Está en la página 1de 104

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA 1.1.C s mng truy nhp v tuyn WCDMA 1.1.1.Tng quan 3G 1.1.1.1.Lch s: - Th h th nht l mng thng tin di ng s dng k thut in t tng t, n ra i vo nhng nm 1970 n na u nhng nm 1980. im quan trng nht trong thi k ny l c s ca mng in thoi t bo c nghin cu ti phng th nghim Bell. H thng mng di ng t bo l c s ca vic ti s dng tn s v v vy n m rng nng lc cho h thng. V d nh cc h thng AMPS, NMT, - Tuy nhin nhc im ca chng l: cha khai thc hiu qu ph tn s, s lng dch v cn hn ch, khng c dch v d liu tc cao, tnh bo mt khng cao, chi ph s dng dch v rt cao - gii quyt nhng nhc im th h thng thng tin di ng s ra i vo nhng nm 1980 c gi l thng tin di ng th h 2 n bao gm cc h thng GSM v IS-95 - T khi h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 ra i n p ng c vic truyn thng tin thoi v dch v s liu tc thp. H thng 2,5G ra i nm 1996 p ng nhu cu truyn d liu vi tc trung bnh cc h thng 2,5G l GPRS v IS-95B - Cng vi vic pht trin mng li, dch v d liu truyn thng a phng tin l bng chng cho s pht trin mau l, v th yu cu mt h thng thng tin di ng mi p ng nhu cu truyn thng a phng tin ca ngi dng do h thng thng tin di ng th h 3 ra i - H thng thng tin di ng th h 3 l mt h thng truyn thng cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v a phng tin cht lng cao, n l phng tin ni lin cc vng a l trn th gii. Chng tng thch vi mng c nh v c th l mt loi phng tin truyn thng mi lc mi ni bng vic s dng mt thit b cm tay nh gn 1.1.1.2.Tin trnh pht trin ca cc h thng thng tin di ng

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

Hnh 1.0.1.Tin trnh pht trin ca cc th h thng tin di ng - S xut 3G: +IMT2000 l tn gi ph bin ca h thng thng tin di ng th h 3 +3G l xut u tin c a ra vo nm 1985 v c sa tn thnh IMT-2000 vo nm 1996. N c thng mi ha vo khong nm 2000, bng tn lm vic nm trong khong 2000Mhz, tc cao nht ca dch v ln ti 2000kbps +3GPP l t chc pht trin k thut c bn v chi tit cho h thng 3G da trn giao din v tuyn UTRA v trn mng li GSM nng cao +3GPP2 l mt lnh vc khc ca t chc tiu chun 3G. N xc tin pht trin h thng CDMA 2000.Tm li 3GPP nh ra mt giao din v tuyn mi, hon ho khng ph thuc vo bt c cng ngh no trong qu kh nhng ngc li 3GPP2 nh ra mt h thng tng thch vi h thng IS-95 1.1.1.3.Ph tn cp cho 3G Theo chun IMT-2000 th Tn s ng ln ca 3G nm trong di 1885-2025 Mhz Tn s ng xung ca 3G nm trong di 2110-2200 Mhz Nhng trong di tn: 1980-2010 c s dng ti ng ln trong di ng v tinh 2170-2200 c s dng ti ng xung trong di ng v tinh 1.1.1.4.Cc bng tn c s dng trong WCDMA - Bng tn chnh l: 1920-1980Mhz / 2110-2170Mhz - Cc bng tn b sung: cc quc gia khc nhau th bng tn ny c th khc nhau

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

1850-1910Mhz / 1930-1990Mhz ti M 1710-1785Mhz / 1805-1880 ti Nht 890-915Mhz / 935-960Mhz ti c S knh tn s c tnh = tn s trung tm x 5 Vi bng tn chnh: s knh tn s ng ln l : 9612~9888 S knh tn s ng xung l 10652~10838 - H thng WCDMA s dng tn s ng ln: 1920-1980Mhz ng xung: 2110-2170Mhz Mi sng mang c rng ph tn l 5Mhz v khong cch song cng l 190Mhz Ti chu M tn s s dng cho 3G l 1850-1910Mhz / 1930-1990Mhz vi khong cch song cng l 80Mhz 1.1.1.5.Cc dch v trong 3G Tng thch vi nhng dch v v ng dng ca 2G, h thng 3G cung cp cc dch v tch hp m. c tnh ca cc dch v trong 3G l: tng thch vi nhng dch v c cung cp bi GSM, dch v thi gian thc yu cu QoS, hnh thnh cc khi nim dch v a phng tin nh o to t xa, truyn hnh tng tc 1.1.1.6.Cng ngh ct li ca 3G

Hnh 1.0.2.Cc cng ngh ct li ca 3G

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

- Theo quan im ca t chc 3GPP chu u, mng li ca 3G c tin ha da trn nn tng GSM/GPRS v vy n tng thch vi mng GSM/GPRS ang tn ti. N c th da trn cc cng ngh TDM, ATM v IP tin ln cu trc mng ton IP - H thng CDMA2000 l mt chun 3G da trn nn tng IS-95 vic chun ha n c thc hin bi t chc 3GPP2. Min chuyn mch knh c tng thch t mng 2G CDMA, min chuyn mch gi l mt mng gi da trn cng ngh mobile IP. Mng truy nhp v tuyn RAN da trn nn chuyn mch ATM n cung cp nhiu lp giao din tng thch 1.1.2.Nguyn l CDMA 1.1.2.1.Cng ngh a truy nhp

Hnh 1.0.3.Cc cng ngh a truy nhp Trong nhng h thng bit th GSM s dng cng ngh TDMA cn WCDMA, CDMA2000, SCDMA s dng cng ngh CDMA - a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s FDMA l phn chia ton b ph tn c sn thnh nhiu knh v tuyn n l (cp sng mang thu v pht). Mi knh c th truyn theo mt hng l tn hiu thoi hay thng tin iu khin. H thng thng tin tng t chnh l mt kiu kin trc FDMA. - a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian TDMA l vic phn chia sng mang v tuyn ca mt bng tn thnh cc khong thi gian, phn chia cc knh theo gii hn v thi 4

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

gian hay cn gi l cc khe thi gian. Mi ngi dng chim gi mt khe thi gian nhn v pht tn hiu trong khong thi gian danh nh ca khe thi gian. Bi vy n c gi l a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian. Cng ngh a truy nhp ny c ng dng trong h thng GSM. - CDMA l mt kiu a truy nhp s dng cng ngh iu ch, tri ph khng ging vi FDMA v TDMA 2 cng ngh ny tch bit thng tin ca ngi dng trong gii hn v thi gian v tn s.CDMA c th truyn thng tin ca nhiu ngi dng trn mt knh truyn ti cng mt thi im. iu ny c ngha l mi thng tin trc khi c pht i phi c iu ch bi nhng m tri ph khc nhau thnh tn hiu bng rng sau tt c cc tn hiu ny s c trn v gi i. Tn hiu c trn s c gii iu ch bi cc m tri ph khc nhau ti cc thi im khc nhau. V tt c cc m tri ph l trc giao, thng tin duy nht m c gii iu ch bi cng mt m tri ph so vi qu trnh pht c th c khi phc nh b trn. 1.1.2.2.Cng ngh song cng

Hnh 1.0.4.Cng ngh song cng 1.1.3.Kin trc mng WCDMA v kin trc giao thc 1.1.3.1.Kin trc mng WCDMA

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

Hnh 1.0.5.Kin trc mng WCDMA - Mng WCDMA gm mng truy nhp v tuyn RAN v mng li CN. RAN c dng x l ton b chc nng c lin quan ti phn v tuyn trong khi mng li c s dng x l ton b cuc gi thoi v kt ni d liu bn trong h thng UMTS v thc hin chc nng nh tuyn, chuyn mch vi mng ngoi - m bo tnh hp l mng li c chia thnh min chuyn mch gi PS v min chuyn mch knh CS. UTRAN, mng li CN v UE cng nhau cu thnh h thng UMTS y - Mt RNS c thit k gm 1 RNC v 1 hay vi Node B. Giao din Iu l giao din gia RNC v mng li trong khi giao din Iub l giao tip gia RNC v Node B. Bn trong UTRAN cc RNC lin kt vi nhau thng qua giao tip Iur. RNC c s dng n nh v iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn ca nhng kt ni v tuyn hay nhng yu t lin quan ti Node B. Tuy nhin Node B thc hin vic lu tr phc hi lung d liu thng qua giao din Iub v Uu v cng thi im n tham gia mt phn vo vic qun l ti nguyn v tuyn. 1.1.3.2.S pht trin ca cc phin bn WCDMA:

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

Hnh 1.0.6.Cc phin bn ca WCDMA - Trong h thng mng ca pht hnh R5 t u cui n u cui ca dch v VOIP c h tr v mng li c thm nhiu thc th chc nng mi v vy n c th lm thay i th tc cuc gi. Vi phn h a phng tin IP (IMS), mng c th s dng HSS thay th cho HLR. Trong pht hnh R5 HSDPA c h tr, n c th h tr cc dch v d liu tc cao - Trong pht hnh R6 h tr HSUPA n c th cung cp dch v ng ln vi tc 5,76Mbps v h tr dch v a qung b, a truyn thng - n pht hnh R7 HSPA+ c gii thiu n tha k cng ngh iu ch bc cao v cng ngh MIMO. Tc ti a ti ng xung l 28Mbps, ti ng ln l 11Mbps - n pht hnh R8 th WCDMA LTE c gii thiu. Cng ngh chnh lc ny l OFDMA v n thay th cng ngh CDMA. Tc ti a ng ln l 100Mbps, ng xung l 50Mbps. Vi bng thng s dng l 20Mhz 1.1.4.C bn v WCDMA 1.1.4.1.Th tc x l ca h thng WCDMA - M ha ngun lm tng hiu qu truyn dn - M ha knh lm tng tnh tin cy cho truyn dn - Tri ph nhm hn ch s nh hng ca nhiu - Trong sut qu trnh iu ch, tn hiu s s c chuyn thnh tn hiu v tuyn - Cc khi nim:

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

+bit: l n v d liu sau khi m ha ngun +K t: d liu sau qu trnh m ha knh v chn thm cc bit iu khin +chip: n v d liu sau khi tri ph

Hnh 1.0.7.Th tc x l trong WCDMA 1.1.4.2.M ha ngun trong WCDMA

Bng 1.1.Cc tc c bn ca AMR

- AMR: tng thch a tc thoi. Trong bng trn trnh by 8 tc c bn ca AMR. Tc ny c iu khin bi RAN n ph thuc vo ti v cht lng thoi yu cu

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

- Dch v thoi hnh: Chun H.324 c s dng cho thoi hnh ti min chuyn mch knh. Kiu m ha ngun cho dch v ny bao gm: m ha video, m ha ting, giao thc d liu, ghp knh, - AMR tng thch vi cc h thng thng tin di ng hin ti nh GSM, IS-95, PDC m mt s mng khc v vy d dng hn trong vic thit k thit b vi nhiu ch khc nhau - M ha AMR a ra nhng kh nng nhm phi hp m ha tng thch vi nhng iu kin ca ng truyn v tuyn - Trong qu trnh truyn thng, my thu o lng cht lng lin kt v tuyn v phi quay li pht d liu theo cht lng knh m n o c hoc ch m ha thc t ca my pht 1.1.4.3.M ha khi - CRC: - M ha khi c s dng nhm pht hin nu c bt k li no xut hin sau qu trnh sa li. M vng d CRC l mt phng php chung ca m khi. Cc bit c cng thm trc khi m ha knh v chng c kim tra ngay sau qu trnh gii m knh - Trong qu trnh truyn dn c nhiu v Fading, m bo tnh tin cy ca vic truyn tin, h thng cn phi hn ch c s nh hng ca nhiu v Fading sut knh truyn v vy vic m ha gm m ha knh v m ha khi c thm vo - M ha khi: Vic m ha thm vi bit d vo khi bit cn truyn v qu trnh gii m s dng chng pht hin v tr xut hin li. Vic s dng m khi tnh ton t l li khi BLER n dng trong vic iu khin cng sut vng ngoi - M CRC c s dng cho vic kim tra li ca khi thng tin nhn c ti pha thu. Chiu di m CRC c th chn vo khi bit c cc gi tr l: 0,8,12,16 v 24 bit, nu m CRC qu di th s lm gim kh nng pht hin li. - Mt im lu l c nhiu kiu m khi c th c s dng cho vic sa li nhng chng khng c s dng trong h thng WCDMA

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

1.1.4.4.M ha knh trong WCDMA - Tc dng: Tng s tng quan gia cc k hiu cng nh khi phc tn hiu khi xut hin nhiu. Lm cho kh nng sa li ti my thu tt hn nhng li lm tng thi gian tr - Cc loi m:

Hnh 1.0.8.Cc loi m knh trong WCDMA Ghi ch: Convolutional: m xon - Cc loi m gm: m khng c m ha, m xon 1/2, m xon 1/3, m Turbo 1/3. UTRAN tn dng s kt hp ca 2 loi m FEC l m xon v m Turbo vi tng l thm cc bit d vo lung bit cn pht i v do cc bit li xut hin khng thng xuyn s c sa ti ni nhn - u tin ta ni v m xon, m ny c s dng hn ch s nh hng ca nhiu, trong sut k thut ny m s bit d s c chn vo thng tin ngun, khi c li xut hin do nhiu, nhng bit d c th c s dng khi phc li thng tin ban u.Vic m ha cn m bo s bit d hp l ha qu trnh sa li v pht hin li m khng cn phi pht li thng tin ngun - Vic pht hin ra m Turbo em li nhiu li ch bi v n ng li l thuyt mang tnh gii hn ca Shannon. Hiu qu tt nht ca m Turbo l i vi cc dch v d

10

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

liu tc cao, nhng li khng hiu qu i vi cc dch v d liu tc thp. Ti nhng tc bit cao th m Turbo mang li hiu qu cao hn m xon - Trong h thng WCDMA th c 2 loi m xon v m Turbo u c s dng, m xon c p dng cho dch v thoi trong khi m Turbo c s dng cho dch v d liu tc cao - iu ch l c 2 loi m: m khi v m knh u c s dng trong UTRAN. tng ny thc hin bng cch t cc b gii m knh v gii m khi ti ni nhn kim tra xem thng tin nhn c c m bo tiu chun hay khng cn a n s dng cc lp cao hn 1.1.4.5.Chn bit:

