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Enterprise Mobility Management: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Enterprise Mobility Management: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Publicado porEmereo Publishing
Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people, processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices, wireless networks, and related services. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. According to recent research, subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009. By 2012, business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States. Just as companies rely on human resource, financial management and CRM software, mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. The cost, risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.

This book is your ultimate resource for Enterprise Mobility Management. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Enterprise Mobility Management right away, covering: Enterprise Mobility Management, Mobile technology, 2-way iSMS, 2degrees, Access Stratum, Adaptxt, Advanced Wireless Services, AskMeNow, Assisted GPS, Audience (telecom company), Azimuth Systems, Basic Trading Area, Cablefree, CDMA Chipsets, Cel-Fi, Cell of origin (telecommunications), Cell on wheels, Cellular repeater, CIMD, Closed User Group (CUG), Columbitech, Communication Linking Protocol, Context-aware services, Coverage map, DataSplice, DigRF, Drive testing, Dual mode mobile, Dumb pipe, Dynamic Link Adaptation, E-OTD, Electronic Serial Number, EMBARC, EMI (protocol), Enhanced GPS, ERMES, ESME, EUIMID, Face2face, FLEX (protocol), General content descriptor, Generic Bootstrapping Architecture, Matt Gillin, GMLC, GoTV Networks, Handheld television, Handover, Hardlink (homonymy), IControlPad, IDT Spectrum, Image share, Instant message service center, Inter standard roaming, Interference in mobile communications, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Ip.access, IQAN, IST-Plastic, ITap, July Systems, Jumptap, Librestream, List of devices with Assisted GPS, Local number portability, Location awareness, MLearning, Macrocell, Manitoba (computer chip), Microcell, MINDS, Mobify, Mobile Access Protocol, Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content, Mobile Architecture, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, Mobile collaboration, Mobile commerce, Mobile database, Mobile Enterprise Asset Management, Mobile Equipment Identifier, Mobile IPTV, Mobile network operator, Mobile phone tracking, Mobile radio, Mobile search, Mobile technology in Africa, Mobile Telephone Switching Office, Mobile ticketing, Mobile virtual network operator, Mobile virtual private network, Mobile workflow, Mobile-to-mobile convergence, Mobile.info, Mobispine, Modu, Motorola Pageboy, Motricity, MSRN, MTV-1, Multi-band, Multiuser detection, MVDS, Mxim, Navizon, Near-field magnetic induction communication, NetMotion Wireless, Network on Terminal Architecture, Non Access Stratum, Number Assignment Module, Online charging system, Open Handset Alliance, Optpcs, ORFS, Over-the-air programming, P2000 (network), PacketVideo, Pager, PCS switching center, Peer-to-peer video sharing, Personal Communications Service, Phizzle, Helio Ocean, Picket-fencing, Picocell, Predictive text, Proximity marketing, Public land mobile network, PuppetMaster (application), Push Proxy Gateway, Kamal Quadir, Paul Raden...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Enterprise Mobility Management. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Enterprise Mobility Management with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people, processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices, wireless networks, and related services. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. According to recent research, subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009. By 2012, business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States. Just as companies rely on human resource, financial management and CRM software, mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. The cost, risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.

This book is your ultimate resource for Enterprise Mobility Management. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Enterprise Mobility Management right away, covering: Enterprise Mobility Management, Mobile technology, 2-way iSMS, 2degrees, Access Stratum, Adaptxt, Advanced Wireless Services, AskMeNow, Assisted GPS, Audience (telecom company), Azimuth Systems, Basic Trading Area, Cablefree, CDMA Chipsets, Cel-Fi, Cell of origin (telecommunications), Cell on wheels, Cellular repeater, CIMD, Closed User Group (CUG), Columbitech, Communication Linking Protocol, Context-aware services, Coverage map, DataSplice, DigRF, Drive testing, Dual mode mobile, Dumb pipe, Dynamic Link Adaptation, E-OTD, Electronic Serial Number, EMBARC, EMI (protocol), Enhanced GPS, ERMES, ESME, EUIMID, Face2face, FLEX (protocol), General content descriptor, Generic Bootstrapping Architecture, Matt Gillin, GMLC, GoTV Networks, Handheld television, Handover, Hardlink (homonymy), IControlPad, IDT Spectrum, Image share, Instant message service center, Inter standard roaming, Interference in mobile communications, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Ip.access, IQAN, IST-Plastic, ITap, July Systems, Jumptap, Librestream, List of devices with Assisted GPS, Local number portability, Location awareness, MLearning, Macrocell, Manitoba (computer chip), Microcell, MINDS, Mobify, Mobile Access Protocol, Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content, Mobile Architecture, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, Mobile collaboration, Mobile commerce, Mobile database, Mobile Enterprise Asset Management, Mobile Equipment Identifier, Mobile IPTV, Mobile network operator, Mobile phone tracking, Mobile radio, Mobile search, Mobile technology in Africa, Mobile Telephone Switching Office, Mobile ticketing, Mobile virtual network operator, Mobile virtual private network, Mobile workflow, Mobile-to-mobile convergence, Mobile.info, Mobispine, Modu, Motorola Pageboy, Motricity, MSRN, MTV-1, Multi-band, Multiuser detection, MVDS, Mxim, Navizon, Near-field magnetic induction communication, NetMotion Wireless, Network on Terminal Architecture, Non Access Stratum, Number Assignment Module, Online charging system, Open Handset Alliance, Optpcs, ORFS, Over-the-air programming, P2000 (network), PacketVideo, Pager, PCS switching center, Peer-to-peer video sharing, Personal Communications Service, Phizzle, Helio Ocean, Picket-fencing, Picocell, Predictive text, Proximity marketing, Public land mobile network, PuppetMaster (application), Push Proxy Gateway, Kamal Quadir, Paul Raden...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Enterprise Mobility Management. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Enterprise Mobility Management with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 23, 2011
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Sections

  • Enterprise Mobility Management
  • Mobile technology
  • 2-way iSMS
  • 2degrees
  • Access Stratum
  • Adaptxt
  • Advanced Wireless Services
  • AskMeNow
  • Assisted GPS
  • Audience (telecom company)
  • Azimuth Systems
  • Basic Trading Area
  • Basic Trading Area MTA
  • Cablefree
  • CDMA Chipsets
  • Cel-Fi
  • Cell of origin (telecommunications)
  • Cell on wheels
  • Cellular repeater
  • CIMD
  • Closed User Group (CUG)
  • Columbitech
  • Communication Linking Protocol
  • Context-aware services
  • Coverage map
  • DataSplice
  • DigRF
  • Drive testing
  • Dual mode mobile
  • Dumb pipe
  • Dynamic Link Adaptation
  • E-OTD
  • Electronic Serial Number
  • EMBARC
  • EMI (protocol)
  • Enhanced GPS
  • ERMES
  • ESME
  • EUIMID
  • face2face
  • FLEX (protocol)
  • General content descriptor
  • Generic Bootstrapping Architecture
  • Matt Gillin
  • GMLC
  • GoTV Networks
  • Handheld television
  • Handover
  • Hardlink (homonymy)
  • iControlPad
  • IDT Spectrum
  • Image share
  • Instant message service center
  • Inter standard roaming
  • Interference in mobile communications
  • interference in mobile communications
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem
  • ip.access
  • IQAN
  • IST-Plastic
  • iTap
  • July Systems
  • Jumptap
  • Librestream
  • List of devices with Assisted GPS
  • List of devices with Assisted GPS:
  • Local number portability
  • Location awareness
  • MLearning
  • Macrocell
  • Manitoba (computer chip)
  • Microcell
  • MINDS
  • Mobify
  • Mobile Access Protocol
  • Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content
  • Mobile Architecture
  • Mobile Assisted Language Learning
  • Mobile collaboration
  • Mobile commerce
  • Mobile database
  • Mobile Enterprise Asset Management
  • Mobile Equipment Identifier
  • Mobile IPTV
  • Mobile network operator
  • Mobile phone tracking
  • Mobile radio
  • Mobile search
  • Mobile technology in Africa
  • Mobile Telephone Switching Office
  • Mobile ticketing
  • Mobile virtual network operator
  • Mobile virtual private network
  • Mobile workflow
  • Mobile-to-mobile convergence
  • Mobile.info
  • Mobispine
  • modu
  • Motorola Pageboy
  • Motricity
  • MSRN
  • MTV-1
  • Multi-band
  • Multiuser detection
  • MVDS
  • Mxim
  • Navizon
  • Near-field magnetic induction communication
  • NetMotion Wireless
  • Network on Terminal Architecture
  • Non Access Stratum
  • Number Assignment Module
  • Online charging system
  • Open Handset Alliance
  • Optpcs
  • ORFS
  • Over-the-air programming
  • P2000 (network)
  • PacketVideo
  • Pager
  • PCS switching center
  • Peer-to-peer video sharing
  • Personal Communications Service
  • Phizzle
  • Helio Ocean
  • Picket-fencing
  • Picocell
  • Predictive text
  • Proximity marketing
  • Public land mobile network
  • PuppetMaster (application)
  • Push Proxy Gateway
  • Kamal Quadir
  • Paul Raden
  • Radio Interface Layer
  • ReCellular, Inc
  • ReFLEX
  • REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite
  • Rich Communication Suite
  • RingGo
  • Roaming
  • RTMI
  • Rxqual
  • S-GPS
  • SEVEN Networks
  • Sha-Mail
  • ShapeWriter
  • Short code
  • Short message peer-to-peer protocol
  • Short message service center
  • Signal strength
  • SlideIT
  • Smart pipe
  • SMS banking
  • SMS hubbing
  • SMS spoofing
  • Social positioning method
  • Soft handover
  • Solaris Mobile
  • Sony Watchman
  • Swype
  • Syclo
  • T9 (predictive text)
  • Taptu
  • Technology and mental health issues
  • Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol
  • Tethering
  • Thumbcast
  • TouchPal
  • Tower Mounted Amplifier
  • Transatel
  • Transatel
  • Tri-cell
  • UIMID
  • Universal Handy Interface
  • Upsnap
  • Video share
  • VoiceMode
  • W-SIM
  • WarViewing
  • WidSets
  • Wireless Informatics
  • World Mobile Congress
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Enterprise Mobility Management

IN-DEPTH: THE REAL DRIVERS AND
WORKINGS

Kevin Roebuck

REDUCES THE RISK OF YOUR TECHNOLOGY, TIME AND RESOURCES
INVESTMENT DECISIONS

ENABLING YOU TO COMPARE YOUR
UNDERSTANDING WITH THE OBJECTIVITY OF EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS

High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Contents
Articles
Enterprise Mobility Management Mobile technology 2-way iSMS 2degrees Access Stratum Adaptxt Advanced Wireless Services AskMeNow Assisted GPS Audience (telecom company) Azimuth Systems Basic Trading Area Cablefree CDMA Chipsets Cel-Fi Cell of origin (telecommunications) Cell on wheels Cellular repeater CIMD Closed User Group (CUG) Columbitech Communication Linking Protocol Context-aware services Coverage map DataSplice DigRF Drive testing Dual mode mobile Dumb pipe Dynamic Link Adaptation E-OTD Electronic Serial Number EMBARC EMI (protocol) 1 2 4 6 10 10 12 17 18 20 21 22 36 37 37 38 39 41 45 46 47 48 48 49 51 52 53 55 56 57 57 59 60 60

access IQAN IST-Plastic iTap July Systems Jumptap Librestream List of devices with Assisted GPS Local number portability Location awareness MLearning Macrocell Manitoba (computer chip) Microcell MINDS Mobify Mobile Access Protocol 62 63 64 64 66 67 68 68 71 73 73 74 75 79 80 84 85 86 87 87 87 98 103 104 107 108 110 112 114 120 131 134 141 141 142 143 145 146 .Enhanced GPS ERMES ESME EUIMID face2face FLEX (protocol) General content descriptor Generic Bootstrapping Architecture Matt Gillin GMLC GoTV Networks Handheld television Handover Hardlink (homonymy) iControlPad IDT Spectrum Image share Instant message service center Inter standard roaming Interference in mobile communications IP Multimedia Subsystem ip.

info Mobispine modu Motorola Pageboy Motricity MSRN MTV-1 Multi-band Multiuser detection MVDS Mxim Navizon Near-field magnetic induction communication NetMotion Wireless Network on Terminal Architecture Non Access Stratum Number Assignment Module Online charging system 146 147 148 153 155 160 164 166 168 172 172 176 181 187 189 190 199 208 211 212 212 214 215 218 219 221 221 222 223 223 224 225 227 229 232 235 236 236 .Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content Mobile Architecture Mobile Assisted Language Learning Mobile collaboration Mobile commerce Mobile database Mobile Enterprise Asset Management Mobile Equipment Identifier Mobile IPTV Mobile network operator Mobile phone tracking Mobile radio Mobile search Mobile technology in Africa Mobile Telephone Switching Office Mobile ticketing Mobile virtual network operator Mobile virtual private network Mobile workflow Mobile-to-mobile convergence Mobile.

ReFLEX REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite Rich Communication Suite RingGo Roaming RTMI Rxqual S-GPS SEVEN Networks Sha-Mail ShapeWriter Short code Short message peer-to-peer protocol Short message service center Signal strength 239 242 242 243 245 246 247 251 251 253 255 257 260 260 261 265 266 270 270 274 277 279 281 282 283 284 286 288 293 293 294 295 297 298 299 305 307 308 . Inc.Open Handset Alliance Optpcs ORFS Over-the-air programming P2000 (network) PacketVideo Pager PCS switching center Peer-to-peer video sharing Personal Communications Service Phizzle Helio Ocean Picket-fencing Picocell Predictive text Proximity marketing Public land mobile network PuppetMaster (application) Push Proxy Gateway Kamal Quadir Paul Raden Radio Interface Layer ReCellular.

SlideIT Smart pipe SMS banking SMS hubbing SMS spoofing Social positioning method Soft handover Solaris Mobile Sony Watchman Swype Syclo T9 (predictive text) Taptu Technology and mental health issues Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol Tethering Thumbcast TouchPal Tower Mounted Amplifier Transatel Tri-cell UIMID Universal Handy Interface Upsnap Video share VoiceMode W-SIM WarViewing WidSets Wireless Informatics World Mobile Congress 310 312 314 317 319 321 321 323 326 328 332 334 336 338 339 340 341 342 343 346 347 348 349 349 350 357 358 359 360 361 362 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources. Licenses and Contributors 363 370 Article Licenses License 372 .

Enterprise Mobility Management has several dimensions including: 1.1 End-user acceptance and compliance monitoring of Mobility Policies/Budgets 5. risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs. According to recent research.[1] Just as companies rely on human resource.3 End-user training . Administration.6 End-User Technical Support/Help Desk 4. and aircards . business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States.0 Mobility Portfolio Management 2. financial management and CRM software. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. wireless networks. Programs) 1.2 Procurement and Provisioning 4. mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions..3 People .1 Priorities & Objectives (Identify and Quantify) 1.4 Security Management 3.4 Policy Definition. processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices.4 Audits and Optimization 4.types and quantity) 2. The scope of Enterprise Mobility in this entry includes those mobile devices and related services provisioned to the workforce. subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device.2 End user allocation of mobile devices and related services 5.plans. Governance 1.1 Inventory Management 3. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009.1 Mobile Devices & Accessories (cell phones.0 Mobile Workforce Enablement 5.5 Vendor Mgmt/Contract Negotiations 4.2 Planning (Projects.5 Application Management 3.0 IT Management 3.3 Wireless Infrastructure Management 3.2 Wireless Networks (Private and Public. smartphones. and related services.3 Monthly Carrier Invoice Processing 4..Management. By 2012. features.2 Device Management 3.1 Budget and Controls 4.6 Periodic Management Reporting 5.Enterprise Mobility Management 1 Enterprise Mobility Management Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people.0 Financial Management 4. Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring 2.0 Strategy and Governance 1. The cost. etc) 2.3 Mobile Applications 3.

visagemobile. Priorities and Imperatives [5]. Apple iOS. Understanding Mobility Management: Trends.com.Android. Dean. which has several OSs like the 3G and 3G S. Mobile CDMA technology has evolved quite rapidly over the past few years. The Palm Pre using WebOS has functionality over the Internet and is . an embedded web browser. Android. Recent study has indicated that traditional multi-layer network architecture based on the OSI model may not be well suited for 4G mobile network. com/ staging/ images/ pdfs/ mobilitymanagementwhitepaper. where transactions of short packets will be the major part of the traffic in the channels. Any user can also create their own Apps and publish them to Apple's App Store. com http:/ / www. is the most popular smart phone at this time. pdf Mobile technology Mobile technology is a collective term used to describe the various types of cellular communication technology. com http:/ / www. boxtone. Among the most popular are the Apple iPhone. the detection of very short bursts will be a serious problem due to their very poor partial correlation properties. and the newest . the receiver should execute all necessary algorithms. Android is the first completely open source mobile OS. Blackberry. meaning that it is free to any cell phone carrier. com/ staging/ images/ pdfs/ mobilitymanagementwhitepaper. WebOS.4 End-User validation of allocation. interactions with all upper layers and so on. including: Symbian. and a hand-held video gaming system. mobidm. The same codes used in the 2G-3G networks will be applied to future 4G mobile or wireless networks. because of its customizable OS which you can use to download applications made by Apple (often referred to simply as "Apps") like games. http:/ / www. such as channel estimation. pdf"]. Operating systems There are many types of Smartphone operating systems available. and other tools.Enterprise Mobility Management 5. usage and spend 2 Vendors offering Enterprise Managed Mobility solutions • MobiDM [2] • ITR Mobility [3] • BoxTone [4] Notes Alms. Since the beginning of this millennium. visagemobile. 4G networking One of the most important features in the 4G mobile networks is the domination of high-speed packet transmissions or burst traffic in the channels. Windows Mobile Standard (non-touch screen) and Bada OS. Android is a mobile operating system (OS) developed by Google. itr-mobility. a standard mobile device has gone from being no more than a simple two-way pager to being a cellular phone. As the packets from different mobiles carry completely different channel characteristics. GPS. com http:/ / www. 2008. and Instant Messenger client. GPS navigation system. The Apple iPhone. within a very short time to make the detections of each packet flawlessly and even to reduce the clutter of traffic. Windows Mobile Professional (touch screen). visagemobile. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] ["http:/ / www. Utilities. Many experts argue that the future of computer technology rests in mobile/wireless computing.

rockers. html http:/ / www. one of which is an X-Ray device that reveals information about any location at which you point your phone. Although no single Symbian device has sold as many units as the iPhone. with the richest history and the largest marketshare. 3 Channel hogging & file sharing There will be a hit to file sharing. taking advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors and data exchange capabilities. com/ article/ 140078/ 2009/ 04/ seidenberg. How they described it was as wanting to make the phone a virtual mouse able to click the real world. There are going to be all new applications coming out with the new phones. The users would then be forced to find a Wi-Fi hotspot in order to be able to download their music. but adapt to anticipate the information you will need based on your intentions. The BlackBerry RIM is a SmartPhone that has a multimedia player and third-party software installation. and JavaScript. An example of this is where you can point the phones camera while having the live feed open and it will show text with the building and saving the location of the building for future use. and previously Motorola) release a wide variety of Symbian models every year which gives Symbian the greatest marketshare. External links • • • • Next generation SmartPhones[1] What Apple Wants to add to the iPhone[2] Android Mobile Operating System[3] About 4G iPhone[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. Future of smartphone The next generation of smartphones is going to be context-aware. Nokia and other manufacturers (currently including Sony Ericsson and Samsung. One of the main features applying to this is that the phones are going to start keeping track of your personal data. future wireless customers will find themselves quite disappointed and the market will suffer quite a setback. pri. If wireless vendors do not realize these differences and bandwidth limitations. HTML. org/ science/ technology/ next-genration-smart-phones1421. macworld. com/ article/ 133755/ 2008/ 06/ cio_iphonewishlist. One thing companies are developing software to take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. html http:/ / venturebeat. It then became apparent that it would keep any of their users from using their iTunes programs. touchpad. macworld. Symbian is the original smartphone OS. com/ 2009/ 07/ 10/ t-mobile-and-google-promote-the-next-generation-of-android-phones/ http:/ / www. as there are simply too many fundamental differences between wireless networking and other means of Internet access. html . Because of the changes to the security of wireless networks you will not be able to do huge file transfers because the service providers want to cut down on channel hogging.Mobile technology able to support Internet-based programming languages such as CSS. etc. the normal web surfer would want to look at a new web page every minute or so at 100kbs you could get your page pretty quickly. AT&T claimed that they would ban any of their users that they caught using "peer-to-peer" (P2P) file sharing applications on their 3G network. The limitations of wireless networking will not be cured by 4G. The Windows Mobile Professional Smartphones (Pocket PC or Windows Mobile PDA) are like that of a PDA and have touchscreen capabilities. The Windows Mobile Standard does not have a touch screen but uses a trackball.

For the receivers. that this interactive version of SMS is quickly gaining popularity because it works on any mobile phone and on any mobile network without installing any software on the phone. The authentication of users is secured so customers do not need to remember user names. Mr. This Finnair's service is called Check-in via text message -service [2]. It includes session management and automatic secure authentication to enable easy-to-use and secure transactions between applications and mobile phones. in 2004 Finnair[1] was the first airline in the world to enable passengers to check-in in advance for flights with iSMS text messages. The iSMS technology has been developed and patented by a Finnish high tech company called BookIT. who received The Economist’s Innovation Award 2008[3] for his work on Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. Application-to-person dialogues and transactions and asynchronous iSMS sessions are managed by a unique and patented BookIT DDM method. The network does not notice these secret fingerprints and as a result the iSMS service can be used by any of the existing 3. passwords or special authentication procedures. it’s very easy to reply to iSMS messages because they all include predefined choices. Mr Matti Makkonen says Bookit’s innovation is very clever because it uses the benefits of an already existing SMS standard but manages SMS transactions intelligently by adding “finger prints” to each message. Makkonen says. Matti Makkonen and iSMS Mr. which can be answered by using the “single button” principle. says that the iSMS is delivering his vision of mobile phone based bookiting transactions. The service is very easy to use since the user automatically receives a check-in request from the iSMS service and can then do the check-in simply by one-button-reply with his/her mobile phone. For example. The iSMS powered solutions also work on all mobile phones and all networks without installing software or configurations to the phone because the iSMS messages are delivered as standard SMS messages. where people are using the iSMS for different types of easy to use bookings. . for example between organizations and their customers or employees. The passengers are extremely satisfied since they avoid queuing and can proceed directly to the gate because the iSMS service completes the dialogue by sending an iSMS boarding pass directly to the screen of a mobile phone. The BookIT DDM technology is implemented on industry standard application server platforms and protocols for internet. which enhances the global standard SMS infrastructure with a unique iSMS business transaction capability. Matti Makkonen. This together with the open and universal SMS connectivity enables it’s rapid deployment. the founder of SMS.2-way iSMS 4 2-way iSMS The iSMS® is a patented next generation interactive version of the traditional SMS text message and a trademark. In these iSMS powered solutions and applications the iSMS technology establishes a session with the user and manages the flow of SMS messages between the application and users so that right responses are linked to the right application even if several simultaneous sessions are established. The iSMS has become very popular in BookIT’s home country Finland. In 2008 more than half of the Finnair’s airline passengers do their check-in with iSMS. iSMS technology The iSMS technology is based on patented BookIT DDM (Dynamic Dialogue Matrix) -method. which enables iSMS–powered solutions to perform interactive iSMS-dialogues between sender and receiver.7 billion SMS users internationally and on any phone.

net/ .com [1] References [1] http:/ / www. economist.2-way iSMS 5 External links • Bookit solutions [4] • Bookit. bookit. bookit. com [2] http:/ / www. fi/ finnaircom/ wps/ portal/ finnair/ kcxml/ 04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKL9473DAbJgFguPvqRqCLOnqgiLvHO3nARX4_83FT9oNS8eDdPfW_9AP2C3NDQiHJHRQBuqQpr/ delta/ base64xml/ L3dJdyEvd0ZNQUFzQUMvNElVRS82X0tfM1VF [3] http:/ / www. finnair.net [5] • Finnair. cfm?source=hptextfeature& story_id=10676339 [4] http:/ / www. net/ Solutions_1/ en_GB/ 1132180885579/ [5] http:/ / www. com/ science/ tq/ displayStory. finnair.

1800 MHz) services on its own cellular network. in selected areas. plus the tourist destination Queenstown.[8] They have a national roaming agreement with Vodafone to provide seamless nationwide coverage even though they have only built towers in 4 cities. In August 2010. they introduced mobile broadband on their UMTS 2100 MHz.2degrees 6 2degrees Two Degrees Mobile Limited Type Industry Founded Headquarters Products Website Private Mobile telecommunications 2009 Auckland.[6] a feature not supported by any other network in New Zealand. 2degrees currently offers prepaid and pay monthly mobile services. Standards and technologies The company provides GSM 900 MHz (and.S. .5% of New Zealand's population). Their network will work with GSM and UMTS mobiles compatible with the competing Vodafone and Telecom XT networks.[7] The network has a few hundreds of cell sites installed. They launched on 5 August 2009 after 9 years of planning. In areas without 2degrees coverage handsets will roam on Vodafone's GSM and UMTS network. New Zealand GSM and UMTS (3G) mobile networks and retail 2degrees Homepage [1] 2degrees is a U. 2degrees has spent $250 million building its network in the main city centres of Auckland. Wellington and Christchurch. Naming The name of the company refers to a local variation of the six degrees of separation concept.112 customers[4] (12.[5] Network 2degrees was formerly known as NZ Communications and previously as Econet Wireless. and British owned[2] [3] mobile phone provider operating in New Zealand with 580. Their GSM network supports EDGE. which has cost approximately NZ$250 million to develop. Planning began in 2000 but details were not revealed until 11 May 2009 and pricing was announced a day before launch.

Differing from other network plans in New Zealand. Te Huarahi Tika Trust (20. Pay Monthly 2degrees launched its first monthly postpaid plan. History In 1999.[10] These foreign customers can place calls using 2degrees cell sites in major New Zealand cities. including: • Using USSD to check and top up account balance • The ability to get settings from the SIM Menu • EDGE data services MNC and dialing codes The mobile network code is 530-24. 2degrees is owned by Trilogy International Partners. The plan ties the user into a month by month contract meaning that the maximum cancellation period is 30 days. 2500 texts to any network and 50 mega bytes of data for $29 a month with a special offer of an extra 60 minutes each month for 12 months. on 17 September 2010. which was upheld. (Wai 776) The National government of the day ignored the Waitangi Tribunal and kept on auctioning the spectrum.76 . New Zealand has number portability. Expansion In February 2011 2degrees announced[11] that they had obtained financing for a further $100 million network expansion. Everton lodged a claim with the Waitangi Tribunal. Telstra and Orange UK. Currently. so customers switching from other networks may keep their existing mobile number.76%)[16] . The current 'entry' plan offers 60 minutes. Rangiaho Everton claimed that the auction breached the Treaty of Waitangi because she believed radio spectrum is taonga and the government has no right to sell it. the New Zealand Government auctioned off 3G spectrum radio spectrum licence. aptly named Pay Monthly. including Three. Inbound Roaming 2degrees (still called NZ Communications on the Three website and Telstra roaming site) is open to customers with handsets from some foreign networks.14%)[17] and KLR Hong Kong. No particular details were forthcoming. The native STD prefix for the network is 022 [9] . It was not until Labour won the 1999 election that Māori were allocated one of the four 2 GHz 3G spectrum licences at a [13] [14] discounted price plus $5 million to develop it. Communication Venture Partners. [19] .2degrees 7 New Features 2degrees have a number of new features not found on other New Zealand mobile phone networks. the 2degrees Pay Monthly minutes carryover to the following months meaning that users can keep unused minutes for up to a year.[18] In July 2009. NZ-24 or NZ Comms may be displayed on the mobile phones network list. but 2degrees has obtained government licenses for wireless spectrum in the Hamilton and Tauranga regions which seem likely areas[12] for new cell towers. sold its 25.52%)[15] . a US venture capital firm specializing in mobile networks (51. a London-based company that invests in telecommunications and related software businesses (25. a Hong Kong based private equity fund percent shares to Trilogy. General Enterprise Management Services.

if details are registered online). likely due to the number eight being considered lucky in some Asian cultures. 2degrees announced several new plans. one in the Sylvia Park Shopping Mall. raising over $65. and some calling plans. with voice calls costing 44 cents compared to 89 cents being charged by Telecom. Services 2degrees halved the prevalent pricing for prepay mobile in the New Zealand market.[23] Also. SMS messages are charged at 9 cents compared to 20 cents on Vodafone and Telecom customers without a text plan. as well as Sylvia Park Shopping Mall in Auckland.[29] Marketing 2degrees is currently running commercials featuring Rhys Darby.[27] [28] New customers can choose their own number. one in Hamilton and one in Westfield Riccarton in Christchurch. SIM cards are available for $5 instead of $30 charged by the other two companies. one in Wellington. 2degrees are currently deploying their 3G network better suited to the iPhone. $6 Data Bundles. The highest selling number was 022 888 8888. with plans to open more stores nationwide. They also offer their products at supermarkets.[22] They also have a kiosk store in St Lukes Shopping Centre. provided they have topped up within the last 30 days.[25] Phone numbers 2degrees auctioned 85 special numbers on New Zealand auction website TradeMe for charity. however.[30] 2degrees SIM card and packaging . 2degrees have recently activated Vodafone's 3G network as part of their nationwide roaming agreement. both in Auckland. Customers will receive 100 to 500 free SMS messages per $20–$50 prepay top-up. 2degrees also sold $2 SIM cards with $2 credit. a comedian who tends to make jokes and sketches about New Zealand life. one in in Newmarket. $10 txt ($10 for 500 any network text messages. 2000. $6 for 50 MB of mobile data. $10 for 100 MB of mobile data.[21] 2degrees currently has 5 retail stores open. later upgrading to 1000.2degrees 8 Phones 2degrees offers mobile phones from $49 [20] The iPhone will work on the network. customers will receive a special rate of 22 cents for on-network and landline calls. They also gave away free SIMs as part of their Chinwag & launch week campaigns and give them away with most new handsets. petrol stations and convenience stores. they only come with $1 credit compared with the $10 provided from the other networks (+$10. and now 2500 texts).000[26] . Currently Vodafone NZ offers $12 for 2500 any network SMS messages on a prepay plan. as well as 2 cents per on-network SMS. on the 2degrees website.[24] On 25 May 2010. and Telecom's XT Network offers a $12 2500 any network text prepay plan.

co. co. co. co. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10588590 [24] http:/ / www. 2degreesmobile. htm) [20] https:/ / www. com/ 2degreesmobile?v=feed& story_fbid=149232068135 [27] Numbers in Chinese culture [28] (http:/ / www. nz/ Browse/ Listing. co. co. aspx?id=233267560) [29] http:/ / www. nsf/ telecommunications/ slowly-cautiously-2degrees-rolls-out-3g [13] TVNZ Marae episode 21 (http:/ / tvnz.Business .co. nz/ lost-sim [26] http:/ / www. nz/ magic-top-up [25] http:/ / www. com/ country/ new_zealand. co. uk/ Help_Support/ International/ Going_abroad_Pay_Monthly/ Destination_Details?content_aid=1214306364761 [11] http:/ / blog. nz/ ) [18] http:/ / www. co. shtml [15] (http:/ / www. co. co. 2degreesmobile.geekzone. co. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10584744) [3] Trilogy . geekzone. com/ 2degrees. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10713109 [5] http:/ / www. nz/ forums. co. co. nz/ media/ 2degrees-invests-in-network-and-future-growth/ [12] http:/ / computerworld. do%3FprodId%3D76& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet_prodId=76& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet__sorig=%2FSelectCat. co. nz/ technology/ 2400954/ Wellington-Manukau-frustrate-2degrees [6] http:/ / www. do%3FcatId%3D21 [21] http:/ / tvnz. nz/ business-news/ 2degrees-launches-mobile-pricing-2886330/ video [22] http:/ / www.co.stuff. hk/ portfolio/ NZC. nz/ business/ news/ article. telecommunicationsreview. thtt.2degreesmobile. pdf [23] http:/ / www. youtube. nzherald. com/ watch?v=QzCeeuwm6aA) External links • 2degrees mobile (http://www. 2degreesmobile. morgo. 2degreesmobile. asp?forumid=85& topicid=37534& page_no=1#238184 [7] http:/ / www. nz/ nzc-theme/ pdf/ 2degrees-press-release7. three. nz/ business-news/ third-mobile-telco-rebrands-2degrees-2724433 [10] http:/ / www. stuff. nz/ news. com/ 2degrees. nz/ marae/ s2009-e21-video-2851310) [14] http:/ / www. co.2degrees 9 References [1] http:/ / www. php) [4] http:/ / www.nz/technology/164209) • Third mobile telco rebrands as 2degrees (http://tvnz. nz/ business/ news/ article. co. php [8] http:/ / www.Stay 2degrees (http:/ / www. co. 2degreesmobile. com. nbr. nz/ business/ news/ article.nz/) • NZ Communications roaming deal (http://www. co. nz/ speakers/ ) [17] (http:/ / www. co. gems. trilogyinternationalpartners. co.Comcel (http:/ / www. co. co. php) [16] (http:/ / www. nz/ [2] Telco in shake-up weeks from launch . co. facebook. 3gnewsroom.nz/BarTender/7403) . 2degreesmobile.NZ Herald News (http:/ / www. nz/ shop?p_p_id=konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet& p_p_lifecycle=1& p_p_state=normal& p_p_mode=view& p_p_col_id=column-1& p_p_col_count=1& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet__spage=%2FSelectProd. nz/ 200907313418/ 2degrees-targets-$100m-market-for-roaming-tourists. nzherald.nz/business-news/ third-mobile-telco-rebrands-2degrees-2724433) • 2Degrees cell tower map (http://www. nzherald. nz/ mail-images/ 2degrees-press-release10.co. trilogyinternationalpartners. nz/ business/ news/ article. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10571640 [9] http:/ / tvnz. 2degreesmobile. trademe. nz/ article/ breaking-news-2degress-boss-quits-just-ahead-launch-105566 [19] (http:/ / www. nzherald. pdf [30] YouTube . co.

The radio network is also called access network. thanks to an engine capable of recognizing the language in use. The new words learnt are added to the personal dictionary and offered as suggestions during text entry...... SMS and email inbox and sent items..| NAS +.. KeyPoint also launched a new version of Adaptxt with error correction..-+ | Internet | +. with an option to revert to the exact word entered by the user in case of unwanted corrections. This feature provides alternative suggestions for incorrect spellings... This feature is supposed to be an added [2] value for users who are bi-lingual or occasionally type in a foreign language.. Automated correction of spelling mistakes were also made available.. Adaptxt initially supported Windows Mobile smartphones only.| TCP +. The “Scan Facebook” feature learns words from the user’s Facebook profile.. It is said to achieve this by predicting the next word as well as the word currently being typed..-+ | Application | +..-+ | Transport | +. personal dictionary. including calendar entries. continuously adapting to the user's personal writing style and vocabulary......-+ Adaptxt Adaptxt is a predictive text application for mobile phones..| HTTP +..-+ | Physical | +. dynamic language detection. multilingual text entry and a feature that learns new words and context while typing..Access Stratum 10 Access Stratum Access Stratum (AS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Radio Network and User Equipment..... word completion..| Channels +. The application is designed to improve text entry on mobile devices by making it faster and error-free.. Adaptxt was probably the first text entry application for mobile phones to provide features such as: context-based next-word suggestions... a UK-based software company. KeyPoint introduced a feature to scan personal data..[4] Later that year.| IP +.. developed by KeyPoint Technologies.-+ | Link Layer | +.. where they can be edited...[1] The application stores the new words in the user’s personal dictionary... History and Product Features Launched at a press conference in 2006...-+ | Network Layer| +. KeyPoint also claims that Adaptxt users can type in any of the installed languages without changing their keyboard language or dictionary...... +.[3] In April 2009...| AS +. phonebook contacts. conversion from SMS language to standard English and vice versa. A version for Symbian S60 smartphones was released in 2008...... with improved support for third-party applications.-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +. All these features can now be found in the Symbian version of the product and most of them can also be found in the Windows Mobile .....

Slovak. Latvian. Adaptxt learning feature is said to improve accuracy of predicted words. Greek. An Android-compatible version of the application is due to be released in 2011. Czech.com/) . Italian. Finnish. co. Norwegian. Bulgarian. Slovenian. Hungarian. Malay and Vietnamese. Canadian French. Galician. Basque. stm http:/ / www. Catalan. Lithuanian. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / news. Indonesian.[5] KeyPoint was also the first software company to introduce professional add-on dictionaries that provide industry-specific word and phrase suggestions related to a particular profession. 11 Comparison with other applications KeyPoint Technologies claims that Adaptxt has higher accuracy than traditional predictive text thanks to its context awareness and that can cut down keystrokes by up to 60% when compared to traditional text entry (multitap). English UK. 20-key or QWERTY layouts. Turkish. com/ 2009/ 06/ adaptxt-for-nokia-s60-smartphone-beta.[5] Adaptxt supports both touch-screen and hard-keyboard devices with 12-key. com/ 2008/ 04/ 01/ keypoint-releases-new-adaptxt-beta-for-s60/ http:/ / predictivetext. such as medicine.Adaptxt version.[5] Users can download additional language and professional dictionaries from the product website directly to their devices. Latin-American Spanish. Icelandic. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ glasgow_and_west/ 6121806. com/ kpt-identifies-351m-untapped-market-for-language-dictionaries-on-mobile-phones/ http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. Serbian. bbc. business and finance. Danish. The following 38 languages and respective keyboard layouts are currently supported by Adaptxt: English US. On 12-key phones. adaptxt. IT and telecommunications. European French. blogspot. Russian. com/ External links • Adaptxt official website (http://www. Filipino.[1] Keypoint also claims that Adaptxt has a wider language coverage than most competitors and assists business users by providing domain-specific vertical dictionaries. Ukrainian. European Spanish. bgr. Brazilian Portuguese. law. Croatian. German. Swedish. Romanian. Adaptxt offers both Multi-tap and Predictive entry modes. European Portuguese. Estonian. Polish.adaptxt. gomonews.

the service is administered by the Federal Communications Commission. . but has not yet launched its wireless services as of June 2011. 2010. 2009 in Toronto. Operators The following mobile network operators are known to use AWS. as well as Cricket's and MetroPCS' CDMA networks.Advanced Wireless Services 12 Advanced Wireless Services Advanced Wireless Services. It replaces the spectrum formerly allocated to Multipoint Multichannel Distribution Service (MMDS). Industry Canada held the auction for AWS spectrum in 2008. video. 2009. Canada • • • • Wind Mobile — December 16.July 7. Canada In Canada.[4] Halifax-based EastLink obtained licenses in eastern Canada. United States In the USA. AWS-1 is used in the United States and Canada. Videotron — September 9. Rogers Wireless . Mobilicity — May 15. and began offering voice and data services on December 16. 2010 in Montreal and Québec City. Deployed under Long Term Evolution (LTE). and messaging. Indicated in the list are the launch date and city.[5] and has not yet launched services as of June 2011. The AWS band uses microwave frequencies in two segments: from 1710 to 1755 MHz for uplink. and from 2110 to 2155 MHz for downlink[1] . is a wireless telecommunications spectrum band used for mobile voice and data services. also known as AWS-1 or UMTS band IV. The service is intended to be used by mobile devices such as wireless phones for mobile data. Quebecor licensed AWS spectrum throughout the province of Quebec and began offering service with its Videotron brand on September 9. video. Other cities coming later on in 2011/2012. sometimes referred to as Wireless Cable. 2010 in Toronto. This move effectively kills the former MMDS and/or Wireless Cable service in the United States. 2011 in Ottawa. Bidding for this new spectrum started on August 9. and messaging services.[2] Wind Mobile has licensed AWS spectrum in every province aside from Quebec. 2006 and the majority of the frequency blocks were sold to T-Mobile USA to deploy their 3G wireless network in the United States. Mobilicity also uses the AWS spectrum and began offering services in May 2010.[3] Shaw Communications licensed AWS spectrum in western Canada and northern Ontario. Other networks that use the AWS band for services in the United States are i wireless' UMTS 3g network[6] .

smartphones and modems that supports the AWS frequency. 2008. Alcatel • OT-981A • 990S One Touch Research In Motion (BlackBerry) • • • • Bold 9780 Bold 9700 Pearl 9100 Curve 3G (9300) Garmin • Nüvifone A50 / Garminfone HTC • • • • • • • • • • • • Google Nexus One HD2 HD7 T-Mobile Touch Pro2 G2 Dream myTouch 3G myTouch 4G (sold as Panache in Canada) Incredible S Maple/Snap Sensation HTC Flyer (3G version) . 2008: Launched in Oklahoma City. first AWS service in North America T-Mobile USA — May 1.Advanced Wireless Services 13 United States • • • • Cricket Communications — April 8. in New York City MetroPCS Cincinnati Bell Compatible devices A list of phones.

Advanced Wireless Services 14 Huawei • • • • • • • • • E138 USB modem E181 USB modem E1691 USB modem U1250 U3200 U7519 marketed as T-Mobile Tap U8100-9 U8500 IDEOS [7] Ascend X / U9000 / U9000-81 LG • • • • • • • Optimus 2X Optimus T [8] Sentio [9] dLite [10] C729 GU927 P920 Motorola • • • • • • • Charm Cliq CLIQ XT also known as Quench Cliq2 Defy Motorola Milestone XT720 Motorola XT300 [11] also known as Spice (launched late Dec 2010) Nokia • • • • • • • • • • 5230 E73 almost same as E72 with AWS support N950 (developer device) N900 N8 C5-04 C6-01 (FCC ID: QXFRM-609) 3555b 3711 Nokia_C7-00 .

not A3L9020A) G-Touch (Mobilicity Canada) Google Nexus S Caliber Code i7500 (Galaxy) Freeform Freeform II Stunt . not A3LSGHC414) SGH-T259 SGH-T359 :) Smiley SGH-T379 SGH-T469 Gravity 2 SGH-T479 Gravity 3 (Not the SGH-T479B) SGH-T499 Dart SGH-T559 Comeback SGH-T589 Gravity Smart SGH-T636 (Cincinnati Bell) SGH-T639 SGH-T659 SGH-T669 Gravity T (Not the SGH-T669B) SGH-T749 Highlight SGH-T759 Exhibit SGH-T819 SGH-T839 Sidekick 4G SGH-T919 Behold SGH-T929 Memoir SGH-T939 Behold II SGH-T959 Galaxy S "Vibrant" SGH-T959V Galaxy S 4G (not SGH-T959P) Galaxy Tab™ Nexus S Model GT-19020T (FCC ID: AL3GT19020T or A3LGTI9020.Advanced Wireless Services 15 Option • iCon 452 Samsung • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SGH-C414Y / SGH-C414V (FCC ID: A3LSGHC414Y.

Quebecor Media and Videotron invite you to the dawn of a new era (http:/ / www.php3?chkHSDPA1700=selected) . com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-P509-Titanium. com/ worldwide/ productFeatures. lg. jsp [11] http:/ / store. php?p=657& l=1& listName=stayconnected_en_articles& indexVal=651 [2] Industry Canada .phonescoop. com/ stayconnected/ index. thestar.com/results.com/service/mobile/handsets) GSM Arena: AWS equipment list (http://www.Advanced Wireless Services 16 Sony Ericsson • TM506 • TM717 Equinox • X10i Zoom Telephonics • Zoom 4597 3G+ Freedom Modem References [1] http:/ / www. ca/ en/ releases/ archive/ September2010/ 07/ c7478. com/ business/ companies/ article/ 974406--shaw-rethinking-wireless-strategy) [5] EastLink Planning To Go Wireless After Success In Spectrum Auction (http:/ / ogov. rfsworld.t-mobile.com/shop/Phones/CompareFull. jsp [10] http:/ / www. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-GD570-Blue. ic. mobilicity.com/articles/aws/) Wind Mobile FAQ on phone compatibility http://www. html) [4] Shaw Re-thinking Wireless Strategy (http:/ / www.ca/support/faq/phones-wind/#question-5 T-Mobile cell phones comparison (http://www. do?pinfoId=2831& directoryId=2037& treeId=37 [8] http:/ / www.windmobile. nsf/ eng/ h_sf08891. newswire. html) [3] Media Advisory . jsp [9] http:/ / www. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-GS505. asp?pf_id=43695M External links • • • • • • FCC: Advanced Wireless Services (http://wireless.aspx) Videotron Mobile Handsets (http://www. html) [6] "i Wireless rolls out 3g" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-04-28. iwireless. ca/ product. com/ promoform.Spectrum Management and Telecommunications Auction of Spectrum Licences for Advanced Wireless Services and Other Spectrum in the 2 GHz Range (http:/ / www. lg.fcc. lg. huaweidevice.htm?job=service_home&id=aws) PhoneScoop's Visual Guide to AWS (http://www. newswire.videotron. ca/ en/ releases/ archive/ July2008/ 21/ c6290. ca/ eic/ site/ smt-gst. gc. [7] http:/ / www. .gsmarena. asp?promo=3G).gov/services/index.

The Irvine. . mobile advertising AskMeNow Inc. California Area served Key people Products Services North America Darryl Cohen .Enterprise Semantic Search Solution SMS-based question answering.AskMeNow 17 AskMeNow AskMeNow Inc. [2] The contract between AskMeNow and Wikimedia was rescinded after Jimmy Wales announced his own for profit search engine named Wikia. AskWiki. mobile content distribution. specializing in mobile search and mobile advertising. California based company officially launched in November 2005 and ceased operations in late 2008. was an American public corporation. The beta product. The AskWiki engine was able to parse natural language statements and return specific answers rather than just relevant articles.CEO S3 . integrated some of the semantic web and natural language features of AskMeNow into Wikipedia searches. Former type Industry Fate Founded Defunct Public (Pink Sheets: AKMN Search Dissolved November 2005 2008 [1] ) Headquarters Irvine. AskWiki AskMeNow signed a partnership agreement with the Wikimedia Foundation to bring natural language processing to Wikipedia. AskMeNow's primary offering was a consumer mobile search product which utilized proprietary technology to offer a natural language based interaction and dynamic content provision platform.

is a system which can. Information used to more quickly acquire satellites • It can supply orbital data or almanac for the GPS satellites to the GPS receiver. com/ stock/ AKMN/ quote http:/ / www. com/ iw/ 070109/ 0200987.[6] AskMeNow had established distribution partnerships with Alltel[7] in the US and Rogers Wireless andBell Mobility[8] in Canada. generally abbreviated as A-GPS or aGPS. Retrieved May 07. for example in a city. with approximate time. . rendering them unable to function until a clear signal can be received continuously for up to 12. FCC's 911 mandate making the location of a cell phone available to emergency call dispatchers.AskMeNow 18 Partnerships AskMeNow partnered with a variety of content publishers to offer mobile access to these publishers’ content.[4] Encyclopædia Britannica. A-GPS additionally uses network resources to locate and utilize the satellites faster as well as better in poor signal conditions.[5] and Guinness World Records. . under certain conditions. jspx). fiercemobilecontent. some standalone GPS navigation devices may not be able to work out a position due to the fragmentary signal. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 11/ askwiki_wikipedia_knows_what_you_re_thinking/ Puck drops on AskMeNow/NHL deal (http:/ / www.[1] Description "Standalone" or "Autonomous" GPS operation uses radio signals from satellites alone.S. com/ 2007/ 03/ 02/ alltel-offers-askmenow-mobile-answer-service/ ) [8] 8-K Filing (http:/ / biz. com/ story/ puck-drops-on-askmenownhl-deal/ 2007-04-12) AskMeNow and Merriam-Webster Launch Mobile Dictionary (http:/ / biz. these signals may suffer multipath propagation where signals bounce off buildings.5 [2] minutes (the time needed to download the GPS almanac and ephemeris). "Encyclopaedia Britannica Selects AskMeNow to Launch Mobile Encyclopedia" (http:/ / www. • The network can provide precise time. In very poor signal conditions. [6] Guinness World Records(TM) Selects AskMeNow to Provide Mobile Access to Its Extensive World Record Database (http:/ / biz. otcmarkets. engadgetmobile. It is used extensively with GPS-capable cellular phones as its development was accelerated by the U. 2010. An Assisted GPS system can address these problems by using data available from a network. com/ iw/ 070214/ 0215510. yahoo. walls or tree cover. 2007). mirror99. Press release. improve the startup performance. When first turned on in these conditions. or time-to-first-fix (TTFF) of a GPS satellite-based positioning system. • The device captures a snapshot of the GPS signal. webmonkey. html) World's Technology News (February 21. or be weakened by passing through atmospheric conditions. which can cost money depending on the plan. yahoo. for the server to later process into a position. enabling the GPS receiver to lock to the satellites more rapidly in some cases. For billing purposes.[3] Assistance falls into two categories: 1. html) Assisted GPS Assisted GPS. ob8-k.[3] Merriam-Webster. com/ e/ 080213/ akmn. com/ 20070221/ encyclopaedia_britannica_selects_askmenow_to_launch_mobile_geae. These partnerships included National Hockey League. html) [7] Alltel offers AskMeNow mobile answer service (http:/ / www. yahoo. network providers often count this as a data access.

The data rate of the satellite signal is only 50 b/s. 2. which is sometimes slower on time to first fix. Usually the data rate of these bearers is high. LTE or even using other wireless radio bearers such as WIFI. With the help of the above data.In MSA mode A-GPS operation. CDMA. Calculation of position by the server using information from the GPS receiver • The assistance server has a good satellite signal. . However.Assisted GPS • Accurate. WCDMA.In MSB mode A-GPS operation. An AGPS capable device can connect to these servers and download this information using Mobile Network radio bearers such as GSM. (See also Wide Area Augmentation System) 2. Network Operator deploys AGPS server. the A-GPS device receives signals from the visible satellites and send the measurements to the A-GPS server. in some A-GPS device implementations. Mobile Station Based (MSB) ." the amount of CPU and programming required for a GPS receiver is reduced by offloading most of the work onto the assistance server.[4] High Sensitivity GPS is an allied technology that addresses some of these issues in a way that does not require additional infrastructure. In AGPS. enabling more precise calculation of position. reference time and other optional assistance data from the A-GPS server. Different modes of AGPS operation With Respect to Assistance data and position calculation. it may use standalone GPS. the A-GPS device receives signals from the visible satellites and calculates the position. surveyed coordinates for the cell site towers allow better knowledge of local ionospheric conditions and other conditions affecting the GPS signal than the GPS receiver alone. unlike some forms of A-GPS. 19 Basic Concepts of AGPS Standalone GPS provides first position in approximately 30-40 seconds.[3] Some aGPS devices do not have the option of falling back to standalone or autonomous GPS. hence downloading orbital information takes less time. reference time and other optional assistance data from the A-GPS server. These AGPS servers download the orbital information from the satellite and store it in the database. but does not depend on the network. and therefore can work beyond network range. Many mobile phones combine A-GPS and other location services including Wi-Fi Positioning System and cell-site triangulation and sometimes a hybrid positioning system. A Standalone GPS system needs orbital information of the satellites to calculate the current position. If it also has functioning autonomous GPS. AGPS has two modes of operation: 1. With the help of the above data. and plentiful computation power. the A-GPS capable device receives acquisition assistance. A typical A-GPS-enabled receiver will use a data connection (Internet or other) to contact the assistance server for aGPS information. The A-GPS server calculates the position and sends it back to the A-GPS device. the A-GPS device receives ephemeris. Mobile Station Assisted (MSA) . known as "MS-Assisted. so downloading orbital information like ephemeris and almanac directly from satellites typically takes a long time. reference location. so it can compare fragmentary signals relayed to it As an additional benefit. and without incurring data usage fees. high-sensitivity GPS cannot provide a fix instantaneously when the GPS receiver has been off for some time.

RRLP . htm). 2008” and selected as the Most Innovative True Mobile Start-Up for the “2008 GSMA Mobile Innovation Global Awards.3 Almanac Collection [3] Watch out for data charges on your GPS phone (http:/ / www. 2. html#iPhone) Hybrid system Audience (telecom company) Audience is a telecommunications company based in Mountain View. au/ mobilephones/ phones/ 0.CDMA2000 family defined this protocol for CDMA 2000 networks. 1. They are one of the 34 founding members of The Open Handset Alliance.0 References [1] "Assisted GPS: A Low-Infrastructure Approach" (http:/ / www. gpsworld. uscg. The company was included in Gartner’s “Cool Vendors in Semiconductors. pdf) NavCen GPS User.” External links • Official website [1] • Google Nexus One Press Release [2] .00. They specialize in noise suppression for cellular phones to improve voice clarity. LPP . The technology is applicable across a broad range of consumer products where voice needs to be intelligible in noisy environments. SUPL V1. They partnered with HTC to integrate their noise suppression technology into the Google Nexus One smartphone.239025953. 1. 4. 2002. navcen. edepot.5.3gpp defined RRLP or Radio resource location protocol to support positioning protocol on GSM networks. 2. RRC position protocol .3gpp defined this protocol as part of the RRC standard for UMTS network. August 2007 [4] Networking iPhone A-GPS (http:/ / www. California. 3.It is defined by OMA to support positioning protocols in Packet Switched Networks. Control Plane Protocol .339281483. SUPL V2.Assisted GPS 20 AGPS Standards AGPS protocols are part of Positioning Protocol defined by two different standardization body. Two generations of User plane Protocol has evolved. gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser. cnet.It is defined by 3gpp for various generations of mobile phone system. These protocols are defined for Circuit Switched Networks. com. [2] (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 3. Awards Audience was the Silver Winner in the 2008 Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Awards and the Winner of the Semiconductor category. GPS World. March 1. TIA 801 . 3gpp and Open Mobile Alliance(OMA). . Following positioning protocol has been defined. com/ iphone.0 2. User Plane Protocol .3gpp defined LPP or LTE positioning protocol for LTE Networks. 1. com/ gps/ assisted-gps-a-low-infrastructure-approach-734). CNET.

com [2] Website Azimuth Systems is a privately-held company located near Boston. google. Azimuth Systems was awarded the 4G Wireless Evolution LTE Visionary Awardby TMC. azimuthsystems. cfm?Ad=1& ArticleID=20604). Steve (2009-04-09). htm). in 2009. tmworld. 2G/3G cellular and Wi-Fi networks. html?nid=3370& rid=6559034). Azimuth Systems was awarded the Best in Test award from Test & Measurement World Magazine. 2009-07-28. tmcnet. [6] "T&MW announces 2010 award winners" (http:/ / www. html Azimuth Systems Azimuth Systems Type Industry Private Wireless Test Equipment Headquarters Acton. Retrieved 2010-03-01. [4] Friedrich. 2010-04-01. Retrieved 2010-03-01. Massachusetts Key people Jim Iuliano (President and CEO) Chris Gollihur (Vice President of Finance and Administration) John Griesing (Vice President of R&D) Peter M. com/ usubmit/ 2009/ 10/ 29/ 4452731.[7] References [1] Scheiber. . . [2] http:/ / www. "Getting to 4G through design and test" (http:/ / www. reuters. html). Test and Measurement World. 2009-10-29. . Retrieved 2010-03-01. mwrf. com/ intl/ en/ press/ pressrel/ 20100105_phone. php). Electronics Design. com/ article/ CA6648778. . Reuters. Paglia (Vice President of Sales and Business Development) [1] George Reed (Vice President of Marketing and Product Management) www. Nancy (2009-01-01). edn. Massachusetts. .[6] Also. [5] Nelson. Rick (2009-02-01).com. "Channel Emulation Supports Mobile MIMO" (http:/ / www. tmworld.[4] [5] In April 2010. TMC Net. com [2] http:/ / www. htm.net. com/ Articles/ Index.com. . com/ article/ idUS126970+ 28-Jul-2009+ MW20090728). Retrieved 2010-04-26. Strategy and News.azimuthsystems. tmworld.[3] In 2009 Azimuth Systems wrote a White paper entitled Improving 4G Wireless Broadband Product Design through Effective Channel Emulation Testing. Retrieved 2010-03-01. WiMAX. com/ article/ 453942-T_MW_announces_2010_award_winners. com/ article/ CA6632270. The company’s primary products include wireless channel emulators and wireless test equipment for LTE. [7] "Azimuth Systems Receives 2009 4G Wireless Evolution LTE Visionary Award" (http:/ / www. Microwaves and RF. audience. . "Channel-Emulation Testing Aids 4G Product Design" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-03-01. com/ [3] "Azimuth Systems Marks the First Half of 2009 With Record Growth and Expansion Into the MIMO and Cellular Markets" (http:/ / www.Audience (telecom company) 21 References [1] http:/ / www.

Michigan Altoona. New Jersey Augusta. Georgia Athens. South Carolina Anniston. Texas Anchorage. New York Albuquerque. Alabama Appleton—Oshkosh. Michigan Albany—Tifton. Paul Seattle—Tacoma Dallas—Fort Worth Oklahoma City Detroit Atlanta New York El Paso—Albuquerque New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Detroit Pittsburgh Dallas—Fort Worth Seattle—Tacoma Indianapolis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Birmingham Milwaukee Oklahoma City Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Cleveland Atlanta Columbus Atlanta Philadelphia Atlanta Dallas—Fort Worth . Pennsylvania Alpena. New Mexico Alexandria.Azimuth Systems 22 External links • Azimuth Systems Website (http://www. Ohio Athens.azimuthsystems. Georgia Austin. Indiana Anderson. Washington Abilene. Ohio Atlanta. Texas Minneapolis—St. Wisconsin Ardmore. Pennsylvania Amarillo. Georgia Albany—Schenectady. Alaska Anderson. Oklahoma Asheville—Hendersonville. Texas Ada. Louisiana Allentown—Bethlehem—Easton. Oklahoma Adrian.[1] It consists of the counties surrounding a city designated as the basic trading center. a Basic Trading Area is a geographic region defined originally in the Rand McNally Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide and used by the FCC where a Personal Communications Service can operate. Georgia Atlantic City. North Carolina Ashtabula.com/) Basic Trading Area In the US. South Dakota Aberdeen.[2] List of Basic Trading Areas BTA # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Basic Trading Area MTA # 27 42 10 31 13 1 30 14 29 30 13 35 10 42 17 5 2 26 31 5 8 1 9 1 33 1 10 Major Trading Area Aberdeen.

Paul Seattle—Tacoma San Antonio Dallas—Fort Worth Jacksonville Houston Buffalo—Rochester Des Moines—Quad Cities Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh New York Spokane—Billings Cleveland St. Oklahoma Baton Rouge. West Virginia Blytheville. Mississippi Binghamton. West Virginia Bellingham. Idaho Boston. North Dakota Bloomington. Washington Bemidji. Texas Billings. California Baltimore. Montana Canton—New Philadelphia. Texas Brunswick. Montana Biloxi—Gulfport—Pascagoula. New York Burlington. Michigan Big Spring. Kentucky Bozeman. New York Birmingham. Minnesota Bremerton. Maryland Bangor. Louisiana Battle Creek. Paul Portland Chicago Dallas—Fort Worth Spokane—Billings New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Birmingham Minneapolis—St. Oregon Benton Harbor. Paul Chicago Indianapolis Cincinnati—Dayton Memphis—Jackson Salt Lake City Boston—Providence Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Spokane—Billings Minneapolis—St. Missouri 22 46 3 45 29 13 16 7 42 27 36 6 10 43 29 30 2 27 6 17 7 24 39 3 23 43 27 42 40 10 18 16 4 12 5 30 43 8 38 Los Angeles—San Diego Washington—Baltimore Boston—Providence Tulsa New Orleans—Baton Rouge Detroit Houston Cincinnati—Dayton Seattle—Tacoma Minneapolis—St. Washington Brownsville—Harlingen. Texas Beckley. Alabama Bismarck. Louis 23 . Illinois Bloomington—Bedford. Texas Brownwood. Indiana Bluefield. Iowa Burlington. Vermont Butte. Arkansas Boise—Nampa. Georgia Bryan—College Station. Minnesota Bend. Montana Brainerd. North Carolina Burlington. Massachusetts Bowling Green—Glasgow. Michigan Beaumont—Port Arthur. Ohio Cape Girardeau—Sikeston.Basic Trading Area 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Bakersfield. Maine Bartlesville. Texas Buffalo—Niagara Falls.

South Carolina Columbus. Ohio Cincinnati. Texas Dalton. Tennessee Coos Bay—North Bend. Iowa—Sterling. Iowa Champaign—Urbana. North Carolina Charlottesville. South Carolina Charleston. Illinois Charleston. Illinois Chico—Oroville. Wyoming Cedar Rapids. Colorado Columbia. Kentucky Corpus Christi. Tennessee—Hopkinsville. Ohio Cookeville. Illinois Danville. Tennessee Cheyenne. Kentucky Cleveland—Akron. Iowa—Moline. Ohio Clarksburg—Elkins. Illinois 38 14 11 12 6 5 7 5 46 1 11 6 41 9 7 35 28 8 1 12 10 45 11 38 5 1 17 24 9 28 36 23 40 46 10 1 6 37 12 St. Illinois Carlsbad. Ohio Cleveland. Louis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Atlanta Indianapolis Memphis—Jackson Columbus Nashville Portland Louisville—Lexington—Evansville San Antonio Washington—Baltimore Dallas—Fort Worth Atlanta Chicago Richmond—Norfolk Des Moines—Quad Cities 24 . Tennessee Clinton. Kansas Colorado Springs. New Mexico Casper—Gillette. Georgia Columbus. Virginia Davenport. Virginia Chattanooga. California Chillicothe. Indiana Columbus—Starkville. Wyoming Chicago. New Mexico Coffeyville. Mississippi Columbus. Illinois Clovis. Oregon Corbin. Maryland Dallas—Fort Worth. West Virginia Clarksville. West Virginia Charlotte—Gastonia. Georgia Danville. Missouri Columbia. Texas Cumberland. Louis El Paso—Albuquerque Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Chicago Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Cincinnati—Dayton Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore Atlanta Denver Chicago San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Columbus Cincinnati—Dayton Pittsburgh Nashville Cleveland Atlanta Des Moines—Quad Cities Dallas—Fort Worth Tulsa Denver St.Basic Trading Area 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 Carbondale—Marion.

Paul Los Angeles—San Diego Little Rock Chicago New York El Paso—Albuquerque Kansas City Oklahoma City Cleveland Milwaukee Portland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Seattle—Tacoma Pittsburgh Minneapolis—St. New York El Paso. Alabama Decatur—Effingham. Wisconsin El Centro—Calexico. Oklahoma Erie. Pennsylvania Dubuque. Indiana Elmira—Corning—Hornell. North Dakota Dodge City. Indiana Fairbanks. Ohio Daytona Beach. New Mexico—Durango. Paul El Paso—Albuquerque Little Rock Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. Colorado Des Moines. Florida Decatur. California Evansville. Ohio Flagstaff. Alaska Fairmont. Texas East Liverpool—Salem. Kansas Enid. Minnesota Findlay—Tiffin. Tennessee Eagle Pass—Del Rio. North Dakota Farmington. Texas Emporia. Arkansas Fayetteville—Lumberton. Colorado Fayetteville—Springdale—Rogers. Alabama Dover. Illinois Denver. Paul Detroit Phoenix 25 . Michigan Eugene—Springfield. Iowa Duluth. Delaware Du Bois—Clearfield. Minnesota Dyersburg—Union City. North Carolina Fergus Falls. Michigan Dickinson. California El Dorado—Magnolia—Camden. Paul Memphis—Jackson San Antonio Cleveland Minneapolis—St. Arkansas Elkhart. West Virginia Fargo. Oregon Eureka. Pennsylvania Escanaba. Arizona 7 44 2 6 11 12 13 27 47 2 33 35 12 27 24 40 8 27 22 21 6 30 14 19 31 8 26 36 41 23 42 35 27 14 21 5 27 13 34 Cincinnati—Dayton Tampa—St. Petersburg—Orlando Birmingham Chicago Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Detroit Minneapolis—St. Iowa Detroit. Kansas Dothan—Enterprise. Ohio Eau Claire.Basic Trading Area 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 Dayton—Springfield. Paul Wichita Birmingham Philadelphia Pittsburgh Des Moines—Quad Cities Minneapolis—St.

North Dakota Grand Island—Kearney. Florida Fort Wayne. Illinois Gallup. Pennsylvania—Martinsburg. Virginia 13 2 5 26 11 12 25 25 21 29 6 46 41 2 18 1 6 14 47 30 5 27 32 11 13 47 43 11 26 5 24 5 5 5 46 29 33 21 46 Detroit Birmingham Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Milwaukee Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Miami—Fort Lauderdale Miami—Fort Lauderdale Little Rock New Orleans—Baton Rouge Chicago Washington—Baltimore San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Birmingham Jacksonville Atlanta Chicago El Paso—Albuquerque Wichita New York Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. Georgia Galesburg. West Virginia Hammond. Alabama Gainesville. Alabama Florence. Florida Fort Smith. North Carolina Grand Forks. Arkansas Harrisonburg. California Gadsden. Maryland—Chambersburg. New Mexico Garden City. Virginia Fresno. Nebraska Grand Junction. Montana Greeley. South Carolina Greenwood. Paul Omaha Denver Detroit Wichita Spokane—Billings Denver Milwaukee Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Memphis—Jackson Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore New Orleans—Baton Rouge Philadelphia Little Rock Washington—Baltimore 26 . Arkansas Fort Walton Beach. New York Goldsboro—Kinston. Florida Fort Pierce—Vero Beach—Stuart. North Carolina Greenville—Greenwood. Indiana Fredericksburg. Wisconsin Fort Collins—Loveland. Colorado Grand Rapids. Michigan Great Bend. Kansas Great Falls. Mississippi Greenville—Washington. South Carolina Hagerstown. North Carolina Greenville—Spartanburg. Wisconsin Greensboro—Winston-Salem—High Point. South Carolina Fond du Lac. Florida Gainesville. Kansas Glens Falls. Pennsylvania Harrison. Colorado Green Bay. Colorado Fort Dodge. Louisiana Harrisburg. Michigan Florence. Iowa Fort Myers.Basic Trading Area 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 Flint.

Alaska Kahului—Wailuku—Lahaina. Louisiana Houston. Michigan Ithaca. Texas Huntington. Hawaii Hobbs. Hawaii 30 32 29 47 43 5 15 10 15 21 26 29 16 7 2 27 47 3 39 35 17 12 26 27 30 13 24 24 18 6 5 4 26 38 35 21 19 42 15 New York Omaha New Orleans—Baton Rouge Wichita Spokane—Billings Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Honolulu Dallas—Fort Worth Honolulu Little Rock Milwaukee New Orleans—Baton Rouge Houston Cincinnati—Dayton Birmingham Minneapolis—St. Mississippi Hays. Pennsylvania Indianapolis. Michigan Jackson. Kentucky Huntsville. New York Jackson. Tennessee Jacksonville. North Carolina Jamestown. Massachusetts Idaho Falls. Louis Pittsburgh Little Rock Kansas City Seattle—Tacoma Honolulu 27 . New York—Warren. New Mexico Honolulu. Montana Hickory—Lenoir—Morganton. North Carolina Hilo. Alabama Huron. Michigan Houma—Thibodaux. Arkansas Joplin. Michigan Ironwood. Kansas Helena. West Virginia—Ashland. South Dakota Hutchinson.Basic Trading Area 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 Hartford. Mississippi Jackson. New York Janesville—Beloit. Paul Wichita Boston—Providence Salt Lake City Pittsburgh Indianapolis Des Moines—Quad Cities Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Florida Jacksonville. Pennsylvania Jonesboro—Paragould. Hawaii Hot Springs. Arkansas Houghton. Indiana Iowa City. Idaho Indiana. Missouri Johnstown. Missouri—Miami. Oklahoma Juneau—Ketchikan. Illinois Jacksonville. Iowa Iron Mountain. Wisconsin Jefferson City. Kansas Hyannis. Nebraska Hattiesburg. Pennsylvania—Dunkirk. Connecticut Hastings. Paul New York Detroit Memphis—Jackson Memphis—Jackson Jacksonville Chicago Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Buffalo—Rochester Milwaukee St.

Virginia-Tennessee Kirksville. Ohio Lincoln. Utah Logan. Oregon Knoxville. Montana Kankakee. Michigan Laredo. Kentucky Liberal. Nevada Laurel. Maine Lexington. Oklahoma Lebanon—Claremont. Indiana Lafayette—New Iberia. Pennsylvania Lansing. Texas La Salle—Peru—Ottawa—Streator. Missouri Keene. Petersburg—Orlando Philadelphia Detroit San Antonio Chicago El Paso—Albuquerque Los Angeles—San Diego New Orleans—Baton Rouge Kansas City Oklahoma City Boston—Providence Spokane—Billings Boston—Providence Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Wichita Honolulu Detroit Omaha Little Rock Salt Lake City Cincinnati—Dayton Dallas—Fort Worth Portland 28 . Tennessee—Johnson City. Indiana La Crosse. Wisconsin—Winona. Kansas Lihue. West Virginia Longview—Marshall. Kansas Lawton—Duncan. Louisiana Lakeland—Winter Haven. Missouri Klamath Falls. New Mexico Las Vegas. Arkansas Logan. Washington Kingsport. Michigan Kalispell. Illinois Kansas City. New Hampshire Lewiston—Moscow. Texas Longview. Florida Lancaster. Nebraska Little Rock. Georgia Lake Charles. Tennessee—Bristol. New Hampshire Kennewick—Pasco—Richland. Louisiana La Grange. Mississippi Lawrence. Idaho Lewiston—Auburn. Louis Portland Knoxville Indianapolis Milwaukee Indianapolis New Orleans—Baton Rouge Atlanta Houston Tampa—St.Basic Trading Area 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 Kalamazoo. Illinois Las Cruces. Hawaii Lima. Tennessee Kokomo—Logansport. Minnesota Lafayette. Washington 13 43 6 19 3 43 20 38 36 20 17 26 17 29 1 16 44 33 13 40 6 14 22 29 19 31 3 43 3 23 47 15 13 32 21 39 7 10 36 Detroit Spokane—Billings Chicago Kansas City Boston—Providence Spokane—Billings Knoxville St.

Oklahoma McAllen. Paul. Virginia Mason City. Minnesota Minot. Wisconsin Minneapolis—St. Texas Lynchburg. California Louisville. Iowa Mattoon. Iowa Martinsville. Ohio Marquette. Michigan Marion. Georgia Madison. Oregon Melbourne—Titusville. Texas Milwaukee. Kansas Manitowoc. Texas Lufkin—Nacogdoches. California Meridian.Basic Trading Area 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 Los Angeles. Florida Memphis. Paul Cleveland Milwaukee Indianapolis Columbus Milwaukee Des Moines—Quad Cities Richmond—Norfolk Des Moines—Quad Cities Chicago Cleveland Portland Tampa—St. Kentucky Lubbock. Michigan Marshalltown. Mississippi McCook. Indiana Marion. Pennsylvania Medford—Grants Pass. Kentucky Midland. North Dakota Missoula. Paul Minneapolis—St. Montana 22 23 10 16 37 31 40 29 32 1 26 23 3 19 26 27 8 26 17 9 26 12 37 12 6 8 36 44 24 41 24 25 6 20 10 26 27 27 43 Los Angeles—San Diego Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Dallas—Fort Worth Houston Richmond—Norfolk Oklahoma City San Antonio New Orleans—Baton Rouge Omaha Atlanta Milwaukee Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Boston—Providence Kansas City Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Nebraska Macon—Warner Robins. Wisconsin Mankato—Fairmont. Virginia McAlester. Paul Spokane—Billings 29 . Texas McComb—Brookhaven. Kentucky Manchester—Nashua—Concord. Wisconsin Madisonville. Illinois Meadville. Tennessee Merced. Indiana Middlesboro—Harlan. New Hampshire Manhattan—Junction City. Ohio Marinette. Florida Michigan City—La Porte. Minnesota Mansfield. Wisconsin—Menominee. Petersburg—Orlando Memphis—Jackson San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Memphis—Jackson Miami—Fort Lauderdale Chicago Knoxville Dallas—Fort Worth Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Mississippi Miami—Fort Lauderdale.

North Carolina New Castle. Pennsylvania New Haven—Waterbury—Meriden. New York—Bradford. Illinois Muncie. Kentucky 27 29 41 10 2 35 13 38 17 13 45 5 25 28 24 5 35 30 30 29 30 34 32 37 32 44 10 35 31 4 42 32 30 1 5 44 12 23 23 Minneapolis—St. Louisiana New York. New York Opelika—Auburn. South Carolina Naples. South Dakota Mobile. Alabama Modesto. Paul New Orleans—Baton Rouge San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Dallas—Fort Worth Birmingham Pittsburgh Detroit St. Virginia North Platte. Nebraska Oneonta. Pennsylvania Olympia—Centralia. Mississippi New Bern. Oklahoma Olean. Tennessee Natchez. Alabama Morgantown. Texas Oil City—Franklin. South Carolina Orlando. Pennsylvania Oklahoma City. New York Nogales. Kentucky Paducah—Murray—Mayfield. Washington Omaha. Louis Indianapolis Detroit Tulsa Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Miami—Fort Lauderdale Nashville Memphis—Jackson Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Pittsburgh New York New York New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Phoenix Omaha Richmond—Norfolk Omaha Tampa—St. Connecticut New Orleans. Indiana Muskegon. Iowa Owensboro. Connecticut New London—Norwich. Alabama Orangeburg.Basic Trading Area 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 Mitchell. Nebraska Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Newport News—Hampton. Michigan Muskogee. Louisiana Montgomery. Florida Odessa. Florida Ottumwa. West Virginia Mount Pleasant. Petersburg—Orlando Des Moines—Quad Cities Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Louisville—Lexington—Evansville 30 . Arizona Norfolk. California Monroe. Michigan Mount Vernon—Centralia. Florida Nashville. Nebraska Ocala. Petersburg—Orlando Dallas—Fort Worth Pittsburgh Oklahoma City Buffalo—Rochester Seattle—Tacoma Omaha New York Atlanta Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Tampa—St. Oklahoma Myrtle Beach.

Pennsylvania Pittsfield. New York Pocatello. Ohio Pensacola. Delaware—Trenton. Missouri Raleigh—Durham. West Virginia—Marietta. California Reno. Pennsylvania Redding. Massachusetts Provo—Orem. Virginia Roanoke Rapids. Maine Portland. Idaho Ponca City. Kansas Pittsburgh. Nevada Richmond. Oregon Portsmouth. Florida Peoria. Missouri Port Angeles. Utah Pueblo. Washington Portland—Brunswick. Maine Providence—Pawtucket. Wyoming Roanoke. Louis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Denver Philadelphia San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Indianapolis Richmond—Norfolk Denver Richmond—Norfolk Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. Michigan Philadelphia. South Dakota Reading. Indiana Richmond—Petersburg. New Jersey Phoenix. Louis Seattle—Tacoma Boston—Providence Portland Cincinnati—Dayton Philadelphia New York Phoenix Boston—Providence Boston—Providence Salt Lake City Denver St. Arkansas Pittsburg—Parsons.Basic Trading Area 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 Panama City. Colorado Quincy. Pennsylvania Poughkeepsie—Kingston. Texas Parkersburg. North Carolina Rochester—Austin—Albert Lea. Illinois—Hannibal. New York Prescott. Illinois Petoskey. Massachusetts Plattsburgh. Arizona Presque Isle. Arizona Pine Bluff. Virginia Riverton. North Carolina Rapid City. Paul 31 . Oklahoma Poplar Bluff. Rhode Island—New Bedford—Fall River. Pennsylvania—Wilmington. Minnesota 18 10 9 29 6 13 33 34 21 19 35 3 30 39 31 38 42 3 36 7 33 30 34 3 3 39 11 38 5 11 33 41 41 17 37 11 37 5 27 Jacksonville Dallas—Fort Worth Columbus New Orleans—Baton Rouge Chicago Detroit Philadelphia Phoenix Little Rock Kansas City Pittsburgh Boston—Providence New York Salt Lake City Oklahoma City St. Ohio Pottsville. Florida Paris.

Arkansas Rutland—Bennington. Alabama Sharon. Maryland Salt Lake City—Ogden. Missouri Salem—Albany—Corvallis. Georgia Scottsbluff. Vermont Sacramento. Pennsylvania Sheboygan. Oregon Salina.Basic Trading Area 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 Rochester. Utah St. Kansas Salinas—Monterey. California Sandusky. Pennsylvania Seattle—Tacoma. Wyoming Rocky Mount—Wilson. Cloud. Texas San Antonio. Paul Salt Lake City Kansas City St. Louis. North Carolina Rolla. Minnesota St. Marie. Missouri St. California Santa Barbara—Santa Maria. California Saginaw—Bay City. George. California Salisbury. California San Luis Obispo. New Mexico Sarasota—Bradenton. Georgia Roseburg. Oregon Roswell. Missouri Selma. Petersburg—Orlando Detroit Atlanta Denver New York Seattle—Tacoma Kansas City Birmingham Cleveland Milwaukee 32 . Utah San Angelo. Missouri Rome. New Mexico Russellville. Wisconsin 4 6 11 5 38 1 36 14 21 30 41 13 27 39 19 38 36 47 41 46 39 10 40 22 8 41 22 22 14 44 13 1 11 30 42 19 2 8 26 Buffalo—Rochester Chicago Denver Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh St. Joseph. Texas San Diego. Michigan Savannah. Michigan St. Louis Atlanta Portland El Paso—Albuquerque Little Rock New York San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Detroit Minneapolis—St. New York Rockford. Nebraska Scranton—Wilkes-Barre—Hazleton. Ohio San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose. Florida Sault Ste. California Santa Fe. Louis Portland Wichita San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Washington—Baltimore Salt Lake City Dallas—Fort Worth San Antonio Los Angeles—San Diego Cleveland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Los Angeles—San Diego Los Angeles—San Diego El Paso—Albuquerque Tampa—St. Illinois Rock Springs. Washington Sedalia.

Oklahoma Stockton. Paul Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Chicago Spokane—Billings Chicago Boston—Providence St. Arizona Tulsa. New York Valdosta. Mississippi Victoria. New York Tallahassee. Mississippi Tuscaloosa. Texas Shreveport. Pennsylvania Staunton—Waynesboro. Oklahoma Tupelo—Corinth. Texas-Arkansas Toledo. Georgia Vicksburg. South Dakota Somerset.Basic Trading Area 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 Sherman—Denison. Iowa Sioux Falls. California Stroudsburg. Pennsylvania Sumter. Indiana Spokane. Louisiana Sierra Vista—Douglas. Missouri State College. Kansas Traverse City. Florida Tampa—St. Texas Utica—Rome. Texas Terre Haute. Washington Springfield. Alabama Twin Falls. Wisconsin Stillwater. Petersburg—Orlando Dallas—Fort Worth Indianapolis Dallas—Fort Worth Detroit Kansas City Detroit Phoenix Tulsa Memphis—Jackson Birmingham Salt Lake City Dallas—Fort Worth New York Jacksonville Memphis—Jackson Houston 33 . Idaho Tyler. Texas 10 10 34 12 27 23 6 43 6 3 38 33 37 35 26 31 41 30 5 33 30 18 44 10 17 10 13 19 13 34 45 24 2 39 10 30 18 24 16 Dallas—Fort Worth Dallas—Fort Worth Phoenix Des Moines—Quad Cities Minneapolis—St. Ohio—Weirton. Florida Temple—Killeen. Arizona Sioux City. West Virginia Stevens Point—Marshfield—Wisconsin Rapids. Ohio Topeka. South Carolina Sunbury—Shamokin. Kentucky South Bend—Mishawaka. Illinois Springfield—Holyoke. Pennsylvania Syracuse. Michigan Tucson. Petersburg—Clearwater. Massachusetts Springfield. Indiana Texarkana. Louis Philadelphia Richmond—Norfolk Pittsburgh Milwaukee Oklahoma City San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose New York Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Philadelphia New York Jacksonville Tampa—St. Virginia Steubenville.

California Waco. Pennsylvania Youngstown—Warren. Paul Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore Boston—Providence Minneapolis—St. DC Waterloo—Cedar Falls. North Dakota Willmar—Marshall. Minnesota Wilmington. Wisconsin Waycross. Louis Pittsburgh Wichita Dallas—Fort Worth Cincinnati—Dayton Philadelphia Minneapolis—St. Pennsylvania Williston. Washington York—Hanover. Washington West Palm Beach—Boca Raton. Paul Seattle—Tacoma Philadelphia Cleveland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Phoenix Columbus 34 • Source: [3] • Note: The Major Trading Area (MTA) numbers in this table are based on alphabetical sorting. Texas Williamson. Ohio 17 41 10 43 46 12 30 27 3 26 18 42 25 38 35 47 10 7 33 27 27 5 46 3 27 42 33 8 41 34 9 Indianapolis San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Dallas—Fort Worth Spokane—Billings Washington—Baltimore Des Moines—Quad Cities New York Minneapolis—St. Virginia Worcester—Fitchburg—Leominster. Indiana Visalia—Porterville—Hanford. North Carolina Winchester. Paul Boston—Providence Milwaukee Jacksonville Seattle—Tacoma Miami—Fort Lauderdale St. Kansas Wichita Falls. . Kentucky Williamsport. Ohio Yuba City—Marysville. Massachusetts Worthington. West Virginia Wichita. Maine Wausau—Rhinelander. Georgia Wenatchee. rather than population. Florida West Plains. Oregon Washington. Arizona Zanesville—Cambridge. California Yuma.Basic Trading Area 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 Vincennes—Washington. Missouri Wheeling. Texas Walla Walla. West Virginia—Pikeville. New York Watertown. Minnesota Yakima. South Dakota Waterville—Augusta. Iowa Watertown. Washington—Pendleton. Paul Minneapolis—St.

mobiledia. Retrieved 2010-08-11. Mobiledia.Mobiledia" (http:/ / www. fcc. . html). Retrieved 2006-11-28. com/ wireless/ BTA. 2006.Cell Phone Glossary . javvin. gov/ uls/ index. htm?job=btaform). Retrieved 2006-11-28. com/ glossary/ 36. [2] "Basic Trading Area (BTA) . Federal Communications Commission. . html). . Javvin. .Basic Trading Area 35 References [1] "BTA: Basic Trading Area" (http:/ / www. [3] "FCC Universal Licensing System (ULS) BTA Form" (http:/ / wireless.

cablefreesolutions. millimeter-wave. manufactures and sells high-capacity wireless communication systems for outdoor wireless networks covering urban. Government. Middle East. References • • • • CableFree article in Broadband Wireless Exchange Magazine [2] CableFree article in Lightreading [3] CableFree entry in optics. CCTV and Broadcast customers. Africa. Asia and Australasia. United Kingdom Networking www. Americas.5 Gbit/s per link. rural and national-scale connectivity. rural and country-scale IP networks. Corporate history Established in 1997 by private investors. Financial.org [4] Listing in OFCOM/BT Wireless Ethernet Lan Extension Services [5] External links • • • • CableFree Solutions [6] CableFree UK website [7] Wireless Excellence [8] KMH Group website [9] .Cablefree 36 Cablefree Cablefree Type Industry Founded Headquarters Products Website Private Technology 1997 London. CableFree sells through a distribution and reseller network with channel partners throughout Europe. Healthcare. Education. WISPs. free space optics. data and video and internet connectivity for metropolitan-area. The company provides a range of wireless products including diverse mix of radio. CableFree designs. Wi-Fi and other technologies with speeds ranging from 2 Mbit/s up to 1. CableFree's products deliver high capacity voice. microwave.com [1] CableFree provides high-capacity wireless Ethernet and TDM wireless backhaul solutions to cellular network operators. IP service providers.

pdf http:/ / www. . "T-Mobile Currently Testing Cel-Fi Signal Booster to Maximize 3G Data Service In Homes" (http://www. com CDMA Chipsets CDMA Chipsets is a popular Chipsets used in 3G and 2G mobile phones manufactured by Qualcomm Inc. Cel-Fi systems are comparable to mobile phone repeaters and femtocell technology. 2008.prlog. cablefreesolutions. asp?doc_id=35995& site=lightreading http:/ / optics. Francis (October 26. Retrieved Feb 12. a Window Unit and Coverage Unit that work jointly to increase 3G and 4G mobile broadband connectivity throughout the building. June 04.geardiary. PR Log (Press Release). org/ cws/ company/ B000013460 http:/ / www. 2010). Cel-Fi Cel-Fi is a device. 2010. 2011. • "Nextivity Aims to Boost Indoor Cell Phone Signal" (http://www.Cablefree 37 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. 2011.org/ 10717005-nextivity-cel-fi-3g-signal-boosters-available-from-frequency-telecom. San Diego Business Journal.co. 2011.itworld. 2010). bbwexchange. com/ document. 2011. wirelessexcellence. Retrieved Feb 12.com/2010/10/26/ t-mobile-currently-testing-cel-fi-signal-booster-to-maximizes-3g-data-service-in-homes/). 2010. uk http:/ / www. uk/ consult/ condocs/ llmr/ responses/ bt/ bt_annex_g. Advanced Technology Ventures. which converts it and amplifies it. IT World. Created by Nextivity.html). Retrieved Feb 12. com/ pubs/ 2007/ 11/ 06/ page1369-1193158. org. Ryan (October 27.pcpro. similar to a cellular repeater. com http:/ / www. Business Wire (Press Release).. Gear Diary.com/ story/10678985/nextivity-and-netgear-collaborate-for-indoor-mobile-coverage-solutions. "T-Mobile quietly testing Cel-Fi femtocell alternative for customers in signal-challenged areas" (http://www. PC Pro. The Cel-Fi consists of two wireless devices. • "Nextivity And NETGEAR Collaborate For Indoor Mobile Coverage Solutions" (http://www. Trialled in both the US and UK by T-Mobile. 2010). Inc. uk/realworld/357955/the-legal-ways-to-boost-your-mobile-phone-reception/2). the Cel-Fi systems are designed with smart antenna technology to seek out the best available signal to maximize signal gain to phone user. 2011. designed to eliminate in-building dead zones and improve indoor mobile phone reception.atvcapital.html). ofcom. Paul (May 14. November 21. 2.com/mobile-amp-wireless/125524/ t-mobile-quietly-testing-cel-fi-femtocell-alternative-customers-signal-ch). co. • "Nextivity Cel-Fi 3G signal boosters – available from Frequency Telecom" (http://www. "The legal ways to boost your mobile phone reception" (http://www.com/technology-news/ nextivity-aims-to-boost-indoor-cell-phone-signal).thestreet. Feb. lightreading. • Ockenden. • Scardino. References • Faas. The window unit receives the signal and relays it to the receiver. Retrieved Feb 12. com/ http:/ / www. cablefreesolutions. Retrieved Feb 12. 2011. kmhgroup. cablefree. Retrieved Feb 12. com http:/ / www. asp http:/ / www.

femtohub. You Tube. launched in London in 2003 . and in any case will be an irregular shape.com/) • Femtohub (http://www. The underlying issue is that mobile phone networks are optimised for capacity and call handling rather than locating phones. Overview Crude COO positioning considers the location of the base station to be the location of the caller.com/) Cell of origin (telecommunications) Cell of Origin (COO) is a mobile positioning technique for finding a caller's cell (the basic geographical coverage unit of a cellular telephone system) location. official web site (http://www. Most networks endeavour to optimise for minimum power consumption. One of the first services to make widespread use of COO based mobile location was the Zingo taxi hailing system. These maps can be processed to analyse the area which will be dominated by each base station and to approximate each area by a circle (the actual area of coverage may not be exactly where predicted. Location service using COO have been adopted by the emergency services in many countries. including signal quality and variability. rather than the centre.youtube. such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or Time of Arrival (TOA). This is not very accurate. Retrieved Feb 12. Omnidirectional cells may be used in rural locations (which typically have large ranges and hence uncertain locations for phones within them) and in cities (where they may have ranges of a few hundred metres). to which a reply will be sent comprising the centre of a circle and a radius representing the expected error (the size of the circle in which the phone is expected to be). Most commercially implemented systems rely on 'enhanced' COO. 2011. 38 External links • Nextivity.com/ watch?v=Waxl7FrPk-c). Inc. when precision is important COO is often used in conjunction with some other technology. In practice a network offering location services to third parties will present an API to which queries can be sent by validated users. For this reason. Commercial services have been slower to take off than many in the industry expected. three mounted on a mast to give complete coverage) giving a signal coverage area with the base station at one corner. COO is the only positioning technique that is widely used in wireless networks and is used for Phase 1 of 911 service in the United States. All networks generate 'splash maps' predicting signal coverage when planning and managing their networks. rather than a circle).Cel-Fi • "Video: T-Mobile 3G Cel-Fi Signal Booster Unboxing (junkdruggler)" (http://www. In the GSM system this relies on the fact that the phones constantly measure the signal strength from the closest 6 base stations and lock on to the strongest signal (the reality is slightly more complex than this and includes parameters that each individual network can optimise.. as the majority of mobile network cells are projected from an antenna with a spread of 120º (i.e.nextivityinc.. but the overall effect approximates to each phone locking onto the strongest signal).

Many COWs do not protect their sensitive equipment from the effects of lightning or power surges. is a mobile cell site that consists of a cellular antenna tower and electronic radio transceiver equipment on a truck or trailer. An engineering team may be able to place a COW on location to provide immediate coverage with few costs other than leasing. For instance. Many are nothing more than a cargo trailer or box that has been modified to hold communication equipment and have an antenna tower. World Series.S. whether it meets TIA/EIA specifications. California for the Manhattan to support the U.[1] Expanded or emergency service COWs are used to provide expanded cellular network coverage and/or capacity at special events such as major sporting events (Super Bowl. with its own power generator Management Agency (FEMA) and provide critical phone service to rescue and recovery workers.Cell on wheels 39 Cell on wheels A cell on wheels. in a wilderness area where firefighters have set up a command center during a major forest fire) or was compromised by the disaster (e.. and may require the use of non-permanent facilities. and backhaul. Following the September 11 attacks on New York City in 2001. usually referred to as a COW. Rose Bowl). or existing wired infrastructure. a carrier may have approved the placement of a cell site for coverage reasons. but the remaining budget is inadequate to fund the construction for a fiscal quarter or even longer. Pasadena. especially on and near the National Mall. . Many telecommunications companies also use COWs for long-term placement when financing or infrastructure considerations prevent building a permanent site at the location. Installations on government or military facilities may be granted only on a temporary basis. methods of deploying the tower. D. The decision to use a COW for an extended period of time may also be driven by the property owner. Federal Emergency 2005 Rose Bowl game. The backhaul to the network can be via terrestrial microwave.. Not all portable communication centers are created equally. or in disaster areas where cellular coverage either was never present (e.C.g. unguyed. for the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009 to handle the millions of extra people and calls in the city. communication satellite. guyed vs. COWs provided cellular service in Southwest Florida the aftermath of Hurricane Charley in 2004 with most of the area's stationary cell towers destroyed. 2001 in Lower COW in parking lot of the Rose Bowl. major conventions. designed to be part of a cellular network. electricity. 36 cellular COWs were deployed by September 14. A COW may also be referred to as a site on wheels (SOW). in the Gulf Coast after Hurricane Katrina).[2] 26 Cell on Wheels towers were put in place in Washington. Tower types vary from one manufacturer to another.g.

it/lang/en/products/telecommunications/radio_station_kit. 2010. CIABs provide temporary service with temporary equipment.calzavara. [2] http:/ / www. The main difference is that a CIAB is typically placed for a longer period of time than a COW.calzavara. Like COWs.it/lang/en/products/ telecommunications/emergency_mobile_station_with_self_mounting_pole. URL retrieved 19 January 2009. Cell on Light Trucks (COLTs) COLTs are on smaller box trucks and are limited with respect to the cell phone network.calzavara. nytimes.calzavara. • mobile trucks with container and self-mounting telescopic mast (http://www. Cell In A Box. "Inauguration Crowd Will Test Cellphone Networks" (http:/ / www. Retrieved on January 28.html). as opposed to the fully functional COW. CIAB (Cell-in-a-Box) External links On a manufacturer’s site (http://www.it/lang/en/products/ telecommunications/mobitower.calzavara.html).it/lang/en/products/telecommunications/ emergency_mobile_station_with_flanged_pole. com/ 2004/ 08/ mobile_carriers.html).it/?lang=en): • CIAB (http://www.[3] References [1] New York Times. operationgadget.html). . • with compact self mounting pole and special two-axle trailer (http://www. vzw. • different types of COW: • with flanged pole (http://www. html [3] (http:/ / aboutus. com/ bestnetwork/ network_facts.Cell on wheels 40 Cell in a box (CIAB) Related to a COW is a CIAB (cell in a box). Verizon Wireless Network specifications. com/ 2009/ 01/ 19/ technology/ 19cell. html). html).

particularly in the USA. This is because the antenna can be oriented and located outside to provide the best possible signal.Cellular repeater 41 Cellular repeater A cellular repeater. The more advanced models often also allow multiple cell phones to use the same repeater at the same time. Internal rebroadcast antenna The better systems will generally include an internal monopole antenna (although the type of antenna is far from standardised) for rebroadcasting the signal internally . The market for cellular repeaters is expected to grow rapidly over the coming years. correctly oriented external antenna should provide better signal than the internal antenna on any cell phone.the advantage of using a monopole antenna is that the signal will be equally distributed in all directions (subject. cell phone repeater.smart and expensive technology of the operators) offering gain around 100dBm (ICE function is welcomed as an improvement of the radio isolation between donor and service antenna). of course. cell phones perform best when their antennas are oriented parallel to the booster's antenna . Excellent high-power models (not home usage . Modern cellular repeater amplifiers rebroadcast cellular signals inside the building. Because all radio antennas are intrinsically polarized. The systems usually use an external. usually aligned with the nearest cell tower. usually intended for use in one building. a type of bi-directional amplifier (BDA) as commonly named in the wireless telecommunications industry. However. Even the cheaper home-use models (typically band selective) now provide 20dB . These are similar to the cellular broadcast towers used for broadcasting by the network providers. is a device used for boosting the cell phone reception to the local area by the usage of a reception antenna.both caused by the lower power required to broadcast the signal to the local bi-directional amplifier. This combined with the low population density (compared with Europe and Japan) means that many people will have to use some method to improve their home signal. due to its proximity to the phone. Other advantages of cellular repeaters include an increase in the cell phone's battery life and a lower level of radiation emitted by the handset . but are much smaller. Signal amplifier All models will include a signal amplifier. or wireless cellular signal booster.50dB gain and many of the more expensive models provide over 50dB.although even a small. Typical components External directional antenna Although some of the less expensive models do not include an external directional antenna they are crucial to providing significant signal strength gain. a signal amplifier and an internal rebroadcast antenna.meaning . and retransmits it locally. directional antenna to collect the best cellular signal. Generally speaking the larger the external antenna the better the signal . These can either be fitted by professionals or will include a signal strength monitor for easy alignment. which is then transmitted to an amplifier unit which amplifies the signal. so are suitable for commercial as well as home use. providing significantly improved signal strength.more than 60 million lines. since the decibel scale is measured on a logarithmic scale a 30dB gain represents a one thousandfold signal power increase . and the large scale departure from the land-line system. The CTIA – The Wireless Association (formerly the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association) had predicted that by 2007 30% of phone users in the US would be mobile only . This is due to the combination of the poor network coverage in some areas.although within reasonable proximity the booster's signal will be strong enough that the orientation of the cell phone's antenna will not make a significant difference in usability. to attenuation from obstacles).

NodeG.. The power gain is calculated by the following equation: 42 For repeater is needed to secure sufficient isolation between donor and service antenna.g.3 km (delay of RF signal in air is 3. well aligned antenna.3us/km).. Isolation can be also improved by integrated feature called ICE (interference cancellation equipment) offered in some products (e. and coverage is poor. installing the repeater in a higher place than necessary. +5us up to standard rep.2 mW)). where could be repeater used.. between donor and service antenna is wall.g. There is also problem with noise amplification (especially in UL) and desensitization of the donor site. etc. Amateur installation of the pico/mini repeaters can be harmful for many reasons: • Poor choice of donor site may not improve signal • Using the wrong antenna and improperly installing the repeater without paying attention to minimizing interference (e. • Use of a poor device for signal generation. It is reason why somewhere with sufficient levels repeater doesn't work. urban FDD/TDD network 20 km) usage of repeater virtually moving user to bigger distance: radio distance = real distance + (repeater delay) *3. placement of the metal mesh). EGSM) or more bands and the repeater does not support EGSM or is only for 900GSM. in macro environment by angle between donor and service antenna (ideally 180°). and the limiting maximum signal power of the amplifier (for picorepeaters typically from around 5 dBm (3. It depends on the type of repeater and used features. After repeating you have better (or excellent) coverage but you can't access to network. Standard GSM channel selective repeater (operated by telecommunication operators for coverage of large areas and big buildings) has output power around 2W. The isolation is possible to improve by antenna type selection. inserting of the attenuating environment (smart placement of the donor and service antenna. This is due to the difficulty of filtering the correct signal out from the background noise. By amplification and filtration there is some delay (typically between 5us to 15us). • Repeating only part of the band. . Because of the cellular network has form principle reduced cell size (depends on the technology and activated features typically X*10 km (for standard GSM 35 km). Additional delay form point of view of propagation means additional distance. being shaded by buildings (e. e. many calls may drop). which will be amplified equally.g.)) and without sense to donor site selection. When the isolation is lower than actual gain + reserve (typically 5-15dB) then repeaters is in loop oscillation. reduction of reflections . User is from network point of view too far.Cellular repeater the total amplification of a repeater with greater than around 50dB is likely to be useless without a good. In the case of improper repeater support. metal-sheet building. causing noise and inter-modulation products. or house)). NodeG from Andrew) offering output power around 10W). high power repeaters (e.g. Also cheap models are equipped by automatic gain reduction in case of poor or weak isolation.g. RFWindow).. Operators can operate also EGSM or GSM900+GSM1800 layers with single BCCH (Siemens(SAG) commonly supports the BCCH feature. by wall installation or suppression of side/back lobes by chimney.g. In case of poor isolation the device works but with low gain. delay) and consequently to shorter radius from donor site. glasshouse.in front of the donor antenna no near obstacle (like tree. space separation (typically vertical distance in case of the tower installation between donor and service antenna is several meters).. such as in cases where the operator is using wider band (e. Activating of this feature has negative impact to internal delay (higher delay => prox.

such as churches. Because the frequencies which cell phones use are too high to reflect off the ionosphere as shortwave radio waves do. cell phone waves cannot travel via the ionospohere.) These usually have an area of a few blocks and will usually only affect one of the two frequency ranges used by cell phones. In these cases it is unlikely that the service provider will do anything to improve reception. even a great distance from the broadcast towers. Some materials have peaks in their absorption spectra which massively decrease signal strength. Building construction material Some construction materials very rapidly attenuate cell phone signal strength. In flat rural areas the signal is unlikely to suffer from multipath interference. Different operating frequencies Repeaters are available for all the different GSM frequency bands. As a result. such as warehouses.Cellular repeater 43 Reasons for weak signal Rural areas In many rural areas the housing density is too low to make construction of a new base station commercially viable. Diffraction and general attenuation The longer wavelengths have the advantage of being able to diffract to a greater degree so are less reliant on line of sight to obtain a good signal. the only way to obtain strong cell phone signal in these areas is usually to install a home cellular repeater. This is because the different wavelengths of the different frequencies interfere destructively at different points. Building size Large buildings. due to the high cost of erecting a new tower. often have no cellular reception further than a few meters from the outside wall. allowing the satphones to be used indoors without a clear line of sight to the satellite. Directional antennas are very helpful at overcoming this since they can be placed at points of constructive interference and aligned so as not to receive the destructive signal. so will just be heavily attenuated by the distance. Multipath interference Even in urban areas which usually have strong cellular signals throughout. See Diffraction and Attenuation for more. . Concrete floors are often poured onto a metal pan which completely blocks most radio signals. This is caused by both the fact that the signal is attenuated heavily as it enters the building and the interference as the signal is reflected by the objects inside the building. some repeaters will handle different types of network such as multi-mode GSM and UMTS repeaters however dual. Some solid foam insulation and some fiberglass insulation used in roofs or exterior walls has foil backing. In these cases the installation of a cellular repeater will generally massively increase signal strength just due to the amplifier. Any building which has a significant thickness of concrete or amount of metal used in its production will attenuate the signal. there are often dead zones caused by destructive interference of waves which have taken different paths (caused by the signal bouncing off buildings etc. Older buildings. Low signal strength is also often the case in underground areas such as basements and in shops and restaurants located towards the centre of shopping malls. See Multipath interference for more. Repeater systems are available for certain Satellite phone systems. which can reduce transmittance. hospitals and factories. For this reason in these cases an external antenna is usually desirable. Energy efficient windows and metal window screens are also very effective at blocking radio signals. which use lead in their roofing material will very effectively block any signal. but still attenuate significantly.and tri-band systems cost significantly more.

