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Enterprise Mobility Management: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Enterprise Mobility Management: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Publicado porEmereo Publishing
Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people, processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices, wireless networks, and related services. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. According to recent research, subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009. By 2012, business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States. Just as companies rely on human resource, financial management and CRM software, mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. The cost, risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.

This book is your ultimate resource for Enterprise Mobility Management. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Enterprise Mobility Management right away, covering: Enterprise Mobility Management, Mobile technology, 2-way iSMS, 2degrees, Access Stratum, Adaptxt, Advanced Wireless Services, AskMeNow, Assisted GPS, Audience (telecom company), Azimuth Systems, Basic Trading Area, Cablefree, CDMA Chipsets, Cel-Fi, Cell of origin (telecommunications), Cell on wheels, Cellular repeater, CIMD, Closed User Group (CUG), Columbitech, Communication Linking Protocol, Context-aware services, Coverage map, DataSplice, DigRF, Drive testing, Dual mode mobile, Dumb pipe, Dynamic Link Adaptation, E-OTD, Electronic Serial Number, EMBARC, EMI (protocol), Enhanced GPS, ERMES, ESME, EUIMID, Face2face, FLEX (protocol), General content descriptor, Generic Bootstrapping Architecture, Matt Gillin, GMLC, GoTV Networks, Handheld television, Handover, Hardlink (homonymy), IControlPad, IDT Spectrum, Image share, Instant message service center, Inter standard roaming, Interference in mobile communications, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Ip.access, IQAN, IST-Plastic, ITap, July Systems, Jumptap, Librestream, List of devices with Assisted GPS, Local number portability, Location awareness, MLearning, Macrocell, Manitoba (computer chip), Microcell, MINDS, Mobify, Mobile Access Protocol, Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content, Mobile Architecture, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, Mobile collaboration, Mobile commerce, Mobile database, Mobile Enterprise Asset Management, Mobile Equipment Identifier, Mobile IPTV, Mobile network operator, Mobile phone tracking, Mobile radio, Mobile search, Mobile technology in Africa, Mobile Telephone Switching Office, Mobile ticketing, Mobile virtual network operator, Mobile virtual private network, Mobile workflow, Mobile-to-mobile convergence, Mobile.info, Mobispine, Modu, Motorola Pageboy, Motricity, MSRN, MTV-1, Multi-band, Multiuser detection, MVDS, Mxim, Navizon, Near-field magnetic induction communication, NetMotion Wireless, Network on Terminal Architecture, Non Access Stratum, Number Assignment Module, Online charging system, Open Handset Alliance, Optpcs, ORFS, Over-the-air programming, P2000 (network), PacketVideo, Pager, PCS switching center, Peer-to-peer video sharing, Personal Communications Service, Phizzle, Helio Ocean, Picket-fencing, Picocell, Predictive text, Proximity marketing, Public land mobile network, PuppetMaster (application), Push Proxy Gateway, Kamal Quadir, Paul Raden...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Enterprise Mobility Management. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Enterprise Mobility Management with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people, processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices, wireless networks, and related services. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. According to recent research, subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009. By 2012, business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States. Just as companies rely on human resource, financial management and CRM software, mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. The cost, risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.

This book is your ultimate resource for Enterprise Mobility Management. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Enterprise Mobility Management right away, covering: Enterprise Mobility Management, Mobile technology, 2-way iSMS, 2degrees, Access Stratum, Adaptxt, Advanced Wireless Services, AskMeNow, Assisted GPS, Audience (telecom company), Azimuth Systems, Basic Trading Area, Cablefree, CDMA Chipsets, Cel-Fi, Cell of origin (telecommunications), Cell on wheels, Cellular repeater, CIMD, Closed User Group (CUG), Columbitech, Communication Linking Protocol, Context-aware services, Coverage map, DataSplice, DigRF, Drive testing, Dual mode mobile, Dumb pipe, Dynamic Link Adaptation, E-OTD, Electronic Serial Number, EMBARC, EMI (protocol), Enhanced GPS, ERMES, ESME, EUIMID, Face2face, FLEX (protocol), General content descriptor, Generic Bootstrapping Architecture, Matt Gillin, GMLC, GoTV Networks, Handheld television, Handover, Hardlink (homonymy), IControlPad, IDT Spectrum, Image share, Instant message service center, Inter standard roaming, Interference in mobile communications, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Ip.access, IQAN, IST-Plastic, ITap, July Systems, Jumptap, Librestream, List of devices with Assisted GPS, Local number portability, Location awareness, MLearning, Macrocell, Manitoba (computer chip), Microcell, MINDS, Mobify, Mobile Access Protocol, Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content, Mobile Architecture, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, Mobile collaboration, Mobile commerce, Mobile database, Mobile Enterprise Asset Management, Mobile Equipment Identifier, Mobile IPTV, Mobile network operator, Mobile phone tracking, Mobile radio, Mobile search, Mobile technology in Africa, Mobile Telephone Switching Office, Mobile ticketing, Mobile virtual network operator, Mobile virtual private network, Mobile workflow, Mobile-to-mobile convergence, Mobile.info, Mobispine, Modu, Motorola Pageboy, Motricity, MSRN, MTV-1, Multi-band, Multiuser detection, MVDS, Mxim, Navizon, Near-field magnetic induction communication, NetMotion Wireless, Network on Terminal Architecture, Non Access Stratum, Number Assignment Module, Online charging system, Open Handset Alliance, Optpcs, ORFS, Over-the-air programming, P2000 (network), PacketVideo, Pager, PCS switching center, Peer-to-peer video sharing, Personal Communications Service, Phizzle, Helio Ocean, Picket-fencing, Picocell, Predictive text, Proximity marketing, Public land mobile network, PuppetMaster (application), Push Proxy Gateway, Kamal Quadir, Paul Raden...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Enterprise Mobility Management. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Enterprise Mobility Management with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 23, 2011
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  • Enterprise Mobility Management
  • Mobile technology
  • 2-way iSMS
  • 2degrees
  • Access Stratum
  • Adaptxt
  • Advanced Wireless Services
  • AskMeNow
  • Assisted GPS
  • Audience (telecom company)
  • Azimuth Systems
  • Basic Trading Area
  • Basic Trading Area MTA
  • Cablefree
  • CDMA Chipsets
  • Cel-Fi
  • Cell of origin (telecommunications)
  • Cell on wheels
  • Cellular repeater
  • CIMD
  • Closed User Group (CUG)
  • Columbitech
  • Communication Linking Protocol
  • Context-aware services
  • Coverage map
  • DataSplice
  • DigRF
  • Drive testing
  • Dual mode mobile
  • Dumb pipe
  • Dynamic Link Adaptation
  • E-OTD
  • Electronic Serial Number
  • EMI (protocol)
  • Enhanced GPS
  • ESME
  • face2face
  • FLEX (protocol)
  • General content descriptor
  • Generic Bootstrapping Architecture
  • Matt Gillin
  • GMLC
  • GoTV Networks
  • Handheld television
  • Handover
  • Hardlink (homonymy)
  • iControlPad
  • IDT Spectrum
  • Image share
  • Instant message service center
  • Inter standard roaming
  • Interference in mobile communications
  • interference in mobile communications
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem
  • ip.access
  • IQAN
  • IST-Plastic
  • iTap
  • July Systems
  • Jumptap
  • Librestream
  • List of devices with Assisted GPS
  • List of devices with Assisted GPS:
  • Local number portability
  • Location awareness
  • MLearning
  • Macrocell
  • Manitoba (computer chip)
  • Microcell
  • Mobify
  • Mobile Access Protocol
  • Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content
  • Mobile Architecture
  • Mobile Assisted Language Learning
  • Mobile collaboration
  • Mobile commerce
  • Mobile database
  • Mobile Enterprise Asset Management
  • Mobile Equipment Identifier
  • Mobile IPTV
  • Mobile network operator
  • Mobile phone tracking
  • Mobile radio
  • Mobile search
  • Mobile technology in Africa
  • Mobile Telephone Switching Office
  • Mobile ticketing
  • Mobile virtual network operator
  • Mobile virtual private network
  • Mobile workflow
  • Mobile-to-mobile convergence
  • Mobile.info
  • Mobispine
  • modu
  • Motorola Pageboy
  • Motricity
  • MSRN
  • MTV-1
  • Multi-band
  • Multiuser detection
  • MVDS
  • Mxim
  • Navizon
  • Near-field magnetic induction communication
  • NetMotion Wireless
  • Network on Terminal Architecture
  • Non Access Stratum
  • Number Assignment Module
  • Online charging system
  • Open Handset Alliance
  • Optpcs
  • ORFS
  • Over-the-air programming
  • P2000 (network)
  • PacketVideo
  • Pager
  • PCS switching center
  • Peer-to-peer video sharing
  • Personal Communications Service
  • Phizzle
  • Helio Ocean
  • Picket-fencing
  • Picocell
  • Predictive text
  • Proximity marketing
  • Public land mobile network
  • PuppetMaster (application)
  • Push Proxy Gateway
  • Kamal Quadir
  • Paul Raden
  • Radio Interface Layer
  • ReCellular, Inc
  • ReFLEX
  • REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite
  • Rich Communication Suite
  • RingGo
  • Roaming
  • RTMI
  • Rxqual
  • S-GPS
  • SEVEN Networks
  • Sha-Mail
  • ShapeWriter
  • Short code
  • Short message peer-to-peer protocol
  • Short message service center
  • Signal strength
  • SlideIT
  • Smart pipe
  • SMS banking
  • SMS hubbing
  • SMS spoofing
  • Social positioning method
  • Soft handover
  • Solaris Mobile
  • Sony Watchman
  • Swype
  • Syclo
  • T9 (predictive text)
  • Taptu
  • Technology and mental health issues
  • Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol
  • Tethering
  • Thumbcast
  • TouchPal
  • Tower Mounted Amplifier
  • Transatel
  • Transatel
  • Tri-cell
  • Universal Handy Interface
  • Upsnap
  • Video share
  • VoiceMode
  • W-SIM
  • WarViewing
  • WidSets
  • Wireless Informatics
  • World Mobile Congress
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Enterprise Mobility Management


Kevin Roebuck



High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Enterprise Mobility Management Mobile technology 2-way iSMS 2degrees Access Stratum Adaptxt Advanced Wireless Services AskMeNow Assisted GPS Audience (telecom company) Azimuth Systems Basic Trading Area Cablefree CDMA Chipsets Cel-Fi Cell of origin (telecommunications) Cell on wheels Cellular repeater CIMD Closed User Group (CUG) Columbitech Communication Linking Protocol Context-aware services Coverage map DataSplice DigRF Drive testing Dual mode mobile Dumb pipe Dynamic Link Adaptation E-OTD Electronic Serial Number EMBARC EMI (protocol) 1 2 4 6 10 10 12 17 18 20 21 22 36 37 37 38 39 41 45 46 47 48 48 49 51 52 53 55 56 57 57 59 60 60

Enhanced GPS ERMES ESME EUIMID face2face FLEX (protocol) General content descriptor Generic Bootstrapping Architecture Matt Gillin GMLC GoTV Networks Handheld television Handover Hardlink (homonymy) iControlPad IDT Spectrum Image share Instant message service center Inter standard roaming Interference in mobile communications IP Multimedia Subsystem ip.access IQAN IST-Plastic iTap July Systems Jumptap Librestream List of devices with Assisted GPS Local number portability Location awareness MLearning Macrocell Manitoba (computer chip) Microcell MINDS Mobify Mobile Access Protocol 62 63 64 64 66 67 68 68 71 73 73 74 75 79 80 84 85 86 87 87 87 98 103 104 107 108 110 112 114 120 131 134 141 141 142 143 145 146 .

Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content Mobile Architecture Mobile Assisted Language Learning Mobile collaboration Mobile commerce Mobile database Mobile Enterprise Asset Management Mobile Equipment Identifier Mobile IPTV Mobile network operator Mobile phone tracking Mobile radio Mobile search Mobile technology in Africa Mobile Telephone Switching Office Mobile ticketing Mobile virtual network operator Mobile virtual private network Mobile workflow Mobile-to-mobile convergence Mobile.info Mobispine modu Motorola Pageboy Motricity MSRN MTV-1 Multi-band Multiuser detection MVDS Mxim Navizon Near-field magnetic induction communication NetMotion Wireless Network on Terminal Architecture Non Access Stratum Number Assignment Module Online charging system 146 147 148 153 155 160 164 166 168 172 172 176 181 187 189 190 199 208 211 212 212 214 215 218 219 221 221 222 223 223 224 225 227 229 232 235 236 236 .

ReFLEX REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite Rich Communication Suite RingGo Roaming RTMI Rxqual S-GPS SEVEN Networks Sha-Mail ShapeWriter Short code Short message peer-to-peer protocol Short message service center Signal strength 239 242 242 243 245 246 247 251 251 253 255 257 260 260 261 265 266 270 270 274 277 279 281 282 283 284 286 288 293 293 294 295 297 298 299 305 307 308 . Inc.Open Handset Alliance Optpcs ORFS Over-the-air programming P2000 (network) PacketVideo Pager PCS switching center Peer-to-peer video sharing Personal Communications Service Phizzle Helio Ocean Picket-fencing Picocell Predictive text Proximity marketing Public land mobile network PuppetMaster (application) Push Proxy Gateway Kamal Quadir Paul Raden Radio Interface Layer ReCellular.

SlideIT Smart pipe SMS banking SMS hubbing SMS spoofing Social positioning method Soft handover Solaris Mobile Sony Watchman Swype Syclo T9 (predictive text) Taptu Technology and mental health issues Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol Tethering Thumbcast TouchPal Tower Mounted Amplifier Transatel Tri-cell UIMID Universal Handy Interface Upsnap Video share VoiceMode W-SIM WarViewing WidSets Wireless Informatics World Mobile Congress 310 312 314 317 319 321 321 323 326 328 332 334 336 338 339 340 341 342 343 346 347 348 349 349 350 357 358 359 360 361 362 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources. Licenses and Contributors 363 370 Article Licenses License 372 .

0 Mobile Workforce Enablement 5.2 Wireless Networks (Private and Public. By 2012. mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. wireless networks.6 End-User Technical Support/Help Desk 4.3 Wireless Infrastructure Management 3.Enterprise Mobility Management 1 Enterprise Mobility Management Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people. and aircards . financial management and CRM software.3 People . and related services. processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices.0 Financial Management 4.0 IT Management 3.2 Device Management 3.4 Policy Definition.2 End user allocation of mobile devices and related services 5.4 Audits and Optimization 4.4 Security Management 3. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring 2.6 Periodic Management Reporting 5. Enterprise Mobility Management has several dimensions including: 1. smartphones. subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device.plans. The cost. Programs) 1.5 Application Management 3. business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States..3 Monthly Carrier Invoice Processing 4.0 Mobility Portfolio Management 2.Management. features.1 Priorities & Objectives (Identify and Quantify) 1. The scope of Enterprise Mobility in this entry includes those mobile devices and related services provisioned to the workforce.[1] Just as companies rely on human resource. According to recent research.1 Mobile Devices & Accessories (cell phones.2 Planning (Projects.3 End-user training . This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009.3 Mobile Applications 3. etc) 2.0 Strategy and Governance 1. risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.5 Vendor Mgmt/Contract Negotiations 4. Administration.1 Inventory Management 3.2 Procurement and Provisioning 4. Governance 1..1 Budget and Controls 4.types and quantity) 2.1 End-user acceptance and compliance monitoring of Mobility Policies/Budgets 5.

com http:/ / www. Recent study has indicated that traditional multi-layer network architecture based on the OSI model may not be well suited for 4G mobile network. Mobile CDMA technology has evolved quite rapidly over the past few years. usage and spend 2 Vendors offering Enterprise Managed Mobility solutions • MobiDM [2] • ITR Mobility [3] • BoxTone [4] Notes Alms.4 End-User validation of allocation. com/ staging/ images/ pdfs/ mobilitymanagementwhitepaper. pdf Mobile technology Mobile technology is a collective term used to describe the various types of cellular communication technology. Apple iOS. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] ["http:/ / www. Windows Mobile Standard (non-touch screen) and Bada OS. the detection of very short bursts will be a serious problem due to their very poor partial correlation properties. such as channel estimation. Any user can also create their own Apps and publish them to Apple's App Store. GPS navigation system. itr-mobility. 4G networking One of the most important features in the 4G mobile networks is the domination of high-speed packet transmissions or burst traffic in the channels. and a hand-held video gaming system. and Instant Messenger client. a standard mobile device has gone from being no more than a simple two-way pager to being a cellular phone. http:/ / www. Since the beginning of this millennium. GPS. boxtone. Priorities and Imperatives [5]. Many experts argue that the future of computer technology rests in mobile/wireless computing. mobidm. 2008. including: Symbian. com http:/ / www. because of its customizable OS which you can use to download applications made by Apple (often referred to simply as "Apps") like games. The Apple iPhone. visagemobile. where transactions of short packets will be the major part of the traffic in the channels. Android. com http:/ / www. Android is the first completely open source mobile OS. and other tools. Understanding Mobility Management: Trends. The same codes used in the 2G-3G networks will be applied to future 4G mobile or wireless networks. The Palm Pre using WebOS has functionality over the Internet and is . and the newest . visagemobile. within a very short time to make the detections of each packet flawlessly and even to reduce the clutter of traffic. Among the most popular are the Apple iPhone.Android. meaning that it is free to any cell phone carrier. the receiver should execute all necessary algorithms. com/ staging/ images/ pdfs/ mobilitymanagementwhitepaper. As the packets from different mobiles carry completely different channel characteristics.Enterprise Mobility Management 5. interactions with all upper layers and so on.com. is the most popular smart phone at this time. Blackberry. WebOS. which has several OSs like the 3G and 3G S. Operating systems There are many types of Smartphone operating systems available. visagemobile. Dean. pdf"]. Android is a mobile operating system (OS) developed by Google. an embedded web browser. Utilities. Windows Mobile Professional (touch screen).

org/ science/ technology/ next-genration-smart-phones1421. but adapt to anticipate the information you will need based on your intentions. com/ article/ 133755/ 2008/ 06/ cio_iphonewishlist. How they described it was as wanting to make the phone a virtual mouse able to click the real world. It then became apparent that it would keep any of their users from using their iTunes programs. html http:/ / www. and JavaScript. macworld. The Windows Mobile Professional Smartphones (Pocket PC or Windows Mobile PDA) are like that of a PDA and have touchscreen capabilities.Mobile technology able to support Internet-based programming languages such as CSS. External links • • • • Next generation SmartPhones[1] What Apple Wants to add to the iPhone[2] Android Mobile Operating System[3] About 4G iPhone[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. Future of smartphone The next generation of smartphones is going to be context-aware. 3 Channel hogging & file sharing There will be a hit to file sharing. HTML. Although no single Symbian device has sold as many units as the iPhone. Nokia and other manufacturers (currently including Sony Ericsson and Samsung. com/ article/ 140078/ 2009/ 04/ seidenberg. The Windows Mobile Standard does not have a touch screen but uses a trackball. with the richest history and the largest marketshare. com/ 2009/ 07/ 10/ t-mobile-and-google-promote-the-next-generation-of-android-phones/ http:/ / www. One thing companies are developing software to take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. html http:/ / venturebeat. touchpad. taking advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors and data exchange capabilities. and previously Motorola) release a wide variety of Symbian models every year which gives Symbian the greatest marketshare. macworld. The limitations of wireless networking will not be cured by 4G. Symbian is the original smartphone OS. One of the main features applying to this is that the phones are going to start keeping track of your personal data. one of which is an X-Ray device that reveals information about any location at which you point your phone. There are going to be all new applications coming out with the new phones. pri. The BlackBerry RIM is a SmartPhone that has a multimedia player and third-party software installation. The users would then be forced to find a Wi-Fi hotspot in order to be able to download their music. AT&T claimed that they would ban any of their users that they caught using "peer-to-peer" (P2P) file sharing applications on their 3G network. the normal web surfer would want to look at a new web page every minute or so at 100kbs you could get your page pretty quickly. rockers. html . An example of this is where you can point the phones camera while having the live feed open and it will show text with the building and saving the location of the building for future use. as there are simply too many fundamental differences between wireless networking and other means of Internet access. If wireless vendors do not realize these differences and bandwidth limitations. Because of the changes to the security of wireless networks you will not be able to do huge file transfers because the service providers want to cut down on channel hogging. etc. future wireless customers will find themselves quite disappointed and the market will suffer quite a setback.

who received The Economist’s Innovation Award 2008[3] for his work on Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. in 2004 Finnair[1] was the first airline in the world to enable passengers to check-in in advance for flights with iSMS text messages.2-way iSMS 4 2-way iSMS The iSMS® is a patented next generation interactive version of the traditional SMS text message and a trademark. where people are using the iSMS for different types of easy to use bookings. The iSMS has become very popular in BookIT’s home country Finland. The iSMS technology has been developed and patented by a Finnish high tech company called BookIT. for example between organizations and their customers or employees. Makkonen says. The network does not notice these secret fingerprints and as a result the iSMS service can be used by any of the existing 3. iSMS technology The iSMS technology is based on patented BookIT DDM (Dynamic Dialogue Matrix) -method. This Finnair's service is called Check-in via text message -service [2]. which can be answered by using the “single button” principle. The passengers are extremely satisfied since they avoid queuing and can proceed directly to the gate because the iSMS service completes the dialogue by sending an iSMS boarding pass directly to the screen of a mobile phone. For the receivers. passwords or special authentication procedures. It includes session management and automatic secure authentication to enable easy-to-use and secure transactions between applications and mobile phones. it’s very easy to reply to iSMS messages because they all include predefined choices. . The iSMS powered solutions also work on all mobile phones and all networks without installing software or configurations to the phone because the iSMS messages are delivered as standard SMS messages. says that the iSMS is delivering his vision of mobile phone based bookiting transactions. Application-to-person dialogues and transactions and asynchronous iSMS sessions are managed by a unique and patented BookIT DDM method. Matti Makkonen. Mr Matti Makkonen says Bookit’s innovation is very clever because it uses the benefits of an already existing SMS standard but manages SMS transactions intelligently by adding “finger prints” to each message. that this interactive version of SMS is quickly gaining popularity because it works on any mobile phone and on any mobile network without installing any software on the phone. which enables iSMS–powered solutions to perform interactive iSMS-dialogues between sender and receiver. which enhances the global standard SMS infrastructure with a unique iSMS business transaction capability. In these iSMS powered solutions and applications the iSMS technology establishes a session with the user and manages the flow of SMS messages between the application and users so that right responses are linked to the right application even if several simultaneous sessions are established. The service is very easy to use since the user automatically receives a check-in request from the iSMS service and can then do the check-in simply by one-button-reply with his/her mobile phone. Mr. Matti Makkonen and iSMS Mr. The authentication of users is secured so customers do not need to remember user names. For example. This together with the open and universal SMS connectivity enables it’s rapid deployment. In 2008 more than half of the Finnair’s airline passengers do their check-in with iSMS. The BookIT DDM technology is implemented on industry standard application server platforms and protocols for internet.7 billion SMS users internationally and on any phone. the founder of SMS.

bookit. com [2] http:/ / www. cfm?source=hptextfeature& story_id=10676339 [4] http:/ / www.com [1] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ science/ tq/ displayStory.net [5] • Finnair. net/ Solutions_1/ en_GB/ 1132180885579/ [5] http:/ / www. finnair. net/ .2-way iSMS 5 External links • Bookit solutions [4] • Bookit. fi/ finnaircom/ wps/ portal/ finnair/ kcxml/ 04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKL9473DAbJgFguPvqRqCLOnqgiLvHO3nARX4_83FT9oNS8eDdPfW_9AP2C3NDQiHJHRQBuqQpr/ delta/ base64xml/ L3dJdyEvd0ZNQUFzQUMvNElVRS82X0tfM1VF [3] http:/ / www. finnair. bookit. economist.

S.2degrees 6 2degrees Two Degrees Mobile Limited Type Industry Founded Headquarters Products Website Private Mobile telecommunications 2009 Auckland. they introduced mobile broadband on their UMTS 2100 MHz. 2degrees has spent $250 million building its network in the main city centres of Auckland. They launched on 5 August 2009 after 9 years of planning. Naming The name of the company refers to a local variation of the six degrees of separation concept.[8] They have a national roaming agreement with Vodafone to provide seamless nationwide coverage even though they have only built towers in 4 cities.112 customers[4] (12. and British owned[2] [3] mobile phone provider operating in New Zealand with 580. In August 2010. 1800 MHz) services on its own cellular network.[7] The network has a few hundreds of cell sites installed. In areas without 2degrees coverage handsets will roam on Vodafone's GSM and UMTS network. plus the tourist destination Queenstown. which has cost approximately NZ$250 million to develop.5% of New Zealand's population).[5] Network 2degrees was formerly known as NZ Communications and previously as Econet Wireless. in selected areas. . Their GSM network supports EDGE. 2degrees currently offers prepaid and pay monthly mobile services. Standards and technologies The company provides GSM 900 MHz (and. New Zealand GSM and UMTS (3G) mobile networks and retail 2degrees Homepage [1] 2degrees is a U. Their network will work with GSM and UMTS mobiles compatible with the competing Vodafone and Telecom XT networks. Wellington and Christchurch. Planning began in 2000 but details were not revealed until 11 May 2009 and pricing was announced a day before launch.[6] a feature not supported by any other network in New Zealand.

[18] In July 2009. a London-based company that invests in telecommunications and related software businesses (25. NZ-24 or NZ Comms may be displayed on the mobile phones network list. New Zealand has number portability. the 2degrees Pay Monthly minutes carryover to the following months meaning that users can keep unused minutes for up to a year. Rangiaho Everton claimed that the auction breached the Treaty of Waitangi because she believed radio spectrum is taonga and the government has no right to sell it. 2500 texts to any network and 50 mega bytes of data for $29 a month with a special offer of an extra 60 minutes each month for 12 months. History In 1999.76%)[16] . 2degrees is owned by Trilogy International Partners. (Wai 776) The National government of the day ignored the Waitangi Tribunal and kept on auctioning the spectrum. Everton lodged a claim with the Waitangi Tribunal. It was not until Labour won the 1999 election that Māori were allocated one of the four 2 GHz 3G spectrum licences at a [13] [14] discounted price plus $5 million to develop it. Currently. Telstra and Orange UK.52%)[15] . on 17 September 2010. Inbound Roaming 2degrees (still called NZ Communications on the Three website and Telstra roaming site) is open to customers with handsets from some foreign networks. The native STD prefix for the network is 022 [9] . Expansion In February 2011 2degrees announced[11] that they had obtained financing for a further $100 million network expansion. Differing from other network plans in New Zealand. The current 'entry' plan offers 60 minutes. a Hong Kong based private equity fund percent shares to Trilogy. sold its 25. including: • Using USSD to check and top up account balance • The ability to get settings from the SIM Menu • EDGE data services MNC and dialing codes The mobile network code is 530-24. Te Huarahi Tika Trust (20. The plan ties the user into a month by month contract meaning that the maximum cancellation period is 30 days. No particular details were forthcoming.14%)[17] and KLR Hong Kong.76 . but 2degrees has obtained government licenses for wireless spectrum in the Hamilton and Tauranga regions which seem likely areas[12] for new cell towers. so customers switching from other networks may keep their existing mobile number. including Three. the New Zealand Government auctioned off 3G spectrum radio spectrum licence.[10] These foreign customers can place calls using 2degrees cell sites in major New Zealand cities. which was upheld. aptly named Pay Monthly. General Enterprise Management Services. a US venture capital firm specializing in mobile networks (51. Pay Monthly 2degrees launched its first monthly postpaid plan. Communication Venture Partners. [19] .2degrees 7 New Features 2degrees have a number of new features not found on other New Zealand mobile phone networks.