Hnh 1.0.9.Chn bit - Tc dng: vic chn bit c s dng nhm gim bt xc sut cc bit li lin tip nhau. Hn na vic chn bit theo chu k c th bo v d liu tt hn nhng tr li ln hn - M ha knh c th lm tt vic chng li cc li ngu nhin nhng khng hon ton bo v c nhng cm bit d b li l c trng trong h thng thng tin v tuyn di ng c bit l vic di chuyn nhanh ca UE trong h thng CDMA c th l nguyn nhn gy ra li lin tip nu vic iu khin cng sut khng nhanh kim ch s nh hng ca nhiu. tng ln nht ca vic m ha thi hnh tt hn trn nhng li d liu ngu nhin hn trn cc li khi. Vn ny c gii quyt d dng thng qua vic chn bit, n s tri cc bit li qua chu k di hn. Bng vic chn bit,

11

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

khng c 2 bit cnh nhau c truyn gn mi bit khc v nhng li d liu xut hin l ngu nhin do xc sut xy ra li lin tip s nh i. Vic ko di chu k chn bit s bo v d liu tt hn, tuy nhin n lm tng tr truyn dn v vic cn bng 2 yu t ny phi da trn kh nng chng li v tr yu cu 1.1.4.6.Tri ph - M ha tng quan:

Hnh 1.0.10.M ha tng quan - S tng quan c s dng xc nh s ng dng ca 2 tn hiu ty , n c tnh ton bng php nhn 2 tn hiu v sau kt hp kt qu qua mt ca s thi gian c xc nh trc. Trn hnh ta thy 2 tn hiu bn trn l ng nht v th chng c h s tng quan bng 1, cn 2 tn hiu di khng tng quan v th ta hiu mt trong 2 tn hiu khng cung cp bt k thng tin no cho tn hiu kia 1.1.4.7.M ha s dng m trc giao - Ti my pht bng vic tri ph, mi k t c nhn vi tt c cc chip trong chui trc giao gn cho ngi dng. Chui kt qu c em x l v sau truyn qua knh vt l cng vi cc tn hiu tri ph khc. Trong hnh trn 4 chui m c s dng. Tch s ca cc k hiu ngi dng vi m tri ph l mt chui s m cn phi pht bng 4 ln thi gian ca chui tn hiu nh phn ban u - Ti my thu thc hin qu trnh gii tri ph bng cch s dng chui m s dng ti my pht, y ta ang xt trong trng hp khng c nhiu. Trong thc t knh

12

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

truyn khng th khng c nhiu nhng h thng CDMA tn dng k thut sa li pha trc FEC chng li nhiu v tng hiu nng cho h thng - Khi m khng xc thc c s dng gii tri ph th kt qu tng quan s di trung bnh ca mc 0. l bng chng r rang v li ch ca c tnh trc giao ca m. Cho d m khng xc thc c s dng bi ngi dng chn chnh hay nhng ngi dng khc th kt qu lun l 0 do c tnh trc giao ca m

Hnh 1.0.11.M ha s dng m trc giao

Hnh 1.0.12.Gii tri ph 1.1.4.8.Phn tch ph tn ca tn hiu tri ph v gii tri ph:

13

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

Hnh 1.0.13.Ph ca tn hiu tri ph v gii tri ph - Trong h thng thng tin v tuyn truyn thng vic truyn pht d liu s dng bng thng nh n cn c gi l tn hiu bng hp. H thng CDMA trn nhng d liu u vo vi chui tri ph nhanh v pht ti mt bng thng rng. Tn hiu tri ph c li phn ln ph thuc vo bng thng ca tn hiu tri ph. li c th c s dng tng hiu nng cho h thng hay chp nhn nhiu m ca ngi dng. Chui bit s c gi qua mt lin kt v tuyn yu cu mt bng thng nht nh qu trnh truyn v nhn thnh cng 1.1.4.9. li x l: - Ta c cng thc tnh t s Eb/No: Ec/No=Ec/No. PG Trong : Eb: nng lng bit tn hiu Ec: nng lng chip No: nng lng ph tn nhiu PG: li x l (1.1)

Hnh 1.0.14. li x l Cng thc tnh li x l: PG = 10 log Chr


br

(1.2)

14

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

Trong : Chr l tc chip, br l tc bit - li x l cc dch v khc nhau l khc nhau, cc dch v tc cao hn th li x l s nh hn. UE cn cng sut ln hn cho dch v ny do vng ph ca dch v ny s nh hn - V nhng dch v c bn, tc bit ca dch v thoi l 12,2kbps, thoi hnh l 64kbps v tc cc i ca dch v gi l 384kbps (i vi pht hnh R99). Sau qu trnh tri ph, tc chip ca cc dch v khc nhau s tr thnh 3,84Mcps 1.1.4.10.K thut tri ph

Hnh 1.0.15.k thut tri ph - Mc ch ca tri ph l tng bng thng ca tn hiu rng hn bng thng yu cu thng thng c th truyn c nhiu thng tin. Tri ph gm 2 bc sau: +Dng m nh knh chuyn i d liu k t thnh chip +Dng m xo trn tri ph tn hiu - Vic u tin l nh knh, n thc hin vic chuyn i mi s liu thnh cc chip do tng bng thng ca tn hiu. S chip trn k hiu cn c gi l h s tri ph SF. Nhng m nh knh l m trc giao - Vic th 2 l thc hin xo trn. Vic xo trn c s dng sau cng ca vic tri ph. Tuy n khng lm tng bng thng tn hiu nhng n to ra c tnh duy nht ca tn hiu phn bit vi cc tn hiu khc 1.1.4.11.M nh knh trong WCDMA - M OVSF l m trc giao c h s tri ph bin thin, n c dng nh m nh knh 15

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

Hnh 1.0.16.m nh knh OVSF - Vic nh knh s dng m OVSF nhm gi li tnh trc giao ca cc knh vt l khc nhau, ngoi ra chng cn lm tng xung ng h ln ti 3,84Mcps.OVSF c th c xc nh nh dng cy m hnh trn - M nh knh c nh ngha vi cc thng s nh C chSF,k. vi SF l h s tri ph ca m v k l di ca chui m ta c 0kSF-1. Mi mc nh ra chiu di ca m. Gi tr ln nht ca tng m tri ph l c tnh tng ng vi vic chip no c pht i sm nht - H s tri ph SF= tc chip/tc k t +Tc d liu cao th h s tri ph thp v ngc li tc d liu thp th h s tri ph cao, iu ny c th hin qua bng di:

Bng 1.2.Tc d liu v h s tri ph +H s tri ph SF ca ng ln nm trong khong t 4 n 256, ng xung nm trong khong t 4 n 512 1.1.4.12.Mc ch ca m ha knh

16

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

- M ha knh c s dng nhm phn bit cc knh vt l khc nhau ca mt my pht +i vi ng xung m ha knh c s dng phn bit cc knh vt l khc nhau ca mt cell +i vi ng ln m ha knh dng phn bit cc knh vt l khc nhau ca UE - i vi dch v thoi h s tri ph ng xung l SF=128 c ngha trung bnh mt sng mang WCDMA c th phc v ti a 128 knh thoi ting - i vi thoi hnh 64kbps h s tri ph ng xung l SF=32. Trung bnh mt sng mang WCDMA c th phc v ln nht 32 knh thoi hnh 1.1.4.13.Mc ch ca m xo trn - c thm vo qu trnh tri ph, phn x l ti my pht l cng vic xo trn. iu ny l cn thit phn bit thit b u cui hoc trm gc.M xo trn c s dng phn bit cc my pht khc nhau: i vi ng xung m xo trn c s dng phn bit cc cell s dng cng sng mang. i vi ng ln m xo trn c s dng phn bit cc UE khc nhau m hot ng trong cng mt sng mang. +M xo trn l chui GOLD. C ti 224 m xo trn c dnh cho tn hiu ng ln v cc m ny c gn bi RNC. Ti ng xung c 512 m xo trn c s dng +Cc m xo trn khc nhau s c sp xp cho cc cell khc nhau ti ng xung v cc m xo trn khc nhau s c cp pht cho cc UE khc nhau ti ng ln. M xo trn c p dng sau mi 10ms ca khung. Trong UMTS m GOLD c la chn v s tng quan cho rt thp ca n +Nhm m xo trn c s gm 512 m xo trn s cp c chia ra 64 nhm mi nhm li gm 8 m xo trn s cp. Ti ng xung mi cell ch c cp pht duy nht mt m xo trn s cp 1.1.4.14.Ghp m

17

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

- i vi ng xung ti cell ghp cc thng tin v: m xo trn duy nht nhn dng Node B, m nh knh phn bit cc knh vt l, tn hiu ngi dng iu ny c minh ha hnh v di

Hnh 1.0.17.Ghp m ng xung - i vi ng ln

Hnh 1.0.18.Ghp m ng ln 1.1.4.15.Tng quan v iu ch

Hnh 1.0.19.Tng quan v iu ch 18

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

- Mc ch ca iu ch l d liu bit nh phn c th trn vi tn hiu sng mang pht i. C 3 phng php c bn iu ch tn hiu l: iu bin ASK, iu tn FSK v iu pha PSK +ASK l phng php bin i bin ca sng mang theo chui tn hiu u vo +FSK l phng php bin i tn s ca sng mang theo chui tn hiu u vo +PSF l phng php bin i pha ca sng mang theo chui tn hiu u vo v y l phng php c s dng nhiu nht trong cc h thng thng tin di ng t bo - iu ch BPSK

Hnh 1.0.20.iu ch BPSK - iu ch QPSK

Hnh 1.0.21.iu ch QPSK

19

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

Hnh 1.0.22.Cc trng thi pha trong iu ch QPSK - Gii iu ch QPSK

Hnh 1.0.23.Gii iu ch QPSK 1.1.4.16.iu ch trong WCDMA

Hnh 1.0.24.iu ch trong WCDMA

20

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

- UTRAN s dng phng php iu ch QPSK cho giao din v tuyn ng xung, nhng HSDPA c th s dng iu ch 16 QAM phng php iu ch ny yu cu iu kin truyn v tuyn tt - Nh ta bit trong iu ch 16QAM mi k t mang 4 bit, cn QPSK th l 2 bit. Do h thng QPSK vi tc chip l 3,84Mcps tnh theo l thuyt c tc truyn l 2x3,84=7,68Mbps v h thng 16QAM c th truyn 4x3,84=16,36Mbps 1.1.4.17.Truyn sng v tuyn

Hnh 1.0.25.Truyn sng v tuyn

Hnh 1.0.26.Biu tn hiu ti my pht v my thu

21

Chng 1: Tng quan v WCDMA

- Fading: l s thng ging tn hiu ti my thu. Vi s di chuyn ca trm di ng, bin tn hiu v tr pha bin i theo thi gian v a im v th tn hiu nhn c c ln thay i tht thng, khng n nh v y l nhng tn hiu a ng. Nu truyn sng b nh hng bi a ng s dn ti Fading nhanh n tun theo quy lut phn b Rayleigh. Fading b nh hng bi hin tng che khut nhng tc suy gim chm cn c gi l Fading chm, n tun theo phn b loga - Cc k thut s dng khc phc nh hng ca Fading: +Phn tp thi gian: m ha knh, chn bit +Phn tp tn s: nng lng ca tn hiu c phn b trn ton b bng thng +Phn tp khng gian: s dng 2 anten +Phn tp phn cc 1.1.4.18.Nguyn l my thu RAKE

Hnh 1.0.27.My thu RAKE My thu RAKE h tr vic khc phc Fading a ng v nng cao hiu nng my thu ca h thng. My thu RAKE l k thut s dng vi b tng quan bng tn gc x l ring l nhng thnh phn tn hiu a ng. u ra t cc b tng quan khc nhau c kt hp li v da vo tnh trc giao ly c tn hiu tt nht.

22

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l WCDMA

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l ca WCDMA 2.1.Tng quan v lp vt l Kin trc mng UTRAN

Hnh 2.0.28.Kin trc mng UTRAN - UTRAN: mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t theo chun UMTS. N c xy dng gm phn h mng v tuyn kt ni vi mng li thng qua giao tip Iu - Phn h mng v tuyn RNS gm mt trm iu khin mng v tuyn RNC v mt hay nhiu Node B kt ni vi n thng qua giao tip Iub - Bn trong UTRAN cc RNC ca RNS kt ni vi nhau thng qua giao din Iur, y cc giao din Iu v Iur l cc giao din logic. Iur c th c chuyn qua kt ni vt l trc tip gia cc RNC hay cc mng o s dng cc mng truyn ti thch hp - S cc knh trong WCDMA

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l WCDMA

Hnh 2.0.29.S cc knh trong WCDMA - Lp 1 h tr tt c cc chc nng cn n cho vic truyn dn dng d liu bit trn mi trng vt l, n nh l chc nng o lng ch th ti cc lp cao hn v d nh o t s li khung FER, t s tn hiu trn nhiu SIR, cng sut nhiu, cng sut truyn dn,.N bao gm thc th qun l lp 1, thc th knh truyn dn v thc th knh vt l - Giao thc lp 2 p ng cho vic cung cp cc chc nng nh sp xp, mt m truyn pht li v phn mnh. N c to ln t 4 phn h: iu khin truy nhp ng truyn MAC, iu khin lin kt v tuyn RLC, giao thc hi t s liu gi PDCP v iu khin qung b BMC. - Lp 3 chia ra lm 2 phn: truy nhp phn cp nh th th iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn RRC v truy nhp khng phn cp nh thc th qun l di ng MM, thc th iu khin cuc gi CC.Sau y ta i nghin cu su vo vi chc nng ca nhng thc th quan trng. - Chc nng ca RRC: +Thit lp, thit lp li, duy tr v gii phng kt ni RRC gia UE v UTRAN n bao gm s la chn li cell, thit lp lin kt bo hiu lp 2

24

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l WCDMA

+Thit lp, cu hnh li v gii phng knh mang v tuyn. Mt s lng cc knh mang v tuyn c th c thit lp cho mt UE ti cng mt thi im, cc knh ny c cu hnh ph thuc vo QoS yu cu v RNC c nhim v m bo yu cu +Gn, cu hnh li v gii phng ti nguyn v tuyn cho kt ni RRC iu ny c thc hin nhiu trong qu trnh chuyn giao +Tm gi / khai bo: n qung b thng tin tm gi t mng ti UE +Qung b thng tin: c cung cp bi vic truy nhp khng phn cp (ti mng li) v truy nhp phn cp. iu ny tng ng vi vic thng tin h thng c pht i theo chu k +iu khin cng sut vng ngoi: iu khin thit lp gi tr c yu cu +iu khin vic mt m - Chc nng ca RLC: chc nng chnh ca RLC l truyn ti d liu t nhng ngi s dng thng qua giao din v tuyn. C 2 ch c s dng l: truyn dn trong sut v truyn dn khng trong sut. Trong ch truyn khng trong sut c 2 ch nh l c phn hi (ACK) v khng c phn hi (NACK) +RLC cung cp dch v n cc lp trn: truyn pht d liu, thit lp QoS (s c cu hnh ti lp 3 nhm cung cp cc QoS khc nhau), khai bo nhng li khng th khi phc c +Cc chc nng ca RLC:Sp xp gia cc PDU ca lp cao hn v cc knh logic, mt m nhm ngn nga vic ly d liu tri php, phn mnh v sp xp d liu, sa li, iu khin lung - Nhng dch v ti MAC gm: +Truyn pht d liu: cung cp ch truyn dn khng c phn hi cc khi d liu dch v gia cc thc th MAC +Cp pht li ti nguyn v tuyn v cc thng s MAC: cu hnh li chc nng ca MAC nh vic thay i xc nhn UE chc nng ny c yu cu bi lp RRC