Many models already have FCC approval. The use of a mobile signal booster in the UK is only permitted by the mobile networks who hold the licences in the cellular bands. Some network operators have dedicated teams that will visit a customers site to assess the cause of the problems experienced and offer to put in place a soltion provided by a third party vendor. is likely passed as the quantity of repeaters already shipped and in place in the UK is estimated at the tens of thousands. The lack of regulatory guidance has led to the situation where most installtions are simply 'plug and play' and have been installed by non technical persons who have no appreciation or understanding of even the most basic RF principles. it is legal to use the low power devices available today for home and small scale use in commercial areas (offices. The UK regulator. The disparity in approach and the lack of a cross network operator working group means that sites requiring a 'wideband' coverage solution for all networks is not currently possible. . the willingness and capability of network operators to initiate the process to providing an in building solution varies greatly. However. and with the networks to provide in building coverage solutions.). There are well established vendors who have worked for some time in this area who work for." At present. etc. Ofcom suggest that "Anyone wishing to improve coverage in a particular area is advised to contact their network provider. However this is generally limited to large corporates and the public sector." This has not detered the UK market for signal boosters with an explosion of web retailers offering a wide range of solutions from DIY installs to installations. they should have no problem gaining it.Cellular repeater 44 Approval in the USA by the FCC Although there are some products on the market in the USA which are still pending Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approval. Approval in the UK by Ofcom and the UK market In the UK there is no third party licencing regime in place even for low powered devices for home use. in cities and areas where many cells exist from each operator. Only the mobile network operators are licensed to use equipment that transmits in these bands. Although a license was originally required to broadcast at cell phone frequencies. The use of materials that mitigate heat loss such as metallic foil laminated insulation board and energy efficient glazing with a metallic anodised coating also have high signal attenuation properties. The window for any such regulation of the UK market as in the US. shops. Installation or use of repeater devices by anyone without a licence is a criminal offence under Section 8 of the WT Act 2006. with the expense being borne by the client. Ofcom specifically states that. the use of devices ranging from small mobile signal boosters to high power repeaters can cause loss of coverage through interference and desensitisation of the cells. This has largely been driven by the tightening of energy efficicency regulations in building construction. Repeaters operating in rural and less densely populated areas do not pose a quantifiable problem. "Repeater devices transmit or re-transmit in the cellular frequency bands. bars.

with field 033 is the user data (content) of the message.0 [2] Software • Kannel [3] . The response code (acknowledgement) of the message is equal to the operation code plus 50. Each field. com/ id/ a58b0133-4ffa-4e17-8b3b-77877688660f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC70. nokia. com/ id/ 7a27b9e7-7cdd-4456-b630-3d7c35f30a4f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC80. The number after the operation code is the sequence number used to match an operation to its response. Response code 53 with a field 060 time stamp indicates that the message was accepted. The content of the packet consists of fields separated by TAB (hex 09). consists of a parameter type. Two-digit parameter types are operation codes and each message must have exactly one. References [1] http:/ / sw. pdf [2] http:/ / sw.3 and CIMD 2. and the parameter value. In the example above.CIMD 45 CIMD Computer Interface to Message Distribution (CIMD) is a proprietary short message service centre protocol developed by Nokia for their SMSC (now: Nokia Siemens Networks). Note that the last field must also be terminated with a TAB before the ETX. the SMSC would reply with field 900 (error code) instead. nokia. External links • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v7. You can fire SMS from message center with the help of CIMD client tools. the operation code 03 means submit message. A good number of supporting software to implement CIMD is available from Nokia's Web site to build CIMD client.0 [1] • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v8. in turn. if the message failed. Syntax An example CIMD exchange looks like the following: <STX>03:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>033:hello<TAB><ETX> <STX>53:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>060:971107131212<TAB><ETX> Each packet starts with STX (hex 02) and ends with ETX (hex 03). kannel. org . pdf [3] http:/ / www. Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with CIMD 1. a colon (:). Field 021 defines the destination address (telephone number).0 support.

act as if the user is not a member of the Closed User Group. a senior member at a Pizza delivery outlet. to insist that the call only go through if the destination is a member of the CUG. Be permitted to make calls outside of the Closed User Group (Outgoing Access). Stage 3 [2] References [1] http:/ / www. This service is NOT applicable to Short messaging service (SMS). When an incoming call is received it is possible for the network to indicate the Closed User Group that is being applied to the call to the called user. Mr Rao's Preferred CUG would be that of his team. 3gpp. Stage 1 [1] • 3GPP 24. Also. It is also possible on a per-call basis to suppress the use of the Preferred CUG i. it is possible on a per-call basis to specify a different Closed User Group (of which the user is a member) for the call. For example: Mr Rao. and to suppress the Outgoing Access permission i. org/ ftp/ Specs/ 1999-10/ 22_series/ 22085-301.085 Closed User Group (CUG) Supplementary Services. zip [2] http:/ / www. when Mr Rao receives a call. and is not for use by the general public. Be permitted to receive calls from outside of the Closed User Group (Incoming Access).e. As can be seen. org/ ftp/ Specs/ 2004-03/ Rel-4/ 24_series/ 24085-401. this Supplementary Service is restricted in use only by organizations. However. Technical references • 3GPP 22. Any other calls would be rejected. • His peer group of senior Pizza delivery executives. But based on whom Mr Rao is calling he can either suppress or enable the preferred CUG.Closed User Group (CUG) 46 Closed User Group (CUG) Closed User Groups are groups of GSM mobile telephone subscribers who can only make calls and receive calls from members within the group. zip . could be a member of two closed user group: • His own team of Pizza delivery agents.e. If the user is a member of multiple Closed User Groups there will be a Preferred CUG assigned by the network that will be used by default. there are handsets that support Closed User Group applications. Be allowed to make emergency calls irrespective of the group subscription. However. it would be indicated to him by the network as to which user group the call originated from.085 Closed User Group (CUG) supplementary services. 3gpp. A subscriber may: • • • • Be a member of more than one but not more than ten Closed User Groups.

html). mobileenterprisemag. Mobile Enterprise. [4] "LINUX-based VPN system has NEXCOM running a tight ship". Sweden Products Website Columbitech Mobile VPN [1] Columbitech. corporate WLAN users and telecommuters – mobilizing the enterprise. . columbitech. Wall Street Journal. The company is headquartered in Stockholm. stores. Columbitech Mobile VPN The Columbitech mobile VPN provides remote network access to field mobility users. com/ [2] "Lost Connections". Sweden with offices in New York City.[2] with support for WLAN and public networks. The technology is utilized in the retail industry to meet PCI DSS requirements. founded in 2000. com/ ME2/ dirmod.Columbitech 47 Columbitech Columbitech Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Communication 2000 Headquarters Stockholm. [3] "Mobile VPN for the Field". provides wireless security to secure mobile devices. asp). asp?sid=& nm=& type=Publishing& mod=Publications::Article& mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791& tier=4& id=D7B7F1A7229743C1A55EFC1BD55DF05F). com/ article/ SB119717610996418467. Stores Magazine. February 2008 (http:/ / www. org/ LPinformation_new/ 2008/ 05/ LPiEdit2. including 3G.[4] and in other industries where mobile devices are used over wireless networks. 4G and WiMAX. wsj.[3] The solution is encrypted on standards-based Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) and holds a FIPS 140-2 certification. References [1] http:/ / www. December 11 2007 (http:/ / online. May 2008 (http:/ / www.

Communication Linking Protocol

48

Communication Linking Protocol
Communication Linking Protocol (CLP) is a communications protocol used to communicate with many devices using the Motorola ReFLEX network. CLP allows a user to direct a ReFLEX capable device to send or receive messages. CLP is used by Advantra's ReFLEX devices. Advantra's ReFLEX product line was purchased by Inilex who now manufactures the devices.

External links
• • • • • • ReFLEX White Paper [1] Two Way Paging Article [2] Article [3] Barran Device [4] Karli Device [5] Wirlki Device [6]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / content. arch. com/ whitepaper/ reflexwhitepaper. pdf http:/ / www. rysavy. com/ Articles/ twoway. htm http:/ / www. leapforum. org/ published/ internetworkMobility/ split/ node115. html#SECTION001432100000000000000 http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-barran. asp http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-karli. asp http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-wirlki. asp

Context-aware services
Context-aware services is a computing technology which incorporates information about the current location of a mobile user to provide more relevant services to the user.[1] An example of a context-aware service could be a real-time traffic update or even a live video feed of a planned route for a motor vehicle user. Context can refer to real-world characteristics, such as temperature, time or location. This information can be updated by the user (manually) or from communication with other devices and applications or sensors on the mobile device. also see Context aware delegation.

References
[1] "Building a context-aware service architecture" (http:/ / www. ibm. com/ developerworks/ architecture/ library/ ar-conawserv/ index. html?ca=drs-). Developer Works (IBM). . Retrieved 4 January 2010.

Coverage map

49

Coverage map
Coverage maps are designed to indicate the service areas of radiocommunication transmitting stations. Typically these may be produced for radio or television stations, for mobile telephone networks and for satellite networks. Such maps are alternatively known as propagation maps. For satellite networks, a coverage map is often known as a footprint.

Definition of coverage
Typically a coverage map will indicate the area within which the user can expect to obtain good reception of the service in question using standard equipment under normal operating conditions. Additionally, the map may also separately denote supplementary service areas where good reception may be obtained but other stations may be stronger, or where reception may variable but the service may still be usable.

Technical details
The field strength that the marked service boundary on a coverage map represents will be defined by whoever produces the map, but typical examples are as follows:

VHF(FM) / Band II
For VHF(FM) / Band II, the BBC defines the service area boundary as corresponding to an average field strength of 54 dB (relative to 1 µV/m) at a height of 10 m above ground level.

MF / Mediumwave
For MF / Mediumwave, the BBC defines the daytime service area boundary as a minimum field strength of 2 mV/m. At night, the service area of mediumwave services can be drastically reduced by co-channel interference from distant stations.

Limitations
Often coverage maps show general coverage for large regions and therefore any boundary indicated should not be interpreted as a rigid limit. The quality of reception can be very different at places only short distances apart, and this phenomenon is more apparent as the transmission frequency increases. Inevitably small pockets of poor reception may exist within the main service area that cannot be shown on the map due to scale issues. Conversely, the use of sensitive equipment, high gain antennas, or simply being located on high ground can yield good signal strengths well outside the indicated area. The significance of local geographical conditions cannot be over emphasised and this was [1] which revealed the signal reception conditions around a typical house. The site did underlined by an experiment not have the critical "line-of-sight propagation" to the transmitter. Average signal levels, taken at the same height, varied by up to 6dB, and for individual frequencies by up to 14dB. In RF reception terms these figures are huge differences. Although carriers and broadcasters attempt to design their networks to eliminate dead zones, no network is perfect, so coverage breaks within the general coverage areas are still possible. Often companies will construct low power satellite stations to fill in bad reception areas that become apparent once the high power transmitter's coverage map has identified where the network is deficient.

Coverage map

50

External links
• The Transmission Gallery: Index of UK TV coverage maps [2] • TV Fool: Index of US TV coverage maps [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. aerialsandtv. com/ loftaerials. html#BlackArtOfRF [2] http:/ / tx. mb21. co. uk/ mapsys/ anatv/ [3] http:/ / www. tvfool. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=15

CO (additional offices in Massachusetts. and Oregon Key people Products Scott Kunze. President/CEO DataSplice Mobile Integration Suite CMMS_EAM Total Maintenance Inspections (TMI) datasplice. which allows for connectivity to different database systems such as MySQL and Oracle. The software offered is a mobile middleware. DataSplice does not use a proprietary software platform. including packaged software for Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS). The software provides an interface from these systems to handhelds. gas/oil. tablet_computers and mobile computers for field technicians. Its primary client base is focused on utilities. defense. smartphones. Colorado and offers mobile applications which extend enterprise systems. and an administration client for configuring the system. a server which communicates with the primary EAM. including a remote client (for handheld and/or desktop use).DataSplice 51 DataSplice DataSplice. The product runs on the Microsoft Windows operating system DataSplice Architecture .com [1] Website DataSplice. California. LLC Type Industry Founded privately held company (LLC) computer software 2001 Headquarters Fort Collins. with an emphasis on IBM's Maximo EAM system. aerospace and other markets which utilizes field service management systems which require tracking. inventory specialists and inspectors.NET. The extensible system consists of three components. asset management and regulatory accountability.NET framework’s ADO. but rather utilizes the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) of Microsoft. LLC is a mobile software company headquartered in Fort Collins. It may also be used on a desktop system as a unified/simplified interface for multiple systems. and Enterprise Asset Management (EAM).

The flagship Mobile Integraton Suite consists of three components: Remote Client. The short term development will focus on a specification targeted for completion by end of 2007 for LTE and WiMax air interface standards.DataSplice 52 History Originally known as Optimization Resources. power generation. the future work will seek to harmonize efforts with the MIPI's PHY and UniPro working groups. In 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2011. These specifications will describe the logical. DigRF v3. . The primary modules[3] are Inventory. . The longer term development will focus on future air interface standards which promise further improvements in high speed. In addition.12 for usage in GSM/EDGE handsets. There is DigRF version v1. The original management and development staff continue to be engaged daily operations. Administration Client and the Server. Field Technologies Online. such as substations. DataSplice introduced InspecTMI. DataSplice was spun off as both a company and product in 2001. and a Microsoft Silver ISV Partner. com/ partnerworld/ gsd/ solutiondetails. References [1] http:/ / www. data optimized traffic. [3] "DataSplice Mobile Computing Solutions: Inventory and Work Orders" (http:/ / www. datasplice. Partners DataSplice is an IBM Advanced Partner. com/ article. which was specified in 2004. which was founded in 1991.09 from the year 2006 with its 312Mbit/s can additionally handle UMTS. Condition Monitoring and Asset Management. DigRF The DigRF working group was formed as a MIPI Alliance (MIPI) working group in April 2007. IBM. Present DigRF v4 draft offers Gbit/s bandwidth for LTE and WiMax. and with sufficient rigor that implementations of the interface from different suppliers are fully compatible at the physical level. ibm. do?solution=37287& lc=en& stateCd=P& page=2& print=true). DataSplice is a privately held company. mvc/ DataSplice-Mobile-Computing-Solutions-Invento-0001). and safety inspections. a field inspections and operator rounds mobile collection system geared toward highly regulated inspection scenarios.DataSplice Mobile Integration. com/ [2] "Global Solutions Directory" (http:/ / www-304. Inspections. The group is focused on developing specifications for wireless mobile RFIC to base-band IC (BBIC) interfaces in mobile devices. . Work Orders. The group's current charter is split into short and long term development efforts. electrical and timing characteristics of the digital RF-BB Interface with sufficient detail to allow physical implementation of the interface. IBM . fieldtechnologiesonline. Products The product's main emphasis is providing a simplified mobile interface into IBM Maximo[2] .

This ensures measurements are realistic and comparable to actual user experiences. capacity and Quality of Service (QoS) of a mobile radio network. The technique consists of using a motor vehicle containing mobile radio network air interface measurement equipment that can detect and record a wide variety of the physical and virtual parameters of mobile cellular service in a given geographical area. org/ digrf.DigRF 53 External links • About DigRF Alliance [1] References [1] http:/ / www. By measuring what a wireless network subscriber would experience in any specific area. radio frequency scanner information and GPS information to provide location logging. services running on the network such as voice or data services. Data Collected during Drive Testing Drive test equipment typically collects data relating to the network itself. The dataset collected during drive testing field measurements can include information such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • Signal intensity Signal quality Interference Dropped calls Blocked calls Anomalous events Call statistics Service level statistics QoS information Handover information Neighbouring cell information GPS location co-ordinates . Drive testing requires a mobile vehicle outfitted with drive testing measurement equipment. shtml Drive testing Drive testing is a method of measuring and assessing the coverage. wireless carriers can make directed changes to their networks that provide better coverage and service to their customers. mipi. These equipments are usually highly specialized electronic devices that interface to OEM mobile handsets.

ascom. Optimization & Troubleshooting Optimization and troubleshooting information is more typically used to aid in finding specific problems during the rollout phases of new networks or to observe specific problems reported by consumers during the operational phase of the network lifecycle. sophisticated multi-channel tools such as Ascom's Symphony or SwissQual's Diversity Benchmarker are used to measure several network technologies and service types simultaneously to very high accuracy. typically localized. Quality monitoring focuses on the end user experience of the service.com) • SwissQual. and allows mobile network operators to react to what effectively subjective quality degradations by investigating the technical cause of the problem in time-correlated data collected during the drive test.com) 1.com/anite/en/home/. Service quality monitoring is typically carried out in an automated fashion.swissqual. Service Quality Monitoring Service quality monitoring typically involves making test calls across the network to a fixed test unit to assess the relative quality of various services using Mean opinion score (MOS). a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www. are frequently used in marketing campaigns. using devices that run largely without human intervention carried in vehicles that regularly ply typical drive testing routes such as garbage collection vehicles. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www.anite. to provide directly comparable information regarding competitive strengths and weaknesses. Results from benchmarking activities. Drive testing to gather networking benchmarking data is the only way mobile network operators can collect accurate competitive data on the true level of their own and their competitors technical performance and quality levels. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www.Drive testing 54 Types of Drive Testing Drive testing can broadly be categorized into three distinct topics: • Network Benchmarking • Optimization & Troubleshooting • Service Quality Monitoring The resulting oduced by drive testing for each of these purposes is different. Drive Testing can be conducted at any time on a live network and very rarely will there be any network intrusion. network issues such as dropped calls or missing neighbour cell assignments. taxis or buses.such a comparative coverage analysis or comparative data network speed analysis. References External links • Ascom. In this mode drive testing data is used to diagnose the root cause of specific. Network Benchmarking For network benchmarking.) .

Dual mode mobile

55

Dual mode mobile
Dual mode mobiles refer to mobile phones that are compatible with more than one form of data transmission or network.

Dual-Mode Phone
A dual-mode phone is a telephone which uses more than one technique for sending and receiving voice and data. This could be for wireless mobile phones or for wired phones. There are three types of dual mode phones.

Network Compatibility
Mobile phones containing two types of cellular radios for voice and data. These phones include combination of GSM and [[CDMAg ]] technology. They can be used as a GSM or CDMA phone according to your preference. These handsets are also called global phones. A good example of this kind of phones are Spice D1111 [1] and the Samsung SCH-a790.Recently Lg released a handset named Fathom which is capable of dual mode but with a single sim slot. These dual mode handsets are compatible with both GSM and CDMA networks and are essentially 2 phones in one device. Such phones make sense in those countries that have both GSM & CDMA networks or international CDMA roamers who want to keep a single handset with 2 numbers on it. All dual mode handsets require two identifying cards (one SIM and one RUIM) but not all dual SIM handsets are dual mode (for example dual SIM GSM phones).

Cellular and Non-cellular Radios
Mobile phones containing both cellular and non-cellular radios used for voice and data communication. There are also 2 types of dual mode phones which use cellular radio which will contain GSM/CDMA/W-CDMA as well as other technology like IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) radio or DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) radio. These phones can be used as cellular phones when connected to a wide area cellular network. When within range of a suitable WiFi or DECT network, the phone can be used as a WiFi/DECT phone for all communications purposes. This method of operation can reduce cost (for both the network operator and the subscriber), improve indoor coverage and increase data access speeds.

Wired Phones
Wired phones with VoIP and POTS technology. These phones can be used for making VoIP calls and also used for phones on the circuit switchnetwork. These phones require compatible routers and modem to make VoIP calls.

External links
• China Wireless [2] (Market Research) • Eurodualsim technologie [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. spice-mobile. com/ model_fer_D1111. aspx [2] http:/ / www. instat. com/ abstract. asp?id=279& SKU=IN0703903CWW [3] http:/ / www. eurodualsim. com/

Dumb pipe

56

Dumb pipe
With regards to a mobile network operator (MNO, or operator), the term dumb pipe refers to an operator’s network being used simply to transfer bytes between the customer’s device and the Internet. The use of the term “dumb” refers to the inability of the operator to restrict services and applications to its own portal and primarily just provide simple bandwidth and network speed. The dumb pipe is one of the commonly understood operational models for a MNO, including the walled garden, and the smart pipe.

Examples
One widely regarded example of the operator “dumb pipe” scenario is Apple’s iPhone. The iPhone enables its users to directly surf the Internet with its mobile Safari browser and connects to Apple’s ITunes store for purchasing ringtones and music instead of the operator’s own portal[1] . Operators such as AT&T Mobility cannot offer their traditional services (such as downloads of wallpapers, ringtones, games, applications, etc.) as Apple controls the total iPhone user experience. Operators must be content to provide only the network connectivity and bandwidth which the iPhone has tripled in some cities[2] . In addition to losing valuable revenue opportunities with the customer, operators are rumored to pay Apple a percentage of the customer’s monthly bill as well[3] [4] . While the iPhone is a good example of the dumb pipe, not everyone believes it will ultimately be bad for operators[5] . Another example of the operator dumb pipe / smart pipe dilemma is the upcoming deployment of WiMAX technology. Companies such as Sprint Nextel and Clearwire are looking into ways to deploy WiMAX with additional services to keep them from becoming dumb pipes[6] .

Further reading
While there is no real industry standard definition of dumb pipe, it is a generally understood term in the mobile industry. There are numerous blog postings and trade articles which refer to the operator dumb pipe dilemma, some of which are referenced in this article. Others include: • The Operators vs. the Media Brands [7] • The Pipe Is Only Dumb If You Make It That Way [8] • Staying Relevant In A Dumb Pipe Era [9] A reference which describes the dumb pipe, operator portal (or walled garden), as well as the smart pipe is a report from Juniper Research titled Business Models for Mobile Content Players, Strategic Options & Scenarios 2007-2012: • Juniper Research Report [10] The author is not affiliated with Juniper in any way, and although the full report requires purchase, there are a number of summaries available on the web: • Smart-Pipe Strategy to Provide MNOs with 31% Share of $188bn Mobile Content Market by 2012 [11] • Study About MNOs Share of Mobile Content Market [12] • Mobile Entertainment in Western Europe [13] A Google search will list several more: • Google Search of Juniper Report [14]

Dumb pipe

57

References
Apple adds iPhone ringtones to iTunes (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2007/ 09/ 05/ apple-adds-iphone-ringtones-to-itunes/ ) iPhone Triples AT&T's Data Traffic (http:/ / www. shaiberger. com/ ?p=52) Apple's European iPhone Deals (http:/ / blogs. ft. com/ techblog/ 2007/ 08/ apples-european. html) Inside Apple: An iPhone Invasion (http:/ / www. pcmag. com/ article2/ 0,2704,2185225,00. asp) Wired: How the iPhone Blew Up the Wireless Industry (http:/ / www. wired. com/ gadgets/ wireless/ magazine/ 16-02/ ff_iphone?currentPage=all) [6] WiMAX Carriers Risk Becoming Dumb Pipes (http:/ / www. fiercebroadbandwireless. com/ story/ analysys-wimax-carriers-risk-becoming-dumb-pipes/ 2007-07-16) [7] http:/ / gigaom. com/ 2008/ 01/ 13/ the-operators-vs-the-media-brands/ [8] http:/ / mobhappy. com/ blog1/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ the-pipe-is-only-dumb-if-you-make-it-that-way/ [9] http:/ / www. wirelessweek. com/ staying-relevant-in-a-dumb-pipe. aspx [10] http:/ / www. juniperresearch. com/ shop/ viewreport. php?id=91 [11] http:/ / www. sourcewire. com/ releases/ rel_display. php?relid=iiLmi [12] http:/ / news. soft32. com/ juniper-research%E2%80%99s-study-about-mnos-share-of-mobile-content-market-by-2012_5106. html [13] http:/ / research. analysys. com/ default. asp?Mode=article& iLeftArticle=2179& m=& n= [14] http:/ / www. google. com/ search?hl=en& q=juniper+ research+ business+ models+ for+ mobile+ content+ players& btnG=Google+ Search [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Dynamic Link Adaptation
In mobile telephony, Dynamic Link Adaptation is a method and strategy by which cellular networks can dynamically adapt a radio link according to changing conditions of interference. In particular, the method applies to uplink time slots in UMTS-TDD systems. A preferred embodiment describes performing dynamic link adaptation when a UE has two CCTrCHs in an uplink time slot. The method and strategy of the invention are applicable for UMTS-FDD, CDMA-2000, and other systems as well.

E-OTD
E-OTD is the acronym for the Enhanced Observed Time Difference. Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) is a standard for the location of mobile telephones. The location method works by multilateration. The standardisation was first carried out for GSM by the GSM standard committees (T1P1.5 and ETIS) in LCS Release 98 and Release 99[1] . The standardisation was continued for 3G and WCDMA mobile telephones by 3GPP[2] . Conceptually, the method is similar to U-TDOA, however, it involves time difference measurements being made in the handset rather than the network, and a mechanism to pseudo-synchronise the network. The handset makes an observation of the time difference of arrival of signals from two different base stations. These observations are known as Observed Time Difference (OTD). The handset measures the OTD between a number of different base stations. If the base stations were synchronised, then a single OTD defines a hyperbolic locus. A second, independent OTD, for which one of the observed base stations is spatially distinct from those in the first OTD, would provide a second hyperbolic locus, and the intersection of the two loci gives an estimate of the location of the mobile. If more than two independent OTDs are available, then the measurements can be combined to yield a more accurate measurement. However, GSM and 3G networks are not necessarily synchronised, so further information is needed. The E-OTD standard provides a method for pseudo-synchronisation. A Location Measurement Unit (LMU) can be used to estimate the transmission time offset between two base stations. This measurement is known as the Real Time Difference (RTD). The RTD for two base stations can then be subtracted from the OTD for the same two base stations to produce the Geometric Time Difference (GTD). The GTD is the time difference that would have been measured by the mobile if the network was perfectly synchronised. Accordingly, the application of the RTD

pdf) E-OTD compliance check in lab environment (http:/ / wireless. [4] “Mobile location without network-based synchronization or How to do E-OTD without LMUs”. agilent. org/ workshop/ Archive/ 0101LCS/ Docs/ PDF/ LCS-010019.php?gid=188) Advertisement of the E-OTD capability (http:/ / www.com/contents/pdf/6623767. 58 References [1] “Overview of 2G LCS Technologies and Standards” (ftp:/ / ftp. and so is a drawback of E-OTD. However. In 2009. An LMU is a receiver that is placed in a position in the network that is able to report the RTDs of a number of different base stations. E-OTD positioning system has been less commonly used than the U-TDOA positioning system. as the time offsets will be changing due to the clock drift in each base station[3] . In essence. The deployment of LMUs can be expensive. Vol. and presents results of an operational trial. com/ rfcomms/ refdocs/ gsmgprs/ gprsla_gen_bse_eotd. 2000. tmworld. In 2007. fcc. March. CSR merged with SIRF. [5] “Last Chance for E911 Technology” (http:/ / news. pdf) [3] “Mobile Phone Location Determination and Its Impact on Intelligent Transportation Systems” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. pdf) [2] “Testing E-ODT” (Manual for the E-ODT compliance check) (http:/ / www. Vol 1. If the base station clocks are not synchronised to a common source. 59 (2003).com/glossary/term.php) . An active proponent and developer of E-OTD was Cambridge Positioning Systems (CPS)[5] . No. 5084. Proc. a 2003 paper[4] describes a method of operating E-OTD without LMUs. if there are sufficient independent OTD measurements such that the equation system is over-determined. Because E-OTD requires a software modification to be included in the mobile phone. then it is necessary to continuously update the RTDs. gov/ pshs/ services/ 911-services/ enhanced911/ archives/ aerial. but ultimately was not a successful contender for this application.tmworld. pp 55 – 64. com/ 2100-1033-928153. cnet.phonescoop.pdf) Manual for the E-ODT compliance check (http://www. 3gpp.E-OTD provides a pseudo-synchronisation. 1. then the additional information can be used to estimate the RTDs. E-OTD was considered for the Enhanced 911 mandate. com/ contents/ pdf/ 6623767. SPIE. CPS was acquired by CSR. html) External links Encyclopedic article from Phone Scoop (http://www.

compared to International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers used by all GSM phones. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 23003. the same length as the IMEI and. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to uniquely identify mobile devices. 3gpp. was created and was first implemented by Verizon in 2006. Version 1. pdf) External links • Official TIA Resource Page for ESN and UIMID (http://www. 2009-09 (http:/ / www. For the decimal format the first three digits are the decimal representation of the first 8 bits (between 000 and 255 inclusive) and the next 8 digits are derived from the remaining 24 bits and will be between 00000000 and 16777215 inclusive.003. Reclaimed codes have also been used for UIMID assignments. a new serial number format.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Electronic Serial Numbers (ESN) (http:/ / www. 9c. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ esn_meid_milestones_timeline. from the days of AMPS in the United States from the early 1980s. 2010 using reclaimed ESN codes.0.S.Electronic Serial Number 59 Electronic Serial Number Electronic Serial Numbers (ESNs) were created by the U.0. The administrative role was taken over by the Telecommunications Industry Association in 1997 and is still maintained by them. those previously assigned to AMPS or TDMA phones and therefore not present on CDMA2000 systems.[3] Applications for assignments were accepted until June 30. tiaonline.tiaonline. The remaining 24 bits are the least significant bits of the SHA-1 hash of a Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID).[2] The last of the virgin (never before used) ESN codes was allocated in November 2008. ESNs are mainly used with CDMA phones (and were previously used by AMPS and TDMA phones). tiaonline. htm) http:/ / www. ESNs are often represented as either 11 digit decimal numbers or 8 digit hexadecimal numbers. MEIDs are 56 bits long. May 2007 (http:/ / tiaonline. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ index. in fact. but 14 bit codes are not displayed as separate digits.144 codes. The main difference between MEID and IMEI is that the MEID allows hexadecimal digits while IMEI allows only decimal digits .5 hexadecimal digits. Codes are assigned according to industry guidelines. MEID. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ ESN_Guidelines_v1.[1] The first 8 bits of the ESN was originally the manufacturer code. Manufacturer code 0x80 is reserved from assignment and is used instead as an 8-bit prefix for pseudo-ESNs (pESN). To allow more than 256 manufacturers to be identified the manufacturer code was extended to 14 bits. cfm) 3GPP TS 23.215 codes to mobiles. pdf ESN Assignment Guidelines and Procedures. leaving 24 bits for the manufacturer to assign up to 16."IMSI shall consist of decimal digits (0 through 9) only".9c. Pseudo-ESNs are not guaranteed to be unique (the MEID is the unique identifier if the phone has a pseudo-ESN).777. The decimal format of pseudo ESNs will therefore begin with 128. MEID was created to be a superset of IMEI. The decimal format separately displays 8 bit manufacturer codes in the first 3 digits. V9. The hexadecimal format displays an ESN as 8 digits and also does not separately display 14 bit manufacturer codes which occupy 3.org/standards/resources/esn/) . As ESNs have essentially run out. leaving 18 bits for the manufacturer to assign up to 262.

It could send messages up to 1. (1999). 92. James F. Unfortunately. receivers of service requests.[2] References [1] DeRose. where 'A' indicates that the message was successfully acknowledged by the SMSC. ISBN 0471286567. It was established in 1990 after Motorola purchased Contemporary Communications. Syntax A typical EMI/UCP exchange looks like this : ^B01/00045/O/30/66677789///1//////68656C6C6F/CE^C ^B01/00041/R/30/A//66677789:180594141236/F3^C The start of the packet is signaled by ^B (STX. EMI (protocol) External Machine Interface (EMI). It was useful for sending a simultaneous message or memo to up to 500 mobile users.[1] The EMBARC service could feed data at 1. the third is the operation type (O for operation. Wireless Computing: A Manager's Guide to Wireless Networking. hex 03).EMBARC 60 EMBARC EMBARC (Electronic Mail Broadcast to A Roaming Computer) was a business enterprise of the Motorola company that provided wireless broadcast of e-mail and news to mobile subscribers. calculated simply by summing all bytes in the packet (including slashes) and taking the 8 least significant bits from the result. In the first line above. in this case the ASCII string "hello". R for result). The subsequent fields are dependent on the operation. now part of Acision. The wireless data handbook (http:/ / books. but registration is required. p. and a timestamp is suffixed to the phone number to show time of delivery. John Wiley and Sons. Motorola attempted to use EMBARC to penetrate a different market: broadcasting current sports scores. . The deliveries were charged based on time until reception.). [2] Brodsky.[2] However. Retrieved 2011-05-06. The full specification is available on the LogicaCMG website developers' forum. com/ books?id=jbXEy2FRAnIC& pg=PA26) (4th ed. hex 02) and the end with ^C (ETX. The most likely users of this service were thought to be sales people operating in the field. The final field is the checksum. Communications Series. p.500 characters long to portable computers that were equipped to receive the messages. The second line is the response with a matching transaction reference number. . ISBN 0471316512. with the charge being more cost effective for larger numbers of clients. '66677789' is the recipient's address (telephone number) and '68656C6C6F' is the content of the message. and the fourth is the operation (here 30. 26.[2] In 1996. an extension to Universal Computer Protocol (UCP). alphanumeric pagers did not show rapid growth in the market. 1996[1] and Motorola sold their national paging license. The protocol was developed by CMG Wireless Data Solutions. forming less than 5% of all pagers by 1991. Fields within the packet are separated by / characters.5 kW ground transmitters. They decided instead to focus on hardware manufacturing. the EMBARC enterprise failed in April. a national carrier for pagers in the 900 MHz band. "short message transfer").200 bps from 3. John Wiley and Sons. google. Ira (1997). is a protocol primarily used to connect to short message service centres (SMSCs) for mobile telephones. and the transportation industry. The first four fields form the mandatory header.

In practice it does not have any impact on delivery throughput. com/ discus/ messages/ 1/ EMI_UCP_Specification_40-8156. vodafone. but only if you have very slow network and incorrectly configure your application on your SMSC (for example one session.interesting is that in EMI UCP documentation default alphabet is IRA (eq ASCII on 7bit). nowsms. cpan. • Computer Interface for Message Distribution (CIMD) developed by Nokia External links • LogicaCMG: Downloads for developers [1] (link no longer active as of 2007-12-24) • UCP Specification (Vodafone Germany) [2] • A more detailed UCP Specification [3] • UCP Perl implementation (for developers) [4] • Kannel [3]. pdf http:/ / search.EMI (protocol) 61 Technical Limitations The two digit transaction reference number means that an entity sending text messages can only have 100 outstanding messages (per session). logicacmg. de/ downloadarea/ EmiSpec_43d. com/ Telecoms/ 350234223 http:/ / www. pdf http:/ / www. Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with UCP/EMI 4. with number of window bigger than 100). Alternatives • Short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP) also provides SMS over TCP/IP. this can limit performance. except few characters (for example '_' underline). org/ ~nemux/ . In practice default alphabet is GSM-7.0 support. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. which is almost the same as ASCII on 7 bit. The default alphabet .

CPS is purchased by CSR. CSR claim that this enables software-only GPS solutions to operate reliably in all environments. Then CSR's "Fine Time Aiding" helps the device know where to look for a GPS signal.CSR & Motorola announce that they intend to create an open industry forum for EGPS technologies References [1] CSR announcement Feb 2005 (http:/ / www.engadget. fast. EGPS. EGPS delivers a "universal positioning capability that will not only work reliably indoors and in zero GPS signal conditions. E-GPS combines CSR's "Matrix" technology with GPS – when a user initiates a location request they get a Matrix location instantly using cell tower information.The E-GPS system was first announced by developers CPS (Cambridge Positioning Systems Ltd)[1] • January 2007 . lower cost implementations and reduced power and processing requirements. It is being developed by CSR who has partnered with Motorola – together they intend to create an open industry forum. trademarked as eGPS) is a technology designed for mobile phones on GSM and W-CDMA networks." CSR is hoping to add eGPS capabilities to handsets for less than $1 per unit. it can "exploit data available from the cellular network to speed GPS fixes and provide complementary. palminfocenter.org/) • CSR shows off eGPS. According to CSR. accurate to within 100m.co.3g." More specifically.Motorola and CSR (http://www.Enhanced GPS 62 Enhanced GPS Enhanced GPS (or E-GPS. to augment GPS signals to deliver faster location fixes. a manufacturer of bluetooth and wireless chips for mobile handsets • January 2008 . Timeline • February 2005 . but greatly speed time to fix in poor GPS reception areas where most handsets are used. and that eGPS is superior to Assisted GPS. com/ news/ 7557/ egps-offers-more-accurate-handset-locating/ ) External links • The EGPS Forum .uk/PR/ April2006/2970.htm) . and reliable location sensing when GPS signals are weak or unavailable. says it's superior to aGPS (http://www.com/2008/02/10/ csr-shows-off-egps-says-its-superior-to-a-gps/) • E-GPS High Accuracy Mobile Location Technology for GSM / 3G W-CDMA (http://www. to quickly acquire satellite information within seconds. Fine Time Aiding enables a more aggressive search and is claimed to be equivalent to 6 dB more sensitivity than can be achieved by any GPS hardware correlator in the terminal.egpsforum. EGPS technologies are due in 2008.

php?lang=eng [5] http:/ / kb9ukd.ERMES 63 ERMES ERMES (European Radio Messaging System) is a pan-European radio paging system. • Each pager group is allocated to one of the 16 transmission batches [A. This scheduling allocation protocol extends the battery life of the pager by several orders of magnitude. europa. labeled A through P. Transmission parameters. European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) has developed the European Telecommunications Standard ETS 300 133 for ERMES operating in the frequency band 169.P]. allowing it to go into sleep mode 15/16 (~=93%) of the time (a ~7% duty cycle). eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ.[1] ERMES failed to develop[2] and its frequency band has been reassigned to different use... • Each cycle is divided into 5 subsequences of 12 seconds. • The pager needs only to be active during the period it has been allocated to. gsm-antennes. do?uri=OJ:L:2005:344:0047:01:EN:HTML) [4] http:/ / www. • Each subsequence is further divided into 16 batches.4125-169.8125 MHz frequency band in the Community (http:/ / eur-lex. org. [5] References [1] Council Directive 90/544/EEC of 9 October 1990 on the frequency bands designated for the coordinated introduction of pan-European land-based public radio paging in the Community (http:/ / eur-lex. com/ digital/ .. do?uri=CELEX:31990L0544:EN:HTML) [2] Ofcom's Public Wide Area Paging Information (http:/ / www. europa. nl/ PDW/ pdw.8125 MHz. • ERMES uses Frequency Shift Keying (4-FSK) modulation. Pager interrogation • The pager population is divided into 16 groups.4-169.[3] Technical specification Transmission parameters • ERMES transmits the data at 6250 bit/s. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. pager interrogation • Each paging transmission is divided into 60 cycles of 1 minute in length. uk/ static/ archive/ ra/ topics/ paging/ document/ pwa-paging. Related websites • PDW Paging Decoder [4] freeware • Audio samples including ERMES. Radio paging services depend on the allocation and availability of appropriate frequencies in order to transmit and receive between fixed-base stations and radio paging receivers respectively. htm) [3] Commission Decision of 20 December 2005 on the harmonisation of the 169. ofcom. GOLAY etc..

but can satisfy most uses of UIMID. another unique identifier should be used instead or the requirement for uniqueness should be removed. etc.[2] This was published by the TIA as TIA-820-C. SME is a term used in many cellular circles to describe a network entity (mobile/cell phone) that can send/receive messages. This may make it easier to provision a R-UIM that is manufactured without other unique identifiers (such as MIN or IMSI). Short Form EUIMID (SF_EUIMID) The Short Form EUIMID is based on the 56-bit MEID and is allocated from the same numbering space by the current Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA). Basically. Secondly. Where this is not possible.25 or similar. The pseudo-UIMID is not unique. ESME (pronounced EZ-mee) is essentially one of these but without all the wireless aspects. it is connected via TCP/IP.e. or not desirable. Big Brother). SMCI all of which denote the concept of an ESME connecting to an SMSC. UCP. There are two forms of EUIMID. Both forms produce a 32-bit pseudo-UIMID (pUIMID) with 0x80 in the upper 8 bits and the least significant 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the entire SF_EUIMID or the entire ICCID EF (for LF_EUIMID) in the lower 24 bits. known as Short Form (SF_EUIMID) and Long Form (LF_EUIMID). they can identify the issuer of the code (likely a mobile phone operator in the case of EUIMID. X. voting systems that process SMS votes (Pop Idol. no two R-UIM devices should ever be given the same number. This is controlled by a flag inside the R-UIM stored in bit 2 of the UsgInd (Usage Indicator) elementary file (EF). CIMD. OIS. The tradeoff is that the phone hardware cannot be easily identified. Their most important characteristic is that they are globally unique. The EUIMID (and UIMID) are hardware identifiers that do not change throughout the life of the device they identify. it is likely that the other sender/receiver is an ESME. This form requires new files within the R-UIM defined in 3GPP2 specification C. This tradeoff was removed in 2008 by the ability to specify MEID or EUIMID in OTASP signaling and in 2009 by the addition of these options to the CDMA air interface StatusRequest message. SMSC uses protocols such as SMPP. The SF_EUIMID has the unique ability to override the phone’s own MEID in signaling. i. anytime a mobile user sends or receives a message where the other party was not another real mobile user. the TIA. Typical examples of ESMEs are systems that send automated marketing messages to mobile users. .S0023-C v1.ESME 64 ESME External Short Messaging Entity (ESME) is a term originally coined by Aldiscon to describe an external application that connects to an SMSC to engage in the sending and/or receiving of SMS messages. and an R-UIM or CSIM manufacturer in the case of UIMID). EUIMID EUIMID (expanded UIMID) is a unique identifier for an R-UIM (Removable User Identity Module) or CSIM (CDMA SIM application) card in CDMA2000 cellular systems that replaces the older UIMID identifier.0 (or higher) [1].

Removable User Identity Module for Spread Spectrum Systems. S0066-0_v2. The storage allocated for the ICCID is.0 of C. pdf [2] C.S0023-C v2.up to 72 bits. the CDMA air interface was also upgraded to the so-called 'Release E' which allows the transmission of all available identifiers in the StatusRequest message. 3gpp2.S0023-C[3] that the pseudo-UIMID is generated from all 80 stored bits.0. 2008. S0023-C_v2. References [1] http:/ / www.0 there were no CDMA2000 protocols that provided visibility of the ICCID outside the R-UIM.0. pdf) [3] C. In Press. 80 bits. 0_060530. 3gpp2. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C.S0023-C v2. 0_081031. 0_081031. 3gpp2. it is recommended in Version 2. (http:/ / www. 3gpp2. pdf) . This is composed of up to 18 BCD digits -. however.0. so it is recommended that the Luhn check digit be included plus a padding digit (0xf).EUIMID 65 Long Form EUIMID (LF_EUIMID) The Long Form EUIMID is the ICCID that has been present in many generations of smart cards. Until the publication of C. Over-the-Air Service Provisioning for MEID-Equipped Mobile Stations in Spread Spectrum Systems. S0023-C_v2. (http:/ / www. org/ Public_html/ SC/ C. Removable User Identity Module for Spread Spectrum Systems. pdf) [4] C. (http:/ / www. 3GPP2. Importantly. 3GPP2. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. including the SIM cards for GSM. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. Publication pending. If an R-UIM or CSIM with Expanded UIMID is inserted in a phone the identifier that is usually transmitted as the 'ESN' over the radio interface is the 32-bit pseudo-UIMID. [4] In 2009. 0_080729. 3GPP2.S0066-0 v2.S0066-0 v2. S0023-C_v1.

35 6. [3] Jennifer Van Grove (2010-07-10).2. Retrieved 2010-09-19.ws [1] face2face is a proprietary proximity-based mobile application developed by Proximate Global Inc.9 MB English social networking www. prnewswire.[7] Overview face2face compiles existing online social and business networks including Facebook. Retrieved 2010-09-19. Initial release Stable release Size Available in Type Website July 2010 1. Android. Awards face2face earned Mashable's "Spark of Genius" award in July 2010. nytimes.[3] face2face populates content based on users' news feed. face2face had 10. 2010-07-08. Those users are then connected to 3. Users can also update their own statuses and share news across all of their social networks. com/ news-releases/ proximate-global-introduces-face2face-98015299. Venture Beat.[3] [4] [5] [6] face2face was launched in July 2010[2] for smartphones including the iPhone.[4] [6] face2face does not reveal precise location coordinates.[3] Privacy and security Responding to growing concerns about location-based apps revealing too much information about a user's whereabouts. Mashable. com/ 2010/ 07/ 10/ face2face/ ). within walking distance. LinkedIn. com/ external/ venturebeat/ 2010/ 07/ 08/ 08venturebeat-face2face-brings-privacy-to-location-by-appr-41496. face2face incorporates "reciprocal sharing functionality" so that only users who make themselves known to each other share location data. html). MySpace. and Twitter[8] and enables users to see when members of these networks are in close proximity. and many J2ME-compatible devices. It works on BlackBerry.5. face2face. "Face2face Brings Privacy to Location by Approximating Friends' Whereabouts" (http:/ / www.000+ app downloads.face2face. statuses. iPhone. . New York: PR Newswire. . protecting their privacy. The New York .5 million friends of friends. without sacrificing privacy. In its first month (July 2010). [4] JP Manninen (2010-07-08). and proximity. although its technology gathers that data.face2face 66 face2face Original author(s) Proximate Global Inc. html). BlackBerry.[3] although it does not reveal users' exact locations. and many J2ME-compatible devices. Android. "Mobile App Pinpoints Nearby Facebook and Twitter Friends" (http:/ / mashable. people not in one of their networks cannot see the information.[5] [9] References [1] http:/ / www.[2] that allows users to identify when members of their social networks are nearby. ws [2] "Proximate Global Introduces face2face" (http:/ / www. face2face allows users to choose with which members of their social networks they share location information.

Retrieved 2010-09-19. but a related protocol called ReFLEX provides two-way messaging. [8] "Face2face consolidates Facebook. Technology Review. The standard has been designed to allow the pager's receiver to be turned off for a high percentage of the time and therefore save on battery usage. 3200/2. 67 External links • Official site (http://www.ws) FLEX (protocol) FLEX is a communications protocol developed by Motorola and used in many pagers. uk/ news/ archive/ 2010-07/ 26/ face2face-social-network). Security Since data transmission over FLEX is unencrypted and insecure. this is a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 bits per second. Each frame contains a sync followed by 10 data blocks. . com/ computing/ 25855/ ?a=f).com. In The Netherlands the emergency services use the Flex-protocol in the nationwide P2000 network for pagers. At 6400/4. news organizations. this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 symbols per second or 6400 bits per second. Transmission of message data occurs in one of four modes: 1600/2.face2face Times. Retrieved 2010-09-19. Retrieved 2010-09-19. Each 4 level symbol represents two bits for a bit rate of 3200 bits per second. All modes use FSK modulation. 3200 or 6400 bits per second respectively. .uk. MFS and SAAS) is run on the FLEX 1600 protocol. ws/ faqs). Twitter and MySpace on a single platform" (http:/ / www. Intomobile. The traffic on this network can be monitored via several websites. wired. "App Lets You Know When Friends Are Nearby" (http:/ / www. At 1600/2 this is on a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 bits per second. com/ mobile-location-and-privacy-in-one-network-face2face/ ). Wired. etc. 3200/4. intomobile. SES. or 6400/4. 2010-07-29. 512 or 1024 bits for 1600. [5] Naone. Retrieved 2010-09-19. LinkedIn. technologyreview. GoMo News. [9] "FAQs" (http:/ / face2face.co. Proximate Global Inc. gomonews. . There have been reported instances of individuals actively listening to pager traffic (private investigators. Face2face. . transmitting private information over it should be done with caution. Data is transmitted in a set of 128 frames that takes 4 minutes to complete. At 3200/4. A BCH type ECC is used to improve the integrity of the data.ws. com/ 2010/ 07/ 29/ face2face-consolidates-facebook-linkedin-twitter-and-myspace-on-a-single-platform/ ).).. MIT. co. . The data blocks contain 256. [6] Olivia Solon (2010-07-26). 2010-08-10. At 3200/2. this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 symbols per second. Retrieved 2010-09-19. . "Proximity-based 'Face2face' app assuages privacy fears" (http:/ / www. In South Australia the State's SAGRN network for the Emergency Services paging system (CFS. . FLEX provides one-way communication only (from the provider to the pager device). Retrieved 2010-09-19. and can be monitored through several websites. Erica (2010-07-26).face2face. [7] "Mobile location and privacy in one network: Face2Face" (http:/ / www.

This authentication is possible if the user owns a valid identity on an HLR Home Location Register or a Home Subscriber Server GBA is standardized at the 3GPP (http:/ / www. 3gpp. The name of the file will end with a ". nettwerked.gcd" extension. Instead of asking the service provider to trust the BSF and relying on it for every authentication request. Generic Bootstrapping Architecture Introduction In mobile phones. GBA authenticates by making a network component challenge the simcard card and verify that the answer is similar by the one predicted by the HLR/HSS. Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA) is one technology enabling the authentication of a user. the BSF establishes a shared secret between the simcard card and the service provider. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 33220.FLEX (protocol) 68 External links • FLEX Technology: Paging Protocol [1] References [1] http:/ / www. This shared secret is limited in time and for a specific domain. GCD's are plain text files. one in the smartcard inside the mobile phone and the other is on the HLR/HSS. . The user authentication is instantiated by a shared secret. html General content descriptor A General Content Descriptor (GCD) is a file which describes downloads like ringtones and pictures to wireless devices. htm) . They are required by many wireless carriers to install applications on devices. net/ FLEX_Technologies.

There is no need for user enrollment phase nor secure deployment of keys. either Bluetooth SAP or a Java or native application could be used to serve the request coming from the browser. • A means to dialog with a smartcard and signed the challenge sent by the BSF. For example it could be implemented on SimpleSAMLPhP http:/ / rnd.Another advantage is the ease with which the authentication method may be integrated into terminals and service providers. as it is based on HTTP's well known "Digest access authentication". no/ simplesamlphp with 500 PHP lines of code and only a few tens of lines of code are Service Provider specific making it really easy to port it to another Web site. . . Every Web server already implement HTTP digest authentication and the effort to implement GBA on top of digest authentication is minimal.Generic Bootstrapping Architecture 69 Strong points This solution has some strong points of certificate and shared secrets without having some of their weaknesses: . . making this solution a very low cost one when compared to PKI. feide.On device side is needed: • A Web browser (in fact an HTTP client) implementing digest authentication and the special case designed by a "3gpp" string in the HTTP header.

htm. which also uses the diameter at the base Protocol. the user's mobile phone.Presentation at ICIN 2008 by Peter Weik [2] • The Open Mobile Terminal Platform http://www. which can use any specific application protocol necessary. SSC. over the Ua [4] interface.ist-spice. tml.org/demos/demo3. BSF must first know which one to use.omtp. it must use a Zn-proxy to contact BSF . which are the implementation servers.de developed an OpenID extension for Firefox which uses GBA authentication. fi/ Publications/ C/ 22/ papers/ Olkkonen_final. The User Equipment (UE) is. is based on public-private key pairs and digital certificates. NAFs recover the key session of BSF during the Zn [5] interface. If NAF is not in the home network. Optional entities are drawn with lines network and borders dotted the scoreboard. There are two ways to use GAA (Generic Authentication Architecture). Helsinki University of Technology (http:/ / www. omtp. The UE also communicates with the Network Application Functions (NAF). pdf%20 [3] OMTP Advanced Trusted Environment: OMTP TR1 (http:/ / www. using the Digest access authentication AKA protocol. for example. Bluetooth SIM Access Profile was used between the Firefox browser and the mobile phone. org/ Publications/ Display.org references GBA in its Advanced Trusted Environment: OMTP TR1[3] recommendation. Uses • The SPICE project developed an extended Use Case named "split terminal" where a user on a PC can authenticate with her mobile phone: http://www. first released in May 2008. This can be done by either setting up a pre-defined HSS to BSF. References [1] Generic Authentication Architecture by Timo Olkkonen. If there are several HSS in the network. The UE and Bootstrapping function server (BSF) mutually authenticate themselves during the Ub (number [2] above) interface. the customer and the operator are first mutually authenticated through 3G and Authentication Key (AKA) and they agree on session keys which can then be used between the client and services that the customer wants to use. Figure above shows the network GAA entities and interfaces between them. Later a partner developed a "zero installation" concept. • The Fraunhofer Fokus http://www. is based on a shared secret between the client and server • The second. the services can retrieve the session keys from the operator. tkk. In the shared secret cases. pdf) [2] http:/ / www. BSF retrieves data from the subscriber from the Home Subscriber Server (HSS) during the Zh [3] interface. aspx?Id=24ad518b-6dba-4155-ad51-3143bd43a234) . After that. which uses the Diameter Base Protocol.fraunhofer. biz/ files/ 2008papers/ Session5A-2.Generic Bootstrapping Architecture 70 Technical overview Actually. and they can be used in some application specific protocol between the client and services. or by querying the Subscriber Locator Function (SLF). contents in this section are from external literature [1] . GBA. This is called bootstrapping. • The first.The NAF was developed on SimpleSAMLPhP and a Firefox extension was developed to process the GBA digest authencation request from the BSF. icin.fokus.

Gillin is best known as the co-founder of Ecount. Steve Gillin. Pennsylvania. At the time. In 1995. In 1997 Gillin and business partner.[2] until 2009. In 2007. Gillin remained as CEO of the renamed business.Matt Gillin 71 Matt Gillin Matthew Gillin is an American entrepreneur. together with Paul Raden. and is the recipient of multiple national and local awards including Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year [3] . Citi Prepaid Services. After the sale. and Forbes "Best of The Web. Ohio. Ecount was one of the first providers of corporate prepaid card solutions for the purpose of replacing paper checks and other inefficient payment methods. and philanthropist. At the time of its acquisition. a corporate prepaid card provider. Gillin holds two patents in the US Patent Office for his inventions around electronic payments. Paul Raden. a company that helps businesses shift to mobile communications. Relay Type Industry Founded Startup company Technology. and Pete Flick. In 2007. Biography Gillin was born in Philadelphia. Amazon. Philadelphia Business Journal Best Places to Work[7] . relaynetwork. as well as numerous other recognitions for his companies including being named Deloitte Fast 50[5] . In 2009. Ecount was sold to Citi for US $200 million to integrate into Citi’s global transaction services business. Ecount was issuing more than US $4 billion in payments worldwide.[1] He is currently CEO and co-founder of his third business venture. Gillin co-founded C/Base – an Internet partnership marketing consultancy. Eastern Technology Council Technology CEO of the Year [4] and Philadelphia Business Journal "40 Under 40". Gillin founded Relay. Pennsylvania Area served Website United States http:/ / www. C/Base designed programs valued at over US $1. Mobile 2009 Headquarters Radnor. inventor. Deloitte Fast 500[6] . Relay.5 billion for companies including Microsoft. founded Ecount – an electronic payments company. Gillin sold Ecount to Citi for US $200 million. He attended Denison University in Granville."[8] Matt serves on the board of SpeakUp! and AidsAlive. Hotmail and Citysearch. com .

html) with Smart Business Philadelphia • Matt Gillin’s public profile (http://www. html) [2] Ecount renames to Citi Prepaid Services (http:/ / www.allbusiness. pdf)] Fast 50] [6] [[Deloitte Fast 500 (http:/ / www. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2006TechnologyFast500WinnersBrochure. com/ 2007/ 03/ 01/ business/ 01citi. aspx) [5] [[Deloitte (http:/ / www.linkedin.citiprepaid. com/ Greater+ Philadelphia's+ 2002+ Ernst+ & + Young+ Entrepreneur+ Of+ The+ Year(R). thefreelibrary.com/human-resources/workforce-management/4059319-1. corp. easterntechnologycouncil. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ us_tmt_fast_Greater Phil. which Gillin founded prior to Relay • SpeakUp! (http://www.Matt Gillin 72 Current work Gillin is currently CEO and co-founder of Relay. pdf)]] [7] Philadelphia Business Journal "Best Places to Work" (http:/ / www.aidsalive. . deloitte. Gillin currently lives in a suburb of Philadelphia.org/) . Pennsylvania with his wife and two children. citi. xacp.com). References [1] The New York Times article on Ecount's acquisition by Citi (http:/ / www. deloitte. forbes. com/ 9_21_06. .php) • Citi Prepaid Services (formerly Ecount) website (http://www. Relay helps companies reach their customers through their mobile devices with their consent. prepaid.org/) • AidsAlive (http://www. html) [3] Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award (http:/ / www.com/management.com/profile/view?id=196368&authType=name& authToken=uFLx&pvs=pp&trk=ppro_viewmore) with his positions and start-up history • Management Page on Relay website (http://www.speakup. com/ about/ 2008news/ sept-1-2008. html) [8] [[Forbes (http:/ / www. com/ bow/ b2c/ category.relaynetwork. -a087964372) [4] Eastern Technology Council Technology CEO of the Year (http:/ / www. org/ ea/ winners. nytimes. jhtml?id=190)] "Best of the Web" Award] External links • Matt Gillin’s interview (http://www.

GoTV’s rich application technologies deliver engaging experiences that connect brand and media partners with their audiences via mobile. The company’s mobile technology lab is located in San Diego.GMLC 73 GMLC The Gateway Mobile Location Centre contains functionality required to support LCS (LoCation Services). and Kansas City. there may be more than one GMLC. ranking in the top 10 of all music channels available on US carriers. GoTV enables media owners and brands to deliver compelling. reaching new audiences in innovative new ways.5 to 4 minutes per segment. The GMLC may request routing information from the HLR (Home Location register) or HSS (Home Subscriber Server). Some of GoTV’s mobile products/partners include: Astrology Zone Premier Bible-in-a-Year Call On Jesus Cracked NASCAR Sprint Cup Mobile℠ NBA2Go NHRA Mobile Oprah Mobile Revolver TV Romancing Royalty Sony's Crackle . personalized. syndication and production studio capabilities make GoTV the go-to partner for brands. the company’s wholly owned studio is also located in Los Angeles. it sends positioning requests to either the VMSC (Visited Mobile Switching Centre). From mobile and broadband to broadcast and HD. the company’s wholly owned production studio. GoTV Studios delivers new media content to multiple platforms for today’s consumer. GoTV is headquartered in Los Angeles. creates and syndicates original content to mobile. regional wireless carriers and online-mobile third-party distributors. CA. GoTV Networks GoTV Networks. Seattle. After performing registration authorization. Syndication & Distribution sales offices are strategically located to serve mobile and broadband partners in Los Angeles. GoTV’s technology. the industry’s largest mobile media network. The GMLC is the first node an external LCS client accesses in a GSM or UMTS network. In one PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). GoTV Studios creates critically acclaimed original programming. GoTV has the most music channels in the US mobile marketplace. major wireless carriers. San Francisco. agencies and media owners. This network includes all major application storefronts. SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) or MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) Server and receives final location estimates from the corresponding entity. develops hundreds of original and custom shows every month ranging from 2. GoTV Studios. highly engaged content experiences through feature-rich smart applications distributed to the widest audience possible. GoTV Studios. A full suite of feature-rich custom applications and widgets meets specific partner requirements. GoTV’s wide distribution network enables broad syndication of content to the widest audience possible.

Hardware These devices often have stereo 1⁄8 inches (3. some models have mono 1/8" jacks for the broadcast signal that is usually relayed via F connector on standard television models. Size spectrum Portable These TVs cannot fit in your pocket. gotvnetworks.GoTV Networks Sprint Exclusive Entertainment Sprint Football Live Univision V CAST Young Hollywood ES Música Hip Hop Official True Country 74 External links • GoTV Networks Website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. . some cell phones have an integrated television receiver feature. also. Later in 1982. Since LCD technology was not yet mature at the time. com/ Handheld television A Handheld television is a portable device that usually uses a TFT LCD or Organic light-emitting diode color display. USB and SD ports.3 to 5 inches (33 to 130 mm). but often run on batteries and includes a car lighter plug. Nowadays. Several years later. Screen sizes vary from 1. the TV used a minuscule CRT which set the record for being the smallest CRT on a commercially marketed product. a pun on Walkman. Pocket These TVs fit in your pocket Wearable These TVs sometimes are made in the form of a wristwatch. a color model with an active-matrix LCD was released. Many of these devices resemble handheld transistor radios. It had grayscale video at first. Some include HDMI. History In the 1970s and early 1980s.2 mm) phono plugs for composite video~analog mono audio relay to serve them as composite monitors. Some handheld televisions also double as portable DVD players and USB PVR . called the Panasonic IC TV MODEL TR-001 and MTV-1. Panasonic and Sinclair Research released the first TVs which were small enough to fit in a large pocket. Sony released the first model of the Watchman.

while handoff is slightly more common within the IEEE and ANSI organisations. IETF.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] http:/ / www. who can only be connected to that cell. In British English the term handover is more common. and standardised within European originated standards such as GSM and UMTS. Handover or handoff American English tends to use the term handoff. • in non-CDMA networks when the channel used by the phone becomes interfered by another phone using the same channel in a different cell. guenthoer.visions4. The term handover is more common than handoff in academic research publications and literature.Handheld television 75 Notable brands and models for handheld televisions • • • • • Casio Citizen Watch Co. ETSI and 3GPP. NEC TurboExpress game console Sega Game Gear TV tuner accessory Sony Watchman Similar types Some handheld televisions are wearable. External links • History of the pocket TV [1] • Vintage Micro Television http://www. htm Handover In cellular telecommunications. which is located in an area overlapped by another cell. and this is most commonly used within some American organizations such as 3GPP2 and in American originated technologies such as CDMA2000. In satellite communications it is the process of transferring satellite control responsibility from one earth station to another without loss or interruption of service. the call is transferred to a different channel in the same cell or to a different channel in another cell in order to avoid the interference. a few models are in the form of a wristwatch. Purpose In telecommunications there may be different reasons why a handover might be conducted: • when the phone is moving away from the area covered by one cell and entering the area covered by another cell the call is transferred to the second cell in order to avoid call termination when the phone gets outside the range of the first cell. the term handover or handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. . and is used within international and European organisations such as ITU-T. • when the capacity for connecting new calls of a given cell is used up and an existing or new call from a phone. de/ e-history. is transferred to that cell in order to free-up some capacity in the first cell for other users.

the signal of the best of all used channels can be utilised for the call at a given moment or all the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. This is called ping-ponging. is called intra-cell handover. and when such combining is performed both in the downlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover is termed as softer. Thus the connection to the source is broken before or 'as' the connection to the target is made—for this reason such handovers are also known as break-before-make. Such a handover. stops then the call may be transferred to a smaller macro cell or even to a micro cell in order to free capacity on the umbrella cell for other fast-traveling users and to reduce the potential interference to other cells or users (this works in reverse too. which may be interfered or fading with a new clearer or less fading channel. The most basic form of handover is when a phone call in progress is redirected from its current cell (called source) and its used channel in that cell to a new cell (called target) and a new channel. in which the cell is not changed. connected to a large. four or more cells can be maintained by one phone at the same time. may be brief or substantial. in which the source and the target are different cells (even if they are on the same cell site) is called inter-cell handover. It requires the least processing by the network providing service. • A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained and used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. In this case the connection to the target is established before the connection to the source is broken. A special case is possible. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved in the handovers have a single cell site. umbrella-type of cell. In terrestrial networks the source and the target cells may be served from two different cell sites or from one and the same cell site (in the latter case the two cells are usually referred to as two sectors on that cell site). hence this handover is called make-before-break.g. in which the source and the target are one and the same cell and only the used channel is changed during the handover.Handover • again in non-CDMA networks when the user behaviour changes. when a fast-travelling user. The interval. A hard handover is perceived by network engineers as an event during the call. they also can be divided into hard and soft handovers: • A hard handover [1] is one in which the channel in the source cell is released and only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. Soft handovers may involve using connections to more than two cells: connections to three. 76 Types of handover In addition to the above classification of inter-cell and intra-cell classification of handovers. then the mobile can switch with any of the base stations. The purpose of intra-cell handover is to change one channel. The purpose of inter-cell handover is to maintain the call as the subscriber is moving out of the area covered by the source cell and entering the area of the target cell. Hard handovers are intended to be instantaneous in order to minimize the disruption to the call. the call can be transferred to a larger umbrella-type of cell in order to minimize the frequency of the handovers due to this movement). . • etc. • in CDMA networks a (see further down) may be induced in order to reduce the interference to a smaller neighboring cell due to the "near-far" effect even when the phone still has an excellent connection to its current cell. so the base stations bounce the link with the mobile back and forth. during which the two connections are used in parallel. e. The latter is more advantageous. For this reason the soft handover is perceived by network engineers as a state of the call. when a user is detected to be moving faster than a certain threshold. When a call is in a state of soft handover. When the mobile is between base stations. rather than a brief event. Such a handover.

GSM. this is necessitated by the fact that without soft handovers CDMA networks may suffer from substantial interference arising due to the so-called "near-far" effect. by far a bigger advantage comes from the mere fact that simultaneously channels in multiple cells are maintained and the call could only fail if all of the channels are interfered or fade at the same time. etc. On one hand.g. usually have procedures which can re-establish the connection to the source cell if the connection to the target cell cannot be made. in which they occur. the network engineers can balance the benefit of extra call reliability against the price of reduced capacity. One advantage of the soft handovers is that the connection to the source cell is broken only when a reliable connection to the target cell has been established and therefore the chances that the call will be terminated abnormally due to failed handovers are lower.) changing the channel during a hard handover is realised by changing the pair of used transmit/receive frequencies. allow not so expensive implementation of soft handovers. which utilise hard handovers.g. this is facilitated by the possibility to design not so expensive phone hardware supporting soft handovers for CDMA and on the other hand. AMPS. Because in a cellular network the majority of the handovers occur in places of poor coverage. This reduces the number of remaining free channels and thus reduces the capacity of the network. in digital systems it is unnoticeable. etc. where calls would frequently become unreliable when their channel is interfered or fading. analog or digital. Of the digital technologies. which makes it cheaper and simpler.Handover 77 Comparison of handovers An advantage of the hard handover is that at any moment in time one call uses only one channel.). However. the cost of implementing them for analog technologies is prohibitively high and none of the technologies that were commercially successful in the past (e. IS-136/DAMPS. Another advantage of the hard handoff is that the phone's hardware does not need to be capable of receiving two or more channels in parallel. Technologies. A disadvantage is that if a handover fails the call may be temporarily disrupted or even terminated abnormally. none of the 2G (second-generation) technologies have this feature (e. D-AMPS/IS-136. soft handovers bring a significant improvement to the reliability of the calls in these places by making the interference or the fading in a single channel not critical. TACS. GSM. which must be capable of processing several channels in parallel. By adjusting the duration of soft handovers and the size of the areas. have soft handovers. AMPS. . In all current commercial technologies based on FDMA or on a combination of TDMA/FDMA (e. 2G and 3G (third-generation). in principle. The hard handover event is indeed very short and usually is not perceptible by the user. However. Possibility of handover While theoretically speaking soft handovers are possible in any technology. On the other hand. all CDMA based technologies. etc. This advantage comes at the cost of more complex hardware in the phone.) had this feature. Thus the reliability of the connection becomes higher when the call is in a soft handover.g. NMT. Fading and interference in different channels are unrelated and therefore the probability of them taking place at the same moment in all channels is very low. However re-establishing this connection may not always be possible (in which case the call will be terminated) and even when possible the procedure may cause a temporary interruption to the call. those based on FDMA also face a higher cost for the phones (due to the need to have multiple parallel radio-frequency modules) and those based on TDMA or a combination of TDMA/FDMA. In the old analog systems it could be heard as a click or a very short beep. Another price to pay for soft handovers is use of several channels in the network to support just a single call.

In some systems. etc. Lots of research was conducted regarding this. however a handoff with others cells outside the neighbor list is also allowed (unlike in GSM. NMT. the most common criterion for requesting a handover is Ec/Io ratio measured in the pilot channel (CPICH) and/or RSCP. If the search finger finds a sufficiently-strong signal (in terms of high Ec/Io or RSCP) from a new cell this cell is added to the active set. it processes the received in parallel signals using a rake receiver. mainly based on CDMA. a target candidate may be selected among the cells which are not in the neighbour list. there is the problem of signal interference where adjacent cells overpower each other resulting in receiver desensitization. 2G and 3G.). In the late 80's the main reason was found out. The phone and the BTSs of the neighbouring cells monitor each other others' signals and the best target candidates are selected among the neighbouring cells. The cells in the neighbour list (called in CDMA neighbouring set) are checked more frequently than the rest and thus a handoff with a neighbouring cell is more likely. Creating such a list for a given cell is not trivial and specialised computer tools are used. The downlink (forward link) and/or uplink (reverse link) directions may be monitored. They implement different algorithms and may use for input data from field measurements or computer predictions of radio wave propagation in the areas covered by the cells. The handover may be requested by the phone or by the base station (BTS) of its source cell and. the user’s call must be terminated. In non-CDMA 2G digital systems the criteria for requesting hard handover may be based on estimates of the received signal power. received quality of speech (RxQual). bit error rate (BER) and block error/erasure rate (BLER). Reasons for failure There are occurrences where a handoff is unsuccessful. a new frequency must be allocated for the call. in some systems. In analog systems the parameters used as criteria for requesting a hard handover are usually the received signal power and the received signal-to-noise ratio (the latter may be estimated in an analog system by inserting additional tones. During a call one or more parameters of the signal in the channel in the source cell are monitored and assessed in order to decide when a handover may be necessary. A usual design of a rake receiver in mobile phones includes three or more rake fingers used in soft handoff state for processing signals from as many cells and one additional finger used to search for signals from other cells. Because frequencies cannot be reused in adjacent cells. AMPS. is referred to as the "active set". Each signal is processed by a module called rake finger. by a BTS of a neighbouring cell. Also.Handover 78 Implementations For the practical realisation of handoffs in a cellular network each cell is assigned a list of potential target cells. IS-136/DAMPS. If a user moves into a cell when all available channels are in use. The set of cells. whose signals are used during a soft handoff. which can be used for handing-off calls from this source cell to them. with frequencies just outside the captured voice-frequency band at the transmitter and assessing the form of these tones at the receiver). In CDMA systems. . when the phone in soft or softer handoff is connected to several cells simultaneously. distance between the phone and the BTS (estimated from the radio signal propagation delay) and others. when a user moves from one cell to another. These potential target cells are called neighbours and the list is called neighbour list. This is done in an effort to reduce the probability of interference due to the aforementioned "near-far" effect. In CDMA systems.

such as Objecs. php?letter=all& id=1 http:/ / www.g. A common cell phone is the medium of this information exchange that is initiated whenever a user makes a connection with a hardlink database. External links • • • • Intra-MSC GSM Handover Call Flow [2] Inter-MSC GSM Handover Call Flow [3] Handoff protocols [4] U. ylesstech. The Bar Code Gets a Hip New Life. This concept is also known as 'physical world connection'.Handover 79 Vertical handover There are also inter-technology handovers where a call's connection is transferred from one access technology to another. com/ terminology. a call being transferred from GSM to UMTS or from CDMA IS-95 to cdma2000. com/ RealtimeMantra/ Telecom/ GSM_Inter_MSC_Handover_Call_Flow. The consumer use and market for object hyperlinking methods is a very small and limited one in the U. Object hyperlinking and Physical world hyperlinks with a number of companies developing. JESSICA E. eventhelix. 1970. and enters some alphanumeric sequence found on the target object. but does require the phone be internet enabled. toolbox. Unlike Japan. with a [1] slightly larger audience of users in some eastern countries. The hardlink method establishes a reference link between a physical world object and a . wsj. few US cell phone providers currently offer graphical tag readers or other support for object hyperlinking methods and this will likely continue until a clear linking method becomes dominate. pdf http:/ / www. google. References [1] WSJ Online 2006. e. com/ article_email/ SB114843472842861406-lMyQjAxMDE2NDI4NDQyMzQ0Wj. com/ wiki/ index. a hard link (two words) which is Unix terminology for a pointer to physical data on a storage volume. com/ RealtimeMantra/ Telecom/ GSM_Handover_Call_Flow.S. php/ Hard_handoff http:/ / www. The 3GPP UMA/GAN standard enables GSM/UMTS handoff to Wi-Fi and vice-versa. pdf http:/ / www. html) . This topic is not to be confused with. SMS tags and RFID tags. (http:/ / online. issued May 16. This alphanumeric sequence may be the objects part number or common name.mobi. Patent 3663762 [5]: Cellular Mobile Communication System — Amos Edward Joel (Bell Labs).mobi web page just as a traditional hyperlink establishes an electronic reference to information on a Web page. eventhelix. The hardlink method does not require a graphical object tag or any special software be loaded on the users cell phone.S. non-standardized methods of creating this connection. 1972 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / it. what are currently. VASCELLARO. filed December 21. com/ patents?vid=3663762 Hardlink (homonymy) A hardlink (one word) is one of several methods of object hyperlinking including graphical tags (2D barcodes).

[2] A mini USB port on the bottom of the iControlPad can be used to charge the internal 1500mAh battery. dual analog nubs. allowing compatibility with equipment which is limited to only certain types of input. six digital face buttons. an arcade cabinet released for the Apple iPad. [1] Video game controller 1 × 1500mAH cell • • • 8 × Digital buttons (A. mouse. facilitating compatibility between apps designed for the iCade and the iControlPad hardware. Y.[1] One of the iControlPad's modes mimics the protocol used by the iCade. such as a smartphone or iPod Touch. such as the iPhone. among others. including the iPhone and iPad. X. Select) Digital D-pad 2 × analog nubs Website [icontrolpad. Manufacturer Type Power Input iControlPad Ltd. tablet PCs and personal computers. which do not support Bluetooth gamepads. The sides of the iControlPad are detachable. joystick. B. using a clamp system. including as a HID keyboard. R.[4] Since iOS natively supports keyboards. for connecting with a suitable handheld. can be run in a wide variety of modes. the iControlPad is able to add traditional physical gaming controls to devices which otherwise rely on inputs such as touchscreens and accelerometers. a Bluetooth device. Start. apps can be developed . update the device's firmware.[1] The iControlPad. or plastic clamps.iControlPad 80 iControlPad iControlPad The iControlPad in its standalone and clamp-on configurations (with iPhone 4).com icontrolpad.[3] Overview The iControlPad's input controls include an eight-directional D-pad.[2] In this way. L . for using the controller as a standard wireless gamepad. It is designed for use as either a standalone gamepad or attached to appropriately sized devices. with two different attachment types: rubber grips. and charge attached devices using a USB On-The-Go connection and an appropriate adapter.com] The iControlPad is a wireless game controller compatible with a variety of smartphones. and two digital trigger buttons on the gamepad's reverse.[2] Due to the iControlPad's ability to operate as a Bluetooth keyboard—by mapping the D-pad and buttons to standard keyboard keys—it is able to communicate with devices such as those running Apple's iOS. and gamepad.

4. [22] Supported since version 1. suing an unlicensed accessory maker. Thus. • c Requires jailbreaking on iOS. The team had secretly added Bluetooth support to the iControlPad. .7. was much closer to the version that was ultimately released. [16] Supported since version 1. [21] Supported since version 1.0. • a Supported via iControlPad's iCade mode. This much larger version moved the controls below the screen and added two analog nubs and two trigger buttons to the controller. This earliest concept was a one-piece case enveloping the iPhone.[8] [9] By November 2009. with a D-pad on the left side.[7] and was first revealed in 2008. in order to increase compatibility beyond the iPhone and its proprietary connection.[12] This proved fortunate when Apple began exercising its rights over the dock connector. [23] Supported since version 1. the iControlPad team were forced to adapt to use the Bluetooth connection for the iPhone.3. and four face buttons on the right in a landscape orientation.[13] and it was this version which finally became available for order in February 2011.[14] Supported apps Apple iOS Title Atari's Greatest Hits a b Compression HD a HungryMaster a iMAME4All a c IronStar Arena a Mos Speedrun a Sideways Racing a Velocispider a Developer Atari Release date 06 Apr 2011 Notes [15] Supported since launch.2.[18] [19] 06 May 2011 06 Apr 2011 23 May 2011 31 May 2011 [20] Supported since version 02. the iControlPad is able to control video games and video game console emulators across multiple platforms. a completely redesigned iControlPad prototype was under development. the first prototype iControlPad was produced.[6] Once the serial connection was working. using a design styled after the Sony PSP. one large change was to occur very late in development. and would soon go into production. with testing using a hacked SNES gamepad to connect to an iPhone over the dock connection.[11] However. Little White Bear Studios 17 May 2010 xionchannel David Valdeita Appracatappra Physmo Bjango Retro Dreamer 02 Jul 2011 16 Aug 2010 Supported since version 1.[10] This design. • b Only on iPad. [17] Supported since version 1.00. which featured clamps to attach it to the iPhone.iControlPad with iControlPad compatibility using either its own protocol or that of the iCade.12.2. Thus.[5] 81 Development Development of the iControlPad began in 2007.

Interstellar Force David Molnar 10 Mar 2011 Support expected in next update. Gadgetoid lauded the inputs as having "a great tactile feel and a liberal amount of travel with a good response.[31] Gadgetoid honed in on the device's usefulness for classic gaming.[29] No Gravity a Realtech VR 24 Mar 2011 Support expected in next update.emu a PCE.13. • a Requires jailbreaking on iOS. [28] Support expected at launch. Register Hardware said "the analogue nubs and face buttons work extremely well".emu a NES. iOS.iControlPad 82 Multiplatform Title GBC.[2] TouchArcade's reviewer said of playing games with the iControlPad that "the experience feels great". conversely. the iControlPad "almost perfectly solves the touchscreen game control conundrum".[25] Robert Broglia 27 Aug 2010 Android.[24] Robert Broglia Robert Broglia 28 Jun 2011 09 Feb 2011 Android. iOS.] for emulation on the go".emu a Developer Release date Platform Notes Robert Broglia 23 Apr 2011 Android. remarking that it was "awesome [.[26] [27] Snes9x EX a Robert Broglia 16 Mar 2011 Android. webOS Supported since launch.13."[2] . In their review. iOS. Register Hardware noted that while "patience and geekery" were required to get the controller working. webOS Supported since launch.[32] Early reviews were mixed on the quality of the controls. iOS. Future releases Apple iOS Title Commodore 64 iAmiga Developer Manomio Manomio Release date 05 Sep 2009 TBA Notes [28] Support expected in next update.emu a MD..[30] • a Supported via iControlPad's iCade mode.[31] The controls' responsiveness was later improved by replacing the original rubber keymat with a larger one.3. Reception Reception for the iControlPad has been mostly positive. Android. webOS Supported since launch. with DroidGamers describing them as "very loose"[5] . webOS Supported since 1.3. but that "[he couldn't] recommend that the typical gamer run out right now and grab one. iOS." due to its limited support on the iTunes App Store. while.. webOS Supported since 1.

warms hearts" (http:/ / www. explusalpha. DroidGamers. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com/ archives/ 985). . Ex Plus Alpha. Android BT confirmed" (http:/ / www. com/ icontrolpad-with-bluetooth-shipping-this-month-08131711/ ). Retrieved 2011-07-18. You can order today for a delivery next week [. com/ index. 148apps. . Retrieved 2011-07-18. blogspot. 2011. 2011). Robert (April 23. Ex Plus Alpha. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Engadget. Retrieved 2011-07-18. . Tim (December 12. Retrieved 2011-07-04. com/ 2011/ 07/ 09/ icontrolpad-review/ ). . .]" [10] Patel. Retrieved 2011-07-18. [22] "Version history for Sideways Racing. Robert (March 16. [26] Broglia. Ars Technica.12" (http:/ / xionchannel. 2008). 2010). Carter (June 30. Samia (February 8. Retrieved 2011-07-28. "The new iControlPad with Bluetooth is scheduled to ship February 16th. com/ home/ nes-emu/ updates). uk/ mobiles/ icontrolpad-unofficial-iphone-gamepad-coming-soon-50000514/ ). Retrieved 2011-07-21. slashgear. engadget. com/ p/ imame4all/ ). Chris (April 6. "Latest iControlPad prototype bulks up. [. . Robert (February 28. [6] "iControlPad . Google Code.emu Updates" (http:/ / www. SlashGear. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Pilato Private Consulting. . [18] Murph. June 25. icontrolpad. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ icontrolpad-gamepad-heads-to-production-warms-hearts/ ). co. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ game-for-real-with-iphone-icontrolpad/ ). Retrieved 2011-07-18. [19] Valdeita. .. Twitter. engadget. gadgetoid. [25] Broglia. slashgear. Retrieved 2011-07-12. . Robert (February 28.. com/ 2011/ 07/ 10/ imame4all-gains-experimental-support-for-icade-ios-gamers-gain/ ). 2010). . com/ ).. 2011). Retrieved 2011-07-21. archive. 2010). iOS gamers gain infinite happiness" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ compression-hd-support-icade/ )." (http:/ / twitter.]" [9] Sorrel. . AOL. .. com/ ) on March 16." (http:/ / www. html) (in Japanese). . com/ home/ pce-emu/ updates). [24] Broglia. "NES. "Naturally." [15] Foresman. "Snes9x EX Updates" (http:/ / www. 2011). cnet. droidgamers. Retrieved 2011-07-18. com/ blog/ 2011/ 07/ velocispider-v1-2-out-now/ ). Retrieved 2011-07-18. 2009). 148Apps. iControlPad Ltd..2 Out Now" (http:/ / retrodreamer. [20] "IronStar Arena for iCade" (http:/ / appracatappra. "iControlPad for iPhone Finally Shipping. com/ icontrolpad-dumps-dock-connector-for-bluetooth-over-apple-legal-fears-android-bt-confirmed-28104830/ ). . July 16. "iControlPad for Android Review: It's as easy as A. Ex Plus Alpha. slashgear. [3] Kwan. SlashGear. Craig (September 29. 2011. 2011. ars). xionchannel. Y. Bjango. Retrieved 2011-07-12. 2011. Physmo. [5] Grace. php/ game-news/ hardware-a-devices/ 1493-icontrolpad-for-android-review-its-as-easy-as-a-b-x-y-). Charlie (2011-02-09). explusalpha. an iPad game" (http:/ / bjango. . [13] Davies. 2011). CNET. Retrieved 2011-07-17. [7] Stevens. . "At long.. [12] Rothwell. you’ll still be able to take advantage of anything on the touchscreen [. 2011).] A different form of the iControlPad appeared before in 2008 [.. iCade cabinet coming in June" (http:/ / arstechnica.emu Updates" (http:/ / www. July 21. "iControlPad dumps Dock Connector for Bluetooth over Apple legal fears. com/ news/ gaming-ios-physical-variety-external-joystick-gamepad-solutions/ ). Retrieved 2011-07-18. [14] Perkins. Retrieved 2011-07-04." (http:/ / physmonews. Retrieved 2011-07-18. . Nilay (November 8. 2011). 2011)..Add real gaming controls to your iPhone!" (http:/ / web. Michael (2008-12-23). Chris (August 23. SlashGear. . R3 Media LLC. "iControlPad unofficial iPhone gamepad coming soon" (http:/ / crave. com/ 2011/ 06/ what-we-are-up-to. engadget. [21] "What we are up to. Carter (February 14. "imame4all . Wired (magazine). Gavin (July 27. Retro Dreamer. "Game for Real with iPhone iControlPad" (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ 07/ hungrymaster-112. org/ web/ 20090316081844/ http:/ / www. iControlPad Ltd. Appracatappra." [4] Dotson. almost. com/ home/ gbc-emu/ updates). . "GBC. but having “real” gaming controls is a great option as well. blogspot. B.iControlPad 83 References [1] "iControlPad Quick Start Guide" (http:/ / icontrolpad.. Well. com/ Craigix/ statuses/ 25788017664). com/ downloads/ icp_manual3. Tom (April 13. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Engadget. Retrieved 2011-07-12. . . long last the iControlPad – a hardware gamepad for the iPhone – can be bought. "Compression HD Gets Support for iCade" (http:/ / www. Mobile Magazine. "Velocispider V1. "100 classic Atari games for iOS out now. [8] Wattanajantra. icontrolpad. 2011). [16] Dotson. com/ icontrolpad-for-iphone-production-parts-now-shipping-2398553/ ). gets handled on video" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-12. 148Apps. explusalpha. Retrieved 2011-07-18. com/ gaming/ news/ 2011/ 04/ 100-classic-atari-games-for-ios-out-now-icade-cabinet-coming-in-june. "iControlPad with Bluetooth Shipping This Month" (http:/ / www. com/ ipad/ sideways/ versionhistory/ ). [2] "iControlPad Review" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-12. "Gaming on iOS is About to Get Physical With a Variety of External Joystick and Gamepad Solutions. wired. [11] Davies. com/ home/ snes9x-ex/ updates). Gadgetoid. [17] "HungryMaster 1. Adds Support for All Phones" (http:/ / www. . Engadget. ..biz. Ex Plus Alpha. Asavin (2010-08-27). explusalpha.emu Updates" (http:/ / www. "The device has been in development for some time. "iControlPad for iPhone production parts now shipping" (http:/ / www. Darren (July 10. [27] Broglia. Retrieved 2011-07-04. . com/ gadgetlab/ 2011/ 02/ icontrolpad-for-iphone-finally-shipping-adds-support-for-all-phones/ ). pdf). [23] Bowman.. com/ 2009/ 11/ 08/ latest-icontrolpad-prototype-bulks-up-gets-handled-on-video/ ). . David. . X.] using the accelerometer. 2011). 148apps. html). 2009. "iControlPad gamepad heads to production.MAME for ALL iOS devices" (http:/ / code. Chris (September 28. "Something we kept secret . mobilemag. 2011).. 2011). Retrieved 2011-07-04. "iMAME4All gains experimental support for iCade. Retrieved 2011-07-04. google. ." (http:/ / www. . July 9. "PCE.

" (http:/ / twitter. 2011). gov/ UlsApp/ UlsSearch/ results. 2011. "A Close Look at the 'iControlPad' Bluetooth Control Accessory" (http:/ / toucharcade. http:/ / www.http:/ / pro.S. . are subsidiaries of IDT Corporation (NYSE: IDT). Retrieved 2011-07-19. IDT Spectrum holds more than 500 MHz of spectrum in the top 200 U. in December 2004. [30] Nogravity iPad2 + iCade. July 18. IDT Spectrum's 39 GHz holdings–are contiguous across the United States / pro. [32] Patterson. aspx?ColLeft=3c2bcac1-dbf5-4776-9d3b-89001baee8d5& ColRight=76baaeb6-2549-44f5-8e1d-cd700701e704& cikid=683957&tabIndex=2&coname=IDT+SPECTRUM%2C+INC. an international holding company. Inc. Use of Licenses Among other business activities. Winstar Holdings formed IDT Spectrum. 2011. "iControlPad Bluetooth controller for mobile devices" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-19. LLC's primary holdings include 633 spectrum licenses in the 39 GHz range. com/ finance?q=NYSE%3AIDT In December of 2001. com/ ipo. .http:/ aspx?ColLeft=3c2bcac1-dbf5-4776-9d3b-89001baee8d5& ColRight=76baaeb6-2549-44f5-8e1d-cd700701e704& cikid=683957&tabIndex=2&coname=IDT+SPECTRUM%2C+INC.gov/UlsApp/UlsSearch/results. jsp. markets (Economic Areas by population) and approximately 940 MHz of spectrum in the top 50 U. The majority of IDT Spectrum's 28 GHz LMDS licenses expire in October of 2018. plus the surrounding counties that are economically related to these areas. Blake (July 13. . Twitter.&fnid=46162&ipo=1 Current Holdings IDT Spectrum. [29] "I'm working on adding . holds and leases fixed wireless spectrum. com/ watch?v=lNQv5rfGXzs).S. LLC. On average. 2011). html. (http:/ / www. History IDT Spectrum. Register Hardware. Bureau of Economic Analysis. net/ about/ press/ story. Retrieved 2011-07-19. IDT Spectrum leases the spectrum to customers who use their own microwave equipment. 84 IDT Spectrum IDT Spectrum.&fnid=46162&ipo=1 In October of 2010. LLC. Retrieved 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2011-07-18. EAs are delineated by the Regional Analysis Division. TouchArcade. LLC. as well as an additional 16 LMDS licenses in the 28 GHz band. with interests primarily in the telecommunications and energy industries. and caused Winstar Spectrum. U. google. [31] Bailey. idt. In January 2005. or EAs. .. TouchArcade. including the needs of wireless operators to carry traffic from cell sites to network access points–referred to in the industry as backhaul. Andrew (May 18. As part of an internal corporate reorganization. July 16. a subsidiary of IDT Corporation. com/ David994A/ status/ 92753291959742464). fcc. IDT Corporation through its subsidiary Winstar Holdings. Winstar Spectrum. as well as other assets used in its connectivity services. youtube. YouTube. Department of Commerce and are based on 176 metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas that serve as regional centers of economic activity. The licenses held by IDT Spectrum are suited for high bandwidth point to point applications.S. http://wireless2. acquired FCC spectrum licenses and other assets from the bankruptcy estate of Winstar Communications. . (including Alaska. "Manomio Demonstrates iCade Support for 'iAmiga' Emulator" (http:/ / toucharcade. com/ 2011/ 07/ 13/ a-close-look-at-the-icontrolpad-bluetooth-control-accessory/ ). LLC all of its FCC licenses except for six point-to-point licenses that are not used in our business. making it the largest single holder of 39 GHz licensed auction spectrum in the United States. Inc. reghardware. and IDT Spectrum. Hawaii and Puerto Rico). 2011). IDT Spectrum renewed 633 of its 39 GHz licenses.iControlPad [28] Patterson. LLC to transfer and assign to IDT Spectrum. http:/ / biz. LLC. com/ 2011/ 05/ 18/ review_igamer_icontrolpad/ ).jsp The FCC's 39 GHz auctioned license band spectrum is primarily licensed in Economic Areas.http:/ / www. markets. Blake (June 18. Winstar Holdings formed a subsidiary company. com/ ic/ 140/ 140181. yahoo. http:/ / wireless2. com/ 2011/ 06/ 18/ manomio-demonstrates-icade-support-for-iamiga-emulator/ ). LLC. com/ ipo. to hold its spectrum licenses and then caused the spectrum licenses to be assigned to it. edgar-online. which now expire in October of 2020.. .fcc. edgar-online. Winstar Holdings formed IDT Spectrum and contributed to IDT Spectrum all of its interests in IDT Spectrum.

An Image Share session begins by end-users setting up a normal circuit switched (CS) voice call. CS voice call set up required prior to sharing the images • SIP used for signaling via IMS. After the voice call is set up.e. TS 23. then these images are transferred between the Image Share software clients located in the mobile phones using the PS connection and the recipient is able to see the images. registration for the service is performed using the capabilities offered by IMS platform with SIP protocol • MSRP (Message Session Relay Protocol.79 Image Share Interoperability Specification.com/. 3GPP compliant IMS core system required for the service provider/operator offering Image Share • CSI (CS and IMS combinational) service compliant to 3GPP specifications TS 22.e. Technical Features • Interoperable multi-vendor compliant service.279. Image Share can be seen as a kind of spin-off from the Video Share mobile phone service. If this is selected.idtspectrum. Video Share is commercially launched for example by AT&T in USA. It has been specified for use in a 3GPP-compliant cellular network by the GSM Association in the PRD IR. i. Then based on successful capability negotiation between the terminals.279. com/ topics/ article/ Michael+Rapaport/0gy2fDQeBhaNV/1 IDT Spectrum's Website is http://www. usatoday. i. i. RFC 4975) used for transporting media between the mobile phones • IETF File transfer mechanisms [2] utilized for negotiating shared images between offerer and answerer via SIP/SDP offer/answer model . the end-user will be presented with an option in terminal UI offering the possibility of sharing one or several images. but Image Share is not yet available from any mobile operator/service provider. Image Share works across different mobile phones from various vendors (as long as they have the necessary software client installed) • IMS service. thus enhancing and enriching end-users voice communication.[1] According to the specification. http:/ / content. During this process the normal CS voice session has been ongoing continuously. "The terminal interoperable Image Share service allows users to share Images between them over PS connection with ongoing CS call.e.IDT Spectrum aspx?id=23410 Management The current President and CEO of IDT Spectrum is Michael Rapaport. i. terminals perform a registration to an IMS core system with apacket switched (PS) connection." Image Share is a service that allows two clients to share packet-switched image data during a circuit-switched call.e. 85 Image share Image Share is a service for sharing images between users during a mobile phone call.279 and TS 24.

279 Combinied Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) sessions. References • • • • • GSM Association PRD IR. Stage 3 References [1] http:/ / www. Colibria. Nokia. Jinny Software. Stage 1 3GPP TS 23. The IMSC stores the message and then delivers it to the destination user when they are available. Other players include Acision. including interworking between multiple networks. i. Feelingk and few others. gsmworld. Now Wireless. org/ internet-drafts/ draft-ietf-mmusic-file-transfer-mech-06. No mobile operator has launched Image Share so far (as of March 2008). shtml [2] http:/ / www.79 Image Share Interoperability Specification [1] IETF RFC 4975 Message Session Relay Protocol 3GPP TS 22. shtml Instant message service center An Instant Message Service Center (IMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network which delivers instant messages. ietf. the phone actually sends the message to the IMSC.e. Ericsson. Stage 2 3GPP TS 24. no server required in the network for sharing the images • Both live and pre-stored images can be shared between the participating mobile phones • Requires 3G or EDGE DTM (Dual Transfer Mode) mobile network 86 Usage According to GSMA press release [3] interoperability between different Image Share clients was successfully tested in a multi-vendor trial in May 2007. txt [3] http:/ / www. Followap and OZ.279 Combining Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services. .Image share • Capability query performed using SIP OPTIONS method between the mobile phoness to find out whether the recipient is Image Share capable • Peer-to-peer service. gsmworld. Comverse Technology. The IMSC usually has a configurable time limit for how long it will store the message. Operation When a user sends an instant message (IM message) to another user.279 Combining Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services. com/ documents/ index. Companies Few companies who make many of the IMSCs in use in the GSM world are Miyowa. com/ news/ press_2007/ press07_39.

The CDMA customers arriving in Europe can register on the available GSM networks.IP. Interference in mobile communications Interference in mobile communications refers to Co channel and Adjacent channel interference. 3GPP2 and TISPAN by requiring support of networks other than GPRS. soft switches and "naked" SIP. when SIP-based multimedia was added. CDMA2000 and fixed line. 3G. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This term is now widely used in mobile communnications where especially CDMA customers want to use their phone in areas where there is no CDMA network or there is no roaming agreement in place to support roaming on the used standard. as part of their standardization work for 3G mobile phone systems in UMTS networks. In order to enable them to roam in Europe Inter Standard Roaming is the solution.e. IMS uses IETF protocols wherever possible. To ease the integration with the Internet. such as Wireless LAN. but additionally the task to sell an IMS based on a single service is also difficult as there are often (cheaper) alternatives to creating and deploying that particular service.Inter standard roaming 87 Inter standard roaming Inter Standard Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to roaming between two standards. Its original formulation (3GPP R5) represented an approach to delivering "Internet services" over GPRS. which was brought to the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). adding support for CDMA2000. Support for the older GSM and GPRS networks was also provided.g. It is easier to sell services than to sell the virtues of "integrated services". as a part of the vision for evolving mobile networks beyond GSM. Alternative and overlapping technologies for access and provisioning of services across wired and wireless networks include combinations of Generic Access Network.IP developed the initial IMS architecture. . It was originally designed by the wireless standards body 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). This is done by having a horizontal control layer that isolates the access network from the service layer. This vision was later updated by 3GPP. However in implementation this does not necessarily map into greater reduced cost and complexity. as the control layer is a common horizontal layer. e. two types of interference in mobile communications. History • IMS was originally defined by an industry forum called 3G. services need not have their own control functions. i. From a logical architecture perspective. In Europe there is hardly any CDMA network. According to the 3GPP. It first appeared in Release 5 (evolution from 2G to 3G networks). formed in 1999. Most CDMA customers originate from the Americas or the Far East. • 3GPP2 (a different organization from 3GPP) based their CDMA2000 Multimedia Domain (MMD) on 3GPP IMS. Since it is becoming increasingly easier to access content and contacts using mechanisms outside the control of [2] traditional wireless/fixed operators.[1] IMS is not intended to standardize applications but rather to aid the access of multimedia and voice applications from wireless and wireline terminals. IP Multimedia Subsystem The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia services. create a form of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). the interest of IMS is being challenged.

Policy and Charging Control (PCC). • 3GPP release 8 added support for Long Term Evolution (LTE). interworking with non-IMS networks. routing group identities. • 3GPP release 9 added support for IMS emergency calls over GPRS and EPS. fixed broadband connection to the IMS. • 3GPP release 10 added support for inter device transfer. presence.IP Multimedia Subsystem • 3GPP release 6 added interworking with WLAN. Enhanced emergency sessions and IMS centralized services. 88 Architecture 3GPP / TISPAN IMS Architectural Overview . enhancements to Multimedia Telephony. Multimedia Session Continuity. the function of AGCF (Access Gateway control function) and PES (PSTN Emulation Service) are introduced to the wire-line network for the sake of inheritance of services which can be provided in PSTN network. multiple registration and forking. speech recognition and speech-enabled services (Push to talk). enhancements to services centralization and continuity. by working together with TISPAN release R1. emergency sessions. System Architecture Evolution (SAE). enhancements to IMS emergency sessions. Also added voice call continuity between circuit switching and packet switching domain (VCC).1. enhancements to the Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC). Inter-operability between IMS using different IP-connectivity networks. • 3GPP release 7 added support for fixed networks. IMS media plane security.

g. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). GSM. Access network The user can connect to an IMS network in various ways. which grouped form one IMS administrative network. Ethernet). Each node can also be present multiple times in a single network.g. Fixed access (e.323 and non IMS-compatible VoIP systems. GPRS) and wireless access (e. even when they are roaming in another network or country (the visited network). IMS terminals (such as mobile phones. load balancing or organizational issues. W-CDMA.g.. or to split a single function into 2 or more nodes. most of which use the standard Internet Protocol (IP). cable modems. linked by standardized interfaces. The only requirement is that they can use IP and run Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) user agents. . WLAN. WiMAX) are all supported. Other phone systems like plain old telephone service (POTS—the old analogue telephones). The IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem is a collection of different functions. for dimensioning. mobile access (e. CDMA2000. A function is not a node (hardware box): an implementer is free to combine 2 functions in 1 node.IP Multimedia Subsystem 89 3GPP / TISPAN IMS Architectural Overview . are supported through gateways. personal digital assistants (PDAs) and computers) can register directly on an IMS network.HSS in IMS layer (as by standard) Each of the functions in the diagram is explained below. H.