000[26] . They also offer their products at supermarkets.[25] Phone numbers 2degrees auctioned 85 special numbers on New Zealand auction website TradeMe for charity. 2degrees also sold $2 SIM cards with $2 credit. provided they have topped up within the last 30 days. customers will receive a special rate of 22 cents for on-network and landline calls.[22] They also have a kiosk store in St Lukes Shopping Centre. raising over $65. and now 2500 texts). one in the Sylvia Park Shopping Mall. with voice calls costing 44 cents compared to 89 cents being charged by Telecom. both in Auckland.[30] 2degrees SIM card and packaging . a comedian who tends to make jokes and sketches about New Zealand life. on the 2degrees website. one in Wellington. 2000. SMS messages are charged at 9 cents compared to 20 cents on Vodafone and Telecom customers without a text plan. Currently Vodafone NZ offers $12 for 2500 any network SMS messages on a prepay plan. likely due to the number eight being considered lucky in some Asian cultures. They also gave away free SIMs as part of their Chinwag & launch week campaigns and give them away with most new handsets. with plans to open more stores nationwide. $6 for 50 MB of mobile data. $10 txt ($10 for 500 any network text messages.2degrees 8 Phones 2degrees offers mobile phones from $49 [20] The iPhone will work on the network. petrol stations and convenience stores. however. as well as Sylvia Park Shopping Mall in Auckland. they only come with $1 credit compared with the $10 provided from the other networks (+$10. and some calling plans.[24] On 25 May 2010. as well as 2 cents per on-network SMS. 2degrees are currently deploying their 3G network better suited to the iPhone.[27] [28] New customers can choose their own number. one in in Newmarket.[23] Also.[29] Marketing 2degrees is currently running commercials featuring Rhys Darby. The highest selling number was 022 888 8888. if details are registered online). 2degrees announced several new plans. and Telecom's XT Network offers a $12 2500 any network text prepay plan. Customers will receive 100 to 500 free SMS messages per $20–$50 prepay top-up. later upgrading to 1000. Services 2degrees halved the prevalent pricing for prepay mobile in the New Zealand market. SIM cards are available for $5 instead of $30 charged by the other two companies. one in Hamilton and one in Westfield Riccarton in Christchurch. $6 Data Bundles.[21] 2degrees currently has 5 retail stores open. 2degrees have recently activated Vodafone's 3G network as part of their nationwide roaming agreement. $10 for 100 MB of mobile data.

cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10571640 [9] http:/ / tvnz. nz/ marae/ s2009-e21-video-2851310) [14] http:/ / www.nz/technology/164209) • Third mobile telco rebrands as 2degrees (http://tvnz. 2degreesmobile.stuff. trademe.nz/) • NZ Communications roaming deal (http://www. trilogyinternationalpartners. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10588590 [24] http:/ / www. co. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10584744) [3] Trilogy . stuff. nzherald. co. nz/ mail-images/ 2degrees-press-release10. co.co.co. 2degreesmobile. co. com/ 2degreesmobile?v=feed& story_fbid=149232068135 [27] Numbers in Chinese culture [28] (http:/ / www. nz/ magic-top-up [25] http:/ / www. com/ country/ new_zealand. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10713109 [5] http:/ / www. 3gnewsroom. nbr. pdf [30] YouTube . pdf [23] http:/ / www. uk/ Help_Support/ International/ Going_abroad_Pay_Monthly/ Destination_Details?content_aid=1214306364761 [11] http:/ / blog.Comcel (http:/ / www. htm) [20] https:/ / www. hk/ portfolio/ NZC. php) [4] http:/ / www. nz/ Browse/ Listing. do%3FprodId%3D76& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet_prodId=76& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet__sorig=%2FSelectCat. co. co. co. nz/ speakers/ ) [17] (http:/ / www. nz/ business-news/ 2degrees-launches-mobile-pricing-2886330/ video [22] http:/ / www.geekzone. nz/ article/ breaking-news-2degress-boss-quits-just-ahead-launch-105566 [19] (http:/ / www. co. co. three.co. nz/ 200907313418/ 2degrees-targets-$100m-market-for-roaming-tourists. co. asp?forumid=85& topicid=37534& page_no=1#238184 [7] http:/ / www. co.nz/business-news/ third-mobile-telco-rebrands-2degrees-2724433) • 2Degrees cell tower map (http://www. nzherald. co. 2degreesmobile.2degrees 9 References [1] http:/ / www. nz/ [2] Telco in shake-up weeks from launch . telecommunicationsreview. nzherald. com. co. com/ 2degrees. nzherald. aspx?id=233267560) [29] http:/ / www. geekzone. com/ watch?v=QzCeeuwm6aA) External links • 2degrees mobile (http://www. nz/ news. nz/ business/ news/ article. nz/ lost-sim [26] http:/ / www. nz/ ) [18] http:/ / www. nsf/ telecommunications/ slowly-cautiously-2degrees-rolls-out-3g [13] TVNZ Marae episode 21 (http:/ / tvnz. do%3FcatId%3D21 [21] http:/ / tvnz. nz/ technology/ 2400954/ Wellington-Manukau-frustrate-2degrees [6] http:/ / www.nz/BarTender/7403) . co. nz/ business-news/ third-mobile-telco-rebrands-2degrees-2724433 [10] http:/ / www.Business . 2degreesmobile.2degreesmobile. gems.co. facebook. php [8] http:/ / www. youtube. co. co. co. co. nz/ business/ news/ article. trilogyinternationalpartners. shtml [15] (http:/ / www. co. nz/ forums. co. 2degreesmobile. co. co. 2degreesmobile. nz/ business/ news/ article.NZ Herald News (http:/ / www. php) [16] (http:/ / www. thtt. morgo. nz/ media/ 2degrees-invests-in-network-and-future-growth/ [12] http:/ / computerworld. nz/ shop?p_p_id=konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet& p_p_lifecycle=1& p_p_state=normal& p_p_mode=view& p_p_col_id=column-1& p_p_col_count=1& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet__spage=%2FSelectProd. nz/ nzc-theme/ pdf/ 2degrees-press-release7.Stay 2degrees (http:/ / www. co. 2degreesmobile. com/ 2degrees. nz/ business/ news/ article.

.. developed by KeyPoint Technologies. Automated correction of spelling mistakes were also made available... personal dictionary. dynamic language detection.[1] The application stores the new words in the user’s personal dictionary.-+ | Transport | +. including calendar entries..| AS +. a UK-based software company.. with improved support for third-party applications..... KeyPoint also launched a new version of Adaptxt with error correction.. This feature provides alternative suggestions for incorrect spellings. where they can be edited.| IP +...-+ | Physical | +.-+ Adaptxt Adaptxt is a predictive text application for mobile phones. thanks to an engine capable of recognizing the language in use... The new words learnt are added to the personal dictionary and offered as suggestions during text entry...[4] Later that year. phonebook contacts. All these features can now be found in the Symbian version of the product and most of them can also be found in the Windows Mobile . with an option to revert to the exact word entered by the user in case of unwanted corrections..-+ | Internet | +. KeyPoint also claims that Adaptxt users can type in any of the installed languages without changing their keyboard language or dictionary.... word completion.| NAS +.| HTTP +.-+ | Application | +. History and Product Features Launched at a press conference in 2006.. This feature is supposed to be an added [2] value for users who are bi-lingual or occasionally type in a foreign language.Access Stratum 10 Access Stratum Access Stratum (AS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Radio Network and User Equipment.. conversion from SMS language to standard English and vice versa.. A version for Symbian S60 smartphones was released in 2008.. The “Scan Facebook” feature learns words from the user’s Facebook profile.-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +........| Channels +. multilingual text entry and a feature that learns new words and context while typing... Adaptxt initially supported Windows Mobile smartphones only........ The radio network is also called access network..| TCP +..-+ | Link Layer | +....[3] In April 2009. SMS and email inbox and sent items.. KeyPoint introduced a feature to scan personal data. +.-+ | Network Layer| +. Adaptxt was probably the first text entry application for mobile phones to provide features such as: context-based next-word suggestions... The application is designed to improve text entry on mobile devices by making it faster and error-free.. continuously adapting to the user's personal writing style and vocabulary....... It is said to achieve this by predicting the next word as well as the word currently being typed.

European Portuguese. Latvian. European Spanish. Ukrainian. Icelandic. Romanian. Hungarian.adaptxt. 20-key or QWERTY layouts. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / news. such as medicine. Swedish.[5] KeyPoint was also the first software company to introduce professional add-on dictionaries that provide industry-specific word and phrase suggestions related to a particular profession. blogspot.com/) . Filipino. Canadian French. IT and telecommunications. com/ External links • Adaptxt official website (http://www. German.[5] Users can download additional language and professional dictionaries from the product website directly to their devices. Finnish. European French. com/ 2008/ 04/ 01/ keypoint-releases-new-adaptxt-beta-for-s60/ http:/ / predictivetext. Brazilian Portuguese. An Android-compatible version of the application is due to be released in 2011. Slovak. The following 38 languages and respective keyboard layouts are currently supported by Adaptxt: English US. law. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ glasgow_and_west/ 6121806. Czech. Norwegian.[5] Adaptxt supports both touch-screen and hard-keyboard devices with 12-key. Estonian. Basque. html http:/ / www.Adaptxt version. Bulgarian. Slovenian. Adaptxt offers both Multi-tap and Predictive entry modes. bbc. com/ kpt-identifies-351m-untapped-market-for-language-dictionaries-on-mobile-phones/ http:/ / www. Turkish. Russian. business and finance. bgr. 11 Comparison with other applications KeyPoint Technologies claims that Adaptxt has higher accuracy than traditional predictive text thanks to its context awareness and that can cut down keystrokes by up to 60% when compared to traditional text entry (multitap). Serbian. Latin-American Spanish. gomonews. Catalan. Indonesian. English UK. Galician. com/ 2009/ 06/ adaptxt-for-nokia-s60-smartphone-beta. On 12-key phones. Greek. Lithuanian. stm http:/ / www. adaptxt. Croatian. Adaptxt learning feature is said to improve accuracy of predicted words. Polish. co.[1] Keypoint also claims that Adaptxt has a wider language coverage than most competitors and assists business users by providing domain-specific vertical dictionaries. Italian. Danish. Malay and Vietnamese.

Operators The following mobile network operators are known to use AWS. Mobilicity also uses the AWS spectrum and began offering services in May 2010. also known as AWS-1 or UMTS band IV. The AWS band uses microwave frequencies in two segments: from 1710 to 1755 MHz for uplink. . 2011 in Ottawa. 2010 in Montreal and Québec City. Deployed under Long Term Evolution (LTE). Other cities coming later on in 2011/2012.[3] Shaw Communications licensed AWS spectrum in western Canada and northern Ontario.[2] Wind Mobile has licensed AWS spectrum in every province aside from Quebec. 2009. and messaging services. Videotron — September 9. as well as Cricket's and MetroPCS' CDMA networks. AWS-1 is used in the United States and Canada. and messaging. It replaces the spectrum formerly allocated to Multipoint Multichannel Distribution Service (MMDS). 2010. Indicated in the list are the launch date and city.July 7.Advanced Wireless Services 12 Advanced Wireless Services Advanced Wireless Services. and began offering voice and data services on December 16. sometimes referred to as Wireless Cable.[5] and has not yet launched services as of June 2011. video.[4] Halifax-based EastLink obtained licenses in eastern Canada. Mobilicity — May 15. Canada In Canada. Quebecor licensed AWS spectrum throughout the province of Quebec and began offering service with its Videotron brand on September 9. video. United States In the USA. 2010 in Toronto. 2006 and the majority of the frequency blocks were sold to T-Mobile USA to deploy their 3G wireless network in the United States. Industry Canada held the auction for AWS spectrum in 2008. Other networks that use the AWS band for services in the United States are i wireless' UMTS 3g network[6] . This move effectively kills the former MMDS and/or Wireless Cable service in the United States. The service is intended to be used by mobile devices such as wireless phones for mobile data. but has not yet launched its wireless services as of June 2011. Rogers Wireless . Canada • • • • Wind Mobile — December 16. is a wireless telecommunications spectrum band used for mobile voice and data services. and from 2110 to 2155 MHz for downlink[1] . 2009 in Toronto. Bidding for this new spectrum started on August 9. the service is administered by the Federal Communications Commission.

first AWS service in North America T-Mobile USA — May 1. in New York City MetroPCS Cincinnati Bell Compatible devices A list of phones. smartphones and modems that supports the AWS frequency. 2008. Alcatel • OT-981A • 990S One Touch Research In Motion (BlackBerry) • • • • Bold 9780 Bold 9700 Pearl 9100 Curve 3G (9300) Garmin • Nüvifone A50 / Garminfone HTC • • • • • • • • • • • • Google Nexus One HD2 HD7 T-Mobile Touch Pro2 G2 Dream myTouch 3G myTouch 4G (sold as Panache in Canada) Incredible S Maple/Snap Sensation HTC Flyer (3G version) .Advanced Wireless Services 13 United States • • • • Cricket Communications — April 8. 2008: Launched in Oklahoma City.

Advanced Wireless Services 14 Huawei • • • • • • • • • E138 USB modem E181 USB modem E1691 USB modem U1250 U3200 U7519 marketed as T-Mobile Tap U8100-9 U8500 IDEOS [7] Ascend X / U9000 / U9000-81 LG • • • • • • • Optimus 2X Optimus T [8] Sentio [9] dLite [10] C729 GU927 P920 Motorola • • • • • • • Charm Cliq CLIQ XT also known as Quench Cliq2 Defy Motorola Milestone XT720 Motorola XT300 [11] also known as Spice (launched late Dec 2010) Nokia • • • • • • • • • • 5230 E73 almost same as E72 with AWS support N950 (developer device) N900 N8 C5-04 C6-01 (FCC ID: QXFRM-609) 3555b 3711 Nokia_C7-00 .

not A3L9020A) G-Touch (Mobilicity Canada) Google Nexus S Caliber Code i7500 (Galaxy) Freeform Freeform II Stunt .Advanced Wireless Services 15 Option • iCon 452 Samsung • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SGH-C414Y / SGH-C414V (FCC ID: A3LSGHC414Y. not A3LSGHC414) SGH-T259 SGH-T359 :) Smiley SGH-T379 SGH-T469 Gravity 2 SGH-T479 Gravity 3 (Not the SGH-T479B) SGH-T499 Dart SGH-T559 Comeback SGH-T589 Gravity Smart SGH-T636 (Cincinnati Bell) SGH-T639 SGH-T659 SGH-T669 Gravity T (Not the SGH-T669B) SGH-T749 Highlight SGH-T759 Exhibit SGH-T819 SGH-T839 Sidekick 4G SGH-T919 Behold SGH-T929 Memoir SGH-T939 Behold II SGH-T959 Galaxy S "Vibrant" SGH-T959V Galaxy S 4G (not SGH-T959P) Galaxy Tab™ Nexus S Model GT-19020T (FCC ID: AL3GT19020T or A3LGTI9020.

fcc. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-GS505. ca/ product.phonescoop. com/ promoform. ic. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-P509-Titanium. gc.Advanced Wireless Services 16 Sony Ericsson • TM506 • TM717 Equinox • X10i Zoom Telephonics • Zoom 4597 3G+ Freedom Modem References [1] http:/ / www. lg. mobilicity. huaweidevice. rfsworld.gov/services/index. iwireless. ca/ en/ releases/ archive/ July2008/ 21/ c6290. lg. thestar.com/results.gsmarena. jsp [11] http:/ / store. com/ stayconnected/ index.com/service/mobile/handsets) GSM Arena: AWS equipment list (http://www.php3?chkHSDPA1700=selected) . newswire.windmobile. com/ worldwide/ productFeatures. ca/ en/ releases/ archive/ September2010/ 07/ c7478. php?p=657& l=1& listName=stayconnected_en_articles& indexVal=651 [2] Industry Canada .videotron. .aspx) Videotron Mobile Handsets (http://www.htm?job=service_home&id=aws) PhoneScoop's Visual Guide to AWS (http://www. Retrieved 2010-04-28. com/ business/ companies/ article/ 974406--shaw-rethinking-wireless-strategy) [5] EastLink Planning To Go Wireless After Success In Spectrum Auction (http:/ / ogov.com/shop/Phones/CompareFull. html) [4] Shaw Re-thinking Wireless Strategy (http:/ / www. html) [6] "i Wireless rolls out 3g" (http:/ / www. jsp [9] http:/ / www.t-mobile. lg. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-GD570-Blue. asp?promo=3G).Quebecor Media and Videotron invite you to the dawn of a new era (http:/ / www. [7] http:/ / www.ca/support/faq/phones-wind/#question-5 T-Mobile cell phones comparison (http://www. ca/ eic/ site/ smt-gst. html) [3] Media Advisory .com/articles/aws/) Wind Mobile FAQ on phone compatibility http://www. asp?pf_id=43695M External links • • • • • • FCC: Advanced Wireless Services (http://wireless.Spectrum Management and Telecommunications Auction of Spectrum Licences for Advanced Wireless Services and Other Spectrum in the 2 GHz Range (http:/ / www. do?pinfoId=2831& directoryId=2037& treeId=37 [8] http:/ / www. nsf/ eng/ h_sf08891. newswire. jsp [10] http:/ / www.

AskMeNow 17 AskMeNow AskMeNow Inc.Enterprise Semantic Search Solution SMS-based question answering. [2] The contract between AskMeNow and Wikimedia was rescinded after Jimmy Wales announced his own for profit search engine named Wikia. mobile advertising AskMeNow Inc. The AskWiki engine was able to parse natural language statements and return specific answers rather than just relevant articles. The Irvine. AskWiki. integrated some of the semantic web and natural language features of AskMeNow into Wikipedia searches. was an American public corporation. Former type Industry Fate Founded Defunct Public (Pink Sheets: AKMN Search Dissolved November 2005 2008 [1] ) Headquarters Irvine.CEO S3 . California Area served Key people Products Services North America Darryl Cohen . California based company officially launched in November 2005 and ceased operations in late 2008. AskWiki AskMeNow signed a partnership agreement with the Wikimedia Foundation to bring natural language processing to Wikipedia. mobile content distribution. The beta product. AskMeNow's primary offering was a consumer mobile search product which utilized proprietary technology to offer a natural language based interaction and dynamic content provision platform. . specializing in mobile search and mobile advertising.

It is used extensively with GPS-capable cellular phones as its development was accelerated by the U. com/ iw/ 070109/ 0200987. com/ stock/ AKMN/ quote http:/ / www. is a system which can.[3] Merriam-Webster. . which can cost money depending on the plan. • The network can provide precise time.S.[6] AskMeNow had established distribution partnerships with Alltel[7] in the US and Rogers Wireless andBell Mobility[8] in Canada. 2007). • The device captures a snapshot of the GPS signal. html) Assisted GPS Assisted GPS.[5] and Guinness World Records. walls or tree cover. for the server to later process into a position. yahoo. webmonkey. some standalone GPS navigation devices may not be able to work out a position due to the fragmentary signal.5 [2] minutes (the time needed to download the GPS almanac and ephemeris). engadgetmobile. Information used to more quickly acquire satellites • It can supply orbital data or almanac for the GPS satellites to the GPS receiver. improve the startup performance. com/ 20070221/ encyclopaedia_britannica_selects_askmenow_to_launch_mobile_geae. com/ story/ puck-drops-on-askmenownhl-deal/ 2007-04-12) AskMeNow and Merriam-Webster Launch Mobile Dictionary (http:/ / biz. jspx). for example in a city. network providers often count this as a data access. html) [7] Alltel offers AskMeNow mobile answer service (http:/ / www. 2010. html) World's Technology News (February 21. In very poor signal conditions. yahoo. rendering them unable to function until a clear signal can be received continuously for up to 12.[4] Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 07. or be weakened by passing through atmospheric conditions. com/ 2007/ 11/ askwiki_wikipedia_knows_what_you_re_thinking/ Puck drops on AskMeNow/NHL deal (http:/ / www. com/ iw/ 070214/ 0215510. When first turned on in these conditions. yahoo. under certain conditions. com/ e/ 080213/ akmn. For billing purposes. com/ 2007/ 03/ 02/ alltel-offers-askmenow-mobile-answer-service/ ) [8] 8-K Filing (http:/ / biz. [6] Guinness World Records(TM) Selects AskMeNow to Provide Mobile Access to Its Extensive World Record Database (http:/ / biz. fiercemobilecontent. An Assisted GPS system can address these problems by using data available from a network. otcmarkets. A-GPS additionally uses network resources to locate and utilize the satellites faster as well as better in poor signal conditions. Press release. or time-to-first-fix (TTFF) of a GPS satellite-based positioning system. ob8-k.AskMeNow 18 Partnerships AskMeNow partnered with a variety of content publishers to offer mobile access to these publishers’ content. generally abbreviated as A-GPS or aGPS. these signals may suffer multipath propagation where signals bounce off buildings. "Encyclopaedia Britannica Selects AskMeNow to Launch Mobile Encyclopedia" (http:/ / www.[3] Assistance falls into two categories: 1. These partnerships included National Hockey League. FCC's 911 mandate making the location of a cell phone available to emergency call dispatchers. mirror99.[1] Description "Standalone" or "Autonomous" GPS operation uses radio signals from satellites alone. enabling the GPS receiver to lock to the satellites more rapidly in some cases. with approximate time. . References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.

" the amount of CPU and programming required for a GPS receiver is reduced by offloading most of the work onto the assistance server. However. LTE or even using other wireless radio bearers such as WIFI. In AGPS. which is sometimes slower on time to first fix. AGPS has two modes of operation: 1. Different modes of AGPS operation With Respect to Assistance data and position calculation. Mobile Station Assisted (MSA) . A Standalone GPS system needs orbital information of the satellites to calculate the current position. An AGPS capable device can connect to these servers and download this information using Mobile Network radio bearers such as GSM. 19 Basic Concepts of AGPS Standalone GPS provides first position in approximately 30-40 seconds. and therefore can work beyond network range. it may use standalone GPS. reference time and other optional assistance data from the A-GPS server.Assisted GPS • Accurate. 2. WCDMA.[4] High Sensitivity GPS is an allied technology that addresses some of these issues in a way that does not require additional infrastructure. the A-GPS device receives signals from the visible satellites and send the measurements to the A-GPS server. Usually the data rate of these bearers is high. The A-GPS server calculates the position and sends it back to the A-GPS device. the A-GPS device receives ephemeris. If it also has functioning autonomous GPS. (See also Wide Area Augmentation System) 2. surveyed coordinates for the cell site towers allow better knowledge of local ionospheric conditions and other conditions affecting the GPS signal than the GPS receiver alone. and without incurring data usage fees. CDMA. reference location. the A-GPS device receives signals from the visible satellites and calculates the position.In MSA mode A-GPS operation. the A-GPS capable device receives acquisition assistance. These AGPS servers download the orbital information from the satellite and store it in the database. .[3] Some aGPS devices do not have the option of falling back to standalone or autonomous GPS.In MSB mode A-GPS operation. so downloading orbital information like ephemeris and almanac directly from satellites typically takes a long time. unlike some forms of A-GPS. known as "MS-Assisted. and plentiful computation power. Calculation of position by the server using information from the GPS receiver • The assistance server has a good satellite signal. A typical A-GPS-enabled receiver will use a data connection (Internet or other) to contact the assistance server for aGPS information. enabling more precise calculation of position. Network Operator deploys AGPS server. high-sensitivity GPS cannot provide a fix instantaneously when the GPS receiver has been off for some time. Many mobile phones combine A-GPS and other location services including Wi-Fi Positioning System and cell-site triangulation and sometimes a hybrid positioning system. hence downloading orbital information takes less time. With the help of the above data. in some A-GPS device implementations. The data rate of the satellite signal is only 50 b/s. reference time and other optional assistance data from the A-GPS server. but does not depend on the network. Mobile Station Based (MSB) . With the help of the above data. so it can compare fragmentary signals relayed to it As an additional benefit.

CNET. html#iPhone) Hybrid system Audience (telecom company) Audience is a telecommunications company based in Mountain View. 4. pdf) NavCen GPS User. navcen. [2] (http:/ / www. These protocols are defined for Circuit Switched Networks.3gpp defined this protocol as part of the RRC standard for UMTS network.CDMA2000 family defined this protocol for CDMA 2000 networks.3gpp defined LPP or LTE positioning protocol for LTE Networks.3 Almanac Collection [3] Watch out for data charges on your GPS phone (http:/ / www. uscg. 3gpp and Open Mobile Alliance(OMA). GPS World. Awards Audience was the Silver Winner in the 2008 Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Awards and the Winner of the Semiconductor category. LPP . com. They are one of the 34 founding members of The Open Handset Alliance. They specialize in noise suppression for cellular phones to improve voice clarity.” External links • Official website [1] • Google Nexus One Press Release [2] . 1. com/ gps/ assisted-gps-a-low-infrastructure-approach-734).3gpp defined RRLP or Radio resource location protocol to support positioning protocol on GSM networks. 3. . 1. 2.00.339281483. TIA 801 . com/ iphone.Assisted GPS 20 AGPS Standards AGPS protocols are part of Positioning Protocol defined by two different standardization body. California. March 1. gpsworld.5.0 References [1] "Assisted GPS: A Low-Infrastructure Approach" (http:/ / www. The technology is applicable across a broad range of consumer products where voice needs to be intelligible in noisy environments. SUPL V2. Following positioning protocol has been defined. 2. au/ mobilephones/ phones/ 0. RRLP . 3.239025953. 1. Control Plane Protocol . Retrieved 2008-06-11. Two generations of User plane Protocol has evolved. August 2007 [4] Networking iPhone A-GPS (http:/ / www. The company was included in Gartner’s “Cool Vendors in Semiconductors. cnet. User Plane Protocol . htm). SUPL V1. They partnered with HTC to integrate their noise suppression technology into the Google Nexus One smartphone.It is defined by OMA to support positioning protocols in Packet Switched Networks.It is defined by 3gpp for various generations of mobile phone system.0 2. RRC position protocol . 2008” and selected as the Most Innovative True Mobile Start-Up for the “2008 GSMA Mobile Innovation Global Awards. 2002. edepot. gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser.

net. Massachusetts Key people Jim Iuliano (President and CEO) Chris Gollihur (Vice President of Finance and Administration) John Griesing (Vice President of R&D) Peter M. [2] http:/ / www.[7] References [1] Scheiber.com. 2G/3G cellular and Wi-Fi networks. Microwaves and RF. azimuthsystems.[6] Also. google. Retrieved 2010-03-01. Nancy (2009-01-01). com/ article/ CA6648778. [5] Nelson. Strategy and News. com/ article/ idUS126970+ 28-Jul-2009+ MW20090728). . php). 2010-04-01. "Getting to 4G through design and test" (http:/ / www.[4] [5] In April 2010. Steve (2009-04-09).[3] In 2009 Azimuth Systems wrote a White paper entitled Improving 4G Wireless Broadband Product Design through Effective Channel Emulation Testing. com/ [3] "Azimuth Systems Marks the First Half of 2009 With Record Growth and Expansion Into the MIMO and Cellular Markets" (http:/ / www. Paglia (Vice President of Sales and Business Development) [1] George Reed (Vice President of Marketing and Product Management) www. Rick (2009-02-01). . . [6] "T&MW announces 2010 award winners" (http:/ / www. html). cfm?Ad=1& ArticleID=20604). Azimuth Systems was awarded the Best in Test award from Test & Measurement World Magazine. htm. mwrf. tmworld. com/ Articles/ Index. reuters.Audience (telecom company) 21 References [1] http:/ / www. Massachusetts. tmworld. 2009-10-29. in 2009. WiMAX.azimuthsystems. TMC Net. . Azimuth Systems was awarded the 4G Wireless Evolution LTE Visionary Awardby TMC. Test and Measurement World. html?nid=3370& rid=6559034). Retrieved 2010-03-01. [4] Friedrich. . com/ article/ CA6632270. com/ article/ 453942-T_MW_announces_2010_award_winners. .com. Retrieved 2010-03-01. com [2] http:/ / www.com [2] Website Azimuth Systems is a privately-held company located near Boston. Retrieved 2010-03-01. [7] "Azimuth Systems Receives 2009 4G Wireless Evolution LTE Visionary Award" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-04-26. tmcnet. 2009-07-28. Electronics Design. com/ usubmit/ 2009/ 10/ 29/ 4452731. htm). audience. The company’s primary products include wireless channel emulators and wireless test equipment for LTE. Reuters. tmworld. html Azimuth Systems Azimuth Systems Type Industry Private Wireless Test Equipment Headquarters Acton. com/ intl/ en/ press/ pressrel/ 20100105_phone. . "Channel-Emulation Testing Aids 4G Product Design" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-03-01. "Channel Emulation Supports Mobile MIMO" (http:/ / www. edn.