25

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l WCDMA

+Tng hp kt qu o lng: Thc hin vic o lng cc b nh lu lng v ch th v cht lng bo ln lp RRC - Chc nng ca BMC +Lu tr thng tin qung b cell lp lch cho vic truyn dn +Gim st lu lng thng tin v yu cu ti nguyn +Bn tin lp lch ca BMC: BMC nhn c thng tin lp lch cng vi mi bn tin qung b trn giao din CBC-RNC. Da trn thng tin ny pha UTRAN, BMC to ra bn tin lp lch v n nh tham s lp lch cho RRC - Khi nim v RAB, RB v RL

Hnh 2.0.30.RB v RAB +RAB l dch v c truyn pht d liu gia ngi dng v mng li thng qua kiu truy nhp phn cp v khng phn cp +RB l dch v c cung cp ti lp 2 phc v truyn d liu ngi dng v RNC dch v +RL c coi l mt lin kt v tuyn gia thit b ngi dng v im truy nhp dch v UTRAN nh Node B, n c thc hin qua 1 hoc vi lin knh mang v tuyn 2.2.Knh vt l 2.2.1.Cu trc v chc nng ca knh vt l - Khi nim chung: Trong gii hn ca lp giao thc, giao din v tuyn ca WCDMA c 3 loi knh l knh vt l, knh truyn ti v knh logic

26

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l WCDMA

+Knh logic = ni cha thng tin, n c trng bi kiu thng tin c truyn i n c chia lm 2 loi l knh iu khin v knh lu lng +Knh truyn ti = nhng c tnh ca vic truyn tin. N c m t: bng cch no v c trng no d liu c truyn qua giao din v tuyn. Knh truyn ti l giao din gia giao din v tuyn lp 2 v lp 1, loi knh ny c chia thnh knh dng chung v knh dnh ring +Knh vt l ch r ni dung ca thng tin ni chung. N cung cp ti nguyn truyn dn thc c th l tn s,m v pha c th no 2.2.1.1.Knh logic

Hnh 2.0.31.Knh logic c chia lm 2 nhm: knh iu khin dnh cho thng tin v mt iu khin v knh lu lng dnh cho thng tin v mt ngi dng - Knh lu lng: knh lu lng dnh ring DTCH, knh lu lng chung CTCH +Knh lu lng dnh ring DTCH: l knh trc tip im-im truyn thng tin gia mt UE v mng, thng tin c th l thoi, d liu gi hay d liu chuyn mch knh cc lung bit trn knh ny n t lp ng dng cao hn v d nh m ha AMR. Nhng bit iu khin c th c thm vo bi RLC trong trng hp truyn tin khng trong sut

27

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l WCDMA

+Knh lu lng chung CTCH: l knh ng xung im-a im danh cho vic truyn thng tin ngi dng n mt nhm ngi dng c ch nh trc. Knh ny c dng pht thng tin qung b BMC, nhng bn tin ny c th l thng tin qung b ca cell t cc lp cao hn hay bn tin lp lch dnh cho vic h tr h tr tip nhn khng lin tc d liu qung b t cell ti UE. Bn tin qung b c cung cp bi cc nh mng nh: d bo thi tit, tnh hnh giao thng, nh v, thng tin t gi, - Knh iu khin: knh iu khin qung b BCCH, knh iu khin tm gi PCCH, knh iu khin dnh ring DCCH, knh iu khin chung CCCH +BCCH: l mt knh ng xung, n qung b ton b cc loi thng tin h thng v d thng tin nhn dng cell +PCCH: l mt knh ng xung thc hin pht thng tin tm gi, n c s dng tm mt hay mt vi UE ti ch ri hay ch kt ni (CeLL_PCH hoc URA_PCH). Bn tin tm gi loi 1 c gi trn knh PCCH. Khi UE nhn c 1 li mi gi trn knh PCCH n s chuyn sang trng thi CELL_FACH v thc hin mt th tc cp nht cell +DCCH: l mt knh trc tip im-im, n l knh iu khin ring thng tin gia mt UE v mng. Knh ny c dng ring cho bo hiu sau khi kt ni vi RRC. V d n c s dng trong vic chuyn giao khc tn s, dnh ring cho vic tm gi, cho vic thit lp th tc cp nht v kim sot cc kt qu o lng +CCCH: l mt knh trc tip cho vic iu khin thng tin gia mng v cc UE. N c s dng gi nhng bn tin c lin quan n kt ni RRC, thng tin cp nht cell v cp nht vng ng k UTRAN. Knh ny gn ging knh DCCH nhng n s c s dng khi UE cha c mng xc nhn. V d n c dng trong vic gi bn tin yu cu kt ni RRC, n l bn tin u tin c gi bi UE nhn c ch kt ni, cc bn tin tr li ca mng s c gi li trn cng mt knh vic xc

28

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l WCDMA

nhn tm thi cell v UTRAN. Sau khi c c bn tin knh DCCH s c s dng 2.2.1.2.Knh truyn ti

Hnh 2.0.32.Knh truyn ti - mang cc knh logic th knh truyn ti nh ra vi knh truyn ti nh sau: +Knh qung b BCH: l knh ng xung s dng cho vic qung b thng tin h thng n ton b cc cell +Knh tm gi PCH: l mt knh ng xung s dng cho vic qung b thng tin iu khin vo ton b cc cell chng hn nh thng tin tm gi +Knh truy nhp ngu nhin RACH: l mt knh ng ln s dng cho vic truy nhp ban u hoc truyn mt lng d liu va phi (vi mc ch iu khin dnh ring) +Knh truy nhp chuyn tip FACH: l mt knh chung ng xung s dng cho vic truyn bo hiu ring +Knh dnh ring DCH: l mt knh ring cho php UE s dng ti ng ln hoc ng xung 2.2.1.3.Knh vt l: Knh vt l l knh quan trng v phc tp nht, n c xc nh bi c trng truyn ti c th ca n nh truyn pht tn s, m, pha lin quan. Trong h thng 29

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l WCDMA

CDMA nhng loi m khc nhau nh m xo trn, m tri ph, c phn bit bi cc knh. a s cc knh u bao gm: khung v tuyn v khe thi gian, mi khung v tuyn gm 15 khe thi gian. C 2 loi knh vt l l knh ng ln UL v knh ng xung DL - Knh vt l ng xung +Knh ng b SCH: s dng cho th tc tm kim cell. C 2 loi l knh ng b s cp v knh ng b th cp +Knh vt l iu khin chung CCPCH: c s dng mang thng tin iu khin chung nh m xo trn c s dng ti ng xung. C 2 loi knh vt l iu khin chung s cp v th cp +Knh dn ng chung (P-CPICH v S-CPICH): c s dng cho vic kt hp pht hin nhng knh chung, chng ch th vic tham chiu pha +Knh d liu vt l dnh ring DPDCH: c dng mang d liu dnh ring n t lp 2 v cc lp cao hn +Knh vt l iu khin dnh ring DPCCH: c s dng mang thng tin iu khin dnh ring c sinh ra ti lp 1 nh tn hiu dn ng, TCP v TFC +Knh ch th tm gi PICH: mang ch th thng bo cho UE bit c thng tin tm gi trn knh knh iu khin tm gi chung th cp S-CCPCH +Knh ch th chim AICH: c s dng cho UE bit mng nhn c thng tin yu cu truy nhp +Knh vt l chia s ng xung tc cao HS-PDSCH: c s dng thc hin ng k dch v d liu tc cao +Knh iu khin chia s tc cao HS-SCCH: c s dng mang thng tin iu khin nh k hoch iu ch, ch s ID ca UE - Knh vt l ng ln: knh chung v knh dnh ring +Knh d liu vt l dnh ring ng ln U-DPDCH: c s dng mang d liu dnh ring n t lp 2 v lp cao hn

30

Chng 2: Giao din v tuyn lp vt l WCDMA

+Knh vt l iu khin dnh ring ng ln U-DPCCH: mang thng tin iu khin dnh ring c to ra ti lp 1 +Knh vt l dnh ring tc cao HS-DPCH: c s dng mang thng tin phn hi ti knh vt l chia s ng xung tc cao HS-PDSCH nh ch th cht lng knh CQI, thng tin xc nhn ACK/NACK 2.2.2.Sp xp cc knh:

Hnh 2.0.33.S Sp xp cc knh +Vic sp xp gia cc knh logic v cc knh truyn ti c thc hin bi phn lp MAC +Cc kt ni khc c th c to ra gia cc knh logic v cc knh truyn ti +BCCH c th kt ni ti BCH cng nh kt ni ti FACH +

31

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng 3.1.C s ti quy hoch v ti u WCDMA 3.1.1.Nguyn l c bn ca sng v tuyn 3.1.1.1.Ph tn sng v tuyn:

Bng 3.3.Cc loi sng v tuyn - Sng v tuyn nm trong di t 3Hz n 3000GHz. Ph tn c chia lm cc bng tn nh trong bng, mi loi sng v tuyn c cch truyn lan v ng dng ring. Cc bng tn thp truyn c xa v kh nng chng nhiu cao n c ng dng trong pht thanh qung b, truyn hnh. Cc bng tn cao ti nguyn tn s phong ph hn nhng n truyn khng c xa v kh nng chng nhiu km. Cc phng php k thut cao khc nhau c nghin cu s dng sng v tuyn cc bng tn cao. Bng tn v tuyn s dng trong thng tin v tuyn cn phi m bo c 2 yu t l nng lc v kh nng bao ph, trong cc bng tn trn th bng tn UHF t cn bng c 2 yu t v n c ng dng rng ri trong lnh vc thng tin di ng. Tuy nhin vi tc tng v nhu cu s dng trong thng tin di ng i hi phi tng nng lc h thng v tuyn v thng tin di ng l danh gii ca s pht trin ln cc h thng cao tn 3.1.1.2.S lan truyn ca sng in t:

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

- Khi sng v tuyn c truyn qua khng trung th phng ca trng in c thay i mt cch tng i. Nu phng ca in trng vung gc vi mt t th sng v tuyn ny c gi l phn cc ng. Nu phng ca in trng song song vi mt t th sng c gi l phn cc ngang. Trong khi phn cc vector in trng E vung gc vi vec t t trng H. C E v H u vung gc vi hng truyn sng trc tip. Thng qua s tc ng ln nhau ca trng in v trng t nng lng sng c truyn i xa ging nh vic truyn lan ca sng nc

Hnh 3.0.34.truyn lan ca sng in t 3.1.1.3. ng truyn sng:

a.truyn sng khc x

b.Truyn sng phn x

c.truyn sng nhiu x

d.Truyn sng qua tng in ly

33

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

- Sng v tuyn c truyn t Anten pht n Anten thu qua nhiu con ng khc nhau nh trn hnh v: Truyn sng khc x, truyn sng phn x, truyn sng nhiu x v truyn qua tng in ly. - Di y l trng hp tng qut v trng hp thu nhn tn hiu ti my thu:

Hnh 3.0.35.Vic nhn tn hiu ti my thu - Trong thng tin di ng ng truyn sng trc tip gia my pht v my thu b chn bi ta nh hoc cc vt cn khc. Tuy nhin trong thng tin di ng t bo th vic lin lc gia BTS v my di ng c thc hin qua cc ng khc nhiu hn l cc ng truyn trc tip. Trong bng UHF th sng in t truyn t my pht n my thu b phn tn thnh cc ng do b chn bi ta nh, phn x bi t, tng in ly 3.1.2.Nhng c tnh truyn lan ca sng v tuyn: 3.1.2.1.Nhng iu kin nh hng ti vic truyn sng: - Yu t t nhin: ni, i, mt nc - Cc cng trnh nhn to: ta nh, thp - Nhiu do cc thit b khc hoc do nh hng ca thi tit 3.1.2.2.Hin tng Fadinh:

34

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Hnh 3.0.36.Hin tng Fading - Fadinh chm: cng tn hiu nhn c b suy gim nhng gi tr na cng trng in t thay i chm vi s thay i ca a hnh. Hin tng ny cn gi l hin tng che khut. Gi tr na cng trng c tnh theo phn b logarit v s thay i ca Fadinh ph thuc vo tc di chuyn ca trm di ng - Fadinh nhanh: Trong trng hp ny bin v pha ca sng mang b thay i r rt vi s di chuyn ca trm di ng. Cng trng thay i da trn phn b Rayleigh v loi Fadinh ny cn c gi l Fadinh Rayleigh. Bin , pha, gc ca sng mang tn hiu l ngu nhin. Fadinh nhanh c chia nh thnh cc loi sau: +Fadinh la chn thi gian: Trong trng hp ny ngi dng di chuyn nhanh hn v do hiu ng Doppler trn min tn s do xy ra hin tng Fadinh la chn thi gian +Fadinh la chn khng gian: Nhng c tnh Fadinh l khc nhau gia cc v tr v ng truyn dn khc nhau +Fadinh la chn tn s: c tnh Fadinh l khc nhau ti cc tn s khc nhau 3.1.2.3.Cc phng php hn ch s nh hng ca Fadinh: - lm gim s nh hng ca Fadinh nhanh trong cc h thng thng tin v tuyn c cc phng php: phn tp khng gian, phn tp thi gian, phn tp tn s

35

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

+Phn tp thi gian s dng phng php chn k t, m kim tra li v m sa li. Mi loi m c tnh chng li Fadinh khc nhau +Phn tp khng gian: s dng Anten chnh/phn tp Anten thu. Trm BTS x l cc tn hiu thu c bi Anten chnh v cc Anten phn tp, BTS s phn loi cc tn hiu . Thi im nhn tn hiu ti Anten chnh v cc Anten phn tp trong phn tp khng gian l khc nhau, khong thi gian phi ln hn 10 ln thi gian bc sng ca tn hiu v tuyn. 3.1.2.4.Vic ra hn thm thi gian tr sng v tuyn - y l mt dng khc ca Fadinh la chn tn s. khc phc hin tng ny ngi ta s dng cng ngh my thu RAKE trong h thng CDMA