Home Subscriber Server The Home Subscriber Server (HSS). and Accounting purposes. like sip:john. IMPI. The HSS subscriber database contains. Every IMS user shall have one or more IMPI. • P-GRUU reveal the IMPU and are very long lived. performs authentication and authorization of the user. A Subscriber Location Function (SLF) is needed to map user addresses when multiple HSSs are used. is a master user database that supports the IMS network entities that actually handle calls. The P-CSCF is at its core a specialized SBC for the User–network interface which not only protects the network. IP Multimedia Private Identity The IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI) is a unique permanently allocated global identity assigned by the home network operator. collectively called Call Session Control Function (CSCF). Globally Routable User Agent URI Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU) is an identity that identifies a unique combination of IMPU and UE instance. It contains the subscription-related information (subscriber profiles).doe@example. a single phone-number for an entire family).Call Session Control Function Several roles of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) servers or proxies. Authorization. Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU). service triggers and other information. that can be digits (a Tel URI. and is used. but Uniform Resource Identifier (URIs). are used to process SIP signalling packets in the IMS. so that both can be reached with the same identity (for example.g. The terminal discovers its P-CSCF with either DHCP. and MSISDN. There are two types of GRUU: Public-GRUU (P-GRUU) and Temporary GRUU (T-GRUU). Some networks may use a Session Border Controller for this function. this might be included on a business card). but also the IMS terminal. the IMPU. • A Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF) is a SIP proxy that is the first point of contact for the IMS terminal. Administration. or User Profile Server Function (UPSF). or it may be . It can be located either in the visited network (in full IMS networks) or in the home network (when the visited network is not IMS compliant yet).IP Multimedia Subsystem 90 Core network HSS . subscriber service profiles. and can provide information about the subscriber's location and IP information.com" ). for example. Wildcarded Public User Identity. Both IMPI and IMPU are not phone numbers or other series of digits. There can be multiple IMPU per IMPI. CSCF . User identities Various identities may be associated with IMS: IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI). It is similar to the GSM Home Location Register (HLR) and Authentication Centre (AuC). IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU). • T-GRUU do not reveal the IMPU and are valid until the contact is explicitly de-registered or the current registration expires Wildcarded Public User Identity A wildcarded Public User Identity expresses a set of IMPU grouped together. IMSI. IP Multimedia Public Identity The IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU) is used by any user for requesting communications to other users (e. for Registration. The IMPU can also be shared with another phone. like tel:+1-555-123-4567) or alphanumeric identifiers (a SIP URI. The use of additional SBC between the IMS terminal and the P-CSCF as such pointless and also not feasible due to the signaling being encrypted on this leg.

An example of an application server that is being developed in 3GPP is the Voice call continuity Function (VCC Server). There are multiple options for this purpose. Its IP address is published in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the domain (using NAPTR and SRV type of DNS records). • it queries the HSS to retrieve the address of the S-CSCF and assign it to a user performing SIP registration • it also forwards SIP request or response to the S-CSCF • Up to Release 6 it can also be used to hide the internal network from the outside world (encrypting parts of the SIP message). quality of service (QoS) over the media plane. and can inspect every message it decides to which application server(s) the SIP message will be forwarded. Depending on the actual service. • it is assigned to an IMS terminal before registration. the IP address of the terminal) and the SIP address • • • • • it sits on the path of all signaling messages of the locally registered users. • it handles SIP registrations. An AS can be located in the home network or in an external third-party network. in which case it's called a Topology Hiding Inter-network Gateway (THIG). It uses Diameter Cx and Dx interfaces to the HSS to download user profiles and upload user-to-S-CSCF associations (the user profile is only cached locally for processing reasons only and is not changed). • it inspects the signaling and ensures that the IMS terminals do not misbehave (e. The IBCF is practically a Session Border Controller specialized for the NNI. Application servers SIP Application servers (AS) host and execute services. 91 • An Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF) is another SIP function located at the edge of an administrative domain. and can inspect every signal.g. This prevents spoofing attacks and replay attacks and protects the privacy of the subscriber. It is always located in the home network. SIP UA (user agent) mode or SIP B2BUA mode. do not obey home network's routing policy) • it can also compress and decompress SIP messages using SigComp. bandwidth management.g. the IMS terminal must ignore any other unencrypted signalling • it provides subscriber authentication and may establish an IPsec or TLS security association with the IMS terminal. change normal signaling routes. and interface with the S-CSCF using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). The PDF can also be a separate function. and provides NAT and Firewall functions (pinholing).g. . in order to provide their services it provides routing services. etc. • it also generates charging records • A Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF) is the central node of the signalling plane. All necessary subscriber profile information is loaded from the HSS. which reduces the round-trip over slow radio links • it may include a Policy Decision Function (PDF). which authorizes media plane resources e. From Release 7 onwards this "entry point" function is removed from the I-CSCF and is now part of the Interconnection Border Control Function (IBCF). which allows it to bind the user location (e. the AS can operate in SIP proxy mode. but performs session control too. so that remote servers can find it.IP Multimedia Subsystem configured (e. during initial provisioning or via a 3GPP IMS Management Object (MO)) or in the ISIM or assigned in the PDP Context (in General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)). If located in the home network.g. it can query the HSS with the Diameter Sh or Si interfaces (for a SIP-AS). and use it as a forwarding point (e.g. It's the HSS that assigns the S-CSCF to a user. registering) for SIP packets to this domain. including a mandatory/optional capabilities to be matched between subscribers and S-CSCFs. typically using Electronic Numbering (ENUM) lookups it enforces the policy of the network operator there can be multiple S-CSCFs in the network for load distribution and high availability reasons. The IBCF is used as gateway to external networks. It is used for policy control. and does not change for the duration of the registration • it sits on the path of all signalling. when it's queried by the I-CSCF. It is a SIP server.

IP Multimedia Subsystem • SIP AS: Host and execute IMS specific services • IP Multimedia Service Switching Function (IM-SSF): Interfaces SIP to CAP to communicate with CAMEL Application Servers • OSA Service Capability Server (OSA SCS) : Interfaces SIP to the OSA framework Functional model The AS-ILCM and AS-OLCM store transaction state. CS networks use ISDN User Part (ISUP) (or BICC) over Message Transfer Part (MTP). PSTN Gateways A PSTN/CS gateway interfaces with PSTN circuit switched (CS) networks. Each MRF is further divided into a Media Resource Function Controller (MRFC) and a Media Resource Function Processor (MRFP). It includes routing functionality based on telephone numbers. It transforms lower layer protocols as Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP. For signalling. while IMS uses Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). source or process media streams. As user identities.g. • The MRFC is a signalling plane node that interprets information coming from an AS and S-CSCF to control the MRFP • The MRFP is a media plane node used to mix. It can also manage access right to shared resources. For media. • A Signalling Gateway (SGW) interfaces with the signalling plane of the CS. an Signalling System 7 (SS7) protocol). The MRB sets up the call Breakout Gateway A Breakout Gateway Control Function (BGCF) is a SIP proxy which processes requests for routing from an S-CSCF when the S-CSCF has determined that the session cannot be routed using DNS or ENUM/DNS. Media Servers The Media Resource Function (MRF) provides media related functions such as media manipulation (e. The Media Resource Broker (MRB) is a functional entity that is responsible for both collection of appropriate published MRF information and supplying of appropriate MRF information to consuming entities such as the AS. Public Service Identity Public Service Identities (PSI) are identities that identify services. The AS-ILCM interfaces to the S-CSCF (ILCM) for an incoming leg and the AS-OLCM interfaces to the S-CSCF (OLCM) for an outgoing leg. PSIs are stored in the HSS either as a distinct PSI or as a wildcarded PSI: • a distinct PSI contains the PSI that is used in routing • a wildcarded PSI represents a collection of PSIs. which are hosted by Application Servers. PSI shall take the form of either a SIP or Tel URI. to pass ISDN User Part (ISUP) from the MGCF to the CS 92 . Application Logic provides the service(s) and interacts between the AS-ILCM and AS-OLCM. an Internet Protocol (IP) protocol) into Message Transfer Part (MTP. voice stream mixing) and playing of tones and announcements. while IMS uses Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) over IP. MRB can be used in two modes: • Query mode: AS queries the MRB for media and sets up the call using the response of MRB • In-Line Mode: AS sends a SIP INVITE to the MRB. CS networks use Pulse-code modulation (PCM). and may optionally store session state depending on the specific service being executed.

• A Media Gateway (MGW) interfaces with the media plane of the CS network. session based). Charging Offline charging is applied to users who pay for their services periodically (e. Different interconnection modes may be used for carrying service layer signalling and media traffic. this is the case of "carrier grade" voice and/or multimedia services over IP interconnection. at the end of the month). It also controls the resources in a Media Gateway (MGW) across an H.g. service specific network performance. However only SoIx fully satisfies NGN interoperability requirements. Charging Data Function (CDF) addresses are used for offline billing and Online Charging Function (OCF) for online billing. An NGN interconnection mode can be direct or indirect. an IP interconnection of this type is not aware of the specific end to end service and. signalling (i. Both may be applied to the same session. For instance. QoS and security requirements are not necessarily assured..g. Charging function addresses are addresses distributed to each IMS entities and provide a common location for each entity to send charging information. AS) involved in the session use the Diameter Rf interface to send accounting information to a CDF located in the same domain. Billing systems in different domains will also exchange information. BGCF. . Media Server (MS) and Media gateway (MGW) 93 NGN Interconnection There are two types of Next Generation Networking Interconnection: • Service oriented Interconnection (SoIx): The physical and logical linking of NGN domains that allows carriers and service providers to offer services over NGN (i. by converting between RTP and PCM. • A Media Gateway Controller Function (MGCF) is SIP endpoint that does call control protocol conversion between SIP and ISUP/BICC and interfaces with the SGW over SCTP. I-CSCF. Specifically. IMS might use AMR. and build a Call Detail Record (CDR). or real-time credit control of postpaid services. as a consequence. • Offline Charging : All the SIP network entities (P-CSCF. This definition does not exclude that some services may provide a defined level of interoperability. The CCF will collect all this information. PSTN might use G. which is sent to the billing system (BS) of the domain. so that roaming charges can be applied. MGCF. Each session carries an IMS Charging Identifier (ICID) as a unique identifier generated by the first IMS entity involved in a SIP transaction and used for the correlation with CDRs. MRFC. etc. Indirect interconnection at one layer refers to the interconnection between two network domains with one or more intermediate network domain(s) acting as transit networks. is used for prepaid services. Direct interconnection refers to the interconnection between two network domains without any intermediate network domain. Inter Operator Identifier (IOI) is a globally unique identifier shared between sending and receiving networks. S-CSCF. Each domain has its own charging network. Media Resources Media Resources are those components that operate on the media plane and are under the control of IMS Core functions. "Defined levels of interoperability" are dependent upon the service or the QoS or the Security.e.711).248 interface. For example. Online charging.IP Multimedia Subsystem network. The intermediate network domain(s) provide(s) transit functionality to the two other network domains. It can also transcode when the codecs don't match (e. also known as credit-based charging. IMS and PES) platforms with control.e. which provides defined levels of interoperability. • Connectivity oriented Interconnection (CoIx): The physical and logical linking of carriers and service providers based on simple IP connectivity irrespective of the levels of interoperability.

94 Interfaces description Interface Name Cr IMS entities Description Protocol Technical Specification MRFC. The service is not authorized when not enough credit units are available.212 Gq Gx ISC P-CSCF. Used by AS to find the HSS holding the User Profile information in a multi-HSS environment.IP Multimedia Subsystem • Online charging : The S-CSCF talks to a Session Charging Function (SCF) which looks like a regular SIP application server. Used to exchange messages between UE and P-CSCF TCP/SCTP channels Cx (I-CSCF. . the ECF first reserves a number of credit units in the user's account and then authorizes the MRFC or the AS. HSS AS (SIP AS. PDF PCEF.PCRF S-CSCF <-> AS Reference point between S-CSCF and AS. registration state and UE capabilities Supply the AS with information to allow it to execute multiple services Convey charging function addresses SIP SIP Ici Izi IBCFs TrGWs Used to exchange messages between an IBCF and another IBCF belonging to a different IMS network. Diameter (Rel6+) charging correlation information between IMS and GPRS network Used to exchange policy decisions-related information between P-CSCF and PDF Used to exchange policy decisions-related information between PCEF and PCRF Diameter Diameter TS29. After the service is over. DX_SLF_QUERY indicates a IMPU and DX_SLF_RESP return the HSS name. Used by I-CSCF or S-CSCF to find a correct HSS in a multi-HSS environment. OSA. the reserved credit units are then cleared. Also used to furnish CDF and/or OCF addresses.g. scripts.211. Also used for media control related commands. Used to forward media streams from a TrGW to another TrGW belonging to a different IMS network. Used to send subscriber data to the S-CSCF. including Filter criteria and their priority. GGSN Diameter Dh Diameter Dx Diameter Gm Go SIP Allows operators to control QoS in a user plane and exchange COPS (Rel5). the number of spent credit units is reported and deducted from the account. a number of credit units is immediately deducted from the user's account by the ECF and the MRFC or AS is then authorized to provide the service. P-CSCF PDF.DH_SLF_QUERY indicates a IMPU and DX_SLF_RESP return the HSS name. TS29. Main functions are SIP to : • • • Notify the AS of the registered IMPU. IM-SSF) <-> SLF (I-CSCF or S-CSCF) <-> SLF UE. • When Event Charging with Unit Reservation (ECUR) is used. AS Used by MRFC to fetch documents (e. The SCF can signal the S-CSCF to terminate the session when the user runs out of credits during a session.announcement files and other resources) from an AS. The AS and MRFC use the Diameter Ro interface towards an OCF. S-CSCF). • When Immediate Event Charging (IEC) is used.

MRFC. Used to exchange messages between CSCFs I-CSCF. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in the other IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to the IBCF in the other network Mw Rc Rf P-CSCF. S-CSCF MRB.IP Multimedia Subsystem Ma I-CSCF <-> AS Main functions are to: • • Forward SIP requests which are destinated to a Public Service Identity hosted by the AS Originate a session on behalf of a user or Public Service Identity. so that it can ask more information from Application Server through Cr Interface. if the AS has no knowledge of a S-CSCF assigned to that user or Public Service Identity Convey charging function addresses SIP 95 • Mg Mi Mj MGCF -> I.299 .248 by an MRFP. MRFP S-CSCF. IBCF Used for the interworking with another IMS network. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in another IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to the BGCF in the other network Used for exchanging messages between IMS and external IP networks Mk SIP Mm I-CSCF. MRFC AS. AS P-CSCF. S-CSCF SIP Used by the AS to request that media resources be assigned SIP. SIP SIP Mx BGCF/CSCF. S-CSCF. MGCF. IM-MGW MRFC. MRFC SIP Mn Mp Mr Mr' Allows control of user-plane resources H. This SIP message contains sufficient information to play tone and announcement or provide information to MRFC. BGCF. Used to exchange information between S-CSCF and MRFC Used to exchange session controls between AS and MRFC Application Server sends SIP message to MRFC to play tone and announcement.248 Allows an MRFC to control media stream resources provided H.S-CSCF S-CSCF -> BGCF ISUP signalling to SIP signalling and forwards SIP signalling SIP to I-CSCF Used to exchange messages between S-CSCF and BGCF SIP SIP BGCF -> MGCF Used for the interworking with the PSTN/CS Domain. MRFC. AS AS. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in the same IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to MGCF BGCF -> BGCF Used for the interworking with the PSTN/CS Domain. In Query mode (Not specified) to a call when utilizing MRB In-Line mode or In Query mode Used to exchange offline charging information with CDF Diameter Ro Used to exchange online charging information with OCF Diameter TS32. external IP network MGCF. I-CSCF. S-CSCF.

XCAP UE. . • A Trigger Point in the form of a logical condition which is verified against initial dialog creating SIP requests or stand-alone SIP requests. Initial Filter Criteria Initial Filter Criteria (iFC) are filter criteria that are stored in the HSS as part of the IMS Subscription Profile and are downloaded to the S-CSCF upon user registration (for registered users) or on processing demand (for services. OSA SCS). Also allow AS to activate/deactivate filter criteria stored in the HSS on a per subscriber basis Transports CAMEL subscription information including triggers for use by CAMEL based application services information. For this situation." in TR33. which binds between the user's profile and its IP address. 3GPP defines some security mechanisms. It is important to note that services for the originating party will be applied in the originating network. PCRF Used to exchange policy and charging related information between P-CSCF and PCRF Replacement for the Gq reference point. The term Shared iFC denotes an iFC which. This mechanism relies on the authentication performed during the network attachment procedures. Diameter 96 Sh AS (SIP AS. iFC are valid throughout the registration lifetime or until the User Profile is changed. Used by MRFC to fetch documents (scripts and other resources) from an AS MAP Si IM-SSF. to provide some protection against the most significant threats. which are informally known as "early IMS security. all in the respective S-CSCFs. The S-CSCF might apply filter criteria to determine the need to forward SIP requests to AS. due to its common use for a large number of subscribers. AS (SIP AS. to services and settings IM-SSF) Session handling One of the most important features of IMS.IP Multimedia Subsystem Rx P-CSCF. user related Diameter data. They represent a provisioned subscription of a user to an application. The iFC may be composed of: • An Application Server URI where the request is to be forwarded in case of a match.978. group lists. HSS Sr Ut MRFC. user service related information or user location information or charging function addresses (used when the AS has not received the third party REGISTER for a user)) between an AS (SIP AS or OSA SCS) and HSS.203 may not be available for a while especially because of the lack of USIM/ISIM interfaces and prevalence of devices that support IPv4. HSS Used to exchange User Profile information (e. is only referenced in the Subscription Profile and provisioned on a different path between the HSS and the S-CSCF. This mechanism is also weak because the signaling is not protected on the User–network interface. AS HTTP HTTP(s). that of allowing for a SIP application to be dynamically and differentially (based on the user's profile) triggered. Facilitates the management of subscriber information related OSA SCS.g. is implemented as a filter-and-redirect signalling mechanism in the S-CSCF. acting as unregistered users). Security aspects of early IMS and non-3GPP systems It is envisaged that security defined in TS 33. while the services for the terminating party will be applied in the terminating network.

2006.rennes. TS 23. ISBN 0-470-01906-9) • "IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Handbook" by Mohammad Ilyas (Editor). Although all 3 variants of Digest-MD5 authentication have the same functionality and are the same from the IMS terminal's perspective. published deltas to the 3GPP specifications where the Digest-MD5 is a valid authentication option.pdf) • IMS Ten Minute Gorilla School (http://docs. towards a Common-IMS platform. ISBN 1-4200-6459-2) .0. Miguel-Angel García-Martín (John Wiley & Sons.google. allbusiness. Aki Niemi. IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Georg Mayer (John Wiley & Sons. Hisham Khartabil. also TISPAN did a similar effort given their Fixed Networks scopes. 2006.fr/~gbertran/files/IMS_an_overview. 2008. 3rd Generation Partnership Project [2] Alexander Harrowell. yet the procedures are different. html). TLS has been added as an option for securing the Gm interface.228. Staff Writer (October 2006). com/ primary-metal-manufacturing/ foundries-nonferrous/ 4104136-1. Syed A.IP Multimedia Subsystem CableLabs in PacketCable#PacketCable_2. yet in its own and again different approach. Later 3GPP Releases have included the Digest-MD5 method.htm Books • "The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS): Merging the Internet and the Cellular Worlds" by Gonzalo Camarillo. Stage 2.com/present/ view?id=0ARnWgfNsabwWZGYycXo5aHhfMGdqNXB4ZGI&hl=en) • http://www. which adopted also the IMS architecture but has no USIM/ISIM capabilities in their terminals. To compensate for the lack of IPsec capabilities. 97 References [1] Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects (2006).enst-bretagne. ISBN 0-470-01818-6) • "The IMS: IP Multimedia Concepts and Services" by Miikka Poikselka. Later on. the implementations on the Cx interface between the S-CSCF and the HSS are different.3gpp. Mobile Communications International External links • A decent IMS tutorial (http://www. A Pointless Multimedia Subsystem? (http:/ / www.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23228. Ahson (Editor) (CRC Press.

ADC[12] made a minority interest investment in the company. and Rothschild & Cie Gestion. where it remains.5 million round of funding from Intel Capital. ip.access 98 ip. WA and New Delhi. ip. and green technology companies in 26 EMEA countries. which produces rankings of top-performing private companies in the UK.access also maintains operations and offices in Bellevue. CEO Dr.access ip. it was named in the Deloitte Technology Fast 500 EMEA. ip.[6] and an associate member of the Network Vendors Interoperability Testing (NVIOT) Forum.[4] European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). Chairman Simon Brown. Motorola gained a stake in ip.access was named in The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. Using satellite backhaul. both Cisco Systems[13] and Qualcomm[14] also made strategic financial investments in the company in 2008.access is a member of 3GPP. GPRS. Headquartered in Cambridge. in both 2007[15] and 2008.access.access Limited is a multinational corporation that designs.[16] The company was also cited as the number one picocell vendor in an independent study performed by global market intelligence company. Nick Johnson. Vega.[9] In March 2006. and 3G.[10] and was subsequently spun off from TTP.access combines IP and cellular technologies together to provide cost-efficient 2G and 3G coverage and capacity of mobile networks in various settings. life sciences.[1] ships.[7] History ip.[18] .[3] the Cambridge Network.access. UK. ip. telecommunications. Scottish Equity Partners. Cambridge. Following suit.access relocated to new offices in Cambourne Business Park.access was founded in December 1999[8] as a wholly owned subsidiary of TTP Communications PLC. media. such as business offices and retail venues.access Limited Type Privately Held Company Headquarters Cambourne. United Kingdom Area served Key people Worldwide Teresa M. India. ABI Research in 2008. Cambridge. manufactures.ip.[2] and users in remote rural areas. its solutions also provide coverage to commercial passenger aircraft. as part of its June 2006 acquisition of TTP Communications. com/ Products Website ip. an annual ranking of the fastest growing public and private technology. the company secured an £8. after signing an OEM agreement with ip.[11] In 2007. To accommodate its growing staff. EDGE. CFO nanoGSM® nano3G™ Oyster 3G™ http:/ / www. CTO Tim Arthur. and markets picocell and femtocell technologies and infrastructure equipment for GSM.[17] In 2009.[5] Femto Forum. ip. However. ipaccess.

and Cisco Systems.access became a founding member of the Femto Forum. and device-to-network standardization collaboratively with other members.[21] organized as an ETSI Plugtests™ held to demonstrate the effectiveness of the 3GPP femtocell standards in supporting interoperability between femtocell access points and network equipment from different vendors. S-class [S8]. access controller and element management system. full IP-based BSC. Spain.[25] nanoGSM uses 2G picocells that leverage the standard GSM air interface. The ip. 99 Products The company's technologies are employed by telecommunications firms such as AT&T. with the goal of addressing standards-oriented issues such as radio planning and control.[19] In April 2009. the company announced its Oyster 3G product would support femtocell standards published by 3GPP and the Broadband Forum. E16 and E24] and Small Medium Business.access in compliance with the Broadband Forum's TR-069[20] technical specification. nanoGSM® In 2002.[27] the Oyster 3G is ip. ip. nano3G™ nano3G is an end-to-end Femtocell system with access points for Enterprise. set-top boxes. device provisioning.access nano3G Enterprise .[24] which has jointly developed a femtocell solution with ip.access introduced the world’s first IP basestation controller for indoor GSM networks.ip. E-class [E8. and an OMC-R management system that delivers voice.[22] which uses Oyster 3G as the core femtocell technology for its 3G MicroCell[23] product.access In July 2007. Oyster 3G™ Technology Launched at the 2007 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona. the company took part in the first Plugfest. an organization promoting worldwide femtocell deployment. providing carrier-class coverage to commercial[26] and consumer users. messaging and data to both 2G and 3G handsets at an indoor range of up to 200m. and other devices.[20] In March 2010.access' core 3G femtocell technology used by system integrators and OEM customers to integrate WCDMA femtocells into home gateways. ip.

Best New Product (Private Company)[44] Global Mobile Awards . Prototype.[35] The company's technology partners[36] include AeroMobile.Femtocell Service (Commercial.access' Oyster 3G is the core technology of AT&T's 3G MicroCell 2007 • • • • Light Reading Leading Lights Awards .[31] T-Mobile.[42] and TriaGnoSys.[29] Monaco Telecom.[31] SPIE SA.[22] Bharti Airtel.[24] Private Mobile Networks.[33] Telefónica O2 Czech Republic.access 100 Customers and Partners Among ip.[37] Altobridge.[42] Setcom.[32] Tele2.Femtocell or Femtocell Network Element Design and Technology Innovation[47] Femto Forum Awards .[40] Qualcomm.Best Specialist Vendor[50] .access include the following: ip.Best Technology Foresight[46] 2008 • The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100[16] 2009 • • • • Deloitte Fast 500 EMEA Femto Forum Awards .Best Radio Access Product or Service[45] The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100[15] World Communications Award .[41] Quortus.ip. and personnel awards won by ip.[2] Bouygues Telecom.Maritime Voice Services[48] [18] 2010 • GTB Power100[49] • World Vendor Awards .[30] SFR.[39] Cisco Systems. or Demo)[47] Global Telecoms Business Innovation Awards .access' major customers are AT&T.[28] Blue Ocean Wireless.[43] Awards Corporate. product.[34] and Telia Sonera.[38] Blue Ocean Wireless.

A New Body to Promote Femtocell Standardisation and Deployment" (http:/ / www.access" (http:/ / newsroom. [24] Donegan. com/ dlls/ 2008/ fin_012308. com/ document. 2011. Retrieved June 3. . CEOWorld Magazine. com/ 24665/ femtocells-grow-into-the-enterprise-space/ ). [2] Mobiles Connect Across the Waves (http:/ / news. Retrieved June 2. Retrieved June 14. com/ content/ news/ press. asp?doc_id=153681). [20] Bhushan. Amarendra. "ATT Wireless" (http:/ / www. . "ip.access Organization Profile (http:/ / www. [19] ip. 2008. com/ att-to-deploy-femtocell-technology-from-uk-firm-ip. 2006. [9] ip. Light Reading Mobile.access (February 2. [18] 2009 Winners (http:/ / www. May 1. Press release.). html). theregister. 2008. 3GPP. The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. telecoms. Retrieved June 3. co. nviot-forum. php?id=27). Stacey. [8] "About TTP" (http:/ / www.access (September 15. Press release. .access Prep Femto Combo (http:/ / www. asp?siteID=3& yr=2008& sort=num& area1=99& x=30& y=17). ipaccess. July 30. php?id=20). Humberto. [10] ip. Retrieved June 8. com/ Operators/ att-wireless. uk/ fasttrack/ leagues/ dbIndex. com/ 2008/ 05/ 21/ qualcomm-backs-femtocell-maker/ ). [26] Weaver. BBC News. which provides care for children and young people with life-threatening illnesses and support for their families.5 million Funding to Accelerate Growth in Cost-Effective Cellular Infrastructure for Homes and Businesses" (http:/ / www. Network Vendors Interoperability Testing Forum. deloitte. 2009. stm). co. html). 2009). Press release. fasttrack. femtoforum. Cambridge Network. . 2011. TTP Group. ip. php?id=51). The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. April 07. phonenews. shtml#NVIOT Forum Members). asp?Alone=1& SortBy=& SortDirection=& Param=). 2007).Femtocell Network Element Design and Technology Innovation[51] Community Support ip. 2011. fasttrack. biz/ ceo/ 2009/ 04/ 07/ ipaccess-demonstrates-progress-on-femtocell-standards).access Secures £8. org/ Portal_IntegrateAppli/ QueryResult. [12] Cheung. ttp.access Demonstrates Progress on Femtocell Standards (http:/ / ceoworld. asp?doc_id=25238). Retrieved June 2. php). org/ About_the_NVIOT_Forum. aspx?objid=73435). February 2. asp?siteID=3& yr=2007& sort=num& area1=99& x=19& y=7).access Moves to New Offices to Support Growth" (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 07/ 30/ ip-access-adc/ . [5] ETSI Member Information (http:/ / portal.access Goes Indoors (http:/ / www. php?id=243). December 3.com. . [3] 3GPP Membership (http:/ / webapp. [14] Higginbotham. and Femto Forum. [25] Ip. Michelle. February 15. [21] Femto Forum (March 30. com/ content/ news/ press. 2011. [4] ip. [15] 2007 Tech Track 100 League Table . 2011. .access 101 2011 • Femto Forum Awards . com/ corporate/ about/ ). 2010). 2011. org/ femto/ membership. 2011. 2005). Light Reading Mobile. "ip.access (March 13. 2006). Press release. Retrieved June 14. com/ research/ 1003580-Picocell+ Equipment+ Vendor+ Matrix). Retrieved June 2. co. Think Femtocell. thinkfemtocell. May 21. Retrieved June 2. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 7867091. [22] Saabedra. "ip. org/ 3gppmembership/ Results. The Register. [17] Picocell Equipment Vendor Matrix (http:/ / www. 2011. ABI Research. ip. "Femto Forum Completes World's First Femtocell Plugfest" (http:/ / femtoforum. "Cisco Makes Strategic Investment in ip. cisco. Retrieved June 2.access Joins Board of the Femto Forum . GigaOM. Ken. Retrieved June 2. ipaccess.ip. etsi. lightreading. 2011. uk/ 2006/ 06/ 07/ motorola_buys_ttpcom/ ). [6] Femto Forum Members Listing (http:/ / www. [23] David Chambers. Press release.access (http:/ / gigaom. [11] Motorola gobbles up TTPcom (http:/ / www. php?id=5). asp?Member=ALL_PARTNERS& SortMember=Name& DirMember=ASC& SortPartner=Name& DirPartner=ASC& SortMarket=Name& DirMarket=ASC& SortObserver=Name& DirObserver=ASC& SortGuest=Name& DirGuest=ASC& Name=& search=Search). Retrieved June 8. Retrieved June 8.[52] References [1] ip. co. 2009. . "ip. lightreading. EDAGeek. uk/ fasttrack/ leagues/ dbIndex. uk/ fast500emea/ fast-500-winners/ winners-2009/ ). cambridgenetwork.UK (http:/ / www. 2007. com/ document. Retrieved June 30. abiresearch. . May 13. Cisco. etsi.UK (http:/ / www. ETSI. 2011. 2002. 2011. 2011.access (http:/ / edageek. 2008. com/ content/ news/ press. Femtocells Grow Into the Enterprise Space (http:/ / www. ipaccess. Press release. ipaccess. 2011. 2011. Retrieved June 8.access (July 06.access and Altobridge Collaborate to Provide GSM ‘Sky/Sea Phone’ Services" (http:/ / www. 2011. Retrieved June 14. com/ content/ news/ press. 2011. [7] NVIOT Forum Members (http:/ / www. org/ fem2/ pressreleases. 2011. uk/ directory/ orgprofile/ default. [16] 2008 Tech Track 100 League Table . co. bbc. co. access-3378/ ). 2011. ADC Makes Investment in ip. AT&T to Deploy Femtocell Technology from UK Firm ip. [13] Cisco Systems (January 23. June 7. Retrieved June 9. Pamela. 2008). Telecoms. ip. 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lightreading. com/ document. 2005). tmcnet. [42] Harris. Terrapinn Holdings ltd. EDN Magazine. .com. "ip. . Retrieved June 16. lightreading.com.access Builds Up T-Mobile (http:/ / www.access. gsmworld. Ray. com/ Article/ 2277416/ Search/ Results/ GTB-Innovation-Awards-Wireless-network-infrastructure. [29] Bouygues Picks ip. 2010. .com) • Business Weekly ip.access [27] Lennighan. [30] ip. techeye.. [51] "2011 Winners" (http:/ / www. ip. 2011. [45] GSM Association (February 13. [52] "EACH Corporate Supporters" (http:/ / www. aspx?C=0& ID=349112). [31] ip. com/ file/ 98130/ tele2-picks-ipaccess-for-picocells. femtoforum. LR Names 2007 Leading Lights Winners (http:/ / www. TMCNet.access Revs Up Coverage for Monaco Telecom (http:/ / www. . Light Reading Mobile. 2008.Vendors (http:/ / www. 2007. Retrieved June 2. Bharti Airtel Deploys ip.access Profile (http://www. terrapinn. com/ news/ aroso-triagnosys-offer-gsm-services-for-brazilian-operators). Qualcomm. Press release. Retrieved June 8.businessweekly. Telecommunications Insight. 2003. net/ mobile/ qualcomm-ip-access-sign-femtocell-partnership). ip. asp?doc_id=144533). com/ document. Femtocells Key for Mobile Operators . 2009. [37] AeroMobile Flies with ip. org. May 21. October 22. "GSM Association Announces 2007 Global Mobile Awards Winners" (http:/ / www. September 29.access and Altobridge to Develop GSM Solutions for Ships and Planes (http:/ / www. [28] Shukla.ip.access (http:/ / www. com/ content/ news/ press. lightreading. Retrieved June 15. Business Weekly. Retrieved June 9. Total Telecom. [36] "Femtocell and Picocell Solutions from our partners" (http:/ / www. asp?doc_id=136327). 2009. Femto Forum. com/ news/ ipaccess-and-altobridge-to-develop-gsm-solutions-for-ships-and-planes).access. mobilecomms-technology. Retrieved June 16. each.access (http:/ / www. September 03. 2010. com/ 2008/ wca/ C4415. February 05. uk/ how-to-help/ corporate_fundraising/ each_corporate_supporters). com/ document. Mobile Comms Technology. September 2009. php). com/ document. com/ article/ 515584-ip_access_revs_up_coverage_for_Monaco_Telecom. 2003. EACH. [48] "GTB Innovation Awards: Wireless Network Infrastructure" (http:/ / www. Telecom Paper. techwatch. Retrieved June 30. February 2. 2011. ipaccess. [34] ip. com/ document. Telecom Paper. com/ contractors/ fixed-mobile-convergence/ teleware/ press10. cgi?number=1844337422). [46] "2007 World Communication Awards Winners" (http:/ / www. . . [32] IP. 2005.access for Picocells (http:/ / www. com/ usubmit/ 2009/ 02/ 12/ 3984377. asp?doc_id=71508).ipaccess. telecompaper. Femto Forum. businessweekly. satnews.. totaltele. php?id=13). 2011. stm). lightreading. Light Reading Mobile. htm).access NanoGSM Picocell in India (http:/ / ipcommunications. February 3. . 2007). globaltelecomsbusiness. January 30. 2007. telecompaper. com/ en/ femtocell-and-picocell-solutions-from-our-partners). June 12. com/ femto/ aboutforum.co. Dean. TechWatch.access as Picocell Supplier for Private Mobile Networks (http:/ / www. [50] "World Vendor Awards 2010" (http:/ / www. Anuradha. April 6.access (February 10. Light Reading Mobile. [43] Aroso. lightreading. 102 External links • Official Company Website (http://www. TechEye. com/ 2010/ WVA/ ). terrapinn. 2011. Retrieved June 15. 3G Femtocell Developer Kit Available From ip. Global Telecoms Business. Jan. htm). [44] Le Maistre. October 13. [47] "Femto Forum Femtocell Awards 2009" (http:/ / www. October 23. 2009.uk/hi-tech/ 9041-company-profile-ipaccess) . com/ view. SFR Business Team and SPIE Collaborate to Bring Picocells to French Market (http:/ / www. html). co. TriaGnoSys Offer GSM Services for Brazilian Operators (http:/ / www.access Signs Contract with Czech Operator Telefónica O2 to Enhance GSM In-Building Coverage" (http:/ / www. Press release.access + Blue Ocean Wireless (http:/ / www. Light Reading Mobile. SatNews. html). [33] Tele2 Picks ip. uk/ hi-tech/ 9043-mallinson-make-telecoms-power-list). htm). uk/ 2010/ 02/ 05/ 3g-femtocell-developer-kit-available-from-ip-access/ ). org/ awards2011/ 2011-winners/ ). com/ cgi-bin/ story. [49] Mallinson Makes Telecoms Power List (http:/ / www. February 15. 2011. October 16. 2007. September 16. tmcnet. 2010. [38] ip. [39] Picocelling Marine Mobile Are ip. ipaccess. html?Keywords=innovation& OrderType=1). Light Reading. . . asp?doc_id=42398).access Sign Femtocell Partnership (http:/ / www. 2011. Terrapinn Holdings ltd. femtoforum. 2011. 2011. edn. 2011. [41] Wilson. Retrieved June 16. com/ topics/ ip-communications/ articles/ 99565-bharti-airtel-deploys-ipaccess-nanogsm-picocell-india. telecomsinsight.access (http:/ / www. [35] TeliaSonera Picks ip.net.access (http:/ / www. [40] Teleware Plc Selects ip. Mary. php?id=96). com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 1992. February 12. TMCNet. 2010. asp?doc_id=187958). co. 2010. 2010.

2000. 1828046. date November 21. First version was introduced on the market 1995. is an acronym för Volvo-Atlas Copco as well as a trademark. USPTO registration No. IQAN is a trademark[1] for electronic control systems for mobile machinery. Shortly after. around 1995 the Swedish company VOAC Hydraulics Co. . bought this company and in february 1996 VOAC Hydraulics was acquired by Parker Hannifin. owned by Parker Hannifin corporation. History The CAN bus based system IQAN was developed by a small Swedish company around 1990-95. Notes [1] USPTO registration No. The system has been was further developed within the Parker organisation. VOAC Co. Source • VOAC history. The IQAN-system was integrated into Parkers product range of system components for mobile machinery. For Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude. date March 29. 1994. 2405313.IQAN 103 IQAN This article is about the Parker Hannifin trademark.. see Kitáb-i-Íqán. no longer existing company.

IST-Plastic 104 IST-Plastic PLASTIC Original author(s) Initial release Stable release Operating system Type License Website Plastic consortium April 7. in particular assisting the development of services targeted at mobile devices. • A validation framework enabling off-line and on-line validation of networked services regarding functional and extra-functional properties. The former derives. e. which may be deployed on the various networked nodes. • A service-oriented middleware leveraging multi-radio devices and multi-network environments for applications and services run on mobile devices. The former allows the developer to model the functional and non-functional behavior of the service. The Plastic project belongs to the EU's Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technology Development (RTD). from the service model.and resource-aware services. further enabling context-aware and secure discovery and access to such services.g. Bluetooth. inscribed into STREP Information Society Technologies (IST). The latter is a QN solver for performing performance . Development environment The PLASTIC development environment enables the rigorous development of SLA and resource-aware services. • Modeling tools: they are the PLASTIC service model editor and the PLASTIC SLA editor. The latter is for defining the service level specification by taking into account the feedbacks from the non-functional analysis tools. Introduction to Plastic The PLASTIC platform enables robust distributed lightweight services in the B3G networking environment through three different tools • A development environment leveraging model-driven engineering for the thorough development of SLA.1 / April 7. 3G). a performance model based on Queueing Networks (QN). including handheld devices (that can exploit different network interfaces. The PLASTIC project adopts and revisits service-oriented computing for the B3G network. which may be deployed on the various networked nodes.0. WiFi. The PLASTIC development environment can be organized into the following five main blocks.. is a project that develops a design framework for mobile B3G services. acronym of Providing Lightweight & Adaptable Service Technology for Information and Communication. • Non-functional analysis tools: they are L-to-QN and QN-Solver. 2008 0. 2008 Cross-platform ? ? [1] Plastic. including handheld devices. The project started in January 2006 and will end in September 2008.

IST-Plastic analysis. multi-network connectivity. • The communication layer allows for communication in the B3G networking environment according to the SOAP or CBR (content-based routing) protocols. multi-party. from the service model. B3G SOAP in particular allows for multi-network routing of SOAP messages over the multi-radio links. in particular enabling adaptive lightweight services to be run on mobile nodes and access to services over multi-radio. according to quality parameters.e. multi-network connectivity to services through a comprehensive layered architecture: • The multi-radio device management and networking layers together abstract multi-radio connectivity. the alternative that better fits the resource constraints of the device over which the service will run. The Publish-Subscribe Service enables effective event-based communication in the B3G network through CBR. the PLASTIC middleware is mobility-aware so that its functionalities adapt to the physical mobility of both clients and services. • Resource-aware programming model: it is a resource-aware extension of Java used to write the resource-aware code of the service. selecting the optimal communication link to/from nodes. now embedded in wireless devices. • The middleware services layer brings advanced distributed resource management functionalities customized for the B3G networking environment. all the tools of the PLASTIC development environment are implemented as Eclipse plug-ins. distributed applications. each tool has been developed in a modular way hence providing also an API that would allow a developer to use the tool also outside Eclipse. • Resource-aware adaptation tools: they are an Abstract Resource Analyzer and a Customizer and are used at deployment-time in order to "extract". B3G CBR provides content-based networking. 105 Service-oriented middleware The PLASTIC middleware empowers the service-oriented architecture with B3G networking capabilities. loosely coupled. . SLA monitor generator and WS-Agreement generator generate monitors in order to check SLA at run-time.. The PLASTIC middleware specifically enriches the Web service architecture with key features for services to become truly pervasive by taking full benefit of the rich capacities. The Discovery Service enables the advertising and location of networked services. This code is resource-aware in the sense that it adapts to possible different hosting devices. Implementation of the PLASTIC middleware prototype is being finalized and will soon be available for download under open source licenses. multi-network links. The PLASTIC middleware brings multi-radio. Last but not least. i. • Code generation tools: UML to HUTN and UML to WSDL are used to derive. However. from the resource-aware implementation of the service. information needed for Service Level Agreement (SLA) management and the service WSDL specification. complementing traditional unicast and multicast addressed-based networks. PLASTIC model to Adaptable Java Java skeleton of the service's code. The PLASTIC development environment relies on the Eclipse framework. in particular accounting for extra-functional properties. The Context awareness Services feature concepts for managing contextual information and further easing the adaptation of services to best match user situations. The lightweight WS-Security Services allow for adapting the security provision to the capacity of mobile device resources. including multi-radio interfaces. to support the communication modes underlying large-scale. Functionalities provided by the PLASTIC middleware may be used in conjunction but also in isolation according to the resource capacities of the host and the applications' requirements. in particular exploiting the rich multi-radio.

During the off-line stage.IST-Plastic 106 Validation framework The PLASTIC validation framework [2] supports the validation of networked services with regard to both functional and extra-functional properties. fr/ plastic [2] http:/ / plastic. configurable. performed during live usage. carried on at development time. Jambition is equipped with a visual interface (Minerva library) based on the common formalism of UML 2. depending on the constraints and requirements of a considered application/scenario. Events related to the extra-functional characteristics are logged and can be used to resolve controversies concerning SLA violations. cnr. by means of automatically generated on-line monitors. expressed as a Service State Machine. PLASTIC provides tools developed to support this phase in verifying both functional and extra-functional properties: • Dynamo-AOP: a framework for monitoring functional properties of the external services with which a BPEL process interacts to realize a composite service.0 state machines. services are tested in a simulated environment that reproduces functional and/or extra-functional run-time conditions. thus. isti. checking whether the responses conform to a given specification. repeatable process for evaluating their software on a networked testbed. [3] of the Plastic References [1] http:/ / www-c. it [3] http:/ / plastic. inria. • PUPPET: a tool to generate stubs implementing external services invoked by the service under development. isti. The mock services automatically generated by Puppet exhibit a correct behaviour with respect to given extra-functional properties. On-line validation foresees testing of a service after deployment and during live usage. PLASTIC services validation is structured around two main stages: off-line validation. it/ wiki/ tools . or in combination. cnr. but rather as a set of techniques/tools that can be used alternatively. The tools of the PLASTIC Validation Framework can be downloaded from the Tool Repository Validation Framework. The tools made available for this purpose within the PLASTIC validation framework are: • Jambition: a model-based testing tool that automatically derives and executes invocation sequences on a service. automated and. The validation framework is not conceived as a fixed methodology. • WEEVIL: a synthetic-workload generator coupled with an environment for managing the deployment and execution of experiments. and on-line validation. • SLAngMon: a light-weight technology that can dynamically detect violations of extra-functional properties specified in SLAng. Weevil is intended to facilitate experimentation activities for distributed systems by providing engineers with a flexible.

iTap 107 iTap iTap is a predictive text technology for mobile phones. iTap will guess the best match based upon a built in dictionary. an arrow key can be pressed to highlight other words in a menu for selection. However. A space is automatically inserted after the word. This dictionary also contains phrases and commonly used sentences. entering "prog" will suggest "program". If a different word is desired. iTap guesses the rest of the word. References [1] Data entry apparatus having a limited number of character keys and method (http:/ / www. 2. This makes some of the modern mobile phones features like text messaging and note-taking easier. and highlight the combination one wants. such as "progress" or words formed with different letters but requiring the same keypresses like "prohibited" or "spoil". It was designed as a replacement for the old letter mappings on phones to help with word entry.ac. When entering three or more characters in a row. iTap provides suggestions for word completions after only one key press in all cases. If the phone does not recognize a word it then stores the word as an optional choice. the phone automatically shows additional letters that form a suggested combination.phy. (the most recent version of T9). However. iTap is also able to complete words and phrases. Comparison with T9 Similar to XT9.uk/mackay/itprnn/itap/) . iTap typically uses a different user interface (UI) than T9 does. com/ patents?id=zQAGAAAAEBAJ) US Patent 6204848 (2001) External links • Some notes on iTap (http://www.cam. Press keypad keys (one press per letter) to begin entering a word. For example. iTap in action Enter words 1. 3. including words sharing the typed prefix. T9 enables these UI decisions to be largely up to the phone manufacturer and so far none of them have chosen to mimic the UI of iTap with T9. As the user types. google. T9 completes custom words after one key press and on most phones other words that users have entered previously can be retrieved after three key presses. This way the predictive guesses iTap offers are enhanced based upon context of the word that is being typed. developed by Motorola[1] as a competitor to T9. T9 provides an API that can be used to create a similar UI if phone manufacturers decide to do so. Press direction key "up" to enter the highlighted combination when it spells a word.inference. Scroll right to view other possible combinations. When the memory space is filled the phone deletes the oldest word to make space for the new word. in order of descending commonality of their use.

Kuala Lumpur Products Website Mi™ Platform . Analytics . July Systems is a privately funded and backed by leading venture funds such as Intel Capital and Sequoia Capital. It was co-founded in 2001[2] by the Indian entrepreneurs Rajesh TS Reddy and Ashok Narasimhan[3] . New York. Studio . At present. Bangalore. California Offices in . Los Angeles. July Systems has offices located in Los Angeles. Ad Manager www. Analytics. Mumbai.An editorial and management tool set for mobile sites and applications. Bangalore. New York.A tool for evaluating the effectiveness and popularity of mobile sites and applications 4. Customer Relationship Management (Mi™ Console) . Products July Systems’ Mi™ comprises the following tools: 1. Rajesh and many of the same executive members started July Systems. After VeriSign bought Unimobile. This Platform was the first internet to mobile social network (Unimobile messenger) and was used by people in 100+ countries. Ad Manager – A tool to manage advertisements on the mobile inventory to support monetization . Mumbai and Kuala Lumpur with a service footprint across 150 countries. Company Overview July Systems provides cross-platform mobile software to businesses.julysystems.com [1] July Systems is a business that makes software for mobile telephones. 2.July Systems 108 July Systems July Systems Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Internet 2001 Headquarters Los Angeles. Atlanta. Mi Console. Rajesh and the executive team built the first internet to mobile platform (1997-98).A tool with features such as push notifications and alerts 3.Studio.Atlanta.

financialexpress.com/ watch-ipl-on-your-mobile-courtesy-july-systems) • Bangalore-based July Systems leads in tech for live streaming on cell (http://articles.economictimes. Business Week.com/news/ july-systems-wins-mobile-excellence-awards/726122/) External links • Official website (http://www.watblog. July Systems partner to develop mobile marketing opportunity (http://www. Forbes Magazine.in/ intel-capital-invests-in-july-systems-klg-systel-and-mcx-297/) • July Systems wins Mobile Excellence Awards (http://www. julysystems.com/press-release/ july-systems-launches-html5-webapps-for-smartphones-1509173. com/2010/03/04/july-systems-raises-7-million-in-funding-ties-in-espn-univision-discovery/) • Intel Capital Invests in July Systems. July 2009. Univision & Discovery (http://www. com/ [2] "July Systems. [3] "There's Something About Rajesh" (http:/ / business.com/news/home/20110404005613/en/ July-Systems-Powers-74-Million-Page-Views) • July Systems Launches HTML5 WebApps for Smartphones (http://www. com/ article/ work-in-progress/ theres-something-about-rajesh/ 2372/ 1).July Systems 109 Notes [1] http:/ / www. KLG Systel and MCX (http://www. asp?privcapId=1997546).htm) • Watch IPL on your Mobile. .businesswire.com/) • Mobile Internet & Advertising Conference 2009 (http://www.indiatimes. businessweek.com/265907.julysystems.mia-india. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. References • Omnicom Media Group MENA." (http:/ / investing. ameinfo. Courtesy July Systems (http://mobigyaan.pluggd. Inc. in.marketwire. com/2010-05-04/news/28457851_1_mobile-internet-mobile-screens-gprs-handsets) • July Systems Raises 7 Million $ In Funding – Ties In ESPN. .html) • July Systems Powers Over 74 Million Page Views in a Single Game During the Cricket Championship 2011 (http://www.com) .

CMO. • Advertisers . Inc.Jumptap 110 Jumptap Jumptap.[2] Jumptap's network has a unique reach of over 83 million users in the U. with offices across North America. Massachusetts. Inc.[5] Awards and recognition In 2007. Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Advertising 2004 Headquarters Cambridge. publishers. VP and GM Search and Advertising. app developers. The company partners with digital and media agencies. Mobile Advertising Network Monetization Platform 51-200 (2011) www. to deliver a powerful array of mobile advertising solutions. wireless carriers and brand advertisers. President and CEO. Adam Soroca.Jumptap provides advertisers . Lacey Brandt.[4] and WPP. agencies and mobile shops . CFO. Jumptap received the following awards and recognition: • Gold award for Best Advertising and Marketing Search Engine at the Visiongain Mobile Advertising and Marketing Awards[10] • AlwaysOn Northeast 100 Private Company Award[11] .[3] Openwave.com [1] Employees Website Jumptap.jumptap. Massachusetts. USA Key people Products George Bell. Paran Johar..with targeted advertising solutions so they can reach their audience with advertising.brands. Jumptap received financial support of US$22 million from Valhalla Partners in 2006 as Round C financing.These companies provide (the "inventory") and can contribute data to increase advertising relevancy and profit.S. Jumptap has strategic alliances with Autodesk. • Mobile operators (wireless carriers) & content publishers . Jumptap received the following notices of recognition and excellence: • • • • • AlwaysOn Top 100 Companies[6] IDC's Ten Emerging Players to Watch in 2007[7] FierceWireless Top Wireless Companies[8] Frost and Sullivan Entrepreneurial Award for Mobility Fortune Magazine Top 24 Innovators[9] In 2008. is a mobile ad network headquartered in Cambridge.

marketingweek. Press release. .typepad. Corey. [4] "Openwave Jumptap combine context and profiling for mobile ads" (http:/ / mediasoon. External links • Official website (http://http://www. com/ galleries/ 2007/ fortune/ 0704/ gallery. [9] Ryan. Press release. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS122527+ 20-Mar-2008+ BW20080320).com/news/view/ 354) JumpTap clears $21M in financing (http://www. . (http://businessweek. html). [10] "Jumptap Wins Best Advertising and Marketing Search Engine Award" (http:/ / www. Marketing Week. Oliver.com/blog/?p=245) Google Answers Thread with discussion of the JumpTap business model (http://answers. fortune_innovators.com/press-releases) Sponsored Podcasts About Timely Topics with JumpTap Executives (http://www.pushingthebarrier.Fierce15. .html) Review -"JumpTap . FierceWireless .com/boston/stories/2005/12/05/daily15. fortune/ 11. uk/ cgi-bin/ item. Hajim.jumptap. AlwaysOn. Inc. com/ permalink/ post/ 15899/ ).html) JumpTap's Product Overview (http://www. 2007" (http:/ / www. . com/ Fierce15/ 2007/ ).jumptap.com/product-overview) JumpTap Press Releases (http://www. co. Fierce Wireless. com/ 022007/ online/ openwave-jumptap-combine-context-and-profiling-for-mobile-ads/ ). . Tekrati. tekrati.msearchgroove. com/ permalink/ post/ 25771). com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0EIN/ is_2006_Oct_4/ ai_n27047573) [3] "Autodesk and Jumptap form Strategic Alliance to Advance Development of Location-Enabled Search Services for Mobile Operators" (http:/ / www. edgar-online. [5] "WPP bolsters digital with Jumptap stake" (http:/ / www.dll?FetchFilingOrig1?SessionID=cXB8jAWGR6rglcG&ID=4911130) FierceMobileContent Presents JumpTap with Top App Award (http://www. com/ research/ 8331/ ). goingon. . fiercewireless. com/ cgi-bin/ stories.google. cgi?id=54846& u=pg_dtl_art_news& m=286). AlwaysOn. .com/EFX_dll/EDGARpro. [7] "IDC: Ten Emerging Mobile Players To Watch in 2007" (http:/ / vendor. Retrieved 2010-05-07.Jumptap 111 References [1] http:/ / www. [8] "Top Wireless Companies. "Top 24 Innovators" (http:/ / money. [6] "The 2007 AO 100 Top Companies" (http:/ / alwayson. prnewswire. Fortune Magazine.jumptap. pl?ACCT=104& STORY=/ www/ story/ 10-30-2006/ 0004462037& EDATE=). reuters. goingon.generalcatalyst.com/answers/ threadview?id=754120) .com/) • JumpTap issues 30 new patents (http://www. cnn. .Pure Mobile Search" (http://wapreview.com/pushing_the_barrier/2007/03/ • • • • • • • • jumptap_issues_.bizjournals. .com/) WPP Digital has acquired 2. com/ [2] Valhalla Partners Leads $22M Series C Round in JumpTap (http:/ / findarticles.5% of the issued share capital of JumpTap. Mediasoon. [11] "The Northeast 100 Winners" (http:/ / alwayson. jumptap.brand.

Later in 2003. permitting true mobile collaborative possibilities. a significant advancement in mobile device technology at that time. The technology would extend the boundaries of traditional . enabling multi-party conferencing in real time. Two years later. Although many of the engineers received offers from Symbol to re-locate to New York. extends traditional video conferencing and collaborative services to places previously unreachable such as an off-shore oil rig or a manufacturing plant floor a continent away. when Kerry Thacher co-founded Ubitrex Corporation. Conway Wieler. a large U. Tim Braun. continuing to operate out of Winnipeg. This activity led to the development of high-volume hand-held mobile expertise in Winnipeg for the first time. Over the next few years.. In August 2003 Thacher left Symbol. offices. is a privately-owned. recent technological advancements have extended the capabilities of video conferencing for use with discreet. Mobile collaboration Mobile collaboration is a technology-based process of communicating utilizing electronic assets and accompanying software designed for use in remote locations. and lecture theatres. all declined. Newest generation hand-held electronic devices include video. Differing from traditional video conferencing. consisting of unique hand-held mobile devices and accompanying software. Symbol bought AirWire. a capability that would later form the foundation for the creation of Librestream. Kent Wotherspoon. Only a few weeks into AirWire’s operation. Where traditional video conferencing has been limited to boardrooms.[1] Company history The origins of Librestream date back to the late 1980s in Winnipeg. Two things were clear: the emergence and continued growth of the Internet was certain. Symbol Technologies Inc. Librestream provides technologies that enable mobile enterprise collaboration.S-based Continental Healthcare Systems. The group was convinced that together they could design and develop the necessary technology to allow individuals. Rob McConnell. and there existed a tangible [3] opportunity to develop enhanced video-handling capabilities for a next generation of hand-held devices.S-based manufacturer of mobile devices. and telestration (on-screen drawing) capabilities broadcast over secure networks. a group of eight professionals from the former Winnipeg arm of Symbol gathered to plan their next venture. audio. and Chris Kavanagh.[2] The system included a hand-held device designed for use by clinicians. which continued to support the substantial base of hospitals using the technology. Canada. Subsequent to successful clinical use of this system. took notice of AirWire’s unique expertise and contracted with Airwire to create a product to help Symbol pursue the healthcare market. Canada. Ubitrex was sold in 1994 to U. In 1999. a small high-tech start-up that designed and developed a clinical information system for use in hospitals to capture patient data.Librestream 112 Librestream Librestream Technologies Inc. the team. mobile collaboration utilizes wireless. venture capital backed company based in Winnipeg. and weeks later Symbol closed its Winnipeg office. one of which delivered Voice over IP (VoIP). In addition to Thacher. successfully designed and developed a number of mobile devices. the ability to collaborate in new ways. Librestream is notable in that its technology. regardless of location. Don Freiling. cellular and broadband technologies enabling effective collaboration independent of location. hand-held mobile devices. Thacher bought back the device side of the business from Continental and formed AirWire Mobile Technologies Inc. this group included Bill Gillanders.

. . Eventually the mobile collaborative device evolved into the Onsight 1000. "Estimating from a distance now possible" (http:/ / www. e-security Planet. Backed by venture capital and individual investors. com/ index.[9] 113 Technological advancement The impact of mobile collaboration technology is significant in its potential to change the way people work.[5] energy. MCA. "Secure Wi-Fi Video on the Battlefield" (http:/ / www. Bodyshop. By 2010. 22. Control Engineering. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. Energy Manufacturing. Elizabeth. [5] Robbins. Renee (May 28. com/ issues/ story. and Onsight is a core component of the Cisco Manufacturing Mobile Video Collaboration (MMVC) solution. visual interaction removes traditional restrictions of distance and time. [8] Macdonald. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. com/ trends/ article. . Live. controleng. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). Corey (March/April 2009). Anil (2010). 2005). . html). controleng. aspx?aid=1000228332). "Being in Two Places At One Time" (http:/ / www.[8] government and public safety.[10] Business processes are optimized through accelerated problem resolution. htm). improvements in customer service and increased productivity. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. com/ index. php/ 3872836/ Secure-Wi-Fi-Video-On-The-Battlefield. Control Engineering.[7] insurance. 2005). one of multiple rugged hand-held devices in the Onsight product line. . With Verizon Wireless. 2009).[12] With Inmarsat. . librestream. pdf). in industries such as manufacturing. Librestream has successfully tested the Onsight system over the Inmarsat BGAN satellite network to provide mobile collaboration to land and maritime satellite customers. [6] Wadhwa. esecurityplanet. Martin (July 11. justforcanadiandoctors. com/ index. "New hand-held device targets work on shop floor: veteran high-tech team launches new venture" (http:/ / www. Winnipeg Free Press. Librestream is a Registered Cisco Developer Network member. With Cisco Systems. [4] Robbins. com/ News/ July_11_2005.[6] healthcare. com/ News/ July_11_2005. 4. librestream. . Renee (May 28. pp. reductions in downtimes and travel. Alex (March 9. . Forrester Research White Paper. 2010). The desktop collaboration software evolved into the Onsight Expert application. many of them Fortune 500 firms. Martin (July 11. . html). "Virtually On-sight" (http:/ / www. html). Renee (May 28. librestream. . Just for Canadian Doctors. Librestream continued to develop the technology and support their growing customer base. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. Robert and Crumb. Gerry (March 25. . with Whitely. 2009). com/ pdf/ EnergyManufacturing2010. Control Engineering. pdf).[11] Strategic partners Librestream works with three strategic partners. [7] Van’t Haaff. controleng. After the arrangement expired in July 2010. Librestream has tested and optimized the Onsight mobile devices for 4G LTE networks. Librestream’s customer base grew to include global enterprises. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). pp. in 2006. the MCD-1000. Cindy (December 2008). 2010). [9] Blackwell. bodyshopbiz. one of the leading video conferencing industry players at that time. Winnipeg Free Press. "New hand-held device targets work on shop floor: veteran high-tech team launches new venture" (http:/ / www.[4] Led by the founding team’s vision. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. [10] Robbins. Librestream developed their first alpha product. downloadic. The arrangement offered Librestream industry exposure and allowed the breadth and depth of the product to grow in response to evolving requirements. coupled with desktop collaboration software.Librestream video-conferencing beyond the boardroom to workplaces previously unreachable such as a manufacturing plant floor a continent away. [3] Cash. 2009). Librestream (a combination of ‘free’ and stream’) was formed. [2] Cash. Librestream formed a marketing partnership with Tandberg.[13] References [1] Herrell. com/ pastissues/ JFCD2009/ JFCD-Mar-Apr2009. In 2006.

Elizabeth. Brian (January 5. cedmagazine. with Whitely. allitwares. . Al (December 2010). html). "TelePresence in Manufacturing: IP-based video conferencing provides effective tools for remote collaboration" (http:/ / www. [13] Santo. Automation and Control – Design News. com/ News/ 2011/ 01/ Verizon-LTE-CES-broadband-Hitachi-Alcatel-Sierra-Motorola. 114 List of devices with Assisted GPS List of devices with Assisted GPS: Apple • • • • • Apple iPad[1] Apple iPad 2 Apple iPhone 3G[2] Apple iPhone 3GS Apple iPhone 4 BlackBerry (RIM) • BlackBerry Bold[3] • BlackBerry Curve 8900[4] • BlackBerry Storm[5] • BlackBerry Storm 2 Dell • Dell Inspiron 1110 (Inspiron 11z) • Dell Streak E-TEN • E-TEN Glofiish X500 • E-TEN Glofiish M700 ESCORT • ESCORT Entourage CIS[6] • ESCORT Entourage PS[7] Google • Nexus One • Nexus S Hewlett Packard (HP) • Hewlett Packard IPAQ 614c • Hewlett Packard IPAQ 914 • Hewlett-Packard Veer HTC • • • • • • HTC Advantage X7500 (HTC Athena 100) HTC Advantage X7501 (HTC Athena) [8] HTC Advantage X7510 HTC Artemis 100[9] (HTC P3300) HTC Census (HTC P6000) HTC Desire[10] . 2010). "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. . [12] Presher. Forrester Research White Paper. 2011). aspx). com/ featured-articles-body-TelePresence-in-Manufacturing-523-1. CEDMagazine. downloadic. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. . "Verizon Wireless Plays Full-Court Press on Broadband" (http:/ / www. Robert and Crumb. html).Librestream [11] Herrell. Alex (March 9.

Sprint Mogul PPC-6800. HTC Kaiser 120. Verizon Wireless XV6800) HTC Touch2 [16] HTC Touch Cruise[17] (HTC P3650.5)[11] HTC EVO 4G HTC Hero HTC HD2 HTC Legend[12] HTC Magic HTC Omni HTC P3600i HTC Pharos 100[13] (HTC P3470) HTC Sedna 100 (HTC P6550) HTC Sirius 100[14] (HTC P6500) HTC Surround HTC Titan 100[15] (HTC P4000. HTC P4550) • HTC Wildfire[21] Land Rover (vehicle) • Land Rover S1 LG • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • LG KC910 LG KM900 Arena Lg Incite Lg Rumor2 Lg GT505 Pathfinder LG Optimus Android GT540 LG Sentio Motorola A3100 Motorola A1600 Motorola A1000 Motorola A925 Motorola A835 Motorola MT710 Motorola Droid/Milestone Motorola Droid 2 Motorola Droid X Motorola Neo • Neo 1973 .List of devices with Assisted GPS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • HTC Desire HD HTC Desire Z HTC Dream (with Android software release 1. HTC Polaris 100) HTC Touch Diamond[18] (HTC Diamond. HTC P3700) HTC Touch Find (HTC Polaris 200) HTC Touch HD (HTC Blackstone) HTC Touch Pro[19] (HTC Raphael 100) 115 • HTC Trinity 100 (HTC P3600) • HTC TyTN II[20] (AT&T Tilt.

List of devices with Assisted GPS • Neo FreeRunner Nikon • Nikon Coolpix P6000 Compact Digital Camera[22] Nokia • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nokia 5230 Nokia 5800 Xpress Music Nokia 6110 Navigator Nokia 6210 Navigator Nokia 6220 Classic Nokia 6650 fold Nokia 6700 Classic Nokia 6710 Navigator Nokia E5-00 Nokia E52 Nokia E55 Nokia E66 (Dora) Nokia E71 Nokia E72 Nokia E75 Nokia E90 Communicator Nokia N78 Nokia N79 Nokia N8 Nokia N82 Nokia N85 Nokia N86 8MP Nokia N95 Nokia N95-3 North America Nokia N95 8GB Nokia N95 8GB North America Nokia N96 Nokia N97. Nokia N97 Mini Nokia N810 (with Diablo firmware upgrade) Nokia N900 Nokia X6 Nokia C5 Nokia C6 Nokia C7 116 Novatel • Novatel X720 • MiFi (tethering devices) • Novatel MiFi 2200 • Novatel MiFi 23xx series Orange • Orange San Francisco .

List of devices with Assisted GPS Palm • Palm Pre • Palm Treo 800w • Palm Treo Pro Sony • Sony HDR-XR520V Handycam Camcorder with built-in GPS receiver[23] Sony Ericsson • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sony Ericsson Satio Sony Ericsson XPERIA X1 Sony Ericsson XPERIA X2[24] Sony Ericsson Xperia X8[25] Sony Ericsson XPERIA X10[26] Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 mini[27] Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 mini pro[28] Sony Ericsson XPERIA Arc Sony Ericsson Aino[29] Sony Ericsson C702 Sony Ericsson C905 Sony Ericsson G705 Sony Ericsson TM506 Sony Ericsson W715[30] Sony Ericsson W760 Sony Ericsson W995 Sony Ericsson Z780 Sony Ericsson Elm 117 BlackJack • Samsung Blackjack II Samsung • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Samsung Focus[31] Samsung i5700 Samsung Galaxy 3 Samsung Galaxy 5 Samsung Galaxy Fit Samsung Galaxy S Samsung Galaxy Tab Samsung Galaxy Ace Samsung GT-i8510 INNOV8 Samsung i8910 Samsung Monte S5620 Samsung Mythic (SGH-A897) Samsung Omnia Samsung Omnia Pro 7320 Samsung Omnia II Samsung Omnia 7 [32] Samsung SGH-i550 .

aspx?id=436) [9] HTC – Touch Phone. com/ www/ product. gsmarena. com/ entourage/ ) ESCORT Entourage PS portable vehicle security and location awareness (http:/ / www. Smartphone. Smartphone. wikipedia. aspx?p_id=75& act=sd) [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] . PDA Phone. com/ us/ browse/ home/ shop_iphone/ family/ iphone) http:/ / www. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P3300: Overview (http:/ / www. com/ www/ product. com/ htc_legend-3141. Smartphone.20-A QUEST Sonim Technologies Ingrid Sonim Technologies XP 3300 Force Sprint • Sprint Navigation Synapse-Phones • Synapse One Teltonika • Teltonika GH3000[35] Toshiba • Toshiba TG01 Tracker • Tracker G400 Zoombak • Zoombak tracking devices[36] References -iPad (http:/ / www. com/ ipad/ ) Apple Store (U. com/ www/ product.iPhone 3G (http:/ / store. com/ sdk/ android-1. escortradar. Smartphone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P6500: Overview (http:/ / www. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P3470: Overview (http:/ / www. php) [13] HTC – Touch Phone. php) [11] Android 1.S. Mobile Computer (http:/ / www. Smartphone. com/ blackberrybold/ http:/ / en. jsp) ESCORT Entourage CIS GPS vehicle security. android. htc. htc. blackberry. html#perf) [12] (http:/ / www.5 Platform Highlights (http:/ / developer.List of devices with Assisted GPS • • • • Samsung SGH-i780 Samsung Galaxy Pop S5570 Samsung Nexus S I9023 Samsung Wave S5253 118 • Samsung Transform[33] Sierra Wireless • Sierra Wireless (some devices) Spice • Spice Mi-300[34] Sonim • • • • Sonim Technologies XP3. com/ entourage/ ) HTC – Touch Phone.20-E QUEST Sonim Technologies XP3. 5-highlights. aspx?id=392) [10] (http:/ / www. apple. recovery and location awareness (http:/ / www. com/ us/ FAQ_Detail. PDA Phone. htc. com/ htc_desire-3077.Touch Phone. gsmarena. aspx?id=526) [15] HTC . com/ www/ product. PDA Phone. aspx?id=32678) [14] HTC – Touch Phone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Advantage: Overview (http:/ / www. blackberry. PDA Phone. htc.) . escortradar. apple. com/ smartphones/ blackberrystorm/ storm_specifications.Storm Specs for 9550 and 9530 (http:/ / us. org/ wiki/ BlackBerry_Curve_8900/ BlackBerry . htc. PDA Phone.

sonyericsson. sonystyle. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-300003-wpx10minia1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 mini White Paper [28] (http:/ / developer. com/ sony_ericsson_w715-2642. gsmarena. teltonika. php) (http:/ / www. com/ cws/ products/ mobilephones/ overview/ aino?cc=ro& lc=ro) Sony Ericsson Aino [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] SE W715 in GSM Arena (http:/ / www. aspx) (http:/ / www. gsmarena. aspx?id=49524) [20] HTC – Touch Phone. com/ Find-Your-Nikon/ Product/ Digital-Camera/ 26135/ COOLPIX-P6000. com/ www/ product. com/ www/ product. PDA Phone. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-300004-wpx10minipro1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 mini pro White Paper [29] (http:/ / www. htc. htc. com/ mobile/ samsung/ reviews/ 92412. aspx?id=794) [18] HTC – Touch Phone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Cruise: Overview (http:/ / www. com/ htc_wildfire-3337. com/ cws/ products/ mobilephones/ overview/ x2?cc=ro& lc=ro) Sony Ericsson XPERIA X2 [25] (http:/ / developer. htc. php) [22] Product's official page (http:/ / www. spicecorp. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Pro: Specification (http:/ / www. com/ sea/ product/ touch2/ overview. Car Security Device (http:/ / www. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-102192-wpx102?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 White Paper [27] (http:/ / developer. html) [23] HDR-XR520V 240GB High Definition Handycam Camcorder with built-in GPS receiver (http:/ / www. sonyericsson. Smartphone. Smartphone. in/ spicemobiles/ Model. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC TyTN II: Overview (http:/ / www. aspx?id=640) [21] (http:/ / www. htc. eu/ en/ pages/ view/ ?id=982) Zoombak GPS Auto & Vehicle Tracker. nikonusa. sonyericsson. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ x8wp1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X8 White Paper [26] (http:/ / developer. com/ samsung_i550-2115. com) 119 . sonyericsson. PDA Phone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Diamond: Specification (http:/ / www. PDA Phone. PDA Phone. Dog & Pet Tracking. htc. sonyericsson. Smartphone.List of devices with Assisted GPS [16] http:/ / www. html [17] HTC – Touch Phone. com/ www/ product. Smartphone. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/ ProductDisplay?catalogId=1& storeId=10151& langId=-1& productId=8198552921665736672& SR=sony_search_seo& SQS=HDR-XR520V) [24] (http:/ / www. gsmarena. aspx?id=167) (http:/ / www. sonyericsson. zoombak. brighthub. php) Samsung Focus Samsung SGH-i550 in GSM Arena (http:/ / www. com/ www/ product. aspx?id=46286) [19] HTC – Touch Phone.

Local number portability 120 Local number portability Local number portability (LNP) for fixed lines. Canada. mobile number portability is referred to simply as WNP or WLNP (Wireless LNP) . Details regarding the reasons for LNP and how it is to be implemented can be found in the First Report and Order referenced above. and mobile user pays for incoming calls). and are billed identically for the calling party. In the rest of the world it is referred to as mobile number portability. Due to this conflict of interest. and most European countries including Britain. In most cases. have argued against portability on the grounds that providing this service incurs considerable overhead. [1] In the United States and Canada. number portability became popular with the advent of mobile telephones. the FCC has mandated this in order to increase competition among providers. Australia. without portability. and full mobile number portability (FMNP) for mobile phone lines. History Though it was introduced as a tool to promote competition in the heavily monopolized wireline telecommunications industry (see the First Report and Order on LNP and Number Pooling [4]). Some cellular telephone companies will charge for this conversion as a regulatory cost recovery fee. this service is still not available (see below for details). Although Hong Kong government approved for fixed-mobile number portability. this relates to transferability between mobile phone lines only. the mobile user usually pays for incoming calls. refers to the ability to transfer either an existing fixed-line or mobile telephone number assigned by a local exchange carrier (LEC) and reassign it to another carrier. LNP was required for all landline and wireless common carriers. Hong Kong also fulfills the criteria listed above (no area code in Hong Kong. call billings are identical no matter for calling to fixed or mobile. and the United States are the only countries in the world that offer full number portability transfers between both fixed lines and mobile phone lines. changing one's operator would require changing one's number. however. This latest mandate included carriers outside the top 100 MSAs that theretofore enjoyed a rural carrier exemption. In the US. Some operators. As of late November 2003. in other countries all mobile numbers are placed in higher priced mobile-dedicated area codes and the originator of the call to the mobile phone pays for the call. In the US. there are limitations to transferability with regards to geography. The mandate required all carriers in the top 100 MSAs (metropolitan statistical areas) to be "LNP-capable" and port numbers to any carriers sending a BFR (bona fide request). It was also a major point made by CLECs (Competitive Local Exchange Carriers) preventing customers from leaving ILECs (Incumbent Line Exchange Carriers). while others argue that it prevents vendor lock-in and allows them to compete fairly on price and service. . The ability to keep a number while switching providers is thought to be attractive to consumers.[2] Wireless Number Portability is available in some parts of Africa. especially incumbent operators with large existing subscriber bases. Asia. (MNP). number portability is usually mandated for all operators by telecommunications regulatory authorities. thus hindering competition.[3] because mobile and fixed line numbers are mixed in the same area codes. service area coverage and technology. so long as the number is being ported to the same geographical area or telephone exchange. since in most countries different mobile operators are provided with different area codes and. LNP was mandated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1996 with the First Report and Order on LNP and Number Pooling [4] .

then provided these numbers to the subscribers of telephone services. The operator that originates the call first checks with the donor operator. there are standards for portability defined by the FCC and the LNPA. Call Dropback Also known as Return to Pivot (RoP). the system worked quite well in a fixed line environment since everyone was attached to the same infrastructure.) In the US. Onward Routing (OR) The operator that originates the call checks with the donor operator. With phone numbers assigned to various operators in blocks.Local number portability 121 Portability schemes There are four main methods to route a number whose operator has changed[5] . are further detailed by the LNPA in order to ensure any provider can successfully port numbers to any other provider. who were often also service providers.[6] All Call Query (ACQ) The operator that originates the call always check a centralized database and obtains the route to the call. The operator to which the number was designated routes itself the call to the new operator. Technical issues Complexity for number portability can come from many sources. first defined in the 1st. 2nd and 3rd Reports and Orders by the FCC (publicly available at fcc. The situation becomes somewhat more complex in a wireless environment such as that created by cellular communications. (For an example of such a system. Some mechanism for such forwarding must exist. The operator that originates the call then checks the centralized database. If a number is dialed it is necessary to be able to determine where in the network the mobile station exists. If the subscriber ceases to need the number then it is normal that the original donor receives the number back and “snaps back” the number to its network. it is envisioned that the size of these blocks may grow smaller or even to single numbers. These rules. see the article on the GSM network. Once this occurs the granularity of such operations will represent a greater workload for the telecommunications provider. The donor operator verifies the call and informs that it no longer possesses the number. This model is called indirect routing.gov). The operators. Query on Release (QoR) The operator that originates the call first checks with the operator to which the number initially belonged. [7] . The operation of donating a number requires that a number is “snapped out” from a network and “snapped into” the receiving network. No central database is consulted. as well as NANPA and the ATIS [8] which are agreed upon by all member providers to help make LNP as cost-efficient and expedient as possible while still retaining a healthy level security for all providers and in respect of the highest level of customer service. The situation is slightly more complex if the user leaves the first operator for a second and then subsequently elects to use a third operator. With number portability. the donor operator. The donor operator checks its own database and provides a new route. In number portability the “donor network” provides the number and the “recipient network” accepts the number. In cellular communications the concept of a location registry exists to tie a “mobile station” (such as a cellular phone) to the number. The donor operator checks its own database and obtains a new route. numbers were assigned to various operators in blocks. The operator that originates the call then uses this route to forward the call. Historically. Numbers were also recycled in blocks. In this case the second operator will return the number to the first and then it is assigned to the third. as is done with ACQ.

There are a few technical differences. 2006. Providers use SS7 to route calls throughout the US/Canada network.Local number portability NeuStar provides a national database called the NPAC [9] (National Portability Administration Center) which contains the correct routing information for all ported and pooled numbers in the US and Canada. the switch has the NPA-NXX in its routing table as portable. The routing information necessary to complete these calls is known as an LRN (Local Routing Number). that provider sends an industry-standard LSR (Local Service Request) to the existing (or "old") provider.[12] Mobile Number Portability was officially [13] launched in April 1. a response is sent to the "query" containing the information necessary to properly route the call. of course. 2007. it is a "push. The LRN is no more than a simple 10-digit telephone number that resides in the switch of the service provider currently providing service for the ported telephone number. it is called a "pull. LNP." Once the number is pulled or pushed. wireless carriers must provide portability in most of Canada. 122 Portability by country Africa Kenya The Communications Commission of Kenya announced in 2004 that mobile number portability would be available as of July 1. If routing information is found. 2011. If the new provider initiates the port. As of March 14. Much of this process is duplicated in intermodal portability (porting between wireline and wireless providers). When a provider receives a request to port a telephone number from a new customer. the call is passed on to the STP and routed until it gets to a local carrier who will perform the "query" mentioned earlier and route the call accordingly. If the call is local. When the Old Provider receives this request. CLASS and. The Americas Canada In Canada. At the point this is completed. 2005 and fixed-line number portability as of July 1. the providers must concur the request and the new provider must "activate" the number using the LRN of the switch serving the customer on the agreed due date." and if the old provider initiates. in WLNP—Especially with concern to the time intervals allowed. LIDB. where it is identified either as a local call or not. the number is ported. however. Either provider can initiate the port using a SOA or LSOA (Service Order Activator) which directly edits the NPAC database mentioned before. If it is not a local number. Calls to ported numbers are completed when a customer who calls a ported number sends the dialed number to a provider's SSP (Service Switch Point). SS7 accesses databases for various services such as CNAM. The NANC [10] maintains detailed documentation [11] of the procedure common among US carriers to port numbers as described here.[14] . so it sends a routing request to the STP (Signal Transfer Point) which accesses a local database that is updated by an LSMS (Local Service Management System) which holds all routing for all ported numbers to which the carrier is responsible for completing calls. wireline/competitive local exchange carriers must provide portability. Providers can also make these requests within the NPAC database directly. it sends back FOC (Firm Order Confirmation) and the process of porting the number(s) begins.

LNP was deployed sequentially to the remaining RBOC areas.[15] Mexico Mexico is the first Latin American country to have number portability in both mobile and local telephony. on October 31. 2003 (in metropolitan areas). Thereafter. number portability in both mobile and local telephony was launched September 30. the introduction of this service shall be decided by the fixed/mobile carriers in a voluntary basis.S.e. the Dominican Telecommunications Institute (INDOTEL) selected Informática El Corte Inglés to administer the number portability.[24] Although the government allowed porting a fixed line number to a mobile carrier or vice versa.S.[16] The Federal Commission of Telecommunications (COFETEL) applied this law.[17] Brazil In Brazil.[16] Dominican Republic In the Dominican Republic.[19] Ecuador In Ecuador. 1999. 2009. However. 2007. upon the establishment of the original Number Portability Administration Center (NPAC) in Chicago. LNP was first implemented in the U. which was a requirement from the government. 123 Asia Hong Kong In Hong Kong. The number portability is available since July 5 of 2008. October 2009. as well. On November 10. 2009. The U. FCC since has mandated Wireless Local Number Portability starting November 24. the FCC additionally ruled that number portability applies to landline numbers moving to mobile telephones and.Local number portability United States In the United States. It was also one condition for Telmex. 2009. if the Mexican company wanted to enter to the video market Triple play (telecommunications). reversal of franchised monopoly). A neutral third party. 2003.[23] Mobile number portability is available since March 1. fixed-mobile number portability is not available. the "Concorcio Systor [20] Telconet [21] JR Electric Supply [22]" has implemented and is operating the ASCP (Administrador del Sistema Central de Portabilidad). the FCC made clear that the obligation to provide LNP extends to VoIP providers. in defense and regulation of the great monopoly that Telmex has. the FCC first mandated LNP among wireline carriers in 1997. the same day of fixed line telephone market liberalization (i. as switches and telephone networks were upgraded with Local Routing Number (LRN) capability. This service covered select rate centers in the Ameritech region. fixed line number portability is available since July 1. 1995. In March.[25] . Illinois in 1998.[16] The handling of the service is handled by Telcordia Technologies. and allowed operators to charge an additional monthly Long-Term Telephone Number Portability End-Use Charge as compensation. Mobile Number Portability has been available since 12. As of October 2009. it's not possible to port a fixed line number to a mobile line number and vice-versa[18] . number portability (both fixed and mobile) is available nationwide since March.

2006. KDDI and Softbank accelerated the price battle.mnp-india. 2010. the service was provided to the mobile subscribers for free.Local number portability India Mobile number portability www. mobile number portability plan to start by mid 2008. e-mail addresses are subject to change. since its initial workgroup started in November. 2003. because of high transition costs for the customer due to SIM lock. to be the first country to launch this service in the ME region.com launched in India in Haryana state on November 25. Mobile Number Portability was mandated on the Public Mobile Operators. 2007. and music/data downloaded may not be used. fixed line portability began in March. Mobile number portability was launched on August 26. Oman In Oman. Users are able to change cellular phone carriers without changing their number for a nominal fee of 3 OMR. 番 号 ポ ー タ ビ リ テ ィ ー 制 度 (bangō portability seido – [27] [28] Users are able to change cellular commonly referred to as portability or MNP) began on October 24. ‫ﻥ ﻥﻥ‬the PTA mandated mobile number portability on March 23. They just have to pay the charges of new sim cards depending upon the provider they are migrating [32] 124 . phone carriers without changing their number for a fee of 5000 yen. Japan In Japan. Malaysia In Malaysia.[31] Pakistan In Pakistan. MNP was launched in July 8. NTT DoCoMo. 2006.[26] It was finally launched all over India on January 20. The Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) spent three years to put mobile number portability into practice. the long time it took to establish mobile number portability. A centralized number portability clearinghouse (NPC) solution was implemented by CITC [30](the telecom regulation authority) and the two mobile phone operators were obliged to implement the MNP solution in their networks and to interface with the NPC. and the significance of mobile Internet mail. 2006. However. according to an article on the National News Agency Bernama [29] Saudi Arabia In Saudi Arabia. but it was of little effect due to already competitive price plans and customer loyalty. Overall. Users are able to change their ‫ﻥﻥﻥﻥ‬ cellular phone service for a free. As a result. mobile number portability in Japan was not very successful. via the licenses issued to them by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA). 2011. allowing operators to fence in subscribers with price plans. Nawras and Oman Mobile. 2001.

293 fixed lines were ported. 2004. 2004 and should be required from mobile operators as from January 1. Cyprus In Cyprus. 2004. Belgium In Belgium.828. respectively. Elisa and DNA fell from 98. with the implementation of a Centralised Number Portability Database Solution. One thing different from other countries is that it started from SK Telecom. 2001. Mobile number portability was implemented on July 1. along with 456. 2005. This is supported by Sri Lanka Telecom owned Mobitel Lanka and other cellular operators.[34] Fixed-line portability began as of August 1. 2004.[35] Sri Lanka The Sri Lankan government made a policy decision in August 2007 to introduce number portability for cellular phones in Sri Lanka. To prevent users' churning to the dominant operator. 2008.[37] In 2006. In one year (June 2003 – June 2004).159 mobile lines. mobile number portability service started from January 1. True number portability will be realized from June 13.[36] Finland In Finland. This is currently implemented through voice call & SMS forwarding. the government gave six months' and one year's delay to the second and the third operator.[40] . geographic. 2001. as proposed by the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore.[36] Denmark In Denmark. Estonia In Estonia. As a result. the combined market share of TeliaSonera. 238. mobile number portability was implemented on July 25. number portability was implemented in Oct 2002.9% of lines were ported in 2006. 2003.000 and the number of mobile lines was 5. number portability is required from fixed operators since January 1.9%. all telephone providers are required to provide number portability under the Universal Services Directive (2002/22/EU).974. [33] South Korea In South Korea.Local number portability Singapore Singapore was one of the first countries to introduce number portability for mobile telephones in 1997. number portability was implemented in Oct 2004.[38] roughly 7. only SK Telecom's subscribers could move to other operators during the first six months.000. portability of fixed line numbers and ISDN was implemented on January 1. the dominant operator which has over 50% of market share. Austria In Austria.[39] The impact of mobile number portability in Finland exceeds that of other countries.7% to 87. Considering that the number of fixed lines by the end of 2006 was 2. non-geographic and mobile number portability is required as of July 12. 125 Europe In the European Union.

2001. Norway Fixed number portability was introduced in Norway in 2000. As of January 1. fixed number portability is available since January 1. 2004. Mobile number portability was implemented on March 1. installed and is presently operated by Systor Trondheim AS [20]. fixed number portability was introduced on January 1. Portability for non-geographic numbers (including mobile numbers) is available since May 1.G. 2004. for geographic numbers and numbers for non-geographic services.[43] Germany In Germany. Italy In Italy. 2003. was put into service in 2000.I. 126 . installed and operated by Systor Trondheim AS [20] of Norway.[44] Luxembourg MNP was introduced in Luxembourg in June 2004.[36] Ireland In Ireland. geographic number portability has been available since January 1.Local number portability France In France. the National Reference Database (NRDB).E Telcom E. 1998. 2004. number portability was implemented in Jul 2003.[36] Hungary In Hungary.I. portability exists for geographic numbers since January 1. The NRDB is owned and managed by the 8 largest network operators in Norway through the company NRDB AS.[42] However. 2002.[41] Mobile number portability was introduced on June 30. 2002. The reference database was developed. mobile number portability is available since April 30. one year before the introduction of mobile number portability. [45] operator group and developed. 2007 with two objectives: having a single contact for the customer (the new operator should take all the steps towards mobile number portability) and a maximum period of ten days for mobile number portability to have effect. The Mobile Number Portability Central (MNPC) managed by the G. due to its lack of effectiveness. was put into commercial operations from February 2005.[36] Greece In Greece. 1998. 2003. it became possible to change geographic location or operator while keeping the same number. The administrative solution for fixed and mobile number portability in Norway. Mobile number portability was implemented on November 1. a new system was launched on May 21.

a distinction must be made between cellphone numbers (beginning with "6" or. cell number portability must complete in 5 business days (i.A. including profitable broadband access. as Telefónica set up a reselling program for their fixed lines and DSL internet access. The user wakes up using a new SIM-card from the new cell provider while keeping the number. "72". "73" or "74". with 107 lines per 100 inhabitants [49] 127 . number portability among cell phone carriers is available since October 1. and so depriving consumers and business of a choice of broadband suppliers". ). the former monopoly is still much in control of the fixed line market. number portability is also available since year 2000. Telefónica was fined in excess of €152 million by the European Commission on July 4. In fact. As of August 2007. [47]. In the end. See Telephone numbering in Spain for more information. 2001. In the mature Spanish cell phone market (as of June 2007. R and many others) and the former State monopoly (Telefónica). 3. Slovakia In Slovakia. since only two local loop providers can operate at each particular region (or demarcación as regulated by the CMT): a cable carrier (such as Ono. with the actual switch occurring late at night to avoid missing any calls. without any cost to the end user. that is. 2002.[49] Spain is the one country in the European Union where more customers have switched cell phone providers.[50] As for the fixed line market. As cable providers do not have a statewide footprint. Mobile number portability has been available since January 1.e.957. number portability was implemented in May 2004. 2000.246 fixed line switches were completed. 1. with the customer receiving a single bill. portability has been widely used by the competing carriers as a way to steal each other's customers.041. From June 2006 to June 2007 alone. Portabil S. The technical details for the process are regulated by the CMT (Comisión del Mercado de las Telecomunicaciones or Telecoms Market Commission) and all carriers are obliged to comply with their requirements. Spain In Spain. from October 2011. and calling a cellphone is usually more expensive than calling a fixed line. but weaker competition meant that actual adoption of the fixed number portability process was quite sluggish. at fees regulated by the CMT (practice known as local loop unbundling). 2007 on ground of "impeding competition on the Spanish broadband internet access market for more than five years. fixed number portability was implemented on June 30. where the calling party assumes the full cost of the call. usually offering them free handsets or extra credit. with more than 9 million carrier switches completed as of April 2007. The sole of them operating statewide—Telefónica—is obliged to provide other firms with access to their exchange facilities or rental/transfer of their copper last-mile loops. "71". giving up Telefónica's service altogether. a joint venture between the internationally well known companies Logica [48] and Systor Trondheim AS [20]. ) and fixed numbers (usually beginning with 9 or 8).[52] Due to the billing scheme used in the Spanish phone call market.556 cell phone lines switched carriers via this proceeding. Full number portability in which a customer transfers a cell to a fixed number or vice versa is thus not possible.[51] Fixed line market is peculiar in Spain. about 10% of all cellular lines in use. Some of them can however get their service from a third company who will bill the service and then pay Telefónica for the copper pair rental and maintenance fees.Local number portability Portugal In Portugal. As of August 2004. excluding weekends) from the moment the request is confirmed by the customer.[46] The administrative Reference Entity (Entidade de Referencia (ER)) interconnecting all network operators and service providers is operated by a local third party. many users have no actual chance of applying for "true" fixed number portability.

are working to get the process going and performing interoperability tests. which is a central reference database now containing both the fixed and mobile portings. aspx?isfa=1& newsitemid=ab2bc4b4-6274-4552-8317-ef1ee2227a07& feedname=MARC-SALTZMAN& show=False& number=0& showbyline=True& subtitle=& detect=& abc=abc). . Mobile number portability has been available as of September 25. 2001. 2007. mobile phone providers and broadband service providers to provide number portability under the Porting Authorisation Code rules and Migration Authorisation Code code of practice respectively. [4] http:/ / www. com. fcc. Retrieved March 31. on May 9. teleco. "Portabilidade Numérica (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. local telephone numbers have been portable since 1999. 2009.. "RFC 3482 – Number Portability in the Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN): An Overview" (http:/ / www.[55] United Kingdom In the United Kingdom. 2008. asp). Yu. SNPAC CRDB. the Ofcom direction is intended to reflect the requirements of EU Directive 2002/22/EU. Network Working Group. Retrieved April 2. html). 2008. [3] Saltzman. 2009 that the regulator approved the procedure for fixed number portability. Sympatico MSN. References [1] http:/ / wireless. McGarry.[53] [54] Turkey In Turkey. Retrieved April 4. gov. However. According to ACMA. gov/ Bureaus/ Common_Carrier/ Orders/ 1996/ fcc96286. . As the UK is an EU member country. José Barbosa. local number portability came into full effect at the start of 2000. Marc. pdf) (PDF). or use a third party LNP provider such as Paradigm. 2008. atis. faqs. pk/ media/ mnp_intro_080807. 128 Oceania Australia In Australia. msn. org/ . Retrieved April 4. "'Wireless number portability' arrives in Canada" (http:/ / technology.[57] New Zealand In New Zealand. local and mobile number portability began on April 1. they can either form agreements with all of the fixed line operators. com/ [8] http:/ / www. The porting process is based on a peer to peer file exchange between fixed line operators. sympatico. txt [5] Mello. . and the incumbent. T. pta. 2008.Local number portability Sweden In Sweden. org/ rfcs/ rfc3482. Ofcom directs fixed-line telephone network providers. fixed and mobile operators. [7] http:/ / www. fixed line portability was implemented in 1999 and mobile number portability was implemented on September 1. br/ tutoriais/ tutorialport/ pagina_3. For service providers who require knowledge of porting activity to enable them to deliver voice calls directly to the current "network owner". nanpa. M. . 2001. mobile number portability was implemented in Nov 2008. . At the introduction of mobile number portability the Swedish operators joined forces and procured a central solution. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA). there is still progress to be made and the progress for fixed number portability has not proved to be going ahead as in-time as the mobile number portability. ca/ Wireless+ number+ portability+ arrives+ in+ Canada/ How-To/ ContentPosting_MS. However. Since then. Fixed number portability was initially planned to take place exactly 6 months following the mobile number portability. it was not until September 9. gov/ wlnp/ [2] "MNP Introduction" (http:/ / www. J. [6] Foster. fcc.One [56].

Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA).com. 2008. dk/ numbering-issues-and-domain-aspects/ numbering-issues/ number-portability) on March 9. 2010. [26] http:/ / www. 1995). [41] "Results of the Public Consultation on the implementation of number portability" (http:/ / www. Retrieved March 18. php?section=economia& article=024n2eco). pk/ media/ Code_of_practic_22-03-2007. sa [31] (http:/ / www. . gov. do?acao=& codItemCanal=1362& codigoVisao=4& nomeVisao=Cidadão& nomeCanal=Telefonia Fixa& nomeItemCanal=Portabilidade). citc. br/ Portal/ exibirPortalPaginaEspecial. ficora. org/ [11] http:/ / www. com [10] http:/ / www. dk/ numbering-issues-and-domain-aspects/ numbering-issues/ number-portability). 2008. pta. arcep. pdf) (PDF). frost. doc) (DOC). do?caminhoRel=Cidadao& codigoDocumento=139897). [18] "Portabilidade numérica é aprovada e será assegurada inicialmente ao usuário que solicitar mudança de endereço (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. 2009. 2009. itst. [39] "Mobile Number Portability" (http:/ / www. html). National IT and Telecom Agency (Denmark). . Statement No 1" (http:/ / www. Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL). Archived from the original (http:/ / en. com/ EFX_dll/ EDGARpro. pdf) (PDF). Retrieved March 31. itu. Retrieved September 29. . ca/ eng/ INFO_SHT/ t1021. [29] http:/ / www. National IT and Telecom Agency (Denmark).. gov. . gov. edgar-online. dll?FetchFilingHtmlSection1?SectionID=6677886-127408-269887& SessionID=0gHoHv7tKXdQl77). cck. Retrieved November 5. go. "Mobile Number Portability: Case Finland" (http:/ / www. . itst. com/ cmas/ documents. [40] Smura. pdf) (PDF). fi/ opetus/ / s38042/ s04/ Presentations/ 06102004_Smura/ Smura_paper. hut. crtc. gc. 129 . fr/ fileadmin/ reprise/ publications/ resportabili-gb. [36] "Replies to Telecommunication Regulatory Survey" (http:/ / www. Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK). pdf). fi/ en/ index/ palvelut/ palvelutaiheittain/ numerointi/ siirrettavyys/ matkapuhsiirrettavyys. 2008. "Interconnection and Related Competition Issues. 2008. hk/ en/ ca_bd/ mnp. itst. jp/ menu_05/ kouhoushi/ pdf/ 060530-e_1. st [21] http:/ / www. bnamericas. [35] "SK Telecom Co Ltd: Company Information" (http:/ / google. archive. gov/ edocs_public/ attachmatch/ DOC-277752A1. Retrieved November 5. cck. npac. 2008. Retrieved October 19. [37] "Number Portability" (http:/ / web. Retrieved March 18. om/ test1/ pressroom. ofta. Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP). 2008. htm) [32] http:/ / www. hk/ en/ press_rel/ 2009/ Jul_2009_r1. shtml#Misc [12] "Regulations Governing Number Portability (2004)" (http:/ / www. 2010. [19] "Portabilidade (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. telconet. mx/ 2008/ 04/ 15/ index. . uhcl. pag?docid=99382528). 2010. dk/ statistics/ telestatistik/ halvarsstatistik/ 2007/ first-part-of-2007-1/ Telestatistik for 1 Halvar 2007. Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK). . gov. Frost & Sullivan._regulator_wants_*war_of_competition*). nanc-chair. hk/ en/ tas/ interconnect/ ta950328. Retrieved March 18. "Business News Americas". . Agência NAcional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL). com [27] Takeuchi. go. International Telecommunication Union (ITU). [16] "Desde el 5 de julio regirá la portabilidad numérica" (http:/ / www. Retrieved November 19. anatel. Retrieved August 6. com/ bernama/ v3/ news_lite. . Retrieved March 18. br/ Portal/ exibirPortalRedireciona. ofta. pdf). La Jornada. Retrieved November 5. gov. Retrieved July 28. soumu. htm). pdf [33] http:/ / www. bernama. [38] "Telecom Statistics – First Half of 2007" (http:/ / en. Retrieved November 5. Edgar-Online. regulator wants "war of competition"" (http:/ / www. [20] http:/ / www. Retrieved March 18. . Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). com/ news/ telecommunications/ Number_portability_launched. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC). com [23] Office of the Telecommunications Authority. [24] "Mobile Number Portability in Hong Kong" (http:/ / www. 2008. . Idea Group. ida. 2010. FCC. gov. . tct. html). Retrieved March 19. htm) [15] "FCC Expands Local Number Portability to VoIP" (http:/ / hraunfoss. 2008. tra. 2008. html). brand. org/ web/ 20080309125104/ http:/ / en. . pdf). Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA). . . . net [22] http:/ / www. Retrieved March 19. Retrieved March 18. Hong Kong Government (March 28. . . jornada. [28] "FY 2007 Outline of Japan's Info-Communications Policies" (http:/ / www. "MNP-Japan Case" (http:/ / www. html). npac. 2008. ke/ links/ consultations/ closed_consultations/ unified_licensing/ Extracts_stakeholders_2008. 2010. [14] Cellular (wireless) telephone services (http:/ / www. fcc. anatel. . sg/ News%20and%20Events/ 20080416085608. com/ prod/ servlet/ market-insight-top. go. [13] "Extracts of the Stakeholders Forum on the Unified Licensing Framework and New Market Structure Held on Thursday 19th March 2008 at KCCT" (http:/ / www. gov. Retrieved March 18. php?id=295374 [30] http:/ / www. [17] "Number portability launched. [25] "Press Release – Voluntary Implementation of Fixed Mobile Number Portability" (http:/ / www. aspx [34] "Demand for Number Portability in the Korean Telecommunications Market: Contingent Valuation Approach" (http:/ / sce. pdf). edu/ cs/ pub/ Kim_J6_JGIM. systor. ke/ links/ consultations/ closed_consultations/ Number_portability2. jrelectricsupply. 2009. Inc. Timo. ofta. 2008. . gov. int/ ITU-T/ inr/ misc/ files/ bdt_numbsurvey-en. 2009. 2008. Retrieved June 5. unam.Local number portability [9] http:/ / www. mnp-india. Izumi. gov.

published on August 18" (http:/ / web. cmt. do?reference=SPEECH/ 07/ 460& format=HTML& aged=0& language=EN& guiLanguage=en). .gov/wlnp/ http://www. Retrieved March 18. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. au/ WEB/ STANDARD/ pc=PC_1787).mnp-india. anacom.com/blog/2007/02/ are_you_ready_for_mobile_number_portability_mnp_1. es/ web/ es/ tecnologia/ 2005/ 04/ 16/ 141248.25514. . Retrieved March 18.com/index3. European Commissioner for Competition Policy. tietoenator.pta.uk) . [43] "The new mobile number portability process comes into force on Monday 21 May 2007 in Metropolitan France" (http:/ / www. europa.uk UK guide to mobile number porting (http://www. lu [46] "Regulation no. gov. Brussels.ca/eng/INFO_SHT/t1021.fcc.pdf) (March 2007) External links • • • • http://wireless. pts. 130 • Malaysia Mobile Number Portability Watch (http://jerryong.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=870&Itemid=636 • An excellent single source of links to authentic regulatory and procedural documentation for LNP in the US (http://ported. 2008. .pta. 2008. cz/ default. html [57] "Mobile number portability FAQs" (http:/ / acma.org/ • Mobile Number Portability Launched in India (http://www.ca/eng/INFO_SHT/t1021. Retrieved March 19. php) [52] Neelie Kroes. 2008. 58/2005. . [55] "Annual Work Plan (2008)" (http:/ / www. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/numbport. Autorità per le Garanzie nelle Comunicazioni. it/ rel_03/ eng/ Relaz_eng_part04. . fr/ fileadmin/ reprise/ dossiers/ marches/ questionnaire/ quest-comm-mobiles-ang. pt/ template20. portabil. Retrieved April 4. July 4.com/number_portability.gc.25552. jsp?categoryId=160182& contentId=289489) on October 20.htm) (March 2006) PCWorld. 2008. [56] http:/ / www. Retrieved April 7.htm) (March 2007) • http://www. [47] http:/ / www. tk. Swedish Post and Telecom Agency (PTS). .pk/index. Retrieved April 4. aecomo.htm) (March 2006) • (http://www. logica.25381.co. 2007 [53] "Nummerportabilitet (in Swedish)" (http:/ / www.html) • Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission – Cellular (Wireless) Telephone Services (Fact Sheet) (http://www. Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações (ANACOM). 2007. archive. TietoEnator.27273). gov. consumer. Retrieved March 31.gc. Retrieved March 31. 2008.crtc. fr/ index. asp?ContentTypeID=2& ContentID=7422& CatTypeId=2& CatId=148) [51] Consumer magazine (in Spanish) (http:/ / www.pcworld. telcom. pt [48] http:/ / www. tr/ Yayin/ Is_Planlari/ workplan2008.ca Mobile phone numbers go portable (http://www. [54] "Number portability for Telenor Mobile in Sweden" (http:/ / www.html CRTC (Canadian) Factsheets (http://www. se/ sv/ Bransch/ Telefoni/ Nummerfragor/ Nummer--och-adressplaner/ Nummerportabilitet/ ).pk/media/Code_of_practic_22-03-2007.gov. pt [49] CMT June 2007 monthly report (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. [45] http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). asp?path=25361. Telekomünikasyon Kurumu (Telecommunications Authority). 2008.gov.pk/index. jsp?categoryId=160182& contentId=289489).27257. paradigmone. Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). . 2008.fcc.html) • http://www. anacom. pt/ template20. pdf) [50] AECOMO Spanish Mobile Communications Association news report (in Spanish) (http:/ / www.pta. Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP).nanc-chair.ca//news/column/ 46e109880a010408001a024c0b8ced7d/pg0. doc) (DOC). pdf) (PDF). . Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP). Press conference on Telefónica decision (http:/ / www.com/) • http://gsmsignalling.gov. com. arcep. php?id=8142).Local number portability [42] "Mobile Communications Services Qualitative Questionnaire" (http:/ / www.portnumber. arcep. agcom.crtc. es/ es/ home/ novedades/ anexos/ NM_Junio07. au/ LNPDatafeed. org/ web/ 20071020150339/ http:/ / www.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=870&Itemid=636) (March 2007) • (http://www. org/ content.php • PortNumber. [44] "Actions Undertaken by the Authority" (http:/ / www.co. 2008.