Ohio Athens. Oklahoma Adrian.com/) Basic Trading Area In the US.[2] List of Basic Trading Areas BTA # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Basic Trading Area MTA # 27 42 10 31 13 1 30 14 29 30 13 35 10 42 17 5 2 26 31 5 8 1 9 1 33 1 10 Major Trading Area Aberdeen. Louisiana Allentown—Bethlehem—Easton.Azimuth Systems 22 External links • Azimuth Systems Website (http://www. South Dakota Aberdeen. Texas Anchorage. South Carolina Anniston. Georgia Atlantic City. New Jersey Augusta. Georgia Athens. Paul Seattle—Tacoma Dallas—Fort Worth Oklahoma City Detroit Atlanta New York El Paso—Albuquerque New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Detroit Pittsburgh Dallas—Fort Worth Seattle—Tacoma Indianapolis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Birmingham Milwaukee Oklahoma City Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Cleveland Atlanta Columbus Atlanta Philadelphia Atlanta Dallas—Fort Worth .[1] It consists of the counties surrounding a city designated as the basic trading center. Michigan Altoona. Pennsylvania Amarillo. Washington Abilene. Georgia Austin. Oklahoma Asheville—Hendersonville. Pennsylvania Alpena. Ohio Atlanta. New York Albuquerque. Indiana Anderson.azimuthsystems. Georgia Albany—Schenectady. a Basic Trading Area is a geographic region defined originally in the Rand McNally Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide and used by the FCC where a Personal Communications Service can operate. Alabama Appleton—Oshkosh. New Mexico Alexandria. Texas Ada. Texas Minneapolis—St. Alaska Anderson. North Carolina Ashtabula. Michigan Albany—Tifton. Wisconsin Ardmore.

Montana Biloxi—Gulfport—Pascagoula. New York Burlington. Minnesota Bend. Missouri 22 46 3 45 29 13 16 7 42 27 36 6 10 43 29 30 2 27 6 17 7 24 39 3 23 43 27 42 40 10 18 16 4 12 5 30 43 8 38 Los Angeles—San Diego Washington—Baltimore Boston—Providence Tulsa New Orleans—Baton Rouge Detroit Houston Cincinnati—Dayton Seattle—Tacoma Minneapolis—St. Iowa Burlington. Texas Beckley. New York Birmingham. West Virginia Blytheville. Illinois Bloomington—Bedford. Paul Seattle—Tacoma San Antonio Dallas—Fort Worth Jacksonville Houston Buffalo—Rochester Des Moines—Quad Cities Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh New York Spokane—Billings Cleveland St. Arkansas Boise—Nampa. Michigan Beaumont—Port Arthur. North Carolina Burlington. Indiana Bluefield. Oklahoma Baton Rouge. Montana Canton—New Philadelphia. Vermont Butte. North Dakota Bloomington. Maine Bartlesville. Paul Chicago Indianapolis Cincinnati—Dayton Memphis—Jackson Salt Lake City Boston—Providence Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Spokane—Billings Minneapolis—St. Kentucky Bozeman. Washington Brownsville—Harlingen. Mississippi Binghamton. Oregon Benton Harbor. Georgia Bryan—College Station. Texas Brownwood. Louisiana Battle Creek. Michigan Big Spring. Alabama Bismarck. Idaho Boston. Massachusetts Bowling Green—Glasgow. Ohio Cape Girardeau—Sikeston. Texas Billings.Basic Trading Area 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Bakersfield. Louis 23 . West Virginia Bellingham. Washington Bemidji. Montana Brainerd. Texas Brunswick. Paul Portland Chicago Dallas—Fort Worth Spokane—Billings New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Birmingham Minneapolis—St. California Baltimore. Minnesota Bremerton. Maryland Bangor. Texas Buffalo—Niagara Falls.

Mississippi Columbus. South Carolina Charleston. Wyoming Chicago. Kansas Colorado Springs. South Carolina Columbus. New Mexico Coffeyville. Illinois Charleston. Illinois Danville. Ohio Cincinnati. Missouri Columbia. New Mexico Casper—Gillette. Georgia Danville. Iowa—Sterling. Tennessee Coos Bay—North Bend. Texas Cumberland. Virginia Chattanooga. Iowa—Moline. Kentucky Cleveland—Akron. Oregon Corbin. Illinois Carlsbad. Colorado Columbia. Louis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Atlanta Indianapolis Memphis—Jackson Columbus Nashville Portland Louisville—Lexington—Evansville San Antonio Washington—Baltimore Dallas—Fort Worth Atlanta Chicago Richmond—Norfolk Des Moines—Quad Cities 24 . Illinois Chico—Oroville. Tennessee—Hopkinsville.Basic Trading Area 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 Carbondale—Marion. Tennessee Cheyenne. Texas Dalton. Louis El Paso—Albuquerque Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Chicago Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Cincinnati—Dayton Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore Atlanta Denver Chicago San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Columbus Cincinnati—Dayton Pittsburgh Nashville Cleveland Atlanta Des Moines—Quad Cities Dallas—Fort Worth Tulsa Denver St. West Virginia Clarksville. Iowa Champaign—Urbana. Ohio Cookeville. West Virginia Charlotte—Gastonia. Indiana Columbus—Starkville. Illinois 38 14 11 12 6 5 7 5 46 1 11 6 41 9 7 35 28 8 1 12 10 45 11 38 5 1 17 24 9 28 36 23 40 46 10 1 6 37 12 St. Georgia Columbus. Maryland Dallas—Fort Worth. Illinois Clovis. Wyoming Cedar Rapids. Tennessee Clinton. Ohio Cleveland. North Carolina Charlottesville. California Chillicothe. Kentucky Corpus Christi. Ohio Clarksburg—Elkins. Virginia Davenport.

Texas East Liverpool—Salem. Kansas Dothan—Enterprise. Pennsylvania Dubuque. Alabama Decatur—Effingham. California Evansville. Illinois Denver. Arkansas Elkhart. Oklahoma Erie. Alaska Fairmont. New Mexico—Durango. Paul Los Angeles—San Diego Little Rock Chicago New York El Paso—Albuquerque Kansas City Oklahoma City Cleveland Milwaukee Portland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Seattle—Tacoma Pittsburgh Minneapolis—St. Arizona 7 44 2 6 11 12 13 27 47 2 33 35 12 27 24 40 8 27 22 21 6 30 14 19 31 8 26 36 41 23 42 35 27 14 21 5 27 13 34 Cincinnati—Dayton Tampa—St. Michigan Eugene—Springfield. Texas Emporia. Kansas Enid. Tennessee Eagle Pass—Del Rio. Paul El Paso—Albuquerque Little Rock Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. Paul Wichita Birmingham Philadelphia Pittsburgh Des Moines—Quad Cities Minneapolis—St. Delaware Du Bois—Clearfield. Ohio Daytona Beach. Colorado Des Moines. Florida Decatur. Minnesota Dyersburg—Union City. Iowa Duluth. California El Dorado—Magnolia—Camden. North Dakota Dodge City. West Virginia Fargo. North Carolina Fergus Falls. Alabama Dover. Wisconsin El Centro—Calexico. Paul Detroit Phoenix 25 . North Dakota Farmington. Oregon Eureka. Iowa Detroit. Indiana Elmira—Corning—Hornell. Ohio Flagstaff. Arkansas Fayetteville—Lumberton. Paul Memphis—Jackson San Antonio Cleveland Minneapolis—St. Pennsylvania Escanaba. Colorado Fayetteville—Springdale—Rogers. Michigan Dickinson. Ohio Eau Claire. Indiana Fairbanks. Petersburg—Orlando Birmingham Chicago Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Detroit Minneapolis—St.Basic Trading Area 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 Dayton—Springfield. New York El Paso. Minnesota Findlay—Tiffin.

Georgia Galesburg. North Carolina Grand Forks. Arkansas Harrisonburg. Pennsylvania Harrison. Arkansas Fort Walton Beach. Florida Fort Wayne. Alabama Gainesville.Basic Trading Area 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 Flint. South Carolina Greenwood. South Carolina Hagerstown. West Virginia Hammond. Iowa Fort Myers. Mississippi Greenville—Washington. New York Goldsboro—Kinston. Wisconsin Fort Collins—Loveland. Florida Gainesville. Wisconsin Greensboro—Winston-Salem—High Point. New Mexico Garden City. North Carolina Greenville—Greenwood. Pennsylvania—Martinsburg. South Carolina Fond du Lac. North Dakota Grand Island—Kearney. Virginia 13 2 5 26 11 12 25 25 21 29 6 46 41 2 18 1 6 14 47 30 5 27 32 11 13 47 43 11 26 5 24 5 5 5 46 29 33 21 46 Detroit Birmingham Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Milwaukee Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Miami—Fort Lauderdale Miami—Fort Lauderdale Little Rock New Orleans—Baton Rouge Chicago Washington—Baltimore San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Birmingham Jacksonville Atlanta Chicago El Paso—Albuquerque Wichita New York Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. Michigan Florence. Paul Omaha Denver Detroit Wichita Spokane—Billings Denver Milwaukee Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Memphis—Jackson Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore New Orleans—Baton Rouge Philadelphia Little Rock Washington—Baltimore 26 . Michigan Great Bend. Maryland—Chambersburg. Nebraska Grand Junction. Indiana Fredericksburg. Louisiana Harrisburg. Florida Fort Smith. Kansas Great Falls. Montana Greeley. Kansas Glens Falls. Colorado Fort Dodge. Florida Fort Pierce—Vero Beach—Stuart. Colorado Grand Rapids. Illinois Gallup. Colorado Green Bay. Virginia Fresno. Alabama Florence. North Carolina Greenville—Spartanburg. California Gadsden.

Basic Trading Area 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 Hartford. South Dakota Hutchinson. Mississippi Jackson. Mississippi Hays. Michigan Ironwood. Alabama Huron. West Virginia—Ashland. Wisconsin Jefferson City. Louisiana Houston. Missouri Johnstown. Pennsylvania—Dunkirk. Pennsylvania Indianapolis. Alaska Kahului—Wailuku—Lahaina. Nebraska Hattiesburg. Indiana Iowa City. Kansas Helena. Texas Huntington. Hawaii 30 32 29 47 43 5 15 10 15 21 26 29 16 7 2 27 47 3 39 35 17 12 26 27 30 13 24 24 18 6 5 4 26 38 35 21 19 42 15 New York Omaha New Orleans—Baton Rouge Wichita Spokane—Billings Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Honolulu Dallas—Fort Worth Honolulu Little Rock Milwaukee New Orleans—Baton Rouge Houston Cincinnati—Dayton Birmingham Minneapolis—St. Connecticut Hastings. Idaho Indiana. North Carolina Jamestown. Hawaii Hot Springs. Pennsylvania Jonesboro—Paragould. North Carolina Hilo. New York Jackson. Arkansas Joplin. Kansas Hyannis. New Mexico Honolulu. New York Janesville—Beloit. Paul Wichita Boston—Providence Salt Lake City Pittsburgh Indianapolis Des Moines—Quad Cities Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Michigan Ithaca. Arkansas Houghton. Hawaii Hobbs. Michigan Houma—Thibodaux. Illinois Jacksonville. New York—Warren. Paul New York Detroit Memphis—Jackson Memphis—Jackson Jacksonville Chicago Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Buffalo—Rochester Milwaukee St. Michigan Jackson. Tennessee Jacksonville. Montana Hickory—Lenoir—Morganton. Massachusetts Idaho Falls. Iowa Iron Mountain. Kentucky Huntsville. Oklahoma Juneau—Ketchikan. Missouri—Miami. Louis Pittsburgh Little Rock Kansas City Seattle—Tacoma Honolulu 27 . Florida Jacksonville.

Nevada Laurel. Kansas Lihue. Texas Longview. Illinois Las Cruces. Indiana Lafayette—New Iberia. Illinois Kansas City. Michigan Kalispell. Louisiana La Grange. New Hampshire Kennewick—Pasco—Richland. Petersburg—Orlando Philadelphia Detroit San Antonio Chicago El Paso—Albuquerque Los Angeles—San Diego New Orleans—Baton Rouge Kansas City Oklahoma City Boston—Providence Spokane—Billings Boston—Providence Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Wichita Honolulu Detroit Omaha Little Rock Salt Lake City Cincinnati—Dayton Dallas—Fort Worth Portland 28 . Idaho Lewiston—Auburn. Texas La Salle—Peru—Ottawa—Streator. Minnesota Lafayette.Basic Trading Area 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 Kalamazoo. Kentucky Liberal. Florida Lancaster. Utah Logan. Pennsylvania Lansing. Georgia Lake Charles. Louis Portland Knoxville Indianapolis Milwaukee Indianapolis New Orleans—Baton Rouge Atlanta Houston Tampa—St. Tennessee—Bristol. Washington 13 43 6 19 3 43 20 38 36 20 17 26 17 29 1 16 44 33 13 40 6 14 22 29 19 31 3 43 3 23 47 15 13 32 21 39 7 10 36 Detroit Spokane—Billings Chicago Kansas City Boston—Providence Spokane—Billings Knoxville St. New Mexico Las Vegas. Michigan Laredo. Wisconsin—Winona. Oklahoma Lebanon—Claremont. Nebraska Little Rock. Virginia-Tennessee Kirksville. Missouri Klamath Falls. Maine Lexington. Kansas Lawton—Duncan. Washington Kingsport. West Virginia Longview—Marshall. Tennessee Kokomo—Logansport. Louisiana Lakeland—Winter Haven. Mississippi Lawrence. Hawaii Lima. Indiana La Crosse. New Hampshire Lewiston—Moscow. Oregon Knoxville. Montana Kankakee. Arkansas Logan. Ohio Lincoln. Missouri Keene. Tennessee—Johnson City.

Wisconsin—Menominee. Texas McComb—Brookhaven. Indiana Marion. Oregon Melbourne—Titusville. Paul Spokane—Billings 29 . Ohio Marinette. North Dakota Missoula. Petersburg—Orlando Memphis—Jackson San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Memphis—Jackson Miami—Fort Lauderdale Chicago Knoxville Dallas—Fort Worth Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Texas Lynchburg. Illinois Meadville. Nebraska Macon—Warner Robins. Mississippi McCook. Virginia McAlester. Paul Cleveland Milwaukee Indianapolis Columbus Milwaukee Des Moines—Quad Cities Richmond—Norfolk Des Moines—Quad Cities Chicago Cleveland Portland Tampa—St. Montana 22 23 10 16 37 31 40 29 32 1 26 23 3 19 26 27 8 26 17 9 26 12 37 12 6 8 36 44 24 41 24 25 6 20 10 26 27 27 43 Los Angeles—San Diego Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Dallas—Fort Worth Houston Richmond—Norfolk Oklahoma City San Antonio New Orleans—Baton Rouge Omaha Atlanta Milwaukee Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Boston—Providence Kansas City Milwaukee Minneapolis—St.Basic Trading Area 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 Los Angeles. Texas Lufkin—Nacogdoches. Kentucky Lubbock. Kentucky Manchester—Nashua—Concord. Ohio Marquette. Minnesota Minot. Kansas Manitowoc. Florida Michigan City—La Porte. Iowa Martinsville. Indiana Middlesboro—Harlan. Minnesota Mansfield. Michigan Marshalltown. Kentucky Midland. Mississippi Miami—Fort Lauderdale. Georgia Madison. Wisconsin Minneapolis—St. Wisconsin Madisonville. Oklahoma McAllen. Paul Minneapolis—St. Florida Memphis. Texas Milwaukee. Tennessee Merced. Pennsylvania Medford—Grants Pass. California Louisville. California Meridian. Michigan Marion. New Hampshire Manhattan—Junction City. Paul. Iowa Mattoon. Virginia Mason City. Wisconsin Mankato—Fairmont.

Tennessee Natchez. Alabama Morgantown. Alabama Orangeburg. New York—Bradford. Petersburg—Orlando Des Moines—Quad Cities Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Louisville—Lexington—Evansville 30 . Florida Nashville. New York Opelika—Auburn. Louisiana Montgomery. Arizona Norfolk. Mississippi New Bern. Texas Oil City—Franklin. Kentucky Paducah—Murray—Mayfield. Oklahoma Myrtle Beach. Michigan Mount Vernon—Centralia. Paul New Orleans—Baton Rouge San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Dallas—Fort Worth Birmingham Pittsburgh Detroit St. Illinois Muncie. Pennsylvania Olympia—Centralia. Connecticut New Orleans. Louis Indianapolis Detroit Tulsa Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Miami—Fort Lauderdale Nashville Memphis—Jackson Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Pittsburgh New York New York New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Phoenix Omaha Richmond—Norfolk Omaha Tampa—St. Oklahoma Olean. Louisiana New York. Virginia North Platte. Florida Odessa.Basic Trading Area 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 Mitchell. Kentucky 27 29 41 10 2 35 13 38 17 13 45 5 25 28 24 5 35 30 30 29 30 34 32 37 32 44 10 35 31 4 42 32 30 1 5 44 12 23 23 Minneapolis—St. Washington Omaha. South Dakota Mobile. Indiana Muskegon. Michigan Muskogee. New York Nogales. Iowa Owensboro. Nebraska Ocala. Florida Ottumwa. South Carolina Orlando. Pennsylvania New Haven—Waterbury—Meriden. Nebraska Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Newport News—Hampton. South Carolina Naples. Pennsylvania Oklahoma City. California Monroe. West Virginia Mount Pleasant. Alabama Modesto. Connecticut New London—Norwich. Nebraska Oneonta. North Carolina New Castle. Petersburg—Orlando Dallas—Fort Worth Pittsburgh Oklahoma City Buffalo—Rochester Seattle—Tacoma Omaha New York Atlanta Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Tampa—St.

Indiana Richmond—Petersburg. Wyoming Roanoke. North Carolina Rapid City. New York Pocatello. Pennsylvania Pittsfield. Illinois Petoskey. Utah Pueblo. Virginia Riverton. Missouri Raleigh—Durham. Pennsylvania—Wilmington. Texas Parkersburg. Maine Portland. Arizona Presque Isle. North Carolina Rochester—Austin—Albert Lea. Ohio Pensacola. California Reno. Florida Paris. Minnesota 18 10 9 29 6 13 33 34 21 19 35 3 30 39 31 38 42 3 36 7 33 30 34 3 3 39 11 38 5 11 33 41 41 17 37 11 37 5 27 Jacksonville Dallas—Fort Worth Columbus New Orleans—Baton Rouge Chicago Detroit Philadelphia Phoenix Little Rock Kansas City Pittsburgh Boston—Providence New York Salt Lake City Oklahoma City St. Louis Seattle—Tacoma Boston—Providence Portland Cincinnati—Dayton Philadelphia New York Phoenix Boston—Providence Boston—Providence Salt Lake City Denver St. Washington Portland—Brunswick. Kansas Pittsburgh. Ohio Pottsville. Arizona Pine Bluff. Missouri Port Angeles. New Jersey Phoenix. Pennsylvania Poughkeepsie—Kingston. Arkansas Pittsburg—Parsons. Nevada Richmond. Michigan Philadelphia. Delaware—Trenton. Idaho Ponca City. Virginia Roanoke Rapids.Basic Trading Area 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 Panama City. South Dakota Reading. Massachusetts Provo—Orem. Oklahoma Poplar Bluff. Rhode Island—New Bedford—Fall River. Colorado Quincy. Louis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Denver Philadelphia San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Indianapolis Richmond—Norfolk Denver Richmond—Norfolk Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. Paul 31 . New York Prescott. Illinois—Hannibal. Maine Providence—Pawtucket. Florida Peoria. West Virginia—Marietta. Pennsylvania Redding. Oregon Portsmouth. Massachusetts Plattsburgh.

Georgia Roseburg. Joseph. Oregon Salina. Minnesota St. Pennsylvania Sheboygan. Wisconsin 4 6 11 5 38 1 36 14 21 30 41 13 27 39 19 38 36 47 41 46 39 10 40 22 8 41 22 22 14 44 13 1 11 30 42 19 2 8 26 Buffalo—Rochester Chicago Denver Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh St. California Salisbury. Missouri Rome. Michigan St. North Carolina Rolla. New Mexico Sarasota—Bradenton. California San Luis Obispo. Missouri Salem—Albany—Corvallis. New Mexico Russellville. Ohio San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose. Marie. Paul Salt Lake City Kansas City St. Louis. California Santa Fe. Missouri Selma. Louis Atlanta Portland El Paso—Albuquerque Little Rock New York San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Detroit Minneapolis—St. Utah St. Nebraska Scranton—Wilkes-Barre—Hazleton. Pennsylvania Seattle—Tacoma. Wyoming Rocky Mount—Wilson. Cloud. Washington Sedalia. Oregon Roswell. Arkansas Rutland—Bennington. Florida Sault Ste. Louis Portland Wichita San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Washington—Baltimore Salt Lake City Dallas—Fort Worth San Antonio Los Angeles—San Diego Cleveland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Los Angeles—San Diego Los Angeles—San Diego El Paso—Albuquerque Tampa—St. New York Rockford. California Saginaw—Bay City. Vermont Sacramento. Alabama Sharon. George. Texas San Diego. Petersburg—Orlando Detroit Atlanta Denver New York Seattle—Tacoma Kansas City Birmingham Cleveland Milwaukee 32 .Basic Trading Area 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 Rochester. California Sandusky. Maryland Salt Lake City—Ogden. Utah San Angelo. Missouri St. Michigan Savannah. Georgia Scottsbluff. California Santa Barbara—Santa Maria. Illinois Rock Springs. Kansas Salinas—Monterey. Texas San Antonio.

Massachusetts Springfield. Georgia Vicksburg. Mississippi Victoria. Texas Terre Haute. Petersburg—Clearwater. West Virginia Stevens Point—Marshfield—Wisconsin Rapids. Louisiana Sierra Vista—Douglas. Indiana Texarkana. South Carolina Sunbury—Shamokin. Petersburg—Orlando Dallas—Fort Worth Indianapolis Dallas—Fort Worth Detroit Kansas City Detroit Phoenix Tulsa Memphis—Jackson Birmingham Salt Lake City Dallas—Fort Worth New York Jacksonville Memphis—Jackson Houston 33 . Virginia Steubenville. Pennsylvania Syracuse. Wisconsin Stillwater. Mississippi Tuscaloosa. New York Tallahassee. Pennsylvania Staunton—Waynesboro. Texas-Arkansas Toledo.Basic Trading Area 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 Sherman—Denison. Pennsylvania Sumter. New York Valdosta. Indiana Spokane. Iowa Sioux Falls. Ohio—Weirton. Ohio Topeka. Idaho Tyler. Texas 10 10 34 12 27 23 6 43 6 3 38 33 37 35 26 31 41 30 5 33 30 18 44 10 17 10 13 19 13 34 45 24 2 39 10 30 18 24 16 Dallas—Fort Worth Dallas—Fort Worth Phoenix Des Moines—Quad Cities Minneapolis—St. Texas Utica—Rome. Arizona Sioux City. Illinois Springfield—Holyoke. Oklahoma Stockton. Oklahoma Tupelo—Corinth. Louis Philadelphia Richmond—Norfolk Pittsburgh Milwaukee Oklahoma City San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose New York Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Philadelphia New York Jacksonville Tampa—St. Kansas Traverse City. Missouri State College. Paul Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Chicago Spokane—Billings Chicago Boston—Providence St. Washington Springfield. Florida Tampa—St. Florida Temple—Killeen. Texas Shreveport. Michigan Tucson. Arizona Tulsa. Kentucky South Bend—Mishawaka. California Stroudsburg. South Dakota Somerset. Alabama Twin Falls.

Oregon Washington. rather than population. North Carolina Winchester. Florida West Plains. Georgia Wenatchee. . Kentucky Williamsport. Texas Walla Walla. Louis Pittsburgh Wichita Dallas—Fort Worth Cincinnati—Dayton Philadelphia Minneapolis—St. Texas Williamson. Washington York—Hanover. Virginia Worcester—Fitchburg—Leominster. Paul Minneapolis—St. Pennsylvania Williston. North Dakota Willmar—Marshall. California Waco. Kansas Wichita Falls. Washington West Palm Beach—Boca Raton. Ohio 17 41 10 43 46 12 30 27 3 26 18 42 25 38 35 47 10 7 33 27 27 5 46 3 27 42 33 8 41 34 9 Indianapolis San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Dallas—Fort Worth Spokane—Billings Washington—Baltimore Des Moines—Quad Cities New York Minneapolis—St. Minnesota Yakima. West Virginia Wichita. Maine Wausau—Rhinelander. Paul Boston—Providence Milwaukee Jacksonville Seattle—Tacoma Miami—Fort Lauderdale St. Iowa Watertown. Washington—Pendleton. Massachusetts Worthington. Pennsylvania Youngstown—Warren. Minnesota Wilmington. California Yuma. South Dakota Waterville—Augusta. West Virginia—Pikeville.Basic Trading Area 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 Vincennes—Washington. Ohio Yuba City—Marysville. Indiana Visalia—Porterville—Hanford. Paul Seattle—Tacoma Philadelphia Cleveland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Phoenix Columbus 34 • Source: [3] • Note: The Major Trading Area (MTA) numbers in this table are based on alphabetical sorting. Paul Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore Boston—Providence Minneapolis—St. DC Waterloo—Cedar Falls. New York Watertown. Missouri Wheeling. Arizona Zanesville—Cambridge. Wisconsin Waycross.

html). htm?job=btaform). Retrieved 2010-08-11. . Mobiledia. gov/ uls/ index. com/ wireless/ BTA. Retrieved 2006-11-28. Federal Communications Commission. fcc. com/ glossary/ 36. .Basic Trading Area 35 References [1] "BTA: Basic Trading Area" (http:/ / www. javvin. 2006.Cell Phone Glossary . mobiledia. Javvin.Mobiledia" (http:/ / www. html). . . [3] "FCC Universal Licensing System (ULS) BTA Form" (http:/ / wireless. Retrieved 2006-11-28. [2] "Basic Trading Area (BTA) .