Hnh 3.0.37.Gii php my thu RAKE 3.1.2.5.Suy hao truyn sng: - Suy hao ng truyn: PL=f(d,f) +d: khong cch gia UE v trm gc +f l tn s sng mang Suy hao ng truyn ph thuc vo nhiu yu t nh: yu t t nhin (ni, h nc, ), cng trnh nhn to (ta nh ,ta thp), yu t thi tit, nh hng bi nhiu ca cc thit b khc - Cch tnh suy hao ng truyn trong trng hp tng qut Lp=K1+K2log(D)+K3log(HTxeff)+K4.DL+K5log(D).log(HTxeff)+K6(HRxeff)+KClutter.f(clutter) (3.1) 36

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Trong : K1: Hng s suy hao truyn sng K2: h s hiu chnh logD D: khong cch gia my thu v my pht K3: h s hiu chnh log(HTxeff) K4: h s hiu chnh suy hao do nhiu x K5: h s hiu chnh log(D).log(HTxeff) K6: h s hiu chnh HRxeff: chiu cao anten my thu Kclutter: h s hiu chnh tc nghn - Cch tnh suy hao ng truyn trong ch truyn sng ti a hnh bng phng: Ploss=L0+10xlgd-20lghb-20lghm x: dc suy hao ng truyn, thng ly l 4 hb: chiu cao BTS hm:chiu cao trm di ng L0: tham s c lin quan n tn s L0=32,4+20lgd+20lgf L0=91,48+20lgd i vi f=900Mhz L0=97,98+20lgd i vi f=1900Mhz 3.2.Anten: 3.2.1.V tr v chc nng ca Anten. - Trong h thng thng tin v tuyn, Anten l giao tip gia my pht v th gii truyn thng bn ngoi. Anten c th thc hin c 2 chc nng pht v thu sng v tuyn. Anten bin i sng cao tn thnh sng in t khi thc hin pht v li bin i sng in t thnh sng cao tn khi thu. Cc thnh phn c lin quan c trnh by trn hnh v. (3.2)

37

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Hnh 3.0.38.H thng Antenna - Nguyn l lm vic ca Anten di ng:

a.Anten nh hng

b.Anten Omni

- Anten dng trong thng tin di ng l anten mng gm nhiu khi lng cc (dipol) c bn. Chiu di ca 1 dipol bng na chiu di ca bc sng +Anten nh hng c thm mt phng kim loi t ng sau cc khi dipol nhm mc ch phn x nng cao li cho anten. V bc anten thng c lm bng PVC c bng cao v c thit k sao cho suy hao sng in t l nh nht 3.2.2.iu chnh gc nghing ca Anten C 2 loi iu chnh gc nghing anten l iu chnh bng c hc v iu chnh in hc nh hnh v

38

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Hnh 3.0.39.iu chnh gc nghing ca Antenna - iu chnh bng c hc l iu chnh trc tip bng tay gc nghing ca Anten do gc nghing ca bp sng thay i theo. Cn iu chnh bng in hc th gc nghing ca Anten khng phi thay i nhng pha ca dipole thay i thng qua tn hiu in thay i cng trng do hng pht ca anten s thay i v ta iu chnh c vng pht sng cho Anten. 3.3.C bn v RF: 3.3.1.Gii thiu v n v cng sut: - Cng sut tuyt i (dBm): Cng sut tuyt i ca tn hiu v tuyn c tnh theo dBm v dBW ta c cc lin h sau: (3.3) V d: 1W=30dBm=0dBW - Cng sut tng i (dB): l logarit t s gia 2 cng sut tnh theo cng thc sau: (3.4) V d: P1=2W, P2=1W th ta ni cng sut P1 ln hn cng sut P2 l 3dB 39

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

3.3.2.Khi nim v nhiu - Nhiu: l tn hiu can thip vo qu trnh truyn dn m khng th d on c s xut hin ca n trong qu trnh x l tn hiu. - S th hin ca nhiu:c s dng o lng kh nng x l cc tn hiu nh ca cc thnh phn v tuyn t xc nh ch s SNR

- Cc loi nhiu: nhiu bn ngoi khng gian, nhiu in t, nhiu nhit t bn trong h thng, nhiu ca cc bng bn dn trong qu trnh hot ng - Cng thc tnh nhiu tng qua cc tng mng:

(3.5) 3.3.3. nhy ca my thu: Cho bit yu cu cng sut ti thiu ca tn hiu my thu c th thu c tn hiu . nhy my thu cng cho bit kh nng thu tn hiu ca thit b. Sau y l cng thc Smin=10log(KTB)+Ft(NF)+(S/N) n v l dBm (3.6) K: hng s Boltzmann (J/K), K=1,38066.10-19J/K T: nhit tuyt i (oK) B: bng thng tn hiu (Hz) Ft: th hin s tc ng ca nhiu (dB) S/N: t s tn hiu trn nhiu (dB) Nu B=1Hz th 10log(KTB)= -174dBm/Hz 40

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

3.3.4.Cc thnh phn ca h thng RF - Cc thnh phn: +B khuch i: khuch i tn hiu ng ln nhng n khng dnh cho tn hiu ng xung +B truyn song cng: chia s anten cho vic pht v thu tn hiu, chia s anten cho nhiu h thng +B tch v b ni: u dng phn phi cng sut, b tch cn bng cng sut phn phi trong khi b ni khng thc hin vic cn bng . Do vy b tch v b ni c s dng cho nhiu ng dng khc nhau - S sp xp cc thnh phn ca h thng RF

Hnh 3.0.40.sp xp cc thnh phn ca h thng RF 3.3.5.Gii thch cc thng s: - Ec: nng lng trung bnh ca chip n khng c tnh ring l cho tng chip nhng c s dng cho vic tnh t s Ec/Io +Ch s Ec c UE o lng phc v chuyn giao

41

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

+Ni v knh CPICH th Ec: quyt nh da trn cng sut v suy hao ng truyn, n l mt hng s i vi mt cp gi tr cng sut v suy hao ng truyn. Ec khng ph thuc vo ti +Ni v knh DPCH th Ec quyt nh da trn cng sut v suy hao ng truyn - Eb: nng lng trung bnh ca mt bit thng tin trn knh PCCPCH, SCCPCH v DPCH ch s Eb c s dng trong t s Eb/Nt +c quyt nh da trn cng sut knh, suy hao ng truyn v li tri ph Gp +Eb l hng s vi tham s tc bit, cng sut knh, suy hao truyn dn cho +C th c c lng t Ec v li x l - Io: tng mt ph cng sut nhn c bao gm c nhiu v tn hiu hu ch c o lng ti my thu ca UE +Ph thuc cng sut tt c cc knh, tt c cc cell v suy hao ng truyn +Ph thuc ti trong cng 1 cell v cell bn ngoi +Ph thuc nhiu bn ngoi - N0: mt nhiu nhit n c s dng trong cng thc Eb/N0 + Tnh ton : N0=KT vi K=1,38.10-23, T l nhit tuyt i +T=290K th N0=174dBm/Hz - RTWP: tng cng sut bng rng nhn c. N m t mc nhiu ti ng ln. Khi ti ng ln tng 50% gi tr ca RTWP tng 3dB - RSSI: ch th cng tn hiu nhn v, n m t mc nhiu ng xung ti UE - RSCP: cng sut m tn hiu nhn v (Ec) +Ec/Io=RSCP/RSSI m t cht lng knh CPICH ng xung - ISCP: cng sut m tn hiu nhiu, n c tnh gn ng nh sau: ISCP=RSSIRSCP

42

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

3.4.Quy hoch vng ph cho mng v tuyn WCDMA 3.4.1.Th tc quy hoch mng v tuyn WCDMA: 3.4.1.1.Tm hiu v quan h gia nng lc, vng ph v cht lng ca mng v tuyn:

Hnh 3.0.41.Mi quan h gia cc yu t quy hoch mng - Quan h gia nng lc v vng ph: +S ngi dng tng ti ca cell tng mc nhiu tng gim vng ph ca cell +Tng vng ph ca cell ti ca cell gim nng lc gim - Gia nng lc v cht lng: +S ngi dng tng ti ca cell tng mc nhiu tng cht lng mng gim +Cht lng tng (t l li khi gim) nng lc h thng gim - Gia vng ph v cht lng: +Cht lng tng vng ph gim 3.4.1.2.Th tc quy hoch mng v tuyn WCDMA: - Bc 1: xc nh kch thc mng - Bc 2: Tin quy hoch mng v tuyn - Bc 3: quy hoch cell ca mng v tuyn Bc 1: nh c mng v tuyn: - nh c mng v tuyn l n gin ha vic phn tch mng v tuyn.nh c mng v tuyn bao gm nh c vng ph v nh c nng lc mng.N cho ta quy m ca

43

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

cc trm cu hnh theo yu cu u vo khi thc hin vic cn bng gia nng lc v vng ph ca mng. nh c l cng vic u tin cn thc hin nhanh chng cc nh gi v cc yu t mng v s kt hp cc yu t - Mc ch u tin ca nh c mng l c lng mt trm yu cu v cu hnh cho cc trm . Phm vi ca vic nh c bao gm qu lin kt v tuyn, vng ph, nng lc, s lng phn cng Node B, s lung E1, thng lng trung bnh v thng lng ti thiu ca cell - Cch thc: La chn mt kiu truyn lan sng v tuyn thch hp, kiu truyn dn v kiu phn phi lu lng cho cc thu bao khi c lng s Node B, bn knh vng ph, s lung E1 c s dng trn mt trm, thng lng ca cell - S

Hnh 3.0.42.nh c mng v tuyn - Vic phn b dch v, mt lu lng, c lng s tng lu lng v QoS yu cu l nhng thuc tnh ca cc yu t trong vic nh c mng Bc 2: Tin quy hoch mng v tuyn: Bc 2a: La chn v tr t trm ban u Da trn vic thit k mng v tuyn, vic tin quy hoch c d nh ch ra:

44

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Hnh 3.0.43.Vng ph ban u - V tr ca trm theo l thuyt - Cc tham s gii hn - Gii hn ca cell - Vic tin quy hoch c th c thc hin bng cch s dng phn mm quy hoch v bn s, vic ny m bo chnh xc cao, cc tham s quy hoch c th c thit lp theo mun ca nh mng. Sau qu trnh l vic kim tra vng ph yu cu. Nu cn c th iu chnh chiu cao v gc nghing ca Antena. S lng Node B c iu chnh ti u vng ph sau tin hnh kim tra nng lc ca h thng so snh vi nng lc yu cu +Cc tham s c tin hnh b xung nh: loi anten s dng, gc phng v, gc nghing, cao ca anten so vi mc nc bin, loi Feeder s dng, chiu di Feeder. +Cc tham s ca cell: cng sut pht ca knh lu lng v knh chung, h s trc giao, m xo trn s cp Bc 2b: D bo

45

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

- Da trn v tr cc cell, cc tham s b xung, cc tham s ca cell, chng ta c th d on c vng ph, vng chng ln - Chng ta lun lun mang theo bn hiu chnh chi tit (nh: s Node B, cu hnh ca Node B, tham s Anten) sau khi phn tch d on vng ph. Cui cng thc hin vic c nh v tr cc trm v cc thng s ca n khi t yu cu v vng ph - Phn tch khong cch gia cc trm nu khong cch qu ln ta thm mt s trm tn dng vng ph. Nu khng ta kim tra cc thng s cu hnh c lin quan t yu cu v vng ph Bc 3:Quy hoch cell ca mng v tuyn Bc 3a: kho st trm - Ta la chn v tr d phng cho trm nu v tr tnh ton theo l thuyt khng kh thi - Da vo kinh nghim, v tr d phng t trm c la chn trong phm vi vng tm kim l 1/4R. Cc yu t cn quan tm l +Yu t thng mi: phi thu v tr t trm +Yu t tc ng n vic lan truyn sng v tuyn: kiu a hnh, cao ca a hnh +Vic thi hnh: chn khong t trng, lp t anten, truyn dn, ngun in Bc 3b: M phng S dng cc phn mm chuyn dng m phng qu trnh quy hoch cell vi cc tham s thc t cho ra kt qu vi chnh xc cao. Do gii hn ca n nn khng trnh by c th ti y 3.4.2.Quy hoch vng ph trong pht hnh R99: 3.4.2.1.Quy trnh quy hoch vng ph R99: - Mc ch: +C c bn knh cell +c lng s Node B m bo yu cu vng ph

46

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Bt u

Qu ng ln Suy hao ng truyn Kiu truyn sng Bn knh cell

Vng ph ca NodeB S Node B = S Node B

Kt t h Hnh 3.0.44.Quy hoch vng ph cho pht hnh R99 c

Cch tnh din tch vng ph:

(3.7) 3.4.2.2.Qu ng ln

47

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Hnh 3.0.45.Qu ng ln Cng sut pht ca UE (dBm) - Cng sut pht cc i ca UE c cho trong bng sau:

Bng 3.4.Cng sut pht cc i ca mt s loi UE - Nhng UE thuc lp 4 thng rt ph bin trn th trng - Trong cng vic quy hoch mng cc nh mng phi tnh ton lm sao ch cn s dng cng sut pht nh nht m vn m bo cht lng dch v yu cu. iu c th hin qua vic h tr dch v d liu ng ln tc cao (cao hn 64Kbps)

48

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

- Ta bit rng khi cng sut pht cng cao cng tng ng vi vic tng suy hao ng truyn. iu ny cho php cc nh mng quy hoch cell vi vng ph rng tng i m thi Suy hao thit b - i vi dch v thoi th suy hao do thit b l 3dB - i vi cc dch v khc th suy hao ny bng 0dB li anten pht ca UE (dBi) - Trong trng hp tng qut li anten UE l 0dBi Suy hao xuyn (dB) - L kiu suy hao ng truyn do nh hng bi cc cng trnh xy dng n ph thuc vo kiu kin trc ca cc cng trnh . Trong trng hp ny gc truyn sng b thay i li ca anten Node B (dBi)

Bng 3.5. li ca Antenna Node B Suy hao do cable (dB): - Suy hao cable gia Node B v anten - Suy hao jumper gia Node B v anten - Suy hao kt ni gia Node B v anten 3.4.2.3.Qu ng xung

49

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Hnh 3.0.46.Qu ng xung 3.4.3.Quy hoch nng lc mng v tuyn WCDMA 3.4.3.1.Tng quan v kiu lu lng - Loi hnh dch v thi gian thc: +m thoi: n l cn thit trong vic thit lp mi quan h v mt thi gian gia cc thc th thng tin yu cu tr nh v t mc tng i v tc d liu. Cc dch v nh thoi ting, thoi hnh +o to t xa y l kiu dch v n hng. Dch v ny yu cu cao v mc li cho php v yu cu cao v tc truyn dn. V d dch v o to trc tuyn, dch v a phng tin - Loi hnh dch v khng yu cu thi gian thc: +Dch v tng tc: yu cu v tnh ton vn ca thng tin. Yu cu cao v mc li nhng yu cu thp v tnh thi gian thc, cho php tr. Cc dch v nh duyt web, game