Context models have been proposed[3] to support context-aware applications which use location to tailor interfaces. Location in network terms relates to locating network nodes. Coordinates are relative to either a standardized system of coordinates.Location awareness 131 Location awareness Location awareness refers to devices that can passively or actively determine their location. Network location awareness (NLA) describes the location of a node in a network. business administration and leisure applications. Network location awareness (NLA) services collect network configuration and location information. make user interaction implicit and build smart environments. Telecommunications Signaling System#7 (SS7)[8] and mirroring ANSI Standards T1.[9] • IEEE media access addressing according to MAC International standard ISO/IEC 10038[10] with ISO/IEC 11802[11] and ANSI/IEEE[12] edition. Navigational instruments provide location coordinates for vessels and vehicles. For example. Less sophisticated systems can use wireless distance measurements to estimate a point of reference in polar coordinates (distance and direction) from another site. positioning systems and/or locating services. especially for moving targets. presence "near" a point of reference. Location awareness without the active participation of the device is known as non-cooperative locating or detection. a location-aware mobile phone may confirm that it is currently in a building. WGS84. These include: • ITU switched line access addressing according to International Telecommunications Union Q-Series standards. or a fixed object such as a building plan. as with fixed RFID readers and RFID tags.[15] Variants "Crisp" locating offers precise coordinates. real-time locating and positioning support with global.g. Location awareness is supported by navigation systems. and notify applications when this information changes. Surveying equipment identifies location with respect to a well-known locationa wireless communications device. regional or local scope.g. Measuring wireless power levels can supply this degree of precision. the term was redefined to include consumer-focused applications. While location awareness began as a matter of static user location.. e. logistics.[16] Fuzzy locating offers less precision.[7] Location in mathematical terms offers coordinates that refer to a nominated point of reference. discover services. International standardisation offers a common method using ISO/TS 16952[5] as originated with German standards DIN EN 61346[6] and DIN EN 81346.110—General Information and subsequent standards. increase the precision of information retrieval.[4] Determining location Description in logical terms uses a structured textual form. possibly with phase angle measurements. refine application-relevant data. History of terminology The term originated for configurations settings of network systems and addressed network entities. e.[1] [2] The term applies to navigating. the notion was extended to reflect movement. With the advent of global positioning systems and radio-equipped mobile devices. • ISO procedure call addressing according to URN/UUID International standards ISO/IEC 11578[13] and ISO/IEC 9834[14] and IETF RFC 4122.[17] . Real-time locating adds timely delivery of results. Index locating indicates presence at a known location. Real time locating is defined with ISO/IEC 19762-5 and ISO/IEC 24730-1. using wireless signals or optical sighting. The term has been applied to traffic.

location aware search can prioritize results that are close to the device. and is integral to ubiquitous and wearable computing.[18] Navigation Navigation and reckoning are key concerns for seafarers. with results in proprietary terms of floor plans or room numbers. Local Such solutions may apply concepts of RTLS and WPAN. Conversely. Applications include avalanche rescue or emergency and mountain rescue as well as with search and rescue. independent localized systems exist at scales ranging from one building to sub-national regions.[20] Business process Currently location awareness is applied to design innovative process controls. such as charging tolls for crossing a bridge. Optical surveying technology preceded LASER triangulating aids. such as tracking objects entering and leaving a warehouse. It is essential for delineating land ownership and for architects and civil engineers designing construction projects.Location awareness 132 Applications Location-aware systems address the acquisition of coordinates in a grid (for example using distance metrics and lateration algorithms) or at least distances to reference points (for example discriminating presence at a certain choke point on a corridor or in a room of a building). Allegedly. distance and direction to destination. aviators and professional drivers. (CSAR). at some cost to the bearer's privacy. and allowing retailers to publish special offers to potential customers who are near to the retailer. RADAR served for regional demand and NAVSTAR satellite systems for global demand. GPS and similar systems have become ubituitous in long-haul transport operation and are becoming a standard automobile feature.[21] Warehouse and routing RFID provides a time/location reference for an object. but does not indicate that the object remains at that location. the device location can be disclosed to others. individuals gain self confidence with confirmation of current whereabouts.[19] Surveying Surveying is the static complement to navigating.[24] Infrastructure While governments have created global systems for computing locations. (SAR) and combat search and rescue. wireless LAN or DECT.[22] [23] Consumer Location awareness enables new applications for ubiquitous computing systems and mobile phones. Such applications include publishing a user's location to appropriate members of a social network. or for objects moving on a fixed route. On mobile devices. The task is to dynamically determine the current location and the time. . which is sufficient for applications that limit access. Local systems degrade as distance from the locality increases.

ietf.1 Object Identifier components (http:/ / www. txt) [16] Malik. htm?csnumber=18000) [11] [ISO/IEC TR 11802-2:2005 Information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Technical reports and guidelines—Part 2: Standard Group MAC Addresses] [12] ANSI/IEEE Std 802. aspx) [3] Cristiana Bolchini and Carlo A. "There is more to Context than Location" (http:/ / www. K. A. dke. and a contextual world view". iso. uk/ ~albrecht/ phd/ ). de/ publish/ dt/ books/ forthcomingTitles/ EE00/ 0-470-39868-X/ ?sID=2k2e8lg2r8ruf5ghork2ed46g1). Lancaster University. [17] Sweeney..2190/WUQU-VT01-021N-GX33. org/ rfc/ rfc4122. 85). html) [23] Rosemann. "A data-oriented survey of context models" (http:/ / carlo. . wm-user. Aidoo. Computers & Graphics Journal. Notes [1] Network location awareness (http:/ / wiki. pdf) (PDF). edu/ ~albrecht/ publication/ huc99/ advanced_interaction_context. teco. rlehmann. Global This approach relies on GPS technology. "Social psychology. . wiley-vch. ch/ data/ Das_neue_Messen_2-14. Van Laerhoven.. 18th international conference on advanced information systems engineering. asp) [10] International Standard ISO/IEC 10038: 1993 (http:/ / www. J. ac.Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung . . int/ rec/ T-REC-Q/ e) [9] ANSI Standard T1. Ajay (2009). Gellersen (December 1999). pdf) (PDF). Petit. de/ index2. Tuomela.Computing in Context" (http:/ / www. html) [13] ISO/IEC 11578 Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Remote Procedure Call (RPC) (http:/ / www. PMID 2634031. 149–158.Part 1: General application rules (http:/ / www. K. GSM or LTE. (1989). com/ wiki/ Network_Location_Awareness_(NLA)) [2] Registering a Service Instance with NLA (http:/ / msdn. such as 3GPP. .1145/1361348.Reference designation system . Schreiber and Letizia Tanca (2007).. pp. htm?csnumber=53416) [15] A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace (http:/ / www. . "Advanced Interaction in Context" (http:/ / www. Van de Velde W. [19] Test TomTom Navigator 6 (http:/ / www. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte . Albrecht (2003). org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. (2006). Takaluoma. . lancs. PhD dissertation. org/ reading/ ieee/ std_public/ description/ lanman/ 10038-1993_desc. htm?csnumber=38178) [6] [DIN EN 61346 Industrielle Systeme. de/ article-00146. de/ publish/ dt/ books/ bySubjectBA00/ ISBN3-527-70263-6/ ?sID=lvkjcmj8ene7n5qci56q5gqsb3). wiley-vch. A. In T. blackviper. & Recker. microsoft. doi:10. htm?csnumber=2229) [14] Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Procedures for the operation of OSI Registration Authorities: Generation and registration of Universally Unique Identifiers (UUIDs) and their use as ASN. php?option=com_content& do_pdf=1& id=76) [20] Das neue Messen (http:/ / www. T. O. Signalling and Switching (http:/ / www. "RTLS für Dummies" (http:/ / www. (ACM) 36 (4): 19–26. com/ ss7/ itu. 89–101. Latour & M. teco. us/ documents/ curino-context2007-survey. Vol. (1999). The International Journal of Aging & Human Development 29 (3): 225–239. [4] Schmidt. "RFID für Dummies" (http:/ / www. iso. Patrick (2006). rfid-basis. [24] Blank.Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln (IEC 81346-1:2009) (http:/ / www. proceedings of workshops and doctoral consortium. Michael Beigl and Hans-W. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. "Context-aware process design: Exploring the extrinsic drivers for process flexibility". Luxembourg: Namur University Press.110 (http:/ / www. [5] ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation -. [18] Schmidt. com/ en-us/ library/ ms740123(VS. 1707.1361353. comp. generally adopting WGS84 and NMEA. de/ cmd?bcrumblevel=1& contextid=dke& subcommitteeid=54759251& projid=103797592& level=tpl-proj-detailansicht& committeeid=54738887& languageid=de) [8] International Telecommunications Union Q-Series Standards. Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte – Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung] [7] Industrielle Systeme. de/ ~albrecht/ publication/ draft_docs/ context-is-more-than-location. pdf) (PDF). U. 1993 edition (http:/ / standards. [22] Fünf Jahre nach dem RFID-Hype erste Ernüchterung (http:/ / www. contexts of aging. Elsevier 23 (6): 893–902. iso.Location awareness 133 Regional This approach uses for example mobile phone systems. tekelec. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. ieee.1D. Curino and Elisa Quintarelli and Fabio A. iso. SIGMOD Rec. uni-karlsruhe. 1st International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC99).. . M.. ISSN 0163-5808. Springer LNCS. doi:10.. curino.A. pp. itu. typically returning information in standardized coordinates as with WGS84 in standardized formats such as NMEA for outdoor usage or in symbolic coordinates referring to street addresses. "Ubiquitous Computing . din. pdf) [21] Albrecht Schmidt. currently supplied by NAVSTAR and may in future employ the pending Galileo (satellite navigation) system.

patentstorm.html) External links • Capturing Ambient Intelligence for Mobile Communications through Wireless Sensor Networks (http://www. "in the field" using predominately smartphone with special software such as AHG Cloud Note. M-Learning also brings strong portability by replacing books and notes with small RAMs.org/) (Research Project) • Middleware for context collection and personal profile exchange (http://www.tokloc. it is simple to utilize mobile learning for a more effective and entertaining experience. interacting with portable technologies.html) • Albis Zurich Switzerland: ZOMOFI Microwave proprietary approach (http://www.ist-midas.albistechnologies.rfcode. is also collaborative. Wikipedia on Nokia 770 is an example of mobile learning The term covers: learning with portable technologies including but not limited to handheld computers. M-Learning. sonitor. USA: RF Code 433 MHz proprietary approach (http://www. There is also a new direction in MLearning that adds mobility of the instructor and includes creation of learning materials "on-the-spot.us/patents/7228136. it is distinct in its focus on learning across contexts and learning with mobile devices.portable-personality.php) • Location estimation in wireless telecommunication networks: Ekahau proprietary modified WLAN fuzzy locating system (http://www. or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies. notebooks and mobile phones. Although related to e-learning and distance education. has different meanings for different communities. like other forms of E-learning. MP3 players. One definition of mobile learning is: Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed. ist-e-sense.org) (Research Project) • Middleware Platform for Developing and Deploying Advanced Mobile Services (http://www.de/ tokloc/tokloclocating/mission/mission.org/) (Research Project) • Bring advances in mobile applications and services within the reach of users (http://www. predetermined location.org/) MLearning The term M-Learning.ist-mobilife. sharing is almost instantaneous among everyone using the same content.) • ReadPost Bremerhaven Germany: TokLoc. NO-0314 Oslo. M-learning focuses on the mobility of the learner. or "mobile learning". In addition.Location awareness 134 References • Sonitor Technologies.[1] In other words mobile learning decreases limitation of learning location with the mobility of general portable devices. Using mobile tools for creating learning aides and materials becomes an important part of informal learning.com/ products/zone_monitoring/index.com) • RF Code. filled with tailored learning contents. TX 78758. the Bluetooth LowEnergy based approach (http://www. which leads to the reception of instant feedback and tips. .com. M-learning is convenient in that it is accessible from virtually anywhere. Austin. and learning that reflects a focus on how society and its institutions can accommodate and support an increasingly mobile population. Norway: SONITOR Ultra sound proprietary approach (http://www.

SALT Mobile in USA. WMUTE. PCs. including: mLearn. • It is important to bring new technology into the classroom. etc. Content Development Conferences and trade shows were created to specifically deal with mobile learning and handheld education. • Mobile learning can be a useful add-on tool for students with special needs.MLearning 135 History Pre-1970s Arguably the first instance of mobile learning goes back as far as 1901 when Linguaphone released a series of language lessons on wax cylinders. 8 track tape. Authoring and publishing 2. • Good IT support is needed. . Handheld Learning in London. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) in partnership with Orange Grove Middle School of Tucson. 1. • Mobile learning could be utilised as part of a learning approach which uses different types of activities (or a blended learning approach). ICML in Jordan. Knowledgility creates the first mobile learning modules for CCNA. However. • Mobile learning needs to be used appropriately. Palm corporation offers grants to universities and companies who create and test the use of Mobile Learning on the PalmOS platform. • Mobile learning supports the learning process rather than being integral to it. • It is necessary to have enough devices for classroom use . Delivery and Tracking 3. Their interim Dynabooks are the first networked workstations 1990s In May 1991. Analysis (costs / benefits. and CDs[2] 1970s. to cover compact cassette tapes. 1980s Alan Kay and his colleagues in the Learning Research Group at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center [PARC] propose the Dynabook as a book-sized computer to run dynamic simulations for learning. 2000s The European Commission funds the major multi-national MOBIlearn and M-Learning [4] projects. forecast) Value The value of mobile learning[5] --Tutors commented on the value of mobile learning as follows. Arizona. use mobile computers connected by wireless networks for the 'Wireless Coyote' project. for SMS and MMS this might be dependent on the students’ specific disabilities or difficulties involved. Companies were formed that specialize in three core areas of mobile learning. A+ and MCSE certification using the core tools that later became LMA. Mobile Learning in Malaysia. according to the groups of students involved.[3] Universities in Europe and Asia develop and evaluate mobile learning for students. • It will be more light weight device compare to books. This was followed up in later years as technology improved. and IADIS Mobile Learning international conference series. • Mobile learning can be used as a ‘hook’ to re-engage disaffected youth.

The mLearning community is still fragmented.7% and revenues reached $538 million in 2007. higher education and lifelong learning sectors. differences between academia and industry. Developing an appropriate theory of learning for the mobile age Conceptual differences between e.MLearning 136 Challenges Technical challenges include • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Connectivity and battery life Screen size and key size[6] Ability for authors to visualize mobile phones for delivery Possibilities to meet required bandwidth for nonstop/fast streaming Number of file/assets' formats supported by a specific device Content security or copyright issue from authoring group Multiple standards. "the US market for Mobile Learning products and services is growing at a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21. museums. The data indicate that the demand is relatively immune from the recession. and media services and that the healthcare sector accounts for 20% of the total US market for mobile learning."[11] The findings of the report indicate that the largest demand throughout the forecast period is for custom development services. cities and rural areas around the world.and m-learning Design of technology to support a lifetime of learning[7] [8] Tracking of results and proper use of this information No restriction on learning timetable Personal and private information and content No demographic boundary Disruption of students' personal and academic lives[9] Access to and use of the technology in developing countries[10] Social and educational challenges include Growth Over the past ten years mobile learning has grown from a minor research interest to a set of significant projects in schools.) learning Location-based and contextual learning Social-networked mobile learning Mobile educational gaming Deliver M-Learning to cellular phones using two way SMS messaging and voice-based CellCasting (podcasting to phones with interactive assessments) According to a report by Ambient Insight in 2008. multiple operating systems Reworking existing e-Learning materials for mobile platforms Accessibility and cost barriers for end users: Digital divide. multiple screen sizes. job aids and just-in-time (J. content conversion. Current areas of growth include: • • • • • Testing. surveys. and between the school. workplaces.T. with different national perspectives. . How to assess learning outside the classroom How to support learning across many contexts Content's security (or) pirating issues Frequent changes in device models/technologies/functionality etc.I.

or parts of courses. tests.g. conduct assessments and evaluations (e. Mobile devices can also serve as powerful data collection tools and facilitate the capture of user created content. provide on-the-job support and access to information. quizzes.. personal digital assistants (PDAs). any number of portable devices can quickly and easily deliver and support these functions. forms and checklists. personal media players (PMPs). it has the potential to do much more than deliver courses. In these ways. or wireless single-purpose devices can help deliver coaching and mentoring. and deliver podcasts. surveys/polls. making it more portable and accessible. Cell or smartphones.MLearning 137 Future Technologies currently being researched for mobile learning include:[12] • • • • • • • • Location aware learning Point-and-shoot learning with camera phones and 2D codes Near Field Communications (NFC) secure transactions Sensors and accelerometers in mobile devices in behavioral based learning Mobile content creation (including user generated content) Games and simulation for learning on mobile devices Context-aware ubiquitous learning Augmented reality on mobile devices Delivery While many think of mobile learning as delivering eLearning on small form factor devices. Smartphones are one of the platforms used for mobile learning. or often referred to as eLearning “lite”. and certifications). education and references. update alerts. It includes the use of mobile/handheld devices to perform any of the following: • • • • • Deliver Education/Learning Foster Communications/Collaboration Conduct Assessments/Evaluations Provide Access to Performance Support/Knowledge Capture Evidence of Learning Activity Today. mobile learning can enhance and support more traditional learning modes.[12] . multi-game devices.

• Students using mobile devices(such as a Pocket PC) in the classroom to enhance group collaboration among students and instructors. Podcasts maybe be delivered using syndication. Class management The mobile phone (through text SMS notices) can be used especially for distance education or with students whose course requires them to be highly mobile and in particular to communicate information regarding availability of assignment results. For blended learning Mobile learning can provide support that enhances training in a corporate business or other classroom environment. but only in cases in which students take notes (Callaway & Ewen 2009). PDAs. It can also be of value to business people e. smartphones or handheld voting systems (such as clickers) in a classroom or lecture room (Tremblay 2010). venue changes and cancellations. Outdoor • Learning in museums or galleries with handheld or wearable technologies • Learning outdoors. At work • On the job training for someone who accesses training on a mobile device "just in time" to solve a problem or gain an update. Psychological research suggests that university students who download podcast lectures achieve substantially higher exam results than those who attend the lecture in person. sales representatives who do not wish to waste time away from their busy schedules to attend formal training events. Miller & Newnham 2009). and can be used to review live lectures (Clark & Westcott (2007) and to provide opportunities for students to rehearse oral presentations. . etc. Podcasting Podcasting consists of listening to audio recordings of lectures.g. Podcasts may also provide supplemental information to enhance traditional lectures (McGarr 2009) (Steven & Teasley 2009). The use of mobile learning in the military is becoming increasingly common due to low cost and high portability. although it should be noted that this method of delivery is not always easily adopted (Lee. for example on field trips.MLearning 138 Approaches In the classroom • Students using handheld computers. • Continuous learning and portable tools for military personnel.

It organizes the annual mLearn international conference series. emerging technologies.: sending media or texts into a central portfolio. mobile phone.MLearning 139 Lifelong learning and self-learning The use of personal technology to support informal or lifelong learning.g. cell phones. Mobile technologies and approaches. are also used to assist in language learning. i. camera phone and SmartPhone Technical and delivery support for mobile learning: • 3GP For compression and delivery method of audiovisual content associated with Mobile Learning • GPRS mobile data service. modern gaming consoles such as Sony PSP or Nintendo DS Personal audio player. numeracy and participation in education amongst young adults. For instance handheld computers. or exporting audio files from a learning platform to your phone) Technologies Mobile devices and personal technologies that can support mobile learning. for authoring and publishing WAP. Java ME and Smartphone Relevant organisations • The International Association for Mobile Learning[13] • The International Association for Mobile Learning (IAMLearn) has been formed as a membership organization to promote excellence in research. Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL). e. Other • Improving levels of literacy. but also podcasting (Horkoff Kayes2008) have been used for helping people to acquire a language. in museums and galleries Handheld game console.e. . and teaching resources. for listening to audio recordings of lectures (podcasting) Personal Digital Assistant. development and application of mobile and contextual learning. in the classroom and outdoors Tablet PC UMPC.g. provides high speed connection and data transfer rate • Wi-Fi gives access to instructors and resources via internet Authoring: • Learning Mobile Author. such as using handheld dictionaries and other devices for language learning. include: • • • • • • • E-book Handheld audio and multimedia guides. • Using the communication features of a mobile phone as part of a larger learning activity (e. e. IAMLearn manages a website to collate and disseminate information about new projects.g.

html). . com/ p7/ MobileLearningUpdate. Newnham.. Mobile Learning History. Understanding. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching.2009. October 2003. Retrieved June 8. L.1016/j. "'iTunes university' better than the real thing" (http://www. [13] The International Association for Mobile Learning (http:/ / mlearning. Grant. Lonn. 2009. "Podcasting syndication services and university students: Why don't they subscribe?". • Tremblay. S. "Language Learning by iPod: An Emerging Model" (http://www.uniserve. 2008. The MASIE Center. 28 September 2007. 17.1016/j. . Volume 36 Issue 5. Computers & Education 34 (3-4): 177–193.p8 [6] Maniar. com/ 2010/ 01/ mobile-learning-in-cortina. (2005).htm). Chesapeake.1016/S0360-1315(99)00044-5. • Lee. 171–175. C. ecs. 2009. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning. April 2005.MLearning 140 Relevant journals • International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning • International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation References [1] "Guidelines for learning/teaching/tutoring in a mobile environment" (http:/ / www. Hungary. Barcelona. • Clark. "Educating the Mobile Generation – using personal cell phones as audience response systems in post-secondary science teaching" (http://www. Miller. Communications of the ACM . Learning Consortium Perspectives. Portugal.Special issue on technology in K–12 education. [9] Masters. Westcott.au/ pubs/procs/2007/08. (2009). (2007). . "Using short podcasts to reinforce lectures" (http://science. (2007). The University of Sydney Symposium. (2000). New Scientist. Bennett. (1993). "A portable document search engine to support off-line mobile learning" (http:/ / eprints. N. "A review of podcasting in higher education: Its influence on the traditional lecture" (http://www. (2008)..pdf). com/article/dn16624-itunes-university-better-than-the-real-thing. Stephanie D. pdf). [12] "Mobile Learning Update" (http:/ / masieweb. (December 2008). [8] Moore.ascilite. 29(2). 5. "After the broadcast: disrupting health sciences’ students' lives with SMS". 217-227. [3] Wireless Coyote (http:/ / portal. masie. K. uk/ 17441/ ). [10] Masters. Teasley. Learning in the Mobile Age. W. ac. Budapest. Ambient Insight. doi:10. acm. The Internet and Higher Education 12 (2): 88–92. pp. pdf). K. ..C. Wireless Coyote: A Computer-Supported Field Trip. E. [11] Adkins. Ng'ambi D.. com/ Resources/ Documents/ AmbientInsight_2008-2013_US_MobileLearning_Forecast_ExecutiveOverview. . Oliver (2009). The Internet and Higher Education 12 (1): 53–59. org/ ) Bibliography • Callaway. (2009). J. VA: AACE.edu. • McGarr. fil. & Allan.org/p/32314). 3. • Steven. blogspot. 57-59 [4] http:/ / www. cfm?id=155062) Wayne C. MOBIlearn. [2] "Mobile Learning Community" (http:/ / trainandgo. 5–13. M. soton. Spain. "The US Market for Mobile Learning Products and Services: 2008-2013 Forecast and Analysis" (http:/ / www. Seeing.06.2008. Lisbon. org/ download/ results/ guidelines. pdf). pp. ambientinsight.. May 1993. M. S. doi:10.org. pp. noe-kaleidoscope. "Low-key m-learning: a realistic introduction of m-learning to developing countries" (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 9. pp. Eric (2010). "The design of personal mobile technologies for lifelong learning".editlib. [7] Sharples.002.au/ajet/ajet25/mcgarr.001.. m-learning. pdf). 6.iheduc.html).. org/ citation. Retrieved June 8. "The effect of mobile phone screen size on video based learning". Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 25 (3): 309–321. S. hu/ mobil/ 2005/ Masters_final. 2010. • Horkoff. 2009. Journal of Software 3 (4): 51–61. . org/ archive [5] Mobile learning in practice:Piloting a mobile learning teachers’ toolkit in further education colleges. G (2008). M.S.htm). J. Kayes. ISBN 978-972-8924-36-2. Hank. Hand. mobilearn.iheduc. doi:10. (2009). Jonathan M. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning.Savill etc.newscientist.com/Research-Articles/language-learning-by-ipod-an-emerging-model. "Podcasting in higher education: What are the implications for teaching and learning?". Ewen (18 February 2009).10. .

a microcell is used in a densely populated urban area. . or train station. [1] Scale The term macrocell is used to describe the widest range of cell sizes. Generally. html). html) Manitoba (computer chip) Manitoba was a system-on-a-chip (SoC) introduced by Intel Corporation in 2003. uk/ sitefinder/ glossary/ jargon/ ) External links • Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained (http://stakeholders. a mall. com/ displayarticle19. Over a smaller cell area. ofcom. a digital signal processor and an XScale processor core. Macrocells are found in rural areas or along highways. References [1] Manitoba. References [1] Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained (http:/ / stakeholders. 2003. Currently the smallest area of coverage can be implemented with a femtocell: used in homes or small offices. Matthew Broersma. macrocells provide coverage larger than microcell.org. at a height that provides a clear view over the surrounding buildings and terrain. Macrocell base stations have power outputs of typically tens of watts.uk/sitefinder/glossary/jargon/) • White Paper: The Business Case for Metrocells (http://www.ofcom. February 13. Picocells are for areas even smaller than microcells. Intel's smart-phone "wireless Internet on a chip" is here (http:/ / www. rooftops and other existing structures. the business was sold to Marvell in 2006 for $600 million.Macrocell 141 Macrocell A macrocell is a cell in a mobile phone network that provides radio coverage served by a high power cellular base station (tower). org.alcatel-lucent.com/wireless/femto_small_cells.[1] After the chip's failure in the marketplace. CNet Asia. wi-fitechnology. The antennas for macrocells are mounted on ground-based masts. An example of usage would be a large office. It was a mostly unsuccessful attempt by Intel to break into the smart phones market. The chip integrated flash memory.

CT2's limitations ensured the concept never took off. PHS is deployed throughout major cities in Japan as an alternative to ordinary cellular service. a cellular network operator can optimize the use of spectrum and ensure capacity can grow. CT2's successor. a "microcell". but in practice the success of GSM within Europe. including use as cordless phone systems. DECT is also used as a private. DECT is used by many businesses to deploy private license-free microcellular networks within large campuses where wireline phone service is less useful. Microcell/picocell-only networks Certain mobile phone systems. Power controls implemented on digital networks make it easier to prevent interference from nearby cells using the same frequencies. cordless phone system where its low power profile ensures that nearby DECT systems do not interfere with each other. covering a limited area such as a mall. older analog systems have fixed limits beyond which attempts to subdivide cells simply would result in an unacceptable level of interference. . A microcell is usually larger than a picocell. or a transportation hub. Cell size flexibility is a feature of 2G (and later) networks and is a significant part of how such networks have been able to improve capacity. A microcell uses power control to limit the radius of its coverage area. such as train stations.Microcell 142 Microcell A microcell is a cell in a mobile phone network served by a low power cellular base station (tower). with a range of 40 feet (12 m). non-networked. A forerunner of these types of network was the CT2 cordless phone system. By subdividing cells. and creating more cells to help serve high density areas. a picocell is 200 meters or less.[1] although AT&T calls its product. only provide microcellular (and picocellular) coverage. and a femtocell is on the order of 10 meters. again with base stations deployed in areas where large numbers of people might need to make calls. and the ability of GSM to support microcells without using alternative technologies. By comparison. and DECT's use in general was limited to non-GSM private networks.[2] A micro cellular network is a radio network composed of microcells. microcells are usually used to add network capacity in areas with very dense phone usage. Microcells are often deployed temporarily during sporting events and other occasions in which extra capacity is known to be needed at a specific location in advance. GIP so that GSM networks could make use of it for microcellular access. which provided access to a looser network (without handover).. DECT. Rationale Like picocells. was provided with an interworking profile. Typically the range of a microcell is less than two kilometers wide. though the distinction is not always clear. Microcellular systems are typically used to provide low cost mobile phone systems in high-density environments such as large cities. meant GIP was rarely used. notably PHS and DECT. a hotel.

com/ EUROPE_NOKIA_COM_3/ r2/ support/ tutorials/ 7200/ english/ glossary. MINDS International acts as a research and development unit for innovations in the field of digital information and communication solutions for the media industry and supports technology exchange between the agencies.Agence Telegraphique Belge de Presse (Belgium) CTK . att.australian associated press (Australia) AFP .Associated Press (USA) APA . html#2 MINDS Initiated as an EU-funded project in 2004. ericsson. com/ ericsson/ press/ releases/ 20070209-1103860. com/ blog/ 2007/ 12/ do-we-really-need-femto-cells/ http:/ / www. MINDS International (Mobile Information and News Data Services) was founded as an Association in fall 2007 by 11 news agencies from Europe and the USA. wireless. com/ learn/ why/ 3gmicrocell/ faq.Austria Presse Agentur (Austria) Belga . nokia. shtml http:/ / www.Russian News and Information Agency (Russia) Ritzau .Suomen Tietotoimisto (Finland) TM News (Italy) TT .Yonhap News (South Korea) MINDS’ Mission Statement: MINDS International is a global network and platform of equal news agencies sharing ideas and exchanging knowledge to put business concepts forward in order to raise revenues and save costs in digital markets.Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau (The Netherlands) AP .Press Association (UK) RIA Novosti . . visionmobile.Deutsche Presse-Agentur (Germany) EFE .Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå AB (Sweden) Yonhap .Microcell 143 External links • Ericsson press release describing a GSM/UMTS picocell base station intended for residential use [3] • Nokia 7200 Tutorial including definition of "Micro Cellular Network" [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.Polska Agencja Prasowa (Poland) PA .Kyodo News (Japan) Lusa .Agencia EFE (Spain) Kyodo .Magyar Távirati Iroda (Hungary) NTB . The MINDS network comprises the following agency partners: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • aap .Ritzaus Bureau I/S (Denmark) SDA .Schweizerische Depeschenagentur (Switzerland) STT .Norsk Telegrambyrå (Norway) PAP .Agence France-Presse (France) ANP .Agência de Notícias de Portugal (Portugal) MTI .Česká tisková kancelář (Czech Republic) dpa . jsp http:/ / www.

MINDS 144 External links MINDS International website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. minds-international. com .

com) . aspx) External links • Mobify corporate site (http://mobify. backbonemag. mobify. com/ Magazine/ 2010-04/ Top300-2010/ top-25-up-and-comers. In May 2010. Canada Employees Website 20 http:/ / www.Mobify 145 Mobify Mobify Type Industry Founded Mobile publishing & m-commerce Wireless 2007 Headquarters Vancouver. me Mobify is a mobile web company providing an interface to convert existing websites into a version optimized for mobile phones. Mobify was named one of the “Top 25 Up and Comers”[1] in Backbone Magazine’s annual ranking of Canadian technology companies. References [1] Backbone Magazine Top 25 Up and Comers (http:/ / www.

Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content The Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content was founded in 2008 by an international group of mobile operators within the GSM Association [1] to work collectively on obstructing the use of the mobile environment by individuals or organisations wishing to consume or profit from child sexual abuse content. accessing. Goal of the Alliance The Alliance’s ultimate aim is to help stem. to participate in the Alliance. the growth of non approved content around the world. · implement notice and take down processes to enable the removal of any child sexual abuse content posted on their own services · implement technical mechanisms to prevent access to websites identified by an appropriate agency as hosting child sexual abuse content The Alliance encourages all mobile operators worldwide. co-operation and information sharing. Member commitments Members of the Alliance agree to. and ultimately reverse. among other measures: · support and promote ‘hotlines’ or other mechanisms for customers to report child sexual abuse content discovered on the Internet or on mobile content services. A conformance test definition is outside the scope of this standard. This interface gives access to and defines network layer procedures for call set-up and data transfer as specified in MPT 1327 and MPT 1343 or derivations thereof. While the vast majority of child sexual abuse content (child pornography) is today accessed through conventional connections to the Internet.Mobile Access Protocol 146 Mobile Access Protocol MAP27 Mobile Access Protocol for MPT 1327 equipment This standard specifies an interface between a mobile radio and a data terminal equipment. the Alliance seeks to create significant barriers to the misuse of mobile networks and services for hosting. Founding members The founding members of the Mobile Alliance were: • • • • • • • • • GSMA Hutchison 3G Europe mobilkom austria Orange FT Group Telecom Italia Telefonica/02 Telenor Group TeliaSonera T-Mobile Group . Through a combination of technical measures. regardless of access technology. there is a danger that broadband networks now being rolled out by mobile operators could be misused in the same way. or profiting from not approved content.

There is a lack of common industry view on architectural framework. There will be support for interoperability of applications and platforms. The architecture framework and service enablers will be independent of Operating Systems (OS). shtml) Mobile Architecture In the past computers needed to be disconnected from their internal network if they needed to be taken or moved anywhere. protocols and interfaces and are not locked to proprietary technologies. This increases costs and slows down 3rd party mobile development. Important Components of a Mobile Architecture • Scalability – A Mobile Architecture must be able to be utilized with all recovery requirements on both large and small scale. • Secure – Encryption is important. Each day the number of mobile devices is increasing.Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content • Vodafone Group • dotMobi 147 References [1] GSMA Press Release 2008 . GPRS. Currently there is a lack of uniform interoperability plans and implementation. gsmworld. transmission protocols must support encryption (SSL) via secure transit such as HTTPS • Reliable – Reliability is always important in all technologies and Mobile Architecture is no different Best Practices • • • • Data should be populated for database views Use version numbers to track updates during synchronization Maintain only necessary user details in middle ware The application should recognize when CPU battery is low and adjust background running to low to extend battery power • UI on multiple screens should have common elements[2] Future of Mobile Architecture A consortium of companies are pushing for products and services to be based on open. UMTS). CDMA. global standards. An open approach is required across all industries to achieve same end results and services. connected user experience. . com/ news/ press_2008/ press08_09. The applications layer to be bearer agnostic (examples: GSM. EDGE. mobile architecture is the pieces of technology needed to create a rich.GSMA Selects LG Handsets to Lead ‘Horizon Phone’ Campaign (http:/ / www. seamless geographic and intergenerational roaming. Mobile architecture allows maintaining this connection whilst during transit[1] .

msarchitecturejournal. to facilitate deploying language learning material to mobile phones. Zhang. The Open University also recently used mobile phones for language learning[4] • • • • • A project in Ireland used MALL for Irish Language learning and assessment [5] [6] • The Le@rning Federation (TLF) used MALL for Indonesian Language learning across three states[7] [8] . Vanderdijs. MP3 and MP4 players. interact) Mobile Assisted Language Learning Definition Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) describes an approach to language learning that is assisted or enhanced through the use of a handheld mobile device. They also developed a course management system. html) (1997) O. 1990s • Instructors at Brigham Young University-Hawaii taught a distance education English course from Hawaii to Tonga via telephone and computer (Green. Collier. United Kingdom’s Open University used voice recorders and mini-camcorders to record interviews with other students and locals and to create audiovisual tours in distance-learning German and Spanish course (Kukulska-Hulme. City College Southampton [3] developed a web based “media board” (similar to a web-board but supporting Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) as well as Short Message Service (SMS) and supplied learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) with mobile phones with inbuilt cameras and voice recording facilities (JISC. • 2001). developed several foreign language courses which have used wireless handheld computers for various classroom activities (Samuels. a tipe of building or building components. S. edu/ bukhres97proposed. pdf) (1997) The Architecture Journal : Journal 14 Kulathumani Hariharan Also: Mobile Architecture . 2003. C. P.(transform. Duke University provided all incoming freshmen with free iPods equipped with voice recorders. History 1980s • Twarog and Pereszlenyi Pinter used telephones to provide distant language learners with feedback and assistance.[1] [2] MALL is a subset of both Mobile Learning (m-learning) and Computer-assisted language learning (CALL). 2005). & Evans. E. MALL has evolved to support students’ language learning with the increased use of mobile technologies such as mobile phones (cellphones). 2001) 2000s • Dickey (2001) utilized teleconferencing to teach an English conversation course to students in South Korea. students are able to access language learning materials and to communicate with their teachers and peers at any time. 2005). move. 2003). 2005). Amongst the pilot courses utilizing the players were several language courses.architecture. 2005) developed several innovative projects using mobile phones to teach English at a Japanese university.Mobile Architecture 148 References [1] A Proposed Mobile Architecture for Distributed Database Environment (http:/ / citeseer. Bukhres. With MALL. adapt. ist. Poodle. psu. University of Wisconsin–Madison. • Stanford University learning lab used integrated mobile phones in a Spanish learning program in 2001 (Brown. Crawley [2] Best Practices: Extending Enterprise Applications to Mobile Devices (http:/ / www. which utilized both their listening and recording capabilities (Belanger. com/ pdf/ Journal14. PDAs and devices such as the iPhone or iPad. anywhere. Thornton and Houser (2002. Morton.

the time necessary for formal. iPods.linkedin. handheldlearning. due to the growth of wireless and emerging technologies. The Future of MALL Consensus among the limited literature and studies available specifically about MALL indicate that the demand for it will only increase—along with the demand for second language acquisition and learning flexibility. media-rich. What mobile devices lack in capability (regarding sound and video quality and screen size) they make up for in portability. German and French. from very-short tutorials to full courses. hand-held computers.uk/ • SALT conference include sessions on learning languages over mobile phones • Mobile Learning Global Consortium – This LinkedIn group serves as a collaborative forum for the ways and methods being used to push the envelope beyond the cutting edge of mobility. 149 Current Trends Today. which help people learn. changes in the cost and availability of wireless service—a luxury to most in the not-too-distant past—will make MALL available to a far wider and diverse audience. traditional classroom-based or even standard online courses will decrease. and the mass consumer market.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • The first mobile phone language learning service. industry. • Handheld Learning – Promotes learning with mobile or ubiquitous technologies. The number of people capable of producing MALL content is also on the rise. flexible and collaborative learning strategies. In the future. however. MP3 players. learners are able to keep their linguistic talents sharp while reducing the risk of degradation of valuable knowledge. and achieve.com) . government. Through mobile participation in short exercises and tasks. skills and abilities. MALL Professional Organizations At the writing of this article. (Search for the group at http://www. Some of the resources for MALL are primarily language learning websites with some space dedicated to technology in language learning. http://www. With people working longer hours. MALL designers have begun to move away from merely copying the traditions of standard non-mobile language learning and are implementing techniques that maximize the benefits of these new devices. Smartphones and more. PDAs. Additionally.co. Their conference is the international signature event for learning using mobile or ubiquitous technologies. providing 60 text message (SMS) lessons for €9. MALL will be an ideal solution to busy students and professionals seeking to acquire one or more new languages. The increasing number of possible delivery tools has spawned a wide-range of mobile language learning programs. MALL is available through numerous devices including mobile phones.language2yourphone. as it relates to academia. MALL currently serves not only as a primary source of language education for students but also supports the retention and utilization of newly-acquired language skills—however they were acquired. http://www. Spanish. due largely to a combination of increased popularity. we can expect mobile devices to deliver better quality than is currently available among most mobile devices. connect. Other resources are primarily educational technology websites that dedicate some of their efforts to language learning. Predicted growth is reinforced by the overall decrease in free time.com opens for business in English providing lessons in Italian. demand and the advent of content generation tools that simplify the programming process through the use of templates and macros. It is expected that designers will capitalize on this increase in quality—designing MALL programs that employ student-focused. tablet PCs. it is difficult to find organizations that focus specifically on Mobile Assisted Language Learning.

org/index. Collaborating on mobile devices is dependent on the device. store and listen to songs in the language they were learning. Handheld delivery also affords new dynamics for collaborative learning as users can share the language learning process in small synchronous groups (Nah. Among the most noted affordances for MALL is ubiquitous access to learning anytime at any place that the user has reception. The effectiveness of collaborating varies on the project and mobile device. The following are examples of collaborative learning using mobile devices: • Collaboration on a mobile phone can be achieved by asynchronous text messaging and instant messaging or a phone conversation. This enables users to brush up on language skills just before or just after a conversation in the language they are learning. In the same way. In each instance learning can take place but the phones serve only as the delivery method for that information. Some of these affordances are even unique to m-learning compared to regular e-learning. Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education. like a pencil or calculator. are used as tools. The devices. The students would record themselves completing an oral assignment and the tutors provided feedback on their assignment. there are some constraints to m-learning that limit what can be done in language acquisition through m-learning compared to traditional e-learning or classroom learning. WMUTE provides opportunity for communication among local and international researchers. be they phones. Affordances and Constraints Enhancing language learning through MALL affords some dynamics not available through the traditional classroom that the language learner can take advantage of.htm 150 Collaborative Learning in MALL Collaborative learning is the acquisition of knowledge. learners do. Compared to classroom or e-learning. • Social interactivity-data exchange and collaboration with other learners can happen face-to-face. . find information from multiple sources to build ideas with partners. palm pilots or laptops. • A tablet PC or a PDA can allow learners to collaborate on documents while at different locations.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • WMUTE . [9] Collaborative learning is a student-centered approach to learning where the instructor is more like a facilitator than a teacher. Because the collaborative learning is student-centered it often succeeds in engaging the learner.Wireless. Kloper et al. et al. Duke University's use of iPods in 2004 is an example of using collaborative learning in MALL. the user does not need to be sitting in a classroom or at a computer to access learning materials. http://www. environment and time. The students also used the iPods to record conversations in the language they were learning. (2002) claimed 5 properties of mobile devices which can produce unique educational affordances: • Portability-the small size and weight of mobile devices means they can be taken to different sites or moved around within a site. including working collaboratively with language tutors. 2008). to accentuate or aid the learning process. and make information about learning activities portable and easily accessible.wmute2008. The university provided a new tool for the students. particularly those taking a language course. • Context sensitivity-mobile devices can both gather and respond to real or simulated data unique to the current location. and for researchers to be acquainted with the market needs related to mobile learning. downloading podcasts. A language can be learned through collaborative learning with the use of mobile devices But mobile devices don’t actually drive the learning. Unlike other techniques collaborative learning encourages all involved to help support and motivate each other to achieve the learning goal. The students in language courses used the iPods in various ways. skills or attitudes occurring in individuals as a result of group interaction.

The journal seeks to disseminate research to foreign and second language educators in the US and around the world on issues related to technology and language education. stanford. K and Jenkins. (Ed. blackwellpublishing. drawing on course-level feedback. B." Routledge." Duke's University Center for Instructional Technology coordinated an evaluation of the academic use of iPod. administrators and important campus stakeholder groups. "Mobile Learning: A Handbook For Educators and Trainers (The Open and Flexible Learning Series). ac.International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning http:/ / www. Traxler. com/ journal." In L.Collier. et al. org/ (2007 Vol. "Augmented Learning: Research and Design of Mobile Educational Games. Newer integrated PDA devices have narrowed the gap with higher access speeds.Language Learning & Technology is a refereed journal which began publication in July 1997. Inc. Vaxjo. Alexandria. E.J. 2008. John.Journal of Computer Assisted Learning http:/ / www. edu/ pdf/ipod_initiative_04_05. The most notable constraints for earlier MALL include poor sound and display quality coupled with very limited devices and download speeds. irrodl. & Evans. 21) JISC . uk/ uploaded_documents/ southampton. K. N. and discussions and feedback among staff. 151 MALL Resources As with Professional Organizations. "Duke University iPod First-Year Experience. 2008). This report summarizes the main findings of [21] [22] . Klopfer.pdf [BOOK] Klopfer." MIT Press. edu/ projects/ tomprof/newtomprof/postings/290. org/ pubs/ IJEL/ (Specific volumes dedicated to m-learning) IRRODL . We more often find resources that are primarily language learning websites with some space dedicated to technology in language learning and vice-versa. Case studies: Anytime. 39) Brown. Y. http:/ / cit.British Journal of Educational Technology http:/ / www. Sweden: IEEE Computer Society." Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education. blackwellpublishing. any place Learning. 2) JCAL . 2005. H. http://llt. "Environmental Detectives: PDAs as a window into a virtual simulated world. "Duke University iPod first year experience final evaluation report". asp?ref=0007-1013 (2008 vol. Henrichsen (Ed. Multimedia learning with mobile phones. 2001 IJEL .A. Innovative Practices with Elearning.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • Connectivity-a shared network can be created by connecting mobile devices to data collection devices.earning program (pp.pdf BJET . "Teaching tomorrow's class today:English by telephone and computer from Hawaii to Tonga. aace. 95-98 2002 [20] [19] [18] [17] [16] [15] [14] [BOOK] Kululska-Hulme.scaffolding for difficult activities can be customized for individual learners. Language Learning & Technology .. com/ journal.E. larger screens. This evaluation focused on the feasibility and effectiveness of the iPod as a tool for faculty and student academic use. David. Squire.edu/ [REPORT] Menzies.) "Mobile learning explorations at Stanford Learning Lab. 8. Belanger.International Journal on e-Learning http:/ / www.msu. No. other devices or to a common network. 71–82).. Distance-. having functions and capacities similar to laptop computers (Nah. resources that focus specifically on Mobile Assisted Language Learning are not common (check Augmented Reality Language Learning). Eric. asp?ref=0266-4909&site=1 (2003 vol. student and faculty focus groups. 19. 2005 vol. duke.2005. a broad survey of first-year students and faculty."http:/ / sll. • Individuality. jisc. VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Language.html2001 [13] [12] [11] [10] Green. Agnes.).Joint Information Systems Committee. 2005 http:/ / www. E.

C.. html#sep08 [3] http:/ / www. & G. C. au/ for_jurisdictions/ research_and_trials/ research2009. com/ Open University Mobile Phone based language learning [5] http:/ / foghlaim. (2006) "Going to the MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning". P. 72. ac. Ki-Chune. P. McNamara and E. uwex. html [4] http:/ / openuniuk. Mobile Assisted Language Learning and its Impact on Student Motivation and Acquisition." The Modern Language Journal. "M-learning in transit. Morrison. WI. (2002). edu/ Library/ Abstract/ DukeUniversityiPodFirstYe/ 36325 [23] 152 [BOOK] Metcalf. 426-434.html [31] [30] Askraba. html [8] http:/ / www. Australia. learnosity. 7-10 July. Melbourne. "The Potential of Using mobile Phone to Access the Internet for Learning EFL Listening Skills Within a Korean Context. http://www.pdf [9] [25] [24] Stacey. "Learning links online: Establishing constructivist and collaborative learning environments. Stacey (Eds). uk/ innoprac/ learner/ southampton. Peter.aset. educause." In S." HRD Press. eurocall-languages. you can enter “language learning” as an exact phrase and turn up some resources specific to MALL. V. MNetComp Thesis." ReCALL.Mobile Assisted Language Learning this collaborative assessment effort. "Telephone-assisted language study and Ohio University: A report. M. & Pereszlenyi-Pinter. L. E. msu. elearning. Monash University. " In B. Lewis (Ed.html Twarong. & Houser. Madison. David S. http:/ / www. Roland. Green.org. eurocall-languages. edublogs. and Sussex. Proceedings ASET Conference 2002." In P.org/recall/index. Motteram (Eds. 217-228. learnosity. 1: 9-16. C. http://mlearnopedia. Directions in CALL: Experience. 2005 Nah. edu. "Wireless and handheld devices for language learning. 21. [Online]: http:/ / llt. edu/ disted/ conference/ Resource_library/proceedings/03_50. html [2] Shield L. Untangling the Web: Establishing Learning Links. (eds. learnosity.com/ Samuels.. "Using mobile web and video phones in English language teaching: Projects with Japanese college students. edu/ vol10num1/ emerging/ default. 229–243). 2002 Thornton. 2006 mLearnopedia – By using the “search” function." Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning. http:/ / connect.). Language Learning & Technology 10. experiments & evaluation (pp.. cfm/ tlf The Le@rning Federation (TLF) MALL Project [9] 17 [10] 1 [11] 2 [12] 3 [13] 4 [14] 5 [15] 6 [16] 7 [17] 8 [18] 9 [19] 10 .. & Houser. 3: 2008) on Mobile Assisted Language Learning: http:/ / www.) (2008) Special edition of ReCALL (20. & Houser. & Kukulska-Hulme A.monashmall. http://www. 2003. 20 (3): 331-347 2008 http:/ / www. "mLearning: Mobile Learning and Performance in the Palm of Your Hand. com/ blog/ index. "Using mobile phones in English Education in Japan. White.net References [1] Chinnery G. org/ NCCA MALL/ FÓN Project [6] http:/ / www. C. com/ go/ client-ncca-ireland/ Learnosity Voice with Irish language learners [7] http:/ / thelearningfederation." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. org/ recall/ r_contents. J. 207–224). 2003 [29] [28] Thornton. 2006 [26] [27] Thornton.). P. (2008). The changing face of CALL(pp.au/confs/2002/stacey.

permitting true mobile collaborative possibilities. transmission technologies. This can be done in real time with advanced video. and lecture theatres. comparable to working together in the same room but without the associated expense and downtime typically involved in getting the experts to remote locations. enabling multi-party conferencing in real time. Newest generation hand-held electronic devices feature video. the use of mobile collaboration technology extends to industries as diverse as manufacturing. IM. collaboration tools. and telestration (on-screen drawing) capabilities broadcast over secure networks. Forecasts Cisco Systems predicts “two-thirds of the world’s mobile data traffic will be video by 2015.[7] government and public safety.[4] energy. audio and telestrator capabilities.[9] .”[3] Impact on industry To date.[1] Scope The scope of mobile collaboration takes into account a number of elements that continue to evolve in their sophistication and complexity: video. offices. cellular and broadband technologies enabling effective collaboration independent of location. audio and telestration capabilities.[6] insurance.Mobile Assisted Language Learning [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 153 Mobile collaboration Mobile collaboration is a technology-based process of communicating utilizing electronic assets and accompanying software designed for use in remote locations. a non-profit alliance of technology vendors states that “one important driver for the growth of UC (unified communications) is mobility and the remote worker. recent technological advancements have extended the capabilities of video conferencing for use with discreet. Differing from traditional video conferencing. mobile collaboration utilizes wireless. hand-held mobile devices. No segment is growing faster than mobile communications. and other UC features within a few years. directory.”[2] The Unified Communications Interoperability Forum (UCIF).[8] Mobile collaboration allows multiple users in multiple locations the ability to synergistically combine their input while working towards the resolution of problems or issues in today’s complex work environments. Where traditional video conferencing has been limited to boardrooms. audio. and virtually every smart phone will be equipped with video chat. conferencing and telepresence systems. and mobility.[5] healthcare.

From one on one tutoring to large classes it has many uses. long-term care facility. mobile collaboration technology extends these capabilities to locations now reachable through the use of hand-held devices such as a remote community. [7] Macdonald. cisco. com/ featured-articles-body-TelePresence-in-Manufacturing-523-1. . "TelePresence in Manufacturing: IP-based video conferencing provides effective tools for remote collaboration" (http:/ / www. Al (December 2010). justforcanadiandoctors. downloadic. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. The use of mobile collaboration in the energy sector is enabling companies to conduct remote inspections. with Whitely. allitwares. 2011. Elizabeth. librestream. while making its delivery more cost-effective. ucif.[12] Healthcare Although telemedicine technology has been in use for a number of years in the healthcare sector. as well as IT/communication infrastructure troubleshooting. and assess patient issues. aspx?aid=1000228332). 4. "Being in Two Places At One Time" (http:/ / www. . com/ pdf/ EnergyManufacturing2010. . . Bodyshop. 22.[14] References [1] Herrell. com/ issues/ story. . Anil (2010). discuss. suppliers. 2010-2015" (http:/ / www. pdf). [6] Van’t Haaff. or a patient’s home. as well as the often inadequacies or absence of necessary transmission networks. "Estimating from a distance now possible" (http:/ / www.[11] Energy Companies in the energy sector face unique challenges due to. will most certainly also benifit from this development in mobile education. pdf). . Healthcare professionals in multiple locations can together view. [4] Presher. Alex (March 9. Homeschooling could really benifit from this technology as you participate in a lecture from anywhere in the world.[13] Education Mobile callaboration technology might also be used for remote education. such as an automotive assembly plant a continent away. . Most useful you can record your classes or lectures and review them. Internet schools. maintenance. and customers the world over. and inspected. 2011. safety audits. [2] "CISCO Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update. the vast distances between a head office and the remote. Robert and Crumb. CISCO White Paper. aspx). for example. "Virtually On-sight" (http:/ / www. Corey (March/April 2009). Just for Canadian Doctors. pp. Recent advancements in mobile collaboration technology and transmission networks are making it possible for employees in these situations to collaborate in secure and reliable ways with colleagues thousands of miles away. inluding higher education. Automation and Control – Design News. html). . com/ en/ US/ solutions/ collateral/ ns341/ ns525/ ns537/ ns705/ ns827/ white_paper_c11-520862. pp.[10] The flexibility of hand-held mobile collaboration devices allow real-time communication to take place at any location where products are being designed. UCIForum White Paper. [3] "UC: Driving the Next Step to Interoperability" (http:/ / www. com/ pastissues/ JFCD2009/ JFCD-Mar-Apr2009. The use of mobile collaboration technology within the heathcare sector has the potential to improve the quality and access to care. harsh environment of an offshore oil rig. Recent trends in globalization and outsourcing in particular. Forrester Research White Paper. February 1. Though these methods are not widely used they are quite useful and most likely will become widely popular. Energy Manufacturing. org/ Resources/ whitepapers. html). html). built. bodyshopbiz. have meant that companies need to communicate with employees. supply chain management and equipment field service. Cindy (December 2008). 2010).Mobile collaboration 154 Manufacturing Manufacturers of all kinds use mobile collaboration technology in a number of ways. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. [5] Wadhwa. repair and overhaul work. Improved communication through mobile collaboration affects many aspects of complex manufacturing such as production line maintenance.

com/ issues/ story. [12] "RigNet Signs Deal with Librestream for Onsight Mobile Collaboration System" (http:/ / www. also using SMS. computer. 155 Mobile commerce Mobile Commerce." (http:/ / www. Government Purchasing Guide. and returned 91 percent to the content owner. with Whitely. controleng. The first mobile phone-based banking service was launched in 1997 by Merita Bank of Finland. com. is the ability to conduct commerce using a mobile device. com/ trends/ article. UCL Computer Science and Peter J. "Case Study: Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre. Japan offered mobile purchases of airline tickets. Forrester Research White Paper. IEEE Computer Society. i-Mode offered a revolutionary revenue-sharing plan where NTT DoCoMo kept 9 percent of the fee users paid for content. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. Control Engineering. 2009). In 1998. . "Dreamliner Production Gets Closer Monitoring" (http:/ / www. Two major national commercial platforms for mobile commerce were launched in 1999: Smart Money (http:/ / smart. Motorola. newtechmagazine. . pdf). librestream. Ericsson. Gerry (March 25. Elizabeth. 2010). Renee (May 28. . and Qualcomm are working with carriers such as AT&T Wireless and Sprint to develop WAP-enabled . [9] Herrell. 10002). pdf). com/ Brochures/ PR/ DreamlinerUseofMobile Video. . a smartphone. Mobile Commerce has been defined as follows: "Mobile Commerce is any transaction. ph/ money/ ) in the Philippines. involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services. org/ portal/ web/ csdl/ doi/ 10. 2003. . The first university short course to discuss mobile commerce was held at the University of Oxford in 2003. the first sales of digital content as downloads to mobile phones were made possible when the first commercial downloadable ringtones were launched in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj)."[1] History First thought up by Matt Wilson. html). December 3. and NTT DoCoMo's i-Mode Internet service in Japan. 2009). Mobile-commerce-related services spread rapidly in early 2000. e-security Planet. Bentley demonstrated the potential for medical applications on mobile devices. 2003. esecurityplanet. aspx?aid=1000395046). mobile phone manufacturers such as Nokia. As of 2008. Alex (March 9. Surgeons Using Wireless Mobile Communications in a New Assessment and Support System. php/ 3872836/ Secure-Wi-Fi-Video-On-The-Battlefield. com/ Brochures/ PR/ GovernmentPurchasing.Mobile collaboration [8] Blackwell. librestream. . or other emerging mobile equipment such as dashtop mobile devices. The Wall Street Journal. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). Mobile commerce was born in 1997 when the first two mobile-phone enabled Coca Cola vending machines were installed in the Helsinki area in Finland. which is initiated and/or completed by using mobile access to computer-mediated networks with the help of an electronic device. Peter (October 8. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. Norway launched mobile parking payments. com/ index. also known as M-Commerce or mCommerce. [13] Saunders. 2010). Robert and Crumb. 1109/ WETICE. In order to exploit the potential mobile commerce market. Daniel. The first book to cover mobile commerce was Tomi Ahonen's M-profits in 2002. "Secure Wi-Fi Video on the Battlefield" (http:/ / www. . New Technology Magazine. htm). [11] Robbins. with Tomi Ahonen and Steve Jones lecturing. Austria offered train ticketing via mobile device. [10] Michaels. The machines accepted payment via SMS text messages. Sanders. 2010. a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA).[2] PDAs and cellular phones have become so popular that many businesses are beginning to use mobile commerce as a more efficient way to communicate with their customers. downloadic. such as a mobile phone. [14] "Mobile Collaboration Tool for University Education" (http:/ / www. Peter (November 2009). The first conference dedicated to mobile commerce was held in London in July 2001.

mobile content purchase and delivery mainly consists of the sale of ring-tones. which are the least price sensitive. Knowing the location of the user allows for location-based services such • Local discount offers • Local weather • Tracking and monitoring of people . In addition. and is being utilized by physical retailers as a way to compete with the lower prices typically seen through online retailers. physical retailers can allow customers to access the common benefits of shopping online (such as product reviews. such as the youth market. The convergence of mobile phones. have made an effort to take advantage of mobile commerce by utilizing a number of mobile capabilities such as location based services. The download speeds available with 4G networks make it possible to buy a movie on a mobile device in a couple of seconds. mobile commerce has moved away from SMS systems and into actual applications. improvements in the capabilities of modern mobile devices make it prudent to place more of the resource burden on the mobile device. Users are then able to use their tickets immediately." said Burchett. coupons. must also be a key target for device vendors. portable audio players. and loyalty cards. "Profitability for device vendors and carriers hinges on high-end mobile devices and the accompanying killer applications. Since the launch of the iPhone. Mobile vouchers. Content purchase and delivery Currently. and games for mobile phones. Location-based services The location of the mobile phone user is an important piece of information used during mobile commerce transactions. Tickets can be booked and cancelled on the mobile device with the help of simple application downloads. and push notifications to improve the customer experience of shopping in physical stores. This is seen as a bridge between the gap created by e-commerce and in-store shopping. coupons and loyalty cards Mobile ticketing technology can also be used for the distribution of vouchers. These items are represented by a virtual token that is sent to the mobile phone.Mobile commerce smartphones. More recently. information. by presenting their phones at the venue. SMS has significant security vulnerabilities and congestion problems. Smartphones offer fax. or by accessing the WAP portals of various travel agents or direct service providers. brick and mortar business owners. A customer presenting a mobile phone with one of these tokens at the point of sale receives the same benefits as if they had the traditional token. 156 Products and services available Mobile ticketing Tickets can be sent to mobile phones using a variety of technologies. and big-box retailers in particular. By creating what is referred to as a 'bricks & clicks' environment. e-mail. and video players into a single device is increasing the purchase and delivery of full-length music tracks and video. even though it is widely available and accessible. Perennial early adopters. as well as more open to premium mobile content and applications. and phone capabilities. and coupons) while still shopping in the physical store. Stores may send coupons to customers using location-based services to determine when the customer is nearby. wallpapers. barcode scanning.

'According to ABI Research. or M-Banking. . Unlike traditional auctions. however. They allow the subscriber to react to market developments in a timely fashion and irrespective of their physical location. Mobile Purchase Catalog merchants can accept orders from customers electronically. rather than mailing a paper catalog to the customer. the reverse auction (or low-bid auction) bills the consumer's phone each time they place a bid. Mobile banking Banks and other financial institutions use mobile commerce to allow their customers to access account information and make transactions. Many mobile SMS commerce solutions rely on a one-time purchase or one-time subscription. Auctions Over the past three years mobile reverse auction solutions have grown in popularity. Some merchants provide mobile websites that are customized for the smaller screen and limited user interface of a mobile device. The research firm is predicting that in 2015. These services include: • • • • • News Stock quotes Sports scores Financial records Traffic reporting Customized traffic information. reverse auctions offer a high return for the mobile vendor as they require the consumer to make multiple transactions over a long period of time. but was impractical before the invention of modern mobile devices due to the bandwidth requirements. Mobile StoreFront The reinvention of the mobile phone as a touch sensitive handheld computer has for the first time made mobile commerce practically feasible. can be sent to a mobile device. $119bn worth of goods and services will be purchased via a mobile phone. mobile is going to get a lot bigger in the ecommerce market. This customized data is more useful than a generic traffic-report broadcast.' Mobile brokerage Stock market services offered via mobile devices have also become more popular and are known as Mobile Brokerage.Mobile commerce 157 Information services A wide variety of information services can be delivered to mobile phone users in much the same way as it is delivered to PCs. In some cases. based on a user's actual travel patterns. via the customer's mobile device. such as purchasing stocks. the merchant may even deliver the catalog electronically. remitting money. This service is often referred to as Mobile Banking. Mobile Browsing Using a mobile browser—a World Wide Web browser on a mobile device—customers can shop online without having to be at their personal computer.

The diagram explained vital aspects of mobile adoption and sales of mobile global products and services. adding tera-peta bytes of new text. the link with GENERATION C is obvious. Rolando and his colleagues performed an experiment in which viral marketing. rituals. we're all creatives. From women's rights to gay marriage to not wearing a tie to work if you don't feel like it!ref>"Increasing Trend of Mobile Marketing" [3].com defined Content Generation a description of those born of the digital age of content and how their brains were re wired to think in real time content exchange. and SK Telecom. audio and video on an ongoing basis.Mobile commerce 158 Mobile marketing and advertising In the context of mobile commerce.. These researchers. 2010. It also showed how products take on new life because of the mindset of the young. The experiments used disc jockeys and mobile youth street teams to drive instant purchases of event-ticket sales. act to accelerate innovation in mobile commerce. in partnership with leading mobile software and network providers. Which then brings us to Casual Collapse: the ongoing demise of many beliefs. Youpark. The two main drivers fuelling this trend? (1) The creative urges each consumer undeniably possesses. The two tested a theory of rapid memetic dissemination. Rolando conducted other experiments in Europe. John Sokol and Gibran Burchett are memetic researchers who pioneered mobile advertising with their early experimentation of DVB-H in 1999 with Sony BMG recording artist Wu-Tang Clan. and Japan involving viral mobile direct-marketing campaigns delivering products and coupons with instant savings to mobile devices. Control. and the sales of three different viable youth products to over 200. Leveious and others members of Trendwatching. who tend to be early adopters of any form of social technology services. South Korea. Retrieved August 23. These studies were commissioned by top mobile providers like Deutsche Telekom (operator of T-Mobile) and Orange. This demonstrated how the global youth mobile market can react autonomously and create trends. but until now we neither had . A brief introduction." said Gibran Burchett. was used to attract and retain an audience. Mobile devices are heavily used in South Korea to conduct mobile commerce. New technologies. which continue to 'collapse' without causing the apocalyptic aftermath often predicted by conservative minds. "Profitability for device vendors and carriers hinges on high-end mobile devices and the accompanying killer applications.. Rolando created a Venn-diagram model of rapidly evolving youth lifestyle trends. such as WiMax. in the form of mobile commercials (or "mobisodes"). mobile marketing refers to marketing sent to mobile devices. Mobile campaigns must be based on the global Content Generationor what is called Generation C and four other 'C's: Creativity. Orange. Creativity: let's face it. and Celebrity. developed methods deployed globally through concerts and events involving any form of youth culture in 2008. We're all artists. The Term is now globally The GENERATION C phenomenon captures the an avalanche of consumer generated 'content' that is building on the Web. images. along with others. Youpark ApS.</ref> Influence on youth markets Mobile media is a rapidly changing field. One group of subjects were given words and phrases to be used regularly in conversation. Early pioneers in mobile advertising include Vodafone. based on their experience with previous generations of South Koreans. Casual Collapse. Mobile companies in South Korea believed that mobile technology would become synonymous with youth life style.000 end-users in eight days. Memetic research Leveious Rolando. They observed the youth cultural styles and trends. And as creativity normally leads to content. combined with the rate at which the test subjects passed on particular information to others. Companies have reported that they see better response from mobile marketing campaigns than from traditional campaigns. The control group was not given such a list This experiment measured the rate at which ideas and phrases were typically transmitted. if not artists! (Notice we didn't mean talented artists .-). formal requirements and laws modern societies have held dear. On a 2007 trip to South Korea.

thefango.html). html). to produce. Kentucky Kernel. S. • (http://www. ISBN 978-3-937816-31-9. (2) The manufacturers of content-creating tools. The Mobile Commerce Prospects: A strategic analysis of opportunities in the banking sector (http:/ / www. including deductions to pre-paid calling plans • Credit cards • Some providers allow credit cards to be linked to a phone's SIM card • Micropayment services • Stored-value cards. com/ url?sa=t& source=web& cd=1& ved=0CBkQFjAA& url=http:/ / citeseerx. com/ Blog/ ?e=53483& d=08/ 29/ 2010& s=iStethoscope Pro in a medical journal). 1. Herald Leader. p. 46& rep=rep1& type=pdf& ei=r_pxTPS7IYOBlAfWz4yJDg& usg=AFQjCNFiJARcpjsvcpZg5lzSoaXsgik8Mw) (PDF).their ever cheaper.thefango. [2] "iStethoscope in Medical Journal" (http:/ / apps.pdf) • Troutman. 2010.Mobile commerce the guts nor the means to go all out. Herstatt. Retrieved November 23. peterjbentley. Jim (2008). 94. including: • Premium-rate telephone numbers'. which apply charges to the consumer's long-distance bill • Charges added to the consumer's mobile telephone bill. "From electronic to mobile commerce: opportunites through technology convergence for business services" (http://www.techmonitor. 1. often used with mobile-device application stores or music stores References [1] Tiwari.org/article111). Retrieved August 23. using -.of course -. Mobile Commerce News. [3] http:/ / youpark. (2007). to passively consume.com/index.50 External links • Greene. ist. google. Stephan. who relentlessly push us to unleash that creativity.com/hot-news. "New arena service testing delivery to your seat" (http://www. Retrieved August 23. psu. php?p=21 • Tiwari. Steve (Fall 2008). edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10. • Jordan.net/ publications/PDF/APTM2006. Rory (2008). Marci. Buse.pdf) (PDF). Retrieved August 23. the race is on to get them to create. . R. • "Mobile Storefront" (http://www. . 2010. ever more powerful gadgets and gizmos. and to participate. 33. 2010.com/hot-news. Journal of Interactive Advertising 9 (1): 65–70.php?option=com_content&view=category& layout=blog&id=1&Itemid=50). com/ blog/ index. "Effective Optimization of Web Sites for Mobile Access: the transition from eCommerce to mCommerce" (http://jiad.mobilestarterstore. Asia Pacific Tech Monitor (New Delhi (India) 23 (5): 38–45.net/techmon/06sep_oct/tm/pdf/06sep_oct_sf4. "Concessions one button away" (http://www. Timpson. to play. to listen. Rajnish. Instead of asking consumers to watch. Cornelius (Sept-Oct 2006). 2010. 159 Payment methods Consumers can use many forms of payment in mobile commerce. Hamburg: Hamburg University Press.global-innovation. . Buse. ISSN 1525-2019..

Mobile database system architecture For any mobile architecture. • Limited life of power supply(battery) • The changing topology of network If your application meets any of those requirements. • Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). such as printers. They are typically low-power devices such as mobile phones. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. the chances are good that you will be required to build a mobile database application with synchronization. With the advent of mobile databases. portable Wireless networks Mobile computing constraints Three parties Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. mobiles and PDAs is increasing and likely to increase in the future with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. . • Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. bar code scanners. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations.) Base stations are two-way radios. low-cost. only recently modified data. installations in fixed locations. • Users don't require access to truly live data. portable phones.[1] The use of laptops. This could be a list of contacts. or wireless routers. A database is a structured way to organize information. Many applications such as databases would require the ability to download information from an information repository and operate on this information even when out of range or disconnected. An example of this is a mobile workforce. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts.Mobile database 160 Mobile database A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. • Applications must provide significant interactivity. mobile units. The client and server have wireless connections. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). it is clear that a large percentage will require the use of a database of some sort. and base stations. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. things to be considered are: • • • • Users are not attached to a fixed geographical location Mobile computing devices: low-power. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. While those same analysts can’t tell us exactly which applications will be the most popular. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. Need for mobile databases • Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange mission-critical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. price information or distance travelled.

Calif. Products Sybase Inc. might serve your needs equally well. of Lake Worth. Products from lesser-known vendors.Mobile database 161 When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. IBM’s DB2 Everyplace is a relational database and enterprise synchronization server that extends enterprise applications to mobile devices.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the mobile-database field. HanDBase from DDH Software Inc. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. . with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments.and Cellica Database from Cellica Corporation NY [2]. Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases.. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. such as SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of Redwood Shores. Fla.

Mobile database 162 SQL Anywhere Technologies SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing and embeddable relational database-management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. programming APIs. C++. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. .1 Java ME Sync Client for cell phones and pagers Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. which: • • • • Allows synchronization between DB2e and server database Mobile Device Administration Center (MDAC) Table encryption for version 8.1. session-based synchronization technology for exchanging data among relational databases and other non-relational data sources. Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. Neutrino. organizes and manages data on a handheld device. Ultralite: UltraLite is a database-management system designed for small-footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and smart phones. and so on). PalmOS. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. and EPOC database clients. SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere databases using a file or message transfer mechanism. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-and-forward mobile messaging applications. retrieves. DB2e is currently available for Palm OS. Delphi. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a server-based relational database management system (RDMS). zero-administration environments. IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) DB2e stores. Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly powerful. Windows CE and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: • IBM DB2 Database Engine • IBM Sync • Query By Example (QBE) DB2e includes a component called Synchronization Server. EPOC. It includes support for Win32. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. Windows CE.

Microsoft. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments.informit.com/product_cf. and delivers the performance.asc.com/articles/article.pdf http://www. and Web server applications. cellica.aspx . and synchronization capabilities of a full-power database.com/articles/article. focusing only on application specific problems. Uses Mobile databases are highly concentrated in the retail and logistic industry. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded.unl. requires practically zero maintenance. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection.mcobject.uk/programming-languages/jdatastore-developer-edition http://www.pt/dagora/docs/papers/epcm99-np.fct.effiproz. com External links • • • • • • • • SQL Anywhere Official Site (http://www. the JDataStore database features a very small footprint. microsoft. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity).com.dooyoo.di. Kevin Ebi.com/mobile_database http://www.com http://www.softpedia. mobile.aspx?p=26223&seqNum=3 http://www.sybase.informit. Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. It is increasingly being used in aviation and transportation industry. com/ windowsmobile/ en-us/ business/ solutions/ small-business-database. retrieved 14/12/08 (http:/ / www. mspx) [2] http:/ / www. MobiSnap MobiSnap. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments. scalability.com/products/databasemanagement/sqlanywhere) http://www.co.aspx?p=25328 http://www.Mobile database 163 Others Borland's JDataStore Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. References [1] Organize your business with a mobile database.

This is to distinguish from the term mobile asset management. accurate data flow between their remote workers and central management such as planners and schedulers. redundancy setup and maintenance budgets. lower costs in mobile devices and a higher propensity of feature-rich. workflow-specific mobile applications. organizations often report such advantages as an increase in timely. buildings and grounds. . which refers more broadly to the actual tools. if major. stepwise job plans. In the mobile EAM process. lock-outs and prior work history on the asset. giving a maintenance technician or other remote worker more detailed asset information as well as the ability to transmit work data to the organization’s enterprise system when completed – through a wireless network. the organization eliminates a need for paper forms or other data reporting and communication methods (push-to-talk and radio) to move work order information to and from the point where the work is being performed. by definition. instruments and containers organizations use to track and secure equipment and other such assets frequently on the move. EAM system or backend system). Organizations looking to implement mobile EAM applications often seek the help of technology consulting firms and spend months researching. contrasting with a PC (personal computer) environment where in most cases software requires relatively few. typically using a handheld or other mobile computer. mobile work order applications provide details such as location. output media (voice and data) and connectivity methods. structures and other assets. docking station or other synchronization method. The idea behind mobile EAM as a business practice is that it enables remote workers – employees who spend part or all of their time away from a central office – access to data from the organization’s computer application software for enterprise asset management (commonly referred to as an enterprise system. operations and repair of corporate or public-entity physical assets. which thereby improves capital and labor allocation decision processes (including an ability to schedule more planned/preventive maintenance work). break/fix or service requests) via communication between a mobilized workforce and computer systems to maintain an organization’s facilities. It involves management of work orders (planned. Using computer software to achieve standard mobile EAM practices. equipment. over-hauling. updates and lower upfront costs. safety alerts.Mobile Enterprise Asset Management 164 Mobile Enterprise Asset Management Mobile enterprise asset management (or mobile EAM) refers to the mobile extension of work processes for maintenance. While enterprise asset management encompasses the management of an organization’s entire asset portfolio across processes including equipment addition/ reduction. mobile enterprise asset management is focused. as mobile applications are faced with a diversity of device operating systems. replacement. Mobile EAM technology When viewed and used on a handheld device. asset managers can expect an ever more tech-savvy workforce. Challenges Nearly all challenges in mobile EAM practices can be traced to two factors: time and labor resources (including IT or information technology management) and investment costs. With the proliferation of smartphone and other mobile computing technologies. Developing and implementing a mobile application architecture on the enterprise scale is not an easy undertaking by any means. planning and selecting an implementation strategy. strictly on the wireless automation of asset management data for such processes.

labor dispatch/scheduling software. designed around service-oriented architecture principles for multiple systems integration and custom modification.Mobile Enterprise Asset Management 165 Industries using mobile EAM The use of mobile enterprise application platforms (MEAPs)[1] . Enterprise Systems Mobilized The enterprise systems you will find most often mobilized are: • • • • • • SAP Maximo Oracle TRIRIGA Datastream Ventyx References [1] http:/ / www. mobile EAM application. this means that an increasing proportion of organizations in capital-intensive industry sectors (such as those above) are adopting mobile technology as an integral part of their enterprise asset management strategy – corresponding with an enterprise-wide emphasis on whole life planning. the asset lifecycle improvements introduced by the increase in enterprise data flow of mobile EAM processes can bring significant savings. who are themselves increasingly mobile. market analyst Gartner. “for the MEAP and packaged mobile application market…we now expect market growth annually of 15 to 20% through 2013. forecasted. For EAM practices as a whole. These industries can include: • • • • • • • Facilities Management Utilities Life Sciences Government organizations Manufacturing Oil & Gas industry Transportation industry In such high-value asset scenarios. Inc. com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728 [2] http:/ / www. Market growth In a 2009 study[1] . particularly in industries where physical assets form a significant cost proportion of organizations’ total assets. particularly when part of an enterprise-wide capital and labor management strategy that integrates multiple systems in an enterprise architecture (EAM system. com/ ME2/ dirmod. planned and proactive maintenance and other industry best practices. etc. life cycle costing.). GIS. mobileenterprisemag. gartner.” Gartner attributes this anticipated growth to enterprises’ increasing willingness (and ability) to extend decision-relevant information to employees. and other forms of wireless computing technology for mobile EAM solutions[2] is growing rapidly. asp?sid=& nm=& type=MultiPublishing& mod=PublishingTitles& mid=B4771C6F22F34E4CA3FFFDA61E0EA2C5& tier=4& id=CEFEEBFEA2484118849FC7820858E920 .

The check digit (CD) is not considered part of the MEID.g.asp The middle ground between IMEIs and MEIDs is for inter-standard "worldphone" devices. and a 24-bit manufacturer-assigned serial number. In this case. and both can include an optional check-digit. The check-digit is never transmitted or stored. IMEI administrators can just assign numbers for dual-technology phones out of their existing ranges.S0008 [4].Mobile Equipment Identifier 166 Mobile Equipment Identifier A Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) is a globally unique number identifying a physical piece of CDMA mobile station equipment. These devices will have all decimal digits and can be allocated by any administration. A check-digit can be calculated from the 18 digit result using the standard base 10 Luhn algorithm and appended to the end. the ESN is still a required field in many messages—for compatibility. babt. including an 8-bit regional code (RR). Since they must have all decimal digits the GHA has opened up the range '99' for these assignments. It consists of three fields. The hexadecimal form is specified to be 14 digits grouped together where at least one of the first two ('RR') digits is in the range 'A' through 'F'. .[3] Administration The separation between International Mobile Equipment Identifiers (IMEIs) used by GSM/UTMS and MEIDs is based on the number ranges. As of August 2006. If both the first two digits are in the range '0' through '9' then the check digit is calculated using the standard base 10 Luhn algorithm as the number meets the definition of IMEI. the check-digit is calculated using a modified (base 16) Luhn algorithm. It is intended to detect most (but not all) input errors. As of TIA/EIA/IS-41 Revision D and TIA/EIA/IS-2000 Rev C. because there is no bar code or the bar code is unreadable). a 24-bit manufacturer code. and the GSM Association acts as the Global Decimal Administrator. whose virgin form was exhausted in November 2008 [2] . Display formats There are two standard formats for MEIDs. the TIA acts as the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA) to assign MEID code prefixes (0xA0 and up). The decimal form is specified to be 18 digits grouped in a 5 5 4 4 pattern and is calculated by converting the manufacturer code portion (32 bits) to decimal and padding on the left with '0' digits to 10 digits and separately converting the serial number portion to decimal and padding on the left to 8 digits. it is not intended to be a checksum or CRC to detect transmission errors. Consequently it may be printed on phones or their packaging in case of manual entry of an MEID (e. The MEID was created to replace ESNs. http:/ / www. There are two administrators: the Global Decimal Administrator (GDA) for IMEIs and the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA). This is defined by 3GPP2 standard X. Regional code R R Manufacturer code Serial number CD C X X X X X X Z Z Z Z Z Z An MEID is 56 bits long (14 hex digits).R0048 [1] but in practical terms it can be seen as an IMEI but with hexadecimal digits. which is a manufacturer code of 0x80 (formerly reserved) followed by the least significant 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the MEID. The number format is defined by the 3GPP2 report S. com/ gsm-imei-number-allocation. devices with an MEID can use a pseudo ESN (pESN).

Another problem is that messages delivered on the forward paging channel using the pESN as an address could be delivered to multiple mobiles seemingly randomly. These will cause an extremely rare condition known as a 'collision' on a pure ESN-only network as the ESN is used for the calculation of the Public Long Code Mask (PLCM) used for communication with the base-station. 3gpp2. the risk of at least two phones having the same pseudo-ESN can be calculated using the birthday paradox and works out to about a 50 per cent probability in a database with 4. In this situation. org/ Public_html/ specs/ S. Quick F. pdf CDG Resources on MEID and EUIMID (http:/ / cdg. Two mobiles using the same pESN within the same base-station area (operating on the same frequency) can result in call setup and page failures. 0_050630. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ esn_meid_milestones_timeline.S0072 [6] provides a solution to this problem by allowing the PLCM to be established by the base station. This problem can be avoided by using MIN or IMSI based addressing instead. 3gpp2.800 pseudo-ESN entries. A different problem occurs when ESN codes are stored in a database (such as for OTASP). It is easy for the base station to ensure that all PLCM codes are unique when this is done. 3GPP2 specifications C. S0016-C_v1. The probability of a collision has been carefully examined [5] . pdf [7] http:/ / www. Roughly. TIA. 26 May 2005. 3gpp2. S0072-0_v1. 3gpp2.S0066 [8] have been modified to allow the replacement MEID identifier to be transmitted. pdf) [6] http:/ / www.upper() #put the last 6 digits of the hash after 80 print "pESN: " + pesn References http:/ / www. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. pdf [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] . Code to convert This short Python script will convert an MEID to a pESN. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. This specification also allows the PLCM to be based on the MEID or IMSI.sha1(meid.hexdigest()[-6:]. 0_041025. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ Collisions_pESN_wp.S0016 [7] (Revision C or higher) and C. S0066-0_v1. 0_050727. org/ Public_html/ specs/ X. 3GPP2 specification C. resolving this problem. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. tiaonline. pdf http:/ / www. S0008-0_v2. import hashlib meid = raw_input("Enter an MEID: "). 3gpp2. it is estimated that even on a heavily loaded network the frequency of this situation is closer to 1 out of 1 million calls than to 1 out of 100 000.upper() s = hashlib. tiaonline. pdf [8] http:/ / www. White Paper on Pseudo-ESN Collisions. 0_051018. 0_040830.decode('hex')) #decode the hex MEID (convert it to binary!) pesn = "80" + s. R0048-A_v4. pdf Pellegrino G.Mobile Equipment Identifier 167 pESN conflicts Because the pESN is formed by a hash on the MEID there is the potential for hash collisions. org/ meid) http:/ / www. (http:/ / www.

com/articles/meid/) • CDMA Development Group MEID resource page (http://www. security. telecommunications and computing.tiaonline. Technical approaches to Mobile IPTV Mobile TV plus IP This approach uses the traditional digital broadcast networks to deliver IP-based audio. video. mobility service entirely based on IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) which is a set of specification from 3GPP for delivering IP multimedia to mobile users will be forthcoming. text and graphic services through IP-based the wired and wireless networks with support for Quality of Service/QoE. wide area wireless networks such as cellular networks are integrated to support interactivity. ATIS has not shown any interest in mobility support yet. DVB-IPI (IPI: IP Infrastructure) (is an open DVB standard that enables audio/video services to be delivered to and through the mobile device via IP networking. and ITU-T FG IPTV internationally. To make this approach more attractive. Open IPTV Forum. issues on the requirements for mobility support were raised as an out-growth under the auspices of the Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) trend. DVB-CBMS already finished Phase I and currently is working in Phase II. Through Mobile IPTV. In addition. .cdg. mobility. video. IPTV services are originally targeted to fixed terminals such as set-top boxes. audio. and interactive functions. WorldDAB Forum is enhancing and extending Eureka 147 to support IP based services. Eureka 147 was originally developed for digital radio applications and extended to support video services. IPTV plus Mobile approach Although many think that “networked TV” will be the future of television.Mobile Equipment Identifier 168 External links • Official TIA Resource Page for MEID (http://www. DVB-CBMS is developing bi-directional mobile IP based broadcasting protocol specifications over DVB-H. Even though this approach is classified as Mobile IPTV technically. The reason why it is pursued is to build a content environment that combines the stability and usability of broadcasting and the diverse services of Internet. however.phonescoop. The outstanding activities in this approach are Digital Video Broadcast (DVB)-CBMS (Convergence of Broadcasting and Mobile Services) and WorldDAB (DAB: Digital Audio Broadcasting) Forum. The development of Mobile IPTV specification is at an early stage. In Open IPTV Forum.org/meid) Mobile IPTV Mobile IPTV is a technology that enables users to transmit and receive multimedia traffic including television signal. graphics and other broadband data services to the user on the move. ITU-T FG IPTV is collecting requirements regarding mobility and wireless characteristics. users can enjoy IPTV services anywhere and even while on the move. This is a prime example of the increasing convergence of broadcasting.org/standards/resources/meid/) • PhoneScoop MEID article (http://www. the usage of broadcasting networks may incur the loss of individuality of IP. IPTV is currently dominated by Telco giants in an attempt to find a new source of cash-in. The outstanding activities are ATIS in the US. Currently.

This resulted in a universe of highly diversified and dynamically independent production. Capability limitation Most of the mobile terminals have limited capabilities compared to fixed terminals. However this Internet approach has a shortcoming that the quality of services is not guaranteed since it is based on the best effort service model. which means any Broadcast Distribution Network can be adopted as its transport means. which lead to small displays. however. Mobile IPTV Use Bandwidth Minimum 2-3 Mbps . the openness gives global reach. Bandwidth limitation Even though the effective bandwidth of wireless links is growing rapidly. Capability limitations implicate very strict requirements that only a restricted set of technologies can be considered as possible Mobile IPTV solutions. and limited storage. Mobile IPTV has at least one wireless interface with a device. most of the technical obstacles are related to the usage of the wireless link. They are usually termed as Internet TV or Web TV. is only applicable to mobile terminals up to now and showing interest in expanding its specification to cover fixed terminals in Phase II. a service provider. it’s not until the 4G wireless network is fully deployed that the wireless link bandwidth becomes broad enough to accommodate High Definition quality video services. there can be quite different models developing on the business type and infrastructure used. and be short of bandwidth. Its features are bearer agnostic.Mobile IPTV 169 Cellular approach Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) BCAST is working for IP based mobile broadcasting networks. mobile terminal). content might be a major player. Obstacles In addition. stream server) and the destination (e. light-weightiness is essential. One group of obstacles is technical and the other business. Even when the 4G wireless network is available. customer needs for watching TV programs on the go seems not to be so high. bandwidth greedy applications will come out: such as Ultra High Definition quality video services. As long as mobile devices use the Internet.g. A minimum of 2–3 Mbit/s of bandwidth needs to be provided. OMA BCAST. users can access an IPTV service through various wireless access networks. In addition. However. This mainly ascribes to portability considerations. Internet approach There are already countless Internet video services worldwide. Since Mobile IPTV assumes at least one wireless link between the source (e. Its goals are to define an end-to-end framework for mobile broadcast and compile the set of necessary enablers. considering its rapid adaptation to customer needs. This approach is open for anybody to play a role in the value chain: anybody can be a content provider. due to the characteristics of the IPTV service. Wireless technologies for short-range use or control purposes are not fully considered yet. this approach may be dominant in the near future. The wireless link will always have less bandwidth than the wired link. With this approach. As for business perspective. There are many obstacles on the path to the successful launch and widespread use of Mobile IPTV businesses. low power processors. For the second obstacle. These are outgrown for a niche entertainment business.g. or simply a consumer.

Contents must be tailored for mobile environments. By deploying middleware. IP address—in a blink. Coverage implication The main reason for carrying mobile terminals is to get access to the services any time and any where. So far. The lack of mobile contents frustrates the early adopters of Mobile TV. it is not possible to adopt fancy User Interface methods. the coverage issue can be considerably mitigated. these may be able to be applied to Mobile IPTV. Middleware concern Middleware is one of the key functions of the IPTV service. It is. packets delivered through the wireless link are exposed to a variety of signal degradation such as shadowing. This requires Mobile IPTV services to be far more attractive than the consumers’ expectation. Also. New killer features are required. a service provider can control the usage of IPTV service remotely. PHY/MAC. bandwidth. too heavy to be implemented on a mobile device. Watching favourite TV programs live may be the most attractive feature of Mobile IPTV. customers have many channels to enjoy their favourite TV programs whenever they want. middleware acts as a transparent solution for adopting IPTV services on to various and different platforms. By slimming down the existing middleware. temporal reflectors and obstacles around the mobile terminals can affect the received signal and cause burst packet losses.Mobile IPTV 170 Vulnerable wireless link The wireless link is very vulnerable. fast/slow fading. Business issue The most significant problem of the Mobile IPTV business (this applies to Mobile TV in the same way) is that the consumer need for watching TV program on the go is not so high. However. Packet losses are intrinsic and inevitable in the wireless link. This means the liveness of TV programs become less and less important except for some events such as sports. small display sizes. random and short watching time should be considered. Currently. there are several well known middleware solutions on a set-top box. Even if mobile terminals are stationary. A highly creative and new way of interfacing is required. vertical handover can change almost everything—the whole path between the sources and the sink. This is mainly because there is limited time for enjoying visual services on the go. however. Therefore many solutions devised for the relatively static wired computer network environment may not work properly. Dynamic environment The wireless link is highly dynamic compared to the wired link. Considering the movement of mobile terminals. Because it is practically impossible to deploy wireless networks to cover all geographical areas with no dead spots. etc. For example. by adopting vertical hand-overs (hand-overs between different networks). Due to the small form factor of mobile devices. . The characteristics of the wireless can vary due to a variety of causes and the rate of change is very abrupt. For example. services are restricted in some areas. Usability is another main obstacle for the success of Mobile IPTV business.

Vol. 382–390. IEEE 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.4493663) • Carlsson. C and Walden. "Mobile IPTV: Approaches. Toufik. no.Mobile IPTV Working Group (http://www.2008. “IPTV over WiMAX: Key Success Factors. al. Ahmed. and L. 8. Mobile IPTV Requirements for Non-NGN. Challenges. TTA Technical Report (TTAR-08. pp.8) • Soohong Park. 2008 Page(s):975 . WG 2193 . Mubashar. 2008. 2008. P2P-based mobile IPTV: Challenges and opportunities. vol. 53. Hou. pp.itu. IEEE Communications Magazine. Mobile TV–To Live or Die by Content. I and Ahmed. P. 2007 Related standard activities • TTA PG 219.int/ITU-T/gsi/iptv/) • Open IPTV Forum (http://www. Xie.Mobile IPTV 171 References Related publications • Soohong Park and Seong-Ho Jeong. 2007 • J. Computer Systems and Applications.0001). Cheolju Hwang and el. 51–60. 2007 • Mushtaq. Challenges and Solutions”.tta. (DOI 10. Mobile IPTV Expanding the Value of IPTV. The seventh International Conference on Networking. IEEE/ACS International Conference on March 31. February 2008 • Djama. 296–301.or. She.openiptvforum. T. Vol. 23–31. pp. F. pp. Standards and QoS Support". IEEE Internet Computing.1109/AICCSA. 87–93. Issue 3. Ho. No.org/) .kr/) • Internet Protocol Television Global Standards Initiative (http://www. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting. pp.2008. Seong-Ho Jeong and Cheolju Hwang. A Cross-Layer Interworking of DVBT and WLAN for Mobile IPTV Service Delivery. P. 45. May–June 2009 • Soohong Park.–L. 13.980 (DOI 10. Aug.1109/ICN.-H. 1. 2008-April 4. AICCSA 2008.

is a telephone company that provides services for mobile phone subscribers. GSM is based on the signal strength to nearby antenna masts. also known as mobile phone operator (or simply mobile operator or mobo ). a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network operator will require a GSM frequency range. GSM localization is the use of multilateration to determine the location of GSM mobile phones. However the operator must also deploy essential equipment in order to offer the services. In addition. Localization may occur either via multilateration of radio signals between (several) radio towers of the network and the phone. is a technology used by telecommunication companies to approximate where a mobile phone. The government allocates spectrum using whichever method it chooses. Advanced systems determine the sector in which the mobile phone resides and roughly estimate also the distance to the base station. For example. One essential characteristic that defines a mobile network operator is that they must have acquired a radio spectrum license from the government before they can clear mobile phone service within a country.[1] Mobile positioning. although the most common method is an auction. Such service is offered as an option of the class of location-based services (LBS). carrier service provider (CSP). Further approximation can be done by interpolating signals between adjacent antenna towers.Mobile network operator 172 Mobile network operator A mobile network operator (MNO). stationary or moving. The more properly applied term locating refers to the purpose rather than a positioning process. most notably the radio transmitter network and the core network. so if you know which base station the phone communicates with. Rural and desolate areas may see miles between base stations and therefore determine locations less precisely. or simply via GPS. you know that the phone is close to the respective base station. The precise spectrum obtained does depend on the type of mobile phone technology the operator intends to deploy. wireless carrier. temporarily resides. Qualified services may achieve a precision of down to 50 meters in urban areas where mobile traffic and density of antenna towers (base stations) is sufficiently high. Mobile phone tracking Mobile phone tracking refers to the attaining of the current position of a mobile phone.[2] Technology The technology of locating is based on measuring power levels and antenna patterns and uses the concept that a mobile phone always communicates wirelessly with one of the closest base stations.[3] Localization-Based Systems can be broadly divided into: • • • • Network-based Handset-based SIM-based Hybrid . To locate the phone using multilateration of radio signals. usually with the intent to locate the user. Recent allocation of 3G and WiMax licenses in Europe and India (only 3G in India) have been auctioned. it must emit at least the roaming signal to contact the next nearby antenna tower. or cellular company. and thereby also its user (bearer). but the process does not require an active call. which includes location based service that discloses the actual coordinates of a mobile phone bearer. wireless service provider. other service platforms such as voicemail and SMS centre will be deployed as well as billing and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems.

Both types of data are thus used by the telephone to make the location more accurate (ie A-GPS). and newer "Forward Link" timing methods as the most accurate. SIM-based Using the SIM in GSM and UMTS handsets. Alternatively tracking with both systems can also occur by having the phone attain his GPS-location directly from the satellites. it is possible to obtain raw radio measurements from the handset. Windows Mobile. The accuracy of network-based techniques varies. and the implementation of the most current timing methods. with urban environments achieving the highest possible accuracy. Buddyway and Google Latitude. Typically. Handset-based Handset-based technology requires the installation of client software on the handset to determine its location. The type of information obtained via the SIM can differ from what is available from the handset.[4] [5] The measurements that are available can include the serving Cell-ID.Mobile phone tracking 173 Network-based Network-based techniques utilize the service provider's network infrastructure to identify the location of the handset. This technique determines the location of the handset by computing its location by cell identification. The advantage of network-based techniques (from mobile operator's point of view) is that they can be implemented non-intrusively. due to the difficulty of convincing different manufacturers to cooperate on a common mechanism and to address the cost issue. Hybrid Hybrid positioning systems use a combination of network-based and handset-based technologies for location determination. as it entails the installation of hardware and software within the operator's infrastructure. One proposed work-around is the installation of embedded hardware or software on the handset by the manufacturers. such as E911. or Android. signal strengths of the home and neighboring cells. it may not be possible to obtain any raw measurements from the handset directly. Another difficulty would be to address the issue of foreign handsets that are roaming in the network. In addition. such as one based on Symbian. which can both use GPS and network information to compute the location. It requires the active cooperation of the mobile subscriber as well as software that must be able to handle the different operating systems of the handsets.g. Often. would need to be in place to compel the cooperation of the service provider as well as to safeguard the privacy of the information.[6] [7] [8] . and then having the information sent via the network to the person that is trying to locate the telephone. if the handset is also equipped with GPS then significantly more precise location information is then sent from the handset to the carrier. The key disadvantage of this technique (from mobile operator's point of view) is the necessity of installing software on the handset. Windows Phone. e. For example. without affecting the handsets. yet still obtain measurements via the SIM. which is continuously sent to the carrier. E-OTD. instaMapper. One of the key challenges of network-based techniques is the requirement to work closely with the service provider. One example would be some modes of Assisted GPS. would be able to run such software. round trip time and signal strength. iPhone. Services allowing such cellphone tracking are Mologogo. BlackBerry OS. a legislative framework. The accuracy of network-based techniques is both dependent on the concentration of base station cells. smart phones. with cell identification as the least accurate and triangulation as moderately accurate. This avenue has not made significant headway.