CCTV and Broadcast customers.com [1] CableFree provides high-capacity wireless Ethernet and TDM wireless backhaul solutions to cellular network operators. Asia and Australasia. millimeter-wave. The company provides a range of wireless products including diverse mix of radio. Americas. microwave. CableFree designs. Middle East. Education. CableFree sells through a distribution and reseller network with channel partners throughout Europe.Cablefree 36 Cablefree Cablefree Type Industry Founded Headquarters Products Website Private Technology 1997 London. United Kingdom Networking www. Africa. WISPs. rural and country-scale IP networks. Government.org [4] Listing in OFCOM/BT Wireless Ethernet Lan Extension Services [5] External links • • • • CableFree Solutions [6] CableFree UK website [7] Wireless Excellence [8] KMH Group website [9] . data and video and internet connectivity for metropolitan-area. References • • • • CableFree article in Broadband Wireless Exchange Magazine [2] CableFree article in Lightreading [3] CableFree entry in optics. manufactures and sells high-capacity wireless communication systems for outdoor wireless networks covering urban. rural and national-scale connectivity. Wi-Fi and other technologies with speeds ranging from 2 Mbit/s up to 1. IP service providers. free space optics. Financial.cablefreesolutions. CableFree's products deliver high capacity voice. Healthcare. Corporate history Established in 1997 by private investors.5 Gbit/s per link.

uk/realworld/357955/the-legal-ways-to-boost-your-mobile-phone-reception/2). asp?doc_id=35995& site=lightreading http:/ / optics. com/ document. 2010.com/mobile-amp-wireless/125524/ t-mobile-quietly-testing-cel-fi-femtocell-alternative-customers-signal-ch).org/ 10717005-nextivity-cel-fi-3g-signal-boosters-available-from-frequency-telecom. 2011. Advanced Technology Ventures. Paul (May 14. 2010). Feb. co. Trialled in both the US and UK by T-Mobile. Cel-Fi Cel-Fi is a device. Inc. 2010). • "Nextivity Aims to Boost Indoor Cell Phone Signal" (http://www. "T-Mobile quietly testing Cel-Fi femtocell alternative for customers in signal-challenged areas" (http://www. June 04. San Diego Business Journal. cablefree.thestreet. 2011. org/ cws/ company/ B000013460 http:/ / www. 2011. bbwexchange. PR Log (Press Release).html). The window unit receives the signal and relays it to the receiver. cablefreesolutions. • Scardino. Created by Nextivity.itworld. org. uk http:/ / www. Ryan (October 27. 2011. . Retrieved Feb 12. Retrieved Feb 12.com/technology-news/ nextivity-aims-to-boost-indoor-cell-phone-signal). Retrieved Feb 12. ofcom.atvcapital. Francis (October 26. 2008.html). Business Wire (Press Release).prlog.geardiary. cablefreesolutions.com/ story/10678985/nextivity-and-netgear-collaborate-for-indoor-mobile-coverage-solutions. Retrieved Feb 12. kmhgroup. IT World. 2. PC Pro.Cablefree 37 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. 2011.pcpro. which converts it and amplifies it. Gear Diary. The Cel-Fi consists of two wireless devices. com http:/ / www. 2011.co. Retrieved Feb 12. "The legal ways to boost your mobile phone reception" (http://www. pdf http:/ / www. lightreading. References • Faas. a Window Unit and Coverage Unit that work jointly to increase 3G and 4G mobile broadband connectivity throughout the building. 2010). designed to eliminate in-building dead zones and improve indoor mobile phone reception. • "Nextivity Cel-Fi 3G signal boosters – available from Frequency Telecom" (http://www. • "Nextivity And NETGEAR Collaborate For Indoor Mobile Coverage Solutions" (http://www. Cel-Fi systems are comparable to mobile phone repeaters and femtocell technology. uk/ consult/ condocs/ llmr/ responses/ bt/ bt_annex_g. com/ http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. November 21. com CDMA Chipsets CDMA Chipsets is a popular Chipsets used in 3G and 2G mobile phones manufactured by Qualcomm Inc. com/ pubs/ 2007/ 11/ 06/ page1369-1193158. • Ockenden. asp http:/ / www. "T-Mobile Currently Testing Cel-Fi Signal Booster to Maximize 3G Data Service In Homes" (http://www. wirelessexcellence. similar to a cellular repeater. Retrieved Feb 12..com/2010/10/26/ t-mobile-currently-testing-cel-fi-signal-booster-to-maximizes-3g-data-service-in-homes/). 2010. the Cel-Fi systems are designed with smart antenna technology to seek out the best available signal to maximize signal gain to phone user.

com/) • Femtohub (http://www.com/ watch?v=Waxl7FrPk-c). Most networks endeavour to optimise for minimum power consumption. For this reason.. All networks generate 'splash maps' predicting signal coverage when planning and managing their networks. Most commercially implemented systems rely on 'enhanced' COO. One of the first services to make widespread use of COO based mobile location was the Zingo taxi hailing system. launched in London in 2003 .youtube. when precision is important COO is often used in conjunction with some other technology. and in any case will be an irregular shape. Location service using COO have been adopted by the emergency services in many countries. Retrieved Feb 12.femtohub. rather than a circle). rather than the centre. The underlying issue is that mobile phone networks are optimised for capacity and call handling rather than locating phones. In practice a network offering location services to third parties will present an API to which queries can be sent by validated users.e. This is not very accurate.nextivityinc. These maps can be processed to analyse the area which will be dominated by each base station and to approximate each area by a circle (the actual area of coverage may not be exactly where predicted. 38 External links • Nextivity. You Tube. official web site (http://www. such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or Time of Arrival (TOA). 2011. Omnidirectional cells may be used in rural locations (which typically have large ranges and hence uncertain locations for phones within them) and in cities (where they may have ranges of a few hundred metres). to which a reply will be sent comprising the centre of a circle and a radius representing the expected error (the size of the circle in which the phone is expected to be). three mounted on a mast to give complete coverage) giving a signal coverage area with the base station at one corner. but the overall effect approximates to each phone locking onto the strongest signal).Cel-Fi • "Video: T-Mobile 3G Cel-Fi Signal Booster Unboxing (junkdruggler)" (http://www. Commercial services have been slower to take off than many in the industry expected. In the GSM system this relies on the fact that the phones constantly measure the signal strength from the closest 6 base stations and lock on to the strongest signal (the reality is slightly more complex than this and includes parameters that each individual network can optimise. COO is the only positioning technique that is widely used in wireless networks and is used for Phase 1 of 911 service in the United States. as the majority of mobile network cells are projected from an antenna with a spread of 120º (i. including signal quality and variability. Overview Crude COO positioning considers the location of the base station to be the location of the caller..com/) Cell of origin (telecommunications) Cell of Origin (COO) is a mobile positioning technique for finding a caller's cell (the basic geographical coverage unit of a cellular telephone system) location. Inc.

usually referred to as a COW. Many are nothing more than a cargo trailer or box that has been modified to hold communication equipment and have an antenna tower. and may require the use of non-permanent facilities. a carrier may have approved the placement of a cell site for coverage reasons. Tower types vary from one manufacturer to another.C. but the remaining budget is inadequate to fund the construction for a fiscal quarter or even longer.g. or existing wired infrastructure.[2] 26 Cell on Wheels towers were put in place in Washington.S. For instance. major conventions. . especially on and near the National Mall. Federal Emergency 2005 Rose Bowl game. whether it meets TIA/EIA specifications. California for the Manhattan to support the U. in the Gulf Coast after Hurricane Katrina). 2001 in Lower COW in parking lot of the Rose Bowl. communication satellite. or in disaster areas where cellular coverage either was never present (e.Cell on wheels 39 Cell on wheels A cell on wheels.. D. The backhaul to the network can be via terrestrial microwave. is a mobile cell site that consists of a cellular antenna tower and electronic radio transceiver equipment on a truck or trailer. Pasadena. in a wilderness area where firefighters have set up a command center during a major forest fire) or was compromised by the disaster (e. for the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009 to handle the millions of extra people and calls in the city. unguyed. Not all portable communication centers are created equally. electricity. Rose Bowl). Installations on government or military facilities may be granted only on a temporary basis. 36 cellular COWs were deployed by September 14. World Series. COWs provided cellular service in Southwest Florida the aftermath of Hurricane Charley in 2004 with most of the area's stationary cell towers destroyed. Following the September 11 attacks on New York City in 2001. The decision to use a COW for an extended period of time may also be driven by the property owner. Many telecommunications companies also use COWs for long-term placement when financing or infrastructure considerations prevent building a permanent site at the location.g. An engineering team may be able to place a COW on location to provide immediate coverage with few costs other than leasing. guyed vs. with its own power generator Management Agency (FEMA) and provide critical phone service to rescue and recovery workers. methods of deploying the tower. designed to be part of a cellular network. and backhaul.. Many COWs do not protect their sensitive equipment from the effects of lightning or power surges. A COW may also be referred to as a site on wheels (SOW).[1] Expanded or emergency service COWs are used to provide expanded cellular network coverage and/or capacity at special events such as major sporting events (Super Bowl.

Verizon Wireless Network specifications.it/lang/en/products/telecommunications/radio_station_kit.html). • with compact self mounting pole and special two-axle trailer (http://www. com/ 2004/ 08/ mobile_carriers. as opposed to the fully functional COW. html [3] (http:/ / aboutus. CIABs provide temporary service with temporary equipment.it/lang/en/products/ telecommunications/emergency_mobile_station_with_self_mounting_pole.calzavara. com/ 2009/ 01/ 19/ technology/ 19cell.[3] References [1] New York Times.html). 2010. "Inauguration Crowd Will Test Cellphone Networks" (http:/ / www.calzavara.calzavara. [2] http:/ / www. • mobile trucks with container and self-mounting telescopic mast (http://www. nytimes.it/lang/en/products/telecommunications/ emergency_mobile_station_with_flanged_pole.calzavara. CIAB (Cell-in-a-Box) External links On a manufacturer’s site (http://www. • different types of COW: • with flanged pole (http://www. URL retrieved 19 January 2009.html). . html). com/ bestnetwork/ network_facts. The main difference is that a CIAB is typically placed for a longer period of time than a COW. Cell In A Box. Retrieved on January 28. html).calzavara.it/?lang=en): • CIAB (http://www. vzw. Cell on Light Trucks (COLTs) COLTs are on smaller box trucks and are limited with respect to the cell phone network. operationgadget.html).it/lang/en/products/ telecommunications/mobitower.Cell on wheels 40 Cell in a box (CIAB) Related to a COW is a CIAB (cell in a box). Like COWs.

The systems usually use an external.although within reasonable proximity the booster's signal will be strong enough that the orientation of the cell phone's antenna will not make a significant difference in usability. Other advantages of cellular repeaters include an increase in the cell phone's battery life and a lower level of radiation emitted by the handset . This combined with the low population density (compared with Europe and Japan) means that many people will have to use some method to improve their home signal. and the large scale departure from the land-line system. However. Generally speaking the larger the external antenna the better the signal . Excellent high-power models (not home usage .more than 60 million lines. a type of bi-directional amplifier (BDA) as commonly named in the wireless telecommunications industry. due to its proximity to the phone. since the decibel scale is measured on a logarithmic scale a 30dB gain represents a one thousandfold signal power increase . and retransmits it locally. These can either be fitted by professionals or will include a signal strength monitor for easy alignment. Even the cheaper home-use models (typically band selective) now provide 20dB . Typical components External directional antenna Although some of the less expensive models do not include an external directional antenna they are crucial to providing significant signal strength gain. of course. Signal amplifier All models will include a signal amplifier.although even a small. directional antenna to collect the best cellular signal.Cellular repeater 41 Cellular repeater A cellular repeater. Internal rebroadcast antenna The better systems will generally include an internal monopole antenna (although the type of antenna is far from standardised) for rebroadcasting the signal internally . The market for cellular repeaters is expected to grow rapidly over the coming years. particularly in the USA. so are suitable for commercial as well as home use. cell phone repeater. usually intended for use in one building. providing significantly improved signal strength. These are similar to the cellular broadcast towers used for broadcasting by the network providers.meaning .the advantage of using a monopole antenna is that the signal will be equally distributed in all directions (subject. usually aligned with the nearest cell tower. to attenuation from obstacles). correctly oriented external antenna should provide better signal than the internal antenna on any cell phone. The CTIA – The Wireless Association (formerly the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association) had predicted that by 2007 30% of phone users in the US would be mobile only . Modern cellular repeater amplifiers rebroadcast cellular signals inside the building. or wireless cellular signal booster. cell phones perform best when their antennas are oriented parallel to the booster's antenna . This is because the antenna can be oriented and located outside to provide the best possible signal. This is due to the combination of the poor network coverage in some areas. is a device used for boosting the cell phone reception to the local area by the usage of a reception antenna. a signal amplifier and an internal rebroadcast antenna.smart and expensive technology of the operators) offering gain around 100dBm (ICE function is welcomed as an improvement of the radio isolation between donor and service antenna). The more advanced models often also allow multiple cell phones to use the same repeater at the same time. which is then transmitted to an amplifier unit which amplifies the signal. Because all radio antennas are intrinsically polarized.both caused by the lower power required to broadcast the signal to the local bi-directional amplifier.50dB gain and many of the more expensive models provide over 50dB. but are much smaller.

User is from network point of view too far.in front of the donor antenna no near obstacle (like tree. delay) and consequently to shorter radius from donor site. RFWindow). installing the repeater in a higher place than necessary. and the limiting maximum signal power of the amplifier (for picorepeaters typically from around 5 dBm (3. space separation (typically vertical distance in case of the tower installation between donor and service antenna is several meters). .g. which will be amplified equally.Cellular repeater the total amplification of a repeater with greater than around 50dB is likely to be useless without a good.. reduction of reflections .2 mW)).g. urban FDD/TDD network 20 km) usage of repeater virtually moving user to bigger distance: radio distance = real distance + (repeater delay) *3. Amateur installation of the pico/mini repeaters can be harmful for many reasons: • Poor choice of donor site may not improve signal • Using the wrong antenna and improperly installing the repeater without paying attention to minimizing interference (e. Also cheap models are equipped by automatic gain reduction in case of poor or weak isolation. e. Operators can operate also EGSM or GSM900+GSM1800 layers with single BCCH (Siemens(SAG) commonly supports the BCCH feature. NodeG from Andrew) offering output power around 10W).g. being shaded by buildings (e. • Use of a poor device for signal generation..3us/km).g. and coverage is poor. There is also problem with noise amplification (especially in UL) and desensitization of the donor site. Additional delay form point of view of propagation means additional distance. inserting of the attenuating environment (smart placement of the donor and service antenna. between donor and service antenna is wall.. high power repeaters (e. where could be repeater used.)) and without sense to donor site selection. This is due to the difficulty of filtering the correct signal out from the background noise. It depends on the type of repeater and used features. EGSM) or more bands and the repeater does not support EGSM or is only for 900GSM.. NodeG. Isolation can be also improved by integrated feature called ICE (interference cancellation equipment) offered in some products (e. Because of the cellular network has form principle reduced cell size (depends on the technology and activated features typically X*10 km (for standard GSM 35 km).3 km (delay of RF signal in air is 3. placement of the metal mesh). Activating of this feature has negative impact to internal delay (higher delay => prox. in macro environment by angle between donor and service antenna (ideally 180°). When the isolation is lower than actual gain + reserve (typically 5-15dB) then repeaters is in loop oscillation. well aligned antenna. Standard GSM channel selective repeater (operated by telecommunication operators for coverage of large areas and big buildings) has output power around 2W. glasshouse. By amplification and filtration there is some delay (typically between 5us to 15us). +5us up to standard rep. In the case of improper repeater support. such as in cases where the operator is using wider band (e.g. many calls may drop). The power gain is calculated by the following equation: 42 For repeater is needed to secure sufficient isolation between donor and service antenna. etc. by wall installation or suppression of side/back lobes by chimney. metal-sheet building.g. After repeating you have better (or excellent) coverage but you can't access to network. In case of poor isolation the device works but with low gain.. or house)). The isolation is possible to improve by antenna type selection. It is reason why somewhere with sufficient levels repeater doesn't work. • Repeating only part of the band. causing noise and inter-modulation products.

As a result. See Diffraction and Attenuation for more. Some solid foam insulation and some fiberglass insulation used in roofs or exterior walls has foil backing. hospitals and factories. there are often dead zones caused by destructive interference of waves which have taken different paths (caused by the signal bouncing off buildings etc. which can reduce transmittance. See Multipath interference for more. such as churches. Building size Large buildings. which use lead in their roofing material will very effectively block any signal. Repeater systems are available for certain Satellite phone systems. Because the frequencies which cell phones use are too high to reflect off the ionosphere as shortwave radio waves do. This is caused by both the fact that the signal is attenuated heavily as it enters the building and the interference as the signal is reflected by the objects inside the building. Some materials have peaks in their absorption spectra which massively decrease signal strength. Directional antennas are very helpful at overcoming this since they can be placed at points of constructive interference and aligned so as not to receive the destructive signal.Cellular repeater 43 Reasons for weak signal Rural areas In many rural areas the housing density is too low to make construction of a new base station commercially viable. Building construction material Some construction materials very rapidly attenuate cell phone signal strength. In flat rural areas the signal is unlikely to suffer from multipath interference. even a great distance from the broadcast towers. Energy efficient windows and metal window screens are also very effective at blocking radio signals.) These usually have an area of a few blocks and will usually only affect one of the two frequency ranges used by cell phones. the only way to obtain strong cell phone signal in these areas is usually to install a home cellular repeater.and tri-band systems cost significantly more. Low signal strength is also often the case in underground areas such as basements and in shops and restaurants located towards the centre of shopping malls. For this reason in these cases an external antenna is usually desirable. This is because the different wavelengths of the different frequencies interfere destructively at different points. Multipath interference Even in urban areas which usually have strong cellular signals throughout. In these cases it is unlikely that the service provider will do anything to improve reception. In these cases the installation of a cellular repeater will generally massively increase signal strength just due to the amplifier. allowing the satphones to be used indoors without a clear line of sight to the satellite. due to the high cost of erecting a new tower. Older buildings. but still attenuate significantly. so will just be heavily attenuated by the distance. . Concrete floors are often poured onto a metal pan which completely blocks most radio signals. often have no cellular reception further than a few meters from the outside wall. Any building which has a significant thickness of concrete or amount of metal used in its production will attenuate the signal. Different operating frequencies Repeaters are available for all the different GSM frequency bands. some repeaters will handle different types of network such as multi-mode GSM and UMTS repeaters however dual. Diffraction and general attenuation The longer wavelengths have the advantage of being able to diffract to a greater degree so are less reliant on line of sight to obtain a good signal. cell phone waves cannot travel via the ionospohere. such as warehouses.

is likely passed as the quantity of repeaters already shipped and in place in the UK is estimated at the tens of thousands. The use of materials that mitigate heat loss such as metallic foil laminated insulation board and energy efficient glazing with a metallic anodised coating also have high signal attenuation properties. However. The use of a mobile signal booster in the UK is only permitted by the mobile networks who hold the licences in the cellular bands. the willingness and capability of network operators to initiate the process to providing an in building solution varies greatly. Some network operators have dedicated teams that will visit a customers site to assess the cause of the problems experienced and offer to put in place a soltion provided by a third party vendor. The lack of regulatory guidance has led to the situation where most installtions are simply 'plug and play' and have been installed by non technical persons who have no appreciation or understanding of even the most basic RF principles. in cities and areas where many cells exist from each operator.). Approval in the UK by Ofcom and the UK market In the UK there is no third party licencing regime in place even for low powered devices for home use. Repeaters operating in rural and less densely populated areas do not pose a quantifiable problem." This has not detered the UK market for signal boosters with an explosion of web retailers offering a wide range of solutions from DIY installs to installations." At present. the use of devices ranging from small mobile signal boosters to high power repeaters can cause loss of coverage through interference and desensitisation of the cells.Cellular repeater 44 Approval in the USA by the FCC Although there are some products on the market in the USA which are still pending Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approval. This has largely been driven by the tightening of energy efficicency regulations in building construction. shops. it is legal to use the low power devices available today for home and small scale use in commercial areas (offices. bars. The UK regulator. Installation or use of repeater devices by anyone without a licence is a criminal offence under Section 8 of the WT Act 2006. "Repeater devices transmit or re-transmit in the cellular frequency bands. . Only the mobile network operators are licensed to use equipment that transmits in these bands. they should have no problem gaining it. Ofcom suggest that "Anyone wishing to improve coverage in a particular area is advised to contact their network provider. There are well established vendors who have worked for some time in this area who work for. etc. However this is generally limited to large corporates and the public sector. Ofcom specifically states that. Although a license was originally required to broadcast at cell phone frequencies. with the expense being borne by the client. and with the networks to provide in building coverage solutions. The disparity in approach and the lack of a cross network operator working group means that sites requiring a 'wideband' coverage solution for all networks is not currently possible. The window for any such regulation of the UK market as in the US. Many models already have FCC approval.

and the parameter value. External links • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v7. the SMSC would reply with field 900 (error code) instead. com/ id/ 7a27b9e7-7cdd-4456-b630-3d7c35f30a4f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC80.0 support. nokia. consists of a parameter type.3 and CIMD 2. Field 021 defines the destination address (telephone number). In the example above. References [1] http:/ / sw. You can fire SMS from message center with the help of CIMD client tools. kannel. the operation code 03 means submit message. if the message failed. Two-digit parameter types are operation codes and each message must have exactly one. Response code 53 with a field 060 time stamp indicates that the message was accepted. nokia. com/ id/ a58b0133-4ffa-4e17-8b3b-77877688660f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC70. pdf [3] http:/ / www.0 [2] Software • Kannel [3] . org . pdf [2] http:/ / sw. Each field.CIMD 45 CIMD Computer Interface to Message Distribution (CIMD) is a proprietary short message service centre protocol developed by Nokia for their SMSC (now: Nokia Siemens Networks). A good number of supporting software to implement CIMD is available from Nokia's Web site to build CIMD client. The response code (acknowledgement) of the message is equal to the operation code plus 50. Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with CIMD 1. The content of the packet consists of fields separated by TAB (hex 09). Syntax An example CIMD exchange looks like the following: <STX>03:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>033:hello<TAB><ETX> <STX>53:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>060:971107131212<TAB><ETX> Each packet starts with STX (hex 02) and ends with ETX (hex 03). in turn.0 [1] • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v8. Note that the last field must also be terminated with a TAB before the ETX. a colon (:). The number after the operation code is the sequence number used to match an operation to its response. with field 033 is the user data (content) of the message.

Be permitted to make calls outside of the Closed User Group (Outgoing Access). • His peer group of senior Pizza delivery executives.e. org/ ftp/ Specs/ 2004-03/ Rel-4/ 24_series/ 24085-401. For example: Mr Rao.085 Closed User Group (CUG) supplementary services.085 Closed User Group (CUG) Supplementary Services. there are handsets that support Closed User Group applications. zip [2] http:/ / www. could be a member of two closed user group: • His own team of Pizza delivery agents. A subscriber may: • • • • Be a member of more than one but not more than ten Closed User Groups. If the user is a member of multiple Closed User Groups there will be a Preferred CUG assigned by the network that will be used by default. But based on whom Mr Rao is calling he can either suppress or enable the preferred CUG. when Mr Rao receives a call. to insist that the call only go through if the destination is a member of the CUG. Stage 1 [1] • 3GPP 24. However. it is possible on a per-call basis to specify a different Closed User Group (of which the user is a member) for the call. act as if the user is not a member of the Closed User Group. Also. org/ ftp/ Specs/ 1999-10/ 22_series/ 22085-301. Be allowed to make emergency calls irrespective of the group subscription. this Supplementary Service is restricted in use only by organizations. When an incoming call is received it is possible for the network to indicate the Closed User Group that is being applied to the call to the called user. Mr Rao's Preferred CUG would be that of his team. 3gpp. However. This service is NOT applicable to Short messaging service (SMS). zip . a senior member at a Pizza delivery outlet. and to suppress the Outgoing Access permission i. As can be seen.Closed User Group (CUG) 46 Closed User Group (CUG) Closed User Groups are groups of GSM mobile telephone subscribers who can only make calls and receive calls from members within the group. Be permitted to receive calls from outside of the Closed User Group (Incoming Access). Technical references • 3GPP 22. Stage 3 [2] References [1] http:/ / www.e. and is not for use by the general public. it would be indicated to him by the network as to which user group the call originated from. It is also possible on a per-call basis to suppress the use of the Preferred CUG i. 3gpp. Any other calls would be rejected.

[4] "LINUX-based VPN system has NEXCOM running a tight ship". including 3G. February 2008 (http:/ / www.[2] with support for WLAN and public networks. Sweden with offices in New York City. May 2008 (http:/ / www. Columbitech Mobile VPN The Columbitech mobile VPN provides remote network access to field mobility users. org/ LPinformation_new/ 2008/ 05/ LPiEdit2. . Wall Street Journal.[4] and in other industries where mobile devices are used over wireless networks. com/ [2] "Lost Connections". asp). founded in 2000. wsj. asp?sid=& nm=& type=Publishing& mod=Publications::Article& mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791& tier=4& id=D7B7F1A7229743C1A55EFC1BD55DF05F). [3] "Mobile VPN for the Field". Mobile Enterprise. Stores Magazine. com/ article/ SB119717610996418467. com/ ME2/ dirmod. columbitech. December 11 2007 (http:/ / online. The company is headquartered in Stockholm. corporate WLAN users and telecommuters – mobilizing the enterprise. 4G and WiMAX.Columbitech 47 Columbitech Columbitech Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Communication 2000 Headquarters Stockholm. stores.[3] The solution is encrypted on standards-based Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) and holds a FIPS 140-2 certification. The technology is utilized in the retail industry to meet PCI DSS requirements. provides wireless security to secure mobile devices. References [1] http:/ / www. mobileenterprisemag. Sweden Products Website Columbitech Mobile VPN [1] Columbitech. html).

Communication Linking Protocol


Communication Linking Protocol
Communication Linking Protocol (CLP) is a communications protocol used to communicate with many devices using the Motorola ReFLEX network. CLP allows a user to direct a ReFLEX capable device to send or receive messages. CLP is used by Advantra's ReFLEX devices. Advantra's ReFLEX product line was purchased by Inilex who now manufactures the devices.

External links
• • • • • • ReFLEX White Paper [1] Two Way Paging Article [2] Article [3] Barran Device [4] Karli Device [5] Wirlki Device [6]

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / content. arch. com/ whitepaper/ reflexwhitepaper. pdf http:/ / www. rysavy. com/ Articles/ twoway. htm http:/ / www. leapforum. org/ published/ internetworkMobility/ split/ node115. html#SECTION001432100000000000000 http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-barran. asp http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-karli. asp http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-wirlki. asp

Context-aware services
Context-aware services is a computing technology which incorporates information about the current location of a mobile user to provide more relevant services to the user.[1] An example of a context-aware service could be a real-time traffic update or even a live video feed of a planned route for a motor vehicle user. Context can refer to real-world characteristics, such as temperature, time or location. This information can be updated by the user (manually) or from communication with other devices and applications or sensors on the mobile device. also see Context aware delegation.

[1] "Building a context-aware service architecture" (http:/ / www. ibm. com/ developerworks/ architecture/ library/ ar-conawserv/ index. html?ca=drs-). Developer Works (IBM). . Retrieved 4 January 2010.

Coverage map


Coverage map
Coverage maps are designed to indicate the service areas of radiocommunication transmitting stations. Typically these may be produced for radio or television stations, for mobile telephone networks and for satellite networks. Such maps are alternatively known as propagation maps. For satellite networks, a coverage map is often known as a footprint.

Definition of coverage
Typically a coverage map will indicate the area within which the user can expect to obtain good reception of the service in question using standard equipment under normal operating conditions. Additionally, the map may also separately denote supplementary service areas where good reception may be obtained but other stations may be stronger, or where reception may variable but the service may still be usable.

Technical details
The field strength that the marked service boundary on a coverage map represents will be defined by whoever produces the map, but typical examples are as follows:

VHF(FM) / Band II
For VHF(FM) / Band II, the BBC defines the service area boundary as corresponding to an average field strength of 54 dB (relative to 1 µV/m) at a height of 10 m above ground level.

MF / Mediumwave
For MF / Mediumwave, the BBC defines the daytime service area boundary as a minimum field strength of 2 mV/m. At night, the service area of mediumwave services can be drastically reduced by co-channel interference from distant stations.

Often coverage maps show general coverage for large regions and therefore any boundary indicated should not be interpreted as a rigid limit. The quality of reception can be very different at places only short distances apart, and this phenomenon is more apparent as the transmission frequency increases. Inevitably small pockets of poor reception may exist within the main service area that cannot be shown on the map due to scale issues. Conversely, the use of sensitive equipment, high gain antennas, or simply being located on high ground can yield good signal strengths well outside the indicated area. The significance of local geographical conditions cannot be over emphasised and this was [1] which revealed the signal reception conditions around a typical house. The site did underlined by an experiment not have the critical "line-of-sight propagation" to the transmitter. Average signal levels, taken at the same height, varied by up to 6dB, and for individual frequencies by up to 14dB. In RF reception terms these figures are huge differences. Although carriers and broadcasters attempt to design their networks to eliminate dead zones, no network is perfect, so coverage breaks within the general coverage areas are still possible. Often companies will construct low power satellite stations to fill in bad reception areas that become apparent once the high power transmitter's coverage map has identified where the network is deficient.

