protection against dust.2 IP Code ATEX classification The IP rating is not sufficient as a safety criterion in areas with particularly hazardous or explosive atmospheres.5mm ø probe to live parts No entry of 1mm ø probe to live parts Dust proof. If no code is marked the luminaire is deemed to be IP20. solid objects and moisture provided by the luminaire enclosure. as shown in Table 10.

750°/850°/950° hot wire Abbreviation for compliance with glow wire test for plastic parts tested at the stated temperature.7j 1. Table 10.Standards and directives ATEX category 1 2 3 Equivalent zonal classification Zone 0 (gas) Zone 20 (dust) Zone 1 (gas) Zone 21 (dust Zone2 (gas) Zone 22 (dust) Level of protection provided Very high High Normal Environmental conditions for use An explosive atmosphere of gas/vapour/haze/dust is continuously present or present for long periods (> 1000 hours/year) An explosive atmosphere of gas/vapour/haze/dust is likely to be present (between 10 and 1000 hours/year) An explosive atmosphere of gas/vapour/haze/dust is unlikely to occur or could occur for a short period (< 10 hours/year) Table 10.5j IK05 IK06 0.0j IK09 10.23j IK03 0. as they also enclose electrical circuits.15j IK02 0.4 compares both ratings: IK rating Joules of energy IK01 0. Impact Resistance The use of Joules (Newton metres .0j IK07 2.35j IK04 0.0j IK10 20.Nm) has been common for many years. More recently an IK rating normally used for electrical enclosures and cabinets (EN50102:1995) has emerged as manufacturers apply it to their luminaires.4 Comparison of impact resistance ratings Standards and Directives | 241 .0j IK08 5. No ta mark indicates suitable for use in maximum 25°C ambient.3 ATEX classifications Ta classification Denotes the maximum ambient temperature in which the luminaire is suitable for use. 0j Table 10.

Different materials have differing tolerances to chemical agents and all materials used in the luminaire need to be considered. the duration and frequency of exposure and environmental conditions.Standards and directives 10.4 Product/corrosion compatibility guide When designing an installation in an area that is potentially harmful due to concentrations of chemicals in the atmosphere care must be taken to ensure that the materials used in the construction of the luminaire are suitable for the environment it is being used in. Occasional exposure to low concentrations of potential aggressors is unlikely to be harmful to any of these luminaires. Table 10. The risk of damage to the luminaires is dependent on the concentration of the aggressor. If there is any doubt about the suitability of a luminaire for a particular application please enquire with details of the chemicals that will be present and the conditions of use. This information is provided to give guidance about luminaire selection assuming prolonged exposure to potentially aggressive chemicals or atmospheres.5 gives information on six luminaires suitable for use in chemically hazardous areas. 242 | Standards and Directives .

beverages Gases acetic <30% nitric <10% sulphuric <20% hydrochloric <10% chromic <20% phosphoric <40% marine salts copper sulphate sodium chloride ethanol <30% propanol<30% methane propane formaldehyde/ formalin formic acid<5% stearic acid soap urea ethylene glycol (antifreeze) glucose sugar glycerol/glycerine milk fruit juices vegetable oils (cold) vegetable oils (hot) meats. lamb. beef. lemonade wines & spirits water <60°C vinegar ozone sulphur dioxide industrial pollutant Standards and Directives | 243 . game. poultry fish pork fat cooking fats (cold) cooking fats (hot) alcoholic beverages beer carbonated beverages. cooking products drinks. pork.Standards and directives Chemical Type Chemicals Specific ImpactForce CorrosionForce ColdForce HeatForce StormForce StormForce GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PMMA diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PMMA diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Acids Salts Organics (Aliphatics) (aromatics) Foodstuffs.

fats mineral oils fuels animal fats (cold) but not pork silicone oil diesel kerosene/paraffin oil petroleum spirit/ petroleum ether Disinfectants.Standards and directives Chemical Type Chemicals Specific ImpactForce CorrosionForce ColdForce HeatForce StormForce StormForce GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Building materials.5 Product/corrosion compatibility guide for Thorn X-Force range A selection of the most common chemicals that are used in applications the X-Force would come into contact with. hydrogen peroxide cleaning <40% agents sodium hypochlorite <10% soaps wetting agents/ biocides (dilute) Y GRP body PMMA diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y GRP body PMMA diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Table 10. The tabled information is valid under the following conditions: • The chemical substance listed in the table is an element and not part of a chemical compound • The ambient temperature is 22°C 244 | Standards and Directives . paints emulsion paints water based oil based paint white spirit/turps substitute cement Oils.