The United States however has no explicit constitutional guarantee on the privacy of telecommunications.Mobile phone tracking 174 Operational purpose In order to route calls to a phone the cell towers listen for a signal sent from the phone and negotiate which tower is best able to communicate with the phone. as in Germany. With tolling systems. In Europe. Other means is the antenna pattern that supports angular determination and phase discrimination. including USA v.[9] Bearer interest A phone's location can be uploaded to a common web site where one's "friends and family" can view one's last reported position. explicit consent to a service provider before the service provider can compute positioning data from the user's mobile phone. As the phone changes location. although such a use is technically possible.S. Pen Register government tracking of individuals. where most countries have a constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence. The U. so use of location data is limited by law. Officially. Privacy Locating or positioning touches upon delicate privacy issues. By comparing the relative signal strength from multiple antenna towers a general location of a phone can be roughly determined. Newer phones may also allow the tracking of the phone even when turned on and not active in a telephone call-.[13] China has proposed using this technology to track commuting patterns of Beijing city residents. Justice Department has argued that current laws allow them to track suspects without having probable cause to suspect a law is being violated. regarding Some "Free" tracking services allow the cellular telephone number being tracked to be added to telemarketers' lists.[11] The Electronic Frontier Foundation is tracking some cases. the locating of vehicles is equally sensitive to the constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence and thus any further use of tolling information beyond deducting the road fee is prohibited.[10] In some instances law enforcement may even access a mobile phone's internal microphone to eavesdrop on local conversations while the phone is switched off. but with much higher accuracy. Strict ethics and security measures are strongly recommended for services that employ positioning. . the antenna towers monitor the signal and the phone is roamed to an adjacent tower as appropriate. and the user must give an informed.[14] [12] . the authorities (like the police) can obtain permission to position phones in emergency cases where people (including criminals) are missing. Even obviously criminal intent may not be inferred by such means. Newer phones may have built-in GPS receivers which could be used in a similar fashion. since it enables someone to check where a person is without the person's consent. location data obtained from mobile phone networks is usually given the same protection as the communication itself. This results from the roaming procedures that perform hand over of the phone from one base station to another.

org) • CellSpotting: A Global Cell Id-Based Information Service (http://www. pdf). Shu Wang.1.toronto. wired.opencellid. bbc. [2] "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to.com/techtopics/mobility/apis/articles/location/) • Location API for J2ME (http://www-users. 2006. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008. Beijing. com/ politics/ security/ news/ 2006/ 05/ 70829). nsf/ mobwire/ F41D663EAD41BC01CC2574B000133BB3) PC World. China [3] "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to. Jungwon Min and Byung K. The Chicago Syndicate.edu/~walex/papers/ are_gsm_phones_the_solution_for_localization_wmcsa2006.cs. nz/ pcworld/ pcw. [10] Ryan Singel (May 8. com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2. html). com/ ) [7] Mologogo (http:/ / www. org/ legal/ cases/ USA_v_PenRegister/ [13] http:/ / www. com/ ) [8] Buddyway (http:/ / www.washingtonpost. 2005-08-03. . eff. China [4] ETSI TS 102 223 V9. html).org) . FREE Phone Tracking System.com/towers/) .privacyrights. cnet. co. Retrieved June 24.umn. washingtonpost. BBC News. Yi. com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2.Mobile phone tracking 175 References [15] [1] "Tracking a suspect by mobile phone: Tracking SIM and handset" (http:/ / news. com/ posttech/ 2011/ 03/ china_said_it_may_begin.0 SIM standard [5] Vodafone Local Zone (http:/ / pcworld.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/ 22/AR2007112201444.htm#5) . com/ ) [9] "Roving Bug in Cell Phones Used By FBI to Eavesdrop on Syndicate" (http:/ / www. December 1. 2011). . whereareyougps.com • GSM Localization on Mobile Phones (http://www. googlepages. com/ 2006/ 12/ roving-bug-in-cell-phones-used-by-fbi. Wired. [11] "FBI taps cell phone mic as eavesdropping tool" (http:/ / news. 2006). ieee-icc. Beijing." Some handsets can't be fully powered down without removing the battery. thechicagosyndicate.sun. sparking human rights concerns" (http:/ / voices.edu/~czhou/docs/jsr179/lapi/) • openBmap: Map and tools for a free and open Cell ID database in GPL and Creative Common Licence (http:// www. some Nokia models will wake up when turned off if an alarm is set.openBmap. buddyway. com) External links • privacyrights. "Cell-Phone Tracking: Laws Needed" (http:/ / www. . Shu Wang." [12] http:/ / www. instamapper. org/ ). mologogo. "China plans to track cellphone users. com/ 2100-1029_3-6140191. Yi.org/fs/fs2b-cellprivacy.cs.html) • OpenCellID: An OpenSource CellID database (http://www. html). Jungwon Min and Byung K. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008 (http:/ / www.cellreception.com) • J2ME and Location-Based Services (http://developers. The Washington Post. Cnet. co. 2010. org/ issues/ cell-tracking [14] Cecilia Kang (March 3. eff. swang.html?hpid=topnews). [6] InstaMapper (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-01-02. washingtonpost. .Google maps API to locate cell towers in the United States • Cellphone Tracking Powers on Request (http://www. [15] WhereAreYou? GPS. googlepages. pdf). uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 4738219.Protecting Your Privacy in the Age of the Super-Phone • Cell Reception (http://www.cellspotting. . "Kaplan's opinion said that the eavesdropping technique "functioned whether the phone was powered on or off. swang. (http:/ / www.org (http://www. for instance. stm).

Early mobile radios used amplitude modulation (AM) to convey intelligence through the communications channel. Radiotelephones are full-duplex (simultaneous talk and listen). a mobile radio installed in a locomotive would run off of 72. The connection sets up based on the user dialing. (called crossband). or railroad locomotives. In time. Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR) or conventional two-way systems.7 MHz). problems with sources of electrical noise showed that frequency modulation (FM) was superior for its ability to cope with vehicle ignition and power line noise. (sometimes called portable). A parallel to this concept is the convergence of computing and telephones.Mobile radio 176 Mobile radio This article is about professional equipment. such a device is typically powered by the host vehicle's 12 volt electrical system. There are a variety of views about what constitutes mobile equipment. History Early users of mobile radio equipment included transportation and government. For US licensing purposes. shipboard.or 30-volt DC power. They run on telephony-based infrastructure such as AMPS or GSM. MPT-1327. Some early systems talked back to dispatch on a 30-50 MHz link. 25 to 50 MHz (vhf "low band") is particularly susceptible to the problem of electrical noise. [1] A sales person or radio repair shop would understand the word mobile to mean vehicle-mounted: a transmitter-receiver (transceiver) used for radio communications from a vehicle. and primarily communicate with telephones connected to the public switched telephone network. These systems run on push-to-talk-based infrastructure such as Nextel's iDEN. Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR). An obsolete term is radiophone. (1. For mobile radios used in amateur radio. (maritime mobile). Certain modern two-way radio systems may have full-duplex telephone capability. A large ship with 117V AC power might have a base station mounted on the ship's bridge. Two-way radio is primarily a dispatch tool intended to communicate in simplex or half-duplex modes using push-to-talk. (aeronautical mobile). The connection is taken down when the end button is pressed. and where the path of communications is movable on either end. Disambiguation: Two-way versus telephone The distinction between radiotelephones and two-way radio is becoming blurred as the two technologies merge. voice communications with rolling trains became possible. For example. see amateur radio mobile operation. equipment. The backbone or infrastructure supporting the system defines which category or taxonomy applies. Mobile radios are mounted to a motor vehicle usually with the microphone and control panel in reach of the driver. and primarily intended to communicate with other radios rather than telephones. This plus the need for more channels led to the eventual expansion of two-way radio communications into the VHF "high band" (150 to 174 . These systems used one-way broadcasting instead of two-way conversations. Radios linked the caboose with the locomotive cab. Railroads used medium frequency range (MF) communications (similar to the AM broadcast band) to improve safety. The frequency range used by most early radio systems. on motorcycles. circuit switched. Early police radio systems were initially one way using MF frequencies above the AM broadcast band. In the US. Instead of hanging out of a locomotive cab and grabbing train orders while rolling past a station. Power may vary with each platform. Mobile radio or mobiles refer to wireless communications systems and devices which are based on radio frequencies. mobiles may include hand-carried. Some mobile radios are mounted in aircraft.

named for its "universal" 6 or 12 Volt power supply General Electric Progress Line (Early models without "T-Power" power supply) Kaar Engineering Model 501 177 Equipment from different US manufacturers had similar traits. Examples of US 1950s-1960s tube-type mobile radios with no transistors: • • • • Motorola FMTRU-140D (dynamotor powered) Motorola Twin-V. usually green or yellow. a generator or alternator upgrade was needed to support the current required for a tube-type mobile radio. that showed power was applied and the radio was ready to transmit. by the FCC before it could be offered for sale. Persons without a key to the vehicle could not transmit.Mobile radio MHz) and UHF (450 to 470 MHz). and the filaments of the vacuum tubes added to current demands. Sometimes. 3-frequency receive. changed the 6V or 12V direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) which could be passed through a transformer to make high voltage. By the mid to this custom-built mobile radio. Early tube-type radios operated on 50 kHz channel spacing with plus-or-minus fifteen kilohertz modulation deviation. Solid state equipment arrived in the 1960s. One of the major challenges in early mobile radio technology was that of converting the six or twelve volt power supply of the vehicle to the high voltage needed to operate the vacuum tubes in the radio. In order to be type accepted. called "inverters". From the 1960s to the 1980s. scanning. tube-type transmitter power amplifiers had been replaced with high-power transistors. power supply technology evolved to use first electromechanical vibrators. or technically approved. taxing vehicle electrical systems. . large system users with specialized requirements often had custom built radios designed for their unique systems. The power supply then rectified this high voltage to make the high voltage DC required for the vacuum tubes. (called valves in British English). then solid-state power supplies to provide high voltage for the vacuum tubes. Radios were also required to have a lamp (usually red) indicating when the transmitter was on. This was partly dictated by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations.essentially a six or twelve volt motor that turned a generator to provide the high voltages required by the vacuum tubes. The power supplies needed to power vacuum tube radios resulted in a common trait of tube-type mobile radios: their heavy weight due to the iron-core transformers in the power supplies. As time went on. dictated by the bandwidth of the signal on each channel. Channel spacing narrowed to 20-30 kHz with modulation deviation dropping to plus-or-minus five kilohertz. These high voltage power supplies were inefficient. The requirement that unauthorized persons be prohibited from using the radio transmitter meant that many radios were wired so they could not transmit unless the vehicle ignition was on. Manufacturers of mobile radios built customized equipment for large radio fleets such as the California Department of Forestry and the California Highway Patrol. the California Department of Forestry requirement for 6-frequency rapidly growing national group of transmit. the radio set had to be equipped with an indicator light. The UHF band has since been expanded again. with more efficient circuitry and smaller size. leading two-way radio users. Early tube-type radios used dynamotors . Systems with multiple-CTCSS tone encoders and more than two channels were unusual. 1970s. Some early mobile radios were the size of a suitcase or had separate boxes for the transmitter and receiver. These traits continue in the design of modern radios. Equipment had to be "type accepted". This meant that the number of radio channels that could be accommodated in the available radio frequency spectrum were limited to a certain number. These circuits. This was done to allow more radio spectrum availability to accommodate the In the early 1970s. and a 5-tone burst encoder was unusual.

Mobile radios installed on motorcycles are subject to extreme vibration and weather. Details Commercial and professional mobile radios are often purchased from an equipment supplier or dealer whose staff will install the equipment into the user's vehicles. shaking. . Shock mounting systems are used to reduce the radio's exposure to vibration imparted by the motorcycle's modal. or air bags. channel spacing has had to be narrowed again to 12. "Boston Base". For example. such as "Providence Base".5-15 kHz with modulation deviation dropping to plus-or-minus 2. vehicle stability computer. Some mobile radios use noise-canceling microphones or headsets. Radios are now designed with a myriad of features to preclude the need for custom design. the ambient road and wind noise can make radio communications difficult to understand. or resonant. A modern mobile radio consists of a radio transceiver. today's radios are trending toward radically smaller sizes than their tube-type ancestors. Noise-canceling microphones require the operator speak directly into the front of the microphone. and a microphone with a push-to-talk button. Each installation would also have a vehicle-mounted antenna connected to the transceiver by a coaxial cable.Mobile radio Examples of US hybrid partially solid state mobile radios: • • • • • Motorola Motrac Motorola MJ IMTS Car Telephone (1963) General Electric Transistorized Progress Line General Electric MASTR Professional and MASTR Executive RCA Super Carfone 178 Today Custom design for a particular customer is a thing of the past. A mobile radio may have 100 or more channels. housed in a single box. At speeds over 100 MPH. California Highway Patrol mobile radios have noise-canceling microphones which reduce road and siren noise heard by the dispatcher. This is applied. Hole arrays in the back of the microphone pick up ambient noise. Some models may have an external. effectively reducing or canceling any sound which is present both in front and back of the microphone.5 kilohertz. more economical vehicles. In order to fit into smaller. A computer and software is typically required to program the features and channels of the mobile radio. Large fleet users may buy radios directly from an equipment manufacturer and may even employ their own technical staff for installation and maintenance. The installer would have to locate this equipment in a way that does not interfere with the vehicle's sun roof. out-of-phase. to the back of the microphone. only the voice present on the front side of the microphone goes out on the air. Professional equipment designed for use on motorcycles is weather and vibration resistant. be microprocessor controlled and have built-in options such as unit ID. electronic engine management system. Ideally. Menus of options may be several levels deep and offer a complicated array of possibilities. etc. These protect the occupant's hearing and reduce background noise in the transmitted audio. F2) to a phrase more meaningful to the user. Some mobile radios have alphanumeric displays that translate channel numbers (F1. Most fire engines and radios in heavy equipment use noise-canceling headsets. Examples of US microprocessor-controlled mobile radios: • Motorola Astro Digital Spectra W9 • Kenwood TK-690 As use of mobile radio equipment has virtually exploded. Modern mobile radio equipment is "feature rich". separate speaker which can be positioned and oriented facing the driver to overcome ambient road noise present when driving.

Some types of vehicles in 24-hour use. the tone stops and the timer resets. which looks like a white plastic blade or fin. A 900 MHz antenna may be three inches long for a quarter wavelength. The volume level of the tone on some radios is loud and cannot be adjusted. Microwave antennas may look like flat panels on the aircraft's skin. the size and shape being determined by frequencies used. tall heights. One example of this problem occurred in a car with a concealed two-way radio installation where the microphone and coiled cord were hidden inside the glove box. All specifications should be reviewed by radio system engineers to ensure that appropriate equipment is used to meet the end user's needs. or hidden on the floor pan or underside of a vehicle. The most common antennas are stainless steel wire or rod whips which protrude vertically from the vehicle. An operator tossed the mike into the glove box and shut it. Temporary installations may have antennas which clip on to vehicle parts or are attached to steel body parts by a strong magnet. The location and type of antenna can affect system performance drastically. but also to prevent the sale and distribution of inferior equipment which could degrade communications. The standard "quarter wave" antenna in the 25-50 MHz range can be over nine feet long. Though initially relatively inexpensive mobile radio system components. a rearview mirror. Physics defines the antenna length: length relates to frequency and cannot be arbitrarily lengthened or shortened (more likely) by the end user.or 60-seconds. Large fleets usually test a few vehicles before making a commitment to a certain antenna location or type. Aircraft antennas look like blades or fins. 179 Antenna A mobile radio must have an associated antenna. a driver may be upset when a dispatcher assigns a call (s)he wanted to another driver and may deliberately hold the transmit button down (for which the owner can be fined by the FCC). usually 30. causing the push-to-talk button to be depressed and locking the transmitter on. after which the transmitter automatically turns off and a loud tone comes out of the radio speaker. or rough diesel engine idle vibrations may damage antennas quickly. A transit bus may have a ruggedized antenna. with stiff suspensions. As soon as the push-to-talk button is released. A bane of push-to-talk systems is the stuck microphone: a radio locked on transmit which disrupts communications on a two-way radio system. on its roof.) This rule of thumb is intended to result in passengers being exposed to safe levels of radio frequency energy in the event the radio transmits. Some vehicles with concealed radio installations have antennas designed to look like the original AM/FM antenna. On taxi systems.Mobile radio Many radios are equipped with transmitter time-out timers which limit the length of a transmission. These specifications have been developed to help ensure that mobile radio equipment not only performs as expected by the user. US Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines for non-ionizing radio energy generally say the radio antenna must be two feet from any vehicle occupants. or may be installed inside windows. Mobile radio equipment is manufactured to specifications developed by the Electronics Industries Association/Telecommunications Industries Association (EIA/TIA). (Read the OSHA guidelines before attempting to install an antenna. . Radios with time-out timers transmit for the preset amount of time. frequently damaged antennas can be costly to replace since they are usually not included in maintenance contracts for mobile radio fleets.

Multiple controls. Early Federal Express (FedEx) radio systems used a single radio for data and voice. . Each vehicle is equipped with a charger system console. some systems employ vehicular chargers instead of a mobile radio. Each radio works over a single band of frequencies. microphones US ambulances often have radios with dual controls and dual microphones allowing the radio to be used from the patient care area in the rear or from the vehicle's cab. tow cars may have one radio for towing company communications and a second for emergency road service communications. The walkie talkie inserted into a vehicular charger or converter while the user is in the vehicle. such as tow cars or ambulances. Walkie talkie converters in place of mobile radios Intended as a cost savings. For example. The radio had a request-to-speak button which. 3) connects a mobile microphone. If a tow car company had a frequency on the same band as its auto club. take place over the separate radio. In the same way that a facsimile machine has a separate phone line. [4] The weak point of these systems has been connector technology which has been proven unreliable in some installations. allowed voice communication to the dispatch center. Receiver performance is a problem in congested radio signal and urban areas. A data terminal A mobile radio in a US ambulance often has two sets of controls: one in the patient area radio allows data communications to and another near the driver. and 4) charges the walkie talkie's battery. may have several radios in each vehicle.[2] Data radio Both tow cars and ambulances may have an additional radio which transmits and receives to support a mobile data terminal. These installations are sometimes referred to as jerk-and-run systems. when acknowledged. multiple radios may be required in cases where communications take place over systems on [3] more than one frequency band. Ambulances may have a similar arrangement with one radio for government emergency medical services dispatch and one for company dispatch. this means data and voice communication can take place simultaneously over a separate radio.Mobile radio 180 Multiple radio sets Dispatch-reliant services. a single radio with scanning might be employed for both systems. Since a mobile radio typically works on a single frequency band. The charger or converter 1) connects the walkie talkie to the vehicle's two-way radio antenna. Each radio user is issued a walkie talkie. 2) connects an amplified speaker.

By 2011. As this happens mobile content shows a media shift toward mobile multimedia. pp. Given early adopter usage of mobile services.this being the expected time users expect to find content in. There are now few large organizations that do not offer a mobile service of some sort. Research from Qpass suggests that less than 36% of an operator's portal is within 30 seconds navigation distance for the user . the published forecasts for global mobile search vary from $1. Some Converta-Com systems allow the attachment of signaling devices or external devices not usually compatible with walkie talkies. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. [3] Paragraph 2. there has been a vast increase in the depth of content developed for mobile phones. State of California Radio Communications System. Web or technology factors. portals were unable to provide total coverage. DC: Department of Transportation. 1995) pp.'Exploring the logic of mobile search'. most of available content that has been written for mobile users is effectively invisible to users. Regional-level Planning Guide. (Washington. and "Evaluating Regional Alternatives. One historic example is the NLN-4470A for MT-500 series radios. The 11th edition of Newton's Telecom Dictionary says radiophone is an. The Oxford English Dictionary conflicts with some uses.7 billion". 15. One example is the title on a Special Products service manual Model T31BAT-3100B-SP3 'Dispatcher' Radiophone 25-54 MC 12 W RF Power 12VDC. Simply put. mobile search is not just a spatial shift of PC web search to mobile equipment. It was also seen on some Kaar Engineering mobile products. (Chicago: Motorola Communications Division. DC: Department of Transportation. they also emphasize that future developments of mobile search must be sensitive to the mobile logic. Westlund. both of which show a fast-paced evolution. As a result Internet web search engines such as Google and AltaVista proved popular as a way of allowing users to find the increasingly specialist content they were looking for. Regional-level Planning Guide. Early internet content was largely provided by portals such as Netscape.4(e). 45-49. thanks to the large US online ad market and strong pushes by portals. Mobile search Mobile search is an evolving branch of information retrieval services that is centered around the convergence of mobile platforms and mobile phones and other mobile devices. and Feijóo(2011) outline a through review of research on mobile search usage. Market description "Competition for the US mobile search market promises to be fierce." Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2. saying radiophone is interchangeable with radiotelephone. but is witnessing more of treelike branching into specialized segments of mobile broadband and mobile content.[2] Mobile Search is important for the usability of mobile content for the same reasons as internet search engines became important to the usability of internet content. . 45-49. [4] For example. according to a leading market research firm. 1995) pp. In a international journal article. As the depth of available content grew. 1965). Gómez-Barroso. "obsolete term.[3] There is a similar situation developing in the mobile content industry. They conclude that mobile search has started to change mobile media consumption patters radically.Mobile radio 181 Notes [1] Cited in many references including on escutcheons and silk-screened face plates on 1960s Motorola products including early HT-200 and Dispatcher-series mobiles. Compañó. Later HT-200s dropped the term. Web search engine ability in a mobile form allows users to find mobile content on websites which are available to mobile devices on mobile networks. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. However. Motorola has trademarked the name Converta-Com for a system which accomplishes all three of these tasks. given the limitations of a mobile phones screen size and general navigability." Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2. mobile search will account for around $715 million.5 billion by 2011 (from Informa Telecoms & Media) to over $11 billion by 2008 (according to Piper Jaffray). Macro Corporation and The State of Arizona. or almost 15% of a total mobile advertising market worth nearly $4. Most of the operators run their own portals that showcase the best available content. Arizona Phase II Final Report: Statewide Radio Interoperability Needs Assessment. (Washington." [2] "Evaluating Regional Alternatives.[1] Depending on a researcher's particular bias toward telecom. 2004. and also present an in-depth study of user patterns.

Mobile search Beyond navigation is location-aware technology for mobile search. "What they're trying to do is take that core search capability and just jam it onto the phone. places. on the move/commuting where there the context of local and immediate is inherent in the searcher's need and 2.[5] The early deals are taking place as cell phone operators recognize that mobile Internet search is an inherently different business than its desktop counterpart." Mr." says John du Pre Gauntt. Yahoo has launched a product branded as Yahoo [OneSearch][6] and Google has launched a mobile friendly version of their search engine as well. A usage example would be a user that wants to know the answer to a very specific question but is not in front of his/her computer. and actions that are relevant to the searcher’s past. Alltel's group president of operations. says the Internet search giants aren't yet delivering the kind of results the mobile content industry wants. "That's probably not the right approach. "Whoever cracks the consumer and commercial code for delivering and monetizing relevant answers for people on the go will secure a license to print money. don't apply in the mobile world since people aren't searching for Web sites as much as answers to specific questions. These parameters are evolving. Searcher behaviour on mobiles is markedly different than on desktop machines. For example. by a real person. and media planners and buyers needing to evaluate one category with another or one directory with another. Some of the advances by the major portals in Internet search. Kevin Beebe. and things within an identifiable space defined by distinct parameters. landmarks. A new approach by AskMeNow and MobileBits is to ." 182 Types of mobile search Within the broad umbrella of mobile search (the ability to browse for mobile specific content). neighborhoods. Mobile Search: Clash of the Titans. on the couch where mobiles are being used to surf for information in between watching TV and engaging in other mobile communication such as sms or using social networks. These parameters provide structure to vertically deep and horizontally broad data categories that can stand-alone or are combined to comprise searchable directories. The algorithms for mobile search engine results are thought to be evoloving and aspects such as location and predicitive searching will become increasingly important. current. Searches can be seen to fall into two categories 1. cities. where every question is answered via text message. This is a double-edge sword for product designers and developers. Most mobile 'Q&A' services are powered by human researchers and are therefore a type of organic search engine. eMarketer Senior Analyst and the author of the new report. not all of these can be expected to become the industry standards. Today they include social networks. Given the relative immaturity of the market. they are more likely to use cell phones to find targeted information like news. What is Mobile Local Search (MLS)? Are all searches local? What are the component technologies of a powerful MLS application? How can advertisers purchase inventory ad units available within the application structure? Mobile Local Search is the search and discovery of persons. Mobile question and answer services — These services allow a user to text a question to a central database and receive a reply using text. The lack of clean comparative analysis based upon application occupancy of an individual category creates a challenge for marketers looking to maximize the value of applications to the supply chain including brand marketers looking to embed advertising within an application. Beebe said. individuals. there are a range of services. Mobile optimized search engines — Most major search engines have implemented a mobile optimized version of their products that take into consideration bandwidth and form factor limitations of the mobile platform. MLS can occupy several application categories/directories simultaneously. analytic engines. An example of such a service in the US is Question Mania [7]. Whereas people might use a Web-connected personal computer to search for information about an 18th-century British author. Mobile Local Search is 30% of all digital searches with a surge in growth expected world-wide in 2010. such as Google's famous page-ranking scheme. financial media analysts. and future location." "Mobile search is a battle to define perhaps the most important new interface with the consumer. Cell phones also offer much less space to enter in search terms and smaller screens to display results. weather and sports.[4] Thus. at least for a time.

In addition. The basics of the services allow users to find local services in the vicinity of their current location. typically in minutes.com askdroid. Services also usually come with a map and directions to help the user. without the need for text entry. search. .com. Launch April [9] 2006 4info 44636 4Info. which provides users with a push-button experience of selecting from thousands of human-screened and categorized Web selections in three or four seconds. They operate. An example would be recommending a user a similar ringtone to the one that s/he has just browsed for.sadko. services and other interesting information in the local area that the user has searched on. An example of such search tools is the Worldport Navigator [8] for the iPhone. in a similar way to the recommendation engines provided by internet retail shops such as Amazon. Description Founded by Seb Maslin. An example of real usage is the Directory Enquiries (DQ) service operated by Orange in the UK. questions may range from settling pub quizzes to standard directory enquiries. Mobile directory search — This service is known by different names dependent on country and operator.Mobile search use Semantic Web technology to automate the process. Free service where real people research questions and deliver [12] answers. Mobile discovery services These services offer users recommendations on what they should do next. or page-scrolling. result review. Widget app for Android-based smartphones allowing one-button [10] access to any of 260 search engines. 183 Main providers Name & Mobile URL 199QUERY SMS# 19978379AUS 272NZ AU C. They index the content already on the operators' portal but also provide users access to mobile specific content that is available outside the confines of the portal.. AQA uses human researchers to provide answers to any free form search queries or customer questions. It was the first company to provide such a service using only a premium short code and not a mix of shortcode and keyword. It can also be known as 'Find My Nearest' or 'Mobile Yellow Pages' services. Callers to the Orange landline DQ service are given the business and residential numbers they have requested verbally by an operator. Mobile navigation services — These services provide the indexing structure to the portals provided by mobile operators. Unique in that SMS messages are then broadcast on TV. in a mobile context. More details can be found in mobile local search.com UK IE Founded by ex-Symbian and Psion CEO Colly Myers. Some emerging services such as MyHelpa in the UK address the perceived limitations of one-shot.com US . An example is the service offered by Yell in the UK which is powered by MobilePeople's technology. reverse billed SMS messages by using VoIP to connect the Caller directly to the Human search agent.mobi US answerly. The services often use location-based technology to pinpoint exactly where the user currently is. October 2010 October [13] 2008 2004 Any Question Answered 63336UK 57275IE Ask Any Question 66666UK UK AskDroid Desktop Search Widget [11] Answerly. 199QUERY is the premier Australian and New Zealand Text service that answers any question sent to it by SMS using a mix of human experts and intelligent organic search engine.. An example of usage would be a user looking for a local cab or taxi company after a night out. Orange sends the information in text format to the users mobile phone. Dynamic Mobile Selection Interface Services — A new category of mobile search tool that is emerging is one in which a pre-selected set of possible search content is downloaded in advance by a mobile user and then allows for a final internet search step. The information contains a text reminder of the requested information as well as links to local businesses. Uses real humans to answer any questions sent to the shortcode 66666. no keyword needed.

askmenow. allows users on any carrier network to ask any question on any subject and the answer is provided by a human "guide". in a white labeled approach. Totally free mobile search which also enables free connect function. Infospace also provides local search services and offers many of these serivces to mobile carriers. innovative because it enables Internet users (only with a US work permit) to earn money by finding answers. China Mobile.0 site m. by calling a toll-free number. Available on all three mobile carriers. a WAP 2.com [18] 466453 AT Mindbreeze takes care of mobile information access to all 2005 enterprise ressources including content conversion to fit all kinds of mobile devices. appeared in the [19] magazine in May. 2005 ChaCha [15] www. Users have the option of searching from their mobile browsers [23] (homepage ). DOTGO is an extension of the internet to cell phone text messaging. May 2009 Interchan www.com 1066958866(Chinese) 106695882929(English) China mInfo is a mobile search provider based in China.com.com [16] DOTCOM (368266) DOTEDU (368338) DOTGOV (368468) DOTNET (368638) DOTORG (368674) US 2008 Fabasoft Mindbreeze [17] mindbreeze.com Text 242 242 or voice 800-2ChaCha US 2008-01-03 DOTGO dotgo.55155.com 27563 (ASKME) 184 US CA Gives users the option of searching for information using an SMS short code. in association with GamePlayer magazine. in Japan but not specifically for the SMS product. not an SMS#) ? US? JumpTap offers white-label mobile search. Has an exclusive deal with China Telecom to power its Omni-search platform.com. or as GuruGold in support of the on-screen 'Games Guru' on Sky One's primetime computer games program 'Gamezville'. Launched by AlienPants initially as a generalised service but later deliberately limited to computer game cheats.tw [21] Jumptap Microsoft Live Search for Mobile (also Bing [22] Mobile ) 55155 Taiwan ? 1 800 CALL 411 (dial-in. or mobile applications. ? US GTIP and other co-branded customer implementations 61199 81444DE WAPUK/DE 82149IE(closed) 83246UK(closed) 83149UK(closed) UK UK IE DE January [20] 2003 Infospace ? ? Provider of meta-search. from any phone.com Google m. and KDDI Corp. the service is made available to multiple customers under each customer's own brand. such as T-Mobile as the 'T-Mobile Cheat Service'. Uses natural language search that allows users to ask a question and receive an answer. ? 2006-11 mInfo wap.google. They offer 2005-11 services on SMS. Ask and Microsoft at the same time.chacha. download client applications specifically designed for Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices (download [24] ). WAP and on-phone applet. 2004. Google has carrier deals with Britain's Vodafone. Limited to the categorical information they offer. An SMS and voice natural language-based question answering service by ChaCha (search engine).Mobile search AskMeNow [14] askmenow. . a technology by which they search the ? search engines and allow users the ability to search Google.minfo. Designed for all mobile devices. AskMeNow has a carrier deals with Rogers Wireless and Bell Mobility in Canada and Alltel Wireless in the United States. and search by voice. Offers Google SMS which allows users to obtain information by texting in structured syntax to an SMS shortcode. first in-print co-branded service. Yahoo.

including ring. Motorola. also has a directory listing of the mobile specific versions of popular websites. Users upload an image from their mobile phones and search for relevant resources. It's differentiated from Google's and Yahoo's mobile search in that it only returns mobile results whereas the others may return links to non-mobile websites which may not render properly on a mobile phone. com sms to ask@mosio. US & Intl Developed by Incandescent.net Worldport Navigator 2009 Yahoo! oneSearch [30] UK US . HTC. Nokia.net Roboo 413-648-7141 347-mshdnet US Free Question answering service 2010 185 http:/ / roboo. SonyEricsson. It's similar to ChaCha except the answers are provided by the community as opposed to paid searchers.mosio. Gouden Gids (NL). January 2008 2008 Picollator http:/ / [27] picollator. A mobile local search that is offered via mobile applications. mobi Taptu taptu. a unique mix of data access engine and mobile search abilities. SMS-based service that uses a mix of human experts and sophisticated algorithms to provide bespoke answers to any customer query. Páginas Amarelas (PT).. built from the bottom up for mobile uses. Wikipedia. Sarah McVittie. Eniro (DK). image. mobilePeople is headquartered in Copenhagen (DK) and has regional offices in London (UK). Google. according to the developer's most recent 2009 test results. Denver (US) and Melbourne (AUS).com [26] US 2008 MobilePeople A/S Leading provider of Local search and advertising solution for mobiles ? DK mobilePeople is a private independent global leader in local mobile 2002-01 search and advertising solutions for directory publishers and directory assistance providers.. which include restaurant guides. roboo. videos. Yellow Pages Group (NZ) and Local Matters (USA). Promedia (BE). It caters for any handset including iPhone. [31] 92466US (YAHOO) [8] www. distribution and advertising utilising its award winning liquid Mobile Platform. Mosio is a mobile community based "question & answer" / search service. Global customers include. video etc. its graphical user interface (GUI) includes an unusual hexagonal ring structure to enable faster selection of options than with conventional mobile search systems. Inc. Sensis (AUS). Golden Pages (IE). music.towza. also offers refined searches for images. theme. They focus on entertainment resources. Mobile specific.worldport. Schibsted (NO).com [28] ? ? US UK Texperts (formerly Re5ult and 82ASK) 66000 UK 2003-06 or 08? 2008 Towza m. EDC (DK). It is currently available for the iPhone. music. By providing a mix of extensive cached pre-selected common data search options (so that direct access to the internet is only needed for the final search option selected) plus a more intuitive GUI. Mosio won the best mobile app award at SXSW in 2008. Blackberry. The company builds mobile presence. founded by Thomas Roberts. and price comparison shopping tools.Mobile search mshd.mshd. Yahoo! has a search deal with British carrier Hutchison 3G UK Ltd..com China Roboo is a mobile search provider based in China. 2006-11 Mosio m. Yahoo. Schibsted (SE).com [29] US & Intl Aggregates results from multiple search engines. LG and Samsung. Worldport Navigator users can access data up to 50 times faster than with other search engines. com (WAP) http:/ / www. Yell (UK). ? .net Question Answering Serive [25] www. Designed for Windows Mobile and Nokia devices. Eniro (NO).

Advertisers. com/ ) [12] Answerly.com (http:/ / www.Mobile search [32] www. bing. fiercewireless. com [19] http:/ / www. answerly. com/ press-releases/ mobile-local-search-saturates-profit-over-lbs-vendors-advertisers-and-search-applicat) [6] http:/ / us. aspx?id=1005170& src=article1_newsltr) eMarketer . com/ details?id=com. live. towza. and Search Application Developers (http:/ / www. live.37634. . com/ [17] http:/ / mindbreeze.00.7211. emarketer. m. 2010 (http://avmediasearch. com/ news/ prevreleases/ 21-05-04-gameplayer. com [16] http:/ / dotgo.emarketer. and Search Application Developers (http:/ / www. com [25] http:/ / www. Compañó. queryable.com/reports/ 1-mobile_local_search_2010_locationbased_search_market) • Westlund. worldport. mobi/ [28] http:/ / taptu.aspx?id=1005170&src=article1_newsltr) • Mobile Local Search 2010 (http://mobilelocation.php?article_id=128&page=13& action=article&) .. google. yahoo. php [20] http:/ / www. com [30] http:/ / mobile.frompo. com/ [27] http:/ / picollator. Behaviour & Information Technology' 'http://www.html) • Mobile Search in the US (http://www. com. Ramón and Feijóo. com/ p/ search [7] http:/ / www. net [9] "Question Answer SMS Service Launched in Australia" (http:/ / 199query.The Search Wars Are Going Mobile (http:/ / www. aspx?id=1005083) (Westlund. yahoo.com provides a comprehensive search engine for Iphones. Mobile Local Search Saturates Profit over LBS Vendors. killerstartups. Advertisers. Search and navigate results specifically designed for mobile cellular phones. alienpants. Claudio (2011) 'Exploring the logic of mobile search'. com/ onesearch) [32] http:/ / www.Mobile Search in the US. com/ news. Retrieved 2008-02-10. (http:/ / www. php [21] http:/ / www.com/ Mobile Phone Search Engine US & Intl Frompo. 2011). yahoo. com/ [31] Yahoo! oneSearch.forrester. com/ Article. com/ ) [14] http:/ / askmenow. com [29] http:/ / m. Gomez-Barroso.informaworld. José-Luis . questionmania.heroku.com (http:/ / www. emarketer. 55155. 199QUERY Pty. com [23] http:/ / m. 2006-04-01. Ltd. android. com [15] http:/ / www.com/smpp/ content~db=all~content=a927256739~frm=abslink • Prospects of mobile search.eu/index.com review on KillerStartups. tw/ [22] http:/ / m. com/ External links • Forrester research on Western European Mobile internet usage (http://www. mosio. chacha. [10] https:/ / market. com/ press-releases/ mobile-local-search-saturates-profit-over-lbs-vendors-advertisers-and-search-applicat) [5] Mobile Local Search Saturates Profit over LBS Vendors. Compano & Feijo. com/ Article. alienpants.com/Research/ Document/Excerpt/0.answerly. Gómez-Barroso. net [26] http:/ / m. mshd. com/ User-Gen-Content/ answerly-com-all-you-have-to-do-is-ask) [13] (http:/ / www.com/Article. Get answers with search designed for mobile (http:/ / mobile. 2010 186 References [1] [2] [3] [4] eMarketer . com [24] http:/ / wls. Blackberrys and cellular phones. com/ [18] http:/ / m. com [8] http:/ / www. askdroid [11] www. Oscar . fiercewireless. com/ news/ prevreleases/ 06-01-03-smscheats. sadko. frompo. php?release=1).

[2] Only 10% of Africans have access to the internet. but to provide information and create social change for low income groups. where mobile technology often represents the first modern infrastructure of any kind. health surveys. community mobilization and health promotion.[9] . or as near to free for the end user. companies like Cell-Life and GeoMed and HealthSMS use mobile technology for health.” says Marcha Neethling.[1] Nowhere is the effect more dramatic than in Africa.[8] The founders saw that the technology they were creating for corporate clients could be useful for NGOs to provide information to their target markets. the majority of mHealth activities were limited in size and scope. RapidSMS.[4] This means that mobile technology is the largest platform in Africa.[7] Fight HIV/Aids The Praekelt Foundation is a South African example of a non profit organisation that is using mobile technology to create social change. 50% of Africans have mobile phones. Their programmes have currently reached 50 million people across 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. One of the mobile technologies developed by Praekelt Foundation is a mobile community called YoungAfricaLive (YAL). emergency toll-free telephone services (55%). Promote health mHealth is using mobile technology to provide groups with health information. It was pioneered in part by the UN Foundation and Vodafone Foundation through partnerships with WHO and the social enterprise DataDyne.Mobile technology in Africa 187 Mobile technology in Africa Mobile technology in Africa is a fastest growing market. Users do not need to have airtime or data bundles on their phones to use it. mobi-sites and mobile communities. The ultimate aim of non-profit mobile technology is to make it free. but people should not be charged for having access to life saving information. However. people who are very poor have very basic phones. the lowest percentage in the world. Non-profit mobile technology Thus mobile technology can be used. and their penetration is expanding rapidly. but ranges from sending out bulk SMSs to USSD. However. companies such as TextToChange. “Full profit want to reach people for different reasons. and mobile telemedicine (49%). emergency toll-free telephone services.[3] However. who then joined with other partners in forging the mHealth Alliance. disaster relief and aid management. relationships and sex and HIV/AIDS. This means enlisting donors and getting mobile networks on board. mHealth initiatives were health call centres (59%).[6] In June 2011 the first African mobile health summit was held in Cape Town. and can access a wide range of income groups. The aim of the mobile community was to create a space that would be interactive and fun where young people could talk candidly and learn about love. Ushahidi all work with mobiles in health. head of operations at Praekelt Foundation. finances or to access specific groups such as the youth. Internationally.[5] mHealth activities come in the form of appointment reminders. education. At the summit the World Health Organization (WHO) released a report stating that eighty-three per cent of governments surveyed had at least one mHealth project in their country. managing emergencies and disasters (54%). In South Africa. information initiatives and patient monitoring among others. FrontlineSMS. not only to generate profit from high income groups. Thus non-profit mobile technology is not aimed at advanced smart phones. health call centres. For example mobile technology is used to provide information on health.

which is a massive investment. org/ [9] http:/ / www. At the end of 2010. was receiving 3. org/ [10] http:/ / www. html [6] http:/ / www. org/ global-issues/ technology/ mobile-health-for-development. html [5] http:/ / www. htm http:/ / www. com/ magazine/ content/ 07_39/ b4051054. (thus) sustainability is always a question. Users have commented saying YoungAfricaLive creates a platform for them to express their ideas. mit.[10] As (young) people were already using mobile technology to surf the net and download songs etc it seemed the perfect place to engage with this target group. The project is based in the Phomolong area of Tembisa.2 million unique users monthly. Vodacom is sponsoring the bandwidth. Experts come on to the chat rooms to discuss sexual topics and allow users to ask personal questions anonymously. za/ mobile/ vodafone-live [11] South African sexologist Dr Eve [12] http:/ / www.Mobile technology in Africa The mobile community is unique to the Vodacom network. php?articleID=958& pid=press_releases . co. htm https:/ / www. org/ our-solutions/ mobile-technology/ tech4dev/ index. habarimedia. com/ news_article. Johannesburg and donated a computer and seven mobile phones to the Club. com/ stats1. These will be uploaded to their Facebook page and website all in an effort to report on criminal activity in the community. These are used by the young patrollers in the community to keep in touch and to report all crime incidents. businessweek. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / aiti. praekeltfoundation. org/ news/ mobile-health-activity-spreads-over-4-5-countries-remains-limited-small-scale-and-single-issue[7] http:/ / www.”[11] 188 Community crime fighting In 2011 Vodacom pioneered a project in South Africa to fight crime using mobile phones. Each mobile phone donated has internet capabilities and the members of the Club will be allocated a mobile phone that they will use to capture events. unfoundation. All with a social call to action at the end. Users have engaged with the community and many of the updated features of the community have come directly from user suggestions. The South African Police Service also runs a national crime line which they encourage citizens to SMS in and report crimes in their communities. com. Vodacom’s mobile platform. praekeltfoundation. which is notorious for high levels of criminal activity. . For example well known South African sexologist Dr Eve hosts live chats once a week. unfoundation.. The community is aimed at users between 16 and 24 and users receive daily news and celeb stories. internetworldstats. The ongoing challenge with free mobile communities and technology is continuing to engage the service provider to allow the community to be entirely free.[12] They partnered with The Khulisa's Youth out of School Ubuntu Club in Tembisa. interview members of the community and create video clips. as well as update the community on current events. Vodafone Live. they participate in polls. making them proud of their status and encouraging them to be responsible around sex. vodacom. au/ Research/ 2010-Global-Mobile-Communications-Key-Trends-and-Growth-in-a-Challenging-Environment. mhealthalliance. budde. html [8] http:/ / www. edu/ http:/ / www. “With YoungAfricaLive South Africa. watch videos that link to stories and can engage in anonymous chat rooms.

DS3. The MSC communicates with the phone over the control channel to tell it which frequencies to use. it listens for the network operator's SID (System Identification Code) on the control channel. Anytime a MSC successfully registers a subscriber the HLR record is also updated. The region to be served by a Cellular Geographic Serving Area(CGSA) is split into geographic cells. It is responsible for interconnecting calls with the local and long distance landline telephone companies. location updating and call routing. If both SIDs match then it knows that it is communicating with a cell in its home system. it will query the HLR to obtain the subscriber's profile and save it for a set length of time in its VLR. etc. If the subscriber has previously registered to a particular MSC then the MSC will have a record in its VLR and will therefore know the subscriber last registered location. It also contains the equipment for controlling the cell sites that are connected to the MSC. If the subscriber is unknown to the MSCs VLR. Its subordinate BSC/RNC are responsible for assigning frequencies to each call. If it cannot find any control channels to listen to then it assumes it is outside the range and displays a message indicating no service. The MSC is connected to a close telephone exchange by a trunk group. All cellular systems have at least one MTSO which will contain at least one MSC. and once the phone and the tower switch on those frequencies. When the MSC gets the call. A subscriber's VLR profile has a LAC(Location Area Code . With the subscriber's VLR Profile the MSC can determine the last known LAC/CID for this subscriber and knows which BTS to use when it needs to ring/page that phone for an incoming call. Other MTSO equipment. OCn or Ethernet circuits. reassigning frequencies for handoffs. there has to be a method of connectivity between the MTSO and the cell site. the cell site controllers provide control functions for a group of cell sites and actions of mobile phones through command and control data channels. Then it picks a frequency pair the phone will use in that cell to take the call. receives the SID and then compares it to the SID programmed into the phone. The systems in the MTSO are the heart of a cellular system. recording billing data and processing data from the cell site controllers. The MTSO contains the switching equipment or Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for routing mobile phone calls. If it finds a control channel to listen to. This provides an interface to the (Public Switched Telephone Network) (PSTN). the call is connected. When a mobile phone is turned on. The phone also transmits a registration request along with the SID. can be switched automatically to a channel in the next cell. It also provides connectivity to the PSTN. it checks its database for the location of the phone. authentication. controlling handoffs so a mobile phone leaving one cell (formally known as BTS)'s coverage area. It also provides resources needed to efficiently serve a mobile subscriber such as registration. These cells are ideally hexagonal in shape and they are initially laid out with their centers about 4 to 8 miles apart from each other. Subscriber Registration The MSC also plays a major role in call routing. This will help when a call is received outside of the MSC's coverage area or for an incoming PSTN call. This may be by DS1. compiling billing information (with the help of its CBM/SDM). To achieve this. The MSC is responsible for switching calls to mobile units as well as to the local telephone system.Area server by cluster of BTS/cell sites) CID (Cell ID) as well as a list of allowed and disallowed services/features and other information. .Mobile Telephone Switching Office 189 Mobile Telephone Switching Office The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) is the mobile equivalent to a PSTN Central Office.

Mobile tickets reduce the production and distribution costs connected with traditional paper-based ticketing channels and increase customer convenience by providing new and simple ways to purchase tickets. Mobile ticketing is the process whereby customers can order. Mobile ticketing is a prime example of horizontal telecommunication convergence. the BSC(GSM) or RNC(3G UMTS) will automatically instruct it to tune to a different frequency. obtain and validate tickets from any location and at any time using mobile phones or other mobile handsets. Mobile ticketing 1. The MSC also performs handovers/handoffs which occurs when a call needs to be handed off to a different BSC/RNC it serves or to completely new MSC. BSC/RNC are the RAN/UTRAN (Radio Access Network & UMTS Radio Access Network) subset in the mobile network. The returning instructions for handoff sent during a call must use the voice channel. Highly populated areas require more BTSs and BSCs/RNCs which will in turn obviously. References • Nathan J. Telecommunication system engineering. A MSC can serve many BSCs/RNCs which in turn server many BTS. if the SID on the control channel does not match the SID programmed into the phone. • James Harry Green (2005). The above in a MSC is what's considered as it's mobility management. Freeman (2005). Muller (2003). McGraw-Hill Professional. one assigned to the newly entered BTS. Fundamentals of telecommunications. The Irwin handbook of telecommunications. The remaining functions of a MSC are identical to a PSTN switch. Wireless A to Z. McGraw-Hill Professional. and the entire returning process takes only about 300 milliseconds. Freeman (2004). The BTS.[1] Applications for Mobile Tickets • • • • • • Airline check-in Cinema ticketing Concert/Event ticketing Consumer voucher distribution Mass transit Trade shows . The advantages of mobile ticketing include reduced paperwork time. As a result a MSC can serve a large are typically hundreds of miles. Mobile ticketing is a method by which law enforcement agencies use in-car computers to create traffic citations in the field. • Roger L. will reduce the geographic coverage of a DMSC. 2. then print a hard copy for the offender. then the phone assumes that it is roaming. place by analyzing measurements of radio signal strength made by the present controlling cell site and by its neighbors. reduced chance of tickets being made void by human error and immediate accessibility of citation information by other departments. The data regarding the new channel are sent rapidly (in about 50 milliseconds). This process is called handoff. pay for.Mobile Telephone Switching Office 190 Handovers As a mob unit engaged in a call moves away from a cell site or formally known as Base transceiver station and its signal weakens. John Wiley and Sons. • Roger L. John Wiley and Sons. After handoff.

. The next logical step for consumers who are looking for even more convenient methods of doing business is mobile purchase. e-commerce has exploded. or any credit card purchase has to be achieved through a web page as the SMS has no security suitable for credit card entry. via text messaging or over the phone from a voice call. Other methods for billing include having a mobile wallet that allows the phone user to charge their credit card. SMS Purchase SMS purchase is usually achieved by sending an SMS message containing a short code (e. A return message is sent containing the mobile ticket.Mobile ticketing 191 Advantage of mobile tickets • • • • Improved consumer convenience Increased revenue by increasing accessibility of tickets Reduced infrastructure costs (scanners retail at 30 times the cost of 1d scanners) Reduced ticket printing/mailing cost Using Mobile Tickets Mobile Purchase Over the past 10 years. with many consumers becoming increasingly comfortable with purchasing online. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) 2007 announced a global standard that paves the way for global mobile phone check-in using two-dimensional (2D) bar codes.[2] Mobile Tickets can be purchased in a variety of ways including online.or distance based pricing and different zone systems. or a secure mobile application. The revenue share model need to be re-negoatiated separately with teleoperators to suit for mobile ticketing. For repeated purchases such as daily train tickets. GU for a youth ticket or GN as a night tariff ticket in Gothenburg).g. The industry has set a deadline of the end of 2010 to implement 100% bar coded boarding passes (BCBP). Different ticket types can be ordered with a different code (e. GV for a single adult ticket in Gothenburg. which is not viable when the ticket has a conventional profit margin. WAP page. Upon full implementation. around 40% of the transaction value is retained by the mobile operator and sms aggregator. The drawbacks to text message purchasing is that either the vendor loses 40% of their revenue to the mobile operator. The main business limitation is that when premium SMS is used for billing. BCBP is said to be able to save the industry over US $500 million annually. but the limitation is the low usage volume of these kind of payment solutions. and very few ticket choices can be easily remembered and entered by SMS. mobile applications or text messaging are good options. Sweden) to a service number.g. The price of the ticket can be added to the users mobile phone bill or debited from their pre-paid service using premium SMS billing. This trend will be accelerated by the increased functionality of today's mobile devices. either time. The use of different ordering codes enables creating a variety of ticket types.

IRDA or RFID.which can store and render barcodes delivered via SMS. Mobile Ticket Redemption Visually validated mobile tickets are validated without connection to a back office system. Very few phones outside Japan have RFID/NFC tags and so this method of delivery is largely unsupported. Optically reading the display of a cell phone is heavily influenced by the quality of the display (resolution. Picture messaging is supported by almost all phones and is generally the delivery method of choice.usually uses a barcode Dedicated Mobile application . such as the London Oyster card travel system and the M-PhaTic system of the Swedish state railways SJ are designed so that scanners can operate as disconnected islands when connectivity to central systems is lost. WAP Push and MMS) . which is especially useful for transport tickets. and the portable venue or on-vehicle scanning devices cannot always have a connection to the live ticket database. reflections).visual inspection or OCR Picture messaging (SMS. meaning faster and more successful scanning. Southend United Football Club is currently the only team in the UK to have a mobile ticketing facility offered to fans. It usually requires the sender to know the phone model in advance so that the picture is rendered at the correct resolution.This is the method proposed under the Near Field Communication (NFC) specification but not yet in general use. size of pixels.Mobile ticketing Online Purchase Online purchase is still an option for mobile tickets. Text-only messaging is supported by all mobile phones and is the simplest method of delivery. (Many transport ticketing systems. Text-based codes use OCR software. Near Field Communication devices scan using an RFID reader. Each of the above methods has its specific benefits and drawbacks. EMS.) . RFID is only supported by a very few phones yet. 192 Mobile Ticket Delivery Delivery of tickets to mobile phones can be done in a variety of ways: • • • • Text messaging (SMS) . New systems that make use of encryption of the data inside the barcode enable off-line scanning and validation. allowing the user to setup an account and choosing payment options etc. Picture-based messages require a laser scanner (for 1-dimensional/linear barcodes) or camera based imager (for 2-dimensional barcodes) to photograph the message and decode it into a ticket ID. Barcodes rendered on the device by a dedicated application have the advantage of being full screen without clutter. • Device RFID . Bluetooth. which is especially important if users are purchasing tickets immediately prior to use. GPRS. Most forms of mobile tickets require some form of device to read the ticket from the user's device.visual inspection or OCR Text messaging with WAP Push . except of Japanese Osaifu-Keitai. Mobile Ticket Scanning Visually validated mobile tickets do not require a scan device. Other forms of mobile ticket systems contact a server that is able to verify the ticket and record that it has been used. A dedicated mobile application can also help the user to organise and sort their tickets better than when an SMS or MMS inbox is full of similar tickets.

Remote or local server. Remote or World wide delivery local server. Secure. secure & also working customizable on Mobile Tickets in Facebook App Offices: Sofia/Bulgaria. Eagle Eye Solutions Limited Central server lookup utilising either internet or existing financial networks. Asia and Tickets. Utilises existing Chip and PIN technology for ticket code capture and data transfer. Unique and multi use tickets available. Remote or local server. Text-based SMS as response to text in. North America Banking and Payments. Secure real time redemption of ticket.. Requires Worldwide. Integration into Chip and PIN system. validated in real-time. . Secure. possible. Capture of significant customer data. iPhone at point of entry. The solution includes PDA software and Back Office system. The solution is used to sales tickets on move. PDA communicate with BO via WiFi/GPRS connection. bCode Text-based SMS. PDA or kiosk rental costs. Mobile with partners in Europe.Brisbane/Australia Mobile Tickets Ltd In-Mobile Application. integrated thermal printer. codeREADr Barcode:1D and Embedded data 2D print or virtual. reliable. Barcode 1D and 2D delivered via secure encrypted SMS or GPRS. fast. PDA or Chip and PIN handset. Worldwide. For budget-conscious (scanner already in pocket). United States scanner devices. Customer types unique code into kiosk. text push.Mobile ticketing 193 Solutions Company Delivery Method Scanning Method Validation Method Advantages Disadvantages Location Mobile Ticketing Solution Bissano Software ltd Worldwide delivery! Barcode scanner. dynamic user experience. using a 3kb Java Platform Providers of the first ever Twitter to Mobile Barcode delivery solution Consulting on Offices based in London (UK).. Electronically (camera). scanner and kiosk equipment required for Mobile Ticketing Investment for Australia. strong device support. WAP Purchase. also offering solutions for the purchase of turnstiles.

Investment in scanner devices required if existing units cannot be used. barcode 1D and 2D. Secure. Codes validated with mBARC/Newland scan engine. Secure. Secure. CRM and access management solutions. optional extra verification by phone. Finland. including handheld units from well-known brands. High telecom costs of MMS messages. EMS or MMS. Secure. API to integrate to existing ticketing solutions Rental of or investment for scanner devices. Secure control code system for visual validation. SMS.Mobile ticketing GEAR. Integration with proximity couponing via Bluetooth own servers. integrated marketing services.it Barcode-based MMS. Europe. API integration into existing systems Rental of or investment for scanner devices. Problem with several phone models. (service worldwide) INA Finland Text-based SMS w/WAPpush. no phone settings or pre-registration required. single SMS. No investment for scanner devices. wide-reach.reliable. Off-the shelf image scanner. integration with ticketing. Investment for scanner devices. Sweden. Remote or local server. RFID Imager/Camera-based Remote or scanners. worldwide . INA secure server and/or local server. No settings or pre-registration needed.strong device support. strong device support. fraud prevention. single SMS. Worldwide Impact Mobile Barcode-based SMS w/WAPpush or MMS. Visually / validators. No visual validation. Italy 194 Gavitec AG Barcode-based SMS. live voucher. EXIO & MD-20 barcode scanners. Tampere. Remote or local server. InMoDo (M-PhaTic) Text-based SMS. Remote or local server. range of scanners for different use-cases. Email. although implementation possible. local server as ticket code contains full information Investment in scanner devices required if existing units cannot be used. Secure and easy.

Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner local server World wide delivery. MMS. MMS. Secure. MMS. Barcodes delivered in a single SMS. WAP. optimised barcode tailored to the mobile to ensure successful scanning - Worldwide Moo! Mobile Technology Barcode-based 2D barcode scanner SMS. scanner / visually WAP. 2D barcodes on mobiles Remote or local server Investment for scanner devices. API integration into existing systems Removal of human visual validation. Twitter. EMS. EMS). Worldwide . Keyword Text-In/Push/WAP Purchase/Secure Interfaces Barcode SMS 1D. including using other mobile phones as the inspection device Encrypted barcode contents enable off-line validation without synchronising ticket databases onto the local scanner.Mobile ticketing Liquid Barcodes Barcode. Investment for scanner devices. Nokia Smart. Secure. secure. integrated marketing services. Secure and Encrypted. Mobimatics Caching GPRS manifest downloads stored on local devices. Mobiqa Barcode-based SMS. Mobile application must be installed on phone by the user or the operator Norway 195 Masabi Dedicated mobile application. local server. Encrypted/Plain text QR code. usually Java Platform. visual ID included. MBO Barcode-based Off the shelf image SMS. WAP Push or MMS. or on-line validation. Netherlands. Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner. More reliable barcode scanning because of full-screen rendering of the barcode. Handheld QR code scanners. 2D M-Scan Validator 1D. without any sign-up process or passwords. barcode tickets delivered via encrypted SMS or GPRS Any 2D barcode scanner. visual ID included. Integration with Facebook. wide-reach. NOKIA SMART. Worldwide deployments Micket Mobile Ticket Barcode-based SMS. Remote or local server. WAP Push or MMS Remote or local server Integrated branding Phone model and marketing required solution. Worldwide delivery. live voucher. Rental of or Worldwide Investment for scanner devices. United Kingdom. total fraud prevention. Mobile and Event Ticketing Solutions Secure. Micro Edition. (SMS. optimised 1D and 2D barcodes tailored to the mobile to ensure successful scanning Secure ticket purchase and delivery from the mobile. fraud prevention. API available.

Patented control code system for visual validation. even an Android smart phone with camera and downloadable software can be used as handheld validator. binary SMS to carry bar codes) Visually (naked eye) or validators reading textual content Remote or local server. data necessary On Device None Verification®. Fixed and handheld scanners available. phones. Operated since 2001 with over 60 million tickets sold. system works in all mobile phone models without registration or even data settings requirements. fast setup.g. all options available Delivers tickets via SMS text message PCT patent pending On Device Verification® and dynamic elements on tickets and coupons. tested with 2 optional scanner/validator systems. easy integration of API. As textual SMS used. Investment for Worldwide scanners needed (but only if automatic validation is required). secure solutions Rental of or investment for scanner devices - Global. Credit card registration needed. no need for e. No scanners needed Off-the shelf image scanner Remote server. global delivery.Mobile ticketing MogoTix QR code-based ticket delivered through SMS Validated using MogoTix iPhone or Android apps Remote or local server Self-service ticketing. event organizers can sign up to quickly sell mobile tickets to events iPhone or Worldwide Android phone required to scan tickets 196 NTT DoCoMo (Osaifu-Keitai) Online purchase. ScreenTicket SMS with link delivered to web based mobile tickets and coupons. downloaded to RFID chip (Mobile FeliCa) RFID reader (PaSoRi) Online lookup Secure RFID system Not usable for without visual non-compliant scanning. No investment needed when using visual checking. Still often uses paper ticket for confirmation. Plusdial SMS text message (one SMS is enough. based out of Denmark ShowClix Ticketing LLC Remote server United States .

Free software tyntec Secure. integration with ticketing. Connectivity. Content sent via SMS/WAP Push. remote or local. Content sent via WAP and embedded email 2D barcode. MMS. wide-reach. WAP. NFC. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Any 2D barcode scanner Removal of human visual validation. NFC or RFID via Sincoda terminal. Customised version for car parks Online lookup via GPRS or WiFi. USA. attached to an access control reader or built into a kiosk. . local server or trickle fed PDA database. remote or local. Investment for scanner devices. WAP Push or MMS. (SMS. or Kiosk NOKIA. MMS. delivery. total fraud prevention. Strong device support. API option. Read paper and mobile barcodes. Rental of or investment for scanners needed. unique one time use codes. Keyword Text-In/Push/WAP Purchase/Secure Interfaces Barcode. visual ID included. Investment in traditional 2D scanners or smart phones. CRM and access management solutions. Ltd Barcode. 2D) Online lookup.can integrate with any coupon/ticket/loyalty programme.Mobile ticketing Sincoda Limited 2D barcode creation. WAP. Strong device support. authentication and redemption. Indian Investment for India . 2D-Barcode via Mail to BlackBerry/PDA. Worldwide Investment for Worldwide availability. Highest scanner privacy protection devices. Secure RFID/NFC reader with dual SAM slots. through end-to-end control over the entire GSM delivery path. Wifi and GPRS Online. Worldwide Timoco Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner. Scalable worldwide with connectivity. EMS). local database or custom integration Open system .Chamrajpet. Bangalore. PDA MMS. Secure. Smartmachine CCD-camera based Online or barcode scanner. custom built local server. end-to-end. Barcode reader. WAP. WAP Push. United Kingdom 197 Skycore LLC 2D barcode creation. Cross carrier (US). to scan/read 2D barcodes. NOKIA SMART. protection through end-to-end control over the entire GSM delivery path. delivery and redemption. EMS). barcode scanners (1D. EMS). local. scanner Highest privacy devices. Off-the-shelf 2D Local or scanners and/or smart Remote phones authenticated Server. MMS and Email. optional printer dock. MMS. MMS specialist. Western Europe Trinity Mobile Limited Barcode (SMS. Secure. 2D-Barcode-based SMS. Secure. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Any 2D barcode scanner Online. Strategic partnership with IATA for mobile boarding passes. Barcode-based SMS. Rental of or investment for scanners needed. NOKIA SMART. strong device support. Pyrumas Software Pvt. (SMS. enterprise solution.

Android. 3G.co Text base SMS 100% compatible with all mobile handsets. Ikôn. rental of scanner units available (South Africa Only) Investment for South Africa scanner devices. prnewswire. strong devices device support.MMS. com/ index. Investment for EU base and soon Worldwide No phone settings or scanner Partner. required.Mobile ticketing Unwire SMS. Barcode scanner. PDA communicate with BO via WiFi/GPRS connection. www. pl?ACCT=109& STORY=/ www/ story/ 03-11-2008/ 0004771817& EDATE= [2] http:/ / mttnow. Romania. integrated thermal printer. EMS. Mobile Ticketing Solution The solution includes PDA software and Back Office system. API integration into existing systems. The solution is used to sales tickets on move. fraud prevention. Latin possible.Secure. WAP and EMAIL(Optional for Smartphones). WiFi. No need additional software to install on the phone. and remote or imager/camera-based local scanners No sign-up needed. secure & required for America customizable customization and messaging service White label solution. Easy integration of api. code lookup Online. Inc.strong and reliable device support .only SMS. World wide delivery Investment Offices: Finland. USA. Investment for Europe multiple payment scanner methods. smartphone apps and mobile web Visual. Motorola .Brisbane/Australia References [1] http:/ / www. 2D) WapOneline SMS. Purchase Conf# or Barcode delivered to handset Remote or local server validation. custom Remote or built barcode local server scanners (1D . WAP & Mobile Web Interfaces Premium and Standard Rate SMS Connections to 30+ Carriers Handheld units IPhone.mTicket. Worldwide delivery! Offices: Sofia/Bulgaria. highly flexible ticket product types Secure. integrated marketing services. Smart camera image scanner. Off-the shelf. DataTEK Group. live voucher. 198 Wayin Solutions 1D and 2D Barcode-based message (SMS. php?pageID=14 . com/ cgi-bin/ stories. pre-registration devices.

The first commercially successful MVNO in the United Kingdom was Virgin Mobile UK. This resistance presented a challenging operating environment for the MVNO.Mobile virtual network operator 199 Mobile virtual network operator A mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) is a company that provides mobile phone services but does not have its own licensed frequency allocation of radio spectrum. the MVNO appears as a roaming partner to other networks abroad. in this case. In general. CDMA. which allows more flexibility and ownership of the subscriber's mobile phone number (MSISDN).[1] Conversely. the regulatory authority sought to introduce the MVNO/wholesale model to drive competition into a market that was considered to involve significant market power which existed for early entrant MNO's in those countries. Many use a Mobile Virtual Network Enabler. There is a distinction between MVNOs and service providers. in that an MVNO doesn’t incur the significant capital expenditure on spectrum and infrastructure that an MNO does. nor does it have the time consuming task of rolling out extensive radio infrastructure. The regulatory perception was that the MVNO model would be a time efficient and cost effective route for telecoms companies to enter the market and therefore bring increased competition for the benefit of the consumer. and the individual situations of the MNO and MVNO. An MVNO's roles and relationship to the MNO vary by market. which presented a more favorable environment for a potential MVNO. nor does it necessarily have all of the infrastructure required to provide mobile telephone service. such as mobile switching centers (MSCs) or a radio access network. a company that does have frequency allocation(s) and all the required infrastructure to run an independent mobile network is known simply as a mobile network operator (MNO). such as in the Scandinavia region. Usually. or HLR. The situation created was one of a reluctant HNO which felt that it was being forced into a commercial relationship that would eventually have a negative impact on its revenues. who purchase wholesale mobile minutes and resell to end-users.[3] launched in 1999 and currently has over 4 million customers in the UK. MVNOs are roughly equivalent to the "switchless resellers" of the traditional landline telephone market. the MVNO does not own any GSM. Conversely and more recently many mobile network operators believe that there is merit in operating a wholesale MVNO business unit to complement their retail model. Regulatory intervention designed to lower the barriers for market entry and ultimately increase competition or a strategic decision by an MNO looking to extend its existing operations and target niche or underserved segments through a second or perhaps multiple brands. an MVNO is an entity or company that works independently of the mobile network operator and can set its own pricing structures that are subject to the rates agreed with the MNO. Service providers generally do not have their own SIM cards. Virgin replicated its UK success through its US operation Virgin . and as a network within its own region. and the services they provide depend on the services of the hosting MNOs or MVNOs. The efficiency is obtained by the nature of the MVNO business model. country. Some MVNOs run their own billing and customer care solutions known as business support systems (BSS). An MNO that does not have a frequency spectrum allocation in a particular geographical region may operate as an MVNO in that region. In many of the early markets the regulator forced Host Network Operators (HNO's) to open their network to a potential competitor.[2] Background and history The emergence of the MVNO model in a market is often a result of one of two factors. or other core mobile network related infrastructure. most notably with regard to negotiating the best wholesale deal possible. And have therefore either openly embraced potential MVNO partners or endeavored to launch their own branded MVNOs. For some of the earlier markets that embraced the MVNO model. Some may own their own home location register.

which was acquired by Sprint Nextel for a total equity value of approximately USD$483 million. Most industry observers believe that over time. data platforms and billing solutions. 6GMOBILE. Initially. and mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE). and failed in Singapore. These are distinct from domestic MVNO agreements and are intended to provide transparency of international tariffs. particularly their logistics. They still work with MVNEs. rMVNOs. which in turn are operated by 515 companies (some companies operate multiple MVNOs in the same country). Martin Dawes Systems. According to Pyramid Research. Virgin ran using a service provider model—essentially reselling capacity on T-Mobile. Transatel. Examples of a non-consumer MVNO being wireless maingate and white Machine-to-Machine (M2M) data-based MVNOs. One specific sector of MVNO operations focuses on international. but they tend to opt for specialised ones with best-of-breed solutions and a strong reputation. and Baraka Telecom in Asia. . LogicStar. including MVNO. Companies include [7] Cognatel. and have complemented them with partnerships to provide end-to-end enablement services. and subsequently rolled out in several European markets. This model formed the basis between the co-operation between Tele2 in Sweden and Telia. Transatel. Cognatel. ASPIDER Solutions. ASPIDER Solutions. Companies include Teleena. Elephant Talk.Telogic Teleena. distribution and customer care systems. there are three main categories of MVNEs. albeit with a different strategy. txtNation. 6GMOBILE. Tyntec. roaming mobile virtual networks operators (rMVNO).[4] However ventures in Australia have not been so successful. operationally light MVNOs of today have generally worked with an aggregator MVNE that managed the limited back-end operations on behalf of the MVNO. aql. and Baraka Telecom in Asia. [6] Terminology The industry is going through stages characterized by alphabet soup nomenclature. However the majority of MVNOs are consumer-focused and most have a focus on price as their unique selling point. The first MVNO was created by Tele2 in Denmark. Elephant Talk.[5] MVNOs target both the consumer and enterprise markets. strong brand MVNO is transforming the dynamics of the MVNE market. They are not solely focused on the MVNO market. The new breed high-end. Qualution. while others will go out of business (examples are Disney Mobile and Helio in the USA and easyMobile in Europe). Convergys. Aggregator MVNEs with their own platforms this includes aggregators which have developed one or more back-office solutions internally.Mobile virtual network operator Mobile USA. Effortel. The voice-centric. according to their MVNO solutions: Aggregator MVNEs these offer consulting and integration services and have bundled all of the back-office network components through alliances. consolidation will take place on the market. These promote their ability to quickly provide order-to-cash solutions to MVNOs. they choose to own more of their platforms. Besides leveraging their own existing assets. 200 MVNOs worldwide As of May 2011 there are 645 active MVNO operations in the world. Companies include Ztar and TMNG. 120 MVNOs now offer mobile broadband services. created when Telia failed to obtain a 3G license in their home market. Specialised enablers these offer only parts of the back-office network such as messaging platforms.

An MVNO strategy can generate economies of scale for better network utilisation. These companies are pushing their own business model as content driven MVNO. other Global Service or specialized application based MVNO are also growing. Discount MVNOs provide cut-price call rates to market segments. Mobile operators and MVNOs There are three primary motivations for mobile operators to allow MVNOs on their networks. . customer service. sales. text. product. Network utilisation-driven strategies Many mobile operators have capacity. and content to their subscribers. whether alone or with partners and they can help attack targeted segments. Ethnic MVNOs like Lebara iCard Mobile and Globalcell Mobile who target ethnic communities by providing inexpensive calls to their home country. along with specific domain knowledge software applications with specific content. and provide access to their content in different countries via specialized Mobiles and existing IP coverage. Advertising-funded MVNOs like Blyk or MOSH Mobile build revenues from advertising to give a set amount of free voice. grow average revenue per user by providing new applications and tariff plans and also can help with difficult issues like how to deal with fixed-mobile convergence by allowing MVNOs to try out more experimental projects and applications. such as GPRS. Lifestyle MVNOs like Helio focus on specific niche market demographics. 201 MVNO classification Business MVNOs like BeyondMobile and Abica provide bespoke services to businesses. MVNOs are a way to implement a more specific marketing mix. Product-driven strategies MVNOs can help mobile operators target customers with specialised service requirements and get to customer niches that mobile operators cannot get to. help fight churn. The opportunity for mobile operators to take advantage of MVNOs generally outweighs the competitive threat. and segment needs–especially in new areas like 3G. MVNO models mean lower operational costs for mobile operators (billing. They usually host their services in one location. EVDO. These are generally: Segmentation-driven strategies mobile operators often find it difficult to succeed in all customer segments.Mobile virtual network operator Exploiting the wireless IP networks competing infrastructure bandwidth with low traffic due to the lack of Mobile Driven Content. marketing).

Furthermore the MVNO will usually handle marketing and sales to end-users them self. Mobile network enabler (MNE) An MNE is characterised by having their own mobile licence and own mobile infrastructure. The MVNE functions as a middleman between the MNO and the mobile providers without their own networks. SMS and MMS messages and data traffic. typically by tagging onto their existing fixed line operation.unlike the MNO . but is a technology provider that uses innovative hardware and software to enable MVNOs to create their own actual mini-networks. invoicing and collect consumption data and handle handset management themselves. A typical MVNO will be able to handle customer service. . and the MVNO will typically be able to handle producing SMS and MMS messages. the MSSE helps the MVNO to deploy its own network of low-power base-stations into areas the MNO could not justify. extend the reach of the its network at no cost. while preserving and enhancing the relationship between MVNO and MNO. The MVNO is often able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic. There is no impact on the MNO's mainstream network and it can. The MVNE is not capable of producing and distributing for example voice minutes and data traffic. their own mobile infrastructure and direct customer relationship to the end user. Using its agreement with the MNO. but the MVNO has the direct customer relationship with the end user. SMS and MMS messaging and data traffic themselves. Additionally the MNO will usually handle marketing and sales to end users themselves. but the MVNE will typically be able to handle producing SMS and MMS messages. this is a task for the MNE's wholesale customers. The MNE will typically be able to handle customer relationship. Mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) An MVNO is characterised by neither having their own mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. customer billing and collection of consumption data and handset management. this is a task for the MVNE's wholesale customers. The MNE will not handle marketing and sales to end-users. The MNE is capable of handling Network Routing themselves and the MNE will typically have roaming deals with foreign MNOs. A typical MVNE will handle customer service. The MNO can produce and distribute for example voice-minutes. The MNE is able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes. using Pico. The MVNE handles the technical side and often also tasks like customer service and legal assistance for mobile providers without their own network. but the MNE has . and operating within the MNO's spectrum license. customer billing. The MNO can typically handle customer service.Mobile virtual network operator 202 Understanding the MVNO value chain Mobile network operator (MNO) The traditional MNO is characterised by having their own mobile licence. Mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE) MVNEs are characterised by neither having a mobile licence nor mobile infrastructure or any direct customer relationship with the end-users. Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) The MSSE has no mobile infrastructure of its own. The MNE handles the technical side of the business and often also handles areas like customer service and legal assistance for mobile providers without their own network. It is therefore only an MNO that can establish themselves as an MNE. The MNO can handle Network Routing and will usually have roaming deals with foreign MNOs. if it chooses. customer billing and collection of consumption data and mobile handset management. collection of consumption data and mobile handset management. Additionally the MVNE will not handle marketing and sales to end-users. while the MVNO can improve its profitability by offering specialist and niche mobile solutions. The MVNO is able to handle Network Routing themselves and will typically have entered into roaming deals with foreign MNOs.no direct customer relationship with the end user.and Femto-cell technologies. The MVNE is capable of handling Network Routing and the MVNE has typically entered into roaming deals with foreign MNOs.

the MVNO own its SIM card. or mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This model is the most independent full MVNO model. and manage the IMSI translation between national and roaming cases. MNP. The Host-MNO is seen as a utility in order to initiate a national mobile originating call without host-MNO Intelligent Network triggering • The MVNO numbering plan is completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. This partner allocate a specific IMSI range. but the SP has the direct customer relationship with the end user. A typical BR will not handle customer service. Branded reseller (BR) A BR has neither a mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. and own roaming agreement). An SP is not able to handle Network Routing themselves and a SP will not enter into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. there are several models of MVNO. The SP will typically handle customer relationship. and the vocabulary must be technical in order to split the different models. The BRs' positive contribution to the value chain is (naturally) their "brand". The SP is not able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic and cannot produce SMS or MMS messages themselves. customer billing consumption data and handset management themselves. but their distribution power will also be a central asset for many Branded Resellers. own subscriber provisioning. own billing. customer billing or collection of consumption data and handset management themselves. the SP will typically handle their own marketing and sales to end-users. • IMSIs are from MVNO for national call (with its Mobile Network Code in the country) and roaming agreement is negotiated with a roaming partner. Full MVNO On-Brand • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card.Mobile virtual network operator Service provider (SP) An SP has neither a mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. AuC. • The MVNO can be extended in future as MNO. and core network elements (MSC. in order to control traffic and subscriber services. • Interconnect. IMSI. 203 MVNO models and value chain As such. The MVNO is as such as possible independent from the host-MNO. • The MVNO is able to route and bill "on-net" call. The BR will primarily concentrate their activities around marketing and sales to end-users. HLR. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can be qualified by the MVNO for voice/data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. Additionally. GGSN). The BR cannot handle Network Routing themselves and the BR will not enter into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. Example : 6GMOBILE (The Netherlands) aql (UK) [8] . MSISDN. The BR cannot produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic themselves and are not able to produce SMS or MMS messages. or other mobile/fixed operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. but has the direct customer relationship to end-users. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • The MVNO own in the country national Point Code.

or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Example : KPN Spain. MSISDN. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO • The MVNO own in the country National Point Code. • Interconnect. MNP. • IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. • IMSIs are from MVNO for national call (with its Mobile Network Code in the Country)and Roaming agreement is negotiated with a roaming partner. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. own subscriber provisioning. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. IMSI are arranged by host operator MNO • MNP. • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. IMSI. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • The MVNO own in the country National Point Code. but not its own roaming agreement. and own roaming agreement). own subscriber provisioning. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. own billing. • Interconnect. AuC. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. This partner allocate a specific IMSI range. Telecable (Spain) Full MVNO Mono-IMSI • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. AuC. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model.Mobile virtual network operator 204 Full MVNO Basic • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. and manage the IMSI translation between national and roaming cases. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) . own billing).

. Interconnect. The Host-MNO is completely controlling mobile calls via Intelligent Network triggering. • IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is Complete MVNO without any routing capabilities (no MSC in the MVNO network). The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Medium MVNO • • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. own billing). The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. IMSI. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. MNP. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. MNP are arranged by host operator MNO AuC. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. and partially the subscriber provisioning.Mobile virtual network operator 205 Complete or extended MVNO • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. are arranged by host operator MNO • AuC. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO • The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). but not its own roaming agreement. • Roaming agreement is negotiated by Host-MNO. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). own subscriber provisioning. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. IMSI. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. • Interconnect. The MVNO owns HLR and IN.

The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. The MVNO owns only Rating capabilities via Host-MNO Diameter oriented interfaces. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is IN MVNO without any charging capabilities (no MSC. The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. Interconnect. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is Medium MVNO without any routing capabilities (no MSC. Auc. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. Transatel (France). Auc. IMSI. no HLR in the MVNO network).Mobile virtual network operator 206 IN MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. MNP. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). The MVNO owns only IN. IMSI. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. R (cable operator) (Spain). The Host-MNO is completely controlling mobile calls via Intelligent Network triggering. Interconnect. Example : Fastweb (Italy). The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). MNP. KPN France. Example : Sisteer (France) . or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. The Host-MNO is completely controlling all mobile calls andIntelligent Network triggering. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. no HLR in the MVNO network). Effortel Diameter MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card.

The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card. Washington Post. in 2003. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Known also as reseller or service provider model. Blycroft. com [1] OFCOM report (http:/ / www. The MVNO owns only marketing. org. AuC. com/ home/ mvno-directory). Retrieved 2011-05-20. The Host-MNO is completely controlling all mobile calls and Intelligent Network triggering.com) • ZyAir Wireless (http://www. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier.Mobile virtual network operator 207 Light MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. [5] "MVNO Directory" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 21 Mar 2011.ja viestintäministeriö . . [6] "1 in 4 MVNOs upgraded to offering mobile broadband" (http:/ / www.understandingmvno. In the Middle East. . washingtonpost. telogic. fi/ fileserver/ mvno pricing structures in finland. dk [8] http:/ / www. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. com/ aboutus/ media/ news/ 2001/ 2001-06-25/ ) [4] Cecilia Kang (28 July 2009). com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 07/ 28/ AR2009072800878. Interconnect. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan.com (http:/ / about. 2011-05-20. the European Commission issued a recommendation to national telecom regulators (NRAs) to examine the competitiveness of the market for wholesale access and call origination on public mobile telephone networks. lvm. Blycroft. [7] http:/ / www. com/ home/ mvno-directory/ press-releases). IMSI. Retrieved 2011-05-31. MNP. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). Jordan's TRA has issued its first MVNO regulations in 2008 facilitating the entrance of the first MVNO in the region. virginmobile. "Sprint Nextel to Acquire Virgin Mobile USA" (http:/ / www. the MVNO was regulated by Anatel. The study resulted in new legislation from NRAs in countries like Ireland and France forcing operators to open up their network to MVNOs. virginmobile.Etusivu (http:/ / www. aql. telecomsnetworks. 2011-05-31. html). The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. . For example. telecomsnetworks. In Brazil.com) . ofcom. References [2] Liikenne. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. uk/ consult/ condocs/ mobile_call_termination/ wmvct/ annexf/ ) • Understanding MVNOs (http://www. pdf) (Swedish) [3] About Virgin Mobile. and sometimes billing and provisioning. Legislation Presently many companies and regulatory bodies are strongly in favour of MVNOs.zyairwireless. the Brazilian Agency of Telecommunications in November 2010.

as well as encryption of the data traffic in compliance with security standards such as FIPS 140-2 Link optimization and data compression improve performance over wireless networks. the mobile VPN handles the logins automatically Software applications that run in an "always-connected" wired LAN environment run over the mobile VPN without modification Enforces authentication of the user.[3] Increasingly. fail. a laptop goes into hibernation. smart card. or SSL VPNs. Enforces two-factor authentication or multi-factor authentication using some combination of a password. they are being adopted by mobile professionals and white-collar workers as well. hospital settings.) Other VPN types are IPsec VPNs. or even the computing device itself to crash. or suspend-and-resume their devices to preserve battery life. especially on cellular networks where bandwidth may be constrained. and then logs off. as users roam between different cellular networks or Wi-Fi access points).[6] Function Persistence Roaming Application compatibility Security Acceleration Strong authentication Description Open applications remain active. open and available when the wireless connection changes or is interrupted. In a mobile environment. or a handheld user suspends and resumes the device Underlying virtual connection remains intact when the device switches to a different network. when they connect via other wireless or wired networks. launches applications that connect to corporate resources as needed.[2] Mobile VPNs are commonly used in public safety.[4] Makers of mobile VPNs draw a distinction between remote access and mobile environments. encounter gaps in coverage. throughout the working day. or both. encrypted tunnel for securely passing data traffic over public networks (typically.[4] A remote-access user typically establishes a connection from a fixed endpoint. Mobile VPNs are used in environments where workers need to keep application sessions open at all times. home care. which are useful for point-to-point connections when the network endpoints are known and remain fixed. notably for access to CJIS systems in law enforcement . which provide for access through a Web browser and are commonly used by remote workers (telecommuting workers or business travelers). required by some regulations. causing applications to disconnect. public key certificate or biometric device.[2] Comparison with other VPN types A VPN maintains an authenticated.Mobile virtual private network 208 Mobile virtual private network A mobile virtual private network (mobile VPN or mVPN) provides mobile devices with access to network resources and software applications on their home network. utilities and other industries. the Internet.[5] Mobile VPN functions The following are functions common to mobile VPNs. A conventional VPN cannot survive such events because the network tunnel is disrupted. time out. A mobile VPN maintains a virtual connection to the application at all times as the endpoint changes. the device. as they connect via various wireless networks.[1] . field service management. handling the necessary network logins in a manner transparent to the user. the endpoint changes constantly (for instance.

dispatch. work order management. delivered via SMTP. pharmacy. firefighters.). first responders registration plate databases. geographic information systems. Computerized physician order entry. and other aspects of the "health" of the device before allowing a connection. testing and training applications Claims systems. work-order management. automatic vehicle location. order fulfillment Dispatch. parts ordering.[8] Industry Public Safety Home Care Workers Applications Police officers. emergency Computer-assisted dispatch. electronic medical records.[7] Function Management console Description Displays status of devices and users. billing. TCP and UDP port. time of day. SNMP or syslog Network Access Control (NAC) Mobile Analytics Notifications Mobile VPN industries and applications Mobile VPNs have found uses in a variety of industries. Electronic medical records. scheduling. housekeeping. installation and repair technicians. in-home physical therapists and occupational therapists. this is useful for ensuring delivery of the essential "mission-critical" applications (such as computer-assisted dispatch for public safety) or giving priority to streaming media or voice-over-IP Evaluates the patch status. and parts inventory. estimating applications Field-service engineers. nurses and other staff Electronic health records. on layer-3 attributes (IP address. scheduling and billing applications Hospitals and Clinics Field Service Electronic health records. departmental intranet Visiting nurses. access requirements.Mobile virtual private network 209 Mobile VPN management Some mobile VPNs offer additional "mobile-aware" management and security functions. etc. the ability to control access by individual application software Quality of service Specifies the priority that different applications or services should receive when contending for available wireless bandwidth. parts ordering. dashcam software. and historical customer service data as well as databases of customer-premises equipment. repair technicians Field Sales Utilities Insurance Sales representatives Linemen. home care aides and hospice workers Physicians. asset tracking. where they give mobile workers access to software applications. Picture archiving and communications systems. state driver's license and vehicle services personnel. patient registration. and in some VPNs. and offers the ability to quarantine a device if there is possibility that it may have been lost or stolen Policy Management Enforces access policies based on the network in use. accounting Field Service Management which can include customer relationship management. and optionally may integrate with policies to remediate the device automatically Gives administrators a view into how wireless networks and devices are used Alerts administrators of security concerns or connection problems that impact users. documentation access Customer relationship management. inventory. field-service engineers Claims adjusters . maintenance tracking. criminal databases including the CJIS system. scheduling. giving information technology departments visibility and control over devices that may not be on the corporate premises or that connect through networks outside IT's direct control. anti-virus and anti-spyware protection status. bandwidth of the connection. customer-service.

[10] Mobile VPN is available for all Symbian OS based smartphones by Nokia. Simultaneously mVPN makes internal communication more efficient. com/ resources/ case_studies. Vendors • • • • • • • Birdstep Technology ERICSSON Radio IP Software Columbitech NeoAccel NetMotion Wireless Nokia References [1] Phifer. com/ article/ SB119717610996418467. "Lost Connections" (http:/ / online. columbitech. com/ products/ mobilevsssl. netmotionwireless. panasonic. http:/ / www. it connects remote and mobile users with the company.00. html [6] http:/ / www.com. html). netmotionwireless. techtarget. gd-itronix.[11] Mobile VPNs in telecommunications In telecommunication. com [8] http:/ / www. com/ business/ Toughbook. aspx [5] http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. by providing additional services and guarantees high quality for best value. such as the Panasonic Toughbook or the Itronix GoBook.289483. netmotionwireless. that includes all mobile and desk phones • Short dialling – a short number to access each employee. aspx . wsj.Mobile virtual private network 210 Mobile VPN devices Some mobile environments call for devices built to handle physical shock. "Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap" (http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. http:/ / www. Lisa. 2006. com [10] http:/ / www. netmotionwireless. SearchMobileComputing. aspx [4] http:/ / www. com/ support/ technotes/ 1515.289483. com/ tip/ 0. 2007.[12] Using mVPNs the company has the following advantages:[13] • Direct connectivity – the corporate network becomes part of mobile operator's network through direct connection • Private numbering plan – the communication is tailored to company organisation • Corporate Business Group – all offices and employees are part of one common group. [3] http:/ / www. http:/ / www. com/ tip/ 0. Through a connection between a leased line (E1/T1) and an enterprise PABX (Private Automatic Branch Exchange) system. Roger.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. com [7] http:/ / www.00. techtarget. [2] Cheng. netmotionwireless. Operating systems are typically Microsoft Windows-based. no meter on his mobile or desk phone • Smart Divert – easy divert within company group • Groups and subgroups – Several sub-groups could be defined within the group with different changing as well as with separate numbering plan • Calls control – certain destinations could be allowed or barred both on mobile and desk phones.[9] Various handhelds and smartphones may also be used. a mobile VPN is a solution that integrates all offices and employees in a common network that includes all mobile and desk phones. weather extremes or other conditions encountered outdoors or in the field. Some manufacturers create ruggedized computers. com. html). aspx [9] http:/ / www. com/ industries/ default. com. July 16. December 11. The Wall Street Journal. netmotionwireless. radio-ip. including special mobile-capable versions such as Windows CE and Windows Mobile.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. in laptop or Tablet PC configurations.

do?id=131& cid=79& pid=61 211 External links • VPN Consortium (http://www. SABRE. USA.networkworld.Workflows for Mobile centric services composition [1] • "Developing Workflow Engine for Mobile Devices". July 2007 References [1] http:/ / research. com/ product_data/ excerpt/ 10/ 04712190/ 0471219010. Salt Lake City. aspx) by Ramon Arja. Vila Real. wiley. nokia. 24–27 September 2007.Lasse Pajunen. The 11th International conference on EDOC-2007. WWW/internet 2007.com/sDefinition/ 0. Sameh Galal.html) • "Face-off: Mobile VPN is a better choice than an SSL VPN" (http://www. com/ projects/ mobile_business_processes . MSDN Magazine. Lasse Pajunen.com/columnists/ 2006/112706-mobile-ssl-vpn-yes.290660. Suresh Chande.The 6th International Conference on mobile business ICMB 2007. Annapolis. • "Modeling and Generating Mobile Business Processes". Leipzig. pdf [13] http:/ / www.00. USA.microsoft.html) by Tom Johnaton. In the proceedings of The IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). huawei. Utah. Network World (24 November 2006) Mobile workflow Mobile Workflows can be defined as specialized Workflows aimed to address deployment of workflows in mobile device infrastructure enabling automation of process interaction with traditional business processes from within the device. Anna Ruokonen. Sameh Galal. Lasse Pajunen.Mobile virtual private network [11] http:/ / www.techtarget.vpnc. com/ mobilevpn [12] http:/ / media. Suresh Chande. Portugal. com/ publications/ view. July 9–11. Germany.com/en-us/magazine/ee412260. • "Mobile Process Forms . nokia. Lasse Pajunen. Mobile Process . Maryland. 5–8 October 2007 • "ActiveForms: A Runtime for Mobile Application Forms". 15–19 October 2007. • "Designing User Interfaces for Mobile Business Processes using Messaging Interfaces".sid40_gci1227022. Toronto Canada. September 2009 • Search Mobile Computing: mobile VPN (http://searchmobilecomputing. Suresh Chande. Lasse Pajunen.An unified Messaging Interface". Suresh Chande.org/) • "An Introduction to IPsec VPNs on Mobile Phones" (http://msdn.

Mobile to mobile convergence (MMC) is a term to describe a technology used in modern computing and telephony.Info is a technical platform for the distribution of traffic information and other location-coded services. and uses the wireless carrier network if the WLAN is not present as a secondary function. which is delivered by Belgian company Mondial Telecom. The first offering known in the market successfully deploying MMC is beCherry. This is viewed as a more efficient use of networking technology than standard FMC solutions that are available as well.Info consortium The following companies were involved in the development of the Mobile.Info platform: • Audi AG [1] • Bayern Digital Radio GmbH [2] • Bayerische Motoren Werke AG [3] • • • • • • • • • • • Blaupunkt GmbH [4] Daimler AG [5] DDG Gesellschaft für Verkehrsdaten mbH [6] GEWI Hard. The term is an offshoot of fixed mobile convergence (FMC) and uses dual mode (cellular network and WiFi) phones with a special software client and an application server to connect voice calls and business applications via a VoWLAN and/or through a cellular service. Media & Broadcast [12] Volkswagen AG [13] WDR [14] The project management and administration was performed by K&S GmbH Projektmanagement [15]. It was developed between 2004 and 2006 by an industry consortium and successfully tested during 2007 in a series of large-scale field trials. Mobile. The Mobile. . They offer a MMC solution on Symbian. it also provides the capability of providing a greater voice coverage area than either carrier or WLAN technology alone since some areas do not have cellular service coverage and others do not have WiFi. since most of the latter use the carrier network as the primary means of communication and do not leverage the lower cost and controls of internet protocol-based networks that are generally installed at most modern businesses. Mobile to mobile convergence differs from conventional FMC in that the technology uses the WLAN to route calls via the internet as a primary function. In theory.info Mobile.und Software Entwicklungsgesellschaft [7] Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltung [8] Navteq [9] Siemens VDO Automotiv AG [10] Teleatlas [11] T-Systems International GmbH. iOS and Android.Mobile-to-mobile convergence 212 Mobile-to-mobile convergence The term mobile to mobile calling is used in many mobile phone plans to refer to making calls to other mobile phones using the same provider's network--which is often cheaper than other calls. Other smartphone OS's are also considered. The introduction of first operational services is expected for 2008. It is significant since it is viewed as a means to compete with carrier companies since the calls are routed around the cellular network.

t-systems-mediabroadcast. wdr. com/ [10] http:/ / www. com/ [12] http:/ / www. de/ [9] http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / www. com/ [11] http:/ / www. External links • • • • Mobile. specifically the development and standardization of new services and applications. daimlerchrysler. gewi. com/ [19] http:/ / www.Info [17] TISA [16] TMC Forum [18] TPEG Forum [19] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. tpeg. tmcforum. audi. bayerndigitalradio. org/ . fraunhofer. com/ http:/ / www. mobile-info. com/ http:/ / www. de/ http:/ / www.Info consortium. volkswagenag. is from 2008 on continued within the Traveller Information Services Association TISA [16]. de/ [15] http:/ / www. org/ [17] http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. com/ [14] http:/ / www. tisa.info 213 Future development The work of the Mobile. navteq. org [18] http:/ / www. bmwgroup. com/ http:/ / www. iis. blaupunkt. ks-pm. ddg. siemensvdo. de/ [16] http:/ / www.Mobile. de/ http:/ / www. teleatlas. com/ [13] http:/ / www.

The services including eSMS (Executive Short Message System) service enabling users to send messages from PCs to mobile phones and aggregation of news and content via its Really Simple Syndication (RSS) based news reader. mobispine. provides services for operators and end-users. Products also come in line with iPhone MMS sending and receiving and also User Generated Content products that the mobile operators can benefit from. External links • Mobispine home page [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Romania and Kiev. Currently we employ 25 people and the organization is constantly growing. Ukraine. Corporate headquarter is in Stockholm. Sweden with development offices in Cluj.Mobispine 214 Mobispine Mobispine a Value Added Services (VAS) company. com/ .

8 millimeters). Israel Area served Services Employees Website Israel and worldwide Mobile phone services 130+ [1] modu is an Israeli mobile phone company that was founded in 2007 by Dov Moran. On January 14 2011. The modu phone enables users to personalize their mobile's looks and features in a simple way by inserting it into a range of unique phone enclosures.modu 215 modu modu Industry Founder(s) Telecommunications Dov Moran Headquarters Kfar Saba. modu company holds the record for the world’s lightest mobile phone. known as modu jackets.9 million $[3] Concept Today's modular phones are designed to pack in as many applications as possible. modu is headquartered in Kfar-Saba. and are thus larger in size. and can be inserted into a variety of modu jackets. The modu phone is the opposite: small and compact (it holds the Guinness world record for most compact phone at a depth of 7. In this way. the modu phone essentially “changes” functionality and shape according to the user’s different needs and desires throughout the day. In mid May 2011 Google acquired several patents of Modu Mobile for 4. and has over 130 employees. .[2] . The concept behind this design is that the phone is small enough to fit into any jeans pocket. Each modu jacket has its own style and unique functions. most of whom are suing the company in order to receive back pay. it was announced that modu will be ceasing operations in February 2011 as it attempts to pay back debts and salaries owed to its workers. Israel.

yet fully functional and innovative. The modu jacket. With each individual modu jacket. Designed especially for exercisers. monitors workouts.75G or 3. The photo frame jacket enables hands-free conversation and features a practical keypad that allows easy dialing and navigation through the modu phone menu. which also acts as a charger. each surface creates a unique sound according to the density of the material from which it is made. the modu night jacket turns the modu phone into a stylish device with a distinctive angled keyboard. calls. modu 1 phone Alternatively. including the new generation of the modu phone – modu T phone. the modu sport jacket offers extended functionalities for training sessions. speedy. and shiny jackets offer enhanced mobile interfaces and experiences along with an ample range of fun new applications. Incredibly light. It is scheduled for distribution winter 2010 and holds the record for the lightest touch phone in the world. plays music and ensures that the user is available when needed. Further models are planned for the future.modu 216 Core: The modu 1 Phone The modu 1 phone is the heart of the modu jacket ecosystem and is the world’s lightest. The modu phone enables complete mobile functionality – texts. as cited by the Guinness Book of World Records™. and Bluetooth™ applications.5G. uses innovative technology to turn any surface on which it is placed into a resonance amplifier. modu sport jacket modu express jacket modu night jacket modu shiny jacket modu speedy jacket photo frame jacket i-mu speaker . fully functional phone and a record holder of the Guinness Book of Records™. The i-mu speaker. It can also be operated with a remote control. which wraps easily around the arm. Hence. cool and designed surround lighting and a camera. the phone will include a music player and a mass storage device of either 2. modu jackets Seven types of modu jackets are currently available. The modu express. It contains 2GB of internal memory and a music player. included in the product box. The photo frame jacket serves as a desktop companion that charges the modu phone while displaying pictures and playing music. the modu phone adopts a new interface and range of functions.

Peru. com/ [2] "Modu closing up shop in February" (http:/ / www.com/2008/02/07/modu-revealed/) • Gizmodo entry (http://gizmodo.modumobile. modumobile. Retrieved 2011-01-14. Honduras Conoxel . References • crunchgear entry (http://www.Israel Claro . Retrieved 2011-05-20. El Salvador.Romania Micromax . cnet.modumobile.com/353637/modu-cellphone-changes-function-with-jackets) • News stream about modu from TalkingMobile (http://talkingmobile. engadget.Brazil. Guatemala.techcrunch. .com) .com/) • Official modu blog (http://blog.modu 217 Partnerships modu partners include: BUG . . com/ 2011/ 01/ 14/ modu-closing-up-shop-in-february/ ).Nigeria Globe .online sales in United Kingdom TDT Distribution . cnet.online sales in Australia PurelyGadgets .com/?s=modu) External links • modu entry (http://www.Philippines Mobicity . html).India Notes [1] http:/ / www. com/ 8301-13506_3-20064624-17. Engadget. [3] "Google acquires Modu" (http:/ / news.

com. However. infostream. The first pager-like system was used in 1921 by the Detroit Police Department. the first pager that we would today recognize as such was Motorola's Pageboy I. htm http:/ / www. It used a UHF frequency from 464 to 475 MHz. starboy.4 Volt mercury or 3. com/ support. notepager. had no display and could not store messages. and they ran on a rechargeable 4. Infostream designer of pagers [5] Technical information on pager products References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. model H03BNC1102D0 External links • • • • • MULTITONE ELECTRONICS Inventors & manufacturers of paging systems [1] A Timeline of Motorola Milestones and Innovations (PDF) [2] POCSAG and FLeX pager gallery [3] NotePage technical support [4] . ru/ pagers/ pagers. pagers quickly began to replace public announcement systems in hospital and factories. It was introduced in 1974 by the company and could selectively deliver a radio message to a particular individual. motorola. com/ http:/ / www. The pager was activated by a 5-tone code. after which a voice message was transmitted. thanks largely to the success of this initial venture. etc. The first implementation of the Pageboy alarm receiver could only give an attention tone. au/ .Technical information on protocols. after the less known 1955 (not 1956 as believed) Pager called "Handie-Talkie Radio Pocket Pager".6 Volt nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd). However. Later versions of the Pageboy were able to deliver tone & voice. it was portable and notified the wearer that a message had been sent. html http:/ / www. multitone. Motorola Pageboy.Motorola Pageboy 218 Motorola Pageboy Motorola Pageboy was the second pager ever produced by Motorola with individual-unit addressing. The Motorola Pageboy used to be very popular with fire brigades as an alarm receiver and. pdf http:/ / www. com/ mot/ doc/ 0/ 613_MotDoc. The successor of this device was the Motorola Pageboy II. carriers.

with participation from other existing investors. from Chicago–based Advanced Equities Inc.com. Washington. and Smartphone.net in March 2004. In October 2004.com in September 2003. including PalmGear. eReader. Private Funding • USD$27 million in July 2004. • USD$32 million in August 2006.. in June. Originally formed as PowerByHand.de [3]. This last was part of a USD$185 million round of funding. the company changed its name to Motricity and announced the acquisition of Mobile2Day. These rounds raised the company's total funding to over USD$150 million. with the smartphone applications business going to the newly created Pocketgear.motricity. The company currently has over 300 employees and is headquartered in Bellevue. PowerByHand acquired a number of commercial Internet companies. Advanced Equities . New Enterprise Associates. Type Founded Founder(s) Public (NASDAQ: MOTR 2001 Ryan Weurch [1] ) Headquarters Bellevue. a company that provides content. PowerByHand merged with Pinpoint Networks.com in October 2002. one of the largest amounts of capital ever raised by a private company in North Carolina.com [2] Motricity was formed in 2001 by Ryan Wuerch to provide integrated mobile content solutions for handheld and mobile devices. • $40 million in April 2006. a European mobile content portal. with offices in Morrisville. information and education for hand-held and mobile devices. Corporate history In 2001.Motricity 219 Motricity Motricity. and Intel Capital. as well as such existing investors as Technology Crossover Ventures. Motricity later sold off these acquired units. to focus the company on mobile content delivery services. a provider of software and services for the management and delivery of mobile data services.. USA Key people Services Website Ryan Weurch (Chairman and CEO) Mobile Portal Services www. the company changed its name to Motricity in October 2004 after its merger with Pinpoint Networks. In April 2004. Wuerch founded PowerByHand. Additional funding came from Carl Icahn in the form of USD$50 million in March 2007 and another USD$50 million in October of that same year. Washington.. with participation from other existing investors. led by Advanced Equities Inc. and PocketGear. • USD$30 million in July 2005. 2008[4] . Inc. led by Silicon Valley-based Technology Crossover Ventures. Inc. including New Enterprise Associates and Technology Crossover Ventures. The name Motricity is a combination of the words mobile and electricity. led by Advanced Equities Inc. North Carolina and London.