50

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

+Dch v nn: yu cu tnh ton vn ca d liu, tr nh, t l li truyn dn thp. V d dch v Email - Kiu dch v phin yu cu cht ch v tr truyn dn. V d dch v thoi yu cu tr nh hn 150ms v khng c vt qu 400ms. Dch v kiu phin c thc hin trong min chuyn mch knh h thng c th x l khng theo c ch hng i cho cuc gi trong trng hp ny ta s dng hm Erlang B tnh ton lu lng thoi - So snh vi dch v phin th dch v lung yu cu khng cao v tr truyn dn n c th cung cp cc dch v theo c ch hng i. Trong trng hp ny ta li s dng hm Erlang C tnh ton lu lng thng tin - Kiu dch v tng tc l dch v ph hp nht khi ngi dng c nhu cu v d liu t nh cung cp. Tuy nhin tr lp vng l mt thng s quan trng ca dch v ny. Dch v tng tc cng c thc hin ti min chuyn mch knh. Dch v ny cho php tr ln, h thng c th lu tr cc thng tin yu cu dch v ti gi bn. Hm Erlang B v C khng c p dng tnh lu lng trong trng hp ny 3.4.3.2.Kiu lu lng: Bng cch nh ra kiu dch v v u tin i vi ngi dng, chng ta c th nh ra c cc kiu lu lng ca cc kiu dch v khc nhau trong mng. Bng cch tnh ton s lai ghp ca cc kiu lu lng chng ta c th nh ra c cu hnh h thng mng Ni dung ca kiu hnh dch v bao gm - Kiu hnh dch v a ra cc c tnh dch v, n l yu t chnh trong qu trnh nghin cu nhng kh nng v c tnh ca mi loi dch v v ch s QoS c mong i t ngi dng - u tin ca ngi dng a ra cc nhm ngi s dng dch v. Trong ng dng d liu th u tin ca ngi dng c tp trung nghin cu chnh l: cc

51

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

dch v sn sng cung cp trong h thng 3G, s lng ngi dng ca mi loi dch v, tn sut s dng dch v, v s phn b ngi dng ti cc vng khc nhau M t nhng c tnh ca kiu hnh dch v: - Ni v mi loi dch v, t cu trc knh v phng thc m ha l khc nhau, tc ng ln yu cu khc vi tc yu cu ca ng xung. Mt loi hnh dch v c th c m t bng nhm cc thng s sau: +Kiu ngi dng: (trong nh, ngoi tri hay di ng trn ng cao tc) +Tc di chuyn trung bnh ca ngi dng (Km/h) +Dch v thoi thi gian thc v khng thi gian thc +Tc ng ln v ng xung ca dch v (kbps) +H s tri ph (SF) + tr tn hiu ca dch v (ms) Tt c cc thng s trn nh r yu cu v cht lng dch v QoS Kiu lu lng chuyn mch knh: - Dch v thoi l mt loi dch v chuyn mch knh n c c trng bi cc thng s: +T l truy nhp mng: t l phn trm ngi dng tch cc dch v trn tng s ngi dng ng k trong mng +S cuc gi gi bn(BHCA) +Thi gian trung bnh ca cuc gi (s) +Yu t tch cc: trng s thi gian ca dch v truyn ton tc gia khong thi gian ca cc phin truyn ring l +Tc trung bnh ca dch v (kbps) - Cc tham s ca ch chuyn mch knh: +Lu lng gi bn trung bnh (Erlang) ca 1 thu bao =( BHCA.khong thi gian trung bnh ca cuc gi)/3600

52

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

+Khi lu lng trung bnh vo gi bn ca 1 ngi dng (kbit) = BHCA x thi gian trung bnh ca cuc gi x h s tch cc x tc trung bnh +Thng lng trung bnh vo gi bn ca 1 ngi dng (bps) = (khi lu lng trung bnh vo gi bn ca 1 ngi dng x 1000)/3600 3.4.3.3.Lu lng chuyn mch gi: Thng xuyn c s dng cho cc dch v d liu gi, cc th tc x l c m t trong tiu chun ESTI UMTS 30.03 - Cc thng s ca kiu lu lng chuyn mch gi: +Phin/s th t cuc gi d liu gi: to ra theo phn b ngu nhin +Thi gian c: c da trn phn b ngu nhin +S th t gi/Cuc gi gi 3.4.3.4.Phn tch nhiu: - Nguyn l c bn: +Trong h thng WCDMA, tt c cc cell u s dng chung mt tn s, n c ch trong vic ci thin nng lc ca h thng. Tuy nhin chnh vic s dng chung tn s h thng li phi gnh chu nhiu gia nhng ngi dng. Nhiu a truy nhp hn ch nng lc ca mng +Nng lc ca h thng v tuyn c quyt nh bi ng ln v ng xung. Khi quy hoch kh nng ca mng ta phi tin on phn tch c ng ln v ng xung a.Phn tch nhiu ng ln tc ng ti Node B Vic phn tch nhiu ng ln c da trn cng thc sau: ITOT = Iown + Iother + PN (3.8) Trong : Gi tr thng gp ca PN l -106,4/3,84Mhz ITOT: tng nhiu nhn c ti Node B

53

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Iown: nhiu t nhng ngi s dng trong cng cell Iother:nhiu t nhng ngi dng ca cc cell ln cn PN: nhiu nn ca my thu - Cng thc tnh nhiu nn ti my thu: PN=10log(K.T.W)+NF Trong K=1,38.10-23J/K T: nhit Kelvin thng ly 290K W: bng thng tn hiu, trong WCDMA ly l 3,84Mhz NF ng vi Node B thng ly 1,6dB - Nhiu a ngi s dng trong cng 1 cell: Iown +Nhiu m mi ngi dng phi khc phc c l: Itotal - Pj +Pj l cng sut nhn c ca ngi dng th j, j l h s tch cc ng ln
( Eb / N0 ) Avg _ j

(3.9)

+Ta c cng thc:

10
Pj =

10

Pj ITOT

W 1 . Pj R j j .
W 1 . R j

(3.10)

+Suy ra :

1+ 10

ITOT 1
( Eb / N 0 ) Avg _ j 10

(3.11)

+Nhiu a ngi dng trong mt cell l tng cng sut ca tt c ngi dng n ti my thu
I own = Pj
1 n

(3.12)

+H s tch cc: l trng s thi gian ca dch v truyn ton tc trong khong thi gian din ra phin truyn n n c tnh theo cng thc sau: H s tch cc = Thi gian pht d liu/Thi gian chim gi - Nhiu a ngi dng t cell ln cn : Iother

54

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

+y l mt loi nhiu kh phn tch theo l thuyt v n lin quan n phn b ngi dng, vic sp t cc cell v biu anten ng hng +Yu t nhiu t cell ln cn tnh theo cng thc: f =
I other I own

(3.13)

+Xt trong trng hp phn b ngi dng l ng nht th ta c nhng kt qu sau: i vi cell Omni ta c f=0.55. i vi anten ng hng c 3 sector th f=0,65 Tng hp li ta c cng thc sau:
ITOT = I own + I other + PN = (1+ f )
1 N

1+ 10

ITOT 1
( Eb / N 0 ) Avg _ j 10

W 1 . . Rj j

+ PN

(3.14)

Vi

Lj =

1 1+ 10
N 1

1
( Eb / N 0 ) Avg _ j 10

W 1 . Rj j

ITOT = ITOT (1 + f ) L j + PN

Do vy:

ITOT = PN .

1 1 (1 + f ). L j
1 N

(3.15)

Trong N l s ngi dng trong cell ang xt Nhiu ng xung : ITOT = Iown + Iother + PN (3.16) Trong ITOT: tng nhiu nhn c ti UE Iown: nhiu t nhng ngi s dng trong cng cell Iother:nhiu t nhng ngi dng ca cc cell ln cn PN: nhiu nn ca my thu -Cng thc tnh nhiu nn ti my thu: 55

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

PN=10log(K.T.W)+NF (Iown)j=.PTX PTX l cng sut pht thc t ca Node B l h s trc giao ti ng xung (Iother)j=f.PTX f l h s nhiu ca cell ln cn Tnh t s Ec/I0 ca ngi dng th j
Pj Ec 10CL /10 = = I 0 ( + f ).PTX + 10 PN /10 ( + f ). P + 10(CL + PN )/10 TX 10CL /10 Pj

(3.17)

(3.18)

Trong : Pj: cng sut pht ca Node B dnh cho ngi dng j CL: suy hao kt ni ng xung CL=PL_DL+Lf_BS - Ga_annten+Lb+SFMNSHO+Lp PL_DL: suy hao ng xung Lf_BS: suy hao do cable ca Node B Ga_annten: li ca annten Node B v annten UE Lb: suy hao thit b SFMNSHO: d tr Fadinh chm khi khng c chuyn giao mm Lp: suy hao xuyn T iu trn ta c :
Pj 10 CL /10

l cng sut hu ch m ngi dng th j nhn c

( + f ). PTX + 10 PN /10 l nhiu do bn thn cell v cell ln cn gy ra CL /10 10

10PN /10 l nhiu nn ca UE

56

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

3.4.3.5.kh nng truyn dn lung d liu Tnh ton kh nng truyn ti lung theo s :
Bt u

Tng thu bao d tnh Ti trn kt ni ca R99

Ti d liu chuyn mch knh trung bnh ti cell

Ti d liu chuyn mch knh cc i trn cell

Ti lu lng gi trung bnh trn cell

Ti lu lng HSPA trn cell

Tng ti trn cell

So snh vi ti yu cu
Yes

Kt thc

Hnh 3.0.47.Kh nng truyn dn d liu ca mng Qua s trn ta thy: Tng ti ng ln ti cell = ti lu lng chuyn mch knh trung bnh + Ti lu lng chuyn mch knh cc i + Ti lu lng gi + Ti lu lng HSUPA V tng t : Tng ti ng xung ti cell = (ti lu lng chuyn mch knh trung bnh + Ti lu lng chuyn mch knh cc i + Ti lu lng gi + Ti lu lng HSDPA) + Ti ca knh CCH

57

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

3.5 Ti u ha RAN-UMTS 3.5.1.Mc ch - Cung cp dch v tt hn cho cc thu bao - Nng cao sc cnh tranh cho nh mng - Cn bng, ti u cc yu t nh: vng ph, hiu nng, cht lng dch v - Thc hin ti u ha theo chu k da trn s pht trin ca mng 3.5.2.Quy trnh ti u

Pha 1: Ti u ha RF Chun b ti u

Pha 2: Kim tra cc dch v v ti u cc thng s Tch hp thm trm mi

Pha 3: Kim tra v phn tch cc trng thi m ng hng ngy Kim tra tng trm

N N Y

Kim tra xem tha m n cc tiu chun cha ?

80 % cc trm trong cm sn sng hot ng ?

Chp nhn kt qu

Hnh 3.0.48.Th tc ti u ha RAN Bc chun b: Preparation Kim tra tng trm ring l ly cc thng tin nh: - Thng tin v vng ph, vic thit lp cuc gi, chuyn giao, dch v chuyn mch gi - Kim tra vic cu hnh ca trm nh cu hnh anten, cu hnh d liu cho cell, cht lng dch v c thit lp

58

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

Phase 1: ti u cao tn (RF optimization) Cng vic ny tp trung vo gim thiu ha nh hng ca nhiu, ti u vng ph ca cell, ti u vic s dng li tn s. Thng k t l rt cuc gi, t l thit lp cuc gi v t l chuyn giao khng thnh cng - Cng vic iu chnh cc thng s: kim tra cng sut knh CPICH RSCP thu kt qu Nu RSCP-85dBm th l tt -95dBmRSCP<-85dBm th cht lng l trung bnh RSCP<85dBm th cht lng l xu Ta c th khc phc bng cch iu chnh cc thng s sau +iu chnh gc nghing ca anten +iu chnh gc phng v ca anten +iu chnh v tr ca anten +iu chnh cao ca anten +t li v tr ca trm nu cn thit +Thm cell mi - iu chnh cc thng s v tuyn: +iu chnh cng sut pht ca knh CPICH +Ti u ha danh sch cc cell ln cn: gm danh sch cc cell ln cn c cng tn s, cc cell khc tn s, cc cell khc cng ngh truy nhp +Vic ti u ha c thc hin bng my o chuyn dng. Ta c kt qu l cc vng ph sng khc nhau sau ta thm cc cell cn thiu v loi cc cell hot ng khng c hiu qu o t s Ec/Io nu Ec/Io-8dB th l tt -14dBEc/Io<-8dB cht lng bnh thng Ec/Io-14dB th cht lng l xu - RF lin quan n vn rt cuc gi

59

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

+Vng ph xu +Mc nhiu cao +Vng ph ng ln xu +Khng th tm thy cell ln cn Phase 2: Kim tra dch v v ti u cc thng s - Mc ch ti u cc thng s +Gim thiu cc truy nhp b li +Gim thiu rt cuc gi +Nng cao cht lng dch v: cht lng dch v v vic s dng ti nguyn mng s c ci thin sau khi ti u cc thng s - Cc thng s cn ti u gm: + Phn cng sut cp pht cho knh CCCH +Phn cng sut ti a dnh cho lin kt v tuyn +Vic la chn v la chn li cell +vic chuyn giao khc tn s +Vic chuyn giao khc cng ngh +iu khin cng sut +iu khin truy nhp +iu khin ti +Cc thng s khc c lin quan Tp cc ch s KPI ca UMTS - Vng ph: t l ph sng, t l chuyn giao mm - Truy nhp: ti nguyn WCDMA sn sng, t l nhp mng thnh cng, t l truy nhp dch v thnh cng, t l kt ni u cui n u cui thnh cng, t l PDP context c kch hot thnh cng - Duy tr cuc gi: t l rt cuc gi, t l rt PDP context

60

Chng 3: Thit k v quy hoch mng

- Tnh ton vn ca dch v: cht lng thoi ting, thoi hnh, t l li khi ti cc dch v d liu gi - Tnh di ng: t l chuyn giao mm thnh cng, t l chuyn giao cng thnh cng, t l chuyn giao khc cng ngh truy nhp thnh cng - tr thit lp dch v: thi gian nhp mng, thi gian kch hot PDP context, thi gian truy nhp dch v, thi gian kt ni u cui vi u cui, thi gian lp vng ca gi tin, thi gian gin on truyn dn - Tnh sn sng: t l cell ti nht, t l cuc gi b t chi, t l cell b tc nghn Tn dng cc ti nguyn ca mng 2G - Ti nguyn cng ca 2G c th s dng li: v tr t trm, iu kin truyn dn, ngun cp, anten v feeder. Vi cc ti nguyn ta c th s dng cho 3G nhm gim thiu thi gian trc khi a 3G vo hot ng hn na gim thiu chi ph cho vic xy dng 3G - Ti nguyn mm ca 2G c th c s dng li cho 3G: kiu truyn sng, xe o kim d liu iu chnh pht sng, cc s liu thng k v lu lng,Cc yu t ny nhm tng tc quy hoch mng v hon thin mt cch tng i chnh xc.