Coverage map


External links
• The Transmission Gallery: Index of UK TV coverage maps [2] • TV Fool: Index of US TV coverage maps [3]

[1] http:/ / www. aerialsandtv. com/ loftaerials. html#BlackArtOfRF [2] http:/ / tx. mb21. co. uk/ mapsys/ anatv/ [3] http:/ / www. tvfool. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=15

The extensible system consists of three components. President/CEO DataSplice Mobile Integration Suite CMMS_EAM Total Maintenance Inspections (TMI) datasplice. and Enterprise Asset Management (EAM). The software offered is a mobile middleware.NET. CO (additional offices in Massachusetts. and Oregon Key people Products Scott Kunze. inventory specialists and inspectors. a server which communicates with the primary EAM. LLC is a mobile software company headquartered in Fort Collins. The product runs on the Microsoft Windows operating system DataSplice Architecture . gas/oil. which allows for connectivity to different database systems such as MySQL and Oracle. tablet_computers and mobile computers for field technicians.com [1] Website DataSplice. including packaged software for Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS). California. Colorado and offers mobile applications which extend enterprise systems. The software provides an interface from these systems to handhelds. asset management and regulatory accountability. including a remote client (for handheld and/or desktop use). Its primary client base is focused on utilities. smartphones. DataSplice does not use a proprietary software platform. but rather utilizes the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) of Microsoft. and an administration client for configuring the system. defense. with an emphasis on IBM's Maximo EAM system. LLC Type Industry Founded privately held company (LLC) computer software 2001 Headquarters Fort Collins.NET framework’s ADO.DataSplice 51 DataSplice DataSplice. It may also be used on a desktop system as a unified/simplified interface for multiple systems. aerospace and other markets which utilizes field service management systems which require tracking.

09 from the year 2006 with its 312Mbit/s can additionally handle UMTS. Administration Client and the Server. Present DigRF v4 draft offers Gbit/s bandwidth for LTE and WiMax. ibm. com/ [2] "Global Solutions Directory" (http:/ / www-304. There is DigRF version v1. . IBM. DigRF v3. DataSplice introduced InspecTMI. Condition Monitoring and Asset Management.12 for usage in GSM/EDGE handsets.DataSplice Mobile Integration. DataSplice is a privately held company. power generation. In 2010. The longer term development will focus on future air interface standards which promise further improvements in high speed. which was specified in 2004. Work Orders. . com/ article. and a Microsoft Silver ISV Partner. DataSplice was spun off as both a company and product in 2001. The short term development will focus on a specification targeted for completion by end of 2007 for LTE and WiMax air interface standards. Retrieved 28 June 2011. The group is focused on developing specifications for wireless mobile RFIC to base-band IC (BBIC) interfaces in mobile devices. data optimized traffic.DataSplice 52 History Originally known as Optimization Resources. electrical and timing characteristics of the digital RF-BB Interface with sufficient detail to allow physical implementation of the interface. Inspections. These specifications will describe the logical. and with sufficient rigor that implementations of the interface from different suppliers are fully compatible at the physical level. mvc/ DataSplice-Mobile-Computing-Solutions-Invento-0001). . Partners DataSplice is an IBM Advanced Partner. The original management and development staff continue to be engaged daily operations. the future work will seek to harmonize efforts with the MIPI's PHY and UniPro working groups. [3] "DataSplice Mobile Computing Solutions: Inventory and Work Orders" (http:/ / www. do?solution=37287& lc=en& stateCd=P& page=2& print=true). which was founded in 1991. The flagship Mobile Integraton Suite consists of three components: Remote Client. In addition. The group's current charter is split into short and long term development efforts. and safety inspections. Products The product's main emphasis is providing a simplified mobile interface into IBM Maximo[2] . datasplice. such as substations. a field inspections and operator rounds mobile collection system geared toward highly regulated inspection scenarios. com/ partnerworld/ gsd/ solutiondetails. IBM . fieldtechnologiesonline. References [1] http:/ / www. The primary modules[3] are Inventory. DigRF The DigRF working group was formed as a MIPI Alliance (MIPI) working group in April 2007. Field Technologies Online.

services running on the network such as voice or data services. radio frequency scanner information and GPS information to provide location logging. shtml Drive testing Drive testing is a method of measuring and assessing the coverage. Drive testing requires a mobile vehicle outfitted with drive testing measurement equipment. This ensures measurements are realistic and comparable to actual user experiences. org/ digrf. capacity and Quality of Service (QoS) of a mobile radio network. These equipments are usually highly specialized electronic devices that interface to OEM mobile handsets. Data Collected during Drive Testing Drive test equipment typically collects data relating to the network itself.DigRF 53 External links • About DigRF Alliance [1] References [1] http:/ / www. mipi. The dataset collected during drive testing field measurements can include information such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • Signal intensity Signal quality Interference Dropped calls Blocked calls Anomalous events Call statistics Service level statistics QoS information Handover information Neighbouring cell information GPS location co-ordinates . wireless carriers can make directed changes to their networks that provide better coverage and service to their customers. The technique consists of using a motor vehicle containing mobile radio network air interface measurement equipment that can detect and record a wide variety of the physical and virtual parameters of mobile cellular service in a given geographical area. By measuring what a wireless network subscriber would experience in any specific area.

such a comparative coverage analysis or comparative data network speed analysis. network issues such as dropped calls or missing neighbour cell assignments.com) 1. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www. Service Quality Monitoring Service quality monitoring typically involves making test calls across the network to a fixed test unit to assess the relative quality of various services using Mean opinion score (MOS).) . Results from benchmarking activities. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www. typically localized.anite. are frequently used in marketing campaigns. using devices that run largely without human intervention carried in vehicles that regularly ply typical drive testing routes such as garbage collection vehicles. Service quality monitoring is typically carried out in an automated fashion. sophisticated multi-channel tools such as Ascom's Symphony or SwissQual's Diversity Benchmarker are used to measure several network technologies and service types simultaneously to very high accuracy.Drive testing 54 Types of Drive Testing Drive testing can broadly be categorized into three distinct topics: • Network Benchmarking • Optimization & Troubleshooting • Service Quality Monitoring The resulting oduced by drive testing for each of these purposes is different.ascom. to provide directly comparable information regarding competitive strengths and weaknesses. In this mode drive testing data is used to diagnose the root cause of specific.swissqual. Drive Testing can be conducted at any time on a live network and very rarely will there be any network intrusion. taxis or buses. References External links • Ascom. Optimization & Troubleshooting Optimization and troubleshooting information is more typically used to aid in finding specific problems during the rollout phases of new networks or to observe specific problems reported by consumers during the operational phase of the network lifecycle.com/anite/en/home/.com) • SwissQual. Network Benchmarking For network benchmarking. Drive testing to gather networking benchmarking data is the only way mobile network operators can collect accurate competitive data on the true level of their own and their competitors technical performance and quality levels. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www. and allows mobile network operators to react to what effectively subjective quality degradations by investigating the technical cause of the problem in time-correlated data collected during the drive test. Quality monitoring focuses on the end user experience of the service.

Dual mode mobile


Dual mode mobile
Dual mode mobiles refer to mobile phones that are compatible with more than one form of data transmission or network.

Dual-Mode Phone
A dual-mode phone is a telephone which uses more than one technique for sending and receiving voice and data. This could be for wireless mobile phones or for wired phones. There are three types of dual mode phones.

Network Compatibility
Mobile phones containing two types of cellular radios for voice and data. These phones include combination of GSM and [[CDMAg ]] technology. They can be used as a GSM or CDMA phone according to your preference. These handsets are also called global phones. A good example of this kind of phones are Spice D1111 [1] and the Samsung SCH-a790.Recently Lg released a handset named Fathom which is capable of dual mode but with a single sim slot. These dual mode handsets are compatible with both GSM and CDMA networks and are essentially 2 phones in one device. Such phones make sense in those countries that have both GSM & CDMA networks or international CDMA roamers who want to keep a single handset with 2 numbers on it. All dual mode handsets require two identifying cards (one SIM and one RUIM) but not all dual SIM handsets are dual mode (for example dual SIM GSM phones).

Cellular and Non-cellular Radios
Mobile phones containing both cellular and non-cellular radios used for voice and data communication. There are also 2 types of dual mode phones which use cellular radio which will contain GSM/CDMA/W-CDMA as well as other technology like IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) radio or DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) radio. These phones can be used as cellular phones when connected to a wide area cellular network. When within range of a suitable WiFi or DECT network, the phone can be used as a WiFi/DECT phone for all communications purposes. This method of operation can reduce cost (for both the network operator and the subscriber), improve indoor coverage and increase data access speeds.

Wired Phones
Wired phones with VoIP and POTS technology. These phones can be used for making VoIP calls and also used for phones on the circuit switchnetwork. These phones require compatible routers and modem to make VoIP calls.

External links
• China Wireless [2] (Market Research) • Eurodualsim technologie [3]

[1] http:/ / www. spice-mobile. com/ model_fer_D1111. aspx [2] http:/ / www. instat. com/ abstract. asp?id=279& SKU=IN0703903CWW [3] http:/ / www. eurodualsim. com/

Dumb pipe


Dumb pipe
With regards to a mobile network operator (MNO, or operator), the term dumb pipe refers to an operator’s network being used simply to transfer bytes between the customer’s device and the Internet. The use of the term “dumb” refers to the inability of the operator to restrict services and applications to its own portal and primarily just provide simple bandwidth and network speed. The dumb pipe is one of the commonly understood operational models for a MNO, including the walled garden, and the smart pipe.

One widely regarded example of the operator “dumb pipe” scenario is Apple’s iPhone. The iPhone enables its users to directly surf the Internet with its mobile Safari browser and connects to Apple’s ITunes store for purchasing ringtones and music instead of the operator’s own portal[1] . Operators such as AT&T Mobility cannot offer their traditional services (such as downloads of wallpapers, ringtones, games, applications, etc.) as Apple controls the total iPhone user experience. Operators must be content to provide only the network connectivity and bandwidth which the iPhone has tripled in some cities[2] . In addition to losing valuable revenue opportunities with the customer, operators are rumored to pay Apple a percentage of the customer’s monthly bill as well[3] [4] . While the iPhone is a good example of the dumb pipe, not everyone believes it will ultimately be bad for operators[5] . Another example of the operator dumb pipe / smart pipe dilemma is the upcoming deployment of WiMAX technology. Companies such as Sprint Nextel and Clearwire are looking into ways to deploy WiMAX with additional services to keep them from becoming dumb pipes[6] .

Further reading
While there is no real industry standard definition of dumb pipe, it is a generally understood term in the mobile industry. There are numerous blog postings and trade articles which refer to the operator dumb pipe dilemma, some of which are referenced in this article. Others include: • The Operators vs. the Media Brands [7] • The Pipe Is Only Dumb If You Make It That Way [8] • Staying Relevant In A Dumb Pipe Era [9] A reference which describes the dumb pipe, operator portal (or walled garden), as well as the smart pipe is a report from Juniper Research titled Business Models for Mobile Content Players, Strategic Options & Scenarios 2007-2012: • Juniper Research Report [10] The author is not affiliated with Juniper in any way, and although the full report requires purchase, there are a number of summaries available on the web: • Smart-Pipe Strategy to Provide MNOs with 31% Share of $188bn Mobile Content Market by 2012 [11] • Study About MNOs Share of Mobile Content Market [12] • Mobile Entertainment in Western Europe [13] A Google search will list several more: • Google Search of Juniper Report [14]

Dumb pipe


Apple adds iPhone ringtones to iTunes (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2007/ 09/ 05/ apple-adds-iphone-ringtones-to-itunes/ ) iPhone Triples AT&T's Data Traffic (http:/ / www. shaiberger. com/ ?p=52) Apple's European iPhone Deals (http:/ / blogs. ft. com/ techblog/ 2007/ 08/ apples-european. html) Inside Apple: An iPhone Invasion (http:/ / www. pcmag. com/ article2/ 0,2704,2185225,00. asp) Wired: How the iPhone Blew Up the Wireless Industry (http:/ / www. wired. com/ gadgets/ wireless/ magazine/ 16-02/ ff_iphone?currentPage=all) [6] WiMAX Carriers Risk Becoming Dumb Pipes (http:/ / www. fiercebroadbandwireless. com/ story/ analysys-wimax-carriers-risk-becoming-dumb-pipes/ 2007-07-16) [7] http:/ / gigaom. com/ 2008/ 01/ 13/ the-operators-vs-the-media-brands/ [8] http:/ / mobhappy. com/ blog1/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ the-pipe-is-only-dumb-if-you-make-it-that-way/ [9] http:/ / www. wirelessweek. com/ staying-relevant-in-a-dumb-pipe. aspx [10] http:/ / www. juniperresearch. com/ shop/ viewreport. php?id=91 [11] http:/ / www. sourcewire. com/ releases/ rel_display. php?relid=iiLmi [12] http:/ / news. soft32. com/ juniper-research%E2%80%99s-study-about-mnos-share-of-mobile-content-market-by-2012_5106. html [13] http:/ / research. analysys. com/ default. asp?Mode=article& iLeftArticle=2179& m=& n= [14] http:/ / www. google. com/ search?hl=en& q=juniper+ research+ business+ models+ for+ mobile+ content+ players& btnG=Google+ Search [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Dynamic Link Adaptation
In mobile telephony, Dynamic Link Adaptation is a method and strategy by which cellular networks can dynamically adapt a radio link according to changing conditions of interference. In particular, the method applies to uplink time slots in UMTS-TDD systems. A preferred embodiment describes performing dynamic link adaptation when a UE has two CCTrCHs in an uplink time slot. The method and strategy of the invention are applicable for UMTS-FDD, CDMA-2000, and other systems as well.

E-OTD is the acronym for the Enhanced Observed Time Difference. Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) is a standard for the location of mobile telephones. The location method works by multilateration. The standardisation was first carried out for GSM by the GSM standard committees (T1P1.5 and ETIS) in LCS Release 98 and Release 99[1] . The standardisation was continued for 3G and WCDMA mobile telephones by 3GPP[2] . Conceptually, the method is similar to U-TDOA, however, it involves time difference measurements being made in the handset rather than the network, and a mechanism to pseudo-synchronise the network. The handset makes an observation of the time difference of arrival of signals from two different base stations. These observations are known as Observed Time Difference (OTD). The handset measures the OTD between a number of different base stations. If the base stations were synchronised, then a single OTD defines a hyperbolic locus. A second, independent OTD, for which one of the observed base stations is spatially distinct from those in the first OTD, would provide a second hyperbolic locus, and the intersection of the two loci gives an estimate of the location of the mobile. If more than two independent OTDs are available, then the measurements can be combined to yield a more accurate measurement. However, GSM and 3G networks are not necessarily synchronised, so further information is needed. The E-OTD standard provides a method for pseudo-synchronisation. A Location Measurement Unit (LMU) can be used to estimate the transmission time offset between two base stations. This measurement is known as the Real Time Difference (RTD). The RTD for two base stations can then be subtracted from the OTD for the same two base stations to produce the Geometric Time Difference (GTD). The GTD is the time difference that would have been measured by the mobile if the network was perfectly synchronised. Accordingly, the application of the RTD

com/contents/pdf/6623767. In essence. agilent. In 2007. Vol 1. [5] “Last Chance for E911 Technology” (http:/ / news.phonescoop. SPIE.php?gid=188) Advertisement of the E-OTD capability (http:/ / www.php) . org/ workshop/ Archive/ 0101LCS/ Docs/ PDF/ LCS-010019. and presents results of an operational trial. CSR merged with SIRF. if there are sufficient independent OTD measurements such that the equation system is over-determined. com/ 2100-1033-928153. 2000. and so is a drawback of E-OTD.com/glossary/term. If the base station clocks are not synchronised to a common source. then it is necessary to continuously update the RTDs.pdf) E-OTD compliance check in lab environment (http:/ / wireless. 3gpp. pdf) [3] “Mobile Phone Location Determination and Its Impact on Intelligent Transportation Systems” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. 5084. Proc. However. CPS was acquired by CSR. An active proponent and developer of E-OTD was Cambridge Positioning Systems (CPS)[5] . [4] “Mobile location without network-based synchronization or How to do E-OTD without LMUs”.tmworld. The deployment of LMUs can be expensive. In 2009. html) External links Encyclopedic article from Phone Scoop (http://www. E-OTD was considered for the Enhanced 911 mandate. 1. fcc. but ultimately was not a successful contender for this application. gov/ pshs/ services/ 911-services/ enhanced911/ archives/ aerial.pdf) Manual for the E-ODT compliance check (http://www. as the time offsets will be changing due to the clock drift in each base station[3] . 59 (2003). 58 References [1] “Overview of 2G LCS Technologies and Standards” (ftp:/ / ftp. E-OTD positioning system has been less commonly used than the U-TDOA positioning system. cnet. pdf) [2] “Testing E-ODT” (Manual for the E-ODT compliance check) (http:/ / www. Because E-OTD requires a software modification to be included in the mobile phone. a 2003 paper[4] describes a method of operating E-OTD without LMUs.E-OTD provides a pseudo-synchronisation. com/ rfcomms/ refdocs/ gsmgprs/ gprsla_gen_bse_eotd. March. tmworld. pp 55 – 64. An LMU is a receiver that is placed in a position in the network that is able to report the RTDs of a number of different base stations. No. Vol. then the additional information can be used to estimate the RTDs. com/ contents/ pdf/ 6623767.

from the days of AMPS in the United States from the early 1980s. As ESNs have essentially run out. To allow more than 256 manufacturers to be identified the manufacturer code was extended to 14 bits.[3] Applications for assignments were accepted until June 30. 3gpp.215 codes to mobiles.9c. 9c. The administrative role was taken over by the Telecommunications Industry Association in 1997 and is still maintained by them. For the decimal format the first three digits are the decimal representation of the first 8 bits (between 000 and 255 inclusive) and the next 8 digits are derived from the remaining 24 bits and will be between 00000000 and 16777215 inclusive. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ esn_meid_milestones_timeline. ESNs are often represented as either 11 digit decimal numbers or 8 digit hexadecimal numbers. MEID. tiaonline. The main difference between MEID and IMEI is that the MEID allows hexadecimal digits while IMEI allows only decimal digits . MEID was created to be a superset of IMEI. 2009-09 (http:/ / www.003.[1] The first 8 bits of the ESN was originally the manufacturer code.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Electronic Serial Numbers (ESN) (http:/ / www. the same length as the IMEI and.5 hexadecimal digits. those previously assigned to AMPS or TDMA phones and therefore not present on CDMA2000 systems. Codes are assigned according to industry guidelines.144 codes. Version 1. cfm) 3GPP TS 23. The decimal format of pseudo ESNs will therefore begin with 128. 2010 using reclaimed ESN codes. was created and was first implemented by Verizon in 2006. in fact. leaving 24 bits for the manufacturer to assign up to 16. compared to International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers used by all GSM phones. pdf ESN Assignment Guidelines and Procedures.777. V9. Pseudo-ESNs are not guaranteed to be unique (the MEID is the unique identifier if the phone has a pseudo-ESN). pdf) External links • Official TIA Resource Page for ESN and UIMID (http://www. tiaonline. a new serial number format. The decimal format separately displays 8 bit manufacturer codes in the first 3 digits. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to uniquely identify mobile devices.Electronic Serial Number 59 Electronic Serial Number Electronic Serial Numbers (ESNs) were created by the U. Reclaimed codes have also been used for UIMID assignments. MEIDs are 56 bits long. May 2007 (http:/ / tiaonline. The hexadecimal format displays an ESN as 8 digits and also does not separately display 14 bit manufacturer codes which occupy 3. The remaining 24 bits are the least significant bits of the SHA-1 hash of a Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID).tiaonline. htm) http:/ / www.S. but 14 bit codes are not displayed as separate digits.org/standards/resources/esn/) .0.[2] The last of the virgin (never before used) ESN codes was allocated in November 2008. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 23003. ESNs are mainly used with CDMA phones (and were previously used by AMPS and TDMA phones). org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ index."IMSI shall consist of decimal digits (0 through 9) only". Manufacturer code 0x80 is reserved from assignment and is used instead as an 8-bit prefix for pseudo-ESNs (pESN). org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ ESN_Guidelines_v1. leaving 18 bits for the manufacturer to assign up to 262.0.

200 bps from 3. Wireless Computing: A Manager's Guide to Wireless Networking. Communications Series. p. com/ books?id=jbXEy2FRAnIC& pg=PA26) (4th ed. The subsequent fields are dependent on the operation. It was established in 1990 after Motorola purchased Contemporary Communications. In the first line above. The wireless data handbook (http:/ / books. an extension to Universal Computer Protocol (UCP). EMI (protocol) External Machine Interface (EMI). Motorola attempted to use EMBARC to penetrate a different market: broadcasting current sports scores. ISBN 0471286567. 92. The deliveries were charged based on time until reception. (1999). The first four fields form the mandatory header.[1] The EMBARC service could feed data at 1. Retrieved 2011-05-06. in this case the ASCII string "hello". now part of Acision. . They decided instead to focus on hardware manufacturing. calculated simply by summing all bytes in the packet (including slashes) and taking the 8 least significant bits from the result.). and the fourth is the operation (here 30. google. with the charge being more cost effective for larger numbers of clients.[2] However. R for result). and a timestamp is suffixed to the phone number to show time of delivery. Ira (1997). The second line is the response with a matching transaction reference number. Unfortunately. It was useful for sending a simultaneous message or memo to up to 500 mobile users. John Wiley and Sons. Fields within the packet are separated by / characters. the third is the operation type (O for operation. 1996[1] and Motorola sold their national paging license. the EMBARC enterprise failed in April. The final field is the checksum. a national carrier for pagers in the 900 MHz band. [2] Brodsky. The protocol was developed by CMG Wireless Data Solutions. It could send messages up to 1.[2] In 1996. where 'A' indicates that the message was successfully acknowledged by the SMSC. forming less than 5% of all pagers by 1991.EMBARC 60 EMBARC EMBARC (Electronic Mail Broadcast to A Roaming Computer) was a business enterprise of the Motorola company that provided wireless broadcast of e-mail and news to mobile subscribers. p. 26.[2] References [1] DeRose. ISBN 0471316512. '66677789' is the recipient's address (telephone number) and '68656C6C6F' is the content of the message. John Wiley and Sons.5 kW ground transmitters. hex 02) and the end with ^C (ETX.500 characters long to portable computers that were equipped to receive the messages. . hex 03). alphanumeric pagers did not show rapid growth in the market. Syntax A typical EMI/UCP exchange looks like this : ^B01/00045/O/30/66677789///1//////68656C6C6F/CE^C ^B01/00041/R/30/A//66677789:180594141236/F3^C The start of the packet is signaled by ^B (STX. "short message transfer"). receivers of service requests. The most likely users of this service were thought to be sales people operating in the field. is a protocol primarily used to connect to short message service centres (SMSCs) for mobile telephones. James F. and the transportation industry. The full specification is available on the LogicaCMG website developers' forum. but registration is required.

nowsms. In practice default alphabet is GSM-7.0 support. except few characters (for example '_' underline). In practice it does not have any impact on delivery throughput. com/ discus/ messages/ 1/ EMI_UCP_Specification_40-8156. vodafone. The default alphabet . com/ Telecoms/ 350234223 http:/ / www. org/ ~nemux/ . pdf http:/ / search. which is almost the same as ASCII on 7 bit. • Computer Interface for Message Distribution (CIMD) developed by Nokia External links • LogicaCMG: Downloads for developers [1] (link no longer active as of 2007-12-24) • UCP Specification (Vodafone Germany) [2] • A more detailed UCP Specification [3] • UCP Perl implementation (for developers) [4] • Kannel [3]. Alternatives • Short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP) also provides SMS over TCP/IP. pdf http:/ / www. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. de/ downloadarea/ EmiSpec_43d. logicacmg. but only if you have very slow network and incorrectly configure your application on your SMSC (for example one session. Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with UCP/EMI 4.EMI (protocol) 61 Technical Limitations The two digit transaction reference number means that an entity sending text messages can only have 100 outstanding messages (per session).interesting is that in EMI UCP documentation default alphabet is IRA (eq ASCII on 7bit). with number of window bigger than 100). this can limit performance. cpan.

com/2008/02/10/ csr-shows-off-egps-says-its-superior-to-a-gps/) • E-GPS High Accuracy Mobile Location Technology for GSM / 3G W-CDMA (http://www. According to CSR.engadget. it can "exploit data available from the cellular network to speed GPS fixes and provide complementary. trademarked as eGPS) is a technology designed for mobile phones on GSM and W-CDMA networks. to augment GPS signals to deliver faster location fixes. accurate to within 100m. a manufacturer of bluetooth and wireless chips for mobile handsets • January 2008 . and reliable location sensing when GPS signals are weak or unavailable. EGPS technologies are due in 2008.co. but greatly speed time to fix in poor GPS reception areas where most handsets are used. fast.uk/PR/ April2006/2970.Motorola and CSR (http://www. Then CSR's "Fine Time Aiding" helps the device know where to look for a GPS signal.Enhanced GPS 62 Enhanced GPS Enhanced GPS (or E-GPS.The E-GPS system was first announced by developers CPS (Cambridge Positioning Systems Ltd)[1] • January 2007 . and that eGPS is superior to Assisted GPS. says it's superior to aGPS (http://www.egpsforum.CSR & Motorola announce that they intend to create an open industry forum for EGPS technologies References [1] CSR announcement Feb 2005 (http:/ / www." CSR is hoping to add eGPS capabilities to handsets for less than $1 per unit. E-GPS combines CSR's "Matrix" technology with GPS – when a user initiates a location request they get a Matrix location instantly using cell tower information. palminfocenter.3g. lower cost implementations and reduced power and processing requirements. EGPS delivers a "universal positioning capability that will not only work reliably indoors and in zero GPS signal conditions. EGPS.org/) • CSR shows off eGPS." More specifically.htm) . CSR claim that this enables software-only GPS solutions to operate reliably in all environments. It is being developed by CSR who has partnered with Motorola – together they intend to create an open industry forum. Fine Time Aiding enables a more aggressive search and is claimed to be equivalent to 6 dB more sensitivity than can be achieved by any GPS hardware correlator in the terminal. Timeline • February 2005 .CPS is purchased by CSR. com/ news/ 7557/ egps-offers-more-accurate-handset-locating/ ) External links • The EGPS Forum . to quickly acquire satellite information within seconds.

4125-169. • Each cycle is divided into 5 subsequences of 12 seconds. htm) [3] Commission Decision of 20 December 2005 on the harmonisation of the 169. [5] References [1] Council Directive 90/544/EEC of 9 October 1990 on the frequency bands designated for the coordinated introduction of pan-European land-based public radio paging in the Community (http:/ / eur-lex. europa..4-169. europa. do?uri=CELEX:31990L0544:EN:HTML) [2] Ofcom's Public Wide Area Paging Information (http:/ / www.8125 MHz. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. Transmission parameters. com/ digital/ . • ERMES uses Frequency Shift Keying (4-FSK) modulation. Related websites • PDW Paging Decoder [4] freeware • Audio samples including ERMES. Pager interrogation • The pager population is divided into 16 groups.8125 MHz frequency band in the Community (http:/ / eur-lex. org. This scheduling allocation protocol extends the battery life of the pager by several orders of magnitude. Radio paging services depend on the allocation and availability of appropriate frequencies in order to transmit and receive between fixed-base stations and radio paging receivers respectively. • The pager needs only to be active during the period it has been allocated to. GOLAY etc.[1] ERMES failed to develop[2] and its frequency band has been reassigned to different use. pager interrogation • Each paging transmission is divided into 60 cycles of 1 minute in length. • Each pager group is allocated to one of the 16 transmission batches [A.[3] Technical specification Transmission parameters • ERMES transmits the data at 6250 bit/s.. labeled A through P.. ofcom. • Each subsequence is further divided into 16 batches. php?lang=eng [5] http:/ / kb9ukd. gsm-antennes. uk/ static/ archive/ ra/ topics/ paging/ document/ pwa-paging.ERMES 63 ERMES ERMES (European Radio Messaging System) is a pan-European radio paging system. European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) has developed the European Telecommunications Standard ETS 300 133 for ERMES operating in the frequency band 169.P].. nl/ PDW/ pdw. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. allowing it to go into sleep mode 15/16 (~=93%) of the time (a ~7% duty cycle). do?uri=OJ:L:2005:344:0047:01:EN:HTML) [4] http:/ / www.