Retrieved 2008-09-02.000 shares at US$10 per share[8] . "Motricity shares fall in IPO despite reduced price range" (http:/ / www. This was followed shortly by the announcement that 250 employees based in Durham would be laid-off. . MarketWatch. com/ story/ motricity-shares-fall-in-ipo-2010-06-18). offering 6. Kincaid. Shortly after the InfoSpace acquisition was completed. "Mobile Tech Developer Motricity Files For $250 Million IPO" (http:/ / www. External links • Official website (http://www. newsobserver. Norton. Jason (2010-01-22). Retrieved 2010-01-24. Wolf. and decided to move forward with that solution. com/ http:/ / mobile2day. 2008-06-04. . de/ "Motricity Co-Founder Launches New Venture. com/ business/ story/ 737571. com/ 2010/ 01/ 22/ motricity-ipo). Pimentel. Motricity found that the mCore storefront acquired from InfoSpace was more technically appealing. Frank (2008-03-04). The News & Observer. and the corporate headquarters moved to Bellevue. . "Motricity to buy InfoSpace unit for $135 million" (http:/ / www. newsobserver. com/ business/ story/ 980542. marketwatch. Retrieved 2008-09-02. PocketGear" (http:/ / www. adding to its USD$50 million already invested. . The total raised by this point in time was reported to be USD$405 million. WA. Benjamin (2010-06-18). Alan (2007-10-15). BusinessWire. The company went public on June 18. Retrieved 2008-09-02. techcrunch. The initial strategy of the company was to leverage the Fuel storefront solution with the newly acquired mCore mobile portal solution to present a total solution for mobile providers.motricity. com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. "Motricity to slash 250 jobs. asp?symbol=MOTR& selected=MOTR http:/ / www. .000. com/ news/ google/ 20080604005431/ en). motricity. html). move headquarters" (http:/ / www. 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-29. nasdaq. IPO On January 22. html). leaving approximately 100 employees remaining in Durham[6] . TechCrunch. The News & Observer.Motricity Inc.com/) . References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / quotes. 2010 the company filed for a $250 million IPO[7] . raised its investment by another USD$100 million. businesswire. 220 Acquisition of InfoSpace Mobile Division and Future Direction The October 2007 round of funding was used in large part to finance the January 2008 acquisition of the mobile division of Seattle based Infospace for a reported USD$135 million[5] .

They are considered two different nodes as they have their own routing addresses. In particular the MSRN is used into an MNP scenario (in this case it can be modified as 'RgN + MSISDN'). the MTV-1A could receive PAL or NTSC transmissions on VHF or UHF. MTV-1 The MTV-1 was the first model of a near-pocket sized television. There were two versions.e.MSRN 221 MSRN MSRN .Mobile Station Roaming Number The Mobile Station Roaming Number is an E. the identification of the current MSC together with the subscriber number. It can also be defined as a directory number temporarily assigned to a mobile for a mobile terminated call. Its physical size is almost identical to the Sinclair MTV1. the GSM specification indicates that the MSC and VLR (Visitor Location Register) do not need to reside on the same switch.[2] . not only the calls where the terminating MS lives on a different MSC than the originating MS. It was developed by Clive Sinclair and was released in 1978. i. The VLR generates this address on request from the MSC.the MSRN is one of the returned parameters into SRI_ACK message. Another temporary address that hides the identity of a subscriber. while the MTV-1B would only work with British and South African UHF PAL signals. A MSRN is assigned for every mobile terminated call. MSRN contains the current visitor country code(VCC). The MTV-1 used a minuscule 2" CRT.and the address is also stored in the HLR. Sources • Retro thing [1] This device was uniquely small for a CRT-based television. Although this seems unnecessary since many vendors' VLR's are integrated with the MSC. If we have all the MSC working as a GMSC like the latest technologies so what would be the states of the MSRN ? we can use it only for test to route the calls to a specific MSC otherwise we don't need it to use it. making it the smallest CRT built onto a commercially marketed product. the visitor national destination code (VNDC).214 defined telephone number used to route telephone calls in a mobile network from a GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Centre) to the target MSC (see Network Switching Subsystem). • Consider the Panasonic IC TV MODEL TR-001 introduced in 1970 as the first in this category.

tri-band. com/ video_tv/ index. the terms multi-band. net/ journal/ time-line/ http:/ / www.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. guenthoer.visions4. the purpose of doing so is to support roaming between different countries/regions whose infrastructure cannot support mobile services in the same frequency range. de/ mtv1/ index.MTV-1 222 External links • Franks Handheld TV Pages-Part 2 [3] • Franks Handheld TV Pages-Internal Pictures [4] • Vintage Micro Television http://www. Motorola Timeport. guenthoer. dual-band. visions4. de/ e-tube. htm http:/ / www. retrothing. the first tri-band mobile phone (1999) . quad-band and penta-band refer to a device (especially a mobile phone) supporting multiple frequencies used for communication. html http:/ / www. In the mobile case. htm Multi-band In telecommunications.

Kim. Standards ETSI • EN 300 748 • EN 301 215-3 • EN 301 997-2 UK Standards • MPT 1550 (obsolete) • MPT 1560 (obsolete) CEPT • ERC/DEC/(99)15 • ECC/REC/(01)04 Manufacturers of MVDS equipment • • • • • • • MDS America Inc Newtec EF Data BluWan Philips Broadband Network Hughes Network systems Thales Group (Thomson) .5 GHz frequency bands. org/ news/ events/ CDMASeminar/ 060420_NetworkCap/ ). Soonyil Kwon. swang. pdf). References [1] Shu Wang.13. googlepages.Multiuser detection 223 Multiuser detection Multiuser detection (also known as joint detection) is one of the receiver design technology for detecting desired signal(s) from interference and noise. MVDS currently is a part of broader MWS (Multimedia Wireless System) standards.5 and 40. The near-far is more serious in CDMA-liked wireless multi-user communication systems.5 . CA: CDMA Development Group Technology Forum (http:/ / www. cdg. San Francisco. Toward Forward Link Interference Cancellation (http:/ / to.43. where a near-by or strong signal source may block the signal receiption of far-away or weak user(s). MVDS MVDS is an acronym for terrestrial Multipoint Video Distribution System. & Hobin Kim (2006). And multiuser detection techniques can help the receiver solve this problem [1] .7 . . Sang G. Research for 42 GHz frequency has been done under the European Commition EMBRACE (Efficient Millimetre Broadband Radio Access for Convergence and Evolution) initiative. Traditionally single-user receiver is known suffering from the so-called near-far problem. com/ CDG-TowardForwardLinkInterferenceCan. In European Union MWS works in 10.

p. How it works? Mxim applications can develop using mxml and Mxim server renders mxml application user interface. It allows web developers can work using mxml to port web sites to the mobile applications. It works with Java enabled devices.A (TDN) Marconi Technology Centres (GMTT) United Monolithic Semiconductors (UMS) DOK Ltd (Elvalink) Q-par Angus Ltd 224 Mxim Mxim (Method to serve text and images) is an application development framework for hand held devices. External links • Official Site [1] • Mxim hosting servers [1] References [1] http:/ / www. It is a benchmark architecture for serving browseable content on cross platform devices. Overview Mxim Framework is application development framework for mobile phones.MVDS • • • • • • Trophy electronics Technosystem Digital Network S. and behaves nearly like a web solutions including device level controls. com . Mxim. browseable content serving technology for hand held devices. mximframework. Mxim Content Server Mxim Content Server is content serving solution for mxim applications.

Navizon has the ability to run in the background. .app The software uses a unique technology to improve the coverage and accuracy of the system and covers the U. Symbian S60 and some Java ME phones. Navizon was the first virtual GPS available for a jailbroken iPhone and the most downloaded through Installer. The software can be installed on several platforms such as Windows Mobile. trail logging capability and MobiFindr that lets a user get a device's location just by sending a text message to it.Navizon 225 Navizon Mexens Technology. United States Key people Products Services Website Cyril Houri. NY. Europe and urban areas worldwide. Technology Navizon is an open system with a collaborative approach: it uses the data collected by users with a GPS device to improve the coverage and accuracy of the system when used in Wi-Fi or Cellular positioning modes. Inc Type Industry Founded Founder(s) Inc Telecommunications 2005 Cyril Houri Headquarters New York. allowing the user to open other applications on his device at the same time. Mexens Technology Inc has received a Patent for its “System and Method for Enabling Continuous Geographic Location Estimation for Wireless Computing Devices” [2] (US Patent No. It calculates the geographic location of a wireless device by analyzing the signals from nearby Wi-Fi access points and cellular towers and comparing it against a database of known data points. 7397424). Moreover. It can also be used to improve the time of acquisition of a position fix which can take up to 5 minutes with a standard GPS and less than one second with Wi-Fi or Cellular triangulation.. com [1] Navizon is a hybrid positioning system combining GPS. Wi-Fi and Cellular triangulation techniques. navizon. It can also be used as an alternative to GPS on devices that don't have a GPS chip but have a Wi-Fi or Cellular radio. the Alert System (also known as Geofencing). CEO Navizon Virtual GPS Location-Based Services & Positioning Technologies http:/ / www. Applications Navizon includes some built-in features such as the Buddy Finder. BlackBerry. It can be used as an Assisted GPS by switching to Wi-Fi or Cellular positioning modes when GPS signals are weak or unavailable such as in an indoors environment. iPhone.S.

com [2] http:/ / patft. & OS=PN/ 7397424& RS=PN/ 7397424 • Gizmodo September 2007 -Navizon faux GPS Hacks for IPhone works and is awesome (http://gizmodo.&OS=PN/7397424&RS=PN/ 7397424) External links • Navizon Official Website (http://www. Development The Navizon Software Development Kit (SDK) allows developers to include the Navizon positioning system into their own application.com/ gadgets/notag/iphone-faux+gps-hack-works-and-is-awesome-301459.000 people are registered worldwide thus improving every day the precision of the navigation system. 700.com/2008/06/04/ location-technologies-primer/) • Navizon updates (http://www.com) .uspto.com) • Navizon Official Blog (http://navizon.intomobile.Navizon 226 Community Navizon's strong growing community is unique by its diversity of cross-platforms and cross-carriers users. This is one of the key factor of the community growth.engadgetmobile. The application runs in the background of the device allowing the location to be updated while other applications are running.PN.typepad.navizon. PN.techcrunch. uspto. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum."Location Technologies Primer" (http://www. htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=7397424. navizon.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7397424.com/2008/02/11/ navizon-updated-to-include-moving-mode-alerts-and-more. References [1] http:/ / www.php) • Engadget Mobile June 2008 -"Navizon's Mobfindr gets your phone to text home" (http://www. Contributors are rewarded when they discover new Wi-Fi access points or new cell towers.html) • Navizon Patent (http://patft. com/2008/06/29/navizons-mobfindr-gets-your-phone-to-text-home/) • Techcrunch June 2008 .gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1& u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.

An eavesdropper would have to be standing next to the radio.56MHz and has a wavelength (_) of 22 meters. The standard modulation schemes used in typical RF communications (amplitude modulation. but does not radiate into free space. . low-power. speaker-microphones and radios. Background: technical concepts Near field magnetic induction communication (NFMIC) systems differ from other wireless communications in that most conventional wireless RF systems use an antenna to generate and transmit a propagated electromagnetic wave. the carrier frequency is 13. phase modulation. Near Field Magnetic Induction Communication technology enables users of two-way radios to experience wireless mobility. The crossover point between near-field and far-field occurs at approximately _/2_. The properties that make long range communication possible are a disadvantage for short range communication systems.Near-field magnetic induction communication 227 Near-field magnetic induction communication A near field magnetic induction communication system is a short range wireless physical layer that communicates by coupling a tight. within the magnetic bubble. rolling off at -20dB per decade." As shown in the graph below. at which point the propagating energy from the NFMI system conforms to the same propagation rules as any far-field system. The concept is for a transmitter coil in one device to modulate a magnetic field which is measured by means of a receiver coil in another device. wireless safety and wireless security with portable radio accessories.52 meters.000. This type of transmission is referred to as "far-field. Uses Near Field Magnetic Induction technology secures wireless communication between two-way radio accessories by creating a magnetic communication "bubble" around headsets. low-power. the power density of near-field transmissions is extremely restrictive and attenuates or rolls off at a rate proportional to the inverse of the range to the sixth power (1/range6) or -60dB per decade.000 to 1. At this frequency the crossover occurs at 3. The system uses a short range (less than 2 meters) wireless physical layer that communicates by coupling a tight. NFMI systems are designed to contain transmission energy within the localized magnetic field. is immune from radio frequency (RF) interference and virtually secure from eavesdropping. and frequency modulation) can be used in near-field magnetic induction systems. the power density of far-field transmissions attenuates or rolls off at a rate proportional to the inverse of the range to the second power (1/range2) or -20dB per decade. non-propagating magnetic field between devices. At this distance the propagated energy levels are -40dB to -60dB (10." According to Maxwell's equation for a radiating wire. In Diagram 2. to intercept wireless transmissions to and from a microphone or headset. This magnetic field energy resonates around the communication system. In these types of systems all of the transmission energy is designed to radiate into free space.000 times) lower than an equivalent intentional far-field system. non-propagating magnetic field between devices. This magnetic bubble has a radius of approximately 1. The concept is for a transmitter coil in one device to modulate a magnetic field which is measured by means of a receiver coil in another device. This type of transmission is referred to as "near-field. This slow attenuation over distance allows far-field transmissions to communicate effectively over a long range.5 meters.

uspto. gov/ . freelinc.Near-field magnetic induction communication 228 References • • • • • FreeLinc [1] Near-Field Magnetic Induction Technology [2] Law and Order: The Magazine for Police Management [3] Two-way Radio Wireless Communication Accessories: Technology & Company Abstract [4] United States Patent and Trademark Office [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. com/ downloads/ FreeLinc_Intro_WhitePaper_8-01-06. freelinc. pdf http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. com/ downloads/ FreeLinc%20NFMI%20White%20Paper. freelinc. pdf http:/ / www. com/ downloads/ LawOrder_Aug2006_1-18103181-eprint. pdf http:/ / www. freelinc.

S.[2] History The company was formed in 2001 as a spin off from WRQ. Its software is used in public utilities. Washington. insurance. Sybase iAnywhere. Scientel Wireless.[8] NetMotion Wireless has an intellectual property portfolio of a dozen U.[10] . Motion Computing. patents. system integrators and standards and certification bodies. NetMotion merged with Padcom. Ipelium. InfoExpress. Washington (2001) Founded Headquarters Seattle. a private equity firm with more than $1 billion under management. T-Mobile and Verizon Wireless. Inc. Sierra Wireless. public safety. Three sales offices in Europe handle international sales including sales into Australia. Motorola. wireless industry executive Bob Hunsberger became CEO.[2] In September of 2010. transportation and other industries. RSA. NetMotion Wireless develops software and solutions for organizations with mobile workforces.[7] Operations The bulk of the company's operations are located at the North American headquarters in Seattle. healthcare. Palm. to help those organizations secure and optimize their investments in wireless data networking.[3] In 2006. focusing on productivity and management. the company was recognized by Inc. Washington Products Employees Website Mobile VPN Software ~100 [1] NetMotion Wireless is a privately-held software company. knk.NetMotion Wireless 229 NetMotion Wireless NetMotion Wireless Type Industry Private Computer software technology services Seattle. software developers. Sprint. Avaya. field service. Intermec.[4] The majority shareholder became Liberty Partners[5] . Washington. OESIS OK. hardware manufacturers. Microsoft.[9] It also has strategic alliances with cellular carriers. Inc. Datastrip.[6] Other venture firms hold minority positions. as one of the fastest-growing private companies in America. New Zealand and several African countries. These partners include AT&T. In 2005. telecommunications. TELELOGOS. founded in 2001 and based in Seattle.

Trican Well Service. City of Aurora (CO).NetMotion Wireless 230 Products NetMotion’s primary product is Mobility XE.Expanded capacity of up to 15. Comcast. while resolving performance and security issues. Hertz. Lee Memorial Health System. Birmingham City Council (UK). Visiting Nurses of New York.900 customers of NetMotion Wireless are Advocate Health Care.2 . Gallatin County (MT). St.509v3 digital certificates • Version 9. and has earned more than 25 industry awards[2] .[14] It also includes management features that give administrators visibility and control over those mobile devices. and their network connections and application sessions alive as they encounter coverage gaps and interruptions and roam between networks.FIPS 140-2 validated encryption • Version 7. and Worksafe BC.900 organizations and more than 500.0 . New York State Police. Optident..0 . It secures. Monroe County Sheriff’s Department (FL).Analytics Module and support for two-factor authentication via smart cards and X.[8] The essential functionality of the product is its ability to keep workers continuously logged in. Ltd. telecommunications. St. Orange County Sheriff’s Department. Joseph’s Hospital (WI).Web acceleration and new policy management features for controlling access from/to specific applications and networks • Version 6. Southeast Water (UK).5 . JEA.S. TSI Terminal Systems Inc. including: • Ranked on the Deloitte LLP list of the fastest growing technology. Unilever. James Parish (LA). Luke Medical System. Marshfield Clinic. 500 | 5000 list of America's Fastest-Growing Private Companies[7] • Recognized as one of Washington State's 100 Fastest-Growing Private Companies[21] • Voted one of Washington State's 100 Best Companies to Work For[2] • Microsoft Gold Certified Partner for Mobility Solutions[22] .0 . Wichita Clinic. Bell Ambulance. Grange Insurance.QoS capability for real-time applications such as VoIP • Version 8. • Named on the Inc.000 mobile workers. City of Orlando.Support for Windows 7 64-bit client and Windows Server 2008 R2 and additional support for FIPS 140-2 Customers Among the 1. St. MHMR Centers of Texas. for greater security and integration with systems management software • Version 9. Colorado Springs Police Department.Authentication of the device as well as the user. a Mobile VPN for mobile workers who use computing devices.1 . Beckman Coulter. Cox Communications. Mobile County (AL).5 . Continental Airlines. Johnson County (KS). Florida Highway Patrol.[18] Industry Awards and Recognition NetMotion has been named as one of the fastest-growing wireless companies in the U.[11] [12] [13] Mobility XE is used by more than 1.000 concurrent device sessions and support for RSA SecurID two-factor authentication • Version 7. Puget Sound Blood Center.6 . City of Hays (KS). Diamond Management and Technology Consultants. Windstream Communications. life sciences and clean technology companies in North America in 2009[19] and 2010[20] .Network Access Control and recovery from Packet loss for real-time applications[17] • Version 8.. Ameren Corporation.[15] Mobility XE Releases:[16] • Version 6. maintains and optimizes data connections for these workers as they move in and out of wireless coverage areas and roam between networks. media. Strack.

VoIP Planet. cfm) [6] www. crunchbase. 2010. com/ solutions/ article. netmotionwireless. bizjournals. netmotionwireless. amalgamated from case studies and press releases. com [2] NetMotion Company Backgrounder (http:/ / www. com/ assets/ MobilityXE_datasheet. [13] Hoover's company profile (http:/ / www. com/ company/ netmotion-wireless). com/ products/ whatsnew.com/partners/alliances. [15] Product Datasheet. html). aspx). rcrwireless. 2010. RCR Wireless News. inc. 5000 | A List of America's Fastest-Growing Private Companies" (http:/ / www.com. 2010.com (http:/ / www. netmotionwireless. July 16.libertypartners. com/ seattle/ stories/ 2010/ 09/ 13/ daily35. (searched/confirmed December 10. com/ company/ NetMotion_Wireless_Inc/ ryrchri-1. com/ corporate/ company/ 12369/ Netmotion-Wireless. html). hoovers.289483.netmotionwireless. deloitte. [12] CrunchBase company profile (http:/ / www. [19] "Deloitte's 2009 Technology Fast 500" (http:/ / www. [11] BioPortfolio company profile (http:/ / www. pdf). SearchMobileComputing. September 17. 2010 (retrieved December 10. 2010. aspx) [17] "NetMotion Brings Cross-Network Support to Wireless VoIP".aspx) . NetMotion Web site (http:/ / www. aspx).com (http:/ / www. [14] Phifer. html). 2010. retrieved December 11. pdf) [16] Release history on NetMotion Web site (http:/ / www. [18] www. 2010. com) [7] "Meet the 2010 Inc. com/ company/ press/ 09_01_2009.com/) • Strategic Alliance and Marketing Partners (http://www.netmotionwireless. com/ company/ press/ 02_2005. techtarget. [5] NetMotion Wireless page on Liberty Partners site (http:/ / www. html). pdf) [20] "Deloitte's 2010 Technology Fast 500" (http:/ / www. cfm/ Fuseaction/ Portfolio. retrieved December 10.NetMotion Wireless • Motorola Enterprise Mobility Validated Solution[23] 231 References [1] http:/ / www. retrieved December 10. retrieved December 10. February 8. com/ Business/ US-EN/ Channel+ Partners/ PartnerSelect/ Motorola+ Validated+ Solutions/ Enterprise+ Mobility+ Validated+ Solutions). netmotionwireless. com). com/ partners/ alliances. [10] Strategic Alliance and Marketing Partners (http:/ / www. [23] "Enterprise Mobility Validated Solutions Search (http:/ / www. 2010 [21] "Washington's 100 Fastest-Growing Private Companies revealed" (http:/ / www. retrieved December 10. 2010). 2010) [8] NetMotion Wireless Company Fact Sheet (http:/ / www. libertypartners. deloitte. 2006-06-15. September 2010 (retrieved December 10. netmotionwireless. netmotionwireless.2 (http:/ / www. [4] "NetMotion. 2010) External Links • Official website (http://www. viewCompany/ companyID/ 31. 2010) [22] "NetMotion Wireless Attains Gold Certified Partner Status in Microsoft Partner Program" (http:/ / www. voipplanet. netmotionwireless. com/ uploadedFiles/ Resources/ Collateral/ NetMotion-Wireless_Fact-Sheet_CO. pdf).aspx) • Customer Case Studies (http://www. 2006. com/ article/ 20060615/ SUB/ 606150710). libertypartners. com/ index.netmotionwireless. retrieved December 11. netmotionwireless. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_Fast500winners_101509. 2-Whats-New_2010. php/ 3745401). com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2010 Technology Fast 500 Winners Brochure_191010. com/ uploadedFiles/ Resources/ Collateral/ NetMotion-Wireless_Mobility-XE_9. com/ WorkArea/ linkit. com/ magazine/ 20100901/ index. retrieved December 10. pdf) [9] What's New in Mobility XE 9. html). motorola. "Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap" (http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. Lisa. 2008-05-07 (http:/ / www. Adds Industry Veteran as New Chief Executive (http:/ / www. netmotionwireless. com/ tip/ 0.com/resources/case_studies. 2005 (retrieved December 10.netmotionwireless. aspx?LinkIdentifier=id& ItemID=1381) [3] NetMotion Wireless Achieves Record Growth in Second Half of 2004.00. netmotionwireless. bioportfolio. Padcom settle patent lawsuit with merger" (http:/ / www.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. aspx).

Additionally NoTA makes it possible to quickly bring-in 3rd party innovations into the products due to loosely coupled and functional-driver -less approach. Every NoTA Sub-system consists of the NoTA Interconnect stack. namely message based and streaming type. The former is bi-directional and used for Service Messages. NoTA principles • • • • • Loosely coupled Service based Interconnect centric Message & data driven (GALS) Implementation-wise heterogeneous . NoTA device consists of Service Nodes (SN) and Application Nodes (AN) that communicate through logical Interconnect (IN). the only way for a node to use SW&HW resources from other sub-systems is through Services Nodes. memories. NoTA enables mobile device makers speed-up their product development by shortening the integration phase.Network on Terminal Architecture 232 Network on Terminal Architecture Network on Terminal Architecture (i. Service Nodes have unique Service Identifier (SID).) needed to implement the defined Nodes. IN provides two basic means of communication. Low Interconnect provides network socket interface with uniform addressing mechanism. Interconnect is divided into two layers. namely High Interconnect (H_IN) and Low Interconnect (L_IN). The latter one is uni-directional and used for large amounts of data like media content. L_IN internally can be divided into transport network independent and dependent [1] parts. controllers. The only means for a sub-system to use the other Sub-systems' resources is via Service Nodes.e. NoTA) is a modular service based system architecture for mobile and embedded devices. internal buses etc. Sub-system consists of all the software and hardware resources (including peripherals. The former provides means for service activation and deactivation as well as service and stream accesses. Service Nodes and Application Nodes map into sub-systems consisting of all software and hardware resources needed to implement those. MIPI Alliance originated solutions are expected to be key enablers for wide use of NoTA. In order to maintain system level modularity. NoTA Main architecture NoTA Interconnect architecture NoTA Sub-system provides the physical implementation for a set of Nodes (ANs and/or SNs).

the application engine). implementation and integration phases. Product companies are more agile to adopt new technology or technology that better meets users' needs in digital convergence devices.org/knota [5]. inter-device and/or in the Internet. Performance and features meeting end-user needs.g.org [3] or gitorious. This functionality.g. called DOA (Direct Object Access). with a handle based stream referencing approach. NoTA can be used for many inter-device use-cases (wireless based L_INdown). off-chip interconnect with on-chip interconnect does not destroy the device functionality. So called NoTA Virtual Device (NVD) is expected to provide a solution here. [4] Linux Kernel optimized Debian package is also available through gitorious. An excellent outcome reveiled in the TronShow2010 [7] is the intelligent house built in Taiwan utilizing both the T-Kernel and NoTA technologies.notaworld. as well as prepare the company to face the expected horizontalization and digital convergence. Benefits in product development Fast-time-to-market is possible due to multiple reasons. NoTA type system-level modularity allows technology vendors to do the implementation and testing without heavy involvement with other Sub-system provides (e. Release 1 only consisted of Service communication. Cost reduction in product development can be achieved in two dimensions. discovery and access.g. NoTA core is physical interconnect agnostic and hence replacing e. in Finland (SHOK DIEM [6]) and in Japan to aply NoTA in the ubiquitous world. NoTA Interconnect Release 1 was released in December 2005. In addition. Through the NVD one can build combined service platforms where the services can be running intra-device. [8] Extending NoTA to the Internet is one of the research topics. Firstly system-level modularity allows free and fair competition between different technology vendors reducing Sub-system costs. allows direct memory-to-memory streaming between different NoTA subsystems. The objective of this work was to develop a novel embedded device architecture that could solve the existing R&D challenges. More practical example is to integrate multiple ICs into the same package (e. Secondly in many cases product vendors do not have to bear costs incurring from sub-system adaptation work specific to their technologies.org/nota. The NoTA basic framework was strongly influenced by Network-on-Chip (NoC) and Web Services research. .g. through stacking) and use package internal interconnect technologies.Network on Terminal Architecture 233 History The NoTA concept and the first implementations were the result of internal Nokia Research Center [2] activities started in 2003. There are currently projects running e. Reference implemenation source code packages (user-space) can be downloaded from either www. Scalability in integration level allows product companies to do fast cost optimization without major extra R&D effort. Release 2 added efficient data communication means. Future Development Due to being agnostic to transport technology. Release 3 became the official public release comprising all the essential functionalities. VTT (Technical Research Center of Finland) has demonstrated their NoTA (and Smart M3) based intelligent Greenhouse. Product vendors can purchase already productized NoTA Sub-systems removing time needed for vendor specific requirements definition. Release 2 came out during the second half of 2006. In case there are no ready-made products on the market. activation/deactivation.

Latva-Aho. 9 May 2007. Risto Suoranta. forum. CA. • Specification and Validation of Non-Functional Constraints.org [3] • Testable Specifications of NoTA-based Modular Embedded Systems. May 17.notaworld. Finland. et al. TUCS Technical Report No. fi/ en/ device [7] http:/ / www. 11th June 2008 [9] • NoTA2009 . vtt. php?fname=TR841. fi/ proj/ notaconference/ index. Samu Kontinen. com/ NoTA/ wiki#no1 [12] http:/ / www. ac. Rodin Project IST-511599 [14]. 30th Sept. D. org/ knota/ [6] http:/ / www. pdf . Report on the case study: Formal Techniques in MDA context. pdf [15] http:/ / akseli. Johan Lilius.Porres. Ian Oliver. html [8] http:/ / www. Artist workshop on Foundations of Component-Based Design. tekes. J.Eriksson. org [4] http:/ / gitorious. fi/ publications/ attachment. A. artist-embedded. DSD 2006 • A Method for Mobile Terminal Platform Architecture Development. T. • New Directions in Mobile Device Architectures.A.1st Oct. mipi. uk/ deliverables/ rodinD8. UBIQ Seminar. vtt. [11] • http://www. J. Eriksson. J.Lindqvist. I. San Jose.841. 2007 [13] • Section 4. Dragos Truscan. Klaus Kronlöf. Ivan Porres and Timo O. September 2007 [12] • Distributed intelligence – From devices to Smart spaces.. Jörg Brakensiek. Dr. References [1] http:/ / www. Johan Lindqvist. com/ [3] http:/ / www.Lilius. ISQED 2006. Ian Oliver and Timo Eriksson. notaworld. org/ nota/ [5] http:/ / gitorious. jsp?lang=en [11] https:/ / projects. MARTES Finnish Partners’ Workshop Tampere. com/ watch?v=bBiZKInFm-8 [9] http:/ / www3.S. 9th EUROMICRO Conference. 2007. Springer Netherlands. org/ index-e. Risto Suoranta. Shanghai. Samu Kontinen. Advances in Design and Specification Languages for Embedded Systems. Helsinki. 2006 [15]. pdf [13] http:/ / www. youtube. org/ docs/ Events/ 2007/ Components/ Slides/ JohanLilius.2nd International NoTA Conference. Turku Centre for Computing Sciences. fi/ opencms/ opencms/ OhjelmaPortaali/ ohjelmat/ ELMO/ fi/ Dokumenttiarkisto/ Viestinta_ja_aktivointi/ Seminaarit/ MARTES_seminar_2006/ MARTES_Tampere_170506. tronshow.Truscan. cs. . Vesa Luukkala. U. pdf [14] http:/ / rodin.Rakkola. nokia. jsp?lang=en [10] http:/ / www. 2009 [10] References • NoTA Rel3 Specifications. ncl. Risto Suoranta. 2006. • Use Case Driven Platform Development. 4th Oct. • Mobile Device Industry Goes Horizontal. tivit. Klaus Kronlöf. WWRF-16. • Mobile Service based Platform Architecture for Mobile Devices. tucs.1st International NoTA Conference. Keynote material. org/ [2] http:/ / research.Network on Terminal Architecture 234 Events • NoTA2008 . nokia. fi/ proj/ notaconference2009/ index.

-+ Functionality Following form the part of Non Access Stratum • • • • Mobility management Call control Session management Identity management .-+ | Application | +..... The layer supports signalling and traffic between those two elements.Non Access Stratum 235 Non Access Stratum Non Access Stratum (NAS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Core Network and User Equipment.........-+ | Physical | +...-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +........| TCP +.| AS +.| HTTP +.........| NAS +..| IP +...........-+ | Internet | +......-+ | Link Layer | +. +..| Channels +.......-+ | Network Layer| +....-+ | Transport | +..

It handles non real-time charging requirements. It is based on a model that separates subscribers from accounts as well as features an off-the-shelf product management mode.Number Assignment Module 236 Number Assignment Module Number Assignment Module (NAM) . . or you could say. This leads to a stable but versatile system infrastructure. offers unified online charging and online control capabilities and can be used as a unified charging engine for all network services. based on service usage Architecture Functions within the OCS Online Charging Functions Characteristics Unified charging engine for all services The traditional IN provides real-time charging & rating capabilities only to prepaid subscribers. With the OCS. Online charging system Online charging system (OCS) is a system allowing a Communications service provider to charge their customers. gives the ball to the marketing department to run with it. Rapidly boosted marketing capabilities Both the traditional IN and the billing system are somewhat passive support systems for market promotion with the limited charging capabilities.The NAM is the electronic memory in the cellular phone that stores the telephone number and an Electronic Serial Number. Versatile system infrastructure The OCS has abstracted major objects of all charging processes as the pillars of its infrastructure and adopts customer-oriented design ideas. the marketing department can really explore network resource potentials and the desires of subscribers. The OCS is oriented to all subscriber types and service types. and its charging execution process is not directly involved in service application control.or multi-NAM features offer users the option of registering the phone with a local number in more than one market. and the product launch period is greatly shortened. to create personalized and feasible promotion strategies that meet the marketing objectives. in real time. The OCS offers unprecedented flexibility and extendibility. It completely breaks away from the traditional offline hard coding development mode based on service flow. which enables online tariff configurations through rule-driven engine technology. Phones with dual. The traditional billing system is always offline based on CDR file processing. making it a core basis for convergent billing in the network.

Based on real applications Due to the development of new communications technologies. Most likely they would be happy to keep the subscription and tell their friends what a great deal it is. contents.Online charging system 237 Seizing earlier market opportunities Innovating tariff policies is much easier. but a practical scheme that can be integrated into the existing network environment. to achieve the marketing targets. occupations and income. to satisfy the value perceptions of different subscribers. Although various bells and whistles influence some customers. and revenue distribution in the value chain. Based on customer segmentation As market competition heats up. "What we need is not a new technology. Its billing system can offer superb flexibility and a much wider billing space. In addition to the traditional basic elements. while improving subscriber experiences. it is faster and more cost-effective for operators to adjust tariff policies than to modify product functions and services. As a matter of fact. Canada. simpler and more effective than innovating service functions. operators were wondering whether or not they needed the OCS. A couple of years ago. In this way. The operator can then accurately work out differentiated pricing policies based on customer segmentation. operators can be proactive in the battle with changing market environments. bearer type. the operator can create differentiated pricing policies that meet market needs while increasing customer satisfaction and generating word-of-mouth advertising. frequency and traffic. price is usually the most important consideration when subscribers make their final choices. or even to the status of a single user. informing them that since they have used the network for 300 days. nationalities and behavioral patterns and so on. . multi-service association. namely services (including tangible applications and intangible customer care) and pricing. Worldwide commercial successes Presently. By flexibly using these widely ranged factors and source materials. but now many of them are busy figuring out how they could implement the OCS in their existing networks. It has helped many operators to accumulate valuable experience. end users can be segmented not only according to their ages. there are a variety of new elements including: location. The communications market might be the most complicated and flexible in product pricing among all the consumable industries. a subscriber can be charged according to how long he/she has used the service. even based on his/her birthday. telecom product pricing is much more diversified. Successful operations remain the biggest concern for operators. or accumulation of usage. but also according to cultures. the Director of Service Architecture. such as call duration. etc. Suppose that end users receive SMSs from the mobile operator. and they would be entitled to new discounts on each 100th day thereafter. For example. their recharge value on that day would be doubled as a bonus. as to be detailed below. Based on various occasions Promotion offers can also be implemented from periodic holidays for the whole customer base. and explosive growth of service innovations." said Shane Logan. Telus. wide-range penetration of the Internet. and interwork with subscribers in real time. access channel. Many operators show far more enthusiasm towards new services than towards tariff policies when choosing from the two core parts of communications products. the OCS solution is quite technically mature. to some particular local events for a group of users. strengthen competitiveness and win in their respective markets.

Their efforts were soon rewarded. In April 2007. By offering more flexible tariff policies. If their existing charging systems possess strong technical capabilities and market performance. Charging management. Other operators might need to adopt a new OCS to replace the existing systems if they will not support evolution. and adopted the convergent billing scheme with the OCS as the core. To date. different measures should be taken to implement the OCS.240 [2] • Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Charging V1. To realize convergent billing. htm http:/ / www. Asia Pacific and Africa are integrating the OCS in their networks. Online Charging System (OCS): Applications and interfaces 3GPP 32.. Charging architecture and principles 3GPP 32. org/ . adopted a unified convergent billing system with the OCS as the core while constructing a new network in Nigeria. htm http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. Etisalat. The system is able to cover the charging and billing requirements for all subscribers and services. aspx http:/ / www.Online charging system In different network environments. the largest multinational mobile operator in the Middle East. and increasingly more are welcoming their debut.0 [3] External links • Opencharging [4] Java Open Source Online Charging System References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. Operators from more than a dozen countries in Europe. China Mobile Guangdong planned to gradually integrate existing prepaid and post-paid systems into the new solution. org/ technical/ release_program/ charging_v1_0. As a result. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 32296. China Mobile Guangdong.296 [1] • 3GPP Telecommunication management. Middle East. Charging management. some operators can reconstruct their existing networks to make the networks evolve to the OCS. these new operators can provide network services quickly and lower the TCO greatly. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 32240. 3gpp. A new operator can construct the OCS or even a comprehensive convergent billing network directly. China Mobile Guangdong has won a bigger market share and provides outstanding service to more than 80 million subscribers. China Mobile Guangdong completed reconstructing the existing IN and deployed the first commercial OCS in the world which meets 3GPP specifications and paved the way towards large-scale evolution for existing INs. 3gpp.0 OMA Charging V1. 238 References • 3GPP Telecommunication management. According to experts in the telecom industry. opencharging. the telecom industry has witnessed overwhelming success through commercial applications of the OCS. in Southern China has constructed the world's largest mobile IN. new networks have for the most part discarded the traditional mode of constructing the IN and the billing system separately.

Dell. Member firms include Google. Qualcomm. Motorola. Commercialization companies. and Samsung Electronics (bada). Sony Ericsson. Texas Instruments.com] The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a business alliance of 83 firms to develop open standards for mobile devices.Open Handset Alliance 239 Open Handset Alliance Abbreviation Formation Type OHA 2007 Open mobile platform (Android) development organization Region served Worldwide Membership Website Mobile operators.openhandsetalliance. HTC. Sony. HP (formerly Palm). Microsoft. Nokia. the flagship software of the alliance. and Wind River Systems. Software companies. LG. Samsung. the OHA also unveiled Android. an open source mobile phone platform based on the Linux kernel of the GNU/Linux operating system. application developers. Intel.com www. Products At the same time as the announcement of the formation of the Open Handset Alliance on 5 November 2007. some mobile carriers and chip makers.[4] and became available on 22 October. Nvidia.[2] Android.[3] The first commercially available phone running Android was the T-Mobile G1 (also known as the HTC Dream). T-Mobile.(Symbian). Research In Motion.[1] History The OHA was established on 5 November 2007.[5] . Handset manufacturers [www. led by Google with 34 members including mobile handset makers.[1] An early look at the SDK was released to developers on 12 November 2007. Semiconductor companies.openhandsetalliance. is based on an open source license and competes against mobile platforms from Apple. It was approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on 18 August 2008.

(joined as SiRF) Intel Corporation Marvell Technology Group Nvidia Corporation Qualcomm Synaptics Texas Instruments AKM Semiconductor ARM Atheros Communications ST-Ericsson (joined as Ericsson Mobile Platforms) HTC LG Sony Motorola Samsung Electronics December [7] 2008 • • Vodafone Softbank Borqs Teleca • • • • • • • • • • ASUSTek Garmin Huawei Technologies Sony Ericsson Toshiba Dell May-June 2009 September 2009 January 2010 • China Unicom [8] • SVOX [9] • • Acer [10] MIPS [11] Technologies • • Sasken Communication Technologies [12] Limited ZTE [13] Corporation May 2010 • NXP [14] Software Access [15] [17] • July 2010 November 2010 • • MediaTek [16] VisualOn .Open Handset Alliance 240 Members The members of the Open Handset Alliance are: Joining date Mobile operators KDDI Corporation NTT DoCoMo Sprint Nextel T-Mobile China Mobile Telecom Italia Telefónica Software companies • • • • • • • • • Commercialization Semiconductor companies companies • • • • Handset manufacturers • • • • • • Founding [6] • members • • • • • Ascender Corporation eBay Google LivingImage Myriad Nuance Communications PacketVideo SkyPop SONiVOX Aplix Noser Engineering The Astonishing Tribe Wind River Systems • • • • • • • • • • • Audience Broadcom Corporation CSR Plc.

. com. . [15] "Access Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. svox. htm). 2008-08-18. Open Handset Alliance. html?ex=1352005200&en=d7a169e184415788&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss) • Google's wireless initiatives go beyond Android (http://online. [7] "Open Handset Alliance announces 14 new members" (http:/ / www. [16] "MediaTek Joins the Open Handset Alliance Continuous Commitment to Providing Multimedia-Rich Android Solutions" (http:/ / www. [6] "Open Handset Alliance Members" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ press/ ACCESS/ 2010/ 20100729_oha. 2007-11-05. software. php?storyId=94982690). 2009. [12] "Sasken joins Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. 2009-09-30. com/ userfiles/ PR NXP Software_OHA_Agreement_Final(1). com/ press_120908. 2008-10-15. . com/ News-Items-SVOX-brings-speech-solutions-to-Android.nytimes. ZTE. . 2010-07-12. [14] "NXP Software Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. OMRON • • • • • • • Accenture L&T Infotech SQLStar International Inc.. . MediaTek. 2010-12-27. . openhandsetalliance. [8] "Open Handset Alliance member announcements" (http:/ / www. [13] "ZTE to launch Android handsets this quarter" (http:/ / wwwen. [9] "SVOX announces its joining of the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. Ltd. .wsj. Retrieved 2007-11-05. dot). 2008-12-09. . [10] "Acer announces its joining of the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / phandroid. html#mobile). openhandsetalliance. com/ oha_members. SASKEN. com/ oha_members. Open Handset Alliance. • Google enters the wireless world (http://www. html). 2010-01-15. php?sn=43).com/article/SB119517445580795065. MIPS Technologies. com/ press_releases.com/2007/11/05/technology/05cnd-gphone. . . Inc. Open Handset Alliance. pdf). com/ 2009/ 06/ 01/ acer-joins-oha-expects-end-of-year-android/ ). . Open Handset Alliance. 2009-06-01. html?mod=dist_smartbrief) . [11] "MIPS Technologies Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. zte. com/ 2008/ 08/ 18/ htc-dream-fcc-approved-android-clear-for-launch/ ). Access. cn/ en/ press_center/ press_clipping/ 201001/ t20100115_179607. com/ newsroom/ press/ 2010/ 22_Jan_2010. .. nxp. openhandsetalliance. com/ press_110507. [2] "Open Handset Alliance members page" (http:/ / www. [17] "VisualOn Joins the Open Handset Alliance to Enhance the Multimedia Capabilities of the Android Platform" (http:/ / www. aspx). engadget. [18] "Open Handset Alliance Members Mobile Operators" (http:/ / www. html). Acer. Wipro Technologies • • • • • Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Freescale Semiconductor Gemalto Renesas Electronics Corporation Via Telecom • • • • • • • • Alcatel Mobile Phones Compal Communications Foxconn Haier Kyocera Lenovo Mobile Communication Technology Ltd NEC Sharp Corporation References [1] "Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices" (http:/ / www. openhandsetalliance. . access-company.Open Handset Alliance Unknown • China Telecommunications • Corporation [18] • Telus Bouygues [18] Telecom 241 Cooliris MOTOYA Co. html). . Engadget. com/ oha_members. . npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. com/ developers. NXP. [3] "Developers" (http:/ / www. 2010-01-22. html). html). com/ news-events/ newsroom/ release-archive-2009/ 9_30_09. Will You Answer?" (http:/ / www. 2009-05-27. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 2010-07-91. 2010-05-18. mediatek. . com/ news/ home/ 20101109005339/ en/ VisualOn-Joins-Open-Handset-Alliance-Enhance-Multimedia). businesswire. 2007-11-05. VisualOn. 2007-11-05. html). com/ en/ news/ info. sasken. openhandsetalliance. html). . SVOX. [5] "Google Is Calling. Open Handset Alliance. mips. openhandsetalliance. html). openhandsetalliance. [4] "FCC Approved HTC Dream" (http:/ / www. 2010-11-09. . Retrieved 2007-11-05.

GSM.exxplain.O-Ring Face Seal: Hydraulic sealing system for hoses and fittings.com video) Optpcs OptPCS is a 2G/3G/4G (LTE) dual band. ORFS .com/TrainingDetails. It stands for the relationship between (a) the frequency offset from the carrier and (b) the power. drive data analysis. measured in a specific bandwidth and time. Inc.Open Handset Alliance 242 External links • Open Handset Alliance (http://www.. ORFS measurements are defined and required in order to prove conformance by various institutions. The acronym ORFS is used in the context of mobile communication systems.openhandsetalliance.g.. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or ETSI. produced by the mobile station due to effects in modulation and power ramping and switching. Lin Weng PhD in a effort to reduce the amount of time engineers spent troubleshooting and optimizing GSM (2G) networks.com/) official site • Google's Android and the Open Handset Alliance (http://www.S. ORFS ORFS stands for Output RF Spectrum. California. . As UMTS (3G) networks began to emerge in the U. The tool was developed in 1997 by Dr.. the U. parameter auditing.S. aspx?Ticket=de5d0d74-0f06-4a4f-be8e-ec31f80ff968) (Exxplain.g. located in Pleasanton. the features and functions of network topology creation. e. where RF stands for Radio Frequency. These features and functions are now extended to LTE (4G). multi-vendor wireless network optimization tool developed by Telecom Technology Services. neighbor analysis were extended to the new standard with addition of pilot pollution analysis. e.

. [4] This solution allows operators to manage wireless device functionality including renumbering handsets. Often. Some phones with this capability are labeled as being "OTA capable. such as a call to the provider's customer support system or other dialable service. oversee. a carrier will send a broadcast SMS text message to all subscribers (or those using a particular model of phone) asking them to dial a service number to receive a software update. saving time and money if the nodes must be re-programmed. More recently. though many phones will automatically perform this action." As mobile phones accumulate new applications and become more advanced. personalization and programming of a new service for mobile operators and telco third parties. updating phone settings. Option 1 updates phone configuration.S. 900 MHz) and with low consumption and low data rate transmission using protocols such as 802. Verizon Wireless in the U. OTA is taken to a new direction: for the first time OTA is applied using unlicensed frequency bands (2. digital television. New software is transferred to the phone.4 GHz. Interop Technologies provides a number of nationwide wireless operators in the US with an SS7 Based Over-the-Air device management solution. OTA via SMS optimises the configuration data updates in SIM cards and handsets and enables the distribution of new software updates to mobile phones or provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with which to access services such as WAP or MMS. installed.[1] When OTA is used to update a phone's operating firmware. and manage OTA. namely the receipt and installation of new software received via the wireless network from the provider. OTA configuration has become increasingly important as new updates and services come on stream. For service settings. and put into use. option 2 updates the PRL. Various standardization bodies were established to help develop. One of them is the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA). This system enables firmware upgrades without the need of physical access. it is sometimes called Firmware Over The Air (FOTA). Libelium has implemented a smart and easy-to-use OTA programming system for ZigBee WSN devices. Typically it is done via the former method to avoid service disruption at an inconvenient time. over-the-air service provisioning (OTASP). OTA messaging provides remote control of mobile phones for service and subscription activation. [2] Motes are often located in places that are either remote or difficult to access. the technology is often known as Device Configuration. but this requires subscribers to manually call the provider.Over-the-air programming 243 Over-the-air programming Over-the-air programming (OTA) may refer to either free-to-air. applications and subscriber data and adjusting PRL to manage cost structures. over-the-air provisioning (OTAP) or over-the-air parameter administration (OTAPA). As an example. 868 MHz. It is often necessary to turn the phone off and back on for the new programming to take effect. OTA software delivery can be initiated upon action. methods of distributing new software updates to cellphones or provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with which to access services such as WAP or MMS. or can be performed automatically. Similarly Voitel Wireless that uses Verizon network uses *22890 service code to program Verizon based Voitel wireless phones. [3] Mechanism The OTA mechanism requires the existing software and hardware of the target device to support the feature.4 and ZigBee. provides a number of OTA functions to its subscribers via the *228 service code. Methods Depending on implementation. where the networks consist of hundreds or thousands of nodes. or in the mobile content world.15. with the new concepts of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things.

Retrieved 19 April 2011. com/ ota) [4] http:/ / www.Over-the-air programming To provision parameters in a mobile device OTA. com/ wifirevolution/ articles/ 24338-alaska-digitel-buys-ota-programming-solution-from-interop. the controller tells the other APs to include additional information in the Radio Resource Management Packets (RRM) that would assist a new access point in learning of the controller. Alberto.Mobile Explorer" (http:/ / web. asp) on 11 August 2001. Over-the-air provisioning(OTAP) is also available in wireless environments (though it is disabled by default for security reasons). org/ web/ 20010811201929/ www. [2] Gascón. the device needs to have a provisioning client capable of receiving.this is so that the user does not have to go to a store or a service center to have applications provisioned. 244 OTA Standards There is number of standards that describes OTA functions. One of the first . thus reducing the amount of time spent by both the owner and the user of the device on maintenance. libelium. archive. asp). com/ mobile/ phones/ mme/ default. . the term OTA implies the use of wireless mechanisms to send provisioning data or update packages for firmware or software updates to a mobile device . When enabled. etc. processing and setting the parameters.GSM 03. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. libelium. Félix. a Device Management client in a device may be capable of receiving and provisioning applications. microsoft. com/ libeliumworld/ articles/ 111291292000) [3] Over the Air Programming with Waspmote.OTA (http:/ / www. For example. Similarities OTA is similar to firmware distribution methods used by other mass-produced consumer electronics. microsoft. Yarza. Genicio. com/ mobile/ phones/ mme/ default.15. References [1] "Mobile Phones .4 and ZigBee . Marcos Over the Air Programming with 802. Non-OTA options for a user are a) to go to a store and seek help b) use a PC and a cable to connect to the device and change settings on a device. David. which use TFTP as a way to remotely receive new programming. It allows an access point(AP) to discover the IP address of its controller. Microsoft. It is sent in plain text however which would make it vulnerable to sniffing and why it is disabled by default. such as cable modems. or connectivity parameters.OTA (http:/ / www. 2001. Bielsa. parameters changed or firmware or software updated. add software to device. In general.48 series. htm . tmcnet.

The network is used by all emergency services and provides nationwide coverage. Several websites provide a live monitor for all messages on this network. Messages are similar to SMS-messages. The P2000 network is maintained by the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations. Several tests have shown the network can cope with the largest disasters when large numbers of emergency personnel need to be reached. nl/ . which means means any message can be read by everyone with a receiver. The FLEX-protocol does not provide encryption.P2000 (network) 245 P2000 (network) P2000 is a one-way communications network for pagers based on Motorola's FLEX-protocol in the Netherlands. livep2000. A P2000 pager External links • Live P2000 monitor [1] References [1] http:/ / monitor.

PV's software is embedded in more than 249 million devices worldwide and more than 248 different products. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. including the display of video on mobile handsets. Major product groups from PV are: • CORE. CEO and Team[1]. United States Key people Website James C. a white-label client-server software application to develop and launch on-device portals for rich media services.PacketVideo 246 PacketVideo PacketVideo Corporation Type Founded Privately Held San Diego. USA Headquarters San Diego. and consumer electronics companies. Major development centers are in San Diego. Affiliations PacketVideo is a member of industry forum and consortiums. Chandigarh. http:/ / www. Boston. which provides a universal structure for mobile multimedia applications. Brailean. Osama Al-shaykh. In 2003 PacketVideo sold its infrastructure division to Alcatel. Nice. Brailean. Tampere. MPEG Industry Forum. Berlin. Tokyo. including the Open Handset Alliance. Broadcast Mobile Convergence Forum. and the Digital Living Network Alliance . Cheuk Chan. California. com PacketVideo Corporation or PV is a San Diego-based company that produces software for wireless multimedia. History PV was founded in San Diego. and Basel. handset manufacturers. packetvideo. and Basel. Gene Wen and Mark R Banham. Chicago. Tokyo. Tampere. Locations PacketVideo has presence in three continents. International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium. NTT DoCoMo and Orange. CORE is an established framework that can support any media services. Chicago. FLO Forum. Mobile DTV Alliance. Charlotte. California. • TwonkyMedia suite of products that connect home entertainment devices. California on 10 August 1998 by James C. Sales and customer support centers are in San Diego. Products PV's customers include mobile operators such as Verizon Wireless. with its headquarters in San Diego. Charlotte. Open Mobile Alliance. • MediaFusion.

typically a phone number that the user is then requested to call. A one-way numeric pager can only receive a message consisting of a few digits. In general. Today. The first pager system had a range of approximately 40 km (25 mi) and the physicians paid US$12 per month for the service. com/ management_team. the calling party reaches a recorded greeting asking the caller to enter a numeric message. but current pagers in this category use other forms of alert as well. packetvideo. pagers mainly support the "critical messaging" markets. usually consisting of the phone number.[2] A Motorola alphanumeric pager used in Brazil in the 1990s.com/) Pager A pager (often called a beeper) is a simple personal telecommunications device for short messages. When calling a phone number assigned to a pager. In the case of email paging. The current numeric pager . The actual pager device was developed and manufactured by Reevesound Company of New York and weighed approximately 200 grams (6 oz). and SMS messages. Function and operation Paging is a subscription service offered in a variety of plans and options to meet the needs of a subscriber and the type of device used. They were named beepers because they originally made a beeping noise. Some use audio signals. Generally.PacketVideo 247 References [1] http:/ / www. the text is displayed. • Beepers were the first and are the simplest form of paging. all pagers are given unique phone numbers while alphanumeric pagers are given an email address.[1] The first practical pager was introduced in 1950 by physicians in the New York City area. the paged person will receive an alert from the pager with the phone number and/or a pager code within a few minutes. often used in combination. The majority of restaurant pagers fall into this category. and sometimes giving the caller an option to leave a voice mail message. html External links • PacketVideo Corporation (http://www.packetvideo. numeric pages. as well as two-way pagers that have the ability to send and receive email. The numeric message given is usually a phone number. others light up and some vibrate. operated by Teletrim Until the popular adoption of mobile phones in the 1990s. Alphanumeric pagers are available. pagers filled the role of common personal and mobile communications.

[4] A pager technology in wide use today is the restaurant pager. pagers evolved from a A Skyper pager that is in use for ham radio .2 billion in 2003. satellite systems continue to perform.this has the advantage of standardising communications. Many paging transmitters may overlap a coverage area. or the message can be typed from a wireless keyboard and is received by the pager. increasing speed of a message reply and reducing the chance of a miss-communication. Most modern paging systems use simulcast delivery by satellite controlled networks. The U. These devices are usually given an email address to receive text messages. usually from the beeper category.S. or when their meal is ready. the functionality of the pager shifted from necessary professional use to a social tool integrated in one's personal life. the units either have a small built in keypad that allows the user to input messages. to improve response times by designating jobs or activities only to the closest field personnel. The front end of a numeric pager Pager use in the 21st century Pagers are still in use today in places where mobile phones typically cannot reach users. paging industry generated $2. Within a short timespan. GPS allows field agents location information to be sent back to a control centre that can use the information to send only location relevant information. where radio transmitters are thought to interfere with sensitive medical equipment and where there is a greater need of assurance for a timely delivery of a message. To do this. two-way pagers are offered with GPS. Increasingly. This type of distributed system makes them inherently more reliable than terrestrial based cellular networks for message delivery. where cellular coverage is often weak or nonexistent. Because of superior building penetration and availability of service in disaster situations. One such type of location is a large hospital complex.1 billion in revenue in 2008. Other pager models rely on existing message templates that the user can choose to send back .Pager • Voice/Tone pagers provide the ability to listen to a recorded voice message when an alert is received. and also in places where the operation of the radio transmitters contained in mobile phones is problematic or prohibited. flashes or beeps when a table becomes free. 248 • Two-way Alphanumeric pagers are alphanumeric pagers capable of both sending and receiving text messages and email. pagers are often used by first responders in emergencies. an informal language wherein sets of numbers symbolize preset messages. and.[3] • Numeric pagers are the type of devices offering only a numeric display of the phone number to be called and pager codes. When terrestrial networks go down in an emergency. down from $6. • Alphanumeric pagers are essentially modified versions of numeric pagers with sophisticated display to accommodate text. while cellular systems are built to fill holes in existing networks.[3] A dual-frequency Unication pager for use by EMS units In popular culture As is the case with many new technologies. customers are given a theft-protected portable receiver which usually vibrates. Mainly used in the hospitality industry.

pagers typically receive signals using the FLEX protocol in the 900 MHz band. Golay. Upcoming mainstream artists such as Ice Cube and Method Man. FLEX. That I met last week at the Pay-less". this can also be disadvantageous. 249 A mid 1990s opaque black Avont pager model Original Motorola "beeper" pager.Pager tool for "technocratic elites" to a tool used by "kids living in the projects"[5] During the rise of the pager. as a message sent to a pager must be broadcast from every paging transmitter in the pager's service area. The segment explored the device's entrance into mainstream pop culture. POCSAG. Q-Tip conveys that the skypager "serves an important communicative function for a young professional with a full calendar". This is convenient for many users. In the song 3-Way (The Golden Rule) by American comedy troupe The Lonely Island. it became the subject of various forms of media. if a pager has nationwide service. The growing popularity of cellphones in the early 21st century was accompanied by a corresponding decline in pager use by the general population. ReFLEX. it also discussed the humorous use of calculator spelling to send messages through the devices. older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel. Pagers were a featured segment on the 1991 episode I Love the '90s: Part Deux. Likewise. a message sent to it could be intercepted by criminals or law enforcement agencies anywhere within the nationwide service area. Commercial paging transmitters typically radiate 1000 watts of effective power. and are less subject to these delays. ERMES and NTT. Older forms of message submission using the Telocator Alphanumeric input Protocol protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network. used in NYC in the late 1970s. Justin Timberlake states "You know I just got a page from a girl. Technical information Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email. in particular the pager. This can result in pager messages being delayed or lost. due to the widespread adoption of email. For this reason. Since a one-way pager is a passive receiver only (it sends no information back to the base station). Common paging protocols include TAP. Thus. However. most notably in the 1990s hip-hop scene. This shift accounts for Sam Flynn's amusement when Alan Bradley says "I was paged last night" in Tron: Legacy. A Tribe Called Quest's single 'Skypager' directly speaks of the importance of such a wireless communication device. but email-based message submission methods do not usually provide any way to ensure that messages have been received by the paging network.[7] Security Pagers also have privacy advantages compared with cellular phones. along with underground acts such as A Tribe Called Quest began referencing forthcoming mobile technologies. Past paging protocols include Two-tone and 5/6-tone.[6] The smash hit "Bugaboo" from Destiny's Child also makes reference to pagers. the 30 Rock sitcom character Dennis Duffy attracts disdain and mockery for his career as a pager salesman. In the United States. resulting in a much wider coverage area per . its location cannot be tracked.

Popular Science (http:/ / books.com report on Paging Industry market size (http:/ / www. one-way paging networks have no way to track whether a message has been successfully delivered to a pager. This was useful for times when the pager was off/out of coverage area. ‘Do You Know the Importance of a Sky Pager?’: Telecommunications. Messages can be sent in the form of SMS. Davin (2006). and 900 MHz bands include POCSAG and ERMES. the VHF band. Jeff. . of a broadcast station. and have numeric messages read back to them. com/ restaurant-pager.sid40_gci212739.Pager tower than a mobile phone transmitter.” [7] http:/ / www. This is especially critical in hospital settings where emergency staff must be able to reliably receive pages in order to respond to patient needs. African-Americans. Patient Paging Systems offer waiting patients the opportunity to leave the waiting area but still be contactable. commercial paging service providers will work with large institutions to install repeater equipment in the event that service is not available in needed areas of the subscribing institution's buildings. some paging companies began offering a service. called the Subsidiary Communications Authority.. email or from a web interface. African-Americans. Pagers using the commercial FM band receive a subcarrier. Pager in movies • 2001 The Debut References [1] http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. uk/ sectors/ pager-patient. hospitals commonly use on site paging for communication with staff and increasingly for calling waiting patients when their appointment is due (Patient Paging Systems). How Restaurant Pagers Work (http:/ / electronics. anythingresearch. com/ books?id=ZyEDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA104& dq=popular+ science+ 1950+ can+ our+ jets+ support& hl=en& ei=4n2-TJmUBNnhnQfCvvGJDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CD8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage& q& f=true) [3] Tyson. retrieved 17 January 2010 [4] AnythingResearch. techtarget. Other paging protocols used in the VHF. htm) 2003 and 2008 research data used with permission [5] Heckman. Unlike mobile phones. Since one-way pagers do not contain transmitters. which allowed a customer to call their pagernumber. January 1951. and Popular Culture. com/ industry/ Paging. Onsite Paging Systems in Hospitals Unlike wide area paging systems on site pager systems are local area services. com/ sDefinition/ 0. co. and the FM commercial broadcast band (88-108 MHz). Davin (2006). In the mid 1990s. com/ lyrics/ The+ Lonely+ Island/ 3-Way+ The+ Golden+ Rule/ [8] http:/ / www. pagercall.00. google. most one-way pagers do not display any information about whether a signal is being received or about the strength of the received signal. Reference: Patient Paging Systems [8] 250 Satellite pager A service based on the Iridium satellite constellation uses satellites to deliver short text messages to one-way pagers similar to those used by terrestrial paging networks. and Popular Culture (p175) [6] Heckman. “‘Do You Know the Importance of a Sky Pager?’: Telecommunications. the message will not be received and the sender of the message will not be notified of this fact. htm). html [2] Pocket Radio Pages Doctors Night Or Day. asp . lyricshall. Despite the fact that the network provides world-wide coverage the messages are only sent to pre-selected message delivery areas which can be set on a web-based interface or by binding the service to a satellite phone. Although 900 MHz FLEX paging networks tend to have stronger in-building coverage than mobile phone networks. Other radio bands used for pagers include the 400 MHz band.6 Watts per channel. as it would know what number paged you even if you never actually received the page. which typically radiates around 0. if a one-way pager is turned off or is not receiving a usable signal at the time a message is transmitted. howstuffworks. Because of this. 400 MHz UHF.

com/support. and (b) is responsible for interconnection of access and network systems to support end-to-end services.php?main_page=page&id=25& zenid=f081fb7631873c12bf1fdddc007ec50d) • 800Beepers Enhanced Options / Services (http://www. carriers. P2P video sharing does not require a full IMS implementation.com/index.co.bbc. mobile operators may want to use it without username/password provisioning and the related frauds problems.Pager 251 External links • BBC news reports closure of UK domestic pager systems in 2001 (http://news. Note 1: The PCS switching center represents a collection of one or more network elements. etc. References  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration. a facility that (a) supports access-independent call control/service control.Technical information on protocols. While talking on the CS line the speaker can start in parallel a multimedia IMS session. The peer-to-peer video sharing functionality is defined by the Phase 1 of the GSMA Video Share service. Peer-to-peer video sharing Peer-to-peer video sharing is a basic service on top of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). However. So the IMS adds up extra security and management features that are normally required by a mobile operator by default.com/index. stm) • NotePage technical support (http://www. The session is normally a video stream. . too.php?main_page=page&id=6& zenid=f081fb7631873c12bf1fdddc007ec50d) PCS switching center PCS switching center: In personal communications service.800beepers.notepager. • 800Beepers User Manuals (http://www. too.htm) . The GSM Association calls it "Video Share".800beepers. with audio being optional (since there is an audio session already open on the CS domain). It is also possible to share photos or files. Actually. The most basic form is typically connected to a classical circuit-switched (CS) telephone call. One possible solution is the Early IMS Authentication method. and connection control (switching) functions. please see the Wikipedia entry for Video Share. Early proprietary implementations might also run a simple SIP infrastructure.uk/1/hi/uk/1137923. It could work with a pure IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) infrastructure and simple HTTP Digest authentication. Note 2: The term "center" does not imply a physical location. In the future USIM/ISIM based authentication could be introduced. For a more detailed description of the full GSMA Video Share service.

Technical description on the Forum Nokia site • http://press. do) Service description at TIM (in Italian) External links • http://www.com/PR/200502/980522_5.Peer-to-peer video sharing 252 Early implementation by Nokia The early Nokia implementation requires the manual setting of an attribute in the phone book.gsmworld. the video sharing client looks up the destination URI based on the MSISDN number of the B party of the current open CS voice call. this method is not really scalable. Because this service does not involve any application server.nokia. the first commercial services were based on the idea that video sharing will increase the length of the voice sessions. tim.com/sip/e2e/videoshare. Two major operators started commercial implementations: "Turbo Call" [1] from Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) in Italy and Telecomunicações Móveis Nacionais. Usually.com/PR/200502/980522_5. it/ consumer/ c366/ i56102/ o683_684/ servizio. Supported handsets • Nokia 6630. SA (TMN) in Portugal. The video sharing is possible only if this number has a valid entry in the phone book and a valid URI for the SIP call. 6680 • Nokia N70 • Nokia 5230 References [1] (http:/ / www.GSM Association Video Share homepage • http://sw. The 6680 is especially suited for turning on the video sharing by having a slider on top of the back-side camera.nokia.shtml (http://www. The first handsets to support P2P video sharing were the Nokia 6630 and 6680.pdf) .com/ id/ced67f36-2a98-4f21-9277-209bb4a2429c/Video_Sharing. Later the Nokia N70 was added to the commercially supported handsets. However.html (http://press.html) Announcement of the "Turbo Call" service from TIM in cooperation with Nokia . History The P2P video sharing was introduced in 2004 by Nokia.com/id/ced67f36-2a98-4f21-9277-209bb4a2429c/Video_Sharing. When the video session is triggered (by simply pulling down the back-side camera cover on a 6680).com/sip/e2e/videoshare.nokia. Popularity TIM Italy reported about 10% penetration (based on the potentially available customers with appropriate handsets). and the resulting increased revenue would be enough to cover the costs of the video sharing service. since the user has to enter very complex strings into the phone book manually.pdf (http://sw.gsmworld. it is difficult to make a good business model for it. shtml) .nokia.

and data service.[5] This frequency band was designated by the United States FCC and Industry Canada to be used for new wireless services to alleviate capacity caps inherent in the original AMPS and D-AMPS cellular networks in the 800-894 MHz frequency band (commonly referred to as the "850 MHz band"). Retrieved 2011-03-11. as long as the network meets the service description characteristics described in the standard. PCS is a generation of wireless-phone technology that combines a range of features and services surpassing those available in analog.verizon. 2011. "Personal Communications Services (PCS) A new generation of wireless-phone technology that introduces a range of features and services surpassing those available in analog- . Verizon Communications Inc.com.[4] In Canada.org/5x7DguDqd). including services that allow people to place and receive communications while away from their home or office.com/wholesale/glossary/?l=p) on 2011-03-11. Sprint PCS originally built out the network using GSM radio interface equipment. and service profile management.and digital-cellular phone systems. paging. Federal Communications Commission 2008.[1] More specifically.[6] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Institute for Telecommunication Sciences 2011. Verizon Communications Inc. messaging. These frequency bands are particular to North America and other frequency bands may be designated in other regions.webcitation. providing a user with an all-in-one wireless phone. personal mobility. launching service in November. 2011. PCS services are provided in the 1850-1990 MHz frequency band (commonly referred to as the "1900 MHz band"). Cellular Networking Perspectives Ltd. PCS and the IMT-2000 standard of which PCS is a part do not specify a particular air interface and channel access method. PCS can also be used to provide other wireless communications services. Archived from the original (http://www22. Wireless service providers may deploy equipment using any of several air interface and channel access methods. Mexico and the United States. In addition. providing services similar to advanced cellular mobile or paging services. Sprint PCS later selected CDMA as the radio interface for its nationwide network and built out a parallel CDMA network in the Baltimore-Washington area. References • "Glossary of Telecom Terms : P" (http://www. After completing the customer migration. 1995 in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. 2011. launching service in 1997. office buildings and other fixed locations. Cambridge Telecom Report 2000. typically incorporating digital technology. verizon. as well as wireless communications to homes. Sprint PCS sold the GSM radio interface network equipment to Omnipoint Communications in January 2000. Sprint PCS was the first company to build and operate a PCS network. PCS refers to any of several types of wireless voice and/or wireless data communications systems.[3] The International Telecommunications Union describes Personal Communications Services as a component of the IMT-2000 (3G) standard. Sprint operated the two networks in parallel until finishing a migration of its area customers to the CDMA network. First PCS Network in the United States In the United States. International Telecommunications Union 1997.Personal Communications Service 253 Personal Communications Service At the most basic level Personal Communications Service or PCS describes a set of wireless communications capabilities that allows some combination of terminal mobility.[2] Described in more commercial terms.

and service profile management." "Sprint Sells GSM Wireless Network Infrastructure in Washington/Baltimore Area To Omnipoint After Upgrading Customers to Newer CDMA System . Retrieved 2011-03-11. org/5x7EyxALO).1224-0-199702-I!!PDF-E.webcitation.cnp-wireless. The Institute for Telecommunication Sciences. Retrieved 2011-03-11. www. Cambridge Telecom Report. 2011.gov/glossary.fcc." "Glossary of Telecommunications Terms" (http://www. Archived from the original (http:// 254 • • • • findarticles. Archived from the original (http://www. Archived from the original (http://www.itu.Company Business and Marketing" (http://www. CBS Interactive.bldrdoc. Cellular Networking Perspectives Ltd. messaging. Telecom and Computer Glossary" (http://www.int/ dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/m/R-REC-M. 1850-1990 MHz" External links • United States Federal Communications Commission Broadband PCS service description (http://wireless.com.gov/fs-1037/) on 2011-03-11.org/5x7GHvEsu) (PDF).org/5x7DGMe4m).fcc.org/5x7EBShz6). 2010-10-07.its. Retrieved 2011-03-11. PCS provides the user with an all-in-one wireless phone. 2008-11-15. Archived from the original (http://www. fcc. 2000-01-03. International Telecommunications Union. gov/services/broadbandpcs/) . the nation's first PCS network. 1997-07-01. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Retrieved 2011-03-11." "PCS" (http://www. its. "PCS: Abbreviation for Personal Communications Service. A set of capabilities that allows some combination of terminal mobility.pdf) on 2011-03-11. and data service.webcitation.html) on 2011-03-11. and service profile management. paging.itu. "An affiliate of Sprint launched the GSM system in Washington/Baltimore.int.html#p) on 2011-03-11.com/ glossary.bldrdoc.gov.com/p/articles/mi_m0BFP/is_2000_Jan_3/ai_58463612/) on 2011-03-11. voice and/or data communications systems.webcitation. typically incorporating digital technology.webcitation. Archived from the original (http://www.1224 Vocabulary of Terms for International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) (Question ITU-R 39/8)" (http://www." "Recommendation ITU-R M. "PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE (PCS) Any of several types of wireless. in November 1995. cnp-wireless.webcitation. "PCS system A collection of facilities which provide some combination of terminal mobility." • "Wireless. personal mobility. Federal Communications Commission.Personal Communications Service and digital-cellular phone systems.org/5x7CwBtjf).gov. personal mobility. "PCS1900 North American PCS frequencies.

and beyond TV networks[6] . The platform establishes a mobile ecosystem as it provides intimate interaction for audiences and fans with their sports teams. etc. and local advertisers. Inc. brands. Instead the platform user will advertise an invitation to participate to their audience where they frequent such as traditional or digital signage in venues. magazine ads. The platform specifically allows for mobile marketing campaigns to be set up and run that can pass along useful information to audiences. com [2] Phizzle is a mobile marketing technology platform that allows its users to connect with their audiences via mobile interactivity. and with such networks as Fox Sports Network[5] in regions across the US. Phizzle has been bringing in other major professional sports teams and sports networks to facilitate reach . contests and sweepstakes. There are a variety of campaign types that can be set up that include alerts and subscriptions. TV networks. and NHL. voting and polling. California Key people Website Benjamin Davis. fans and customers. or other means such as TV and radio commercials. Since then. Advertising and sponsorship can also be a part of the SMS messages or WAP sites that the Phizzle platform initiates. and local advertisers to converge and deliver targeted ads to their focused audiences. Type Private Headquarters San Francisco. and trivia. The text messages may also have WAP push links that launch WAP sites for the audience or fan to continue further interaction with. Phizzle identified the Sports/Entertainment Industry as the prime market ready for the technology and began working with the Cleveland Cavaliers in 2008. retail stores. Inc. Thus. The platform does also have reach into the retail and pharmaceutical markets. History The idea for Phizzle came about in late 2005 after Ben Davis sold a mobile game company that he helped found in 2004. The name "Phizzle" was chosen due to the futuristic nature of mobile phones and because it is slang for and a play on the word phone[7] . to name a few. arenas. NFL [4] . After a platform build out in 2006 and 2007. networks. The mobile platform allows the user to communicate with its audience through the opt-in campaigns. mobile communication Phizzle Website [1] Phizzle.Phizzle 255 Phizzle Phizzle Developer(s) Phizzle. Stable release Version 1. CEO http:/ / www. the Phizzle platform also serves as a mobile ad network for sports teams. Phizzle has a strong Sports/Entertainment Industry focus with clients in the NBA[3] . phizzle.0 Type Website Web application. highways. The communication that usually transpires is by SMS (text messages). The mobile connection to audiences usually begins with a "call to action" that is not on the mobile platform itself.

These features allow for real-time interaction with audiences and fans while on their mobile devices. 2009 [5] "FSOhio connects with Cavs fans" . mobile coupons. 2009 (http:/ / www. 2009 (http:/ / www. voting and polling[10] . facebook.shtml) . 2009 (http:/ / findarticles. php?note_id=68283858018) [10] "Fox Sports Ohio Adds Sizzle Via Phizzle for Reds Fans" . sportsvideo. com/ note.org/portal/dsports/articles/publish/ Ben_Davis_III.Ben Davis profile (http://www. and campaign tracking and data tools. com/ news/ Raiders.April 10. org/ portal/ artman/ publish/ printer_15041. phizzle. phizzle.Sports Video Group . ohio. htm) "Oakland Raiders Raiders' Billboard Campaign" . html) [6] "Advantage Broadcast Solutions Partners with Phizzle to Further Enhance Interactivity of Satellite Meetings" . com [3] "Phizzle Goes To The Mobile Hoop For NBA All-Star Weekend 2010" . sweepstakes[9] and contests. trivia games. Inc. subscription alerts. mercurynews. 2009 (http:/ / www.Urban Dictionary (http:/ / www. shtml) External links • Phizzle. com/ / [2] http:/ / www.com July 10.OaklandRaiders. urbandictionary. References [1] http:/ / www.com/) • Sports Video Group . 256 Features The Phizzle platform features the following capabilities and mobile campaign types: text2screen[8] . com/ sports/ cavs/ 44090407. php?term=phizzle) [8] "" BNET . 2010 (http:/ / businesswire.SJ Mercury News .sportsvideo. digidaydaily.Akron Beacon Journal Apr 30.Phizzle to their audiences and fans across the US.digiday:Daily .October. WAP sites. com/ stories/ phizzle-goes-to-the-mobile-hoop-for-nba-all-star-weekend-2010/ ) [4] (http:/ / www. (http://www. com/ define.February 12. 2010 (http:/ / www. phizzle.Mar 27.phizzle. com/ portal/ site/ mercurynews/ ?ndmViewId=news_view& newsId=20100309005180& newsLang=en) [7] "Phizzle" .March 09. com/ p/ articles/ mi_pwwi/ is_200910/ ai_n39266353/ ) [9] "FSN Wisconsin: AirTran Airways/Fox Sports Wisconsin "Text Me Out to the Ballgame Get Away Sweepstakes" Rules!" .

86" (D) 5.61 ounces / 0. bluetooth The Helio Ocean is a dual slider Internet-enabled multimedia wireless mobile device sold by mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) wireless carrier Helio. it reveals a full 35-key QWERTY keyboard. 2007.[1] Photos released on December 9."[6] The Ocean is seen as a breakthrough device for Helio. 2007 a full gallery depicting the Helio Ocean was available through the FCC website. 262K color TFT-LAC. 2010. [2] and later on February 21. 240 x 320 resolution Ringtones & notifications Polyphonic ringtone Connectivity USB. Customers had until this date to port out their wireless phone number to another wireless carrier without a loss of service. Release The device became first known to the public on November 24. appealing to a more mainstream audience and not just the "ultra-cool hipsters" the company had previously targeted. Virgin Mobile USA terminated the wireless voice and data services of those customers who had a Helio Ocean or other Helio branded devices on May 25. President & COO of Helio. When slid down in the horizontal position. Since their acquisition by Sprint Nextel.Helio Ocean 257 Helio Ocean Helio Ocean PN-810 Compatible networks Dimensions Weight Memory Display CDMA 1xEV-DO 800/1900 MHz 4.4" QVGA display. A distinctive design feature of the Ocean is its dual sliding mechanism — when slid down in the vertical position. said that work on the Ocean device started "before Helio was officially a company. A deactivated Helio Ocean still is able to be used as a digital camera allowing images and video files to be downloaded via the included USB interface cable directly to a computer.[3] [4] When publicly released on Friday.[5] the Ocean was billed as "the ultimate messaging and talking machine" and "the definitive mobile social networking experience.33" (H) x 2. 2006 from a FCC filing. and manufactured by Pantech Curitel. May 11."[8] .[7] Dr. 2006 showed the Ocean in test apparatus documentation.20" (W) x 0. it reveals a telephone keypad.35 pounds 200 MB + up to 2 GB extra memory available via microSD. SDHC is not compatible 2. Wonhee Sull.

the Buddy Beacon [9] application allows friends with Buddy Beacon-enabled phones (as of Dec 2008. an alarm clock and a calendar. and Windows Live Messenger.[11] [12] Ultimate Inbox The Helio Ocean also includes several choices of E-mail communication with support for Helio Mail. For communication. Additionally. XLS. The Ocean is loaded with a version of Google Maps. H. only Helio phones) to broadcast their current location to each other. HTML. TXT) as well as several image types in both landscape and portrait modes. a 2 megapixel camera with flash. Standard programs include an internet browser. . an efficiency that allows for an estimate 15 hours of music listening on a single battery charge. Windows Live Hotmail. allowing the device to be able to read a variety of popular file formats (among them DOC. and AOL Mail. and two additional user-defined POP or IMAP accounts. however. a MPEG-4 video camera. the application warns users that it should not be used while driving. built-in GPS. Helio began adding support for push e-mail to the Helio Ocean in July 2007 with Push support for Yahoo! Mail. which displays turn-by-turn directions. 2007 Helio released a file viewer program for Ocean users. the Ocean's functions include those of a camera phone and a portable media player. and Korean character set support. MPEG-4. Gmail. a voice memo recorder.[13] For a nominal fee per month. 2007. AAC. along with automatic notifications for POP/IMAP accounts. The music player runs on a separate microprocessor.Helio Ocean 258 Features The Ocean is a prime example of a converged device. and a removable battery. The Helio Ocean has a considerable amount of features at the time of its release. connectivity to Microsoft Exchange has been available on the Ocean since July 25. a calculator. Windows Live Hotmail. Multimedia The integrated music and video player supports multiple file formats (including MP3. Yahoo! Messenger. The Ocean device has several advanced features such as stereo bluetooth. 3G speed EV-DO network support.[14] [15] There is also instant messaging support for AOL Instant Messenger.264. PPT. T9 Text. MMS support. Yahoo! Mail. to telephony functions. AOL Mail. Helio Ocean running Google Maps in portrait mode. address book (with multiple online syncing abilities). In addition. 2008 push support was added for Gmail. visible via MapQuest.[10] On November 29. PDF. a speaker phone. EarthLink. the device includes caller ID (with support for photo caller ID). and WMA) and allows for over-the-air (OTA) downloads. On April 23. GPS The device is location aware with its internal GPS.

com [23] Helio brightens its YouTube offering (http:/ / crave. com/ livefiles/ support/ ocean_fact_sheet. helio.engadget. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1185327373909) helio. References [1] FCC Fridays (http:/ / www.msnbc.helio.helio.com [13] Gmail (and POP/IMAP!) gets Push support in Ultimate Inbox (http:/ / www.download. engadgetmobile. Users can fully log in to personalize. html) .helio. com/ pressreleases/ en/ 2008/ 03/ 19/ ) .com [9] http:/ / www. cnet.msnbc. net/ 2008/ gmail-gets-push-support-in-ultimate-inbox) . heliocity.com [2] The next Kickflip? Helio-branded Pantech in the wild (http:/ / www.[18] [19] It was speculated that Helio had followed the "incredible community response to Opera Mini. opera.com [5] Helio Ocean now available (http:/ / www. the Ocean got official software support for the Opera Mini browser when Helio became the first U.com [22] Helio Launches Most Complete YouTube Experience (http:/ / www. msnbc."[20] Helio was the first cellular provider to take the MySpace experience mobile. com/ buddybeacon. com/ Ocean-smart-phone-could-broaden-Helios-appeal/ 2100-1039_3-6171062. pdf) .news. com/ 2006/ 11/ 24/ fcc-fridays/ ) . com/ photos/ helios-pantech-pn-810-qwerty-device-pops-up-in-fcc/ ) .engadgetmobile.[21] YouTube On December 12. computer-advice. helio.engadgetmobile. com/ id/ 17800969) . helio.com [7] Ocean smart phone could broaden Helio's appeal (http:/ / www.crave. msn. com/ 8301-1_105-9832752-1.com [15] The Ocean gets Exchange Activesync (http:/ / crave. at the time the "most complete" on a mobile device.helio.[22] [23] The Ocean is able to do video capture and upload to YouTube as well as GPS tagging of videos. html) . com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1178851101604) .net [17] Give a wave. those in the Helio community had figured out how to build custom applications (the device is Java-based) . helio. com/ 8301-2007_4-9754949-12. leading some to refer to the Ocean as a "MySpace phone. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1174770553372) . On July 19.com [8] Meet the New Helio Ocean (http:/ / www. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1195242138800) helio. ulocate. html) .opera.crave.Helio Ocean 259 Opera Mini On August 2. cnet. helio. rate videos and use other community features. news.com [19] Opera Mini officially surfs Helio's Ocean (http:/ / www.[16] [17] Several months later. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1184806233919) .net [14] Helio Launches Mail for Microsoft Exchange (http:/ / www.com [18] Opera Mini Surfs on the Helio Ocean (http:/ / www. helio.helio.com [20] MySpace users to get their own cell phones (http:/ / www.S carrier to sign a deal with Opera. html) . msn.msn. net/ 2007/ opera-mini-for-everybody-custom-apps-yay/ ) heliocity. html) . Opera Mini now surfing Helio's Ocean. com/ 2006/ 12/ 09/ the-next-kickflip-helio-branded-pantech-in-the-wild/ ) .info [4] Helio's Pantech PN-810 QWERTY device pops up in FCC (Gallery) (http:/ / www.heliocity.cnet.com [11] Helio File Viewer Now Available for Ocean Users (http:/ / www.com [3] Helio's Pantech PN-810 QWERTY device pops up in FCC (http:/ / www. com/ 8301-2007_4-9897598-12. engadgetmobile.com [16] Opera Mini for everybody! Custom apps! Yay! (http:/ / www.com [12] Helio outs File Viewer for Ocean.computer-advice. com/ 8301-1_105-9749860-1.news. 2007 Helio announced a more enriched YouTube experience. com/ id/ 11374772) . com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1197419200979) .com [6] Ocean Media Fact Sheet (http:/ / www. info/ 2007/ 02/ 21/ helios-pantech-pn-810-qwerty-device-pops-up-in-fcc/ ) . download.com [21] Helio Continues to Lead Mobile Social Networking with New Myspace on Helio Application (http:/ / www.cnet. php [10] Cell industry gathers under iPhone cloud (http:/ / www. 2007 Helio announced the launch of an improved version of Myspace Mobile that operates nearly five times faster than Helio's original self-developed application. helio. download."[16] MySpace Mobile MySpace Mobile is available for the Helio Ocean.msn. (http:/ / www.including Opera Mini. engadgetmobile. 2007.com . msnbc. on March 19. engadget. reads most of the important stuff (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 11/ 19/ helio-outs-file-viewer-for-ocean-reads-most-of-the-important-st/ ) . 2008.engadgetmobile. heliocity.

etc.gov/prod/oet/forms/blobs/retrieve. which imitates the noise produced by dragging a stiff object across a picket fence.com/watch?v=e3R_ExzzF3k) . This form of picocell is sometimes called an access point base station or 'enterprise femtocell'.helioocean. but also many of the functions of the BSC and some of the MSC. or more recently in-aircraft. or (more likely) by the landline user to whom the cellphone is connected.com/) .heliocity.Helio Ocean 260 External links • • • • • • • Helio Ocean updates (http://www. In cellular networks. Originally from amateur radio.helio ocean updates Unofficial Helio Ocean Site (http://www.heliocity. the picocell base station[2] is typically a low cost.myhelioapps.com) .).com Unofficial Helio community (http://www. as if the listener was walking by a picket fence. Although originally deployed systems (1990s) used PDH links such as E1/T1 links.helio. This is potentially a more cost effective approach. reasonably simple unit that connects to a Base Station Controller (BSC). Picocell A picocell is a small cellular basestation typically covering a small area. Aircraft use satellite links[3] .[4] . and hearing a conversation on the other side that changes audibily depending on the position of the pickets relative to the listener.com Compare AT&T iPhone to Helio Ocean (http://compare. In cellular wireless networks.net Custom community-maintained applications (http://www. picocells are typically used to extend coverage to indoor areas where outdoor signals do not reach well. or to add network capacity in areas with very dense phone usage. shopping malls.com) .youtube.helio. such as GSM. without the need for the BSC/MSC infrastructure.com Internal photographs of the Ocean (https://fjallfoss.com Helio Ocean video review (http://www. Connectivity between the picocell heads and the BSC typically consists of in-building wiring. the integration of picocells with macrocells through a Heterogeneous Network can be useful in seamless handoffs and increased mobile data capacity.gov Picket-fencing Picket fencing is slang for the chopping effect sometimes heard by cell phone users at the edge of a cell's coverage area. thus chopping the speech of the transmitting operator.fcc.myhelioapps. Multiple picocell 'heads' connect to each BSC: the BSC performs radio resource management and hand-over functions.helioocean. cgi?attachment_id=731378&native_or_pdf=pdf) . train stations. the phrase was used to describe the way an FM transmitter will cut in and out as it nears the capture threshold of the receiver. Picocells offer many of the benefits of "small cells" (similar to femtocells) in that they improve data throughput for mobile users and increase capacity in the mobile network. Picocells provide coverage and capacity in areas difficult or expensive to reach using the more traditional Macrocell approach[1] .youtube.net) . the unit contains all the capability required to connect directly to the Internet. In this case.fcc.com/) .helio-ocean2. such as in-building (offices. or if it actually referred to the chopping sound itself. In particular. "Picket fencing" refers to the way portions of speech are stripped from the conversation. small (typically the size of a ream of A4 paper). It is not clear if the phrase was intended to describe the loss of the speech. and aggregates data to be passed to the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and/or the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). More recent work has developed the concept towards a head unit containing not only a picocell. more recent systems use Ethernet cabling. such as train stations.

[6] . comparable to using a keyboard. php). UMTS and LTE from manufacturers including ip. ipaccess. because the predicted text that is automatically written that provide the speed and mechanical efficiency benefit. an address book. jsp Predictive text Predictive text is an input technology used where one key or button represents many letters. could. ZTE. [2] "ip. [6] http:/ / www. and no input mistakes are made typing or spelling. com/ research/ 1003580-Picocell+ Equipment+ Vendor+ Matrix). a calendar. predictive text systems are T9. Predictive text makes efficient use of fewer device keys to input writing into a text message. . result in transmitting misinformation.access. by way of the device memory. [4] "Mobile Experts Picocell Forecast" (http:/ / mobile-experts. general. . Predictive text could allow for an entire word to be input by single keypress. and the like. . [5] "picocell vendor matrix" (http:/ / www. Typically the range of a microcell is less than two kilometers wide.[2] The theoretical keystrokes per character. This is approximately true providing that all words used are in its database. There are various levels of risk in predictive text systems. Predictive text systems take time to learn to use well.access. att. in the same. visionmobile. of a keyboard is KSPC=1. although AT&T calls its product. iTap. to a user's disambiguating feedback that results in corrective key presses. Retrieved 2010-12-21. Eetimes. and the user's efficiency goal.[1] In practice.access nanoBTS picocell" (http:/ / www. punctuation is ignored. eetimes. ip. which when operating on a standard telephone keypad achieves "KSPC=1. a "microcell". Theoretically the number of keystrokes required per desired character in the finished writing is. and so generally. The most widely used. [3] "In-flight picocell connectivity" (http:/ / www. wireless. com/ analysis/ satellite/ 2010-04/ thales-in-flight-connectivity. a device's system has user options to setup the choice of multi-tap or of any one of several schools of predictive text methods. versus multi-tap systems. such as pressing a "next" key to get to the intention. com/ design/ audio-design/ 4012603/ A-picocell-primer).Picocell Picocells are available for most cellular technologies including GSM. com/ learn/ why/ 3gmicrocell/ faq. There are many unique ways to build a device that predicts text. com/ blog/ 2007/ 12/ do-we-really-need-femto-cells/ [7] http:/ / www. . such as on mobile phones and in accessibility technologies. these factors are found to cause tremendous variance in the efficiency gain. radio-electronics. php?products_id=41). Retrieved 2010-12-21. Most predictive text systems have a user database to facilitate this process. invariable order. ABI Research. Eatoni' LetterWise is a predictive multi-tap hybrid. Retrieved 2010-12-21. and of multi-tap is KSPC=2.03. abiresearch. an e-mail. CDMA. . the user's level of learned ability to operate predictive text software. and LetterWise/WordWise. Each key press results in a prediction rather than repeatedly sequencing through the same group of "letters" it represents. linguistic settings that offer predictions that are re-prioritized to adapt to each user. KSPC.15" for English. php). but all predictive text systems have initial. net/ product_info. com/ picocells/ nanoBTS_picocells. Retrieved 2010-12-21.[7] 261 References [1] "picocell primer" (http:/ / www. on average. Huawei and Airwalk[5] . if the user is not careful to review. This learning adapts. a picocell is 200 meters or less. with a range of 40 feet (12 m). and a femtocell is on the order of 10 meters. .00. The choice of which predictive text system is the best to use involves matching the user's preferred interface style.

or is correctly disambiguated by non-dictionary systems. and offers up the most probable choice. abbreviations. The user can then confirm the selection and move on. non-dictionary systems Traditional disambiguation works by referencing a dictionary of commonly used words. Motorola's iTap. To enter two successive letters that are on the same key. as long as the word exists in the predictive text dictionary. Aspects of predictive text have been patented for instance by Kondraske(1985) [3]. provided that a linguistic database in English is currently in use. Dictionary vs. which can be further classified as a "learning" system when words or phrases are entered into the user database without direct user intervention. and can be used without any visual feedback. punctuation is ignored. All predictive text systems requires a linguistic database for every supported input language. Using multi-tap. a key is pressed multiple times to access the list of letters on that key. A non-dictionary system constructs words and other sequences of letters from the statistics of word parts. it will appear. a set of statistical rules to recreate words from keystroke sequences. SMSes. Predictive text was mainly used to look up names in directories over the phone. twice displays a "b" and three times displays a "c".474) [4]. pressing "4663" will typically be disambiguated as the word "good". and as a fully functional keypad to text system for communicating with deaf people via phone in 1988 (Roy Feinson #4. all words used are in the dictionary. no spelling mistakes are made. (also called messages. pressing the"2" key once displays an "a". Thus. an algorithm searches the dictionary for a list of possible words that match the keypress combination. . hood. The ideal dictionary would include all slang. or use a key to cycle through the possible combinations. urls. Either system (disambiguation or predictive) may include a user database. This ideal circumstance gives predicive text software the reduction in the number of key strokes a user is required to enter a word. foreign-language words and other user-unique words. proper nouns. requiring potentially many keystrokes to enter a single letter. until mobile phone text messaging came into widespread use. multi-tap is not very efficient. T9 and iTap use dictionaries. texts.Predictive text 262 Background Short message service (SMS) permits a mobile phone user to send text messages. and the Eatoni Ergonomics' LetterWise and WordWise. The user presses the number corresponding to each letter and. but Eatoni Ergonomics' products uses a disambiguation process. as the user presses the number buttons. For instance. and no typing mistakes are made. Some disambiguation systems further attempt to correct spelling. hoof are also valid disambiguations of the sequence of key strokes.754. For instance. 1971). multi-tap is easy to understand. History Predictive entry of text from a telephone keypad has been known at least since the 1970s (Smith and Goodwin. The user database is for storing words or phrases which are not well-disambiguated by the pre-supplied database. The most widely used systems of predictive text are Tegic's T9. though alternatives such as home. and txts) as a short message. disambiguation may be combined with a word completion facility. with the risky effect of either enhancing or frustrating user efforts to enter text. though Eatoni offers a dictionary-less disambiguation system. In dictionary-based systems. the user must either pause or hit a "next" button. In ideal predictive text entry. The most common system of SMS text input is referred to as "multi-tap". However. A user can type by pressing an alphanumeric keypad without looking at the electronic equipment display. To attempt predictions of the intended result of keystrokes not yet entered. format text or perform other automatic rewrites.

• Press 4 once to select the (ghi) group for the second character. if the word is not spelled or typed correctly. EQ3 (a Qwerty-like layout compatible with regular telephone keypads). spell-check. predictive text reduced the number of button presses from 5 to 3. or is a proper noun. In this case.[6] Words produced by the same combination of keypresses may be referred to as "textonyms" (or "txtonyms") or "T9onyms" (pronounced "tynonyms").[8] . Adaptxt (considers language. "hoof". "Are you home?" could be rendered as "Are you good?" This fact can lead to misunderstandings. Eatoni Ergonomic's LetterWise. There is at least one reported case of a man stabbed to death in a fight caused by a text message rendered incorrectly by predictive text software. The system updates the display as each keypress is entered to show the most probable entry. includes multi-language dictionary. In these cases. in a phone with predictive text. rather than word-based prediction). • Press 3 once to select the (def) group for the third character.[7] though the phenomenon has nothing to do specifically with T9 per se and occurs in other systems. Such confusions may lead to mistaken meaning even if all of the words are typed correctly and spelled correctly. will generally be disambiguated as the word "good". Clevertexting (statistical nature of the language. and WordLogic's patented Intelligent Input Platform™ [5](patented. A standard ITU-T E. the same key sequence also corresponds to other words. A dictionary-based predictive system is based on hope that the desired word is in the dictionary. The effect is even greater with longer. the key sequence 4663 on a telephone keypad. Nuance Communications's T9 is the market leader. Furthermore. Intelab's Tauto. the simple dictionary approach fails with agglutinative languages. Textonyms As mentioned above. "hood" and so on.161 keypad used for text messaging Companies and products Predictive text is developed and marketed in a variety of competing products. That hope may be misplaced if the word differs in any way from common usage—in particular. Prevalent Devices's Phraze-It. it is only necessary to: • Press 8 once to select the (tuv) group for the first character. some other mechanism must be used to enter the word. provided with a linguistic database in English. such as "home". Oizea Type (temporal ambiguity). Meanwhile.Predictive text 263 Example Consider a typical phone keypad: Suppose a user wishes to type "The". • Press 4 (ghi) twice to select h. context. it would be necessary to do the following: • Press 8 (tuv) once to select t. layer-based advanced text prediction. In a traditional "multi-tap" keypad entry system. built-in Web search and more). is slang. Other products include Motorola's iTap. However. Xrgomics' TenGO (a six-key reduced QWERTY keyboard system). dynamic key allocation). where a single word doesn't necessarily represent a single semantic entity. (character. For example. grammar and semantics). WordWise (word-based prediction without a dictionary). more complex words. "gone". • Press 3 (def) twice to select e. dictionary less.

Text_row_man_faces_jail_for_killing_friend/ ). [3] http:/ / www. are words for which the disambiguation produces a single. . . Smith and Nancy C. Nytimes. PDF). . org/ fulltext/ jcs/ jcs12189-199. php?/ weblog/ comments/ how_book_becomes_an_adjective/ = • "Alphabetic Data Entry Via the Touch-Tone Pad: A Comment".com/article.5 for word prediction techniques. com/ news_columnists_ezorn/ 2007/ 01/ slang_earlywarn.com. google. theboltonnews. When mis-typings or mis-spellings occur. "In a Sea of Cellphones. thereby supporting the characterisation and comparison of text-entry methods before labour-intensive implementations and evaluations". The Bolton News. Computer Sci. textonyms may be adopted in regular speech. Retrieved 1 May 2011. pdf [4] http:/ / www.html) • Technical notes on iTap (including lists of textonyms) (http://www. in this example. HUMAN FACTORS. though error correction mechanisms may mitigate that effect.newscientist.au/printpage/ 0. Sidney L. com/ index. 112patent. [2] O'Riordan et. References [1] I.uk/mackay/itprnn/ itap/) . ca/ mack/ hcimobile02. for example.inference. they are very unlikely to be recognized correctly by a disambiguation system.ac. scipub. . the use of the word "book" to mean "cool" since book is debatably considered more frequent than "cool" by some predictive text systems . uk/ news/ districtnews/ 8841133. . 2005. chicagotribune. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 9 February 2011. "Values [of KSPC] for English range from about 10 for methods using only cursor keys and a SELECT key to about 0. [8] By David Pogue (2006-09-07). or even the most important issue. J.cam.00. pdf).news. The system may. a Pearl . Goodwin. com/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ technology/ 07pogue. com [6] "Text row man faces jail for killing friend" (http:/ / www. framfab. com/ usp. yorku. 1971. respond with "Blairf" upon input of 252473. Blogs.5942.com. incorrect response. html).chicagotribune.[9] 264 Disambiguation failure and misspelling Textonyms in which a disambiguation systems gives more than one dictionary word for a single sequence of keystrokes. "KSPC (Keystrokes per Character) as a Characteristic of Text Entry Techniques" (http:/ / www.ns?id=mg18524832. are not the only issue. nytimes.thesundaymail. co. found by the predictive text system. The Mitre Corporation. 2007-01-19. but are not. [7] "Slang early-warning alert: `Book' is the new `cat's pajamas' | Change of Subject" (http:/ / blogs. al. Proceedings of MobileHCI 2002. for example.phy. according to the above references. [9] http:/ / stream.Predictive text Reportedly.New York Times" (http:/ / www. More important. limiting the effectiveness of predictive text implementations. I (2):189-199. com/ patents?vid=4754474 [5] http:/ / wordlogic.300) • An Australian newspaper article on textonyms (http://www. It is demonstrated that KSPC is useful for a priori analyses.com. when the intended word was "Blaire" or "Claire" both of which correspond to the keystroke sequence. Retrieved 2009-07-08. html?ex=1315281600& en=5da0625183b88386& ei=5088& partner=rssnyt& emc=rss). "Investigating Text Input Methods for Mobile Phones" (http:/ / www. Scott MacKenzie (2002).12730392. 13(2) Page 189-190 External links • New Scientist article on textonyms (http://www.