61

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G 4.1.iu khin cng sut trong WCDMA v cc tham s lin quan 4.1.1.Tng quan v iu khin cng sut 4.1.1.1.Mc ch ca vic iu khin cng sut: - c im ca vic truyn pht ng ln: +T can nhiu h thng: cng sut pht ng ln ca UE li tr thnh nhiu i vi cc UE khc +Nng lc ng ln b gii hn bi mc nhiu: Cng nhiu ngi s dng mng th mc nhiu cng tng +Hiu ng gn xa +nh hng ca Fadinh - Chc nng ca vic iu khin cng sut ng ln +m bo cht lng ng ln vi cng sut pht l nh nht +Gim thiu nhiu ti cc UE khc v tng nng lc cho mng +Gii quyt vn ca hiu ng gn xa +Tit kim cng sut pht cho UE - c im ca vic pht ng xung +Nhiu gia cc thu bao l khc nhau +Nhiu t cc cell ln cn +Nng lc ng xung b gii hn bi cng sut pht ca NodeB +B nh hng ca Fading - Chc nng ca iu khin cng sut ng xung +m bo cht lng ng xung vi cng sut pht l ti thiu +Gim thiu nhiu gia cc cell v tng nng lc h thng +Tit kim cng sut pht ca Node B - ng xung c cc c im khc vi ng ln nh:

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

+Thc th quan tm ti ng xung l Node B cn ti ng ln l UE +Nhiu ng xung ch yu do hin tng a ng gy ra cn ng ln l t can nhiu h thng +Cng sut pht ca Node ti ng xung c chia s cho cc knh v vy nng lc h thng b gii hn bi cng sut pht ca Node B. ng ln cng sut do UE pht v khng nh hng g ti nng lc ca h thng m ch nh hng ti thi gian s dng thit b cm tay

Hnh 4.0.49.Hiu ng gn - xa 4.1.1.2.Hiu qu ca vic iu khin cng sut:

Hnh 4.0.50.Dng tn hiu trong iu khin cng sut

63

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

- Do nh hng ca Fading trong h thng thng tin v tuyn nn tn hiu nhn c ti my thu tr ln xu v thay i cng lin tc, vic iu khin cng sut nhanh tr thnh mt phng php hu hiu chng li hin tng ny - Trn hnh v, knh Fading c n b bi cng sut pht cng sut ny c iu chnh bi phng php iu khin cng sut nhanh do cng sut tn hiu nhn c gn nh khng i v vy ci thin c cht lng truyn sng 4.1.1.3.Phn loi iu khin cng sut: - iu khin cng sut vng h: c s dng xc nh cng sut ban u.iu khin cng sut vng h ti ng ln v ng xung - iu khin cng sut vng kn gm :dn iu chnh ng cng sut pht v lin tc trong thi gian ang thc hin kt ni gia UE v mng. iu khin cng sut vng kn gm iu khin cng sut vng trong v iu khin cng sut vng ngoi - Vi ng ln, cng sut pht c UE iu chnh, cn cng sut pht ng xung c iu chnh bi Node B 4.2.Nguyn l chuyn giao v cc thng s lin quan Chuyn giao l chc nng c bn ca mt h thng thng tin di ng t bo. Mc ch ca chuyn giao nhm m bo UE trng thi CELL_DCH c phc v lin tc khi n di chuyn 4.2.1.Chuyn giao cng tn s: 4.2.1.1.Tng quan: - Chuyn giao cng tn s c c im l tn s sng mang ca cell ang xt v cell ch l ging nhau. - Ta c 2 kiu chuyn giao cng tn s l: +chuyn giao cng cng tn s: ch c duy nht mt lin kt v tuyn dnh cho UE trong qu trnh chuyn giao. Phng php ny ch c s dng trong vi trng hp c bit v d trong trng hp khng c giao tip Iur no gia 2 RNC

64

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

+chuyn giao mm: c 2 hay nhiu hn cc lin kt v tuyn dnh cho UE trong qu trnh chuyn giao s lin kt ny ti a l 3. Phng php ny c s dng nhiu hn chuyn giao cng - Chuyn giao mm: l chc nng chuyn giao khi UE kt ni vi vi cell ti mt thi im.Trong chuyn giao mm UE v tr chng chp vng ph ca 2 sector thuc v 2 trm gc khc nhau. Vic thng tin gia UE v 2 trm gc qua 2 knh ring bit Chuyn giao mm hn l khi UE nm trong vng ph ca 2 sector ca cng mt trm gc 4.2.1.2.Cc th tc chuyn giao cng tn s:
o t s Ec /Io ca cell phc v v cell ln cn vi n ti cc thi im khc nhau Pha o lng

N Tha mn cc iu kin chuyn giao ? Y Pha quyt nh

Thc hin chuyn giao v cp nht cc thng s lin quan

Pha thi hnh

Hnh 4.0.51.Cc th tc trong chuyn giao o lng: - Bn tin iu khin o lng gm nhm cc thng tin sau +Ngng xy ra chuyn giao +Gi tr tr trong chuyn giao +Thi gian tr

65

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

+Danh sch cc cell ln cn - Mc ch bn tin bo co iu khin o lng l pht li nhng thng tin v kt qu o lng t UE ti UTRAN. N da trn thut ton iu khin o lng c kt qu chnh xc nht Quyt nh v thi hnh chuyn giao Thut ton kt hp vi cc cell ln cn 4.2.1.3.Cc th tc bo hiu cho chuyn giao cng tn s: a.Trng hp chuyn giao mm cng tn s, cng Node B

66

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

UE

Node B Quyt nh thit lp 1.Yu cu thm lin kt v tuyn Bt u thu 2.p ng yu cu thm lin kt v tuyn Bt u pht 3.Tch cc vic cp nht trn knh DCCH (thm lin kt v tuyn ) 4.Hon thnh cp nhp

SRNC 1 lin kt v tuyn mi

Q uyt nh xa lin kt v tuyn c 5.Tch cc vic cp nht trn knh DCCH (xa lin kt v tuyn ) 6.Hon thnh cp nht 7.Yu cu xa lin kt v tuyn Dng thu v pht 8.p ng yu cu xa lin kt v tuyn

Hnh 4.0.52.Chuyn giao mm cng tn s, cng Node B b.Trng hp chuyn giao mm cng tn s, khc Node B, cng RNC

67

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Hnh 4.0.53.Chuyn giao mm cng tn s, cng RNC, khc Node B

c.Chuyn giao mm cng tn s, khc RNC

68

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Hnh 4.0.54.Chuyn giao mm cng tn s, khc RNC d.Chuyn giao mm cng tn s, cng RNC, khc Node B

69

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

UE

Node B 2

SRNC Quyt nh thit lp lin kt v tuyn mi

Node B 1

1.Yu cu thit lp lin kt v tuyn mi Bt u thu 2.p ng yu cu thit lp lin kt v tuyn mi 3.thit lp knh truyn d liu ti giao din Iub

Bt u pht 4.Cu hnh li knh vt l DCCH 5.hon thnh cu hnh li knh vt l DCCH Quyt nh xa b lin kt v tuyn c 6.yu cu xa lin kt v tuyn Dng thu v pht 7.p ng yu cu xa lin kt v tuyn

8.gii phng knh truyn d liu ti giao din Iub

Hnh 4.0.55.Chuyn giao mm cng tn s, cng RNC, khc Node B 4.2.2.Chuyn giao khc tn s 4.2.2.1.c im: - Tn s sng mang ca cell ang xt v cell ch l khc nhau - Da trn nguyn l chung ca chuyn giao, ngoi ra chuyn giao khc tn s cn chia thnh 4 kiu sau: +Da trn vng ph +Da trn QoS +Da trn ti +Da trn tc 4.2.2.2.Th tc bo hiu trong chuyn giao khc tn s: 70

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

a.Chuyn giao khc tn s, cng RNC


UE Node B 2 SRNC Quyt nh thit lp lin kt v tuyn mi 1.Yu cu thit lp lin kt v tuyn mi Bt u thu 2.p ng yu cu thit lp lin kt v tuyn mi 3.thit lp knh truyn d liu ti giao din Iub 4.Xc nhn phc hi lin kt v tuyn Bt u pht 5.Cu hnh li knh vt l DCCH 6.hon thnh cu hnh li knh vt l DCCH Quyt nh xa b lin kt v tuyn c 7.yu cu xa lin kt v tuyn Dng thu v pht 8.p ng yu cu xa lin kt v tuyn Node B 1

9.gii phng knh truyn d liu ti giao din Iub

Hnh 4.0.56.Chuyn giao mm khc tn s, cng RNC b.Chuyn giao khc tn s, khc RNC

71

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

UE

Node B 2

DRNC

SRNC Quyt nh to lin kt v tuyn mi

Node B 1

2.yu cu thit lp knh v tuyn Bt u thu

1.yu cu thit lp knh v tuyn

3.p ng thit lp knh v tuyn

4.p ng thit lp knh v tuyn

5.Thit lp d liu pht ti giao din Iub 6.Thit lp d liu pht ti giao din Iur 7.xc nhn phc hi lin kt v tuyn 8.xc nhn phc hi lin kt v tuyn

Bt u pht

9.Cu hnh li knh vt l DCCH

10 .hon thnh cu hnh li knh vt l DCCH

11.yu cu xa b lin kt v tuyn Dng thu v pht 12 .p ng yu cu xa b lin kt v tuyn

13.gii phng d liu pht ti giao din Iub

Hnh 4.0.57.Chuyn giao mm khc tn s, khc RNC

72

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

4.2.3.Chuyn giao gia cc h thng khc cng ngh truy nhp (RAT:Radio Access Technology)

Hnh 4.0.58.Chuyn giao gia c h thng khc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn - Chuyn giao khc cng ngh truy nhp cung cp vic m rng vng ph, chia s ti v phn lp cc dch v, n gip tit kim chi ph bng cch s dng ti nguyn mng GSM sn c Sau y l s bo hiu ca vic chuyn giao gia UMTS v GSM 4.2.3.1.Chuyn giao gia UMTS v GSM ti min chuyn mch knh:

73

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

UE

Serving RNC 1.Yu cu di b v tr

MSC 3G

MSC 2G

BSC

2.Chun b chuyn giao 3.Yu cu chuyn giao 5.p ng cho vic chun b chuyn giao

6.Lnh ri b v tr 7.lnh chuyn giao cng

4.Phn hi yu cu chuyn giao

8.pht hin chuyn giao 9.Hon thnh chuyn giao

11.yu cu cp tn hiu 12 .lnh gii phng Iu 13.Hon thnh gii phng Iu 14.Cp tn hiu

10 .Xc nhn hon thnh chuyn giao

Hnh 4.0.59.Chuyn giao gia UMTS v GSM ti min chuyn mch knh

74

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Bn tin trn gm 14 bc nh sau: - Bc 1: SRNC gi MSC ca 3G bn tin yu cu chuyn giao (RELOCATION REQUIRED) nu c c iu kin chuyn giao - Bc 2: nhn c bn tin nh mt ch th, MSC 3G chuyn yu cu ny ti MSC 2G ti giao din MAP/E thng qua bn tin chun b chuyn cho chuyn giao (PREPARE HANDOVER) - Bc 3: MSC 2G chuyn bn tin yu cu chuyn giao (HANDOVER REQUEST) ti BSC - Bc 4: BSC tr li bn tin yu cu (HANDOVER REQUEST ACK) - Bc 5: Nhng th tc chuyn giao ban u c hon thnh ti 2G MSC/BSS, MSC 2G gi li bn tin chun b chuyn giao(PREPARE HANDOVER RESPONSE) -Bc 6: MSC 3G gi ti SRNC bn tin lnh chuyn vng (RELOCATION COMMAND) - Bc 7: SRNC gi ti UE bn tin lnh chuyn giao t UTRAN thng qua kt ni RRC y l loi chuyn giao cng - Bc 8: BSC thc hin pht hin chuyn giao qua bn tin HANDOVER DETECT - Bc 9: UE gi ti BSC bn tin hon thnh chuyn giao - Bc 10: BSC gi li MSC bn tin hon thnh chuyn giao - Bc 11: Sau khi pht hin UE ang nm trong vng ph ca GSM, MSC gi bn tin ti mng li yu cu gi tn hiu ti kt cui (SEND END SIGNAL REQUES) - Bc 12: Mng li gi ti SRNC UE trc - Bc 13: Sau khi ti nguyn sng mang c gii phng ti UMTS th SRNC gi bn tin ti MSC 3G cho bit hon thnh gii phng kt ni Iu(IU RELEASE COMPLETE) - Bc 14: Sau khi kt thc cuc gi, mng li gi bn tin ti MSC p ng li tn hiu cho kt cui bn tin lnh gii phng UE ti giao din Iu (IU RELEASE COMMAND) n yu cu SRNC gii phng ti nguyn n nh cho

75

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

4.2.3.2. Chuyn giao gia UMTS v GSM ti min chuyn mch gi:
UE BSS SRNS SGSN 2G mi SGSN 3G c GGSN MSC / VLR mi HLR MSC / VLR c

1. Quyt nh chuyn giao RAT 2.Yu cu cp nht vng nh tuyn UE kt ni 3.Yu cu SGSN context

4.Yu cu SRNS context 4.p ng SRNS context 5.p ng SGSN context 6.Chc nng bo mt 7.Phn hi PDP context UE kt ni
8.Lnh chuyn d liu SRNS

8.Chuyn tip gi 9.Chuyn tip gi 10 .Yu cu cp nht PDP context 10 .p ng cp nht PDP context 11 .Cp nht nh v GPRS 12 .Hy nh v 13 .Lnh gii phng lin kt Iu 13 .Hon thnh gii phng Iu 12 .Hy b phn hi nh v 14 .Chn d liu ca thu bao 14 .Phn hi v vic chn d liu thu bao 15 .Phn hi cp nht nh v GPRS 16 .Yu cu cp nht v tr 18 .Chp nhn cp nht v tr 19 .Chp nhn cp nht vng nh tuyn 20 .Hon thnh cp nht nh tuyn 22 .Th tc truy nhp d liu gi ti BSS 21 .Hon thnh n nh li TMSI 17.Cp nht v tr