X. Short Form EUIMID (SF_EUIMID) The Short Form EUIMID is based on the 56-bit MEID and is allocated from the same numbering space by the current Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA). the TIA. etc. SMCI all of which denote the concept of an ESME connecting to an SMSC. Where this is not possible.25 or similar.ESME 64 ESME External Short Messaging Entity (ESME) is a term originally coined by Aldiscon to describe an external application that connects to an SMSC to engage in the sending and/or receiving of SMS messages. it is connected via TCP/IP. they can identify the issuer of the code (likely a mobile phone operator in the case of EUIMID.0 (or higher) [1]. i.[2] This was published by the TIA as TIA-820-C. OIS. This is controlled by a flag inside the R-UIM stored in bit 2 of the UsgInd (Usage Indicator) elementary file (EF). Basically. anytime a mobile user sends or receives a message where the other party was not another real mobile user. Both forms produce a 32-bit pseudo-UIMID (pUIMID) with 0x80 in the upper 8 bits and the least significant 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the entire SF_EUIMID or the entire ICCID EF (for LF_EUIMID) in the lower 24 bits.S0023-C v1. EUIMID EUIMID (expanded UIMID) is a unique identifier for an R-UIM (Removable User Identity Module) or CSIM (CDMA SIM application) card in CDMA2000 cellular systems that replaces the older UIMID identifier. no two R-UIM devices should ever be given the same number. This tradeoff was removed in 2008 by the ability to specify MEID or EUIMID in OTASP signaling and in 2009 by the addition of these options to the CDMA air interface StatusRequest message. it is likely that the other sender/receiver is an ESME. but can satisfy most uses of UIMID. SME is a term used in many cellular circles to describe a network entity (mobile/cell phone) that can send/receive messages. There are two forms of EUIMID. Typical examples of ESMEs are systems that send automated marketing messages to mobile users. UCP. CIMD. SMSC uses protocols such as SMPP.e. This form requires new files within the R-UIM defined in 3GPP2 specification C. The tradeoff is that the phone hardware cannot be easily identified. The pseudo-UIMID is not unique. or not desirable. and an R-UIM or CSIM manufacturer in the case of UIMID). . The SF_EUIMID has the unique ability to override the phone’s own MEID in signaling. ESME (pronounced EZ-mee) is essentially one of these but without all the wireless aspects. voting systems that process SMS votes (Pop Idol. Secondly. another unique identifier should be used instead or the requirement for uniqueness should be removed. Their most important characteristic is that they are globally unique. known as Short Form (SF_EUIMID) and Long Form (LF_EUIMID). Big Brother). The EUIMID (and UIMID) are hardware identifiers that do not change throughout the life of the device they identify. This may make it easier to provision a R-UIM that is manufactured without other unique identifiers (such as MIN or IMSI).

S0023-C_v2. pdf) [4] C. 3gpp2. If an R-UIM or CSIM with Expanded UIMID is inserted in a phone the identifier that is usually transmitted as the 'ESN' over the radio interface is the 32-bit pseudo-UIMID.S0066-0 v2.EUIMID 65 Long Form EUIMID (LF_EUIMID) The Long Form EUIMID is the ICCID that has been present in many generations of smart cards. 3gpp2. In Press. it is recommended in Version 2. so it is recommended that the Luhn check digit be included plus a padding digit (0xf). [4] In 2009. (http:/ / www. however.up to 72 bits. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. 3gpp2. 0_060530.0.S0023-C[3] that the pseudo-UIMID is generated from all 80 stored bits. pdf [2] C. (http:/ / www. Publication pending. Removable User Identity Module for Spread Spectrum Systems. (http:/ / www. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. pdf) . S0023-C_v1. Removable User Identity Module for Spread Spectrum Systems. org/ Public_html/ SC/ C. S0066-0_v2. 0_080729. pdf) [3] C. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C.0. 80 bits. Over-the-Air Service Provisioning for MEID-Equipped Mobile Stations in Spread Spectrum Systems. References [1] http:/ / www. Importantly. the CDMA air interface was also upgraded to the so-called 'Release E' which allows the transmission of all available identifiers in the StatusRequest message. The storage allocated for the ICCID is. including the SIM cards for GSM.0. 3GPP2. 3gpp2. 3GPP2.0 of C. S0023-C_v2. 0_081031. 0_081031.S0066-0 v2. 2008.S0023-C v2.0 there were no CDMA2000 protocols that provided visibility of the ICCID outside the R-UIM. Until the publication of C. This is composed of up to 18 BCD digits -.S0023-C v2. 3GPP2.

.[5] [9] References [1] http:/ / www. MySpace. within walking distance. BlackBerry.[4] [6] face2face does not reveal precise location coordinates. face2face incorporates "reciprocal sharing functionality" so that only users who make themselves known to each other share location data.[3] face2face populates content based on users' news feed. Android. protecting their privacy.5 million friends of friends. Android. Users can also update their own statuses and share news across all of their social networks. and Twitter[8] and enables users to see when members of these networks are in close proximity. [4] JP Manninen (2010-07-08). html). ws [2] "Proximate Global Introduces face2face" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. "Face2face Brings Privacy to Location by Approximating Friends' Whereabouts" (http:/ / www. Initial release Stable release Size Available in Type Website July 2010 1. and proximity.9 MB English social networking www. Venture Beat. without sacrificing privacy.face2face 66 face2face Original author(s) Proximate Global Inc.ws [1] face2face is a proprietary proximity-based mobile application developed by Proximate Global Inc. The New York . although its technology gathers that data.face2face. com/ 2010/ 07/ 10/ face2face/ ).[3] although it does not reveal users' exact locations. Mashable. face2face allows users to choose with which members of their social networks they share location information. . LinkedIn. Retrieved 2010-09-19. face2face had 10. 2010-07-08. iPhone. people not in one of their networks cannot see the information. nytimes. and many J2ME-compatible devices. Awards face2face earned Mashable's "Spark of Genius" award in July 2010. com/ news-releases/ proximate-global-introduces-face2face-98015299. Those users are then connected to 3.[2] that allows users to identify when members of their social networks are nearby. and many J2ME-compatible devices. html).[3] Privacy and security Responding to growing concerns about location-based apps revealing too much information about a user's whereabouts.[3] [4] [5] [6] face2face was launched in July 2010[2] for smartphones including the iPhone. face2face. It works on BlackBerry. New York: PR Newswire.000+ app downloads.2. "Mobile App Pinpoints Nearby Facebook and Twitter Friends" (http:/ / mashable. In its first month (July 2010).35 6. [3] Jennifer Van Grove (2010-07-10). Retrieved 2010-09-19. com/ external/ venturebeat/ 2010/ 07/ 08/ 08venturebeat-face2face-brings-privacy-to-location-by-appr-41496.[7] Overview face2face compiles existing online social and business networks including Facebook.5. statuses.

face2face. [6] Olivia Solon (2010-07-26). 2010-08-10. Each frame contains a sync followed by 10 data blocks. wired. In South Australia the State's SAGRN network for the Emergency Services paging system (CFS. 3200 or 6400 bits per second respectively. There have been reported instances of individuals actively listening to pager traffic (private investigators.uk. SES. Retrieved 2010-09-19. and can be monitored through several websites.co. LinkedIn. All modes use FSK modulation. 67 External links • Official site (http://www. Security Since data transmission over FLEX is unencrypted and insecure. etc. transmitting private information over it should be done with caution.). Wired. but a related protocol called ReFLEX provides two-way messaging. At 3200/4. . . this is a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 bits per second. this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 symbols per second. com/ mobile-location-and-privacy-in-one-network-face2face/ ). . Transmission of message data occurs in one of four modes: 1600/2. . news organizations. In The Netherlands the emergency services use the Flex-protocol in the nationwide P2000 network for pagers. Technology Review. At 3200/2. Retrieved 2010-09-19. or 6400/4. GoMo News. Retrieved 2010-09-19. . com/ 2010/ 07/ 29/ face2face-consolidates-facebook-linkedin-twitter-and-myspace-on-a-single-platform/ ).com. [7] "Mobile location and privacy in one network: Face2Face" (http:/ / www.. 2010-07-29. MIT. Retrieved 2010-09-19. Face2face. The traffic on this network can be monitored via several websites. Each 4 level symbol represents two bits for a bit rate of 3200 bits per second. technologyreview. FLEX provides one-way communication only (from the provider to the pager device). 512 or 1024 bits for 1600. . [9] "FAQs" (http:/ / face2face. "App Lets You Know When Friends Are Nearby" (http:/ / www. 3200/4. Retrieved 2010-09-19. Retrieved 2010-09-19. co. ws/ faqs).ws. The data blocks contain 256. Intomobile. [8] "Face2face consolidates Facebook. At 1600/2 this is on a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 bits per second. A BCH type ECC is used to improve the integrity of the data. [5] Naone. com/ computing/ 25855/ ?a=f). At 6400/4. MFS and SAAS) is run on the FLEX 1600 protocol.ws) FLEX (protocol) FLEX is a communications protocol developed by Motorola and used in many pagers. . Twitter and MySpace on a single platform" (http:/ / www.face2face Times. intomobile. gomonews. Data is transmitted in a set of 128 frames that takes 4 minutes to complete. Erica (2010-07-26). Proximate Global Inc. uk/ news/ archive/ 2010-07/ 26/ face2face-social-network). 3200/2. "Proximity-based 'Face2face' app assuages privacy fears" (http:/ / www. this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 symbols per second or 6400 bits per second. The standard has been designed to allow the pager's receiver to be turned off for a high percentage of the time and therefore save on battery usage.

GCD's are plain text files. The name of the file will end with a ". nettwerked. Generic Bootstrapping Architecture Introduction In mobile phones. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 33220. Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA) is one technology enabling the authentication of a user. net/ FLEX_Technologies. This authentication is possible if the user owns a valid identity on an HLR Home Location Register or a Home Subscriber Server GBA is standardized at the 3GPP (http:/ / www. This shared secret is limited in time and for a specific domain. . the BSF establishes a shared secret between the simcard card and the service provider.gcd" extension.FLEX (protocol) 68 External links • FLEX Technology: Paging Protocol [1] References [1] http:/ / www. htm) . The user authentication is instantiated by a shared secret. They are required by many wireless carriers to install applications on devices. one in the smartcard inside the mobile phone and the other is on the HLR/HSS. GBA authenticates by making a network component challenge the simcard card and verify that the answer is similar by the one predicted by the HLR/HSS. html General content descriptor A General Content Descriptor (GCD) is a file which describes downloads like ringtones and pictures to wireless devices. Instead of asking the service provider to trust the BSF and relying on it for every authentication request. 3gpp.

. no/ simplesamlphp with 500 PHP lines of code and only a few tens of lines of code are Service Provider specific making it really easy to port it to another Web site. feide. either Bluetooth SAP or a Java or native application could be used to serve the request coming from the browser. making this solution a very low cost one when compared to PKI.There is no need for user enrollment phase nor secure deployment of keys. .Another advantage is the ease with which the authentication method may be integrated into terminals and service providers. • A means to dialog with a smartcard and signed the challenge sent by the BSF. Every Web server already implement HTTP digest authentication and the effort to implement GBA on top of digest authentication is minimal.On device side is needed: • A Web browser (in fact an HTTP client) implementing digest authentication and the special case designed by a "3gpp" string in the HTTP header. . as it is based on HTTP's well known "Digest access authentication". For example it could be implemented on SimpleSAMLPhP http:/ / rnd.Generic Bootstrapping Architecture 69 Strong points This solution has some strong points of certificate and shared secrets without having some of their weaknesses: .

or by querying the Subscriber Locator Function (SLF). is based on public-private key pairs and digital certificates. fi/ Publications/ C/ 22/ papers/ Olkkonen_final. There are two ways to use GAA (Generic Authentication Architecture).org references GBA in its Advanced Trusted Environment: OMTP TR1[3] recommendation.omtp. is based on a shared secret between the client and server • The second.Generic Bootstrapping Architecture 70 Technical overview Actually. Later a partner developed a "zero installation" concept. for example. the services can retrieve the session keys from the operator. Uses • The SPICE project developed an extended Use Case named "split terminal" where a user on a PC can authenticate with her mobile phone: http://www. pdf) [2] http:/ / www. The UE and Bootstrapping function server (BSF) mutually authenticate themselves during the Ub (number [2] above) interface. which uses the Diameter Base Protocol. and they can be used in some application specific protocol between the client and services. which can use any specific application protocol necessary. • The Fraunhofer Fokus http://www. If NAF is not in the home network.fokus. References [1] Generic Authentication Architecture by Timo Olkkonen.htm. over the Ua [4] interface. NAFs recover the key session of BSF during the Zn [5] interface. using the Digest access authentication AKA protocol.ist-spice. it must use a Zn-proxy to contact BSF . aspx?Id=24ad518b-6dba-4155-ad51-3143bd43a234) . BSF retrieves data from the subscriber from the Home Subscriber Server (HSS) during the Zh [3] interface. biz/ files/ 2008papers/ Session5A-2. This is called bootstrapping. The User Equipment (UE) is. contents in this section are from external literature [1] .fraunhofer. SSC. omtp. Figure above shows the network GAA entities and interfaces between them. pdf%20 [3] OMTP Advanced Trusted Environment: OMTP TR1 (http:/ / www. org/ Publications/ Display. This can be done by either setting up a pre-defined HSS to BSF.de developed an OpenID extension for Firefox which uses GBA authentication. first released in May 2008. the user's mobile phone. Optional entities are drawn with lines network and borders dotted the scoreboard. • The first. which also uses the diameter at the base Protocol. tml. tkk.Presentation at ICIN 2008 by Peter Weik [2] • The Open Mobile Terminal Platform http://www.org/demos/demo3. which are the implementation servers. icin. Helsinki University of Technology (http:/ / www. If there are several HSS in the network. BSF must first know which one to use. In the shared secret cases. GBA. Bluetooth SIM Access Profile was used between the Firefox browser and the mobile phone. The UE also communicates with the Network Application Functions (NAF). After that. the customer and the operator are first mutually authenticated through 3G and Authentication Key (AKA) and they agree on session keys which can then be used between the client and services that the customer wants to use.The NAF was developed on SimpleSAMLPhP and a Firefox extension was developed to process the GBA digest authencation request from the BSF.

In 1995. In 2009.[1] He is currently CEO and co-founder of his third business venture. He attended Denison University in Granville. Ecount was sold to Citi for US $200 million to integrate into Citi’s global transaction services business."[8] Matt serves on the board of SpeakUp! and AidsAlive. Ecount was one of the first providers of corporate prepaid card solutions for the purpose of replacing paper checks and other inefficient payment methods. Ohio. and philanthropist.5 billion for companies including Microsoft. Amazon. Ecount was issuing more than US $4 billion in payments worldwide. Steve Gillin. inventor. Hotmail and Citysearch. At the time. Biography Gillin was born in Philadelphia. a company that helps businesses shift to mobile communications. In 1997 Gillin and business partner. Gillin is best known as the co-founder of Ecount. Philadelphia Business Journal Best Places to Work[7] . In 2007. Relay. a corporate prepaid card provider. Gillin founded Relay.Matt Gillin 71 Matt Gillin Matthew Gillin is an American entrepreneur. Eastern Technology Council Technology CEO of the Year [4] and Philadelphia Business Journal "40 Under 40". and is the recipient of multiple national and local awards including Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year [3] . Paul Raden. together with Paul Raden. At the time of its acquisition. founded Ecount – an electronic payments company. Mobile 2009 Headquarters Radnor. com .[2] until 2009. as well as numerous other recognitions for his companies including being named Deloitte Fast 50[5] . Pennsylvania Area served Website United States http:/ / www. and Forbes "Best of The Web. and Pete Flick. C/Base designed programs valued at over US $1. Gillin remained as CEO of the renamed business. In 2007. Gillin sold Ecount to Citi for US $200 million. Gillin holds two patents in the US Patent Office for his inventions around electronic payments. After the sale. Gillin co-founded C/Base – an Internet partnership marketing consultancy. relaynetwork. Pennsylvania. Relay Type Industry Founded Startup company Technology. Citi Prepaid Services. Deloitte Fast 500[6] .

html) [2] Ecount renames to Citi Prepaid Services (http:/ / www. com/ bow/ b2c/ category. deloitte.allbusiness.com/profile/view?id=196368&authType=name& authToken=uFLx&pvs=pp&trk=ppro_viewmore) with his positions and start-up history • Management Page on Relay website (http://www. deloitte. jhtml?id=190)] "Best of the Web" Award] External links • Matt Gillin’s interview (http://www. html) [3] Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award (http:/ / www.com/management. com/ 2007/ 03/ 01/ business/ 01citi.linkedin.php) • Citi Prepaid Services (formerly Ecount) website (http://www. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ us_tmt_fast_Greater Phil. xacp. com/ 9_21_06. nytimes. .speakup. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2006TechnologyFast500WinnersBrochure.com/human-resources/workforce-management/4059319-1. . easterntechnologycouncil. html) [8] [[Forbes (http:/ / www. pdf)] Fast 50] [6] [[Deloitte Fast 500 (http:/ / www. com/ about/ 2008news/ sept-1-2008. html) with Smart Business Philadelphia • Matt Gillin’s public profile (http://www. corp. org/ ea/ winners.citiprepaid. citi. Pennsylvania with his wife and two children.aidsalive.org/) • AidsAlive (http://www. References [1] The New York Times article on Ecount's acquisition by Citi (http:/ / www. com/ Greater+ Philadelphia's+ 2002+ Ernst+ & + Young+ Entrepreneur+ Of+ The+ Year(R). pdf)]] [7] Philadelphia Business Journal "Best Places to Work" (http:/ / www. which Gillin founded prior to Relay • SpeakUp! (http://www.org/) . Relay helps companies reach their customers through their mobile devices with their consent. -a087964372) [4] Eastern Technology Council Technology CEO of the Year (http:/ / www. forbes. aspx) [5] [[Deloitte (http:/ / www.com). thefreelibrary.Matt Gillin 72 Current work Gillin is currently CEO and co-founder of Relay. Gillin currently lives in a suburb of Philadelphia. prepaid.relaynetwork.

In one PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). the industry’s largest mobile media network. GoTV’s rich application technologies deliver engaging experiences that connect brand and media partners with their audiences via mobile. agencies and media owners. it sends positioning requests to either the VMSC (Visited Mobile Switching Centre). The GMLC is the first node an external LCS client accesses in a GSM or UMTS network.GMLC 73 GMLC The Gateway Mobile Location Centre contains functionality required to support LCS (LoCation Services). develops hundreds of original and custom shows every month ranging from 2. The GMLC may request routing information from the HLR (Home Location register) or HSS (Home Subscriber Server). syndication and production studio capabilities make GoTV the go-to partner for brands. creates and syndicates original content to mobile. GoTV is headquartered in Los Angeles. regional wireless carriers and online-mobile third-party distributors. Seattle. highly engaged content experiences through feature-rich smart applications distributed to the widest audience possible. San Francisco. reaching new audiences in innovative new ways. GoTV Studios. GoTV Studios delivers new media content to multiple platforms for today’s consumer. GoTV’s wide distribution network enables broad syndication of content to the widest audience possible. ranking in the top 10 of all music channels available on US carriers.5 to 4 minutes per segment. GoTV Studios creates critically acclaimed original programming. After performing registration authorization. SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) or MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) Server and receives final location estimates from the corresponding entity. major wireless carriers. GoTV enables media owners and brands to deliver compelling. This network includes all major application storefronts. GoTV Studios. CA. The company’s mobile technology lab is located in San Diego. there may be more than one GMLC. Some of GoTV’s mobile products/partners include: Astrology Zone Premier Bible-in-a-Year Call On Jesus Cracked NASCAR Sprint Cup Mobile℠ NBA2Go NHRA Mobile Oprah Mobile Revolver TV Romancing Royalty Sony's Crackle . personalized. the company’s wholly owned studio is also located in Los Angeles. From mobile and broadband to broadcast and HD. GoTV has the most music channels in the US mobile marketplace. and Kansas City. A full suite of feature-rich custom applications and widgets meets specific partner requirements. GoTV Networks GoTV Networks. Syndication & Distribution sales offices are strategically located to serve mobile and broadband partners in Los Angeles. the company’s wholly owned production studio. GoTV’s technology.

but often run on batteries and includes a car lighter plug. Some include HDMI.2 mm) phono plugs for composite video~analog mono audio relay to serve them as composite monitors. . called the Panasonic IC TV MODEL TR-001 and MTV-1. some cell phones have an integrated television receiver feature. also.GoTV Networks Sprint Exclusive Entertainment Sprint Football Live Univision V CAST Young Hollywood ES Música Hip Hop Official True Country 74 External links • GoTV Networks Website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Some handheld televisions also double as portable DVD players and USB PVR . Many of these devices resemble handheld transistor radios. some models have mono 1/8" jacks for the broadcast signal that is usually relayed via F connector on standard television models.3 to 5 inches (33 to 130 mm). Several years later. com/ Handheld television A Handheld television is a portable device that usually uses a TFT LCD or Organic light-emitting diode color display. gotvnetworks. Sony released the first model of the Watchman. It had grayscale video at first. Size spectrum Portable These TVs cannot fit in your pocket. Nowadays. Later in 1982. a pun on Walkman. USB and SD ports. Screen sizes vary from 1. the TV used a minuscule CRT which set the record for being the smallest CRT on a commercially marketed product. Since LCD technology was not yet mature at the time. History In the 1970s and early 1980s. Hardware These devices often have stereo 1⁄8 inches (3. Panasonic and Sinclair Research released the first TVs which were small enough to fit in a large pocket. Pocket These TVs fit in your pocket Wearable These TVs sometimes are made in the form of a wristwatch. a color model with an active-matrix LCD was released.

guenthoer. External links • History of the pocket TV [1] • Vintage Micro Television http://www. and standardised within European originated standards such as GSM and UMTS. who can only be connected to that cell. .visions4. Handover or handoff American English tends to use the term handoff. the term handover or handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. In satellite communications it is the process of transferring satellite control responsibility from one earth station to another without loss or interruption of service. Purpose In telecommunications there may be different reasons why a handover might be conducted: • when the phone is moving away from the area covered by one cell and entering the area covered by another cell the call is transferred to the second cell in order to avoid call termination when the phone gets outside the range of the first cell. the call is transferred to a different channel in the same cell or to a different channel in another cell in order to avoid the interference. de/ e-history.Handheld television 75 Notable brands and models for handheld televisions • • • • • Casio Citizen Watch Co. • when the capacity for connecting new calls of a given cell is used up and an existing or new call from a phone. In British English the term handover is more common. IETF. is transferred to that cell in order to free-up some capacity in the first cell for other users.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] http:/ / www. htm Handover In cellular telecommunications. The term handover is more common than handoff in academic research publications and literature. NEC TurboExpress game console Sega Game Gear TV tuner accessory Sony Watchman Similar types Some handheld televisions are wearable. and is used within international and European organisations such as ITU-T. • in non-CDMA networks when the channel used by the phone becomes interfered by another phone using the same channel in a different cell. which is located in an area overlapped by another cell. ETSI and 3GPP. while handoff is slightly more common within the IEEE and ANSI organisations. a few models are in the form of a wristwatch. and this is most commonly used within some American organizations such as 3GPP2 and in American originated technologies such as CDMA2000.

In this case the connection to the target is established before the connection to the source is broken. in which the source and the target are different cells (even if they are on the same cell site) is called inter-cell handover. It requires the least processing by the network providing service. in which the cell is not changed. Thus the connection to the source is broken before or 'as' the connection to the target is made—for this reason such handovers are also known as break-before-make. When a call is in a state of soft handover. umbrella-type of cell. four or more cells can be maintained by one phone at the same time. . Soft handovers may involve using connections to more than two cells: connections to three. Hard handovers are intended to be instantaneous in order to minimize the disruption to the call. during which the two connections are used in parallel. The most basic form of handover is when a phone call in progress is redirected from its current cell (called source) and its used channel in that cell to a new cell (called target) and a new channel. when a fast-travelling user. This is called ping-ponging. The purpose of intra-cell handover is to change one channel. 76 Types of handover In addition to the above classification of inter-cell and intra-cell classification of handovers. A special case is possible. and when such combining is performed both in the downlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover is termed as softer. rather than a brief event. The latter is more advantageous. so the base stations bounce the link with the mobile back and forth. A hard handover is perceived by network engineers as an event during the call. When the mobile is between base stations.g.Handover • again in non-CDMA networks when the user behaviour changes. when a user is detected to be moving faster than a certain threshold. e. Such a handover. • in CDMA networks a (see further down) may be induced in order to reduce the interference to a smaller neighboring cell due to the "near-far" effect even when the phone still has an excellent connection to its current cell. The interval. For this reason the soft handover is perceived by network engineers as a state of the call. The purpose of inter-cell handover is to maintain the call as the subscriber is moving out of the area covered by the source cell and entering the area of the target cell. the call can be transferred to a larger umbrella-type of cell in order to minimize the frequency of the handovers due to this movement). then the mobile can switch with any of the base stations. in which the source and the target are one and the same cell and only the used channel is changed during the handover. the signal of the best of all used channels can be utilised for the call at a given moment or all the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. stops then the call may be transferred to a smaller macro cell or even to a micro cell in order to free capacity on the umbrella cell for other fast-traveling users and to reduce the potential interference to other cells or users (this works in reverse too. may be brief or substantial. In terrestrial networks the source and the target cells may be served from two different cell sites or from one and the same cell site (in the latter case the two cells are usually referred to as two sectors on that cell site). is called intra-cell handover. which may be interfered or fading with a new clearer or less fading channel. Such a handover. hence this handover is called make-before-break. they also can be divided into hard and soft handovers: • A hard handover [1] is one in which the channel in the source cell is released and only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. • etc. • A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained and used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved in the handovers have a single cell site. connected to a large.