1 Tools Thorn Product Explorer The Thorn Product Explorer is available on DVD. Tools | 245 . Rather like using a barometer to judge the weather this measure looks at the lighting from a human dimension that will benefit the owner and occupier alike. It is integrated within the Thorn Product Explorer and an on-line version is being produced for use over the Internet. Copies of the Product Explorer may be obtained from your local Thorn representative or downloaded from your local Thorn web-site as shown on the back of the handbook. For each product information may be downloaded. Additional links with Dialux and Relux allow “drag and drop” functionality into these popular design tools. Thorn CRF Indicator This simple to use do-it-yourself tool can indicate how effectively the lighting scheme in an office or lecture room minimises unwanted shiny reflections that reduces the contrast of printed or written visual tasks. The higher the contrast the better you see. Thorn Electronic Catalogue The Thorn Electronic Catalogue allows you to browse the complete Thorn product portfolio on-line over the internet.11 Tools 11. and can be used as a data plug-in for the programs DIALux and Relux Professional to allow lighting calculations to be performed using Thorn data within these popular design tools. from installation sheets to photometric data. It features an electronic catalogue with an intuitive user interface including powerful search functions. Thorn CalcExpress Thorn CalcExpress is a one-click interior design facility that allows quick design of lighting installations for simple rectangular spaces.

They are increasingly popular in today’s cost-sensitive market because they are quick and easy to assemble. etc.Tools ThornQE ThornQE is a software tool for Quick and Easy design of interior. It produces a bill of materials for Primata II installations and automatically includes ancillary equipment such as couplers.dwg format. DIALux DIALux is an independent and manufacturer-neutral third party software available free of charge. The Primata II configurator allows definition of Primata II products required in an installation. This software enables product selection. vrml. It is available in many languages. grommets.de/ Relux The Relux Professional calculation and light design program is an independent and manufacturer-neutral third party software available free of charge. It is available in 26 languages (at present). http://www. area and road lighting schemes using Thorn products for standard design criteria. As well as allowing calculation of lighting design parameters it also allows import and export to and from CAD programmes in .biz/ 246 | Tools . As well as allowing calculation of lighting design parameters it also allows the import of 2D and 3D objects in dxf. photo realistic visualization and creation of photo realistic films to help present a design http://www. Thorn Primata Configurator Pre-wired trunking systems save time and money.dxf and .dial.relux. end-caps. and simple to install without special tools Primata II is a pre-wired continuous row system with a comprehensive selection of fluorescent luminaires and various optics. Reports may be customised with specific company details. lighting design and reporting of results to be performed from one simple process. 3ds and wmf format and has several add-on tools to extend the functionality of the program.

Tools Lighting Reality Lighting Reality is an independent and manufacturer neutral exterior calculation and lighting design program. with or without daylight. AGI32 uses the IESNA photometric file format and files in this format may be extracted from the Thorn Product Explorer or on-line using the Thorn electronic catalogue. EN and IESNA criteria. AGI32 incorporates an integrated model builder capable of constructing almost any architectural environment and 3D CAD geometry may be imported via the DXF and DWG file formats. Tools | 247 . It contains data from many manufacturers including Thorn Lighting and allows designs to be produced conforming to BS. AGI32 AGI32 is a comprehensive lighting calculation and rendering software for both interior and exterior schemes.

the control gear can take the form of ballasts. Designed either as surface-mounted or pendant units. Depending on the type of lamp involved. Countries that ratified the Kyoto agreement have committed to reduce their emissions. intermediate.g. Measured by the colour rendering index (Ra). cool and cold. Colour Rendering The ability of a light source to reveal the colours of an object. Carbon dioxide (CO2) An important greenhouse gas. The higher the number the better. up to a maximum of 100. ignitors or transformers. Colour Appearance The colour emitted by a near-white light source can be indicated by its correlated colour temperature (CCT). 248 | Glossary .12 Glossary Ballast Ballasts are electrical devices used with fluorescent or high intensity discharge (HID) lamps to supply sufficient voltage to start and operate the lamp but then to limit the current during operation. It is determined by the spectral power distribution or spectrum of the light source. Batten and trunking systems These are generally fitted with fluorescent lamps and are primarily used in commercial and industrial environments. Each lamp type has a specific correlated colour temperature measured in degrees Kelvin e. the amount of CO2 being dependant upon the fuel used for the production of electricity. Lighting designers have the power to hold down CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. They can be either magnetic or electronic. 3000K and are described as warm. Control gear Most artificial light sources other than incandescent lamps require special control gear to start the lamp and control the current after starting. Suitable housings ensure that the light is directed as required and that glare is kept to a minimum. they are generally simple to install and can be used singly or as strip lighting.