Hnh 4.0.60.chuyn giao gia UMTS v GSM ti min chuyn mch gi

76

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

4.3.iu khin ti trong WCDMA 4.3.1.Tng quan v iu khin ti: 4.3.1.1.Tng quan v thut ton iu khin ti: Ti chia lm 2 loi: kh nng cng v kh nng mm - Kh nng cng gm +M OVSF ng xung ca cell +Ti nguyn c truyn ca Node B tc l bng thng truyn dn ca1 Node B +Hiu nng x l ca Node B - Kh nng mm: Cng sut ca cell ti ng ln v ng xung 4.3.1.2.Mc tiu ca iu khin ti: - Gi vng s n nh ca h thng - Ti a hiu nng mng trong khi vn m bo vng ph v QoS - Thc hin mm do gia cc dch v khc nhau vi u tin khc nhau ca nhng ngi dng khc nhau 4.3.1.3.Thut ton iu khin ti: Thut ton iu khin ti c p dng ti nhng pha truy nhp khc nhau ca ngi dng, n c minh ha nh hnh v di

Trong : PUC: iu khin kh nng ngi dng IAC: iu khin tha nhn thng minh LDR: s b tr li ti CAC: iu khin tha nhn cuc gi LDB: cn bng ti cng tn s OLC: iu khin qu ti

77

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

- Nhng thut ton iu khin ti c xy dng ti RNC. u vo ca vic iu khin ti n t RNC v cc thng tin o lng t Node B - RNC tnh ton loi ti ti nguyn cng nh ti nguyn m OVSF, bng thng truyn dn ca Node B, bng thng chim gi ca giao din Iu, ti mm ti Node B

Hnh 4.0.61.iu khin ti o lng ti: - ng ln: +Tng cng sut bng rng nhn c ti ng ln (RTWP) +Cng sut nhn c chia s cho knh ring tng cng (RSEPS) +Tc bit cung cp cho knh ring E-DCH (PBR) - ng xung: +Cng sut sng mang pht ti ng xung (TCP) +TCP ca tt c cc m khng s dng cho knh vt l chia s ng xung tc cao HS-PDSCH +Tc bit cung cp cho knh HS-DSCH +Cng sut HS-DSCH yu cu cn c gi l tc bit an ton (GBR) S phc tp v u tin trong iu khin cng sut: - u tin ca ngi dng: Gm 3 cp u tin l : vng, bc, ng v tng ng l tc s dng dch v cho php nh trong bng di 78

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Bng4.6.Phn loi ngi dng v tc dch v Vic thit lp mi tng quan gia cc cp ngi dng c cu hnh ti RNC 4.3.2.Thut ton iu khin ti: 4.3.2.1.Kim sot nhng kh nng ca ngi dng(PUC) - Thut ton PUC iu khin hng UE la chn cell khc tn s v ngn chn UE nhp vo cell ang c ti nng - Cc kh nng c th c ca UE: Trng thi ri, trng thi CELL_FACH, trng thi CELL_PCH, URA_PCH - Ti ca cell trong thut ton PUC c 3 trng thi: nng ti, bnh thng v nh ti. RNC gim st theo chu k ti ng xung ca cell v so snh vi kt qu o lng. Ta c 2 gii hn phn chia mc ti l phn chia mc cao v mc thp - Th tc thut ton PUC

Hnh 4.0.62.Minh ha thut ton iu khin ti

79

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

- Node B nh k bo co tng cng sut pht ca sng mang (TCP) ca cell v th tc PUC c thc hin theo chu k gm cc hot ng sau: +nh gi ti ca cell da trn tng cng sut pht ca sng mang +nh ra cc thng s sau: Sinterseach, Qoffset1, Qoffset2.Trong Sinterseach l ngng cho s la chn cell khc tn s, Qoffset1, Qoffset2 l cc mc ti b p +Sinterseach: +Qoffset: gim Qoffset Khi ti ca cell hin ti khng nng v cell ln cn l nng th PUC s tng Qoffset 4.3.2.2.Cn bng ti nhng cell cng tn s (LDB): Mc ch ca thut ton ny l iu chnh vng ph ca cc cell theo gi tr ti cng sut ng xung o c ti cell. RNC kim tra ti ca cell u tin v iu chnh cng sut pht ca knh P-CPICH. Khi ti ca mt cell tng ln th n phi gim vng ph gim ti, khi ti ca cell gim th vng ph ca n c m rng. Vic gim thiu cng sut pilot s lm cho cc UE ti bin ca cell c chuyn sang cell ln cn sau qu trnh ny ti ca cell ang xt s c gim bt tng ng. Qu trnh c minh ha nh di hnh v - Node B bo co theo nh k tng cng sut sng mang pht ca cell va thut ton LDB gm cc th tc sau: +c tnh ti ca cell da trn tng cng sut sng mang pht +Nu ti ng xung ca cell l cao hn gii hn quy nh th lc ny cng sut knh P-CPICH cn phi gim +Nu ti ng xung ca cell l nh hn gii hn quy nh th phi tng cng sut ca knh P-CPICH n gip gim nh ti cho cc cell ln cn Nu ti ca cell l nng th PUC tng Sinterseach Nu ti ca cell l nng th PUC gim Sinterseach Khi ti ca cell hin ti l nng v cell ln cn khng nng th PUC s

80

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Hnh 4.0.63.Minh ha thut ton cn bng ti 4.3.2.3.iu khin thu np Nu ti giao din v tuyn c cho php tng ln mt cch lin tc th vng ph sng ca cell b gim i di gi tr hoch nh (gi l cell breathing) v QoS ca cc kt ni ang tn ti khng th m bo. Nguyn nhn ca hiu ng cell breathing l v c im gii hn nhiu ca cc h thng CDMA. V th, trc khi thu nhn mt kt ni mi, iu khin thu np cn kim tra xem vic nhn kt ni mi s khng nh hng n vng ph sng hoc QoS ca cc kt ni ang hot ng hay khng. iu khin thu np chp nhn hay t chi yu cu thit lp mt truy nhp v tuyn trong mng truy nhp. Chc nng iu khin thu np c t trong b iu khin RNC, ni m lu gi thng tin v ti ca cc s cell do n qun l. Thut ton iu khin thu np tnh ton vic ti tng ln do s thit lp thm i tng s gy ra trong mng truy nhp v tuyn. Vic tnh ton ti c p dng cho c ng ln v ng xung. u cui yu cu c th c chp nhn ch khi iu khin thu np trong c 2 chiu chp nhn, nu khng th n b t chi bi v nhiu qu mc c th tng thm trong mng. Nhn chung cc chin lc iu khin thu np c th chia thnh hai loi: chin lc iu khin thu np da vo cng sut bng rng v chin

81

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

lc iu khin thu np da vo thng lng. Ngi s dng mi s khng c chp nhn nu mc nhiu tng th mi to ra cao hn gi tr mc ngng Ithreshold, c th: + T chi: Itotal-old + I > Ithreshold

+ Chp nhn : Itotal-old + I < Ithreshold Gi tr ngng ging vi tng nhiu ng ln ln nht v c th c thit lp bi vic quy hoch mng v tuyn.

Hnh 4.0.64. ng th ca ti Trong chin lc iu khin thu np da vo thng lng, ngi s dng mi khng c thu nhn truy nhp vo mng nu ton b ti mi gy ra cao hn gi tr ngng: + T chi : total-old + L > threshold

+ Chp nhn : total-old + L < threshold Tng t i vi chin lc iu khin thu np da vo cng sut nh sau: + T chi : Ptotal-old + Ptotal > Pthreshold

82

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

+ Chp nhn : Ptotal-old + Ptotal < Pthreshold Ch rng vic iu khin thu np c p dng mt cch tch bit trn c ng ln v ng xung. V mi hng c th s dng cc chin lc iu khin thu np khc nhau. 4.3.2.5. iu khin qu ti: L do: nu ri vo trng thi qu ti h thng s khng n nh Mc ch: m bo tnh n nh ca h thng v a h thng tr li trng thi bnh thng sau khi b qu ti. 4.4. Quy hoch vng cho RNP v RNC 4.4.1.Tng quan

Hnh 4.0.65.V tr ca RNC trong mng - RNC iu khin mng v tuyn n tng ng vi BSC trong h thng GSM. RNC kt ni vi cc Node B, mng li ca 3G (MSC 3G v SGSN ca 3G), kt ni vi cc RNC khc tng ng qua cc giao din Iub, Iu v Iur. RNC ch yu thc hin nhng x l ti lp 2 v x l iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn ca giao din Uu. RNC thc hin tt cc x l ti mt phng iu khin v mt phng ngi dng ca cc giao

83

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

din Iu/Iub/Iur, n thc hin kt ni v ngt kt ni, thc hin chc nng qun l ti nguyn v tuyn ca qu trnh chuyn giao, iu khin cng sut v xc nhn cuc gi - Vng ca RNC m ch mt vng ph sng v tuyn gm mt hoc nhiu cell c iu khin bi cng mt RNC. Cc RNC khc nhau c phn bit bng ch s RNCId, ch s ny cng vi ch s PLMN-Id duy nht xc nhn mt RNC trn th gii iu c ngha l: RNC-Id quc t = PLMN-Id + RNC-Id - Quy hoch vng RNC l vic b tr s lng RNC lin quan n: rng vng ph sng, s lng cell c iu khin bi mi RNC v vng ph ca mi RNC. Vic quy hoch RNC l mt phn ca quy hoch mng v tuyn. l vic b tr vng cho RNC da trn kt qu quy hoch s lng Node B v s lng cell cng vi rng ca vng ph khc nhau ca cc cell 4.4.2.Th tc quy hoch vng cho RNC: Th tc quy hoch vng gm 2 phn: S lng RNC v quy hoch vng cho RNC. Trc kia phn tnh ton s lng RNC yu cu phi tng ng vi s Node B, s cell, hiu nng ca mi cell v lu lng cc giao din (gm cc kiu giao din v tng s cc lin kt). N l mt phn ca vic nh c mng v tuyn. Sau ny phn tnh ton da trn vng ph tng i ca RNC tng ng vi s lng RNC v rng vng ph ca mi cell trong kt qu nh c mng. Vic nh c ny c thc hin thng qua qu trnh m phng. rng vng ph ca RNC c th c nh r sau khi cc cell c xc nhn l thuc v RNC - u vo ca quy hoch vng cho RNC: S lng Node B v s lng cell trong vng ph, hiu nng ca cell, rng vng ph ca mi cell v s lng, lu lng cc lin kt - u ra ca quy hoch vng cho RNC: S lng RNC trong vng ph v thng tin RNC-Id ca cc cell cng mt RNC qun l

84

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

- Hnh di y l th tc quy hoch vng cho RNC


Bt u

Xc nh s RNC da trn cu trc v hot ng ca m ng Kt qu c lng lu lng /s cell /s Node B Tnh ton kh nng x l thc t ca RNC (lu lng /s cell /s Node B c h tr RNC chia tch cell

Kh nng x l ca RNC

Cc hn ch khc nh ti nguyn truyn ti , ti nguyn mng li

RNC c h tr hay khng ?

S RNC cn thit Tnh ton mng v tuyn Quy hoch mng v tuyn RNC phn b cc cell

Vng ph ca cell b trm

/phn

iu kin a l thc t

RNC _ID ca m cell i

Kt thc

Hnh 4.0.66.Th tc quy hoch vng cho RNC

85

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

4.4.3.Phn tch cc yu t hn ch vng ca RNC Ta nhn thy rng vng RNC nh th s c nhiu RNC v s mt nhiu chi ph cho vic xy dng chng, vic ny dn ti tng lu lng bo hiu v tng t l rt cuc gi. Hn na RNC qu nh yu cu nhiu ti nguyn truyn dn ca giao din Iur/Iu v n c th nh hng ti vic thc hin vic qun l ti nguyn v tuyn. Bi vy ta s i phn tch nhng yu t hn ch n vic quy hoch vng ph ca RNC Nu vng ca RNC qu nh th n s nh hng ti vic qun l ti nguyn v tuyn. iu ny c phn tch nh sau: - Lc ny vic trao i bo hiu gia cc RNC s b tr v bng thng cu hnh cho cc giao din s b gii hn. Vic tng s lng RNC s nh hng ti kh nng thc hin cc thut ton v d nh chuyn giao mm v do t l chuyn giao thnh cng s thp cht lng cuc gi gim -Vi thut ton qun l ti nguyn v tuyn trong RNC c thc hin bng bo hiu bn trong RNC v khng c h tr bi giao din Iur. iu ny cho thy nu CRNC v SRNC khng l cng RNC th vi thut ton qun l ti nguyn v tuyn s khng thc hin c 4.4.3.1.S hn ch hiu nng x l ca RNC Kch c ca RNC c nh ra da trn nhng c tnh chnh sau: - Hiu nng x l ca RNC - S lung E1 ca giao din Iub m RNC c th cp - S cell c h tr bi RNC - S Node B c h tr bi RNC - .. a.Tnh ton s RNC da trn hiu nng ca n: RNC_1=[S user c h tr bi RNC/40000] Hoc RNC_1=[S Erlang /40000]

86

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

b.Tnh ton s RNC da trn s lung E1 m n c th cp cho giao din Iub RNC_2=[S lung E1 ca giao din Iub c RNC cp/2016] c.Tnh s RNC da trn s cell m n h tr RNC_3=[S cell m RNC h tr/2560] d.Tnh s RNC da trn s Node B m n h tr RNC_4=[S Node B m n h tr/1280] e.Tng kt li ta c s lng RNC yu cu l RNCs=max{RNC_1, RNC_2, RNC_3, RNC_4} 4.4.3.2.nh hng ca yu t qun tr Kch thc ca RNC l yu t trong cu trc t chc ca nh mng. V tng quan, nh mng nh ra thnh phn vn hnh v bo dng mng l da trn cu trc qun l theo vng. Vic quy hoch vng cho RNC cn phi lu n cu trc vn hnh v bo dng ca nh mng. Ni chung RNC l mt phn ca mng truy nhp cc b. RNC khng c s dng vt qu phm vi mng cc b, n ch c th h tr cc cell trong vic iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn. ln ca RNC b gii hn bi vng qun tr l mt iu chc chn 4.4.3.3.nh hng ca giao din truyn dn: im ni bt ca h thng WCDMA l vic cung cp cc dch v d liu tc cao. iu ny i hi tng ti nguyn truyn dn ca cc giao din Iu/Iur/Iub. Nu ti nguyn cung cp khng th kh nng x l ca RNC s b gii hn v vy vng ca RNC cng b gii hn theo.Ti nguyn giao din gm: s lng cc giao din Iu/Iur/Iub c cung cp tng ng vi n l s lung E1 kt ni vi RNC t y suy ra c ca RNC 4.4.3.4.nh hng ca nng lc mng li: l nh hng ca hiu nng MSC/SGSN ti nng lc ca RNC hn na l nh hng ti vng ph ca RNC