) had this feature. On one hand. have soft handovers. usually have procedures which can re-establish the connection to the source cell if the connection to the target cell cannot be made. this is necessitated by the fact that without soft handovers CDMA networks may suffer from substantial interference arising due to the so-called "near-far" effect. AMPS. IS-136/DAMPS. in digital systems it is unnoticeable. In all current commercial technologies based on FDMA or on a combination of TDMA/FDMA (e. the network engineers can balance the benefit of extra call reliability against the price of reduced capacity. However. However. AMPS. those based on FDMA also face a higher cost for the phones (due to the need to have multiple parallel radio-frequency modules) and those based on TDMA or a combination of TDMA/FDMA. However re-establishing this connection may not always be possible (in which case the call will be terminated) and even when possible the procedure may cause a temporary interruption to the call. all CDMA based technologies.g. Because in a cellular network the majority of the handovers occur in places of poor coverage. etc. which makes it cheaper and simpler. TACS. which must be capable of processing several channels in parallel. GSM. where calls would frequently become unreliable when their channel is interfered or fading. Possibility of handover While theoretically speaking soft handovers are possible in any technology. Technologies. In the old analog systems it could be heard as a click or a very short beep. This advantage comes at the cost of more complex hardware in the phone. The hard handover event is indeed very short and usually is not perceptible by the user. analog or digital. GSM. Another advantage of the hard handoff is that the phone's hardware does not need to be capable of receiving two or more channels in parallel.Handover 77 Comparison of handovers An advantage of the hard handover is that at any moment in time one call uses only one channel. by far a bigger advantage comes from the mere fact that simultaneously channels in multiple cells are maintained and the call could only fail if all of the channels are interfered or fade at the same time. in principle. Of the digital technologies.g. . etc. 2G and 3G (third-generation). soft handovers bring a significant improvement to the reliability of the calls in these places by making the interference or the fading in a single channel not critical. Another price to pay for soft handovers is use of several channels in the network to support just a single call. etc. NMT. One advantage of the soft handovers is that the connection to the source cell is broken only when a reliable connection to the target cell has been established and therefore the chances that the call will be terminated abnormally due to failed handovers are lower. in which they occur. D-AMPS/IS-136. On the other hand. the cost of implementing them for analog technologies is prohibitively high and none of the technologies that were commercially successful in the past (e. none of the 2G (second-generation) technologies have this feature (e. Fading and interference in different channels are unrelated and therefore the probability of them taking place at the same moment in all channels is very low. Thus the reliability of the connection becomes higher when the call is in a soft handover. this is facilitated by the possibility to design not so expensive phone hardware supporting soft handovers for CDMA and on the other hand.g.) changing the channel during a hard handover is realised by changing the pair of used transmit/receive frequencies. allow not so expensive implementation of soft handovers. By adjusting the duration of soft handovers and the size of the areas.). A disadvantage is that if a handover fails the call may be temporarily disrupted or even terminated abnormally. which utilise hard handovers. This reduces the number of remaining free channels and thus reduces the capacity of the network.

the user’s call must be terminated. During a call one or more parameters of the signal in the channel in the source cell are monitored and assessed in order to decide when a handover may be necessary. AMPS. bit error rate (BER) and block error/erasure rate (BLER). however a handoff with others cells outside the neighbor list is also allowed (unlike in GSM. Reasons for failure There are occurrences where a handoff is unsuccessful. with frequencies just outside the captured voice-frequency band at the transmitter and assessing the form of these tones at the receiver). etc. These potential target cells are called neighbours and the list is called neighbour list. when a user moves from one cell to another. This is done in an effort to reduce the probability of interference due to the aforementioned "near-far" effect. received quality of speech (RxQual). In some systems. In non-CDMA 2G digital systems the criteria for requesting hard handover may be based on estimates of the received signal power. In analog systems the parameters used as criteria for requesting a hard handover are usually the received signal power and the received signal-to-noise ratio (the latter may be estimated in an analog system by inserting additional tones.). is referred to as the "active set". In the late 80's the main reason was found out. Also. it processes the received in parallel signals using a rake receiver. Creating such a list for a given cell is not trivial and specialised computer tools are used. Lots of research was conducted regarding this. distance between the phone and the BTS (estimated from the radio signal propagation delay) and others. The downlink (forward link) and/or uplink (reverse link) directions may be monitored. NMT. a target candidate may be selected among the cells which are not in the neighbour list. . there is the problem of signal interference where adjacent cells overpower each other resulting in receiver desensitization. A usual design of a rake receiver in mobile phones includes three or more rake fingers used in soft handoff state for processing signals from as many cells and one additional finger used to search for signals from other cells. Each signal is processed by a module called rake finger. In CDMA systems. Because frequencies cannot be reused in adjacent cells. If the search finger finds a sufficiently-strong signal (in terms of high Ec/Io or RSCP) from a new cell this cell is added to the active set. a new frequency must be allocated for the call. In CDMA systems. The cells in the neighbour list (called in CDMA neighbouring set) are checked more frequently than the rest and thus a handoff with a neighbouring cell is more likely. IS-136/DAMPS. The set of cells. the most common criterion for requesting a handover is Ec/Io ratio measured in the pilot channel (CPICH) and/or RSCP. They implement different algorithms and may use for input data from field measurements or computer predictions of radio wave propagation in the areas covered by the cells. in some systems. If a user moves into a cell when all available channels are in use.Handover 78 Implementations For the practical realisation of handoffs in a cellular network each cell is assigned a list of potential target cells. 2G and 3G. mainly based on CDMA. which can be used for handing-off calls from this source cell to them. The phone and the BTSs of the neighbouring cells monitor each other others' signals and the best target candidates are selected among the neighbouring cells. whose signals are used during a soft handoff. by a BTS of a neighbouring cell. The handover may be requested by the phone or by the base station (BTS) of its source cell and. when the phone in soft or softer handoff is connected to several cells simultaneously.

The hardlink method establishes a reference link between a physical world object and a . eventhelix. issued May 16. such as Objecs. Unlike Japan. The 3GPP UMA/GAN standard enables GSM/UMTS handoff to Wi-Fi and vice-versa. The hardlink method does not require a graphical object tag or any special software be loaded on the users cell phone. a call being transferred from GSM to UMTS or from CDMA IS-95 to cdma2000.g. non-standardized methods of creating this connection. SMS tags and RFID tags. e. com/ terminology. but does require the phone be internet enabled. com/ wiki/ index. Patent 3663762 [5]: Cellular Mobile Communication System — Amos Edward Joel (Bell Labs).mobi web page just as a traditional hyperlink establishes an electronic reference to information on a Web page. 1970. a hard link (two words) which is Unix terminology for a pointer to physical data on a storage volume. eventhelix.mobi. This alphanumeric sequence may be the objects part number or common name. External links • • • • Intra-MSC GSM Handover Call Flow [2] Inter-MSC GSM Handover Call Flow [3] Handoff protocols [4] U. what are currently. filed December 21. pdf http:/ / www. Object hyperlinking and Physical world hyperlinks with a number of companies developing. The consumer use and market for object hyperlinking methods is a very small and limited one in the U. com/ RealtimeMantra/ Telecom/ GSM_Handover_Call_Flow. References [1] WSJ Online 2006. (http:/ / online. google.Handover 79 Vertical handover There are also inter-technology handovers where a call's connection is transferred from one access technology to another. html) . and enters some alphanumeric sequence found on the target object. The Bar Code Gets a Hip New Life.S. php/ Hard_handoff http:/ / www. 1972 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / it. few US cell phone providers currently offer graphical tag readers or other support for object hyperlinking methods and this will likely continue until a clear linking method becomes dominate. This concept is also known as 'physical world connection'. ylesstech. with a [1] slightly larger audience of users in some eastern countries. pdf http:/ / www. This topic is not to be confused with. VASCELLARO. com/ patents?vid=3663762 Hardlink (homonymy) A hardlink (one word) is one of several methods of object hyperlinking including graphical tags (2D barcodes). JESSICA E. php?letter=all& id=1 http:/ / www. com/ article_email/ SB114843472842861406-lMyQjAxMDE2NDI4NDQyMzQ0Wj.S. A common cell phone is the medium of this information exchange that is initiated whenever a user makes a connection with a hardlink database. com/ RealtimeMantra/ Telecom/ GSM_Inter_MSC_Handover_Call_Flow. toolbox. wsj.

and gamepad. a Bluetooth device. Y.[4] Since iOS natively supports keyboards. an arcade cabinet released for the Apple iPad. and charge attached devices using a USB On-The-Go connection and an appropriate adapter. apps can be developed .[2] A mini USB port on the bottom of the iControlPad can be used to charge the internal 1500mAh battery. mouse. using a clamp system. facilitating compatibility between apps designed for the iCade and the iControlPad hardware. can be run in a wide variety of modes. tablet PCs and personal computers. the iControlPad is able to add traditional physical gaming controls to devices which otherwise rely on inputs such as touchscreens and accelerometers. and two digital trigger buttons on the gamepad's reverse.com] The iControlPad is a wireless game controller compatible with a variety of smartphones. Start.[2] Due to the iControlPad's ability to operate as a Bluetooth keyboard—by mapping the D-pad and buttons to standard keyboard keys—it is able to communicate with devices such as those running Apple's iOS. or plastic clamps. six digital face buttons. which do not support Bluetooth gamepads. joystick. dual analog nubs. such as a smartphone or iPod Touch. allowing compatibility with equipment which is limited to only certain types of input. The sides of the iControlPad are detachable. It is designed for use as either a standalone gamepad or attached to appropriately sized devices.[1] The iControlPad. R.[2] In this way.com icontrolpad. among others.iControlPad 80 iControlPad iControlPad The iControlPad in its standalone and clamp-on configurations (with iPhone 4). including the iPhone and iPad. for using the controller as a standard wireless gamepad. update the device's firmware. Manufacturer Type Power Input iControlPad Ltd. X.[1] One of the iControlPad's modes mimics the protocol used by the iCade. [1] Video game controller 1 × 1500mAH cell • • • 8 × Digital buttons (A. L .[3] Overview The iControlPad's input controls include an eight-directional D-pad. with two different attachment types: rubber grips. for connecting with a suitable handheld. including as a HID keyboard. B. Select) Digital D-pad 2 × analog nubs Website [icontrolpad. such as the iPhone.

[10] This design. was much closer to the version that was ultimately released.2. Thus.[6] Once the serial connection was working. Little White Bear Studios 17 May 2010 xionchannel David Valdeita Appracatappra Physmo Bjango Retro Dreamer 02 Jul 2011 16 Aug 2010 Supported since version 1. with testing using a hacked SNES gamepad to connect to an iPhone over the dock connection. The team had secretly added Bluetooth support to the iControlPad. [23] Supported since version 1. in order to increase compatibility beyond the iPhone and its proprietary connection.iControlPad with iControlPad compatibility using either its own protocol or that of the iCade.0. suing an unlicensed accessory maker.00. This earliest concept was a one-piece case enveloping the iPhone. the iControlPad is able to control video games and video game console emulators across multiple platforms.3.[8] [9] By November 2009. [16] Supported since version 1. This much larger version moved the controls below the screen and added two analog nubs and two trigger buttons to the controller.2.[11] However. one large change was to occur very late in development.7. which featured clamps to attach it to the iPhone. using a design styled after the Sony PSP. [21] Supported since version 1. • a Supported via iControlPad's iCade mode. the iControlPad team were forced to adapt to use the Bluetooth connection for the iPhone. • b Only on iPad. . and would soon go into production.[5] 81 Development Development of the iControlPad began in 2007. the first prototype iControlPad was produced.[14] Supported apps Apple iOS Title Atari's Greatest Hits a b Compression HD a HungryMaster a iMAME4All a c IronStar Arena a Mos Speedrun a Sideways Racing a Velocispider a Developer Atari Release date 06 Apr 2011 Notes [15] Supported since launch.4.[7] and was first revealed in 2008.12.[12] This proved fortunate when Apple began exercising its rights over the dock connector. with a D-pad on the left side. [17] Supported since version 1. • c Requires jailbreaking on iOS.[13] and it was this version which finally became available for order in February 2011. Thus.[18] [19] 06 May 2011 06 Apr 2011 23 May 2011 31 May 2011 [20] Supported since version 02. and four face buttons on the right in a landscape orientation. a completely redesigned iControlPad prototype was under development. [22] Supported since version 1.

3.iControlPad 82 Multiplatform Title GBC.13.3.emu a MD. In their review. Register Hardware noted that while "patience and geekery" were required to get the controller working. Interstellar Force David Molnar 10 Mar 2011 Support expected in next update.[32] Early reviews were mixed on the quality of the controls.[24] Robert Broglia Robert Broglia 28 Jun 2011 09 Feb 2011 Android. [28] Support expected at launch. iOS.[31] Gadgetoid honed in on the device's usefulness for classic gaming. conversely. iOS. with DroidGamers describing them as "very loose"[5] . iOS.[25] Robert Broglia 27 Aug 2010 Android. Reception Reception for the iControlPad has been mostly positive. while. webOS Supported since launch. the iControlPad "almost perfectly solves the touchscreen game control conundrum". • a Requires jailbreaking on iOS.[31] The controls' responsiveness was later improved by replacing the original rubber keymat with a larger one.. webOS Supported since 1. Future releases Apple iOS Title Commodore 64 iAmiga Developer Manomio Manomio Release date 05 Sep 2009 TBA Notes [28] Support expected in next update..[29] No Gravity a Realtech VR 24 Mar 2011 Support expected in next update.emu a PCE.] for emulation on the go". Gadgetoid lauded the inputs as having "a great tactile feel and a liberal amount of travel with a good response.emu a Developer Release date Platform Notes Robert Broglia 23 Apr 2011 Android. webOS Supported since 1."[2] .[2] TouchArcade's reviewer said of playing games with the iControlPad that "the experience feels great"." due to its limited support on the iTunes App Store. but that "[he couldn't] recommend that the typical gamer run out right now and grab one. Android.[26] [27] Snes9x EX a Robert Broglia 16 Mar 2011 Android. remarking that it was "awesome [. iOS. iOS.emu a NES.13. Register Hardware said "the analogue nubs and face buttons work extremely well". webOS Supported since launch. webOS Supported since launch.[30] • a Supported via iControlPad's iCade mode.

php/ game-news/ hardware-a-devices/ 1493-icontrolpad-for-android-review-its-as-easy-as-a-b-x-y-). 2008). [11] Davies.Add real gaming controls to your iPhone!" (http:/ / web. Charlie (2011-02-09). . Retrieved 2011-07-18. engadget. [26] Broglia. com/ news/ compression-hd-support-icade/ ). "100 classic Atari games for iOS out now. explusalpha. "iControlPad with Bluetooth Shipping This Month" (http:/ / www.. Y. . co. com/ icontrolpad-for-iphone-production-parts-now-shipping-2398553/ ).. X.. [23] Bowman. July 16. Chris (September 28. com/ 2011/ 07/ hungrymaster-112. Carter (February 14. com/ gaming/ news/ 2011/ 04/ 100-classic-atari-games-for-ios-out-now-icade-cabinet-coming-in-june. Retrieved 2011-07-28.. "Latest iControlPad prototype bulks up. gets handled on video" (http:/ / www. Engadget. "Compression HD Gets Support for iCade" (http:/ / www. com/ index. but having “real” gaming controls is a great option as well. com/ 2009/ 11/ 08/ latest-icontrolpad-prototype-bulks-up-gets-handled-on-video/ ). 2011). July 9. iControlPad Ltd. Carter (June 30. cnet. "The device has been in development for some time. [6] "iControlPad . Retrieved 2011-07-18. "Gaming on iOS is About to Get Physical With a Variety of External Joystick and Gamepad Solutions. wired. Ex Plus Alpha. .emu Updates" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-21. com/ home/ gbc-emu/ updates). Retrieved 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2011-07-18. explusalpha. . 2009. droidgamers. com/ gadgetlab/ 2011/ 02/ icontrolpad-for-iphone-finally-shipping-adds-support-for-all-phones/ ).. com/ 2011/ 06/ what-we-are-up-to. icontrolpad. 2010). [12] Rothwell. com/ archives/ 985)." (http:/ / twitter.emu Updates" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-18. . Twitter. June 25. 148Apps." (http:/ / www. "The new iControlPad with Bluetooth is scheduled to ship February 16th. 2011). uk/ mobiles/ icontrolpad-unofficial-iphone-gamepad-coming-soon-50000514/ ). 2011).. gadgetoid. Adds Support for All Phones" (http:/ / www. Ex Plus Alpha. 2009). . B. Tom (April 13. engadget. [14] Perkins. slashgear. . com/ p/ imame4all/ ). "GBC. July 21. "Game for Real with iPhone iControlPad" (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 2011/ 07/ velocispider-v1-2-out-now/ ). [7] Stevens. Chris (April 6. [25] Broglia. Retrieved 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2011-07-04. html) (in Japanese). Android BT confirmed" (http:/ / www. Pilato Private Consulting. "PCE. Engadget. . warms hearts" (http:/ / www. [13] Davies. Robert (April 23. 148apps..iControlPad 83 References [1] "iControlPad Quick Start Guide" (http:/ / icontrolpad. explusalpha. "imame4all . pdf). DroidGamers. Retrieved 2011-07-18. "iControlPad gamepad heads to production. 148apps. xionchannel. Samia (February 8. [5] Grace. com/ ). iOS gamers gain infinite happiness" (http:/ / www. [24] Broglia. 2011. 2010). Chris (August 23. . . . com/ home/ nes-emu/ updates). Google Code. Ex Plus Alpha. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . Robert (March 16. com/ home/ snes9x-ex/ updates). . 2011). Retrieved 2011-07-04.]" [9] Sorrel. slashgear. "iControlPad for iPhone production parts now shipping" (http:/ / www.. com/ ipad/ sideways/ versionhistory/ ). Asavin (2010-08-27). Mobile Magazine. . 2011). Retrieved 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2011-07-12. .2 Out Now" (http:/ / retrodreamer. "Naturally. 2010).MAME for ALL iOS devices" (http:/ / code. com/ downloads/ icp_manual3. slashgear. Robert (February 28. mobilemag. Retrieved 2011-07-18. explusalpha. Retrieved 2011-07-17. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ game-for-real-with-iphone-icontrolpad/ ). "NES. blogspot." [15] Foresman." (http:/ / physmonews. AOL. "iControlPad for Android Review: It's as easy as A. "Something we kept secret . "At long. [17] "HungryMaster 1. an iPad game" (http:/ / bjango. Engadget. 2011). almost.12" (http:/ / xionchannel. SlashGear. . Retrieved 2011-07-12. com/ icontrolpad-with-bluetooth-shipping-this-month-08131711/ )..]" [10] Patel. Ex Plus Alpha. 2011). 2011. 2011). engadget. Tim (December 12. archive. Gavin (July 27. CNET. Ars Technica. "iControlPad unofficial iPhone gamepad coming soon" (http:/ / crave. long last the iControlPad – a hardware gamepad for the iPhone – can be bought. 2011). . 2011). You can order today for a delivery next week [. "Velocispider V1. com/ news/ gaming-ios-physical-variety-external-joystick-gamepad-solutions/ ). Well. blogspot. Retrieved 2011-07-18. . 2011. . Gadgetoid." (http:/ / www. Wired (magazine). com/ Craigix/ statuses/ 25788017664). Retrieved 2011-07-18.. [2] "iControlPad Review" (http:/ / www. [20] "IronStar Arena for iCade" (http:/ / appracatappra. google. Michael (2008-12-23).. [22] "Version history for Sideways Racing. [. .] using the accelerometer. SlashGear. iCade cabinet coming in June" (http:/ / arstechnica. Robert (February 28. "iControlPad for iPhone Finally Shipping. [3] Kwan. com/ ) on March 16. you’ll still be able to take advantage of anything on the touchscreen [. SlashGear. Craig (September 29. "iMAME4All gains experimental support for iCade. 2011. com/ 2011/ 07/ 10/ imame4all-gains-experimental-support-for-icade-ios-gamers-gain/ ). [27] Broglia. "iControlPad dumps Dock Connector for Bluetooth over Apple legal fears. com/ 2011/ 07/ 09/ icontrolpad-review/ )." [4] Dotson. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Appracatappra. [16] Dotson. Nilay (November 8. David. com/ home/ pce-emu/ updates). Retro Dreamer. [21] "What we are up to. . R3 Media LLC. . org/ web/ 20090316081844/ http:/ / www. Physmo. com/ icontrolpad-dumps-dock-connector-for-bluetooth-over-apple-legal-fears-android-bt-confirmed-28104830/ ). html). . [8] Wattanajantra. icontrolpad. 148Apps. Retrieved 2011-07-18. [19] Valdeita. iControlPad Ltd. . . Retrieved 2011-07-04. "Snes9x EX Updates" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-21. .] A different form of the iControlPad appeared before in 2008 [. 2011). Retrieved 2011-07-12. .emu Updates" (http:/ / www. Darren (July 10.biz. . Bjango. [18] Murph. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ icontrolpad-gamepad-heads-to-production-warms-hearts/ ). Retrieved 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-07-18. ars). Retrieved 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2011-07-18..

&fnid=46162&ipo=1 Current Holdings IDT Spectrum. History IDT Spectrum. U. http://wireless2. edgar-online. . Use of Licenses Among other business activities. html. Hawaii and Puerto Rico).fcc. http:/ / wireless2. "Manomio Demonstrates iCade Support for 'iAmiga' Emulator" (http:/ / toucharcade. Andrew (May 18. IDT Spectrum leases the spectrum to customers who use their own microwave equipment. acquired FCC spectrum licenses and other assets from the bankruptcy estate of Winstar Communications. [29] "I'm working on adding . http:/ / biz. com/ David994A/ status/ 92753291959742464). . On average. com/ finance?q=NYSE%3AIDT In December of 2001. Retrieved 2011-07-19. IDT Spectrum renewed 633 of its 39 GHz licenses. TouchArcade. and IDT Spectrum. Register Hardware. LLC. [30] Nogravity iPad2 + iCade. Inc. Winstar Holdings formed a subsidiary company.iControlPad [28] Patterson." (http:/ / twitter. com/ watch?v=lNQv5rfGXzs). 2011. com/ ipo.. "iControlPad Bluetooth controller for mobile devices" (http:/ / www. to hold its spectrum licenses and then caused the spectrum licenses to be assigned to it. . LLC. Winstar Spectrum. an international holding company.http:/ aspx?ColLeft=3c2bcac1-dbf5-4776-9d3b-89001baee8d5& ColRight=76baaeb6-2549-44f5-8e1d-cd700701e704& cikid=683957&tabIndex=2&coname=IDT+SPECTRUM%2C+INC. youtube.http:/ / www. Inc. July 16. [32] Patterson. Blake (June 18. (including Alaska. (http:/ / www. markets. The majority of IDT Spectrum's 28 GHz LMDS licenses expire in October of 2018.&fnid=46162&ipo=1 In October of 2010. including the needs of wireless operators to carry traffic from cell sites to network access points–referred to in the industry as backhaul. IDT Spectrum holds more than 500 MHz of spectrum in the top 200 U. The licenses held by IDT Spectrum are suited for high bandwidth point to point applications. Retrieved 2011-07-17. Department of Commerce and are based on 176 metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas that serve as regional centers of economic activity.gov/UlsApp/UlsSearch/results. net/ about/ press/ story. holds and leases fixed wireless spectrum. in December 2004. yahoo. and caused Winstar Spectrum. aspx?ColLeft=3c2bcac1-dbf5-4776-9d3b-89001baee8d5& ColRight=76baaeb6-2549-44f5-8e1d-cd700701e704& cikid=683957&tabIndex=2&coname=IDT+SPECTRUM%2C+INC. fcc. reghardware. 2011). . Winstar Holdings formed IDT Spectrum and contributed to IDT Spectrum all of its interests in IDT Spectrum. com/ 2011/ 06/ 18/ manomio-demonstrates-icade-support-for-iamiga-emulator/ ). . Blake (July 13.http:/ / pro. YouTube. 2011).jsp The FCC's 39 GHz auctioned license band spectrum is primarily licensed in Economic Areas. plus the surrounding counties that are economically related to these areas. LLC to transfer and assign to IDT Spectrum. [31] Bailey. July 18. com/ 2011/ 07/ 13/ a-close-look-at-the-icontrolpad-bluetooth-control-accessory/ ). .S. 2011). 2011. gov/ UlsApp/ UlsSearch/ results. which now expire in October of 2020. are subsidiaries of IDT Corporation (NYSE: IDT). LLC. with interests primarily in the telecommunications and energy industries. as well as other assets used in its connectivity services. making it the largest single holder of 39 GHz licensed auction spectrum in the United States. edgar-online. jsp. LLC. com/ 2011/ 05/ 18/ review_igamer_icontrolpad/ ). idt. Retrieved 2011-07-19. com/ ic/ 140/ 140181. IDT Corporation through its subsidiary Winstar Holdings. In January 2005.S. Winstar Holdings formed IDT Spectrum. Retrieved 2011-07-19. LLC all of its FCC licenses except for six point-to-point licenses that are not used in our business. Retrieved 2011-07-18. LLC's primary holdings include 633 spectrum licenses in the 39 GHz range. "A Close Look at the 'iControlPad' Bluetooth Control Accessory" (http:/ / toucharcade. TouchArcade.S. As part of an internal corporate reorganization. EAs are delineated by the Regional Analysis Division. or EAs. 84 IDT Spectrum IDT Spectrum. LLC. as well as an additional 16 LMDS licenses in the 28 GHz band. Bureau of Economic Analysis. markets (Economic Areas by population) and approximately 940 MHz of spectrum in the top 50 U. IDT Spectrum's 39 GHz holdings–are contiguous across the United States / pro. http:/ / www. Twitter. a subsidiary of IDT Corporation.. com/ ipo. google.

i. 85 Image share Image Share is a service for sharing images between users during a mobile phone call. registration for the service is performed using the capabilities offered by IMS platform with SIP protocol • MSRP (Message Session Relay Protocol. An Image Share session begins by end-users setting up a normal circuit switched (CS) voice call.279. http:/ / content.e. thus enhancing and enriching end-users voice communication. Then based on successful capability negotiation between the terminals. i. terminals perform a registration to an IMS core system with apacket switched (PS) connection. then these images are transferred between the Image Share software clients located in the mobile phones using the PS connection and the recipient is able to see the images.e. Image Share works across different mobile phones from various vendors (as long as they have the necessary software client installed) • IMS service. 3GPP compliant IMS core system required for the service provider/operator offering Image Share • CSI (CS and IMS combinational) service compliant to 3GPP specifications TS 22. com/ topics/ article/ Michael+Rapaport/0gy2fDQeBhaNV/1 IDT Spectrum's Website is http://www. Technical Features • Interoperable multi-vendor compliant service. During this process the normal CS voice session has been ongoing continuously. TS 23.IDT Spectrum aspx?id=23410 Management The current President and CEO of IDT Spectrum is Michael Rapaport. If this is selected. i. i.79 Image Share Interoperability Specification.[1] According to the specification. RFC 4975) used for transporting media between the mobile phones • IETF File transfer mechanisms [2] utilized for negotiating shared images between offerer and answerer via SIP/SDP offer/answer model . but Image Share is not yet available from any mobile operator/service provider.e. the end-user will be presented with an option in terminal UI offering the possibility of sharing one or several images.e.279. CS voice call set up required prior to sharing the images • SIP used for signaling via IMS.idtspectrum. Video Share is commercially launched for example by AT&T in USA. "The terminal interoperable Image Share service allows users to share Images between them over PS connection with ongoing CS call.com/. After the voice call is set up. Image Share can be seen as a kind of spin-off from the Video Share mobile phone service.279 and TS 24. usatoday." Image Share is a service that allows two clients to share packet-switched image data during a circuit-switched call. It has been specified for use in a 3GPP-compliant cellular network by the GSM Association in the PRD IR.

Image share • Capability query performed using SIP OPTIONS method between the mobile phoness to find out whether the recipient is Image Share capable • Peer-to-peer service. the phone actually sends the message to the IMSC. Nokia. Other players include Acision. Ericsson. gsmworld. Jinny Software. org/ internet-drafts/ draft-ietf-mmusic-file-transfer-mech-06. ietf. shtml [2] http:/ / www. Feelingk and few others. com/ documents/ index. i. com/ news/ press_2007/ press07_39. References • • • • • GSM Association PRD IR. shtml Instant message service center An Instant Message Service Center (IMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network which delivers instant messages.279 Combining Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services. Stage 2 3GPP TS 24. txt [3] http:/ / www.79 Image Share Interoperability Specification [1] IETF RFC 4975 Message Session Relay Protocol 3GPP TS 22. The IMSC usually has a configurable time limit for how long it will store the message. including interworking between multiple networks. No mobile operator has launched Image Share so far (as of March 2008). Operation When a user sends an instant message (IM message) to another user. The IMSC stores the message and then delivers it to the destination user when they are available. Now Wireless.279 Combinied Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) sessions. Colibria.e. . Companies Few companies who make many of the IMSCs in use in the GSM world are Miyowa. Followap and OZ. Stage 1 3GPP TS 23.279 Combining Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services. no server required in the network for sharing the images • Both live and pre-stored images can be shared between the participating mobile phones • Requires 3G or EDGE DTM (Dual Transfer Mode) mobile network 86 Usage According to GSMA press release [3] interoperability between different Image Share clients was successfully tested in a multi-vendor trial in May 2007. Comverse Technology. gsmworld. Stage 3 References [1] http:/ / www.

Support for the older GSM and GPRS networks was also provided. formed in 1999. It first appeared in Release 5 (evolution from 2G to 3G networks). i. In Europe there is hardly any CDMA network. . To ease the integration with the Internet. In order to enable them to roam in Europe Inter Standard Roaming is the solution. the interest of IMS is being challenged.IP.IP developed the initial IMS architecture. as part of their standardization work for 3G mobile phone systems in UMTS networks. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This term is now widely used in mobile communnications where especially CDMA customers want to use their phone in areas where there is no CDMA network or there is no roaming agreement in place to support roaming on the used standard. Since it is becoming increasingly easier to access content and contacts using mechanisms outside the control of [2] traditional wireless/fixed operators. IMS uses IETF protocols wherever possible. which was brought to the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). CDMA2000 and fixed line. adding support for CDMA2000. but additionally the task to sell an IMS based on a single service is also difficult as there are often (cheaper) alternatives to creating and deploying that particular service. two types of interference in mobile communications.g. Alternative and overlapping technologies for access and provisioning of services across wired and wireless networks include combinations of Generic Access Network. It was originally designed by the wireless standards body 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). However in implementation this does not necessarily map into greater reduced cost and complexity. The CDMA customers arriving in Europe can register on the available GSM networks. e.Inter standard roaming 87 Inter standard roaming Inter Standard Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to roaming between two standards. 3GPP2 and TISPAN by requiring support of networks other than GPRS. This vision was later updated by 3GPP. IP Multimedia Subsystem The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia services. 3G. History • IMS was originally defined by an industry forum called 3G. This is done by having a horizontal control layer that isolates the access network from the service layer. as the control layer is a common horizontal layer. when SIP-based multimedia was added. It is easier to sell services than to sell the virtues of "integrated services". create a form of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). According to the 3GPP. Its original formulation (3GPP R5) represented an approach to delivering "Internet services" over GPRS. Most CDMA customers originate from the Americas or the Far East. From a logical architecture perspective.e.[1] IMS is not intended to standardize applications but rather to aid the access of multimedia and voice applications from wireless and wireline terminals. soft switches and "naked" SIP. as a part of the vision for evolving mobile networks beyond GSM. • 3GPP2 (a different organization from 3GPP) based their CDMA2000 Multimedia Domain (MMD) on 3GPP IMS. Interference in mobile communications Interference in mobile communications refers to Co channel and Adjacent channel interference. services need not have their own control functions. such as Wireless LAN.