Luminaire efficacy is often expressed by dividing the initial lamp lumens by the combined lamp and control gear power. These are closed luminaires for humid. Columns Poles for mounting roadlighting lanterns or floodlights. seen simultaneously or successively. Downlight Ceiling luminaire that concentrates the light in a downward direction.Glossary Diffusers and moisture-proof fittings Luminaires of a higher protection class. wet. Digital Serial Interface (DSI) A lighting control protocol created by the Zumtobel Group. but may also be surface-mounted. chemically aggressive or dusty environments where the requirements for glare control are generally rudimentary. Emergency lighting Lighting provided for use when the mains supply for the general lighting fails for whatever reason. Also known as “masts” and “towers”. for applications where the addressing feature of DALI is not required. Glossary | 249 . Downlights are generally round or square and recessed into the ceiling. Digital Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) A lighting control protocol set out in the technical standard IEC 929 Efficacy Measured in lumens per Watt (lm/W) and a useful parameter for assessing how much light is available from the lamp for each Watt of power. Contrast Subjective experience of comparative brightness between points or areas of luminance. They may feature an open reflector and/or a shielding device. Contrast Rendering Factor (CRF) A measure of the degradation of contrast that is caused by veiling reflections (bright reflections in the task).

Illuminance (lx) The amount of light falling on an area divided by that area measured in lx. these are for use when mounting heights of around 8-10m or above are encountered. They may also be used with high intensity discharge lamps.000 lx. When the ability to see is impaired this is called disability glare. combined with safe reliable operation.000 lx. HF electronic gear operates fluorescent tube(s) at high frequency (typically at 30-60 kHz) instead of the mains frequency of 50 Hz offering benefits of higher quality lighting. Ignitor Ignitors are required for lamps that cannot be started using the normal line voltage alone. High frequency electronic control gear (HF) Most artificial light sources other than incandescent lamps require special control gear to start the lamp and control the current after starting. In summer. Generally. 250 | Glossary . The effect may vary from mild discomfort to an actual impairment of the ability to see. provided by the luminaire enclosure. High bay As the term implies. This is the case with high-pressure discharge lamps such as metal halide lamps and high-pressure sodium vapour lamps. 500 lx is needed for office work. the sun shines on the ground with 120. wall or secondary optic. Dimmable versions available. and a full moon produces 3 lx. whereas a watchmaker requires 4. reduced running costs and ease of use. Ingress protection (IP) Denotes the protection against entry of dust/solid objects and moisture/water. it refers to the discomfort or distraction caused by bright windows or luminaires.Glossary Glare Glare is the result of excessive contrasts of luminance in the field of view. Indirect Lighting System of illumination where the light from lamps and luminaires is first reflected from a ceiling. Discomfort glare is associated more with interiors.

LED light engines can generate any colour by mixing the individual spectral Lighting control system Lighting control systems are used to actively change the lighting situation. when an electric current passes through it. the spectral composition of the radiation emitted. their geometry.Glossary Lamp Lamps are artificial sources of light. it also allows it to be monitored. LEDs are energy saving and have a long service life. their luminance and their beam characteristics. The quick method of calculation being: LENI = W/A W is the total annual energy used for lighting {kWh/year} A is the total useful floor area of the building {m²} Lighting management Lighting management covers the entire concept of a controlled or regulated lighting system including emergency lighting and its use. their power consumption. Glossary | 251 . EN 15193 as the measure for the annual lighting energy requirement for the building per square metre. Such changes can take place automatically or as a result of intervention by a user. Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator (LENI) Defined in the European standard for assessing the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD). thus facilitating maintenance. usually coloured. distinguished by the way they generate light. their luminous efficiency. LED/light-emitting diode An LED or light-emitting diode is a small semiconductor device which emits light. it can be controlled by presence sensors to switch on or off depending whether people are in the room or can also progress through a sequence of changing scenarios. Lighting can automatically respond to the level of daylight. their light output or luminous flx. There are many types. As well as permitting efficient. user-focused operation of the lighting system. Lighting control systems often include operating equipment.

Lux (lx) The unit of illuminance. The unit is cd/m². under stated conditions. Luminaires for road lighting are often known as lanterns. 252 | Glossary . Luminance (cd/m2) The measured brightness of a surface. A complete lighting unit that controls the distribution of light given by a lamp(s). Luminaire-lumens per circuit watt Is the luminaire efficiency factor given by LOR x (total bare lamp flx in the luminaire/circuit Watts). When a ray of light hits a solid surface. Low bay Luminaires housing high intensity discharge lamps mounted horizontally at low heights 4-8m. structures or spaces. Optic The reflector and/or refractor system that directs the light emission from the lamp in the luminaire into required directions. Modelling The use of light to bring out the form of three-dimensional objects. the process is known as illumination. sporting and public concourses. typically in industrial. Lumen (lm) The unit of luminous flx or the rate of flow of light from a source or received by a surface. Luminaire Modern term for “light fitting” or “fixture”. equal to one lumen per square metre. Luminous intensity (candelas) The amount of light that a small light source at the tip of a cone emits through a narrow cone in a given direction.Glossary Light Output Ratio (LOR) The ratio of the total light output of the luminaire to the output of the lamp(s). Includes components for fixing and protecting the lamp(s) and for connecting them to the supply circuit.

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