87

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Ni chung, nu MSC 3G c s dng, nng lc ca n l th khng nh hng ti nng lc ca RNC. Tuy nhin nu nh mng ngh ti vn gim chi ph v vn nng cp th MSC 2G c kt ni vo mng li. Khi MSC 2G kt ni vi RNC 3G th hiu nng ca RNC s b nh hng. Ni chung mt MSC 2G h tr 400.000 thu bao thoi. Gi s phn trm s dng MSC 2G hin ti l 60% v 20% cho d phng do s ngi dng truy nhp RNC 3G l 80.000. Do MSC s ri vo tnh trng nghn c chai n dn n tnh trng tng t cho RNC v vy hn ch vng ca RNC 4.4.3.5.D tr ti nguyn cho vic m rng mng Vi vic thng dng ca mng WCDMA v vic pht trin cc dch v mi, s lng ngi dng v yu cu cho kh nng pht trin tng nm. Vic m rng nng lc ca Node B c thc hin bng cch tng cng sut pht, thm phng php iu ch, thm tn s sng mang v phn tch cell. Kh nng m rng ca RNC c th c thc hin vi 3 bc sau: a.Xy dng RNC mi cng vi nhng Node B mi

Hnh 4.0.67.Trc khi m rng vng cho RNC

88

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Hnh 4.0.68.Sau khi m rng vng cho RNC Thun li: lc ny ch tn ti mt s lng nh RNC trc khi m rng, khng nh hng ti s tn ti ca cc Node B Khng thun li: lu lng truyn gia cc RNC l ln b.Thm RNC v mi RNC qun l vi Node B

Hnh 4.0.69.Trc khi thm RNC 89

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Hnh 4.0.70.Sau khi thm RNC mi Thun li: c mt s lng nh RNC trc khi m rng, v lu lng truyn gia cc RNC l nh Khng thun li: nh hng ti s tn ti v hot ng ca Node B c.D tr ti nguyn ca RNC v thm cc Node B mi Ti giai on u ca cu trc mng, vic cu hnh phn cng hoc phn mm ng k ca RNC khng th t n hiu nng ti a ca n. Kh nng m rng c th c thc hin khi m rng nng cp phn cng v phn mm Thun li: vic m rng khng nh hng n s tn ti ca Node B, lu lng truyn gia cc RNC l nh

90

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Khng thun li: ti giai on ban u c vi RNC c cu hnh nhng cha t c hiu nng yu cu

Hnh 4.0.71.Trc khi thm cc Node B

Hnh 4.0.72.Sau khi thm cc Node B mi

91

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

4.4.4.Nguyn tc quy hoch vng cho RNC Trong qu trnh quy hoch vng cho RNC, s lng RNC trong mng cc b c ln k hoch da trn nh hng ca cc yu t nh ni trn. Sau y l mt vi quy tc 4.4.4.1.Nguyn tc vng ph lin tc Khi quy hoch vng cho RNC no , nguyn tc vng ph lin tc cn c tr trng, iu ph thuc ton b cell ti vng ph lin tc ca RNC trnh tnh trng vng ph khng lin tc ca RNC. Phng php ny c th gim thiu s cell ti bin vng ca RNC n c th hin trong vic gim thiu chuyn giao v tng t l chuyn giao thnh cng, do gim thiu lu lng gia cc RNC

Hnh 4.0.73.Vng ph lin tc ca RNC

Hnh 4.0.74.Vng ph khng lin tc ca RNC

92

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

4.4.4.2.Gim thiu lu lng bo hiu, lu lng d liu qua cc RNC Trong quy hoch vng cho RNC vic gim thiu lu lng gia cc RNC l rt cn thit, iu ny c th thc hin bng cch gim thiu lu lng bo hiu nh vic hn ch qu trnh chuyn giao mm gia cc RNC Ti khu vc thnh ph lu lng l ln, nu c 2 hay nhiu hn cc vng RNC cng tn ti, vng RNC c th chia nh m bo gim thiu vic trng lp cell trong cc vng RNC 4.4.4.3.Cn bng lu lng: Ti khu vc thnh ph c mt lu lng ln nu 2 hay nhiu hn cc vng ph ca RNC cng tn ti th s cell v lu lng ca mi RNC cn phi c cn bng. iu ny nhm trnh hin tng rt cuc gi do RNC b qu ti v hn ch v ti nguyn. Di y l hnh minh ha:

Hnh 4.0.75.Lu lng khng c cn bng

Hnh 4.0.76.Sau khi cn bng lu lng

93

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

4.5.Cc vn thng gp trn thc t v cch khc phc 4.5.1.Ti u vng ph - Tiu chun vng ph tt +RSCP: Reveiver Signal Code Power: cng sut m tn hiu nhn c +Ec/No: nng lng chip / mt cng sut nhiu nhn c - Mc ch cn t c: +RSCP -105dBm trn 95% mu o +Ec/No-12dB trn 95% mu o Nguyn nhn lm RSCP thp +Do che chn ca cc ta nh cao tng, cng trnh xy dng +Gc ngng ca anten l ngng qu hoc cp qu +Sai gc phng v (Azimuth) hoc s dng sai loi anten +H thng Feeder ca anten suy hao qu ln +t sai cng sut knh CPICH +Li phn cng Node B - Cch khc phc: +iu chnh gc phng v +iu chnh gc ngng ca anten +Thay loi anten ph hp

94

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

+Kim tra li cng sut knh CPICH +Kim tra li cc cnh bo ca Node B +Kim tra cc u ni ti Node B +o VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio), kim tra Feeder anten v cc u connector Nguyn nhn lm t s Ec/No thp +Pilot pollution: c qu nhiu knh pilot c RSCP tt ti cng mt v tr dn n vng ph b chng ln +Thiu Neighbour 3G: mt cell mnh m khng c nh ngha neighbor s tr thnh nhiu cho cc cell khc do Ec/No thp +Cell selection/reselection chm hoc khng thc hin c dn n UE nhp vo cell c cht lng ti +Ti ca cell cao cng dn n Ec/No thp - Cch khc phc: +Gim Pilot pollution: chn mt cell tt nht lm cell phc v, gim vng ph cho cc cell khc nhm gim vic chng ln vng ph iu ny c thc hin bng cch chnh gc ngng ca Anten, chnh gc phng v +Kim tra Neighbour 3G: nu thy thiu th khai thm +Nu Ec/No thp do RSCP yu l do vng ph km, ta phi tng RSCP +Kim tra vic la chn li cell +Trong trng hp ti ca cell cao ta thc hin vic chia ti, cn bng ti 95

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

4.5.2.Vn rt cuc gi nguyn nhn v khc phc

1.Chun b d liu

2.V tr v thi gian xy ra rt cuc gi

3.Phn tch s thay i tn hiu ti cell c s t vic d tm


N

Tn hiu ca cell l n nh ?
Y

4.RSCP v Ec /Io ca cell tt nht tm c

4.1 RSCP v Ec ti

/Io l

4.2 RSCP v Ec /Io l bnh thng

4.3 RSCP bnh thng v Ec /Io l xu

Khng m bo

So snh cell tt nht qua vic tm ca UE v qua vic o kim m bo

Kt lun do thiu cell neighbour ?


N Y

Kt lun do nhiu ng ln ?
N

Vn vng ph

Thiu cell neighbour

Tr chuyn giao

Nhiu ng ln

Thit b li

Vn knh pilot

Hiu ng chuyn giao ping -pong

5.Lp li cc bc

Vn c gii quyt

end

Hnh 4.0.77.S thut ton v vn rt cuc gi

96

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Vng ph qu hp Vng ph hp c th hin qua cc thng s sau - Ch s Ec/Io thp, v d Ec/Io <-15dB - Cng sut m tn hiu nhn c RSCP nh hn -110dB Khc phc:iu chnh li cc h s lm vic ca h thng anten hoc dng thm cell mi Nhiu ng ln Nhiu ng ln l nguyn nhn hng u dn ti vic khng cn bng gia ng ln v ng xung do xy ra vic rt cuc gi. Ta c th khc phc bng cch tm ra cc ngun gy nhiu v a ra cc bin php x l S hot khng n nh ca thit b 4.5.3.Vn chuyn giao a.D liu phn tch u vo: D liu c lin quan n s bo hiu, bn ghi lch s cuc gi, d liu thng k thu c sau qu trnh kho st, o th hot ng ca mng.

97

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

1.u vo Ti liu v kt qu kho st S bo hiu File cu hnh RNC Bn ghi lch s cuc gi

2.Thu c khi xy ra vn ti thi im chuyn giao

3.Khng thy cell ln cn

Y 4.Hng knh ng b sng mang Pilot Y 5.nhng thng s cu hnh khng hp l N N

Y 7.Lp li vic phn tch d liu tm nguyn nhn 6.Thit b hot ng khng tt N

8.iu chnh v b xung

9.u ra kt qu ti u

Hnh 4.0.78.S thut ton v vn chuyn giao b.Cc nguyn nhn lm chuyn giao khng thnh cng v cch khc phc b1.Thiu cell neighbour 98

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

Trong giai on u ca vic ti u ha th vic chuyn giao m khng tm thy cell ln cn l thng xuyn xy ra vic ny c khc phc nh sau: - Kim tra t s Ec/Io c ghi li bi UE trc khi rt cuc gi v Ec/Io tt nht c ghi li trong qu trnh d tm ban u - Nu UE gi li ngay sau khi b rt cuc gi, nhng vic thiu cell ln cn li xy ra. - Khc phc tnh trng trn bng cch khai bo thm cell neighbour b2.Pilot Pollution: - C qu nhiu knh pilot mnh cng mt v tr nhng khng c knh no trong s chng tr thnh knh pilot phc v chnh - Khc phc: gim s knh Pilot, chn mt cell tt nht lm cell phc v, gim vng ph cho cc cell khc nhm gim chng ln vng ph. Chnh gc phng v v gc ngng ca anten b3.Cu hnh sai cc tham s thut ton chuyn giao mm - tr chuyn giao:trong khi chuyn giao thi gian m UE nhn c bn tin phn hi t mng l di hn bnh thng nn UE khng tch cc kp thi +Nguyn nhn: do Ec/Io ca cc cell gc gim mnh v ca cc cell ch tng nhanh ng k ti mt gi tr cc i, Ec/Io ca cc cell gc gim mnh trc khi n tng ln v Ec/Io ca cell ch tng nhanh trong thi gian ngn +Khc phc: a ra phng php iu khin cng sut thch hp b4.Tha cell neighbour Theo tiu chun s cell ln cn ti a l 32 gm c cell ang xt nn suy ra s cell ln cn ti a vi cell ang xt l 31. Nu s cell ln cn m ln hn 31 th ta phi loi b i. Trc khi xa b cell d tha phi kim tra li d liu c lu ti n, sau khi loi b ta tin hnh kim tra ton b ti y c th kim tra c s thay i kt qu lu lng tnh tng ng vi cell ang xt n bao gm t l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng, t l rt cuc gi v t l chuyn giao thnh cng b5.Hiu ng ping-pong:

99

Chng 4: Cc gii php chnh nng cao cht lng dch v 3G

L hin tng UE lin tc b chuyn giao gia cc cell phc v mc d n khng h di chuyn. N c nhiu nguyn nhn nhng y ta tp trung phn tch nguyn nhn gy ra hiu ng Ping-pong trong qu trnh chuyn giao khc cng ngh truy nhp v d gia 2G v 3G ti mt v tr ngi dng ang ng s dng thit b chy c c 2G v 3G, gi s ban u ang s dng dch v 3G. Khi t s Ec/Io gim mnh, UE o cc cell ln cn v thy cell 2G c t s Ec/Io cao v n thc hin chuyn giao sang cell v khi Ec/Io ca 3G tng tr li UE li thc hin chuyn giao sang cell 3G. Qu trnh chuyn qua li nh th ny dn n nguyn nhn rt cuc gi v y cng l hin tng cc thu bao Vinaphone b rt mng trong thi gian u Vinaphone trin khai 3G ti Vit Nam nhng hin tng ny c khc phc sau - Hng khc phc: cu hnh tng khong thi gian gia SsearchRAT v FDD_Qmin.

100

Kt lun
Sau hn 3 thng lm ti Nghin cu nhng gii php nng cao cht lng dch v trong h thng thng tin di ng th h 3 c hon thnh. ti gii quyt c nhng vn sau y: -Nghin cu tng quan v h thng 3G -a ra nhng gii php chnh nhm nng cao cht lng dch v v vng ph ca mng nh: quy hoch v ti u mng v tuyn 3G -a ra mt s vn thng gp nh: rt cuc gi, chuyn giao khng thnh cng v bin php khc phc Tuy nhin y mi ch l bc thit k theo l thuyt, vic trin khai thc t chc chn s c nhiu im cn b xung thm v y chnh l iu kin n c hon thin hn. Vn nng cao cht lng dch v lin quan cht ch n qu trnh quy hoch, ti u ha mng v tuyn, vic ny c thc hin lin tc cng vi s thay i cu trc mng li theo nhu cu ca ngi s dng v vy vic cp nht s liu o kim c trong thi gian mng i vo hot ng cng vi vic m phng ti u trong cng tc quy hoch ti u l hng i tip theo ca ti.

101

NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN

Ngy

thng

nm 2010

Ths. LU C THUN

NHN XT CA GIO VIN C DUYT

Ngy

thng

nm 2010

..........................................

102

Li cm n
Sau khong thi gian lm vic c gng em hon thnh n ca mnh. c c kt qu ny mt yu t rt quan trng khng th thiu l s hng dn tn tnh ca thy gio Ths. Lu c Thun, ngi hng dn em tng bc em c c cng trnh u tay ny. Li u tin em xin cm n thy hng dn, cho em nhng li khuyn qu bu, xin chc thy v gia nh lun mnh khe v hnh phc. Tip theo em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c trong b mn K thut vin thng, b mn K thut thng tin truyn t cho em nhng kin thc qu bu lm hnh trang cho em bc vo ngh, cng vi em xin cm n cc thnh vin trong gia nh ca mnh, cm n bn b ng vin c v em trong sut qu trnh lm n cng nh trong 5 nm hc i hc Cui cng em xin gi li chc sc khe, li cho trn trng ti ton th thy c, gia nh v cc bn. Em xin chn thnh cm n.

103

Ti liu tham kho


1.Ting Vit a.Thng tin di ng Nguyn Phm Anh Dng Nh xut bn bu in thng 7 nm 2007 b.L trnh pht trin h thng thng tin di ng t 3G ln 4G Nguyn Phm Anh Dng Nh xut bn bu in thng 10 nm 2008 2.Ting Anh: a.WCDMA RAN planning and Optimization Huawei Technogies Co., Ltd 2008 b.W-Hanover and Call Drop Problem Optimization Guide - Huawei Technogies Co., Ltd c. WCDMA_RNP_RNC_Area_Planning_Guidance - Huawei Technogies Co., Ltd 2006 d. W-KPI Monitoring and Improvement Guide - Huawei Technogies Co., Ltd 2008 3.Trang web: a. http://vntelecom.org/ b. http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn c. http://en.wikipedia.org

104