Proximity marketing 265 Proximity marketing Proximity marketing is the localized wireless distribution of advertising content associated with a particular place. It used to be the case that due to security fears. Communications may be further targeted to specific groups within a given location. The process of Bluetooth based proximity marketing involves setting up Bluetooth "broadcasting" equipment at a particular location and then sending information which can be text. . Communications may be both time and place specific. for example content in tourist hot spots may only be distributed to devices registered outside the local area. This has the advantage that only those who choose to will receive content. Transmissions can be received by individuals in that location who wish to receive them and have the necessary equipment to do so. The location of a device may be determined by: • A cellular phone being in a particular cell • A Bluetooth or WiFi device being within range of a transmitter. and advertising.such as posters. Bluetooth-based systems Bluetooth. Others require no handset-side software. Screen sizes and supported file formats varies greatly. Because of this. content at a conference venue may depend on the event in progress. or more commonly is specifically targeted to devices known to be in a particular area." A 'discoverable' Bluetooth device within range of the server is automatically sent a message asking if the user would like to receive the free content.suggesting people make their Bluetooth handsets 'discoverable' in order to receive free content . often regions where Bluetooth proximity marketing is in operation it is accompanied by advising via traditional media . or ON but not set to be 'discoverable'. Current mobile phones usually have bluetooth switched ON by default. gaming and social applications. • An Internet enabled device with GPS enabling it to request localized content from Internet servers. the Bluetooth system must be able to automatically recognize phone models and deliver the proper content automatically. and a majority of users now leave bluetooth switched on for easy connection with car kits and headsets. e. The diversity of mobile phones is huge. Uses of proximity marketing include distribution of media at concerts. To obtain the optimal user experience with Bluetooth Marketing. is one transmission medium used for proximity marketing. many users keep their Bluetooth devices in OFF mode. Some implementations of Bluetooth proximity marketing require users to run Java applications on their phones to enable them to receive content. or a desire to save battery life. a short-range wireless system supported by many mobile devices. audio or video to Bluetooth enabled devices within range of the broadcast server.g. Other standard data exchange formats such as Vcard can also be used. television screens or field marketing teams . Distribution may be via a traditional localized broadcast.this is often referred to as a "Call-to-Action. images. information (weblinks on local facilities).

for the majority of users.41 which defines the Short Message Service . GSM-based proximity broadcast systems are used by select Government Agencies for information dissemination on Government-run community-based programs to take advantage of its reach and popularity. Public land mobile network A public land mobile network (PLMN) is a regulatory term in telecommunications.[1] A PLMN is identified by the Mobile Country Code (MCC) and the Mobile Network Code (MNC). Each operator providing mobile services has its own PLMN. PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and Public switched telephone networks (PSTN) for telephone communications or with internet service providers for data and internet access of which links are defined as interconnect links between providers. It also extends into mobile as well as fixed telephones. Some phones/devices have an option to turn off the receipt of such messages. The PSTN is the world's collection of interconnected voice-oriented public telephone networks. public information. In the Philippines. and share the circuits among many users through packet switching. it also allows each customer with a mobile phone to be tracked though the centre which shops they go into and for how long.and government-owned. The system enables special offer texts to be sent to the phone. PSTN service may be informally called Plain Old Telephone Service or POTS.Proximity marketing 266 GSM-based systems GSM 03. Public switched telephone network Public Land Mobile Networks need to connect to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) in order to route calls. It is also used for commercial service known as Proxima SMS. Philippines has the world's highest traffic of SMS (locally referred to as texting). etc. and in the late 20th century became almost entirely digital in nature — except for the final link from the central (local) telephone office to the user (the local loop).Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB) allows messages (advertising. Because Internet Service Providers (ISPs) pay the long-distance carriers for access to their infrastructure. It is both commercially. GSM localization accuracy varies depending on location. Access to PLMN services is achieved by means of an air interface involving radio communications between mobile phones or other wireless enabled user equipment and land based radio transmitters or radio base stations or even fibre optic distributed SDH network between mobile base stations and central stations via SDH equipment (ADMs) with integrated IP network services. . There are provisions for "welcome" messages to be sent when entering new countries introducing networks available. A PLMN is a network that is established and operated by an administration or by a recognized operating agency (ROA) for the specific purpose of providing land mobile telecommunications services to the public. There are also capabilities for messages to be sent by emergency services. The PSTN also furnishes much of the Internet's long-distance infrastructure and. in much the same way that the Internet is the concentration of the world's public IP-based packet-switched networks. a super-regional shopping centre in the UK. has a GSM based system supplied by NTL to help its GSM coverage for calls. the access network as well.) to be broadcast to all mobile users in a specified geographical area. This aggregation of circuit-switching telephone networks has evolved greatly from the days of Alexander Graham Bell. These links mostly incorporate SDH digital transmission networks via fibre optic on land and digital microwave links. Bluewater. the end Internet user avoids having to pay usage tolls to anyone other than their ISP.

the PLMNs may be regarded as independent communications entities. but only through controlled gateways such as private branch exchanges. Access to PLMN services is achieved by means of an air interface involving radio communications between mobile phones or other wireless enabled user equipment and land based radio transmitters or radio base stations PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and PSTNs for telephone communications or with internet service providers for data and internet access. PLMN is not a term specific to GSM.g. The MSCs of a PLMN can be interconnected similarly to allow interaction. This is just one view-point on PLMN. • To give access to the GSM network for a mobile subscriber in a country that operates the GSM system.163/E. the Internet has some way to go before this transition can be made. The PSTN is largely governed by technical standards created by the ITU-T. PLMN is network that is established and operated by an administration or by a recognized operating agency (ROA) for the specific purpose of providing land mobile telecommunications services to the public. the GSM PLMN objectives conceptually remained the same. the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) or as an integral part of the PSTN. Even as times changed. A number of large private telephone networks are not connected to the PSTN. A public land mobile network may be defined as a number of mobile services switching centre areas within a common numbering plan and a common routing plan. e. that are compatible with those offered by existing networks like PSTN and ISDN. A PLMN may have several interfaces with the fixed network (e. irrespective of the service area or service provider. • To provide the subscriber a wide range of services and facilities. For example. . The PLMN was specified by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) following up with their GSM specification. These days (as of January. Sometimes it refers to the whole circuit-switched system. the Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee is one aspect that needs to be improved for Voice over IP (VOIP) technology. The PLMN is connected via an NCP to the PSTN/ISDN. There are also private networks run by large companies which are linked to the PSTN. Its case is same as that of PSTN.g.164 addresses (usually called telephone numbers) for addressing. Objectives of a GSM PLMN The general objective of a PLMN is to facilitate wireless communication and to interlink the wireless network with the fixed wired network. If there are two mobile service suppliers in the same country. and uses E. • To provide facilities for automatic roaming. Inter-working between two PLMNs may be performed via an international switching centre.Public land mobile network Many observers believe that the long-term future of the PSTN is to be just one application of the Internet — however. they can be connected through the same PSTN/ISDN. one for each MSC). 267 Specifications A GSM PLMN may be described by a limited set of access interfaces and a limited set of GSM PLMN connection types to support the telecommunication services described in the GSM 02-series of specifications. Sometimes separate PLMN is defined for each country or for each service provider. locating and updating of mobile subscribers. and are used for military purposes (such as the Defense Switched Network). or else specific to each country. With respect to their functions. A PLMN may be considered as an extension of a fixed network. even though different PLMNs may be interconnected through the PSTN/ISDN for the forwarding of calls or network information. In fact GSM can be treated as an example of a PLMN system. 2006) much discussions are going on to form the structure of UMTS PLMN for the third generation systems. PLMN mostly refers to the whole system of hardware and software which enables wireless communication. both voice and non voice.

which depends on each other or connects to each other for the purpose of call routing. voice mail. regional. extending the services offered by PSTN to wireless networks. PLMN and PSTN can be treated as two separate systems. fax mail. fax. • mobile service node (MSN)-The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services. • gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC)-A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. and notification. and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. Subsystems The GSM PLMN is divided into signaling network and mobile network. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized. PSTN can be treated as an integral part of PLMN. along with the signaling system and the various components (both hardware and software). • Tele Services : Provide subscriber with necessary capabilities including terminal equipment function to communicate with other subscribers. . The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR. 3. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). the MXE handles short message service. There are three viewpoints of interoperability between PLMN and PSTN: 1. PLMN can be treated as an integral part of PSTN. the Base Station Subsystem (BSS). and the operation and support system (OSS). The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. Specifically. email.Public land mobile network 268 Services • Bearer Services : These services give the subscriber the capacity required to transmit appropriate signals between certain access points (user-network interfaces). The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC. The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. • GSM interworking unit (GIWU)-The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. and data messaging. Various interfaces between the GSM subsystems are to be considered. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations. • Supplementary Services : Modify or supplement basic telecommunication services and are offered together or in association with basic communication services. 2. through which it facilitates call routing. Additional functional elements Other functional elements shown are as follows: • message center (MXE)-The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice. users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. Architecture GSM architecture is basically the PLMN architecture itself as the subject is GSM PLMN. cell broadcast. Through the GIWU. which are grouped under three major systems: the Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). Operation and Support System (OSS) The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. Each of these has various subsystems.

References [1] This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration.htm) (1996) • GSM Overview (http://www. External links • Federal Standard 1037C (http://www.bldrdoc.html) .gov/fs-1037/fs-1037c.com/gsm.its. PLMN facilitates interoperation with its own subsystems in order to perform operation of the GSM system in particular and any wired network in general.telecomspace.Public land mobile network 269 Conclusion A PLMN is essential for the effective working of any wireless network. just like the need for PSTN in wireline networks.

email. lim. IM. Winamp etc. the device must do something with the notification in order to download or view the content associated with it. Media Player Classic. and new device firmware notifications. Technical specifications WAP Push Process . com. A PC component of the program interacts with the mobile component to facilitate the control.PuppetMaster (application) 270 PuppetMaster (application) PuppetMaster Operating system Windows Type License Website Mobile Application Proprietary [1] PuppetMaster is an application for Windows and mobile which enables the mobile phone to be used as a universal remote control for Microsoft Windows.. Note that only a notification is pushed to the device. or create a user-defined keymap References [1] http:/ / www. you can: • Browse the files on your PC • Navigate the mouse on your screen with real time display feedback • Use keymaps for popular applications like VLC media player. au/ PuppetMaster Push Proxy Gateway A Push Proxy Gateway is a component of WAP Gateways that pushes URL notifications to mobile handsets. Notifications typically include MMS. It works using Bluetooth or GPRS technology. The notification will typically be a text string with a URL link. Using the PuppetMaster. ringtone downloads. Most notifications will have an audible alert to the user on the device.

Push Proxy Gateway

271

PUSH to PPG
A push message is sent as an HTTP POST to the Push Proxy Gateway. The POST will be a multipart XML document, with the first part being the PAP (Push Access Protocol) Section and the second part being either a Service Indication or a Service Loading. +---------------------------------------------+ | HTTP POST | +---------------------------------------------+ | PAP XML | +---------------------------------------------+ | Service Indication or Service Loading XML | +---------------------------------------------+ POST The POST contains at a minimum the URL being posted to (this is not standard across different PPG vendors), and the content type. An example of a PPG POST:
POST /somelocation HTTP/1.1 Host: ppg.somecarrier.com Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary=someboundarymesg; type="application/xml"

\ | | | / WAP PUSH Flow

PAP The PAP XML contains at the minimum, a <pap> element, a <push-message> element, and an <address> element. An example of a PAP XML:
--someboundarymesg Content-Type: application/xml

<?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE pap PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD PAP 1.0//EN" "http:/ / www. wapforum. org/ DTD/ pap_1. 0. dtd"> <pap> <push-message push-id="some_push_id"> <address address-value="WAPPUSH=+12065551212/TYPE=PLMN@ppg.somecarrier.com" /> </push-message> </pap>

The important parts of this PAP message are the address value and type. The value is typically a MSISDN and type indicates whether to send to an MSISDN (typical case) or to an IP Address. The TYPE is almost always MSISDN as the Push Initiator (PI) will not typically have the Mobile Station's IP address - which is generally dynamic. In the case of IP Address: TYPE=USER@a.b.c.d Additional capability of PAP can be found in the PAP article.

Push Proxy Gateway Service Indication A PUSH Service Indication (SI) contains at a minimum an <si> element and a <indication> element. An example of a Service Indication:
--someboundarymesg Content-Type: text/vnd.wap.si <?xml version="1.0"?>

272

<!DOCTYPE si PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD SI 1.0//EN" "http:/ / www. wapforum. org/ DTD/ si. dtd"> <si> <indication si-id=345532 href="http://mmsc.somecarrier.com/CFJIOJF43F"> A new MMS has been received, download? </indication> </si>

PPG delivery to mobile station
Once a push message is received from the Push Initiator, the PPG has two avenues for delivery. If the IP address of the Mobile Station is known to the PPG, the PPG can deliver directly to the mobile station over an IP bearer. This is known as "Connection Oriented Push". If the IP address of the mobile station is not known to the PPG, the PPG will deliver over an SMS bearer. Delivery over an SMS bearer is known as "Connectionless Push". Connectionless Push In Connectionless Push, an SMSC BIND is required for the PPG to deliver its push message to the mobile station. Typically, a PPG will have a local SMS queuing mechanism running locally that it BINDs to, and which in turn BINDs to the carrier's SMSC. This mechanism should allow for queuing in the event of an SMS infrastructure outage, and also provide for message throttling. Since a WAP Push message can be larger than a single SMS message can contain, the push message may be broken up into multiple SMS messages, as a multipart SMS. Connection Oriented Push In Connection Oriented pushes (where the device supports it), an SMSC BIND is not required if the gateway is aware of the handsets IP Address. If the gateway is unable to determine the IP Address of the handset, or is unable to connect to the device, the push notification will be encoded and sent as an SMS. Connection Oriented Push is used less frequently than Connectionless Push for several reasons including: • Devices while registered to the network, may not have a data session (PDP Context in the GSM world) established. • A separate IP->MSISDN table has to be maintained in Connection Oriented Push. • Typically, the PPG or another part of the gateway has to receive RADIUS or other accounting packets in order to support Connection Oriented Push.

Push Proxy Gateway

273

Other PUSH Attributes
• Push notifications can be confirmed or unconfirmed. Most carriers use unconfirmed pushes due to the high volume and resource constraints related to confirmed push. This is controlled by setting confirmed in the quality-of-service tag element. • Push notifications can be set to expire if not delivered before a certain time. This is controlled by setting deliver-before-timestamp in the pushmessage element. Many other attributes exist and are detailed in the specifications at the Open Mobile Alliance and other sites.

PPG Vendors
PPG vendors include Nokia Siemens Networks, Ericsson, Bytemobile, Gemini Mobile Technologies, Openwave, Acision, Huawei, Azetti [1], Alcatel,WIT Software [2] ,ZTE ,and open source Kannel.

References
• OMA WAP Specifications: • Push Message (Version 22, March 2001 - ref WAP-251-PushMessage-20010322-a) [3] • Service Indication (Version 31, July 2001 - ref WAP-167-ServiceInd-20010731-a) [4] • Service Loading (Version 31, July 2001 - ref WAP-168-ServiceLoad-20010731-a) [5]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. azetti. com http:/ / www. wit-software. com http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-251-pushmessage-20010322-a. pdf http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-167-serviceind-20010731-a. pdf http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-168-serviceload-20010731-a. pdf

Quadir is a Bangladeshi American entrepreneur and artist best known as the creator of CellBazaar.bkash.[4] He is involved with Anwarul Quadir Foundation which recognizes innovations in developing countries.[7] Kamal is currently heading bKash which provides financial services through an extensive network of community-based agents and existing technology.[12] .com [5] CellBazaar Inc. Kamal is a founding member of Open World Initiatives. TED selected Kamal a TEDIndia Fellow[11] and the World Economic Forum recognized him as a Young Global Leader. He is a First Mover Fellow of The Aspen Institute. Switzerland based organization of young thinkers.cellbazaar. In 2009. a Lausanne. after reaching 4 million users. a mobile phone based electronic marketplace which.[8] Kamal is one of the most-cited (recently in the Wall Street Journal[9] ) thinkers in mobile innovations who has been credited for "grass-root level market creation"[10] with emerging technologies. Industry Mobile Telecommunication Website www.com [6] Kamal S. including mobile phones.Kamal Quadir 274 Kamal Quadir Kamal Quadir Quadir in 2008 Occupation CEO of bKash Limited [1][2] Founder of CellBazaar Inc. was acquired by Norwegian telecommunications operator Telenor in 2010. [3][4] bKash Limited Industry Financial Services Website www.

an animation company. each of which connects to one customer-generated marketplace. The service is accessible via Text message (SMS). USA.[15] The CellBazaar marketplace is available to more than 25 million people in Bangladesh. . and Money in Motion LLC. CellBazaar enables entrepreneurs and small businesses in Bangladesh to start and grow operations in a market that wouldn't otherwise be available in their local community. accredited CellBazaar as a door opener to mobile commerce. that allows buyers and sellers to connect with one another and buy and sell goods and services using their mobile phones or computers. He is also an accomplished artist whose art works are in the permanent collection of the Bangladesh National Museum and the Liberation War Museum. affordable and reliable. in their Expanding Horizons magazine. CellBazaar has been credited as a revolutionary service in mobile telecommunications to have the potential to significantly contribute to socioeconomic development particularly in developing countries due to the ability to bridge non-existing wired telecommunications and transportation infrastructure and delivering various services directly to the end-user. This will highly benefit the country as 83% of the population lives under $2 a day and access to finance can help in improving their economic situation. Computer or Web and Voice (IVR).. ensuring access to a broader range of financial services for the people of Bangladesh is the ultimate objective of bKash. He was also the co-founder and creative director of GlobeKids Inc. In Bangladesh.Kamal Quadir 275 Early life Quadir was an intern at Insight Venture Partners in New York. and delivering products and services that improve the lives of millions of poor people. Limited communication has always been a hindrance for performing business. Less than 15% of Bangladeshis are connected to the formal financial system whereas 44% of total population are having mobile phones. Bangladesh. launched in 2006 in Bangladesh. Providing financial services using this mean can make the service more accessible and cost effective for the vast population of Bangladesh. It has a special focus to serve the low income people of the country and promote sustainable micro-savings to achieve broader financial inclusion by providing financial services that are convenient. stimulating the economy. the isolated and uninformed farmers and traders have little bargaining power with exploitative middlemen.[14] Nokia. bKash bKash Limited is a joint venture between BRAC Bank Ltd. including farmers that use the service to sell their harvest at fair market prices and struggling students that find and connect with tutors. led the Business Development Division of Occidental Petroleum's initiative in Bangladesh and worked for New York City's Chamber of Commerce. and there are no monthly or posting fees. WAP or Internet enabled handset.[13] CellBazaar CellBazaar is an electronic marketplace. especially in developing countries. Users pay only the standard SMS or Internet charges for accessing the service on mobile. thereby creating jobs. Kamal has a BA from Oberlin College and an MBA from the MIT Sloan School of Management. bKash is working both as an extension of BRAC Bank and as a full-scale mobile phone-based payment switch..

oberlin. php?nid=175903 [3] http:/ / corp. org/ laureates/ stories/ index. weforum. weforum. thedailystar. edu/ newsoffice/ 2005/ awards-ideas-0601. html External links • • • • • • • • • • Anuwarul Quadir Foundation (http://www.html) Kamal Quadir at Crunchbase (http://www. asp?id=667 [20] http:/ / www. edu/ office/ creativity/ speakers-and-symposia/ entrepreneurship-week. com/ 2008/ 12/ 18222207/ Making-markets-with-mobiles.techawards. html [10] http:/ / www. htm) [5] http:/ / www. manthanaward.php?id=164) GSMA Global Mobile Award page (http://www. com [2] http:/ / www. com/ article/ SB122081673203508037. mit.net/content/closing-divide-humble-phone-0) India's Manthan award page (http://www. net/ content/ closing-divide-humble-phone-0) [19] http:/ / www. bkash.org/laureates/stories/index. wsj.quadir.shtml) Telecom Asia’s award page (http://www.org/en/media/Latest Press Releases/PR_YGL2009) MIT Ideas award page (http://web.livemint.com article (http://www. com [4] Highlighted Profiles of the Young Global Leaders.weforum.com/person/kamal-quadir) .edu/newsoffice/2005/awards-ideas-0601. php?id=164 [21] http:/ / web. techawards.telecomasia. com/ [7] http:/ / www.html) Wall Street Journal article (http://online. org/ section_full_story.crunchbase. html [11] http:/ / www. vilcap.com/2008/12/18222207/Making-markets-with-mobiles. ted. cellbazaar.wsj. net/ newDesign/ news-details. org/ en/ Communities/ Young Global Leaders/ Whoweare/ index. bkash.html) Livemint. com/ [6] http:/ / www.org/section_full_story. bkash.com/article/SB122081673203508037. dot [13] http:/ / www. php?nid=175903 [9] http:/ / online. globalmobileawards. World Economic Forum (http:/ / www. org/ en/ media/ Latest%20Press%20Releases/ PR_YGL2009 [17] http:/ / www. cellbazaar. com/ making-markets-mission-markets-and-better-world-books [8] http:/ / www. nokia.asp?id=667) World Economic Forum's Young Global Leader (YGL) of 2009 (http://www.org) The Tech Award page (http://www. com/ history/ index.mit. php [14] Revolutionary service in mobile telecommunications [15] Expanding Horizons by Nokia & Nokia Siemens Network (http:/ / expandinghorizons. com/ pages/ view?id=305 [12] http:/ / new. com/ About.com/history/index.Kamal Quadir 276 Awards • Year 2009 • "Young Global Leader (YGL)" by the World Economic Forum of Davos [16] • Year 2008 • Global Mobile Award of the GSM Association in the category of "Best Use of Mobile for Social & Economic Development" [17] • Telecom Asia’s “Asian Innovation of the Year” Award [18] • India's Manthan Award for “Best E-Content for Development” [19] • Year 2007 • Tech Award for "Applying Technology to Benefit Humanity” [20] • Year 2005 • MIT Ideas Award [21] References [1] http:/ / www. telecomasia. shtml [18] (http:/ / www. net/ newDesign/ news-details. com/ issues/ ?issue=ExpandingHorizonsQ22008& page=13) [16] http:/ / www.manthanaward.globalmobileawards. livemint. thedailystar.

oberlin. Raden holds two patents in the US Patent Office for his inventions around electronic payments. a corporate electronic payments provider. together with Matt Gillin. he served as a management consultant before joining Ocwen Financial Corporation. In 1995.cellbazaar.edu/cidtrade/geneva/sessions/session04. Steve Gillin.omidyar. Japan.Kamal Quadir • CellBazaar at Crunchbase (http://www. Hotmail and Citysearch. Ecount was sold to Citigroup for US $200 million to integrate into Citi’s global transaction services business. a company that helps businesses shift to mobile communications. in English. He attended the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame. Pennsylvania.[3] Deloitte Fast 500. Raden co-founded C/Base – an Internet partnership marketing consultancy. After the sale. Raden founded Relay.[2] until 2009.crunchbase. He then worked at Drexel Burnham Lambert. Oberlin. Amazon. and Pete Flick.[5] and Forbes "Best of The Web. Raden began his career teaching English in Tokyo. In 2009.edu (http://www. Ecount was issuing more than US $4 billion in payments worldwide. At the time.com (http://www. He is a frequent guest lecturer on entrepreneurship at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania where he received his MBA. before attending Business School at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.com) • Comapny page of bKash Limited (http://www. Raden remained as Managing Director and CMO of the renamed business.com/company/cellbazaar) • The Business of Art.5 billion for companies including Microsoft.html) • WTO Public Symposium 2003: Session IV .html) • CellBazaar portfolio at Omidyar. In 1997 Raden and business partner.edu/alummag/oamcurrent/oam_winter99/profile.com (http://corp. Raden sold Ecount to Citi for US $200 million. C/Base designed programs valued at over US $1.[4] Philadelphia Business Journal Best Places to Work. Biography Raden was born in Philadelphia.[1] He currently serves as co-founder of his third business venture. Indiana.com/portfolio/cellbazaar) • Corporate page at CellBazaar. Relay. where he served as Director of Marketing for two wholly owned subsidiaries.harvard. founded Ecount – an electronic payments company. In 2007.cid.bkash.A. where he received a B."Cancun: Next Stop on the Road to the 2015 Millennium Development Goals" (http://www. Citi Prepaid Services. Upon graduation. Ecount was one of the first providers of corporate prepaid card solutions for the purpose of replacing paper checks and other inefficient payment methods.com) 277 Paul Raden Paul Raden is an Internet and technology entrepreneur and inventor."[6] . Raden is best known as the co-founder of Ecount. In 2007. Matt Gillin. Raden has received numerous recognitions for his companies including being named Deloitte Fast 50. At the time of its acquisition.

html) [6] [[Forbes (http:/ / www. Mobile 2009 Headquarters Radnor. html?_r=2) Ecount renames to Citi Prepaid Services (http:/ / www.citiprepaid. References [1] [2] [3] [4] The New York Times article on Ecount's acquisition by Citi (http:/ / www.youtube. Relay helps companies reach their customers through their mobile devices with their consent. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ us_tmt_fast_Greater Phil. corp.com).htm) . com/ 2007/ 03/ 01/ business/ 01citi.php) • Paul Raden speaks (http://www. deloitte. com Current work Raden is currently co-founder and Chief Xperience Officer of Relay. jhtml?id=190)] "Best of the Web" Award] External links • Paul Raden’s public profile (http://www. forbes. Pennsylvania Area served Website United States http:/ / www. which Raden founded prior to Relay • Ecount sold to Citigroup (http://www. citi.upenn. com/ 9_21_06. pdf)]] [5] Philadelphia Business Journal "Best Places to Work" (http:/ / www.com/watch?v=WKUg52ueZwg&feature=related) at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania • Video interviews (http://wep. pdf)] Fast 50] [[Deloitte Fast 500 (http:/ / www.com/pub/paul-raden/0/154/346) with his positions and start-up history • Management Page on Relay website (http://www.linkedin. nytimes.com/management.edu/alumni/alumniimpact.newspringcapital.wharton.relaynetwork. com/ bow/ b2c/ category.aspx?aiv=2) with Paul Raden for Wharton Entrepreneurial Programs • Citi Prepaid Services (formerly Ecount) website (http://www. relaynetwork.com/EcountNew0301. deloitte. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2006TechnologyFast500WinnersBrochure. prepaid. html) [[Deloitte (http:/ / www. xacp. com/ about/ 2008news/ sept-1-2008.Paul Raden 278 Relay Type Industry Founded Startup company Technology.

Note that the RIL does not communicate directly with the modem. also allows OEMs to integrate a variety of modems into their equipment by providing this interface. The RIL Daemon talks to the telephony services and dispatches "solicited commands" to the Vendor RIL. which processes AT commands and events. and dispatches "unsolicited commands" up to the RIL Daemon. Except for PPP connections.Radio Interface Layer [1] • Top ten tips for developing android handsets [2] by Wayne Lee from Qualcomm. however. but then bypass the RIL to connect directly to the virtual serial port assigned to the modem. Instead. a mobile phone.telephony) and the radio hardware. therefore. External links • Android Platform Development Kit ..[1] Windows Mobile RIL A RIL is a key component of Microsoft's Windows Mobile OS. The RIL. the final link to the modem is typically the standard serial driver provided by the OEM’s platform. The Vendor RIL is specific to a particular radio implementation.) In essence. The RIL provides the system interface between the CellCore layer within the Windows Mobile OS and the radio protocol stack used by the wireless modem hardware. (PPP connections initially use the RIL to establish the connection. It consists of a stack of two components: a RIL Daemon and a Vendor RIL.Radio Interface Layer 279 Radio Interface Layer A Radio Interface Layer (RIL) is a layer in an operating system which provides an interface to the hardware's radio and modem on e.e. 2008 • MSDN: Radio Interface Layer [3] • Windows Mobile RIL White Paper [4] • RIL Patent information [5] • MSDN: CellCore [6] • MSDN: CellCore Catalog Items [7] • MSDN: RIL Driver [8] • MSDN: RIL Proxy [9] . which manages requests from the multiple clients to the single RIL driver. all interaction between the Windows Mobile OS and the device radio stack is via the RIL. The RIL comprises two separate components: a RIL driver. Android RIL The Android Open Source Project provides a Radio Interface Layer (RIL) between Android telephony services (android. the RIL accepts and converts all direct service requests from the upper layers (i.g. and a RIL proxy. TAPI) into commands supported and understood by the modem. delivered at Linux World. The RIL enables wireless voice or data applications to communicate with a GSM/GPRS or CDMA2000 1X modem on a Windows Mobile device.

com/ en-us/ library/ aa921520. com/ en-us/ library/ aa921992. pdf http:/ / www. microsoft. microsoft. aspx http:/ / www. microsoft. freepatentsonline. microsoft. org/ android_pdk/ telephony. html http:/ / msdn. intrinsyc. aspx http:/ / msdn. html http:/ / www. kandroid. microsoft. com/ 6826762. com/ en-us/ library/ aa920475. com/ broadband-presentations/ presentations?itemid=1509 http:/ / msdn. com/ docs/ services/ RIL_whitepaper_MS_Intrinsyc_June2004. com/ en-us/ library/ aa922988. aspx http:/ / msdn. aspx . aspx http:/ / msdn.Radio Interface Layer 280 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. com/ en-us/ library/ aa919915. bloobble.

000 tons of electronics waste. Michigan.0 million for non-profit programs in 2008. silver and palladium from circuit boards. is the world's largest recycler and reseller of cell phones. In November 2006. Inc. paper and plastic shipping materials – diverting more than 1 million pounds of materials from landfills per year. named ReCellular to the Green 50. ReCellular partners raised $4. Obsolete or non-functional phones are dismantled and recycled to reclaim valuable materials. American cell phone subscribers replace their cell phones every 18 months. In the U. 281 ReCellular. United States ReCellular. ReCellular. such as: gold. Reuse and Recycling Approximately half of the phones ReCellular collects are reprogrammed and sold for reuse. Many organizations use the proceeds from their wireless recycling programs to benefit charitable causes.[1] ReCellular collects cell phones for resale and recycling. Inc. iron. Michigan. and retailers such as Best Buy and Wal-Mart. and plastic from cases and accessories. representing an estimated 65. • Grassroots and charitable organizations such as Cell Phones for Soldiers partner with ReCellular to operate donate-a-phone fundraising programs. the magazine Inc. Type Private Headquarters Ann Arbor. • Individual businesses partner with ReCellular to dispose of their corporate communications equipment. including: • Wireless carriers such as AT&T Mobility and Sprint.000 phones each week. On average. ReCellular is headquartered in Ann Arbor. copper wiring from phone chargers. Inc. partner with ReCellular to facilitate recycling programs for their customers.100 collection partners.S. cadmium and lead from battery packs.[3] ReCellular’s zero-waste policy dictates that all donated materials are recycled. [4] .. including cardboard.[2] Founded in 1991. representing nearly 40. Collection Sources ReCellular has built a network of nearly 1. Inc. Used cell phones are a growing electronic waste challenge. between 100 million and 130 million cell phones are thrown away each year. collecting more than 125. nickel.ReCellular.000 collection sites across the nation. and more than $20 million for charities since 1996.

technologyreview. com/ magazine/ 20061101/ green50_recyclers. com/ green-it/ 58370/ fighting-e-waste-one-cell-phone-time http:/ / www. it is finding new uses in AMR Automatic Meter Reading and low cost telemetry applications. Sag Harbor Group.7.x can operate on both ReFLEX25 and ReFLEX50 networks. epa. Devices compliant with ReFLEX 2.x External links • Two Way Paging Article [2] • Article [3] • "ReFLEX Rules: The Role of Pervasive Low-Cost Networks and Devices in the Future of Mobile Data Messaging whitepaper" [1] (pdf). The Motorola PageWriter released in 1996 was one of the first devices to use the ReFLEX network protocol.2-way up to 9600 BPS ReFLEX 2. 282 Data Eraser tool ReCellular also offers a Cell Phone Data Eraser tool that enables consumers to remove personal information from their old cell phones prior to recycling.2-way up to 6400 BPS ReFLEX 50 . ReFLEX25 and ReFLEX50.1-way communications 1600.recellular.ReCellular. Inc. • • • • FLEX . Versions ReFLEX is based on the one-way FLEX protocol and originally came in two variants. html http:/ / www. inc. Later version 2.com) ReFLEX ReFLEX is a wireless protocol developed by Motorola which is used for two-way paging. com/ article/ 157818/ how_to_keep_your_cell_phone_info_private. html External links • ReCellular (http://www. pdf http:/ / www. com/ Infotech/ 21237/ page1/ http:/ / www.7 of the ReFLEX protocol was released.[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. 2001. gov/ oswer/ docs/ iwg/ CellPhones.7. itworld. 3200 and 6400 BPS ReFLEX 25 . • Skytel ReFLEX Two-Way Paging Service Provider [2] • ReFLEX White Paper [1] . The primary difference between the ReFLEX versions are inbound speed. pcworld. Although ReFLEX Two-Way Paging is a rather dated technology.

idg. including iPhone. se/ 2. IBM Lotus Notes.theinstitution. configuration and handling Location based reporting [3] Backup. with a research and development office in Hong Kong. REVIVAL has been developed to support a range of mobile operating systems. com/ pdf/ reflexwhitepaper. using and updating mobile phones. Swedish Railways.[1] One of the biggest organizations connected to REVIVAL today is “SJ”. telekomidag. Windows Mobile. se/ nyheter/ artikel.[1] [2] [3] REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite can be installed on-site at the customer’s facilities or it can be hosted by a selected hosting partner. usamobility. telekomidag. com REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite is a mobile device management tool developed and provided by The Institution.[1] [2] The Institution was founded in 2006 and is based in Stockholm. Symbian and OMA-DM devices. 1085/ 1. 342382/ de-ger-battre-koll-pa-mobilen http:/ / www. php?id=27675 External links • Official website (http://www. se/ 2.[4] Technology The main purpose of this technology is to oversee diverse mobile device populations by securing and storing mobile phone data. php?id=32645 http:/ / www. file systems and more Support cases management Mail settings for MS Exchange.ReFLEX 283 References [1] http:/ / www. Nitrodesk Touchdown among others Application deployment. skytel. pdf [2] http:/ / www. se/ nyheter/ artikel. restore and migration [1] Remote wipe Mobile activity logging [1] Security References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. It is also used to facilitate in handling. 2683/ 1. 351122/ smarta-telefoner-it-avdelningarnas-huvudvark http:/ / computersweden. Android.se/) . It's features include: • • • • • • • • • • Inventory and asset control Remote control of display. idg.

Bundling this feature with the two other features may help to increase uptake. with service capabilities and presence enhanced contacts information • Enhanced Messaging. authorization. with service capabilities and presence enhanced contacts information • Enhanced Messaging. According to the press release. Technical features RCS leverages the various existing standards. which enables multimedia content sharing during a voice call. Wider and large scale IMS deployment. but has long been touted as a benefit of IMS. RCS is considered by some to be not fit for purpose [2] and has not been rolled out commercially by any major operator as of September 2010. which enables a large variety of messaging options including chat and messaging history • Enriched Call. or the way it was deployed failed to result in great take-up by consumers. which refers to the use of more than just voice for communication. RCS reuses the capabilities of 3GPP specified IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) core system as the underlying service platform taking care of issues such as authentication. which enables a large variety of messaging options including chat and messaging history • Enriched Call. Interoperability between different terminal vendor RCS clients and RCS service interworking between operators are the key aims of RCS Initiative. video sharing and buddy lists.Rich Communication Suite 284 Rich Communication Suite Rich Communication Suite (RCS) is an industry effort focused on the use of IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) for providing mobile phone communication services. For many years Nokia and Ericsson have been pushing a "see what I see" capability. The following standardized services are a part of RCS concept: • • • • • • • Presence Voice call IM Video Share Image Share SMS MMS . but this has failed to be taken up by operators.[1] from the end-user point of view RCS would enable communication such as instant messaging. thus RCS takes on board different services defined by e. "Rich Communication" in itself is meaningless jargon.g. registration. However. These capabilities would be available on any type of devices using an open communication between devices and networks. 3GPP and OMA and combines them with the Enhanced Phonebook. which enables multimedia content sharing during a voice call. Main features of RCS are: • Enhanced Phonebook. The core feature set of RCS includes: • Enhanced Phonebook. It is to be noted that much of the capability of RCS is already available from Internet service providers. charging and routing. This allows the service capabilities as well as presence information of the different recipients to be shown in the terminal phonebook application.

As well as allowing users to share video. mobileeurope. the 3 major French mobile operators. gsmworld. As of 15 September the RCS initiative is moved to a GSMA work program. htm) GSMA To Take Rich Communication Suite Forwards (http:/ / gsmworld. htm) http:/ / www. jsp SK Telecom to participate in Mobile World Congress (http:/ / www. Subsequent to that event. At Mobile World Congress 2009. the first multi-operator trial took place using multiple core IMS vendors along with clients and devices.[5] In January 2009. com/ our-work/ mobile_lifestyle/ rcs/ gsma_rcs_project. Note that membership of the RCS initiative does not imply that a company is planning significant launch. blogspot. by February 2008 the RCS Initiative has defined a core feature set. co. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2008/ 1132. However. allowing the sharing features of RCS without the infrastructure. com/ happychannel/ news/ news_view.[7] and demonstrated it at Mobile World Congress 2011. SK Telecom launched an RCS service called HD Video Call in South Korea in November 2010. Bouygues Telecom. and SFR [6] announced intentions to offer a user trial in the second half over 2009. Metaswitch launched the Thrutu service that has been described[8] as 'RCS-lite'. com/ 2009/ 08/ mobile-ims-and-lte-networks-dead-parrot. GSMA press release [3] tells RCS integration testing takes place in Helsinki at the end of September 2008 hosted by TeliaSonera with a full update on the progress of initiative in Mobile Asia Congress during November. developed reference implementations of the services and conducted interoperability testing in multi-vendor environment. there were live demonstrations and many RCS member booths featured information on RCS service components. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. uk/ news/ news-anaylsis/ 8635-thrutu-launches-rcs-lite-lite) . In March 2011. htm) GSMA RCS work program webpage (http:/ / www. the HD Video Call service also supports sharing photos and sketches over an RCS-based service.Rich Communication Suite 285 Status According to Nokia . asp?id=697) Thrutu launches RCS-lite-lite app (http:/ / www. nokia. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2008/ 1132. as of September 2010 none of these operators have commercially deployed RCS. RCS Initiative demonstrated interoperability of the prototype RCS compatible terminals at the Barcelona 3GSM exhibition 2008. Current aim is that the first interoperable RCS services are set to be launched in mid 2009. RCS Initiative also announced a RCS prototype interoperability demo at IMS World Forum 2008 in Paris. com/ A4136001?newsid=1189463 Nokia's press release http:/ / disruptivewireless. html Disruptive analysis GSMA press release about RCS integration testing (http:/ / gsmworld. francetelecom. com/ en_EN/ finance/ news/ cp090211en. sk. The intention was to have interoperable rich communication services available in 2008. Orange.[4] The GSMA RCS work program contains further details.

Shepway since December 2009. West Dorset since November 2009. The service is also offered in NCP operated and managed car parks since March 2010. The generic advantages to car park operators are: • The reduction in theft from and vandalism to coin based machinery . December 2008. 60 stations were involved such as Taplow railway station. Reigate and Banstead since May 2009 Dover since June 2009 Torridge since June 2008. Oxford since May 2008. Teignbridge since January 2010. Phone parking has received some bad press notably in respect to the City of Westminster implementation which is not RingGo. London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since March 2009 Wandsworth since March 2009. Sheffield since January 2010. Epping Forest since March 2010. Brent since July 2008. Middlesbrough since June 2008. Test Valley since August 2008 Havant since August 2008. Since then. Various local authorities have rolled out RingGo. Canterbury since December 2009. London Borough of Bromley since May 2010 and Cornwall since June 2010 Parking is a niche in which electronic money as opposed to cash-money is now making some significant advances. further stations were added. was an early step in the fast growing trend away from the established paradigm of paying for parking using electro-mechanical machines which dispense paper tickets – the pay and display model. North Hertfordshire since March 2010. taking the total to 72 (although not offered at the Reading station Multi Storey Car Park due to a major investment in a chip coin system). Allerdale since August 2009. Ealing in limited areas since May 7. This implementation project by the First Group. Hounslow since December 2006. October 2009. C2C.RingGo 286 RingGo RingGo is a pay by phone parking service currently offered in public car parks and on-street locations in the United Kingdom. Suffolk Coastal since June 2008. London Borough of Redbridge since November 2009. since August 2009. Hartlepool since June 2008. Christchurch since Feb 2007. March 2010. Dorset since February 2010. South West Trains. Portsmouth since July 2007. including: Bournemouth since July 2006. Transpennine Express. Cherwell since May 2008. North Devon since May 2009. The first major implementation (from June 2006) was for the First Great Western Railway. Bristol since December 2008. West Devon since January 2009 Salisbury since Feb 2009. National Express East Anglia. In February 2009. Scarborough since June 2009. First Capital Connect. Eastleigh since September 2009. Arriva Trains Wales railway station car parks have implemented RingGo (August 2008. The generic advantages to members of the public of phone parking services are: • • • • • Avoidance of the need to have coinage The ability to pay the correct amount only Security – payment can be made from within a locked car Can extend without having to go back to the car Company accounts which are available only to nominated vehicles or drivers can cut expense claim administration costs The specific disadvantages to rail users at Oxford station is that there is no alternative method of payment (apart from paying the full non-rail-user price from the machine in the car park). July 2008. For contract phones the local telephone number means that it will be included in its free minutes package. March 2010 and March 2010 respectively). Luton since November 2009. several Network Rail. Taunton since December 2007 Southwark since January 2008 North Cornwall since January 2008. Stockton-on-Tees since June 2008. Woking since September 2009. Poole since August 2008. Chiltern Railways. Trafford for Old Trafford Match Day parking. March 2010. the daily code number cannot be seen while queuing for a ticket (since this is only displayed on the platform to ensure a rail user discount) and there is an unavoidable phone charge for pay-as-you-go phone users. High Wycombe since May 7.

uk/ index. uk http:/ / blog. which can be used in the machine. aspx?id=185 http:/ / news. 287 External links • • • • • • The RingGo website [1] and also The MyRingGo website [2] for details on how it works and where it is available First Great Western [3] BBC News item on RingGo [4] Bank for International Settlements [5] Cobalt Telephone Technologies [6] [7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. firstgreatwestern. The RingGo brand is wholly owned by Cobalt Telephone Technologies Ltd. counterfeit £1 coins and shrinkage On 1st October 2009. co. pdf http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. alism. Richmond Council introduced variable parking charges which are linked to the carbon dioxide emissions of vehicles parking there (carbon metered parking). RingGo phone parking is also now being used as a method of payment for Portsmouth City Council's Park and Ride service (since May 2010).RingGo • Lower capital costs when contrasted with buying new parking machines • Reduction in cash handling costs such as banking. stm http:/ / www. ctt. uk/ Content. Payment of the service is either via RingGo or by a special Richmond smart card. MyRingGo. co. ringgo. co. com http:/ / www. com/ fake-one-pound-coins-part-one/ . uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ dorset/ 5179176. a UK private company. co. org/ publ/ cpss38. bis. bbc.

g. i. seamless access to these services across different access types is provided.Roaming 288 Roaming In wireless telecommunications. from Public WLAN Operators to GSM Networks. • Username/password based roaming: GSM subscriber roams onto a Public WLAN operated by: • their GSM Operator.[1] Traditional GSM Roaming is defined (cf. and power management. the required subscriber data must first be requested by the visited network e. the user can have access to the same set of services. or access other services. Using the example of WLAN/GSM roaming.39) as the ability for a cellular customer to automatically make and receive voice calls. including home data services. WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) or GSM. determine the access possibilities. roaming is a general term referring to the extension of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. However. authentication. Traditional roaming in networks of the same standard. or • another Operator who has a roaming agreement with their GSM Operator. Roaming is technically supported by mobility management. If a subscriber has no entry in the home subscriber register of the network (e. including: • Access to corporate Intranet services. the term "roaming" can also be applied to the CDMA technology. GSM Association Permanent Reference Document AA. authorization and billing procedures. has already been described above and is likewise defined by the foreignness of the network based on the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register. GSM Association Permanent Reference Document AA. whereby the technical term "roaming" also encompasses roaming between networks of different network standards. This can be done by using a communication terminal or else just by using the subscriber identity in the visited network. Although these user/network scenarios focus on roaming from GSM Network Operator's network(s). e. The term "roaming" originates from the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) sphere. or • another Operator who has a roaming agreement with their GSM Operator.g. and • Access to public Internet. Roaming ensures that the wireless device is kept connected to the network. In terms of user service scenarios.e. The "visiting" subscriber acquires . Device equipment and functionality. Home and visited networks The differentiation between home network and visited network is technically given by the type of subscriber entry in a specific network. differentiation also exists. when travelling outside the geographical coverage area of the home network.39): • SIM-based (roaming): GSM subscriber roams onto a Public WLAN operated by: • their GSM Operator. such as e. Roaming in general Roaming is divided into "SIM-based roaming" and "Username/password-based roaming". without losing the connection.g. by means of using a visited network. clearly roaming can be bi-directional. from a WLAN to a WLAN or a GSM network to a GSM network. irrespective of access type. Service scenarios may include access to a range of different services. the following scenarios can be differentiated (cf. antenna and network interfaces. Home Location Register (HLR) in GSM networks or local customer database in WLANs). • Access to operator walled garden services. such as SIM card capability. send and receive data. In the case of session continuity.g. from the subscriber's home network in order that the subscriber can be authenticated and any authorization for using the network services can be checked.

In order that a subscriber is able to "latch" on to a visited network. TAP records are generally used for wholesale Inter-Operators settlements only. AMPS etc. file and is transferred to the home network. in the visited network as well. this new "visited" network sees the device. and attempts to identify its home network. The roaming process The details of the roaming process differ among types of cellular networks. the TADIG testing is to check the billability of the calls. If a subscriber can use his personal service profile. While the IREG testing is to test the proper functioning of the established communication links. When the mobile device is turned on or is transferred via a handover to the network. The visited network contacts the home network and requests service information (including whether or not the mobile should be allowed to roam) about the roaming device using the IMSI number. authorization and billing of the subscriber can be performed in the corresponding network. location. the process resembles the following: 1. The GSM Association broadly outlines the content of such roaming agreements in standardized form for its members. this is tested by all the mobile phones are working in roaming condition 289 Roaming agreements The legal roaming business aspects negotiated between the roaming partners for billing of the services obtained are usually stipulated in so called roaming agreements. location update procedures or financial security or warranty procedures. . as e. and service is denied by the visited network. a roaming agreement needs to be in place between the visited network and the home network. which terminates at the host network and is forwarded to the mobile. 3. the visited network begins to maintain a temporary subscriber record for the device. calling party. For the legal aspects of authentication. If there is no roaming agreement between the two networks. For the roaming procedure in practice.g. As recently many carriers launched own retail rate plans and bundles for Roaming. If successful. this is also referred to as Global Service Roaming Capability. If a call is made to a roaming mobile. time of call and duration. but in general. who then must route it to the visited network.Roaming an entry in a user database of the visited network (e. This agreement is established after a series of testing processes called IREG (International Roaming Expert Group) and TADIG (Transferred Account Data Interchange Group). Thus. notices that it is not registered with its own system. etc. Visited Location Register (VLR)) and the authorized network services are enabled. but rather to the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register of the mobile radio network. the term roaming is not linked to a specific network standard.g... called party. The TAP/CIBER files are rated as per the tariffs charged by the visited operator. A TAP/CIBER file contains details of the calls made by the subscriber viz. The usage by a subscriber in a visited network is captured in a file called the TAP (Transferred Account Procedure) for GSM / CIBER (Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Record) for CDMA. the home network forwards the incoming call to the temporary phone number. the public telephone network routes the call to the phone's registered service provider. Likewise. That network must then provide an internal temporary phone number to the mobile. Once this number is defined. The home operator then bills these calls to its subscribers and may charge a mark-up/tax applicable locally. maintenance of service is impossible. 2. the possibility of assigning the subscriber data is always indispensable in order that authentication. the home network updates its information to indicate that the mobile is on the host network so that any information sent to that device can be correctly routed. authorization and billing of the visiting subscriber. which he uses in the home network. the roaming agreements typically can comprise minimal safety standards.

regional roaming is rarely offered to clients except in nations with wide geographic areas like the USA. For data calls. For example. and would be based on duration in case of voice calls. for the establishment of a call. All of the major carriers now offer pricing plans that allow consumers to purchase nationwide roaming-free minutes. Roaming in Europe In the European Union. It is.. or lower. whereas others define it as anywhere within the carrier's network. For commercial and license reasons. discounts etc. carriers define "nationwide" in different ways. international roaming is easiest using the GSM standard.49 in 2007. €0. • National roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move from one mobile operator to another in the same country. since countries have allocated different frequency bands for GSM communications (there are two groups of countries: most GSM countries use 900/1800 MHz. Since mid 2009 there is also an €0. there may be problems.S.19 in 2009) per minute for incoming calls . even then. this type of roaming is common. India. However. This has often taken place when a new company is assigned a mobile telephony license.24 in 2007. the charging may be based on the data volume sent and received. In a country like India. €0. Additional notions and types of roaming • Regional roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability of moving from one region to another region inside national coverage of the mobile operator.excluding tax. Several carriers in the both United States and India have eliminated these fees in their nationwide pricing plans. the Regulation on roaming charges has been in force since 30 June 2007. forcing service providers to lower their roaming fees across the 27-member bloc. and €0. It later also included EEA member states.46 in 2008. to create a more competitive market by allowing the new entrant to offer coverage comparable to that of established operators (by requiring the existing operators to allow roaming while the new entrant has time to build up its own network). The visited operator tariffs may include tax. €0. This charge is called a flagfall charge. operators may have provide commercial offers restricted to a region (sometimes to a town). the regulation will expire in mid 2012. as it is used by over 80% of the world's mobile operators. but the United States and some other countries in the Americas have allocated 850/1900 MHz): for a phone to work in a . However.15 (€0.39 (€0.43 in 2009) per minute for outgoing calls. this type of roaming is not allowed unless under very specific circumstances and under regulatory scrutiny. • International roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move to a foreign service provider's network. etc.11 (excluding tax) maximum price for SMS text message included into this regulation. Due to the success of GSM and the decrease in cost. €0. Initially. Some operators also charge a separate fee for call setup i. An operator intending to provide roaming services to visitors publishes the tariffs that would be charged in his network at least sixty days prior to its implementation under normal situations. Russia.Roaming 290 Tariffs As we know roaming fees are traditionally charged on a per-minute basis and they are typically determined by the service provider's pricing plan. The regulation sets a price cap of €0. consequently. where the number of regional operators is high and the country is divided into circles. a subscriber of T-Mobile USA who is allowed to roam on AT&T Mobility's service would have national roaming rights. in which there are a number of regional operators.[2] If the Commission is satisfied that competition will continue to keep prices at this level.. For example.e.22 in 2008. some carriers define "nationwide" as anywhere in the U. of particular interest to international tourists and business travellers. Broadly speaking.

In order to permanently roam customers may use a false address and online billing. but furthermore this situation could introduce the fairly new concept of roaming on a per MSC basis instead of per Operator basis. • Trombone roaming: Roaming calls within a local tariff area. and thus be tri or quad band. it must support one or both of that country's frequencies. • Mobile Signature Roaming: The concept of Mobile signature Roaming is: an access point should be able to get a Mobile Signature from any end-user. and this should be transparent for the AP(reference [3]).Roaming country with a different frequency allocation. even if the AP and the end-user have not contracted a commercial relationship with the same MSSP. The benefits of getting service from a mobile phone operator that isn't local to you can include cheaper rates. when at least one of the phones belong outside that area. Since mobile communication technologies have evolved independently across continents. or be off-network. an AP would have to build commercial terms with as many MSSPs as possible. Otherwise. where there is no cost difference between on and off network usage. Usually implemented with trombone routing[6] also known as tromboning[7] The routing of trombone roaming. A number of the standards making industry bodies have come together to define and achieve interoperability between the technologies as a means to achieve inter-standards roaming. or a relative or friends address which is in the required area. Most mobile phone operator discourage or prohibit permanent roaming since they must pay per minute rates to the network operator their customer is roaming onto to. This means that a Mobile Signature transaction issued by an Application Provider should be able to reach the appropriate MSSP. this is usually determined by a computer estimate because it its impossible to guarantee coverage (see Dead zone (cell phone)). Most mobile phone operators will require the customer's living or billing address be inside their coverage area or less often inside the government issued radio frequency license of the mobile phone operator. and a 3rd party billing option. • Permanent Roaming: This type of roaming refers to customers who purchase service with a mobile phone operator intending to permanently roaming. there is significant challenge in achieving seamless roaming across these technologies. or features and phones that aren't available on your local mobile phone operator. and this might be a cost burden. or to get to a particular mobile phone operator's network to get free calls to other customers of that mobile phone operator through a free unlimited mobile to mobile feature.Hence. so it is avoided. If a potential customer's address is not within the requirements of that mobile phone operator. To accidentally become a permanent roaming customer does not usually happen. 291 . software changes and a greater processing capability are required. these technologies were implemented in accordance with technological standards laid down by different industry bodies and hence the name. they will be denied service. • Inter-standards roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move seamlessly between mobile networks of different technologies. This is currently an ongoing effort. But this is actually a burden.[5] while they can not pass that extra cost onto customers ("free roaming"). Typically. This becomes possible because of the increasing popularity and availability of "free roaming" service plan. • Inter MSC Roaming[4] Network elements belonging to the same Operator but located in different areas (a typical situation where assignment of local licenses is a common practice)pair depends on the switch and its location.

deny your continued use of other carriers' coverage or change your plan to one imposing usage charges for off-net usage. com/ blog/ main/ archives/ 2007/ 11/ tmobile_dumps_c. Customers must have a mailing address and live in Centennial’s Primary Service Area. com/ footer/ termsandconditions/ terms. nextel..jsp?arnumber=686490) • Mobile Europe describes how the roaming industry will cope with pending EU legislation and the arrival of mobile VoIP (http://www. org/ docbox/ EC_Files/ EC_Files/ ts_102207v010103p. any of the following apply: 40% of airtime minutes or 750 minutes of usage are incurred outside Centennial-owned systems. AT&T will provide notice that it intends to take any of the above actions. com/ terms.uk/magazine/features. com/ uscellular/ SilverStream/ Pages/ x_page.internationalcellphoneguide. (2) a majority of minutes or (3) a majority of data kilobytes in a given month are used while roaming. Roaming services typically refers to coverage on another carrier’s network that we make available to you based on our agreements with other carriers. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. If your minutes of use for roaming services during any two consecutive months exceeds a reasonable roaming usage allowance or if a majority of minutes in a given month are used while roaming. org. Global System for Mobile communications by the GSM Association (GSMA) (http://www. etsi. pdf [4] http:/ / ieeexplore. or change your plan to one imposing usage charges for roaming services. (http:/ / www. com/ wps/ portal/ AlltelPublic/ c1/ 04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3hnP2-DoCBDAwN_HxcnAyNLZ0PLIE9DIN9MPxykA0mFu3eokYFRgFOwWZi7i5GBgQFE3gAHcDTQ9_PIz03VL8 dl2/ d1/ L0lDU0lKSWdrbUEhIS9JRFJBQUlpQ2dBek15cXchL1lCSkoxTkExTkk1MC01RncvN19DTkswUlIxMDBPTERCMDI5QzE5UkkxMTBHNC9JX19fXzE!/ ?WCM_PORTLET=PC_7_CNK0RR100OLDB029C19RI110G4_WCM& WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/ wps/ wcm/ connect/ Alltel/ alltel..'Guide to International Cell Phone Roaming Services for Travelers • Roaming . b. • GSM website. . shtml) Termination By Us We may limit. com/ cell-phone-service/ legal/ service-agreement. AT&T may. and you may choose to terminate your Customer Agreement without incurring any additional fees for termination. In the event that we intend to take any of the above actions. terminate or refuse to provide a Service for the following reasons. com/ en/ infosociety/ new-caps-roaming-charges-place-august/ article-164430). informationweek.. cdg. southernlinc. competition-commission. we will provide you with prior notice. terminate your Services. uscc. Retrieved 2008-03-15.Roaming 292 References [1] CDMA Roaming (http:/ / wiki. or for any other good cause: . "T-Mobile Dumps Customers Who Roam Too Much" (http:/ / www. (f) if the majority of your Service is used roaming on a network not owned or operated by Alltel. Centennial Wireless may discontinue your service if. phsmou. (http:/ / nextelonline. html?p=legal_csa) ). euractiv. org/ wiki/ Main_Page) [2] "New caps on roaming charges in place for August" (http:/ / www.European Commission • Intra MSC Roaming (http://ieeexplore.. over two consecutive billing cycle..ehtml?o=2101) . Your roaming usage allowance is equal to the lesser of (i) 300 minutes or (ii) 30% of the anytime minutes included in your plan. Your off-net usage allowance is equal to the lesser of 750 minutes or 40% of the Anytime Minutes included with your plan.htm) . org/ newsletter/ issue40/ p2. att. jsp?q_termsKey=postpaidServiceAgreement& q_termsName=Service+ Agreement) Zeman. jsp?arnumber=686490 [5] Roaming-Included Plans: . Roaming Services.. (http:/ / www..org/xpl/freeabs_all. (http:/ / www.Trombone Rooting (http:/ / www.eu/information_society/activities/ roaming/index_en. we may. interrupt..mobileeurope.com/) External links • International Cell Phone Guide (http://www. asp) Additional Terms . deny your continued use of roaming services. php) (http:/ / www.Using my mobile abroad: are prices dropping ? (http://ec... alltel. Eric (Nov 20. html).ieee. html) OFF-NET USAGE If your minutes of use (including unlimited services) on other carrier networks ("off-net usage") during any two consecutive months exceed your off-net usage allowance.com/) . centennialwireless. uk/ rep_pub/ reports/ 1995/ 374telephone. wireless. at our sole option. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all.europa.co. • Direct access to ETSI standards publications. ieee. Sprint may terminate service if (1) more than 800 minutes. php) [7] Competition Commission: Telephone number portability: A report on a reference under section 13 of the Telecommunications Act 1984 (http:/ / www.. 2007).. and you may terminate the agreement. (http:/ / www. InformationWeek. com/ en/ legal/ legal_terms_privacy_popup. htm) Standardisation Organizations • ETSI website. gsmworld. at its option terminate your service. there is excessive use of free minutes from included calling features. 8 June 2007 [3] http:/ / portal. [6] PHS MoU Group: Note . com/ customersupport/ acceptable_use_policy.

2009.com/Content. .'Money Saving Tips for Travel Phone Users. pdf) (PDF). and their roaming partners indexed by country. Rxqual RxQual is used in GSM and is a part of the Network Measurement Reports (NMR). In the 1980s. Maintained by GSM Alliance • International Forum on ANSI-41 Standards Technology (http://www. the Radio Telephone Mobile (RTM) emerged. 7 is the worst. RXQUAL.000 customers. which operated on the 450 MHz frequency band and attracted 100.shtml) .1st-in-cell-phones.[1] This is an integer the value of which can be between 0 and 7 and reflects the quality of voice. Ascom.starhome.com/roaming/gsminfo/index.iFast. • 1st In Cell Phones (http://www.org/Science/Technology/Electrical_Engineering/Communications/ Mobile_Systems/) at the Open Directory Project .Roaming • GSM operators and their roaming agreements (http://gsmworld. and DTX DL Rate Measurements in TEMS Investigations (Technical Paper)" (http:/ / www.Index of GSM operators in a country. Retrieved 2010-08-19.Article talk about the Local Roaming Number Value Add Service.Lists some of the issues in Inter-standards roaming • Local Roaming Number (http://www. 0 is the best quality.dmoz. External links • Mobile Systems (http://www. cn:漫 游 293 RTMI RTMI (Radio Telefono Mobile Integrato) was the first mobile communication service in Italy. References [1] "FER. com/ en/ measurements-in-investigation-2.aspx?Page=local_roaming_number) . ascom. It operated on the 160 MHz frequency band and was used by a few people working in the public sector (public administrations and defense officials).com/) . started in 1973.org) .

com/ Improving_S-GPS_sensitivity-article-farr_avago_jun2008-html. requiring only one RF radio. electronicproducts. . The use of two radios with a single antenna imparts new design challenges. has led to adoption of the method in newer handsets. As the name implies. Simultaneous GPS allows a cellphone to receive both GPS and voice data at the same time.S-GPS 294 S-GPS Simultaneous GPS or S-GPS is a method to enhance a mobile phone's satellite-based position reporting ability to a carrier. a built-in GPS device is used to determine the location of an E911 call made from CDMA phones. By using a time-multiplexed scheme called TM-GPS. Ordinarily.[1] References [1] "Improving S-GPS sensitivity" (http:/ / www2. aspx). which improves sensitivity and allows service providers to offer location-based services. . from manufacturers such as Qualcomm. but the commercial availability of S-GPS chipsets. Avago Technologies. the reception of the telephone call and the GPS signal are alternated one after the other.

are turnkey multi-device.[8] Since then. Headquartered in Redwood City.com [1] Mobile software 2000 Redwood City. the company has expanded its product portfolio to include support for a broad range of email services globally.[7] In 2006. the company claimed in a press release to have more [10] actively synchronized on mobile devices using SEVEN. Push Notifications and Open Channel. Unique to SEVEN applications is their ability to deliver a desktop-like experience for core messaging applications like email. Inc. Inc. applications and social networking for a number of customers worldwide. CA.[11] In early 2011. In 2010. in December 2000. which include SEVEN Mobile Applications. the company announced that it was selected by Samsung Electronics to provide push technology for Samsung Social Hub.[9] As of January 2010. the than eight million accounts company announced Verizon Wireless as a customer[12] and also announced its Open Channel traffic optimization software. multi-service solutions that enable operators and device manufacturers to simplify the delivery of services across a broad device portfolio while optimizing traffic on their network. which claims to cuts the data consumption of smartphones and other mobile devices by up to 70 percent. SEVEN mobile messaging applications. CA Worldwide SEVEN Networks.[2] SEVEN develops and markets a push-based software platform and applications. IM and social networking.[5] History The company was formerly known as Leap Corporation and changed its name to SEVEN Networks. SEVEN provides solutions for wireless operators. and device manufacturers with software for real-time messaging.[3] Operating on a wide range of mobile devices (from feature phones to smartphones). including a facility in Estonia and a green data center in the Bay Area and employs about 265 employees [4] worldwide.SEVEN Networks 295 SEVEN Networks Industry Founded Headquarters Area served Products Website Seven. and underlying platform. the company announced Sprint as a customer. The company has research and development centers around the globe. a social networking and integrated messaging solution that will be available worldwide on several of the company’s bada and Android handsets. added mobile instant messaging to its application portfolio.[13] ." which recognizes the 15 most promising and innovative wireless startups of the year. content providers. is a privately funded American corporation founded in 2000.[6] In 2004 the company was selected as part of FierceWireless' annual list of "The Fierce 15. and expanded its platform with analytics.

wirelessweek. [7] Fiercewireless (http:/ / www. Its systems run on commonly deployed mobile platforms including Android. Motorola.[21] J2ME. seven.com/download.[17] In February 2011. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. asp?privcapId=715608). rcrwireless. retrieved 20 May 2010 [3] [www. it does not require changes to the network and can work in conjunction with new standards for fast network dormancy. and infrastructure providers such as Equinix.[23] They work on products from device manufacturers. retrieved 20 May 2010 [8] Mobileburn (http:/ / www. like Facebook. Additionally. jsp?Id=2916).[22] Symbian and Windows Mobile. com/ document. INQ. fiercewireless. phonescoop. com/ special-reports/ seven).[19] Partners The firm works with mobile platform providers. retrieved 17 March 2011 [13] Light Reading Mobile (http:/ / www. Sanyo. asp?doc_id=203580). retrieved 17 March 2011 [4] Wireless Week (http:/ / www. com/ company/ seven). retrieved 20 May 2010. Nokia. com/ News/ 2010/ 12/ 2-Straight-Out-10-for-Seven-Business/ ). retrieved 17 March 2011 [11] Seven Press Release (http:/ / www. with only a small fraction of them actually returning data. device manufacturers. retrieved 17 March 2011 . retrieved 17 March 2011 [14] RCR Wireless News (http:/ / www. php?n=5745). email messaging solutions and providers of services in the cloud. com/ article/ 20110125/ ENABLERAPPS/ 110129977/ seven-networks-optimization-tool-reduces-data-traffic-improves). and are embedded on more than 550 device types.[24] The firm has partnered with many of the top Internet Service Providers including Google. retrieved 20 May 2010 [9] Phonescoop (http:/ / www. email. businessweek.SEVEN Networks 296 Open Channel Open Channel was launched in February 2011 in order to help carriers manage the impact of push messaging notifications on their networks. Microsoft (Exchange and Windows Live) and Yahoo!. linkedin. com/ News/ 2010/ 12/ 2-Straight-Out-10-for-Seven-Business/ ). seven. It works by monitoring all requests for data from smartphone applications. mobileburn.[15] According to early tests. smart signaling and other network optimizations. fiercewireless. wirelessweek. achievement and innovation within the mobile communications industry[18] ) for Best Mobile Technology Breakthrough. com/ press_releases/ 2010/ SEVENReportsaFullYearofProfitabilityasCompanysUserBaseContinuestoGrowFasterthanMarket. to sell mobile messaging services. Competition • • • • Apple Push Notification Service (APNs) Good Technology Nokia Messaging Research In Motion (RIM. com/ press-releases/ verizon-wireless-expands-push-services-using-seven-networks-technology). Samsung. retrieved 20 May 2010. lightreading. determining when content for a particular app is available and then allowing the phone to go out and get that content.pdf Equinix Case Study].[25] Savvis and Oracle. BREW.[14] The platform instead acts as a buffer in the network. com/ companies/ seven-networks). Twitter and others. the solution can help mobile devices reduce their time on a network by up to 40 percent and help reduce mobile traffic by up to 70 percent while boosting battery life by up to 25 percent. Open Channel received the GSMA Global Mobile Award (which recognizes excellence. html).php?file=SEVEN_casestudy. and Sony Ericsson. including: HTC. which make up to hundreds of requests per hour. crunchbase.[16] Open Channel is transparent to connected applications and requires no changes or special integration by mobile developers. com/ news/ item. retrieved 17 March 2011 [5] CrunchBase (http:/ / www. com/ news. retrieved 17 March 2011 [6] Businessweek (http:/ / investing.equinix. com [2] Linkedin (http:/ / www. and infrastructure partners. LG.[20] bada. retrieved 20 May 2010 [10] Wireless Week (http:/ / www. [12] FierceWireless (http:/ / www. BlackBerry) References [1] http:/ / www.

retrieved 17 March 2011 [17] IntoMobile (http:/ / www. retrieved 20 May 2010 [22] Csnet (http:/ / news. sha-mail refers not only to Softbank. retrieved 20 May 2010 [24] Seven (http:/ / www. This term is made from Sha. retrieved 17 March 2011 [20] Downloadsquad (http:/ / www. but has come to apply to all the mobile phone carriers. gsmworld. as well as to mail with accompanying picture sent via other hand held devices and PCs. retrieved 20 May 2010 [23] Gomobi (http:/ / www. and Mail. intomobile. which is the front part of a Japanese word Shashin meaning photograph. retrieved 17 March 2011 [16] GigaOM (http:/ / gigaom. html). 2000. html). astricon. equinix. downloadsquad. but is also sometimes used to refer to the pictures themselves that have been taken with camera phones and other such devices. com/ about_us. html). com/ Start-up-Seven-addicted-to-Java/ 2100-1041_3-5427634. com/ 3g4g/ news/ MWC-Network-optimization-gets-specific-0131/ index. gomobi. htm). In current usage. customers_partners. retrieved 17 March 2011 [19] GSM World (http:/ / www. org/ email/ seven-a-free-push-mail-software-for-windows-mobile-symbian-android-palm-and-java-enable-mobile-phones. com/ news/ press/ SEVEN-Networks-Uses-Equinix-to-Connect-to-Growing-Mobile-Ecosystem/ ) retrieved 17 March 2011 297 External links • Official website (http://http://www. seven. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2011/ 6034. retrieved 20 May 2010 [21] Astricon (http:/ / www. htm). retrieved 17 March 2011 [18] GSM World (http:/ / www. It can be abbreviated to sha-me (写 メ ) . cnet. retrieved 20 May 2010 [25] Equinix (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ 01/ 25/ in-smartphones-seven-finds-a-new-heaven/ ). The term came into usage after Softbank (then Vodafone) introduced the service in November.SEVEN Networks [15] Connected Planet Online (http:/ / connectedplanetonline. html). gsmworld. net/ topics/ broadband-mobile/ articles/ 39564-seven-develops-integrated-mobile-messaging-solution-qualcomms-brew. com/ 2009/ 11/ 23/ seven-on-android-ah-push-it-push-it-real-good/ ). com/ 2011/ 01/ 28/ seven-open-channel/ ).seven. The term has come to mean not only mail with pictures attached. htm). Sha-Mail is used to send pictures and/or email through mobile handsets.com/) Sha-Mail Sha-Mail (写 メ ー ル ) is a kind of mailing service of J-Phone (now Softbank). com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2010/ 5433.

and mobile phones invented by Shumin Zhai and Per Ola Kristensson at IBM Almaden Research Center and the Department of Computer and Information Science at Linköping University. Inc. Shorthand Writing on Stylus Keyboard [1]. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. and German. Introduction to Shape Writing [3]. It was available only for Android OS versions 1. (2004). CHI 2003. . There was also a Beta release for Android 1. November 1. Spanish. Android ShapeWriter software was made available as a free application for Android (operating system) smartphones through the Android Market.6 or higher. As a touchscreen keyboard replacement. Swype. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. After some usage the user learns the movement pattern for the commonly used words and can write them faster than is possible on a traditional virtual keyboard. is had over 50. This system introduced the notion that every word in a large lexicon should be possible to write by tracing the letters. The next version described by Per Ola Kristensson and Shumin Zhai (2004) has a fundamentally different recognition engine that can recognize 50. S. Proc. P. • Zhai.O. and Kristensson. Proc.O. ShapeWriter. IBM Research Report RJ10393.000 . is a keyboard text input method for tablet. S.000 users on Android worldwide. SHARK²: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-Based Computers [2]. Instead of tapping the keys. P. (2003). Competitors Other similar products include SlideIT. and Kristensson.60. The first system described by Shumin Zhai and Per Ola Kristensson (2003) was only a prototype system that could recognize about 100 pen gestures for the top 100 words used in the English language. It used a handwriting recognition algorithm that relied on dynamic programming to recognize the word patterns drawn from a lexicon. 2006. ShapeWriter for Android was available in 7 European languages including English. P. handheld PCs. Using ShapeWriter text entry software. S.5 phones including the HTC Hero and Droid Eris.000 words with low latency. • Kristensson. UIST 2004. was purchased by Nuance Communications and the ShapeWriter software was removed from the Android Market indefinitely on June 20. (2006). the user draws a pen gesture that connects all the letters in the desired word. It is this system that was the basis for the software release on IBM alphaWorks that is generally associated with the term "ShapeWriter". References • Zhai. 2010. and Zhai.ShapeWriter 298 ShapeWriter ShapeWriter (previously known as Shorthand-Aided Rapid Keyboarding (SHARK)).O. a user draws words on a graphical keyboard using a pen. and MessagEase.

acm. acm. pdf http:/ / www. Technology Normal telephone numbers (following the E. htm http:/ / patft.250. ibm. uspto.251. the word "STOP" to terminate the service. html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PTXT& s1=7251367& OS=7251367& RS=7251367# [9] http:/ / phobos. com/ WebObjects/ MZStore.938 System and method for improved user input on personal computing devices [7] US Patent 7. one could not use the short code 12345.938& RS=7. almaden. since then one could not dial the phone number 1-234-555-4626 (or any other number that shared the prefix 12345). gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. There are two types of short codes: dialing and messaging. For instance. On mobile phones.250. but on a mobile phone there is no such ambiguity. on a land-line phone. uspto. alphaworks. 2002 [8] • Download an email and note application using ShapeWriter for the iPhone or iPod touch (opens in iTunes) [9] • • • • • References http:/ / doi. and thus one can use short numbers without clashing with longer numbers.164 standard) may be of any length.S. html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PTXT& s1=7. for example. shapewriter.250. December 20. that can be used to address SMS and MMS messages from certain service provider's mobile phones or fixed phones. apple. inter-operator numbers are called common short codes).367. ordering ringtones. Like telephone numbers. so the network knows the end of the dialed number.938/ kumhyr [8] http:/ / patft. org/ 10. numbers are terminated with the "Send" or "Call" key and sent all at once over the network. significantly shorter than full telephone numbers.[1] Short codes are widely used for value-added services such as television program voting. System and method for recognizing word patterns based on a virtual keyboard layout. Even so. ibm.938& OS=7. woa/ wa/ viewSoftware?id=285484703& mt=8 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Short code Short codes (also known as short numbers) are special telephone numbers. Messages sent to short code can be billed at a higher rate than a standard SMS and may even subscribe a customer to a recurring monthly service that will be added to their mobile phone bill until they text. 1145/ 642611. 1029640 http:/ / www.ShapeWriter 299 External links Homepage [4] Download a version of ShapeWriter for tablet PC [5] More scientific articles about ShapeWriter are available here [6] United States Patent 7. In some countries. org/ 10. almaden. dialed numbers are generally seven or ten digits long. Short codes are designed to be easier to read and remember than normal telephone numbers. 642630 http:/ / doi. 1145/ 1029632. . the network must apply heuristics to determine when dialing is complete — in the US. com/ tech/ sharktext http:/ / www. short codes are unique to each operator at the technological level. with an optional prefix of "1" (the country code for the US and Canada). ibm. com/ http:/ / www. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. charity donations and mobile services. such as the United States. com/ u/ zhai/ shapewriter-pubs. providers generally have agreements to avoid overlaps. for example. com/ u/ zhai/ papers/ IBM_Research_Report_ShapeWriting-rj10393. some classes of numbers are inter-operator (U. and so when dialed from landline telephones.250.

[2] Belgium Codes are four digits in length. There are also other four digit shortcodes. In ads or in other printed material where a provider has to inform about both the prefix and the short code number. Canada Canadian Common Short Codes can be five or six digits long. while two or three (depending on billing type=MO/MT) trailing digits express the price.[2] Transactional and Subscription services require a double sms MO opt-in or Web based opt-in with an MO reply.directory services.emergency helplines. The service then responds to the command appropriately.Short code 300 Short codes and service identifiers (prefix) Short codes are often associated with automated services. Leading three digits are purpose type prefixes (908 for micropayments. also are known as short codes for value added service. Examples include: 118xxx .Short version: football@72404 Regional differences European Union Common EU-wide codes are six digit long and start with 11. Codes are seven digits in length for MO and five (not billed) or eight (billed) for MT direction. Dominican Republic Codes are four or five digits in length. An automated program can handle the response and typically requires the sender to start the message with a command word or prefix. C$1-10). Australia Short codes are six or eight digits in length. Short code-based messages vary between zero-rated (paid for by campaign). Common Short Codes beginning with a leading '4' are reserved for private use by wireless carriers. 909 for adult content and 900 for everything else). Czech Republic Messages sent to/from these short codes are known as Premium Rate SMS. e. used by a network operators for service only purposes (operator dependent) Denmark Codes are four digits in length. 116xxx . Four-digit Common Short Codes are not permitted due to handset incompatibilities. You can have a look at the different categories here [3].Long version: Text Football to 72404 for latest football news. the advertisement will typically follow this format: Example 1 . and premium rate (varies. digits at position four and five determines the service provider registered by a network operator. Albania Short Codes are five digits in length and start with 5. This is in addition to the EU-wide emergency number 112. Canadian Short codes are governed by the Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association. Communications Alliance Ltd and WMC Global are responsible for governing premium and standard rate short codes in Australia. starting with nine.g. standard rate (user is responsible for standard carrier charges). SMS sent to 9090930 is billed for Kč30.[4] Chile Codes are three and four digits in length. Example 2 . . starting with the prefix "19" followed by an additional four or six digits and two.

Republic of Ireland Short codes are five digits in length. Codes beginning 59 are ostensibly intended for adult services. commercial ringtones and mobile stuff download. France Codes are five digits in length. Starting digits define the cost of the service. They all start by the digit "4". Widely-known short codes are in the 48xxx range. Texts sent to these Short Codes are commonly referred to as Premium Rate SMS Messages and cost around Rs 1 to Rs 3 per text depending on the operator as well as the service. represent short codes. dedicated codes are generally live in 4 weeks. starting from three digits up to five.[5] Italy In Italy short codes have no fixed length. starting from three digits up to five. Korea. Nepal Codes are three to four digits in length. and are four digits. but few if any of these codes are used.30 up to 10. and 7 having no maximum. The second digit generally indicates the maximum price. premium pricing from RM0. usually five or six. Short codes are five digits in length and have to start with the digit '5'. Germany Codes are four or five digits in length. whose characters. SMS shortcodes are used for a range of purposes. Codes are MT billed so subscription services are allowed. Indonesia Codes are four digits in length with Rp2000 premium price. start with "2" or "3". however short codes have no fixed length. Greece Codes are five digits in length.[6] Morocco Code are four keys digits in length. 1 = standard text rate only.on a monthly basis. The Netherlands 301 . Hungary Codes are four or five digits in length. which is designated by a local telecommunications law for "network services". Upon service description approval by mobile operators. Dialing shortcodes are generally 3 digits. with 0 = completely free. India There are many companies in the Indian market who rent keywords. 3 = €0. on a typical mobile phone keypad. Any length of full message can be sent.60. Malaysia Codes are five digits in length. and start with 5. and reserved for public services. which is designated by a local telecommunications law for "network services". The five digits can be extended by three digits further representing three additional characters. South Codes are generally four to six digits in length. ranging from 100–500 (some providers only support).Short code Finland Codes are five or more digits in length. They all start by the digit "1". and shared codes after 1 week. Lithuania In Lithuania short codes also have no fixed length.00.

Short code Codes are four digits in length. There is relevant documentation for Bulk SMS and SPAM control via NTC's "AMENDMENT TO THE RULES AND REGULATIONS ON BROADCAST MESSAGING SERVICES".00 using mobile terminated billing. You will find no information specific to running premium SMS or standard rate SMS services on NTC's website. and advises on the regulatory issues to consider when connecting to a short code in the Philippines is txtNation.2 to 300 rubles.[7] Although they are ultimately responsible for the governance of premium and non-premium shortcodes in the Philippines. Calls to short codes . Sweden Codes are five digits in length.[8] however again is not directly related to premium SMS. The cost of the call or SMS to the short number varies from 1. Each short code or short code range (a range will generally be 34000 to 34009) are assigned specific tariffs or end user prices (EUP). Nigeria Codes are four to five digits in length. Poland Commercial codes are five digit long (1xxxx) and are reachable from both mobile and fixed networks. if wishing to reach a particular geographical area. Philippines Codes are four digits in length. The tariff charges can range from R0. hence. affordable and viable infrastructure and services in information and communications technology (ICT) accessible to all. South Africa Codes are five digits in length. their regulatory guidelines are not comprehensive when applied to shortcodes. the subscriber might need to prefix the short code with an appropriate area code. Serbia Codes are four digits in length. more focusing on the carriers and their technical infrastructure. The National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) is a regulatory agency providing an environment that ensures reliable.[9] Russia Codes are four digits in length.from any type of network . For example.50 to R50. Short codes will start with either a "3" or "4".[10] [11] Spain Codes are four digits in length. 34001 or 42001. Norway Codes are four and five digits in length. Taiwan 302 .00 on mobile originated billing and from R0. Panama Codes are four digits in length.50 to R30. Singapore Codes are five digits in length. One company that maintains a list of. New Zealand Codes are three and four digits in length.are routed based on the location of the number originating the call. depending on the number and the carrier.

" Codes starting with 1 are not permitted.The MMA Best Practices are a 165 pages.000 a month just to get a number. 2006. charitable fund-raising and marketing promotions such as news alerts. Turkey Codes are four digits in length. rather than short codes which are usually shared across a number of brands. it will cost $500 or $1. +44 7624 805000).[12] The range of codes may be expanded in time to use other leading digits such as 4.Short code Codes are usually four digits in length.[16] Short codes can be leased at the rate of $1000 a month for a selected code or $500 for a random code. In the US. You have to pay more to an aggregator for connectivity. In the US. All charges and associated terms linked to a premium code should be transparent to the consumer. voting and quizzes. specifically: • Long Lead Time . SMS shortcodes are often owned by holding companies[13] who then lease them out to service providers and advertisers to promote SMS services. it can take 2-3 months before your campaign is live with all of the major carriers. You can get a shared short code to lower your costs. but then you are sharing the number with lots of providers and do not have sole control over the number. if you get a short code. Long Numbers address some of the disadvantages of short codes. the standard lengths for interoperable short codes are five and six digits. UK Premium rated SMS services are regulated by PhonepayPlus. Additionally.[17] [18] 303 Alternatives to short codes for SMS reception An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers (international number format. long numbers are non-premium inbound numbers. • Limiting . For example. product promotions and campaigns. Shortcodes can also be used to deliver additional content or a mobile URL link that when prompted opens the mobile web browser linking the user to a mobile web page. And you start paying from day one.CTIA. 4 digit codes on T-Mobile USA's network are reserved for a "Beta test service" or "Free to end user" marketing campaigns.g.S. Adult related mobile services must use codes starting with 69 or 89. Codes starting 7 are used by charities. "Text 611 to see how many minutes you have remaining on your plan.[16] Some carriers assign a subset of their carrier-specific codes to third parties.[14] Carriers use short codes with fewer digits for carrier-specific programs . Common short codes in the U. A US short code only works in the US. as well as enabling businesses to have their own number. To stop a subscription based shortcode service text the word 'STOP' to the shortcode number. long before you go live. Some carriers don’t support short codes. United Kingdom Codes are five digits in length. • Expensive . Mobile operators sometimes use proprietary codes (either with a different leading digit or shorter in length for their own use).e.. such as television voting.Short Codes don’t support voice. Premium services use codes that can be set to deliver a charge to a participant’s mobile phone (in accordance with the service provider’s terms of service). under a deal with Common Short Code Administration [15] . are administered by NeuStar. Long numbers are internationally available. United States of America As of May 31. which can be used in place of short codes or premium-rated short messages for SMS reception in several applications. . starting with digits "19". The carriers can reject your campaign at their discretion.It takes a long time to launch a short code program. • Restrictive .g.It costs a lot to get a dedicated short code. e. Other codes (typically used by advertisers) can be free to receive “your standard rate applies” or free to send and receive. mostly starting with 6 or 8.

Short code

304

References
[1] Evan Neufeld, Senior Analyst, Common Short Codes: Cracking The Mobile Marketing Code (http:/ / www. youra. com/ stats/ mobileuse. pdf), October 2007 [2] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 129428-australia-premium-sms-regulations [3] http:/ / www. mobileweb. be/ en/ mobileweb/ sms-numberplan. asp [4] http:/ / www. txt. ca/ [5] http:/ / www. regtel. ie [6] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 182820-malaysia-premium-sms-regulations [7] http:/ / portal. ntc. gov. ph/ wps/ portal [8] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ attachments/ token/ 4lczcuqluzi6exm/ ?name=Phillippines_NTC_Guidelines. pdf [9] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 339246-philippines-shared-short-code-requirements-and-restrictions [10] http:/ / www. waspa. org. za [11] http:/ / www. smscode. co. za [12] (http:/ / www. short-codes. com/ ) [13] A Short Guide to a (UK) Short Code (http:/ / www. smsshortcodes. co. uk/ shared-and-dedicated-shortcodes. htm) by "Steve", SMSshortcodes.co.uk March 11th, 2009 [14] Common Short Code Administration Announces Open Registration of 6-Digit Codes (http:/ / www. usshortcodes. com/ csc_press053106. html), Press Release, CTIA, May 31, 2006 [15] http:/ / usshortcodes. com [16] Decoding Short Codes (http:/ / www. wirelessweek. com/ article. aspx?id=146359), by Monica Alleven, WirelessWeek, April 15, 2007 [17] Free to end user (FTEU) (http:/ / www. mobilestorm. com/ digital-marketing-blog/ free-to-end-user-fteu/ ) by "Steve", Digitial Marketing Blog, July 23rd, 2007 [18] Personal communication, T-Mobile Customer Support

14. http://clients.txtnation.com/entries/158302-belgium-premium-sms-regulations 15. http://clients.txtnation.com/entries/158290-canada-premium-sms-regulations

External links
• UK Shortcode availability tool (http://www.availableshortcodes.com/) • Australian short code search (http://web.acma.gov.au/numb/openAccess/inquiry/viewAllocationSearch.do) (Australian Communications and Media Authority) • Short Code Management Group (http://www.short-codes.com/) (U.K.) • Common Short Code Administration (http://www.usshortcodes.com/) (U.S.) • US Short Codes WHOIS Directory (http://www.usshortcodeswhois.com/) (U.S.) • The Mobile Guide to Common Short Codes (http://www.coolshortcodes.com/) • US Shared Short Codes WHOIS Directory (http://www.sharedshortcodeswhois.com/) (U.S.) • Short code Provider in India (http://www.shortcodes.in/) (INDIA)

Short message peer-to-peer protocol

305

Short message peer-to-peer protocol
The Short Message Peer-to-Peer (SMPP) protocol is a telecommunications industry protocol for exchanging SMS messages between SMS peer entities such as short message service centers and/or External Short Messaging Entities. It is often used to allow third parties (e.g. value-added service providers like news organizations) to submit messages, often in bulk. SMPP was originally designed by Aldiscon, a small Irish company that was later acquired by Logica (now split off and known as Acision). The protocol was originally created by a developer, Ian J Chambers, to test functionality of the SMSC without using SS7 test equipment to submit messages. In 1999, Logica formally handed over SMPP to the SMPP Developers Forum, later renamed as The SMS Forum and now disbanded. The SMPP protocol specifications are still available through the website which also carries a notice stating that it will be taken down at the end of 2007. As part of the original handover terms, SMPP ownership has now returned to Acision due to the disbanding of the SMS forum. The protocol is based on pairs of request/response PDUs (protocol data units, or packets) exchanged over OSI layer 4 (TCP session or X.25 SVC3) connections. PDUs are binary encoded for efficiency. The most commonly used versions of SMPP are v3.3, the most widely supported standard, and v3.4, which adds transceiver support (single connections that can send and receive messages). Data exchange may be synchronous, where each peer must wait for a response for each PDU being sent, and asynchronous, where multiple requests can be issued in one go and acknowledged in a skew order by the other peer. The latest version of SMPP is v5.0. To date SMPP development is suspended and SMS forum is disbanded. From SMS forum website: July 31, 2007 - The SMS Forum, a non-profit organization with a mission to develop, foster and promote SMS (short message service) to the benefit of the global wireless industry will disband by July 27, 2007 A press release, attached to the news, also warns that site will be suspended soon. In spite of this the site is still mostly functioning and specifications can still be downloaded (as of 12 July 2011).

Example
This is an example of the binary encoding of a 60-octet submit_sm PDU. The data is shown in Hex octet values as a single dump and followed by a header and body break-down of that PDU. This is best compared with the definition of the submit_sm PDU from the SMPP specification in order to understand how the encoding matches the field by field definition. The value break-downs are shown with decimal in parentheses and Hex values after that. Where you see one or several hex octets appended, this is because the given field size uses 1 or more octets encoding. Again, reading the definition of the submit_sm PDU from the spec will make all this clearer.

Short message peer-to-peer protocol

306

Hexdump
00 00 00 3C 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 00 02 08 35 35 35 00 01 01 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0F 48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 77 69 6B 69 70 65 64 69 61

PDU Header
'command_length', (60) ... 00 00 00 3C 'command_id', (4) ... 00 00 00 04 'command_status', (0) ... 00 00 00 00 'sequence_number', (5) ... 00 00 00 05

PDU Body
'service_type', () ... 00 'source_addr_ton', (2) ... 02 'source_addr_npi', (8) ... 08 'source_addr', (555) ... 35 35 35 00 'dest_addr_ton', (1) ... 01 'dest_addr_npi', (1) ... 01 'dest_addr', (555555555) ... 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 00 'esm_class', (0) ... 00 'protocol_id', (0) ... 00 'priority_flag', (0) ... 00 'schedule_delivery_time', (0) ... 00 'validity_period', (0) ... 00 'registered_delivery', (0) ... 00 'replace_if_present_flag', (0) ... 00 'data_coding', (0) ... 00 'sm_default_msg_id', (0) ... 00 'sm_length', (15) ... 0F 'short_message', (Hello wikipedia) ... 48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 77 69 6B 69 70 65 64 69 61'

External links
• Short Message Peer-to-Peer Protocol Specification v3.4 [1] • Short message peer-to-peer protocol
[2]

at the Open Directory Project

References
[1] http:/ / www. spboss. com/ download/ %E8%BF%90%E8%90%A5%E5%95%86%E9%80%9A%E8%AE%AF%E5%8D%8F%E8%AE%AE/ SMPP_v3_4_Issue1_2. pdf [2] http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Computers/ Mobile_Computing/ Wireless_Data/ Short_Messaging_Service/

Validity Period of an SMS Message . the SMS message will no longer be available for dispatch to the recipient mobile phone (even if it becomes online). The main duty of an SMSC is to route SMS messages and regulate the process. 3.The SMS sender needs to set a flag in the SMS message to notify the SMS center that he wants the status report about the delivery of this SMS message. Operation When a user sends a text message (SMS message) to another user. If the recipient is unavailable (for example. This is a store and forward option. References . it will reach an SMS center first. When an SMS message is sent from a mobile phone. 2.. I. It is possible to specify a cutoff period after which the SMS message will be deleted from the SMS center. Message Status Reports . This status report is sent to the SMS sender in the form of an SMS. II. 4.. The SMS center then forwards the SMS message towards the destination.. when the mobile phone is switched off). Once deleted. It will forward the SMS message when the recipient is available. the message gets stored in the SMSC (short message service center) which delivers it to the destination user when they are available. An SMS center (SMSC) is responsible for handling the SMS operations of a wireless network.An SMS message is stored temporarily in the SMS center if the recipient mobile phone is offline. the SMSC will store the SMS message. 1.Short message service center 307 Short message service center A Short Message Service Center (SMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network which delivers SMS messages.

where is the angle between the antenna axis and the vector to the observation point.Signal strength 308 Signal strength In telecommunications. is the permittivity of free-space. For very low-power systems. Substituting the formula for and solving for the maximum electric field yields into the . signal strength refers to the magnitude of the electric field at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. such as mobile phones. it is expressed in voltage per length or signal power received by a reference antenna. It may also be referred to as received signal level or field strength. When the antenna is viewed broadside ( maximum and given by ) the electric field is Solving this formula for the peak current yields The average power to the antenna is where one for is the center-fed half-wave antenna’s radiation resistance. Typically. and is the distance to the antenna in meters. High-powered transmissions. Examples • 100 dBµ or 100 mV/m: blanketing interference may occur on some receivers • 60 dBµ or 1. is the peak current at the feed-point. such as those used in broadcasting. particularly in radio. its geometry and radiation resistance. In broadcasting terminology. the current distribution is essentially sinusoidal and the radiating electric field is given by Current distribution on antenna of length equal to one half wavelength ( ). are expressed in dB-millivolts per metre (dBmV/m). Consider the case of a center-fed half-wave dipole antenna in free space ( ).1 mV/m: the minimum strength at which a station can be received with acceptable quality on most receivers Relationship to Average Radiated Power The electric field strength at a specific point can be determined from the power delivered to the transmitting antenna. If constructed from thin conductors. is the speed of light in a vacuum. 1 mV/m is 1000 µV/m or 60 dBµ (often written dBu). signal strength is usually expressed in dB-microvolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of one milliwatt (dBm).0 mV/m: frequently considered the edge of a radio station's protected area in North America • 40 dBµ or 0.

if the average power to a half-wave dipole antenna is 1 mW.com/) . then the maximum electric field at 313 m (1027 ft) is 1 mV/m (60 dBµ). Some rural areas are unlikely ever to be effectively covered since the cost of erecting a cell tower is too high for only a few customers. there are still many areas within those nations that do not have good reception. operate at around 800 MHz and PCS phones at 1900 MHz. the terrain and vegetation. the maximum electric field for a center-fed short dipole is It must be emphasized that the formulas above are illustrative and only apply when there are no conductive objects near the antenna and observation point and when the path between the two is unobstructed. or by the construction materials used in some buildings causing rapid attenuation of signal strength. Cell phones in the U. although they are able to use reflection and diffraction to circumvent obstacles. they might not provide accurate estimates of signal strength for radio transmitters in environments where signals are scattered and absorbed by buildings. In this case. Even in high reception areas it is often found that basements and the interiors of large buildings have poor reception.opensignalmaps. classified as UHF and low energy microwaves respectively.com/) • Cell Phone Signal Strength Map (http://www.com) • Global map of cell phone signal by network.signalmap. (http://www. the electric field and radiation Using a procedure similar to that above. This is particularly true for the networks which operate at higher frequency since these are attenuated more rapidly by intervening obstacles.S. Based on crowdsourced data. which is generally enough to turn a very weak signal into a clear one over the local area (from around a thousand square feet to over twenty thousand). For a short dipole ( resistance are ) the current distribution is nearly triangular. This has led to the rapid growth in the home cellular repeater market. Large buildings such as warehouses. The more advanced models now typically include an external directional antenna and an amplifier (usually operating at 55 dB gain). Cellphone signals Although there are cell phone base station tower networks across many nations globally. Consequently. hospitals and factories often have no usable signal further than a few metres from the outside walls.Signal strength 309 Therefore. Weak signal strength can also be caused by destructive interference of the signals from local towers in urban areas.gotreception. References External links • Maps of Cell Phone Signal Strength Across the United States (http://www.

which can be combined (e. which suggests words whose letters are near the ones entered. This allows for text input at much higher rates than normal mobile phone and other small touch-screen keyboards. Developer Dasur is a technology company that specializes in complex mathematical applications. allowing only part of a word to be entered • Disambiguation. At the end of 2010 Dasur released a new version for Symbian and in early 2011 version 3. Main Features • Two modes for entering text. SlideIT uses advanced pattern recognition and error-correction algorithms together with a complicated language model and word database to ensure maximum accuracy of outputted text while allowing the user a lot of freedom and inaccuracy in entering text. Dasur has developed a powerful pattern recognition engine which can be the basis for many applications. "Google" can be entered as "gogle") • Graffiti mode. Over the last 20 years. In 2009 the two keyboards were merged into one product branded SlideIT which offers an 'ABC' mode with the ThumbKey unique algorithm and the 'Slide' mode with the sliding algorithm. allowing for imprecise typing/sliding • Customizable dictionary • Available in many different languages (40+ as of February 2011) • Can use short abbreviations or other shorthand text to input a long text quickly • Automatic spacing and capitalizing • Automatically doubles letters to ease sliding (e. Product SlideIT allows a user to enter a word by sliding a finger or stylus from letter to letter on a virtual keyboard.g. Dasur has developed this generation of text input solutions for mobile phones and PDAs.0 for the Android was released. ThumbKey and SlideIT. Based on this engine. Dasur's ThumbKey used a unique algorithm that allowed users to just press in the general vicinity of the required key for the intended word to appear on the screen.g. lifting only between words.SlideIT 310 SlideIT SlideIT is a text input method for touchscreen devices developed by Dasur Ltd [1] based on pattern recognition. type part of a word and slide the rest of it) • Predictive suggestions. allowing numbers and symbols to be entered by drawing them (similar to handwriting recognition) • Speech recognition (only available on the Android OS) . ThumbKey's technology brought the touchscreen method to a more accurate and easier level of operation with the option of using only one hand. History The first version was released on 2007 as two separate keyboards. regular typing and "sliding". The algorithm processed the typed letters and its disambiguation feature suggested the intended word and also displayed additional possibilities next to the keyboard.

and Karat. Patterns of entry and correction in large vocabulary continuous speech recognition systems. Latvian. . as of Late 2010. Serbian.uspto. SlideIT currently has 40+ freely available language packs: Afrikaans. types 33 words per minute. Czech. mobiletextinput. Robert U. Albanian. German. "120 wpm for very skilled typist" (http:/ / books. "Reduced keyboards system using unistroke input and having automatic disambiguating and a recognition method using said system". (1999). SlideIT for iPhone and Windows Tablet PC will be available soon.SlideIT 311 Languages The keyboard can be customized with a primary and secondary language. English (Qwerty. Martinás. holds the world speed record for text input into a mobile phone. Italian. 41. D. Bulgarian. Hebrew. and on the Android Market. retrieved 22 November 2010 [4] SlideIT download page (http:/ / www. Cheltenham. com/ books?id=ksxK7J95IF8C& pg=PA41& dq=typists+ "120+ words+ per+ minute"& hl=en& ei=9sbqTL_zF4HvcMeu1YgL& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CEoQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=typists "120 words per minute"& f=false). Indonesian. com/ about. Belorussian. Estonian. CHI 99 Conference Proceedings. Portuguese. Persian. References [1] http:/ / www. Availability SlideIT can be run on any Android phone or tablet computer.[4] the Ovi (Nokia) store. and the user can switch between them at any time by pressing a button. Norwegian. p.html&r=1&f=G&l=50& d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/7199786) . Katalin (2005). Icelandic. Dutch. There is a free demonstration version limited to 14 days and a full commercial version which is sold on Dasur's web site. Danish. D. Swedish. Polish. using a standard full-size QWERTY keyboard. google.[2] PDAs and smartphones allow much slower speeds. Halverson. ISBN 1-84542-272-4. Spanish. Slovenian. J. C.. (http://patft. Horn.[3] A sliding style keyboard. Dvorak and Colemak layouts). Brazilian. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing. mobiletextinput. Finnish. Sliding style keyboards for touch screens can increases typing speed by 30-40% and yields potential typing speeds of more than 50 words per minute – matching the average speed of a professional typist.gov/netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool. com/ books?id=ksxK7J95IF8C& printsec=frontcover& dq=reappraisal+ microeconomics& hl=en& ei=ZNnqTKykO8XQcaqq1ckK& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false).M. Turkish and Ukrainian. php [2] Karat..786. Croatian. [3] Ayres. com/ Download. Slovak. Hungarian. French. On the Reappraisal of Microeconomics: Economic Growth and Change in a Material World (http:/ / books. php) External links • United States Patent 7. Romanian. Suraqui. Competitors Other similar products include ShapeWriter and Swype. google. Arabic. C. Windows Mobile and Symbian S60 v5. 568–575. Greek. UK & Northampton.199. Lithuanian. Russian. Speed The average computer user. Catalan.

and dumb pipes. and provides unlimited data access in exchange for a fixed monthly premium.[1] The X-Series platform bundles a set of services. there is a set of services commonly viewed as parts of a smart pipe. bloggers. related to a mobile network operator (MNO or operator). and the operator’s customer relationships.[6] Although Sarin’s point has been true traditionally. Yahoo via Go. 3 is one of the first operators to offer such a combination of bandwidth and value-added services for flat-rate pricing. refers to an operator’s network which leverages existing or unique service abilities. Arun Sarin. Nokia’s consumer portal Ovi.[2] [3] [4] such as: • • • • • • • • • • Location-based services Presence information Customer analytics Computing platforms. types of services and content beyond bandwidth and network speed only. walled gardens. Examples While there is no real industry standard definition of a smart pipe. and even the open-access policies of the U. The need for operators to innovate around a smart pipe is rising as they face rising pressure from media companies[2] and new technologies. and researchers who have described aspects of a smart pipe which are generally accepted. Billing Directory assistance. CEO of Vodafone. The use of the term “smart” refers to the operator’s ability to add value for added. In addition to pricing. Obopay. PayPal Mobile. Network operator 3 led the way with the release of its X-Series line of devices in 2006. there are several operators. network operators can maintain the value of their pipes while enabling entrepreneurs to create new business models and generate entirely new revenue streams. . as the article points out there are several new threats to that exclusivity such as traditional credit card. for devices or networks Payment. While not necessarily a full realization of a smart pipe.[5] Recently. directory services Quality of service By exposing these types of services to the mobile ecosystem.Smart pipe 312 Smart pipe Smart pipe. and existing media companies like Google via the Android platform. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) introduced around its upcoming 700 MHz spectrum auction. and Apple via iPhone. and often unique. several of which are unique to 3. was criticized for some statements he made about how Vodafone will always have a unique relationship with its subscribers through its billing relationship. Among the commonly understood operational models for a MNO are smart pipes.S. such as Apple’s iPhone. to provide value beyond that of data connectivity only. mobile or application • Mobile operating systems User interfaces Personalization Application programming interfaces (APIs).

there are a number of summaries available on the web: • Smart-Pipe Strategy to Provide MNOs with 31% Share of $188bn Mobile Content Market by 2012 [11] • Study About MNOs Share of Mobile Content Market [12] • Mobile Entertainment in Western Europe [13] A Google search will list several more: • Google search of Juniper report [14] References [1] Hutchison Whampoa announces the global launch of the X-Series from 3 (http:/ / www. wired. com/ 2008/ 01/ 13/ the-operators-vs-the-media-brands/ ) [3] The Pipe is Only Dumb if You Make It that Way (http:/ / mobhappy. co. There are numerous blog postings and trade articles which refer to the operator dumb pipe/smart pipe dilemma. uk/ news/ h3gnews/ pressnewsview. it is a generally understood term in the mobile industry. some of which are referenced in this article. and a dumb pipe is a report from Juniper Research titled Business Models for Mobile Content Players. fiercebroadbandwireless. wirelessweek. goes 'La la la' (http:/ / www. com/ gadgets/ wireless/ magazine/ 16-02/ ff_iphone?currentPage=all [8] http:/ / www. Strategic Options & Scenarios 2007-2012: • Juniper Research Report [10] The author is not affiliated with Juniper in any way. the Media Brands (http:/ / gigaom. com/ staying-relevant-in-a-dumb-pipe.Smart pipe 313 Further reading While there is no real industry standard definition of smart pipe. com/ apps/ pbcs. aspx) [5] Making Pipes Smart (http:/ / www. Others include: • Wired: How the iPhone Blew Up the Wireless Industry [7] • WiMAX Carriers Risk Becoming Dumb Pipes [8] A reference which describes a smart pipe. dll/ article?AID=/ 20070911/ SUB/ 70911004/ 1008) [6] Vodafone CEO sticks head in sand. three. omp?collcid=1019745742912& cid=1163170230108& index=1) [2] The Operators vs. rcrnews. and although the full report requires purchase. uk/ 2007/ 11/ 19/ vodafone_ceo_blind/ ) [7] http:/ / www. com/ blog1/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ the-pipe-is-only-dumb-if-you-make-it-that-way/ ) [4] Staying Relevant in a Dumb Pipe Era (http:/ / www. com/ story/ analysys-wimax-carriers-risk-becoming-dumb-pipes/ 2007-07-16 . operator portal (or walled garden). co. theregister.

etc.SMS banking 314 SMS banking SMS banking is a technology-enabled service offering from banks to its customers. The bank’s customer is empowered with the capability to select the list of activities (or alerts) that he/she needs to be informed. The password is expired once it has been used or once its scheduled life-cycle has expired. Push messages are those that the bank chooses to send out to a customer's mobile phone. or both and financial and non-financial transactions. Typical push and pull services offered under SMS banking Depending on the selected extent of SMS banking transactions offered by the bank. Large value payment on a credit card or out of country activity on a credit card. using a mobile phone. Successful or un-successful execution of a standing order. for obtaining information or performing a transaction in the bank account. permitting them to operate selected banking services over their mobile phones using SMS messaging. Typically push messages could be either Mobile marketing messages or messages alerting an event which happens in the customer's bank account. One-time password and authentication . Large value withdrawals on an account. Large value withdrawals on the ATM or EFTPOS on a debit card. Pull messages are those that are initiated by the customer. Another type of push message is One-time password (OTPs). without the customer initiating a request for the information. Examples of pull messages for information include an account balance enquiry. Typical push services would include: • • • • • • • • • Periodic account balance reporting (say at the end of month). Reporting of salary and other credits to the bank account. or requests for current information like currency exchange rates and deposit interest rates. Push and pull messages SMS banking services are operated using both push and pull messages. OTPs are Screenshot of a typical SMS Banking message on the latest tool used by financial and banking service providers in the a mobile screen fight against cyber fraud. SMS banking solutions offer customers a range of functionality. When the request is received the password is sent to the consumer’s phone via SMS. Instead of relying on traditional memorized passwords. Successful payment of a cheque issued on the account. as published and updated by the bank. Insufficient funds. This functionality to choose activities can be done either by integrating to the internet banking channel or through the bank’s customer service call centre. OTPs are requested by consumers each time they want to perform transactions using the online or mobile banking interface. a customer can be authorized to carry out either non-financial transactions. such as a large withdrawal of funds from the ATM or a large payment using the customer's credit card. classified by push and pull services as outlined below. (see section below on Typical Push and Pull messages).

but has the limitation of use only when the customer has access to a computer and the Internet. Mini statement request.g. unlike other channels such as the post. it is extremely important that SMS gateway providers can provide a decent quality of service for banks and financial institutions in regards to SMS services. email. telephone banking. Requesting for an ATM card or credit card to be suspended. throughput. As a personalized end-user communication instrument. [1] 315 Concerns and skepticism about SMS banking There is a very real possibility for fraud when SMS banking is involved. when there is an ATM fraud happening in the region. like moving money from a savings account to a current account to fund a cheque.SMS banking Typical pull services would include: • • • • • • • • • Account balance enquiry. e. are received by the customer instantaneously. Besides. The convenience factor The convenience of executing simple transactions and sending out information or alerting a customer on the mobile phone is often the overriding factor that dominates over the skeptics who tend to be overly bitten by security concerns. today mobile phones are perhaps the easiest channel on which customers can be reached on the spot. the operation of SMS banking functionality over phone key instructions makes its use very simple. SLAs give the service parameters in which a messaging solution is guaranteed to perform. urgent warning messages. like the ATM and internet banking. etc. the bank can push a mass alert (although not subscribed by all customers) or automatically alert on an individual basis when a predefined ‘abnormal’ transaction happens on a customer’s account using the ATM or credit card. Foreign currency exchange rates enquiry. Stop payment instruction on a cheque. This is quite different from internet banking which can offer broader functionality. especially in an emergency situation. Therefore. Transfers between customer's own accounts. Internet. it is necessary to give the bank customer delivery guarantees of all messages. the SMS banking channel is not intended to be used for very high-risk transactions. Electronic bill payment. on which a bank's notifications to the customer involves the risk of delayed delivery and response. such as SMS alerts. the provision of Service Level Agreement(SLA) is a requirement for this industry. [2] Quality of service in SMS banking Because of the concerns made explicit above. as SMS uses insecure encryption and is easily spoofable (see the SMS page for details). The SMS banking channel also acts as the bank’s means of alerting its customers. De-activating a credit or debit card when it is lost or the PIN is known to be compromised. as they carry the mobile phone all the time no matter where they are. This capability mitigates the risk of fraud going unnoticed for a long time and increases customer confidence in the bank’s information systems. Fixed deposit interest rates enquiry. etc.[3] . Also. as well as measurements on the speed of delivery. Supporters of SMS banking claim that while SMS banking is not as secure as other conventional banking channels.

