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bypatient.Objective: • Facial maskof pain. • Guardingbehavior. • Reboundtenderness. • V/S taken asfollows:T: 37.3P: 80R: 18Bp: 110/90 • Acute painrelated toinflammationof tissues. • Appendicitis isinflammation ofthe vermiformappendixcaused by anobstructionattributable toinfection,stricture, fecalmass, foreignbody or tumor.Appendicitiscan affecteither genderat any age, butis mostcommon inmales ages 10to 30.Appendicitis isthe mostcommondiseaserequiringsurgery. If leftuntreated,appendicitismay progressto abscess,perforation,subsequentperitonitis, anddeath. • After 4 hoursof nursinginterventions, the patientwilldemonstrateuse ofrelaxationskills, othermethods topromotecomfort. Independent: • Investigate painreports, notinglocation, duration,intensity (0-10scale), andcharacteristics(dull, sharp,constant). • Maintain semi-fowler’s position. • Move patientslowly anddeliberately. • Provide comfortmeasure likeback rubs, deepbreathing.Instruct inrelaxation orvisualizationexercises.Providediversionalactivities. • Provide frequentoral care.Remove noxiousenvironmentalstimuli. • Changes inlocation orintensity are notuncommon butmay reflectdevelopingcomplications. • Reducesabdominaldistention,therebyreducestension. • Reducesmuscle tensionor guarding,which may helpminimize painof movement. • Promotesrelaxation andmay enhancepatient’s copingabilities byrefocusingattention. • Reducesnausea andvomiting, whichcan increaseintra-abdominalpressure or • After 4hours ofnursinginterventions, thepatient wasable todemonstrateuse ofrelaxationskills, othermethods topromotecomfort. Collaborative: • Administeranalgesics asprescribed.pain. • Reducemetabolic rateand aids in painrelief andpromoteshealing.
even as late as 1912. immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy have been subject to extensive research and improvement.4 In the next section I look in more detail at the epidemiology of lung cancer. Despite this. In the first section I look at normal lung anatomy and physiology. 3 By the 1970s lung cancer had become the biggest killing cancer. In America we are increasingly seeing litigation cases . In lung cancer the normal process is interrupted. In the next section I examine the options for prevention and the work ongoing in this area. other environmental factors and genetic influences. There have been many attempts to find a cure for lung cancer. increased taxation and anti-smoking campaigns are being used to prevent uptake of smoking. radiotherapy. Moving towards the medical aspects of lung cancer I look first at the clinical features and then what investigations are used in the diagnosis of lung cancer.2 The next section covers the aetiology of lung cancer and looks at the role of smoking. laser therapy. little progress has been made in the treatment of lung cancer. In the UK the various types of lung cancer are the highest cancer killers in Men and second highest in Women.5 The section on Management covers the options for treatment including surgery. smoking was heavily promoted and by 1950 the top five US brands sold over 300 billion cigarettes with 44-47% of all adult Americans smoking. over 80% of lung cancers are attributable to smoking. with increasing numbers of children aged 1115 smoking. therapies such as surgery. I next look at the process of tumour formation and metastasis and the classification of different types of lung cancer. Adler could find only 374 cases. radiotherapy. with little increase in survival rates after diagnosis. We are increasingly looking at ways to stop the needless suffering caused by smoking and lung cancer.Introduction This dissertation looks at the different cancers arising from the cells in the tissue of the lungs. Smoking is the single biggest cause of preventable illness and premature death in the UK.1 Smoking causes lung cancer. Staging of lung cancer is important when assessing treatment options and a brief account of the staging classifications used in lung cancer is covered in the next section. but still rising in women.3 Today the rate of lung cancer in the UK is falling in Men. Lung cancer was extremely rare in the nineteenth century. chemotherapy. In the late nineteenth century tobacco companies developed machines to mass produce cigarettes and made smoking accessible to the masses. After looking at the ways we can diagnose lung cancer I examine how these could be applied in screening programs. Nicotine in Cigarette smoke is highly addictive and help is needed by people wishing to quit smoking. Understanding the effect that lung cancer has on a patient and their families is very important in helping to care for these people. The increase in lung cancer coincides with the advent of smoking as a mass habit. chemotherapy and palliative care. There is an increasing amount of advice and support material available to help these people. Banning tobacco advertising. In this section I look at the effect on the patient and family and look at two suggested models for coping with diagnosis of this illness.
5 I find it hard to believe that what is essentially a preventable illness. into other parts of the body. NSCLC is sometimes treated with surgery. the stage (degree of spread). are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells. and radiotherapy. Most cancers that start in lung. The main types of lung cancer are small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). whereas SCLC usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Lung cancer is also the most preventable cancer. radon gas. Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT scan). What is Lung Cancer? Cancer that forms in tissues of the lung. known as primary lung cancers. The diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy. this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue and. and these cases are often attributed to a combination of genetic factors. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women. . as of 2004. Worldwide. and these treatments are generally better at getting to cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body. Nonsmokers account for 15% of lung cancer cases. eventually. suffering and deaths is still so prevalent. Common treatments include surgery. This is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy. Estimated new cases and deaths from lung cancer (non-small cell and small cell combined) in the United States in 2008: Lung cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope. measured by performance status. and causes such a great deal of pain. and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). chemotherapy. and the patient's general wellbeing. asbestos. usually in the cells lining air passages. since most cases are related to tobacco use. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. Treatment and prognosis depend on the histological type of cancer. and air pollution including secondhand smoke. and is responsible for 1. lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women. and weight loss.3 million deaths annually. This is partly because SCLC often spreads quite early. Mississippi and Florida in attempts to recover healthcare costs for smokers under the ‘Medicaid’ schemes. If left untreated. coughing (including coughing up blood). The most common symptoms are shortness of breath.brought against tobacco companies by American States including Texas. The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. also called oat cell cancer.
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