Douglas. G. As most banks have multiple backend hosts. (2003) Mobile banking: Concept and Potential.J. 7.Track 7. means to connect to the SMSC could be different.. such as using simple modems or connecting over leased line using low level communication protocols (like SMPP. "Assessment of Today's Mobile Banking Applications from the View of Customer Requirements". [2] Key Pousttchi. International Journal of Mobile Communications.). These solutions are able to connect seamlessly to multiple SMSC operators in the country of operation. p. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 66(2). 5-6. Vol.. Martin Schurig. Well developed and mature SMS banking software solutions normally provide a robust control environment and a flexible and scalable operating environment. S. Advanced SMS banking solutions also cater to providing failover mechanisms and least-cost routing options. 1 (3). Sometimes ATM type PINs are also employed. The lack of encryption is inherent to the SMS banking channel and several banks that use it have overcome their fears by introducing compensating controls and limiting the scope of the SMS banking application to where it offers an advantage over other channels. There is only one open source online banking platform supporting mobile banking and sms payments called Cyclos. the more advanced SMS banking systems are built to be able to work in a multi-host banking environment. pp. Most online banking platforms are owned and developed by the banks using them. vol. G. A. A usability comparison of three alternative message formats for an SMS banking service. Depending on the volume of messages that are require to be pushed. 2004.70184a. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS'04) . but the usage of PINs in SMS banking makes the customer's task more cumbersome. [3] Barnes. UCP etc. B.SMS banking 316 Compensating controls for lack of encryption The lack of encryption on SMS messages is an area of concern that is often discussed. Suppliers of SMS banking software solutions have found reliable means by which the security concerns can be addressed. which is developed to stimulate and empower local banks in development countries. and Corbitt. & Jack. Typically the methods employed are by pre-registration and using security tokens where the transaction risk is perceived to be high. Technologies employed for SMS banking Most SMS banking solutions are add-on products and work with the bank’s existing host systems deployed in its computer and communications environment. (2008). This concern sometimes arises within the group of the bank’s technology personnel. due to their familiarity and past experience with encryption on the ATM and other payment channels. hicss. . and to have open interfaces which allow for messaging between existing banking host systems using industry or de-facto standards. M. References [1] Peevers.

meaning that international SMS can only transit from one operator to another if there is a bi-lateral roaming agreement in place. the revenue benefits of an extra interworking connection might not justify the investment required to set it up in the first place. which are basically hubs for voice.SMS hubbing 317 SMS hubbing SMS hubbing is a new structure for the international flow of SMS between operators. each subscriber expects to be able to send an SMS to other subscribers. SMS Hubbing is about simplifying the SMS interworking system. therefore being able to route messages on behalf of the client operators. Every operator has the need to establish roaming agreements in order to provide subscribers with the possibility to roam outside their home network. part of the Open Connectivity project. In the same way. The GSM Association (GSMA) found in SMS Hubbing the solution to a problem that limits the continuing growth of international SMS. SMS Hubbing is about providing a higher level of service to SMS. by introducing end-to-end quality of service through Service Level Agreements (SLAs). culminating to the development of the SMS Hubbing trials in 2006. regardless of country and mobile network. SMS hubbing enables a broad international SMS coverage for mobile operators (“client operators”) through the connection to independent hubs. by replacing much of the unproductive. identical investments in international agreements made traditionally by mobile operators. . SMS Hubbing works with the same concept of voice connectivity model: rather than relying on costly and multiple individual agreements. This initiative created a new structure for international SMS interoperability. In addition to that. as well as developed standards and requirements that SMS hubs should follow. While SMS interoperability is limited to bi-lateral interworking / roaming agreements between operators. Background The lack of complete international SMS interoperability is caused by the way the GSM world is interconnected: each operator has a need to establish SMS interworking with all other mobile operators. who have multiple agreements in place with other operators. which are time consuming and costly to put in place. As well as this. it is unlikely that full international SMS reach will be achieved by setting up more and more agreements.[1] Regardless of the maturity of the operator or number of subscribers. voice traffic flows via telehouses. in an attempt to fix the many interoperability problems with this messaging technology. many operators connect to hubs to transit MMS messages. reshaping the way that international mobile inter-operability works by implementing hubs to intermediate the SMS traffic and to offer a larger SMS coverage. Outside this frame of main roaming agreements that generate the majority of international traffic for voice and messaging. it makes sense for mobile operators to allocate SMS traffic that belongs to non-connected destinations to an SMS hub. It is clear that SMS Hubbing does not replace bilateral agreements.

Because of many interoperability problems.160characters.com/our-work/programmes-and-initiatives/ open-connectivity-programme/sms_hubbing.com) • Making SMS Hubbing a Reality.htm) . The SMS Hubbing model reduces complexity for operators. an operator looking to increase their international SMS coverage does not need to manage multiple bi-lateral agreements. removing a costly and complex area of technical interface and replacing it with a more efficient and effective outsourced solution. Mobile operators can simplify this by connecting to a hub. many operators generally connect to an MMS hub. 160 Characters (http://www. hubbing can be applied in different areas. pdf) External links • GSM Association (http://www. a hub will negotiate a transit fee with an originating operator on a per-SMS basis for the use of the hub. gsmworld. such as MMS.org/news. as well as focusing on areas that have a direct interface to customers. Ubiquity and simplicity in increasing SMS coverage SMS Hubbing allows operators to manage a single legal. com/ documents/ IR7520_unrest. As is the usual practice.gsmworld. The hub concept follows this trend. as well the cost for SMS interworking agreements.gsmworld. Mobile operators have been gradually outsourcing non-core functions to invest on areas that need a closer management of the operator. technical and billing relationship rather than hundreds of additional roaming agreements for SMS messaging only. References [1] Open Connectivity SMS Hubbing Architecture (http:/ / www. which route the messages more efficiently on behalf of the operator.SMS hubbing 318 Benefits With the SMS Hubbing model. Business model Under the GSMA’s SMS Hubbing structure. the originating operator will also pay a termination fee to the terminating operator. also on a per-SMS basis. Mobile subscribers also take advantage of an enlarged SMS reach.php?action=view& nid=2138) • OC compliant SMS Hubs (http://www. Other types of hubbing Beyond SMS. being able to send and receive message to all countries and networks.

or the content of the messages may be politically sensitive. 2. A sender transmits an SMS message from an online computer network for lower more competitive pricing. Their customers may complain about being spammed. Spoofing has both legitimate uses (setting the company name from which the message is being sent. from 2008 PhonePayPlus are introducing new regulation covering anonymous SMS which will require anonymous SMS service providers to send a follow-up message to the recipient stating that a spoofed SMS has been sent to them. Often it is done in order to impersonate a user that has roamed onto a foreign network and is submitting messages to the home network. available on most mobile phones and personal digital assistants. Frequently. to set who the message appears to come from by replacing the originating mobile number (Sender ID) with alphanumeric text. it may become unfeasible to block these addresses. company. 2. This is a quantifiable revenue leakage. and for the ease of data entry from a full size console. setting your own mobile number. If fraudsters move to using source addresses at a major interconnect partner. Operators can respond by blocking different source addresses in their Gateway-MSCs. An SMS Spoofing attack is often first detected by an increase in the number of SMS errors encountered during a bill-run. The impact of this activity is threefold: 1. How SMS spoofing is carried out SMS Spoofing occurs when a sender manipulates address information. in which they stated they were not averse to the operation of such services. or a product name) and illegitimate uses (such as impersonating another person. product). that genuine subscribers may be billed for roaming messages they did not send. While fraudsters normally used spoofed-identities to send messages. . with potentially huge impact on the brand. PhonepayPlus (formerly ICSTIS) concluded a public consultation on anonymous SMS. but fraudsters can change addresses easily to by-pass these measures. These messages can be of concern to interconnect partners. The UK premium rate regulator. A sender does not have a mobile phone. there is a risk that these identities may match those of real home subscribers. The legitimate use cases for SMS spoofing include: 1. 3. This is a major churn risk. Interconnect partners may threaten to cut off the home network unless a remedy is implemented.SMS spoofing 319 SMS spoofing SMS spoofing is a relatively new technology which uses the short message service (SMS). The home network can incur termination charges caused by the delivery of these messages to interconnect partners. However. and operate a complaints helpline. They must spoof their own number in order to properly identify themselves. These errors are caused by the spoofed subscriber identities. Home subscribers will be unable to send messages into these networks.[1] Legality In 2007. and they need to send an SMS from a number that they have provided the receiver in advance as a means to activate an account. these messages are addressed to destinations outside the home network – with the home SMSC essentially being “hijacked” to send messages into other networks. due to the potential impact on normal interconnect services. the integrity of the home operator’s billing process may be compromised. If this situation occurs. The risk therefore emerges. It is illegal in Australia.

com/ SMSSpoofing. which requires an SMS from a phone number that the user registers with. com/ blog/ 2007/ 04/ twitter-and-jot. openmindnetworks. they should contact both law enforcement and their cellular provider. dhanjani. Twitter used the SMS originator to authenticate the user. asp) [2] Twitter and Jott Vulnerable to SMS and Caller ID Spoofing http:/ / www.crime-research. Note that when a user attempts to "reply" to the SMS. This is not always effective since hackers could be impersonating the user's friends as well. These people were using GSM based cellular phone services in various parts of India and other Asian as well as African countries. the local system may or may not allow the replying message to be sent through to the spoofed "origin. • Skype sends messages from its users with the mobile number they registered with. Examples of SMS spoofing • Messages sent from Google are sent with the Sender ID "Google".SMS spoofing 320 Protecting users from SMS spoofing If a user can prove that their SMS sessions have been spoofed.Q&A with Computer Crime Research Center staff (http://www. They were able to successfully spoof SMS messages and make them appear to come from other people's cellular phones. 2008) (http:/ / www. Nitesh used hoaxMail to spoof the SMS message and therefore could trick Twitter to post the message on the victims Twitter page.[2] References [1] An overview on how to stop SMS Spoofing in mobile operator networks (September 9. who should be able to track where the SMS messages were actually sent from.org/interviews/ sms-spoofing-intro/) ." • A user who does not have a mobile phone attempts to sign up for a Foxytag account. A dynamically assigned number from an anonymous SMS service will not work because the user is not given the dynamic number in advance to register with. html External links • SMS spoofing . A user may also modify the phone's settings so that only messages from authorized numbers are allowed. The Asian School of Cyber Laws (Pune) recently conducted experiments in SMS spoofing at the national and international level. Nitesh Dhanjani discovered a security vulnerability when sending a spoofed SMS message to Twitter.

Again. com/ p/ articles/ mi_hb4750/ is_200508/ ai_n17323894 Soft handover Soft handover or soft handoff refers to a feature used by the CDMA and WCDMA standards. R. Today mobile positioning can be applied only by obtaining participants’ personal acceptance. The biggest advantage of mobile positioning-based methods is that mobile phones are widespread. there will be a relatively high probability of having adequate signal strength from one of the other radio base stations. Soft handover results in a diversity gain called soft handover gain. as well as concerns about non-authorized personal surveillance. Ü. the phone receiver can combine the received signals in such a way that the bit stream is decoded much more reliably than if only one base station were transmitting to the subscriber station. all the cell site sectors that are actively supporting a call in soft handover send the bit stream that they receive back to the Radio Network Controller (RNC). it is referred to as softer handoff. and collection of movement data is done by a third party at regular intervals. The SPM methods and experiments were developed in Estonia by Positium and Institute of Geography University of Tartu during 2003-2006 (Ahas. (2005). . & Mark. the boom in the generation of phones with a GPS will raise positioning accuracy. These problems can be solved with further development of location-based services (LBS) and relevant legal and organisational regulation. If the signal power from two or more radio base stations is nearly the same. Positioning data is digital.Social positioning method 321 Social positioning method The social positioning method (SPM) studies space-time behaviour by analysing the location coordinates of mobile phones and the social characteristics of the people carrying them. This technique is a form of mobile-assisted handover. Location based services . References [1] http:/ / findarticles. and determine whether or not to request or end soft handover with the cell sectors on the list. The most important problems of SPM are related to data security. it is easy to trace many people at the same time and it is possible to analyse movements in real time. 547-561). along with information about the quality of the received bits. positioning works inside buildings. On the uplink (phone-to-cell-site). it is possible for a CDMA phone to simultaneously receive signals from two or more radio base stations that are transmitting the same bit stream (using different transmission codes) on the different physical channels in the same frequency bandwidth. the chance is still good that a strong signal will be available at one of the other cell sectors that is supporting the call in soft handover. if the signal degrades rapidly.new challenges for planning and public administration? [1] Futures 37. The RNC examines the quality of all these bit streams and dynamically chooses the bit stream with the highest quality. for IS-95/CDMA2000 CDMA cell phones continuously make power measurements of a list of neighboring cell sites. If the sectors are from the same physical cell site (a sectorised site). Due to the properties of the CDMA signaling scheme. If any one of these signals fades significantly. The disadvantage of mobile positioning today is relatively low preciseness. where a cell phone is simultaneously connected to two or more cells (or cell sectors) during a call.

intec.Soft handover 322 External links • Mobile and Broadband Access Networks [1] References [1] http:/ / www. pdf . be/ opnet/ OPNET-UMTS_session1. ibcn. ugent.

Ireland Steve Maine (CEO) Mobile Satellite Services www. or toll payments. For in-vehicle use. and SES Astra and Eutelsat – both successful European satellite operators. interactive services. emergency warnings. under extreme conditions or when terrestrial networks have been compromised. [4] Solaris claims the technology brings a "fully-fledged TV experience" to mobile television. the mobile satellite receivers could also double as web browsers providing full Internet access. "Mobile satellite services have huge potential: they can enable Europeans to access new communication services. particularly in rural and less populated regions. and support for emergency and rescue services in isolated regions. Its headquarters is in Dublin. The services to be developed include video. unavailable with purely terrestrial systems. delivering high-quality live TV. pollution) from moving vehicles."[3] Solaris Mobile primarily intends to provide mobile TV and interactive services to handheld and vehicle receivers. radio.Solaris Mobile 323 Solaris Mobile Solaris Mobile Limited Type Industry Founded Headquarters Key people Products Website Privately owned joint venture Telecommunications 2008 Dublin.solarismobile. radio and data to in-vehicle receivers and to mobile devices[2] . dozens of TV channels per country. multimedia data. in the Republic of Ireland. providing TV and other services from geostationary satellites to millions of cable and direct-to-home viewers – have so far invested €130m in the venture. such as mobile phones. and deliver interactive services such as online reservations. The primary aim is the delivery of mobile television any time. and voice communications.com [1] Solaris Mobile is a joint venture company between SES Astra and Eutelsat Communications to develop and commercialize the first geostationary satellite systems in Europe for broadcasting video. Solaris Mobile has developed a 'Pocket Gateway' in conjunction with Finnish company Elekrobit. The agreement to set up Solaris Mobile was reached in 2006 with the company formed in 2008. viable at high vehicle speeds. The Gateway is also planned to be used in vehicles with a roof-mounted . weather. has commented. Viviane Reding. The Gateway is a compact S-band receiver which decodes DVB-SH transmissions from the Solaris satellite and relays them over WiFi to any compatible handset with a web browser. anywhere. Applications The EU Telecoms Commissioner. such as gathering data (traffic. and universal coverage. portable media players and PDAs. To avoid the requirement for mobile phones with S-band reception for the satellite services. The coverage across Europe will also enable the system to be used for situations when other means of communication are not possible.

Italy. the S-band payload was found to show "an anomaly" which has put in doubt the payload's capability to provide mobile satellite services for Solaris.Solaris Mobile antenna for S-band reception with services accessed on passengers' mobile phones. TerreStar). but not all of the services it was planning to offer.[5] 324 Technology The Solaris Mobile services use DVB-SH technology to deliver IP based data and media content to handheld and in-vehicle terminals using a hybrid satellite/terrestrial system with satellite transmission serving the whole of Europe and beyond. The operators are compelled to start operations within 24 months from the selection decision.[3] [11] [12] [13] Although the EU’s decision was announced days after the apparent failure of the payload intended to serve Solaris.[6] Solaris was intended to first use the Eutelsat W2A satellite at 10° east. The S-band frequencies used (2. the company remains confident of "its ability to meet the commitments made under the European Commission selection process". and was scheduled for launch in early 2009. On 1 July 2009. 2008 the European Parliament and the Council adopted the European’s Decision to establish a single selection and authorisation process to ensure a coordinated introduction of mobile satellite services (MSS) in Europe. The technical findings indicate that the company should be able to offer some. the company had been actively pursuing licenses from European member states and it had just been granted 18-year licences to operate Mobile Satellite Services in France. and the simple incorporation of Solaris services in mobile handsets. EU Member States now have to ensure that the two operators have the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems for 18 years from the selection decision. Inmarsat.[7] Further testing of the satellite was undertaken to establish its future in the Solaris programme.00 GHz) are reserved for the exclusive use of satellite and terrestrial mobile services. Inmarsat Ventures and Solaris Mobile. the European Commission selected two operators.[15] . following the successful launch on April 3. Investigation of S-band payload has confirmed significant non-compliance from its original specifications. The technology was demonstrated at the GSMA Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2010. to add to existing licenses for Finland. Solaris Mobile.[9] [10] In May 2009. Solaris Mobile filed the insurance claim. Sweden and Germany. 2009. However.[14] In May 2010. giving these operators "the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems". and sit alongside the UMTS frequencies already in use across Europe for 3G terrestrial mobile phone services. allowing the reuse of existing cellular towers and antennas. which contains an S-band payload. Handsets equipped with the first DVB-SH chipsets were successfully demonstrated live at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2008.[8] Regulatory On June 30. Solaris Mobile announced that following the granting of spectrum by the European Commission. The selection process was launched in August 2008 and attracted four applications by prospective operators (ICO. and terrestrial repeaters for urban and indoor penetration. and Slovenia. Luxembourg.

skyrocket.eutelsat.com/) • W2A satellite on Gunter's Space Page (http://space. 2009).com) Eutelsat (http://www. solarismobile. do?reference=IP/ 08/ 1250). eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. Retrieved July 27. ses. Press release. "Pocket Gateway Device" (http:/ / www. com/ ses/ siteSections/ newsroom/ Latest_News/ index. 2009 [13] Pan-European numbers and services (http:/ / ec. php). php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-05-14/ index. Solaris Mobile website. [10] European Commission (August 7. Press release. "European License Progress" (http:/ / www.solarismobile. 2009 [14] Solaris Mobile (May 14. ses-astra. 2009).ses-astra. External links • • • • Solaris Mobile website (http://www. [6] Major Players of the DVB-SH Ecosystem Join Forces to Demonstrate Live Mobile TV (http:/ / www. reuters. php) [8] Solaris Mobile (July 1. com/ business/ en/ news-events/ press-archive/ 2008/ 08-02-21/ index. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. com/ media-center/ press-releases/ european-license-progress). php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-07-01-1/ index. Press release. Retrieved on June 1. Press release. do?reference=IP/ 09/ 770). php). "Solaris Mobile welcomes the European Commission selection decision for the S-band process" (http:/ / www. ses. pdf). 2008). pdf). . eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction.ico. .Solaris Mobile 325 References [1] http:/ / www. [15] Solaris Mobile (May 11. com/ our-solutions/ mobile-tv/ ).com) • ICO (http://www. 2010). com/ article/ rbssTechMediaTelecomNews/ idUSBRQ00733920090514) Reuters (May 14.com) SES website (http://www. Press release. ses-astra. Press release. SES ASTRA Statement on Solaris Mobile S-band capacity (http:/ / www. solarismobile. . European Commission Information Society website. 2009). "New Satellites for Europe: Commission starts selection procedure for operators of pan-European mobile satellite services" (http:/ / europa. [12] Inmarsat and Solaris win EU spectrum rights (http:/ / www. com/ ses/ siteSections/ newsroom/ Latest_News/ index. 2009). Press release. com/ assets/ downloads/ Statement re Solaris Mobile S-band capacity_en. . 2007). do?reference=IP/ 07/ 1243). . solarismobile. "Statement re Solaris Mobile S-band capacity" (http:/ / www. 2009). eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. [4] Broadcasting in motion (http:/ / www. eu/ information_society/ policy/ ecomm/ current/ pan_european/ index_en. com/ assets/ downloads/ Solaris Mobile welcomes the European Commission selection decision for the S. solarismobile. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-05-14/ index. php). europa. ses-astra. solarismobile. com/ media-center/ press-releases/ pocket-gateway-device). . "Commission boost for mobile satellite services paves the way for EU-wide high speed data communications" (http:/ / europa. SES Statement on Solaris Mobile S-band capacity (http:/ / www. "Steve Maine Appointed By SES ASTRA And EUTELSAT As CEO Of Joint Venture For Mobile Satellite Services" (http:/ / www. pdf). com/ assets/ downloads/ SolarisMobileFilesInsuranceClaim. Press release. solarismobile. . . 2009 [7] Solaris Mobile (May 14. Retrieved July 27.de/doc_sdat/eutelsat-w2a. 2010). "Mobile Satellite Services in Europe: Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / europa. com/ [2] SES ASTRA (February 21. Reuters (February 6. [3] European Commission (May 14. 2009). "European Commission paves the way for European mobile satellite services" (http:/ / europa. SES statement: Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim (http:/ / www. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-07-01-1/ index. com/ business/ en/ news-events/ news-latest/ index. com/ business/ en/ news-events/ news-latest/ index. . 2008). php) [9] European Commission (August 22. reuters.com/) SES Astra (http://www. htm). SES ASTRA statement: Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim (http:/ / www.htm) . solarismobile. do?reference=MEMO/ 09/ 237). Press release. . 2009 [5] Solaris Mobile (February 10.Band process_en. 2008).ses. [11] European Commission (May 14. Press release. Retrieved on June 1. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS186611+ 06-Feb-2008+ PRN20080206). "Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim" (http:/ / www.

The FD-40/42/44/45 were among the largest Watchmans. Upon the release of further models after the FD-210. In 1988/1989. Roughly two years later. . which featured an ergonomic body which made it easier to hold. The FD-45. was water-resistant. FD-210 The initial model was introduced in 1982 as the FD-210. The device weighed around 650 grams.(* Edit) in 1984. the FDL-310. the FDL 330S color Watchman TV/Monitor with LCD display was introduced. had a built-in digital clock. the display size increased. a Watchman with a Sony FDL-3500 color LCD display was introduced. introduced in 1984 had a built-in AM/FM Stereo radio. where the wrist strap served as the antenna. with a measurement of 87 x 198 x 33 millimeters. which had a grayscale five centimeter display. and new features were introduced. One of the last Watchmans was the FDL-22 introduced in 1998.800 yen. introduced in 1986. the device was introduced to Europe and North America. The FD-40 introduced a single composite A/V input. introduced in 1987. made from 1990 to 1994. The FD-280/285. and introduced Sony's Straptenna. The FD-30. The device was sold in Japan with a price of 54.Sony Watchman 326 Sony Watchman The Sony Watchman is a line of portable pocket televisions trademarked and produced by Sony. was the last Watchman to use a black and white CRT display. The FD-3. Sony Watchman FD210 Later Releases Sony manufactured more than 65 models of the Watchman before its discontinuation in 2000. utilizing a 4" CRT display. In 1990.

the Sony Watchman. because they now require to be connected to a digital converter box.Sony Watchman 327 Legacy Due to the switch of over-the-air television to digital. most models of the Sony Watchman in the US have lost their usefulness. are becoming increasingly popular as collector's items. especially the older CRT-based models. Because of this. com/ TV_Pages/ panasonic_tr001. htm . External links • Reverse Time Page [1] • The Short History of Pocket TV [1] • Vintage Micro Television http://www.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] http:/ / uv201.visions4.

Windows Mobile Text input Proprietary [www. Bada.[2] Speed The creators of Swype predict that users will achieve over 50 words per minute. such as on devices running the Windows Mobile operating system. It also includes a tapping predictive text system in the same interface.com www. Operating system Type License Website Android. and as small as 500–900 kilobytes in most cases.Swype 328 Swype Swype Original author(s) Swype Inc.[5] and reportedly improved on 22 August of the same year to 25. with the chief technical officer (CTO) and founder Cliff Kushler claiming to have reached 55 words per minute. and a manufacturer customizable interface.54 seconds was set for the fastest text message on a touchscreen mobile phone using Swype on the Samsung Omnia II.[2] The software has a size of less than one megabyte.[1] Swype was first commercially available on the Samsung Omnia II running Windows Mobile.[2] Swype is designed for use on touchscreen devices with a traditional QWERTY keyboard.94 using a [6] Samsung Galaxy S. lifting only between words.[3] [4] On 22 March 2010. or 370 characters per minute. word search engine with corresponding database. The Guinness world record text message consists of 160 characters in 25 words and was typed in 25. . which corresponds to a speed of nearly 58 words per minute. It uses error-correcting algorithms and a language model to guess the intended word.swypeinc.94 seconds.com] Swype is an input method for touchscreens developed by Swype Inc.swypeinc. a new Guinness World Record of 35. Symbian.[2] Software Design Swype allows users to enter words by sliding a finger or stylus from letter to letter.[2] Major components Swype consists of three major components that contribute to its accuracy and speed: an input path analyzer.

UK English .US Estonian Farsi Finnish French French Canadian Galician German Greek Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malay Norwegian (Bokmål) Norwegian (Nynorsk) Polish Portuguese .Mandarin (simplified) Chinese Traditional w/Bopomofo Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English .Portugal Romanian Russian Serbian (Latin KB) Slovak Slovene Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Ukrainian .Swype 329 Languages Swype is currently available for the following languages:[7] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arabic Basque Bulgarian Catalan Chinese .Brazil Portuguese .

Virgin Mobile USA introduced Swype on the LG Optimus V [14]. Swype was released for Symbian^3 on October 16.[15] In December 2010. "Samsung Mobile And Swype Set New Guinness World Record" (http:/ / www.[11] as well as the Samsung Droid Charge. Another well-known input program is SwiftKey.[12] On June 16. bbc. com/ learn-overview#/ mytouch-slide-360) [10] Samsung Omnia II Product Page (http:/ / www.Swype • Urdu • Vietnamese Support for these languages depends on OEM and carrier decisions.[10] The most recent additions include the Samsung Galaxy S GT-i9000 and Nokia C7. By the end of this year. Swype is available for the Symbian platform S60 5th edition devices e. Motorola i1. Swype expects to be preloaded on over 100 million devices. Motorola DEFY. php?1493). Nokia 5230. swypeinc. jsp [1] [2] [3] [4] . both of which also involve tracing a path over letters on a virtual keyboard. com/ news. . 2010. which runs the Android OS. 2011. and the Nokia X6. swypeinc. The manufacturer claims that the same algorithms can be applied to almost any world language. Nokia N97 original and mini. HTC HD2 (T-Mobile USA version. and Motorola Droid 2 Android-based smartphones come with Swype pre-installed. 2010. com/ ) [14] http:/ / www. Retrieved June 20. 2010.5 mm Jack and myTouch Slide 3G (the latter both by T-Mobile USA)[9] It also ships on the Omnia II mobile handset. manufactured by Samsung and distributed by Verizon Wireless.[8] T-Mobile MyTouch 3G 3. is planning to market the software to other mobile device makers and expects a widespread adoption of the software among touch-based mobile devices. com/ product. . Swype. html) [13] (http:/ / beta. CNet News. Nokia C6-00. uk/ local/ manchester/ hi/ people_and_places/ newsid_8939000/ 8939790.[13] The Samsung Galaxy S. August 24.g. Motorola CLIQ. com/ 2010/ 03/ samsung-mobile-and-swype-set-new-guinness-world-record/ ).) T-Mobile G2. References Swype Home Page (http:/ / www. com/ [12] Swype News Page (http:/ / www. html). stm). tv/ file/ 1372350) Rafe Needleman. swype. t-mobile. Swype opened a public beta for the Android operating system. com/ b2c/ store/ controller?item=phoneFirst& action=viewPhoneDetail& selectedPhoneId=5110/ ) [11] http:/ / swypeinc. com/ shop/ Phones/ cell-phone-detail. 2010. Inc. Motorola Droid X. allowing the keyboard to predict the next word in the sentence at a personalised level. [6] "Salford woman makes bid for fastest text title" (http:/ / news. BBC News. It does not have input using paths.[17] Competitors Swype is similar in concept to SlideIT and ShapeWriter. 2010). It is available on the Ovi store. aspx?cell-phone=T-Mobile-G2-with-Google) [9] T-Mobile MyTouch Slide product page (http:/ / mytouch. an update including Swype was pushed to Sprint's HTC Evo 4G users. cnet. virginmobileusa. com/ 8301-17939_109-10037202-2. swypeinc. com/ showthread. Retrieved July 14. Motorola CLIQ XT. 6 November 2010. but utilises more advanced predictive software. [7] Do Not Post requests for your device to include other languages! (http:/ / forum. swype. Press release. Move over T9. The software's manufacturer. Motorola Atrix 4G. samsungusanews. [8] T-Mobile G2 product page (http:/ / www. com/ cell-phones/ lg-optimus-v-phone. co.[16] In July 2011. the Nokia 5800 Xpressmusic. t-mobile. Swype released a beta version for iOS (Apple) devices(iOS jailbreaking is required). 9 September 2008 [5] Samsung USA (March 22. verizonwireless. com/ ) Swype product page (http:/ / www. 330 Availability Swype currently ships on the Samsung wave s8500. here comes Swype (http:/ / news. html) Tech Crunch 50 Swype Presentation (http:/ / blip.

(http://patft.098. "System and method for continuous stroke word-based text input".938&OS=7.uspto.250.250.938/kumhyr) . Kushler.Swype [15] http:/ / www.896.938&RS=7. com/ android-keyboard-maker-swype-closes-6-million-c-round-2011-7#ixzz1RubyKO9k 331 External links • Official website (http://www.896. Marsden. html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=7.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool. C. R.250.250.PN.098.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/ netahtml/PTO/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7. allaboutsymbian. businessinsider.896&RS=PN/ 7. com/ 23747-htc-evo-4g-update-3-70-651-1-brings-swype-scan-now/ [17] http:/ / www.&OS=PN/7.com) • United States Patent 7.896) • United States Patent 7.uspto.swypeinc. php [16] http:/ / www. com/ news/ item/ 12198_Swype_now_available_for_Symbia.938 System and method for improved user input on personal computing devices (http:/ /patft.098.098. talkandroid.

Richard Padula started Syclo in 1995 in Barrington. Germany) Key people Richard Padula. London. including utilities. LLC is a mobile enterprise application platform (MEAP)[2] [3] and software provider based in the Chicago suburb of Hoffman Estates. Syclo's SMART Mobile Suite of workflow-specific products. developed a computer-based wireless order system for Sprint Nextel field workers. and in 1998 Rush University Medical Center. that utilize field service management processes[4] and typically have significantly valued hard assets to service and protect. smartphones. EVP.Syclo 332 Syclo Syclo. enabling SAP [11] and Syclo to co-brand and offer SMART Mobile Suite applications for use with SAP ERP and SAP CRM[12] . Enterprise Asset Management (EAM). Competitive Advantage Systems. and managing a wireless business application architecture[5] . Illinois (additional offices in Chicago. Illinois. Syclo offers the Agentry mobile platform. Syclo’s flagship Agentry mobile development platform was introduced a year later. Of note is the company’s mobile co-innovation development agreement[9] with business software firm SAP in 2009[10] . Illinois. Alliances & Partnerships Agentry Mobile Platform Syclo SMART Mobile Suite 100+ www. The company’s focus in the mobile middleware market is on business environments across industries. and life sciences. Partners Syclo's partnership ecosystem is particularly important to its global reach and serving the application architecture of enterprise systems makers such as IBM [8] (IBM Maximo Asset Management). and Customer Relationship Management (CRM).com [1] Products Employees Website Syclo. has been implemented by more than 750 customers in 35 countries and 20 different industries[6] . deploying. was the first organization to deploy Syclo's SMART Mobile Suite . offering mobile applications to extend enterprise systems. [7] Chicago’s largest healthcare facility. History After his consulting company. SAP AG. to handhelds. TRIRIGA. . making Syclo an integral part of SAP’s mobile business application strategy [13] . Agentry also includes mobile device management capabilities embedded into its application platform. and mobile computers for technicians and staff performing work away from a central office. including packaged software for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). LLC Type Industry Founded privately held company (LLC) computer software 1995 Headquarters Hoffman Estates. oil and gas. an extensible framework based on fourth-generation programming language for developing. and Stuttgart.syclo. a software suite built on the Agentry platform. and Oracle. CEO Jeffrey Kleban.

"PC Prescription for Hospital's Maintenance Ills.sap. com/ getdoc. plantservices. plantservices. syclo.htm) • Volkel. com/ c/ a/ Mobile-and-Wireless/ App-Independence/ ) [6] "SAP. (http:/ / www." eweek. Frank (2010-05-20). (http://mobileenterprisestrategies. sap. Mini (2010-09-08).com/research/stocks/ private/snapshot. gartner.) Plant Services. William and Michael J.info/ sap-on-ipad-it s-all-going-mobile/32788/2) • Benedict. "Mobile Expert Interview Series: Syclo's Jeff Kleban.SMART Mobile Suite (http:/ / ecohub." IDC. "Syclo Private Vendor Watchlist Profile: Mobile Middleware with Industry-Specific Focus.businessweek. (http:// smart-products.com/topics/smart-mobile/articles/ 100295-syclos-smart-mobile-suite-overcomes-device-diversity.blogspot.BusinessWeek (http://investing.html) ." TMC. com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728 [13] Clark. com/ services/ us/ gts/ pdf/ eus_br_driving-effiency-with-connected-field-service-workers. com/ industrynews/ 2009/ 086." Gartner. com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728) [3] http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. com/ DisplayDocument?id=930912) External links • Official website (http://www. pdf [9] SAP Eco Hub. sdn.syclo.info.Syclo 333 References [1] http:/ / www. Stephen (2010-02). html) [7] Rose. "Magic Quadrant for Mobile Enterprise Application Platforms. Syclo Partner for Mobile. King (2009-12-16). "SAP-Syclo Co-innovation Enhances Mobile Field Service Offerings. pdf [4] Drake.net. Kevin (2010-05-07). (http:/ / www. Barbara (2002-04-18). com/ 2002-04-18/ business/ 0204180344_1_keyboard-pcs-computer) [8] http:/ / www-935. com/ usa/ solutions/ mobility-solutions/ syclo/ index. William and Michael Maoz (2009-04-06)." SAP. epx [12] http:/ / www. "App Independence. chicagotribune." Chicago Tribune. "SAP on iPad: It’s All Going Mobile. jsp?sessionId=& containerId=222007& sessionId=90D98F98A15C750D9329AE9C5C40BD02) [5] Brooks. html [11] http:/ / www. eweek. (http://en. (http:/ / www." Gartner." MobileEntepriseStrategies. "Syclo's Smart Mobile Suite Overcomes Device Diversity." (2009-05-06. (http:/ / articles. com/ industrynews/ 2009/ 086. syclo. (http:/ / www.com/2010/05/ mobile-expert-interview-series-syclos. idc. gartner. gartner.tmcnet. Jason (2001-10-08). com/ [2] Clark.com.asp?privcapId=10636008/) • Swamy. com/ content/ pdf/ Syclo_Gartner_MEAP_Report. sap. com/ irj/ ecohub/ solutions/ SMARTMobileSuite) [10] http:/ / www. ibm.blogspot.com/) • Syclo LLC Private Company Information .

Nokia. T9 also supports word breaking after punctuation to support clitics such as l' and n' in French and 's in English. if you often write "eat food". in addition to words and stems. etc. in English. as opposed to the multi-tap approach used in the older generation of mobile phones in which several letters are associated with each key. When the user enters matching key-presses. which stands for Text on 9 keys. It was also used by Texas Instruments PDA Avigo during the late '90s. "hood". The UDB is an optional feature which allows words that were explicitly entered by the user to be stored for future reference. Some phone manufacturers implement a permanent user database.. It allows words to be entered by a single keypress for each letter. Sagem and others. while others implement one for the duration of the session. enabling them to be recognized in the future. by looking at neighbouring keys on the keypad to ascertain an incorrect keypress. Design T9's objective is to make it easier to type text messages. As T9 gains familiarity with the words and phrases the user commonly uses. It looks up in the dictionary all words corresponding to the sequence of keypresses and orders them by frequency of use. Samsung Electronics. The number of words stored depends on the implementation as well as the language. NEC. 4663 matches "good". "home". This enables users to write messages in their native as well as a foreign language. isn't as well as the possessive 's).g. The implementation of the user database depends on the version of T9 and how T9 is actually integrated on the device. Sanyo. The user database (UDB) can be expanded via multi-tap. For instance. Eatoni's LetterWise and WordWise. after entering "eat" the phone will suggest "food" and it can be confirmed by simply pressing next).g.[2] T9 is used on phones from LG. Depending on the context. won't. and selecting one letter often requires multiple keypresses. eventually the two words will switch position. now part of Nuance Communications. Sony Ericsson. the word "testing" would be . Depending on the language. it speeds up the process by offering the most frequently used words first and then lets the user access other choices with one or more presses of a predefined Next key. Such combinations are known as textonyms. After introducing a new word.T9 (predictive text) 334 T9 (predictive text) T9. It combines the groups of letters on each phone key with a fast-access dictionary of words. In later versions of T9. When the user uses "home" more often than "good". "gone". Features Some T9 implementations feature smart punctuation. e. originally developed by Tegic Communications. "home" is referred to as an textonym of "good". is a patented[1] predictive text technology for mobile phones. smart punctuation inserts sentence punctuation (period) or embedded punctuation (period or hyphen) or word punctuation (apostrophe in can't. the user can select a primary and secondary language and matches from both languages are presented. word completion can be enabled. SureType created by RIM. and Intelab's Tauto. the next time the user tries to produce that word T9 will add it to the predictive dictionary. In later versions of T9. Another powerful feature is its ability to automatically recognise and correct typing/texting errors. Its main competitors are iTap created by Motorola. For words entered by the user. For example. Siemens. the system will also provide completions. the order of the words presented adapts to the usage pattern. Information about common word combinations can also be learned from the user and stored for future predictions. Some implementations also learn commonly used word pairs and provide word prediction (e. The dictionary can be expanded by adding missing words. This feature allows the user to insert sentence and word punctuation using the '1'-key.

References [1] Reduced keyboard disambiguating computer. and partial words (also known as stems) but because of this compression. T9 uses an optimized algorithm which maintains the order of words. (http:/ / www. External links • Nuance T9 Customer facing site (http://www. This is a side effect of the requirements for small database sizes on the lower end embedded devices. google.T9 (predictive text) entered with the key combination "8378464".nuance. "testing" (8378464). com/ patents?id=PmgCAAAAEBAJ) US Patent 5818437 (1998) [2] Nuance Communications press release (http:/ / www.html/) . it over-generates words which are sometimes visible to the user as 'junk words'.com (http://www. com/ news/ pressreleases/ 2007/ 20070824_tegic.validconcept..com/) • History of T9 article at Validconcept.com/articles-t9. "8278494" still results in T9 suggesting the words "tasting" (8278464). Entering the same number but with two incorrect keypresses of neighbouring keys. asp) (2007). nuance.g. 335 Algorithm In order to achieve compression ratios of close to 1 byte per word. and "tapping" (8277464).com/t9/) • Nuance T9 End user facing site (http://t9. e.

" or what CNET describes as “content playlists.[1] According to Taptu.stop app" through "streams. consumption and sharing of content across all personal screen-based devices. curation. Engadget. Taptu Inc Type Industry Founded Private Social Media 2007 Headquarters Cambridge." or what Taptu calls "app hopping.Taptu 336 Taptu Taptu Ltd. Its flagship product is the recently launched My Taptu.”[3] My Taptu has tried to separate itself in the increasingly crowded social news space by offering various ways of personalizing and building My Taptu. is "aimed at solving information overload. discovery. Taptu is a privately held company that was founded in Cambridge in 2007 and is backed by funding from Venture Capitalists including DFJ Esprit and Sofinnova. UK Key people Products Employees Mitch Lazar (CEO) Mobile Social News Aggregator 40-45 (2009) Taptu is a social media and technology company that builds platforms. Content comes from a variety of sources. feature App of the Week shortly after My Taptu launched. including the iPhone and Android phones. . the New York Times Bits Blog. For example. Wall Street Journal among others. management. My Taptu will display a preview of the article and its source in the app itself. the technology news stream could contain news flowing from TechCrunch. Read Write Web. Facebook. The company uses it to fill out their fashion streams. search."[2] It presents all the information that a person "is into" in a "one. Currently. Gizmodo. 4) Web Watcher Streams: Taptu has technology that it calls the “web watcher. tools and applications that enable highly personalized creation. 2010. and runs all of the news or content coming only from that source. a social news aggregator that draws heavily on the company’s mobile search heritage but attempts to move them beyond search.” This allows it to watch web sites that have no RSS feed and no mobile presence and turn their content into streams. the app lets users add content through: 1) Social Streams: Users can add their Twitter. For example. and most significantly on touch screen mobile devices. a person can add “The New York Times” breaking news as a stream. Any time someone in a user's social circle shares a link with them. which is available on the iPhone and Android devices. Taptu believes mixed streams put a story into a wider context. The company is based in Cambridge and Denver. the app. 3) Mixed Streams: Mixed streams are curated by topic. recommendation. and help people discover content they might have not originally sought out. They can also add the feeds of select newsmakers or publishers that My Taptu have curated. 2) Single Streams: The single stream of content comes from one source. It has received [4] [5] [6] and Apple promoted the App on its UK App Store front page by selecting it as a several positive reviews. Colorado. Products Taptu currently has two products. or Linked In feeds to My Taptu. My Taptu was released in the App Store and the Android Marketplace on November 9th.

uk/ technology/ pda/ 2010/ nov/ 09/ taptu-app-aggregator). Recognition and Awards • • • • • • • Overall Mobile Search Company of the Year. mobile-ent. MEX 2008 & the winners of the MEX Awards" (http:/ / www. taptu. html [7] http:/ / www. Taptu first product was a mobile search engine. youtube. co. provided as a web site using html optimised for phones. guardian. com/ about/ press/ 2010-09-20 [11] "Taptu Takes Mobile Search Award" (http:/ / www. uk/ standard/ article-23900593-is-it-wheelie-him-mayor-in-boris-bike-video-stunts-on-web. The Guardian (London). [12] "ME Awards 2008: The winners in full" (http:/ / www. MobileMonday Peer Awards. com/ 2010/ 11/ 09/ mytaptu-arrives-to-take-on-flipboard-and-pulse-in-the-touch-aggregator-stakes/ [2] Kiss. uk/ 2008/ 09/ taptu-takes-mob. . February 2008[16] Meffys 2010. com/ 2010/ 10/ 20/ announcing-mitch-lazar-as-taptus-new-ceo/ [10] http:/ / www. com/ review/ software/ my-taptu. September 2008[11] Best Search Provider 2008. It was closed in early 2011. . taptu. Mobile User Experience. cnet. with an announcement from Mitch Lazar stating the intention to focus on the news aggregation product. One of its successful videos [7] depicts the mayor of London. Boris Johnson. com/ apps/ android/ my-taptu-app-review_M12697. former MD of Yahoo Mobile Europe. Taptu Blog. do [9] http:/ / blog. mobileuserexperience. Mobile Search Awards. Winner of Content Discovery and Personalisation Award[17] TechCrunch Europas 2010. Highly Commended in the category of Best Mobile Start Up[18] References [1] http:/ / eu. Steve Ives. biz/ news/ 31544/ ME-Awards-2008-The-winners-in-full). html [5] http:/ / www. [3] http:/ / www. founder and former CEO. co. after spending 3 months as President and COO. laptopmag. Jemima (9 November 2010). [13] "Taptu Wins "Best Search Provider 2008" at Mobile Entertainment Awards" (http:/ / www. "My Taptu app takes the visual news aggregator to mobile" (http:/ / www. taptu. Mobile Entertainment Awards[12] [13] Commercial Category. moved over to president where he remained until early 2011[9] [10] Funding Taptu is backed by Sofinnova and DFJ Esprit. . com/ blog/ 2008/ 09/ 28/ taptu-wins-best-search-provider-2008-at-mobile-entertainment-awards/ ). MEX Design Competition[14] Red Herring Top 100 European Tech Startups. which bought out 3i’s investments in 2009. a mobile Wikipedia service. macworld. html). mobilemarketingmagazine. com/ ?p=570). . com/ article/ 155636/ 2010/ 11/ mytaptu.Taptu To support the launch of My Taptu. The videos are designed to illustrate that My Taptu had a wide enough depth and breadth of content to appeal to any niche interest or passion a person has. the company commissioned a series of online videos. riding a “Boris Bike” Danny MacAskill-style at a local London skate park. April 2008[15] Global Community Award. com/ watch?v=4iQ0KTYdDhk [8] http:/ / www. and dedicated "apps" for iPhone and Android. . thisislondon. is CEO of Taptu. html [4] http:/ / www. . [14] "Day One. co. Mobile Entertainment. He stepped into the role on 20 October 2010. Management Mitch Lazar.[8] 337 Other Product Taptu’s other product is Wapedia. com/ 8301-19736_1-20022141-251. aspx#axzz16i3svHVa [6] http:/ / recombu. techcrunch. Mobile Marketing Magazine.

By gradually exposing the person to their fear with a Virtual Environment the patient becomes accustomed to the trigger of their problem to an extent that it no longer becomes an issue. fear of flying or arachnophobia (fear of spiders).html) Sky News Technofile: The Google Years: The Future of Online Search Engines (http://news. Demo of how Taptu is way better than Google for mobiles by Robert Scoble Technology and mental health issues The use of communicative and other new technologies as a supplement to mainstream therapies for mental disorders is an emerging mental health treatment field which. mobilemondaybarcelona. Rizzo et al. For example.3i.sky. pictures of the patient's family or their voice. [17] "Meffys 2010" (http:/ / www. taptu.uk/news_analysis/113999/ Mobile_search_company_Taptu_aims_high. Taptu (http://wapreview.taptu. com/ attend/ meffys-winners-showcase-dynamic-mobile-media-industry).[3] have used Virtual Reality (VR) (simulated real environments through digital media) to successfully treat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). it is argued. computer programmes. Computer games have also been used to provide therapy for adolescents.co. computer games. virtual reality. [16] "MobileMonday Peer Awards Barcelona 2008" (http:/ / www. Meffys 2010. exercise and a healthy diet. Technology can therefore be used in innovative ways to provide support for those with mental health . blogs. New technology can also be used in conjunction with traditional methods. For example. This form of treatment has also been applied to other mental health problems such as phobias (where anxiety is triggered by a certain situation). Mobile Monday Barcelona.com) 3i investors portfolio: Taptu (http://www.[2] Technology and the Treatment of Mental Health Issues Traditional methods of helping people with a mental health problem have been to use approaches such as medication. com/ peerawards/ ). counselling. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT).Taptu blog (http://blog.[5] David Haniff[6] produced a computer application that would present media to someone suffering from depression in order to lift their mood. [18] "TechCrunch Europas 2010" (http:/ / eu. meffys. video conferencing. could improve the accessibility. social networks.com/portfolio/companies/taptu. The VR system offers a sense of realism in a safe environment. SMS.Taptu [15] "Taptu honoured as recipient of Red Herring Top 100 Europe list" (http:/ / www.html) • WapReview. effectiveness and affordability of mental health care. techcrunch.net/home/4516/ demo-of-how-taptu-is-way-better-than-google-for-mobiles). TechCrunch Europas 2010.com) .podtech. . 338 External links • • • • Taptu homepage (http://www.mobileeurope. com/ 2010/ 11/ 20/ the-europas-european-startup-awards-2010-the-winners-and-finalists/ ). Taptu Blog.[1] Mental health technologies used by professionals as an adjunct to mainstream clinical practices include email.com/ skynews/Home/video/Google-10-Years-The-Future-Of-Online-Search-Engines/Video/ 200809115094007?lpos=video_0&lid=VIDEO_15094007_Google+10+Years%3A+The+Future+Of+ Online+Search+Engines) • Mobile Search Company Taptu aims high (http://www.[4] Many adolescents are reluctant to have therapy and a computer game is a fun.net (http://www. instant messaging and podcasts. .com/blog/?p=413) • PodTech. .taptu. . anonymous and accessible way to receive therapeutic advice. com/ blog/ 2008/ 04/ 16/ taptu-honoured-as-recipient-of-red-herring-top-100-europe-list/ ). the telephone. Relatively new technology such as mobile phones have also been used to help people with mental health problems by providing timely information.

pp. Ill. . Ethics and Practice (http:/ / books. Goss. In Devian Ramduny-Ellis and Dorothy Rachovides (eds). Wiederhold.[1] This protocol is used to send SMS/text alerts to a cell phone or a pager. The Use of Technology in Mental Health : Applications.htm) from avtech. Gavin. DeeAnna Merz.pdf . M. Sharry. . [2] Anthony. . Graap. A. Wiederhold. [6] Haniff. one size does not fit all and some technologies may not be suitable for certain people. "Personal Investigator: A therapeutic 3D game for adolecscent psychotherapy" (http:/ / www. ISBN 9780398079536.net/tap-phone-numbers.J. initially known as Motorola Page Entry (PET) was adopted in September 1988.).[3] References [1] http:/ / www. pdf). google. Stephen (eds) (2010). sciencedirect.Volume 2. bcs. pdf). Thomas Pub Ltd. Matthews.com/Support/TAP/index. Stephen. pp. David. htm [3] http:/ / www. Springfield. org/ upload/ pdf/ ewic_hc07_popaper4.Technology and mental health issues problems. ac. In Roy. IL: Charles C. David (2007). macs. Washington D.com • Directory of TAP Dialup Numbers (http://www. uk/ modules/ F24VS2/ Resources/ RizzoVirtualRealityExposure2006. [4] Coyle. However. . com/ support/ docs/ web/ Content/ 06-Notifiers/ 06-01-ConfiguringNotifications/ AlertViaCellPhone. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. . Manson. Spira. macs. B. Nagel. uk/ modules/ F24VS2/ Resources/ RizzoVirtualRealityExposure2006. "Mental Health Issues and Pervasive Computing" (http:/ / www. verisign.. A. pdf [2] http:/ / dartware.net • (http://www. BCS-HCI '07 Proceedings of the 21st British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: HCI. [3] Rizzo. K. google. J. ac.C: IOS Press. Springfield. M. 56–67. "A Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Application for Iraq War Military Personnel with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: From Training to Toy to Treatment" (http:/ / www. [5] Goss. hw. Interacting with Computers 22 (4): 243–252. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6V0D-4YH568S-1& _user=10& _coverDate=07/ 31/ 2010& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=gateway& _origin=gateway& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _searchStrId=1703402087& _rerunOrigin=scholar. Swindon: British Computer Society. Coyle. B. Journal of Interactive Technology & Smart Education 2 (2): 73–88. 171–172. In Kate Anthony. pdf). info/ External links • Directory of TAP Dialup Numbers (http://www. google& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=f5ee46f9d4213e1f3975dd8f33fefe2a& searchtype=a). com/ stellent/ groups/ public/ documents/ data_sheet/ 002641.but not as we know it . The Use of Technology in Mental Health: Applications. Joe (2010). McNerney. P. 235–250. Mark (July 2010). J. Kate. Ferns. TAP defines an industry standard for sending alphanumeric messages to pagers.[2] TAP. pp. DeeAnna Merz Nagel and Stephen Goss (eds). ISBN 9780398079536.picell. . "Design and Mental Health Guidelines for Mental Health Technologies" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=sX87shVB0ugC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ge_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q& f=false). "Using Cell/Mobile Phone SMS to Enhance Client Crisis and Peer Support" (http:/ / books. Nisbet. Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol (TAP) is a protocol for submitting requests to a cellular or pager service as a numeric or alphanumeric message.com/fileadmin/documents/tap_v1p8.notepage. hw. Ethics and Practice. (ed. Pair.avtech. ie/ books?id=sX87shVB0ugC& printsec=& pg=PA56). Thomas Publishers. ISBN 9781902505954. by the Personal Communication Industry Association. Doherty (2005). M. tap-ixo.: Charles C. Matthews. 339 References [1] Doherty.htm) from notepage. D. B (2006)..

geek. t-mobile.US" (http:/ / www. .com: Android 2. androidcentral. PDA.2 Froyo. sprint. while others forbid tethering or impose added data charges. using your Device as a modem or tethering your Device to a personal computer or other hardware. We reserve the right to deny or terminate service without notice for any misuse or any use that adversely affects network [3] performance. t-mobile. This sharing can be offered over a wireless LAN (Wi-Fi). including for example. sprint. Often phone contracts that advertise unlimited or "all you can eat" Internet and data usage will bury these hidden charges in their terms of use.[2] Tethering in carriers' contracts Depending on the mobile phone's carrier. starting [1] from version 2. or by physical connection using a cable. Retrieved 2010-10-13. [4] "T-Mobile Terms & Conditions . the feature may be branded as a mobile hotspot. This feature was available before but only by 'rooting' devices and using the Linux iptables application. com/ en/ legal/ legal_terms_privacy_popup.Tethering 340 Tethering Tethering means sharing the Internet connection of an Internet-capable mobile phone with other devices. some carriers impose a one time charge to enable tethering. com/ Templates/ Popup.2. . examples include T-Mobile in the UK.com. com/ android-internet-tether [3] "Sprint Terms & Conditions ." T-Mobile has a similar clause in its Terms & Conditions: "Unless explicitly permitted by your Data Plan. Many mobile phones are equipped with software to offer tethered Internet access. References [1] Geek. tethering may be provided at no extra cost. As cited in Sprint Nextel's Terms of Service. The Internet-connected mobile phone acts as a portable router when providing tethering services to others. In the case of tethering over wireless LAN. com/ articles/ mobile/ android-2-2-to-support-tethering-and-turn-your-phone-into-a-mobile-wifi-hotspot-20100514/ ) [2] http:/ / www.US" (http:/ / shop. . shtml?ECID=vanity:termsandconditions#3)." [4] Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility currently offer wired tethering to their plans for a fee. while Sprint Nextel offers a Wi-Fi connected "mobile hotspot" tethering feature at an added charge. or over Bluetooth. other uses. aspx?PAsset=Ftr_Ftr_TermsAndConditions& print=true). "Except with Phone-as-Modem plans. or similar device. Retrieved 2011-03-14. However. are not permitted.com. you may not use a phone (including a Bluetooth phone) as a modem in connection with a computer. The operating system Android supports this . to support tethering (http:/ / www.

coming from the generally audio-based podcast. multimedia messaging service. via cellphone [2] with the following opening sentence: Thumbcasts are coming to Boston. boston. [2] . The term 'thumbcast' became one of that day's 'Hot Searches' on the site. com [2] http:/ / www. and the distribution of content directly to mobile phones. E1. The company provided the following brief definition for the term: Think: podcast for your phone. Carolyn (2007-04-09). Retrieved 2007-04-09. • On 9 April 2007 the Boston Globe published an article titled Snippets of news. Timeline • On 15 March 2007 US mobile media company 80108 Media launches their public Web site at [1]. WAP push. or other mobile distribution mechanism.E4. 80108. "Snippets of news.Thumbcast 341 Thumbcast Thumbcast is a term used for the mobile delivery of text. audio. via cellphone" pp. The Boston Globe (New York Times): References [1] http:/ / www. referring to the SMS subscription channels as thumbcasts. References Johnson. the input mechanisms of multi-tap and predictive text. or video content via short message service. com/ business/ globe/ articles/ 2007/ 04/ 09/ snippets_of_news_via_cellphone/ . picture. Our thumbcasts are hand-crafted by local correspondents and delivered direct to you as text messages. The term is an evolution specialized for original mobile content.

with which you can enter text by tapping on the screen. Italian. whose layout looks like a "T". It only supports English input. Tapping on the keys directly to input predictively. Compared with the previous two versions. It has many useful features such as self-defined "My Sentences" and "My Commands". TouchPal v3 has a lot of new features. drag & drop buttons. TouchPal v3 Chinese input version came out one month later. This makes each button big enough for thumb tapping. Slide up to input uppercase letters. a patent pending technology owned by CooTek. It is an alternative text input method to the traditional physical keyboards. and can change the keyboard layout. users can self develop the supported input languages. together with several European input languages. Tap directly to input predictively. TouchPal v3 significantly improved the predictive algorithm by incorporating its patent pending context-based word prediction and mistyping auto-correction algorithm. Sliding on a key in four directions like a "+" to input precisely. Slide to the left/right to precisely input the letter on the left/right. . Slide up then down to input the numbers on the top. 4. It is a software application running on Windows Mobile devices. With its SDK. TouchPal v3 English version was released in April 2008. The keyboard is one-layer design. It also provides changeable keypress sound. It combines two letters and one symbol on each key. There is cool animation effect when turning the pages or switching the layouts. Technology TouchPal default keyboard layout is designed based on the T+ technology. 5. TouchPal v3 has much better extensibility than the previous two versions. TouchPal v2 came out in late December 2007. 3. Users can switch keyboard layouts by finger sweeping. 2. It places a virtual keyboard on the touch screen of the handhelds. French. There are not additional function keys such as Shift or Ctrl because the functions achieved by them were built-in and can be easily implemented directly by finger tapping or sliding. while keeps the general computer keyboard layout. Spanish. comprehensive content editing functions. It supports three layouts on one virtual keyboard: T+ layout. Besides what v1 has. designed and developed by CooTek. and Dutch. History TouchPal v1 was released in October 2007. It also includes customizable emoticons and a few other features. full QWERTY layout. 1. the skins. It supports several European languages input such as English. Below is a summary of the basic usage.TouchPal 342 TouchPal TouchPal is an alternative software input method for mobile devices. German. and 9-key PhonePad layout. The overall layout of all the letters follows a common computer keyboard layout. for example the QWERTY layout. It only has the T+ layout virtual keyboard. Slide down to input a symbol on the bottom. its virtual keyboard is resizable by finger sliding.

in other words the mobile mast is able to receive weaker signals. Smartphone and Pocket PC Magazine. October 4. CooTek's TouchPal brings iPhone-like touchpad to Windows Mobile (http:/ / www. the link imbalance.TouchPal 343 References 1. Nate Adcock. This can be fixed by making the transmitter on that link stronger or the receiver more sensitive to weaker signals.com) website Tower Mounted Amplifier A Tower Mounted Amplifier or Mast Head Amplifier is a Low-noise amplifier (LNA) mounted as close as practical to the antenna in mobile masts or Base Transceiver Stations. Smartphone and Pocket PC Magazine. there are occasions when one way. June/July 2008 issue (http://www. 2007 External links 1.pocketpcmag. com/ articles/ software/ great_new_soft_keyboard. thus a longer battery charge. Crowded mast with TMAs (white rectangular boxes) mounted behind all the panel (rectangular) antennas TMAs are used in mobile networks to improve the sensitivity of the uplink in mobile phone masts. TouchPal-A Well-Done Soft Keyboard Alternative! (http:/ / www. .html). Benefits in mobile communications In two way communications systems.cootek. normally referenced as unbalanced links. A TMA reduces the base transceiver station noise figure (NF) and therefore improve its overall sensitivity. com/ 2007/ 10/ 12/ cooteks-touchpal-brings-iphone-like-touchpad-to-windows-mobile/ ).com. pocketpcmag. 2007 4. the TMA can only partially correct. Since the transmitter is a mobile phone it cannot be easily modified to transmit stronger signals. Improving the uplink translates into a combination of better coverage and mobile transmitting at less power. is weaker than the other. CooTek (http://www. wmexperts. com/ cms/ index. one link. Engadget Mobile. Nate Adcock. Great New Soft Keyboard (http:/ / www. In other words. engadgetmobile. Dieter Bohn. Sean Cooper. therefore it may be decided to install TMAs from the start to make the system viable. 2008 3.com/cms/current-issue/) 2. or palliate. php?q=blogs/ 30/ touchpal_a_very_well_done_soft_keyboard). February 10. WMExperts. October 12. which in turn implies a lower drain from its batteries. TouchPal: One of the Best Soft Keyboards.[1] There are occasions when the cable between the antenna and the receiver is so lossy (too thin or too long) that the signal weakens from the antenna before reaching the receiver.

It is actually not amplified all at once but in stages.[1] 1. [2] 3. The second amplifier's temperature ( ) will also influence the total but it is reduced (divided) by the gain of the first amplifier . The third amplifier's temperature is influencing even less. 2. Each stage consists of a noise figure (F) and an amount of amplification. In some mobile networks (e. the receiving path starts with the signal originating at the antenna. link balance changes with traffic load. . unless it can be bypassed. it may render the system unusable until serviced. nothing reduces its contribution to the total.Tower Mounted Amplifier 344 Drawbacks/pitfalls 1.g. If the received signal is strong enough. If the TMA fails. However. If the received signal is not weak.aka European 3G -). 4. The first amplifier will set the temperature ( ). therefore it is possible analyse call records and establish where TMAs are needed. 2. GSM) have a constant link. or structural weight restrictions to install a TMA at the top of a phone mast.and thus more expensive . [3] [4] Mathematical principles In a receiver. So amplifier number 1 will be right after the antenna and described by and . Simple phone mast with three TMAs (horizontal rectangular boxes) visible at the top of metal tower and before rectangular antennas Note that: 1. Then the signal is amplified in further stages within the receiver. the receiver's noise figure is calculated by modularly assessing each amplifier stage. 3. it may cause the TMA to create its own interference which is passed on to the receiver. The principle can be demonstrated mathematically. The receiver may alternatively be housed in a cabinet or hut at the base of the tower. installing a TMA will not deliver its intended benefit. The relationship of the stages is known as the Friis formula. other mobile networks (e. as it is reduced by its preceding amplifier gains . Servicing TMAs is harder than servicing receivers . visual.g. or gain (G). 2. [5] [6] .as the TMA may be dangerously near (near field) of the antenna and high up in a tower. There might be practical room restrictions. it is not simple to detect and correct unbalanced links since the link balance is not constant. with some stages producing other changes (like changing the signal's frequency). 3. And so on until N stages. IS-95 or WCDMA .

the TMA. powerwave. ISBN 0-7131-3459-3 [6] Saunders. whose noise figure is less downgraded by the cables.receiver (stage 4) • Stage 1: By using the shortest.Connecting Cable (stage 1) .R. London: John Wiley & Sons. and from the second cable. Typical receiver with TMA It is a chain of 4 modules: antenna . adcbroadband. is from In this way. the least lossy connecting cable between the antenna and the TMA. The first stage after the antenna is actually the connecting cable. • Stage 2: The TMA of noise figure and gain .Tower Mounted Amplifier 345 Applying the Friis formula to TMAs Typical receiver without TMA Start with a typical receiver: Antenna . "Product description of a TMA manufacturer" (http:/ / www. [5] Conner.. ISBN 0-471-98609-7 [7] Noise Figure of lossy stage . The more loss. . Ltd. com/ tma. the closer is to zero and the more will increase. Therefore: • Stage 1: • Stage 2: is equal to the loss of the cable and will increase with ambient temperature [7] will depend on the lossiness of the cable. (1982). that is when the TMA comes into use. pdf?refer=Library& C=Tower-Mounted+ Amplifier+ Systems& L=ClearGain+ Amplifier+ Systems).. [6] This number is normally expressed in decibels (dB) thus: References [1] [2] [3] [4] Laiho. Powerwave. . is nearly one. Simon R. Since the element is lossy is less than one. the cable losses are now negligible and do not significantly affect the system noise figure. in order . So will counteract the effects of . htm). Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS. London: Edward Arnold. asp). London: John Wiley & Sons. installation and trouble shooter of a TMA manufacturer" (http:/ / www. net. net/ Library/ Techpub/ 75177. Updating the Friis formula with this case.TMA (stage 2) . ADC. Wacker.short connecting cable (stage 1) .. F. it will increase What can be done to improve the receiver to pick up very weak signals? It must have a lower noise figure. words. ISBN 0-471-48653-1 "TV distortion cause by too strong received signals" (http:/ / abc. au/ reception/ tv/ mast_head. • Stage 3: Then comes the next cable ( and ). the noise figure is now: is low .longer connecting cable (stage 3) . . Antennas and Propagation for wireless communication systems.). "TMA description. Novosad. Ltd. Noise (2nd ed. as . but this time its noise addition ( ) is reduced by • Stage 4: Then comes the receiver.Receiver (stage 2).

born from a partnership between 4 NGOs and Transatel. Brussels. and in the Netherlands. • LeFrenchMobile is a mobile phone service for foreign visitors coming to France for a short period of time. with headquarters in Paris and offices in London.tmworld. Transatel works with companies wanting to launch a mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) under their own brand. www. in France. As an MVNE. • Phonethic is a charity mobile phone offer available in Belgium.Tower Mounted Amplifier 346 External links • TMA test equipment (http://www. • Eurokeitai is an offer for the Japanese community in France.html) Transatel Transatel Type Industry Founded Private Mobile telecommunications 2000 Headquarters 22 Place des Vosges 92979 Paris La Défense France Key people Products Revenue Employees Website Jacques Bonifay [1] . B2B. The MVNE activity is divided into two categories: • MVNE ASP (Application Service Provider): the MVNO signs a contract for purchasing airtime with the MNO.transatel. Switzerland and Benelux. in Luxembourg and in the Netherlands: • The multi-country offers are dedicated to frequent travelers and inhabitants of the border area in France. Transatel proposes different mobile telephony offers in Belgium. On top of managing several MVNOs.transatel-solutions. Easyborder. prepaid. B2C. the company has positioned itself on the MVNE market in Europe.. Transatel is the technical service provider of either the MNO or the MVNO according to their choice. Equilibre) and MVNE 13 million EUR (2010) estimation 80 (2011) www. Transatel won several prizes in France. documentation and customer service in Japanese. Luxembourg. with services.com/article/CA221314.com [3] Transatel is a pan-European company founded in August 2000.com [2] . including the OSEO-DeloitteTechnology Fast 50 for the Paris region in 2007[4] . which awards the innovation policy of IT companies. who each in turn sells the mobile service to end . from 6 to 24 months. for all kinds of MVNOs (postpaid.). • MVNA (Aggregator) : the MVNA purchases mobile airtime in bulk form the partner mobile operator. Activity As an MVNO. may it be prepaid or postpaid.. CEO MVNO (Easypass. with SIP services. adds its service platform and wholesales this airtime to multiple MVNOs.

transatel-solutions. com [3] http:/ / www.com) • Transatel. primée par OSEO au Deloitte Technology Fast 50 de 2007" (http:/ / www.transatel-m2m. html [2] http:/ / www.transatel-solutions.fr (French). com . 347 References [1] http:/ / www. Other technologies include TDOA and AGPS. transatel-mobile. rated billing and voice/data services. fr/ a_la_une/ actualites/ transatel_primee_par_oseo_au_deloitte_technology_fast_50_de_2007). Transatel entered the M2M (Machine-to-Machine) market. oseo. The first mobile operator dedicated to crossborder workers and frequent travellers (http://www.com) • Transatel solutions (Activities : MVNE and MVNA) (http://www.Transatel users. transatel. Oseo. Tri-cell was invented by the company Trisent [1] Communication Ltd. As an MVNA. com [4] "Transatel.com) • Transatel M2M (http://www. The Business Model for the MVNE activity. transatel. External links • Transatel – Corporate website (http://www.com) Tri-cell Tri-cell is one of several location based services technologies that are used to locate or track the location of a mobile phone. trisent.transatel. Tri-cell makes a number of measurements within the phone and sends these measurements to a central server that uses a hybrid of methods to calculate the location of the phone on a continuous basis. In 2011. com/ fr-abonnement-equipe. reusing its MVNE infrastructure across Europe to provide M2M services with similar business models. based on cloud-based services. Transatel provides provisionning services. References [1] http:/ / www.

References [1] 3GPP2 SC.0. It is given a different name to avoid confusion with the hardware ESN stored in the phone.[1] ESN and UIMID codes were exhausted by late 2008 at which point only reclaimed codes could be assigned to manufacturers including portions of blocks assigned to manufacturers but never used and portions used for technologies other than CDMA2000.R4004-0.tiaonline. 2010. The pUIMID is composed of the prefix 0x80 to make it distinct from unique UIMID codes and a 24-bit SHA-1 hash of the EUIMID.org/meid) . The TIA stopped accepting applications for UIMID blocks on June 30. pUIMID codes are not unique as there are only 224 of them and many times more EUIMID codes.cdg. May. and if an ANSI-41 message is received containing a different pair it will be rejected. The HLR will store the MIN or IMSI alongside the ESN in each record. Because the UIMID is allocated from the same numbering space as ESN this is transparent to the network. Version 2. 0_UIM_ID_Guidelines.UIMID 348 UIMID A UIMID (user identity module identifier) is a 32-bit Electronic Serial Number (ESN) stored in a R-UIM or CSIM ('smart card') used for TDMA or CDMA2000 phones (mainly the latter).org/standards/resources/esn/) • CDMA Development Group MEID and EUIMID resource page (http://www. 3gpp2. org/ public_html/ Specs/ SC. User Identification Module ID Manufacturer’s Code Assignment Guidelines and Procedures (http:/ / www. 2010. The reason the UIMID is transmitted instead of the ESN is because the R-UIM contains the MIN or IMSI and devices such as the HLR running the ANSI-41 mobility management protocol insist on a static association between these identifiers. The replacement identifier is EUIMID although for backwards compatibility a pseudo-UIMID (pUIMID) is still retained in cards. pdf) External links • Official TIA Resource Page for ESN and UIMID (http://www. In all known systems the UIMID displaces the ESN in signaling (based on the 'UsgInd' field stored in the R-UIM). UIMID codes are allocated by the TIA using industry-defined guidelines and with codes that have been transferred from the ESN administrator (also the TIA). R4004-0_v2.

References [1] Mobile-review. com/ uhicradles. aka SMS. The company employs an intelligent query search engine to process text queries sent to the number 2SNAP (27627) and quickly returns the relevant info that the user has requested in text form.Universal Handy Interface 349 Universal Handy Interface Universal Handy Interface (UHI) is a Motorola designed universal interface for mobile phone use (Motorola. shtml) [2] Mercedes UHI and MHI Phone Cradles (http:/ / www. whnet. mobile-review. They generate revenue via a pay-per-call model. Samsung) in Mercedes-Benz cars. With 4-1-1 directory queries. a Motorola operating system which also allows SMS messages to be read and edited on the existing dashboard display. SMS. The mobile phone is placed in a cradle connected to a telephone network unit and operated using the buttons on the multi-function steering wheel. Products from Motorola for both pedestrians and drivers-users (http:/ / www. UpSNAP’s multi-modal ad platform drives performance from voice. The hands-free capability uses the car's on-board audio system and a microphone located underneath the interior roof light[3] . com [2] http:/ / upsnap. Nokia. shtml) [3] http:/ / www. the user is also given the option to receive a free call-connect via a VOIP bridge. mercupgrades. Multi-Handset Interface (MHI) is the US sales name for UHI. video and WAP traffic via pay per call. gif Upsnap UpSNAP is the name of both a mobile-oriented search engine and the company that runs the search engine. urbanup. External links • UpSNAP Mobile search and 411 info services [1] • Urban Dictionary definition of UpSNAP [2] References [1] http:/ / upsnap. UpSNAP developed a patented method of accepting queries and producing results via text messaging. com/ 1502912 . Siemens AG. com/ exhibition/ cebit-motorola-en. serving close to a billion ads per month.[1] There are a large number of different cradles now available for various phones[2] . It is controlled by COMAND. Sony Ericsson. UpSNAP is the #1 direct response advertising network on mobile phones. With the ability to deliver content and advertising solutions to all US Mobile Devices. analogous to the pay-per-click model of internet search. com/ 4x4/ radio/ uhi_harness.com CeBIT 2003.

The Video Share service requires a 3GPP compliant IMS core system. The video source can either be the camera on the phone or a pre-recorded video clip. The default behavior is that the receiving handset will automatically go to speakerphone mode when video is received. The Video Share Client will drop a VS session when the handset transitions from UMTS to GSM during the session.279 and 3GPP TS 24. AT&T [3] (formerly Cingular) is one of mobile operators who have deployed the Video Share service nationwide. Video share is initiated from within a voice call. The CS voice call will remain connected. Both users will have the ability initiate a video share session. such as point-to-multipoint video share calls.279. meaning that the service combines a circuit switch voice call with a packet switch multimedia session.279. Video Share is also referred to by other names such as See What I See and Rich Voice Call. 3GPP TS 23. The Video Share service [1] is defined by the GSM Association (GSMA). Video Share is supported only in UMTS and EDGE (with DTM) networks. GSM Association has split the Video Share service definition [2] into 2 distinct phases. the recipient can choose to reject the streamed video. . As part of the VS invitation. and either the sender or recipient in a video share session can terminate the session at any time. along with the receiving User. There can be multiple video streaming sessions during a voice call. After a voice call is established. but not synchronized to a circuit switch voice call. It is often referred to as a Combinational Service. unless the headset is in place. and each of these streaming sessions can be initiated by any of the parties on the voice call. either party (calling or called) can start a Video Share (VS) session. This concept is described in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specification documents 3GPP TS 22. Any of the parties on the voice call can initiate a video streaming session. one-way video stream in conjunction with. video streaming to a web portal. The second phase (also called Phase 2) introduces the Video Share Application Server in the solution and supports more complex features and capabilities. It is not supported in a GPRS or a CDMA network.Video share 350 Video share Video Share is an IP Multimedia System (IMS) enabled service for mobile networks that allows users engaged in a circuit switch voice call to add a unidirectional video streaming session over the packet network during the voice call. It is intended that both sender and receiver will receive feedback when the other party terminates a session or the link drops due to lack of coverage. In the industry. the sender can “narrate” over the CS audio connection while both parties view the video. The first phase (also called Phase 1) involves sharing a simple peer-to-peer. In this scenario. and integration of video share with instant messaging. The sending User is then able to stream one-way live or recorded video. The sender will be able to see what is being streamed on their handset.

Video Call involves simultaneous two-way Video and Audio transmission between the 2 parties (from start to finish). By contrast. Parties on the call are fully aware that they are involved in a video call. During the SIP trials. Similar services popped under the names of See What I See.g.. GSMA decided to create a separate project for Video Share. Phase 2 of the GSMA Video Share project was kicked off in May/June 2007 and is currently in progress. Mobile operators worldwide. Video Sharing has no privacy implications for the recipient since the sharing of video is one-way. Push-to-Video (P2video or PTV). you see me” type of service where the camera is pointed at the parties on the call (eg. webcam). On the other hand. This was a proprietary solution on top of a SIP or IMS infrastructure. A 3-4 minute voice call may involve a minute of Video Sharing. implemented and tested during the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trials conducted by the GSM Association in 2005/2006. Service definition for the first phase of the Video Share project was completed in September/October 2006. Subsequently.Video share 351 History Peer-to-peer video sharing was introduced by Nokia phones first in 2004. An interoperability technical reference specification for Video Share [7] is also available from GSMA. The caller initiates the call as a Video Call. a video clip of kids). such as AT&T. the intent is known upfront. videophone. the Video Share service used to demonstrate IMS interworking over SIP [4] . 3. a new car. the snow outside. a Video Sharing session starts as a normal voice conversation. The camera on the sender’s mobile phone is usually pointed at some object or activity that he/she wants to share with the recipient. it may lead to one party sharing something with the other party while they talk about it (e. whereas Video Share involves adding and removing one or more one-way Video sessions to an existing voice call between the 2 parties. Some European operators offered commercial services based on these phones already in 2005. Splitting the screen into Picture-in-Picture (in order to display both sending and received video streams) significantly degrades the Video Call user experience on a mobile phone (Video Call with Picture-in-Picture is effective in corporate applications such as video conferencing where a large screen is used). There are other subtle differences between the two services as far as the user experience is concerned: 1. The GSMA Video Share service [2] was originally defined. Rich Voice Call. Phase 1 of the Video Share project built on and leveraged the results from the SIP trials. and the length of the video is tied to the length of the voice call. Differences between video share and video call Video Share is sometimes confused with traditional two-way Video Call service. Video Share was also tested on the IPX [5] to prove that the service might become universally available in the future. Video Calling has historically been “I see you. Extensions to Video Share include Video Clip Sharing. etc. and depending on the conversation. where a video clip recorded on the phone (or resident in the network) can be shared between two parties – something not delivered in a typical Video Call implementation. 2. . In a Video Call. have deployed the Video Share service [6] based on the Phase 1 service definition. Display screen on a mobile phone has limited real estate.

Symbian. IP Packet Exchange (IPX) proxies may be part of this infrastructure to allow interconnection between operators and to provide a collection point for session accounting records used for inter-operator traffic charging. The Video Share service uses the standard IMS Core infrastructure to transmit signaling and media traffic. the Video Share Client is implemented as a native application running on mobile operating systems such as Windows Mobile. A user’s subscription is usually bound to their smart card (ISIM/USIM) such that the Video Share service is portable in the sense that the user may be able to send and receive video share on any capable handset. Linux. and RTP/RTCP is used for video transmission. The called party has the option to accept or reject a video stream at the start of the session . Authentication and Video Share initiation • IMS registration upon power up using IMS access credentials stored in the ISIM/USIM • Video Share Capability Exchange prior to the initiation of a video share call using SIP.Video share 352 Architecture The Phase 2 Video Share solution consists of a Client Application running on mobile handsets and an Application Server deployed in the mobile network. The Phase 1 Video Share architecture does not include an Application Server. SIP is used for call control and signaling. media is transferred directly between the terminals. Typically. Video Share Client The Video Share (VS) Client is a software application running on the mobile handset. VS-compliant handsets contain an ISIM/USIM properly provisioned with IMS public/private identities and access credentials. including the codecs supported • Display icon indicating the capability status of the other device (that is. whether the other device is VS capable or not) • Ability for the user to start and stop a VS session. i.e. The Video Share Client supports SIP and RTP/RTCP transmission. Functionality supported by a GSMA Video Share Client includes: • Registration. and proprietary RTOS.

Video Share session control policies.263 Profile 0 (Level 10). Policies can be enforced by the Server in real time. The Application Server supports the SIP Back-to-Back User Agent (B2BUA) call control architecture that enables service policy control and enforcement capabilities of the video share session. Aylus Networks [17]. provisioning and configuration in the network. RADVISION [19]. 353 Video Share Application Server The Video Share Application Server is an IMS Application Server that interfaces with the S-CSCF network element in the IMS network through the 3GPP-defined ISC interface. this might require overwriting the policy on the handset with that on the Server. The Video Share Application Server typically runs on a carrier grade fault tolerant hardware platform. and (c) rate adaptation • Enhanced charging capabilities. Comneon GmbH [18]. In some cases.Nokia [9]. NMS Communications [13]. such as the following. Samsung [12]. can be applied: • Call Termination • Call Barring • Call Gapping • Video Stream Quality Enforcement • Support for point-to-multipoint video share sessions by setting up multiple legs for a video share session • Enable interoperability between different clients/endpoint devices by providing client normalization functions such as (a) protocol conversion. (b) video transcoding. Ecrio Inc [14]. PicoMobile (Marvell) [11]. Functionality supported by the Video Share Application Server includes: • Video Share Service Control. Motorola [10]. Wi-Fi or both) Time-sensitive promotional period (peak.Video share • Usability • Privacy policies that allow users to block other users from performing a Capability Exchange with their device and/or streaming video to their device • Ability for either a transmitting or receiving device to terminate a VS session at any point during the session • Ability for both transmitting and receiving devices to display the video that is being streamed • Codec Support • H. and for enforcing service policies such as admission control and registration control. The Application Server makes it possible to support a range . The Application Server provides a central point for service control. Sony Ericsson [15] . or during session establishment by ensuring that the policy on the handset matches the operator-defined policy stored on the Server. off-peak or promotional time period) IMSI or Public User Identifier (PUID) of calling or called user Location area of calling or called user Mobile originating or mobile terminating direction (send-only. A server-based application server will enforce access control and charging policies based on the following triggers: • • • • • • • • Inbound roaming access (mobile originating subscriber requests session from a visited network) Outbound roaming access (session request to a mobile terminating subscriber located in visited network) Home network access Access network type (UMTS. Operator-defined subscriber and service policies can be enforced even if a subscriber has modified the policy on his/her handset. The Application Server can be configured to include parameters in the charging records that are specific to the Video Share service. receive-only or both) • Once these trigger conditions are met. LG [16]. Support for other codecs is desired but optional • Support for H263-2000 RTP payload format • Support for RTCP sender and receiver reports Vendors providing Video Share clients based on the GSMA service definition include: Alcatel Lucent [8].

• Ability to record and store the streamed video on a network based Video Share Storage. initiated. Connection Packet Loss – data obtained from RTCP sender and receiver reports received from the two video sharing client endpoints 2. thereby making it possible to conduct a real time Video Share session with a PC user using a web browser. PUID. de-registered. From and To header information. and failed 2. 4. Solaiemes sells a customizable Application Server that can be integrated by 3rd parties in enterprise and vertical markets.Video share of charging plans. Contact Address. Aylus Networks [20] [17] 354 provides a Video Share Application Server with advanced features and capabilities. • Detailed Statistics including: 1. Service Description The basic steps involved in setting up and tearing down a Video Share session are as follows: • • • • • • Circuit Switch Call Setup Capability Query Invitation Procedure Video Transmission Teardown of Video Session Teardown of Circuit Switch Call . registration rejected 3. terminated. Session statistics including those established. User registration statistics including those registered. Date. • Redirection of Video Share session to different endpoints based on configured service policies. Media Stream Quality Statistics 1. etc. Jitter and Delay Statistics – data from RTCP sender and receiver reports received from the two video sharing client endpoints • Capability Exchange caching and optimization • Support for non-3G device endpoints such as a Web Portal. Active Call Detail information including Time.

• Option 1: The solution is deployed in the mobile operator’s IMS network. This is performed with the SIP OPTIONS method. After the Video Share session has been set up. Video Share clients are pre-loaded on selected handsets by the operator. independent of the mobile operator. and sign up for the service with the third party. The Application Server is integrated into the operator’s IMS Core network. The next step is the Capability Exchange in which the other handset is queried to determine if the recipient is capable of supporting a Video Share session. Deployment Options There are multiple options for deploying the Video Share service. which is widely used in internet and mobile communities for video streaming. . In the case of a Web Portal based Video Share session. Both handsets can perform this capability exchange. The Video Share session is initiated by sending a SIP INVITE message to the called party. Video is sent between Video Share clients using RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol).Video share 355 The Video Share session begins with Circuit Switch call between User A and User B. • Option 2: The solution is deployed as a hosted service by a third party. and accessed using a PC with a web browser. the video is streamed to the Portal instead of User B. Users sign up for the service through the operator. Users download the Video Share client from the third party using a well established handset application download procedure. transmission of the actual video can begin. After these steps the Circuit Switch voice call session still exists. When either party decides to stop the Video Share session. The video transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of the data delivery using RTCP RR (Receiver Report) and RTCP SR (Sender Report) packets. the session will be torn down (using RTCP BYE) and the SIP session stopped (using SIP BYE).

gsmworld. ecrio. 15 February 2006 (http:/ / www. com [17] http:/ / www. sonyericsson. GSMA Document. lge. 27 March 2007 http:/ / www. com [10] http:/ / www. com [15] http:/ / www. com/ learn/ messaging-internet/ media-entertainment/ attvideoshare. shtml) GSMA Press Release on video share trials. pdf) IR. picomobile. gsmworld. shtml (http:/ / www. comneon. com/ documents/ services/ se41. com/ sip/ sip_trial_guide. GSMA Document. com [16] http:/ / www. pdf) The GSMA's SIP Trials. com [18] http:/ / www. com/ Products/ Developer/ Clients/ VideoShare/ [20] http:/ / www. com/ documents/ ir7412. gsmworld. wireless. February 2007 (http:/ / www. gsmworld. com [14] http:/ / www. solaiemes. net/ [12] http:/ / www.Video share 356 References http:/ / www. jsp (http:/ / www.74 Video Share Interoperability Specification 1. nokia. com/ learn/ messaging-internet/ media-entertainment/ video-share-faqs. samsung. com [9] http:/ / www. com/ news/ press_2006/ press06_18.0. September 2008 [8] http:/ / www. att. motorola. com [13] http:/ / www. com [19] http:/ / www. alcatel-lucent. radvision. att. com [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] . com [11] http:/ / www. com/ sip/ e2e/ videoshare. gsmworld.2. wireless. pdf) Video Share Definition 2. aylus. nmscommunications. jsp) AT&T FAQ for Video Share (http:/ / www.

com/solutions/voicemode.0 delivers true large vocabulary. IM. T-9 or other text creation input methods. Other VoiceSignal Products • VSpeak • VSuite • VSearch External links • http://www. VoiceMode 2.com • http://www. com/ .0 VoiceMode 2.0 / 5 April 2006 Type License Website Automatic speech-to-text Proprietary VoiceSignal Technologies Website [1] VoiceMode. rather than creating messages using the keypad of most mobile devices.voicesignal. The device-only implementation is server-based as to avoid network related interruptions and delays.VoiceMode 357 VoiceMode VoiceMode Developer(s) VoiceSignal Technologies Stable release 2. is a speech-to-text (dictation) application that runs on a mobile phone.0 is fairly accurate and can be used to input text into applications running on most mobile devices including email.VoiceMode 2. by VoiceSignal.voicesignal. Small Footprint It is designed specifically for the limited memory of mass market phones. SMS. References [1] http:/ / voicesignal. . VoiceMode provides an easy alternative to multi-tap.0 flash demo. and calendar appointments. It allows users to dictate a messages into their mobile device.php.0 is compact and handset manufacturers often deploy it in all phone segments. VoiceMode 2. VoiceMode 2. continuous dictation running entirely embedded in the mobile device.

In addition. in addition to standard SIM functions. such as the radio receiver/transmitter. A terminal device developer can build a customized terminal without the design and development of a radio module. also has the core components of a cellular telephone (PHS). which do not have radio modules. Higher-spec version of WS003SH. • WS007SH / W-ZERO3 [es] Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. including global roaming with Taiwan and Thailand. • WS009KE / 9(nine) Hand-set terminal by KES. For Mainland China. and users can change to a different radio module W-SIM without changing the terminal itself. China Netcom had W-SIMs available. W-SIM terminals can be used in Japan. Stylish and slender version of W-ZERO3. • WS003SH / W-ZERO3 Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. a GSM version called the CM-G100 had been developed for use in other countries. Similar to traditional handsets made by WILLCOM. The W-SIM core module is an extended version of a SIM card. It is currently used in some terminals (listed below). built inside.W-SIM 358 W-SIM W-SIM (Willcom-SIM) is a SIM card developed by Willcom which. . • WS004SH / W-ZERO3 Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. • WS008HA / WS008HA ExpressCard data communication terminal by Hagiwara Sys-Com. • WS005IN / nico. though its PHS network is due to be phased out this year. • WS002IN / "DD" Data communication terminal by Net Index. Hand-set terminal by Net Index. W-SIM ( RX420AL) WILLCOM branded terminals • WS001IN / "TT" Hand-set terminal by Net Index. containing not only user data but also all the transmission technology needed for a mobile device to work.

jp/ ws/ special/ index. com/ ja/ lineup/ rx/ 410in/ http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. War Viewers will usually mount an external omni-directional antenna to a vehicle to extend the limited range of reception (much like War Drivers do). Expected ranges in an urban environment can be from as little as a few metres up to about 50 metres. This is a set of international frequency allocations that are intended for a number of public uses. com/ ja/ lineup/ ws/ 001in/ index. War viewing involves travelling around either in a vehicle or on foot and using a video receiver and screen to view transmissions (usually) in the 2. or locally owned shops. co.4 GHz license WARspyla. sharp. but the 2. The internal code is WS006. WarViewing is derived from the term WarDriving (where people drive around with Wi-Fi equipment and look for wireless computer networks) which was originally derived from Wardialing (an outdated practice where people would use a modem to brute-force dial phone numbers searching for other computer modems which would answer).'s page [1] Engadget entry [2] TT Phone [3] DD "Data Driver" [4] Sharp W-Zero3 PDA phone [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. willcom-inc. com/ ja/ lineup/ ws/ 002in/ http:/ / www. lobbies. higher quality equipment or particularly favourable conditions.com's Warviewing box free ISM band. although longer ranges are possible with directional antennas.W-SIM 359 Terminals branded by other than WILLCOM • Kids Ke-tai papipo! Hand-set terminal by Bandai.4 GHz video feeds. home video senders and Wi-Fi computer networks.4 GHz allocation is predominantly used for wireless cameras. External links • • • • • Willcom Inc. html WarViewing WarViewing (also known as War Watching and Warspying) is the sport and hunt for unprotected 2. com/ entry/ 1234000207064450/ http:/ / www. willcom-inc. These are usually broadcast from X10 cameras in major cities from traffic cameras. engadget. willcom-inc. .

warspyla. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).on a wide variety of mobile phones. . generally rely on some kind of web service to provide information to the user. and a mobile service powered by the said technology. TV senders. then sometimes a directional antenna like a patch antenna or yagi antenna is used to try and pinpoint the exact location of a transmitter.[1] Widsets is a combined application and service that is similar to what a Widget does on a desktop PC . If war viewing is done on foot.Com's Warspying Box [3] References [1] http:/ / www. X10 cameras.0 phones. Widsets are micro-applications intended to perform a single function. from the Finnish mobile company Nokia. Wi-Fi networks currently share approximately the same frequency band as the video transmissions. etc. it is both a widget engine and a widget deployment service where mini-applications called widgets can be uploaded to WidSets servers to be compiled and then automatically deployed to MIDP 2. A warspyer uses a 2. WidSets was officially launched on October 2006.0. The widgets are created using Extensible Markup Language (XML).4 GHz video receiver is usually used to see what video transmissions there are out there. Finds can include wireless covert surveillance cameras. based on the Java MIDP 2. Further inquiries. and sometimes a signal booster.[3] Example widgets include currency converters. lead to Nokia admitting that WidSets isn't developed any longer.WarViewing A small screen and openly available 2. and was told that Widsets was part of Ovi. com/ systm/ warspyingbox/ [3] http:/ / deauththis. and Helium scripting language.4 GHz video receiver.0 platform.0 for both the client and the SDK. and to cut down on interference. home video senders. it is not illegal in the UK to receive them even if they are not intended for you. and was regarded as a mobile counterpart to Netvibes. a battery. Widsets like widgets. including non-Nokia ones.0 compliant mobile phones running the WidSets client software. CCTV cameras. which means that the antennas used are interchangeable. an LCD screen. it worked on all Java MIDP 2. The Register asked Nokia about the status of WidSets in June 2009. com/ forum/ forum/ ?action=picasagallerybrowser& album=WarySpyingBox WidSets WidSets is a mobile runtime technology. 360 External links • WARspy Los Angeles [1] • Building a Warspying Box [2] • DeAuthThis.[2] The current version as of May 2008 is version 2. however. news headlines retrievers and weather forecast information. com/ [2] http:/ / revision3. As the video signals are broadcast in a license free ISM band.

nokia. Retrieved 2009-08-29. oreilly. Wireless Informatics 'methodologies' are being adopted by mobile operators. External links • WidSets Official Website (http://www. device manufacturers and service providers as a means of overcoming the negative impact of service and technology complexity on both operating costs and customer/brand loyalty.co. . html). com/ archives/ 2006/ 10/ mobile-20-nokia-launches-widse. html) [3] Ray. For example. trends analysis made within an existing customer care center can be applied 'upstream'. perhaps within the organisation's product management or retail division to eliminate a troublesome component. Bill (2009-07-30). co.nokia. service etc before the problem erupts and drives a costly spike in support calls. The Register. validating and disseminating knowledge.UK (http://www.uk/A4646046) Wireless Informatics Wireless Informatics describes the evolution of traditional customer support practices within the mobile industry from problem management to problem prevention.0: Nokia launches WidSets (http:/ / radar. Because added complexity across mobile technologies coupled with a rise in market competition makes managing the mobile user experience through traditional support channels an increasingly complex and potentially costly business. . widsets.Europe (http://europe.WidSets 361 References [1] WidSets Developer Wiki (http:/ / dev. best practices and experiences throughout the mobile value-chain as a means of mitigating end-user support requirements. Wireless Informatics supports the notion of using collating.com/) • Mobilise your Web with WidSets .com/A4361262) • Mobilise your Web with WidSets . com/ wiki/ Getting_started) [2] Mobile 2. "Nokia admits killing off Widsets" (http:/ / www.widsets. theregister. uk/ 2009/ 06/ 30/ widsets_killed/ print.

China decided to enhance World Mobile Congress and Mobile World Congress for its long-term international strategy of the China mobile communication industry. It was founded by Delson Group Inc. Therefore.htm • http://delson.org/wwc07/ • http://mobilecongress. promoted. and now strongly supported by China authority and leading industries. organized and produced by China management.World Mobile Congress 362 World Mobile Congress World Mobile Congress aka Mobile World Congress is a global technology and R&D platform to foster international collaboration in next generation mobile wireless communications.org/wmc/main. In middle 2009.com/ . World Mobile Congress and Mobile World Congress will be marketed. Sources • http://delson.

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