Enhanced emergency sessions and IMS centralized services. speech recognition and speech-enabled services (Push to talk). enhancements to IMS emergency sessions. enhancements to services centralization and continuity. enhancements to Multimedia Telephony. presence. the function of AGCF (Access Gateway control function) and PES (PSTN Emulation Service) are introduced to the wire-line network for the sake of inheritance of services which can be provided in PSTN network. 88 Architecture 3GPP / TISPAN IMS Architectural Overview . Inter-operability between IMS using different IP-connectivity networks. multiple registration and forking. Multimedia Session Continuity. by working together with TISPAN release R1. fixed broadband connection to the IMS. enhancements to the Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC).IP Multimedia Subsystem • 3GPP release 6 added interworking with WLAN. routing group identities. emergency sessions. System Architecture Evolution (SAE). Policy and Charging Control (PCC). interworking with non-IMS networks. Also added voice call continuity between circuit switching and packet switching domain (VCC). • 3GPP release 8 added support for Long Term Evolution (LTE). • 3GPP release 9 added support for IMS emergency calls over GPRS and EPS. • 3GPP release 10 added support for inter device transfer.1. • 3GPP release 7 added support for fixed networks. IMS media plane security.

Ethernet). or to split a single function into 2 or more nodes. WLAN. The IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem is a collection of different functions. most of which use the standard Internet Protocol (IP). for dimensioning. The only requirement is that they can use IP and run Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) user agents. IMS terminals (such as mobile phones. A function is not a node (hardware box): an implementer is free to combine 2 functions in 1 node. even when they are roaming in another network or country (the visited network).. are supported through gateways. which grouped form one IMS administrative network. load balancing or organizational issues. Fixed access (e. mobile access (e. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). personal digital assistants (PDAs) and computers) can register directly on an IMS network.g. GPRS) and wireless access (e.HSS in IMS layer (as by standard) Each of the functions in the diagram is explained below.g. Other phone systems like plain old telephone service (POTS—the old analogue telephones).g.IP Multimedia Subsystem 89 3GPP / TISPAN IMS Architectural Overview . GSM. . H. WiMAX) are all supported. Access network The user can connect to an IMS network in various ways.323 and non IMS-compatible VoIP systems. Each node can also be present multiple times in a single network. CDMA2000. linked by standardized interfaces. W-CDMA. cable modems.

IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU). The P-CSCF is at its core a specialized SBC for the User–network interface which not only protects the network. subscriber service profiles. like tel:+1-555-123-4567) or alphanumeric identifiers (a SIP URI. but Uniform Resource Identifier (URIs). is a master user database that supports the IMS network entities that actually handle calls. or it may be . Both IMPI and IMPU are not phone numbers or other series of digits.Call Session Control Function Several roles of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) servers or proxies.g. Every IMS user shall have one or more IMPI. IP Multimedia Public Identity The IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU) is used by any user for requesting communications to other users (e. and is used. a single phone-number for an entire family). The IMPU can also be shared with another phone. Some networks may use a Session Border Controller for this function. so that both can be reached with the same identity (for example.IP Multimedia Subsystem 90 Core network HSS . and can provide information about the subscriber's location and IP information. like sip:john. performs authentication and authorization of the user. CSCF . User identities Various identities may be associated with IMS: IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI).doe@example. but also the IMS terminal. • T-GRUU do not reveal the IMPU and are valid until the contact is explicitly de-registered or the current registration expires Wildcarded Public User Identity A wildcarded Public User Identity expresses a set of IMPU grouped together. A Subscriber Location Function (SLF) is needed to map user addresses when multiple HSSs are used. IP Multimedia Private Identity The IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI) is a unique permanently allocated global identity assigned by the home network operator. Administration. It contains the subscription-related information (subscriber profiles). for example. are used to process SIP signalling packets in the IMS. Globally Routable User Agent URI Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU) is an identity that identifies a unique combination of IMPU and UE instance. Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU). • P-GRUU reveal the IMPU and are very long lived. Wildcarded Public User Identity. or User Profile Server Function (UPSF). IMSI. the IMPU.Home Subscriber Server The Home Subscriber Server (HSS). It can be located either in the visited network (in full IMS networks) or in the home network (when the visited network is not IMS compliant yet). Authorization. and MSISDN. IMPI. for Registration. service triggers and other information. It is similar to the GSM Home Location Register (HLR) and Authentication Centre (AuC). that can be digits (a Tel URI. collectively called Call Session Control Function (CSCF). There can be multiple IMPU per IMPI. this might be included on a business card).com" ). The use of additional SBC between the IMS terminal and the P-CSCF as such pointless and also not feasible due to the signaling being encrypted on this leg. The HSS subscriber database contains. and Accounting purposes. There are two types of GRUU: Public-GRUU (P-GRUU) and Temporary GRUU (T-GRUU). The terminal discovers its P-CSCF with either DHCP. • A Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF) is a SIP proxy that is the first point of contact for the IMS terminal.

It is used for policy control. Application servers SIP Application servers (AS) host and execute services. • it is assigned to an IMS terminal before registration. and use it as a forwarding point (e. so that remote servers can find it. It is a SIP server. From Release 7 onwards this "entry point" function is removed from the I-CSCF and is now part of the Interconnection Border Control Function (IBCF). when it's queried by the I-CSCF. The IBCF is practically a Session Border Controller specialized for the NNI. in order to provide their services it provides routing services. and does not change for the duration of the registration • it sits on the path of all signalling. and interface with the S-CSCF using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). and can inspect every signal. and can inspect every message it decides to which application server(s) the SIP message will be forwarded. 91 • An Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF) is another SIP function located at the edge of an administrative domain. including a mandatory/optional capabilities to be matched between subscribers and S-CSCFs. • it handles SIP registrations. and provides NAT and Firewall functions (pinholing). which reduces the round-trip over slow radio links • it may include a Policy Decision Function (PDF). .g.g. If located in the home network. An example of an application server that is being developed in 3GPP is the Voice call continuity Function (VCC Server). registering) for SIP packets to this domain. The IBCF is used as gateway to external networks. It uses Diameter Cx and Dx interfaces to the HSS to download user profiles and upload user-to-S-CSCF associations (the user profile is only cached locally for processing reasons only and is not changed). typically using Electronic Numbering (ENUM) lookups it enforces the policy of the network operator there can be multiple S-CSCFs in the network for load distribution and high availability reasons.IP Multimedia Subsystem configured (e. the IMS terminal must ignore any other unencrypted signalling • it provides subscriber authentication and may establish an IPsec or TLS security association with the IMS terminal. the IP address of the terminal) and the SIP address • • • • • it sits on the path of all signaling messages of the locally registered users. There are multiple options for this purpose. quality of service (QoS) over the media plane. but performs session control too. do not obey home network's routing policy) • it can also compress and decompress SIP messages using SigComp. change normal signaling routes. • it queries the HSS to retrieve the address of the S-CSCF and assign it to a user performing SIP registration • it also forwards SIP request or response to the S-CSCF • Up to Release 6 it can also be used to hide the internal network from the outside world (encrypting parts of the SIP message). An AS can be located in the home network or in an external third-party network. which authorizes media plane resources e. Depending on the actual service. SIP UA (user agent) mode or SIP B2BUA mode. All necessary subscriber profile information is loaded from the HSS. which allows it to bind the user location (e. It's the HSS that assigns the S-CSCF to a user. This prevents spoofing attacks and replay attacks and protects the privacy of the subscriber.g. • it also generates charging records • A Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF) is the central node of the signalling plane. it can query the HSS with the Diameter Sh or Si interfaces (for a SIP-AS). bandwidth management. • it inspects the signaling and ensures that the IMS terminals do not misbehave (e. during initial provisioning or via a 3GPP IMS Management Object (MO)) or in the ISIM or assigned in the PDP Context (in General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)). in which case it's called a Topology Hiding Inter-network Gateway (THIG). The PDF can also be a separate function. It is always located in the home network.g. etc.g. Its IP address is published in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the domain (using NAPTR and SRV type of DNS records). the AS can operate in SIP proxy mode.

• A Signalling Gateway (SGW) interfaces with the signalling plane of the CS. Application Logic provides the service(s) and interacts between the AS-ILCM and AS-OLCM. PSIs are stored in the HSS either as a distinct PSI or as a wildcarded PSI: • a distinct PSI contains the PSI that is used in routing • a wildcarded PSI represents a collection of PSIs. For signalling. Each MRF is further divided into a Media Resource Function Controller (MRFC) and a Media Resource Function Processor (MRFP). It includes routing functionality based on telephone numbers. It transforms lower layer protocols as Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP. to pass ISDN User Part (ISUP) from the MGCF to the CS 92 . an Internet Protocol (IP) protocol) into Message Transfer Part (MTP. source or process media streams.g. MRB can be used in two modes: • Query mode: AS queries the MRB for media and sets up the call using the response of MRB • In-Line Mode: AS sends a SIP INVITE to the MRB. which are hosted by Application Servers. Public Service Identity Public Service Identities (PSI) are identities that identify services. PSI shall take the form of either a SIP or Tel URI. As user identities. and may optionally store session state depending on the specific service being executed. while IMS uses Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). while IMS uses Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) over IP. For media. Media Servers The Media Resource Function (MRF) provides media related functions such as media manipulation (e. PSTN Gateways A PSTN/CS gateway interfaces with PSTN circuit switched (CS) networks. CS networks use Pulse-code modulation (PCM). The AS-ILCM interfaces to the S-CSCF (ILCM) for an incoming leg and the AS-OLCM interfaces to the S-CSCF (OLCM) for an outgoing leg. The Media Resource Broker (MRB) is a functional entity that is responsible for both collection of appropriate published MRF information and supplying of appropriate MRF information to consuming entities such as the AS. It can also manage access right to shared resources. voice stream mixing) and playing of tones and announcements.IP Multimedia Subsystem • SIP AS: Host and execute IMS specific services • IP Multimedia Service Switching Function (IM-SSF): Interfaces SIP to CAP to communicate with CAMEL Application Servers • OSA Service Capability Server (OSA SCS) : Interfaces SIP to the OSA framework Functional model The AS-ILCM and AS-OLCM store transaction state. CS networks use ISDN User Part (ISUP) (or BICC) over Message Transfer Part (MTP). an Signalling System 7 (SS7) protocol). The MRB sets up the call Breakout Gateway A Breakout Gateway Control Function (BGCF) is a SIP proxy which processes requests for routing from an S-CSCF when the S-CSCF has determined that the session cannot be routed using DNS or ENUM/DNS. • The MRFC is a signalling plane node that interprets information coming from an AS and S-CSCF to control the MRFP • The MRFP is a media plane node used to mix.

g. Charging function addresses are addresses distributed to each IMS entities and provide a common location for each entity to send charging information. • Offline Charging : All the SIP network entities (P-CSCF. as a consequence. The intermediate network domain(s) provide(s) transit functionality to the two other network domains. Online charging. The CCF will collect all this information. session based). For instance. or real-time credit control of postpaid services.248 interface. BGCF. S-CSCF.711). Billing systems in different domains will also exchange information.e. However only SoIx fully satisfies NGN interoperability requirements. service specific network performance. • A Media Gateway Controller Function (MGCF) is SIP endpoint that does call control protocol conversion between SIP and ISUP/BICC and interfaces with the SGW over SCTP. MRFC. "Defined levels of interoperability" are dependent upon the service or the QoS or the Security. AS) involved in the session use the Diameter Rf interface to send accounting information to a CDF located in the same domain. which is sent to the billing system (BS) of the domain. .IP Multimedia Subsystem network. at the end of the month). Charging Offline charging is applied to users who pay for their services periodically (e. Inter Operator Identifier (IOI) is a globally unique identifier shared between sending and receiving networks. Each domain has its own charging network. It also controls the resources in a Media Gateway (MGW) across an H. is used for prepaid services. Media Resources Media Resources are those components that operate on the media plane and are under the control of IMS Core functions. Indirect interconnection at one layer refers to the interconnection between two network domains with one or more intermediate network domain(s) acting as transit networks.. This definition does not exclude that some services may provide a defined level of interoperability. by converting between RTP and PCM. Both may be applied to the same session. QoS and security requirements are not necessarily assured. MGCF. For example. Charging Data Function (CDF) addresses are used for offline billing and Online Charging Function (OCF) for online billing. Direct interconnection refers to the interconnection between two network domains without any intermediate network domain. Each session carries an IMS Charging Identifier (ICID) as a unique identifier generated by the first IMS entity involved in a SIP transaction and used for the correlation with CDRs. It can also transcode when the codecs don't match (e. Different interconnection modes may be used for carrying service layer signalling and media traffic.g. etc. • Connectivity oriented Interconnection (CoIx): The physical and logical linking of carriers and service providers based on simple IP connectivity irrespective of the levels of interoperability. PSTN might use G. an IP interconnection of this type is not aware of the specific end to end service and. also known as credit-based charging. IMS might use AMR.e. IMS and PES) platforms with control. this is the case of "carrier grade" voice and/or multimedia services over IP interconnection. so that roaming charges can be applied. signalling (i. Specifically. • A Media Gateway (MGW) interfaces with the media plane of the CS network. which provides defined levels of interoperability. Media Server (MS) and Media gateway (MGW) 93 NGN Interconnection There are two types of Next Generation Networking Interconnection: • Service oriented Interconnection (SoIx): The physical and logical linking of NGN domains that allows carriers and service providers to offer services over NGN (i. An NGN interconnection mode can be direct or indirect. and build a Call Detail Record (CDR). I-CSCF.

DH_SLF_QUERY indicates a IMPU and DX_SLF_RESP return the HSS name. AS Used by MRFC to fetch documents (e. S-CSCF). the number of spent credit units is reported and deducted from the account. • When Immediate Event Charging (IEC) is used. TS29. Also used to furnish CDF and/or OCF addresses. Main functions are SIP to : • • • Notify the AS of the registered IMPU. the ECF first reserves a number of credit units in the user's account and then authorizes the MRFC or the AS.PCRF S-CSCF <-> AS Reference point between S-CSCF and AS. OSA. GGSN Diameter Dh Diameter Dx Diameter Gm Go SIP Allows operators to control QoS in a user plane and exchange COPS (Rel5).announcement files and other resources) from an AS. Diameter (Rel6+) charging correlation information between IMS and GPRS network Used to exchange policy decisions-related information between P-CSCF and PDF Used to exchange policy decisions-related information between PCEF and PCRF Diameter Diameter TS29. Used to exchange messages between UE and P-CSCF TCP/SCTP channels Cx (I-CSCF. scripts. After the service is over. • When Event Charging with Unit Reservation (ECUR) is used. Also used for media control related commands. Used by I-CSCF or S-CSCF to find a correct HSS in a multi-HSS environment. PDF PCEF. .211. Used to forward media streams from a TrGW to another TrGW belonging to a different IMS network. 94 Interfaces description Interface Name Cr IMS entities Description Protocol Technical Specification MRFC. The SCF can signal the S-CSCF to terminate the session when the user runs out of credits during a session.IP Multimedia Subsystem • Online charging : The S-CSCF talks to a Session Charging Function (SCF) which looks like a regular SIP application server. The service is not authorized when not enough credit units are available. Used by AS to find the HSS holding the User Profile information in a multi-HSS environment.212 Gq Gx ISC P-CSCF. Used to send subscriber data to the S-CSCF. the reserved credit units are then cleared.g. IM-SSF) <-> SLF (I-CSCF or S-CSCF) <-> SLF UE. including Filter criteria and their priority. P-CSCF PDF. The AS and MRFC use the Diameter Ro interface towards an OCF. DX_SLF_QUERY indicates a IMPU and DX_SLF_RESP return the HSS name. a number of credit units is immediately deducted from the user's account by the ECF and the MRFC or AS is then authorized to provide the service. registration state and UE capabilities Supply the AS with information to allow it to execute multiple services Convey charging function addresses SIP SIP Ici Izi IBCFs TrGWs Used to exchange messages between an IBCF and another IBCF belonging to a different IMS network. HSS AS (SIP AS.

299 . Used to exchange information between S-CSCF and MRFC Used to exchange session controls between AS and MRFC Application Server sends SIP message to MRFC to play tone and announcement.S-CSCF S-CSCF -> BGCF ISUP signalling to SIP signalling and forwards SIP signalling SIP to I-CSCF Used to exchange messages between S-CSCF and BGCF SIP SIP BGCF -> MGCF Used for the interworking with the PSTN/CS Domain.248 by an MRFP. S-CSCF. if the AS has no knowledge of a S-CSCF assigned to that user or Public Service Identity Convey charging function addresses SIP 95 • Mg Mi Mj MGCF -> I. This SIP message contains sufficient information to play tone and announcement or provide information to MRFC. S-CSCF SIP Used by the AS to request that media resources be assigned SIP. Used to exchange messages between CSCFs I-CSCF. AS P-CSCF. I-CSCF. IM-MGW MRFC. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in another IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to the BGCF in the other network Used for exchanging messages between IMS and external IP networks Mk SIP Mm I-CSCF. MRFC AS. In Query mode (Not specified) to a call when utilizing MRB In-Line mode or In Query mode Used to exchange offline charging information with CDF Diameter Ro Used to exchange online charging information with OCF Diameter TS32. SIP SIP Mx BGCF/CSCF. IBCF Used for the interworking with another IMS network. S-CSCF MRB.248 Allows an MRFC to control media stream resources provided H. MRFC SIP Mn Mp Mr Mr' Allows control of user-plane resources H. MRFC. MGCF.IP Multimedia Subsystem Ma I-CSCF <-> AS Main functions are to: • • Forward SIP requests which are destinated to a Public Service Identity hosted by the AS Originate a session on behalf of a user or Public Service Identity. S-CSCF. MRFC. MRFP S-CSCF. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in the same IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to MGCF BGCF -> BGCF Used for the interworking with the PSTN/CS Domain. BGCF. external IP network MGCF. AS AS. so that it can ask more information from Application Server through Cr Interface. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in the other IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to the IBCF in the other network Mw Rc Rf P-CSCF.

HSS Used to exchange User Profile information (e. due to its common use for a large number of subscribers. This mechanism relies on the authentication performed during the network attachment procedures. Initial Filter Criteria Initial Filter Criteria (iFC) are filter criteria that are stored in the HSS as part of the IMS Subscription Profile and are downloaded to the S-CSCF upon user registration (for registered users) or on processing demand (for services.203 may not be available for a while especially because of the lack of USIM/ISIM interfaces and prevalence of devices that support IPv4. OSA SCS). The term Shared iFC denotes an iFC which. which are informally known as "early IMS security. Security aspects of early IMS and non-3GPP systems It is envisaged that security defined in TS 33. is only referenced in the Subscription Profile and provisioned on a different path between the HSS and the S-CSCF. to provide some protection against the most significant threats. to services and settings IM-SSF) Session handling One of the most important features of IMS. iFC are valid throughout the registration lifetime or until the User Profile is changed. 3GPP defines some security mechanisms. which binds between the user's profile and its IP address. For this situation. Facilitates the management of subscriber information related OSA SCS. They represent a provisioned subscription of a user to an application. XCAP UE. The S-CSCF might apply filter criteria to determine the need to forward SIP requests to AS. AS HTTP HTTP(s). AS (SIP AS. The iFC may be composed of: • An Application Server URI where the request is to be forwarded in case of a match. that of allowing for a SIP application to be dynamically and differentially (based on the user's profile) triggered.978. HSS Sr Ut MRFC.g. PCRF Used to exchange policy and charging related information between P-CSCF and PCRF Replacement for the Gq reference point. Used by MRFC to fetch documents (scripts and other resources) from an AS MAP Si IM-SSF.IP Multimedia Subsystem Rx P-CSCF. all in the respective S-CSCFs. user service related information or user location information or charging function addresses (used when the AS has not received the third party REGISTER for a user)) between an AS (SIP AS or OSA SCS) and HSS. This mechanism is also weak because the signaling is not protected on the User–network interface. . Diameter 96 Sh AS (SIP AS. It is important to note that services for the originating party will be applied in the originating network. user related Diameter data. • A Trigger Point in the form of a logical condition which is verified against initial dialog creating SIP requests or stand-alone SIP requests." in TR33. group lists. while the services for the terminating party will be applied in the terminating network. Also allow AS to activate/deactivate filter criteria stored in the HSS on a per subscriber basis Transports CAMEL subscription information including triggers for use by CAMEL based application services information. is implemented as a filter-and-redirect signalling mechanism in the S-CSCF. acting as unregistered users).

fr/~gbertran/files/IMS_an_overview. ISBN 1-4200-6459-2) . Although all 3 variants of Digest-MD5 authentication have the same functionality and are the same from the IMS terminal's perspective. yet in its own and again different approach. 2006.rennes.enst-bretagne. published deltas to the 3GPP specifications where the Digest-MD5 is a valid authentication option. com/ primary-metal-manufacturing/ foundries-nonferrous/ 4104136-1. ISBN 0-470-01906-9) • "IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Handbook" by Mohammad Ilyas (Editor). IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). html). towards a Common-IMS platform. allbusiness. which adopted also the IMS architecture but has no USIM/ISIM capabilities in their terminals. Stage 2. Miguel-Angel García-Martín (John Wiley & Sons.IP Multimedia Subsystem CableLabs in PacketCable#PacketCable_2.0. Aki Niemi. 3rd Generation Partnership Project [2] Alexander Harrowell. To compensate for the lack of IPsec capabilities. 97 References [1] Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects (2006). Mobile Communications International External links • A decent IMS tutorial (http://www. Syed A. Later 3GPP Releases have included the Digest-MD5 method. also TISPAN did a similar effort given their Fixed Networks scopes.3gpp. 2006. Ahson (Editor) (CRC Press. ISBN 0-470-01818-6) • "The IMS: IP Multimedia Concepts and Services" by Miikka Poikselka.htm Books • "The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS): Merging the Internet and the Cellular Worlds" by Gonzalo Camarillo. A Pointless Multimedia Subsystem? (http:/ / www.google. TS 23. Staff Writer (October 2006). the implementations on the Cx interface between the S-CSCF and the HSS are different.com/present/ view?id=0ARnWgfNsabwWZGYycXo5aHhfMGdqNXB4ZGI&hl=en) • http://www. Later on. yet the procedures are different. Georg Mayer (John Wiley & Sons. TLS has been added as an option for securing the Gm interface.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23228.pdf) • IMS Ten Minute Gorilla School (http://docs. 2008. Hisham Khartabil.228.

ipaccess.ip. GPRS. CFO nanoGSM® nano3G™ Oyster 3G™ http:/ / www.[10] and was subsequently spun off from TTP. ip.[2] and users in remote rural areas.access. both Cisco Systems[13] and Qualcomm[14] also made strategic financial investments in the company in 2008.[11] In 2007.access was named in The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100.[17] In 2009. WA and New Delhi.access. which produces rankings of top-performing private companies in the UK. manufactures. such as business offices and retail venues. it was named in the Deloitte Technology Fast 500 EMEA. and markets picocell and femtocell technologies and infrastructure equipment for GSM. Chairman Simon Brown. Motorola gained a stake in ip. in both 2007[15] and 2008. However. ip.access relocated to new offices in Cambourne Business Park.[5] Femto Forum.[6] and an associate member of the Network Vendors Interoperability Testing (NVIOT) Forum. Using satellite backhaul. the company secured an £8. telecommunications.[7] History ip. To accommodate its growing staff. ip.access 98 ip.access was founded in December 1999[8] as a wholly owned subsidiary of TTP Communications PLC. EDGE. CEO Dr.access combines IP and cellular technologies together to provide cost-efficient 2G and 3G coverage and capacity of mobile networks in various settings. and Rothschild & Cie Gestion. CTO Tim Arthur. United Kingdom Area served Key people Worldwide Teresa M.access Limited is a multinational corporation that designs.access Limited Type Privately Held Company Headquarters Cambourne. Following suit.[4] European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). ABI Research in 2008. as part of its June 2006 acquisition of TTP Communications.access is a member of 3GPP. India.[16] The company was also cited as the number one picocell vendor in an independent study performed by global market intelligence company.5 million round of funding from Intel Capital. Nick Johnson. life sciences.access ip. ADC[12] made a minority interest investment in the company. and 3G.access also maintains operations and offices in Bellevue.[9] In March 2006. an annual ranking of the fastest growing public and private technology.[1] ships. com/ Products Website ip. Headquartered in Cambridge. ip.[18] . Vega. Scottish Equity Partners. Cambridge.[3] the Cambridge Network. UK. media. its solutions also provide coverage to commercial passenger aircraft. after signing an OEM agreement with ip. Cambridge. and green technology companies in 26 EMEA countries. ip. where it remains.

nanoGSM® In 2002.[24] which has jointly developed a femtocell solution with ip. E-class [E8.[25] nanoGSM uses 2G picocells that leverage the standard GSM air interface. providing carrier-class coverage to commercial[26] and consumer users.[20] In March 2010.access became a founding member of the Femto Forum. E16 and E24] and Small Medium Business. with the goal of addressing standards-oriented issues such as radio planning and control. S-class [S8].[27] the Oyster 3G is ip. Oyster 3G™ Technology Launched at the 2007 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona.access' core 3G femtocell technology used by system integrators and OEM customers to integrate WCDMA femtocells into home gateways. the company took part in the first Plugfest. and device-to-network standardization collaboratively with other members.access in compliance with the Broadband Forum's TR-069[20] technical specification.access introduced the world’s first IP basestation controller for indoor GSM networks.[21] organized as an ETSI Plugtests™ held to demonstrate the effectiveness of the 3GPP femtocell standards in supporting interoperability between femtocell access points and network equipment from different vendors.ip. device provisioning. access controller and element management system. full IP-based BSC.[22] which uses Oyster 3G as the core femtocell technology for its 3G MicroCell[23] product. the company announced its Oyster 3G product would support femtocell standards published by 3GPP and the Broadband Forum. and other devices. set-top boxes. ip. ip. an organization promoting worldwide femtocell deployment.access In July 2007. messaging and data to both 2G and 3G handsets at an indoor range of up to 200m. and an OMC-R management system that delivers voice.access nano3G Enterprise . Spain.[19] In April 2009. nano3G™ nano3G is an end-to-end Femtocell system with access points for Enterprise. and Cisco Systems. The ip. 99 Products The company's technologies are employed by telecommunications firms such as AT&T.

[42] Setcom.Best Specialist Vendor[50] .access include the following: ip.[38] Blue Ocean Wireless.[24] Private Mobile Networks.access' major customers are AT&T.Maritime Voice Services[48] [18] 2010 • GTB Power100[49] • World Vendor Awards .Best Technology Foresight[46] 2008 • The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100[16] 2009 • • • • Deloitte Fast 500 EMEA Femto Forum Awards .Femtocell or Femtocell Network Element Design and Technology Innovation[47] Femto Forum Awards .ip.[42] and TriaGnoSys.Best Radio Access Product or Service[45] The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100[15] World Communications Award . and personnel awards won by ip.access 100 Customers and Partners Among ip.[33] Telefónica O2 Czech Republic.[28] Blue Ocean Wireless. Prototype. or Demo)[47] Global Telecoms Business Innovation Awards . product.[22] Bharti Airtel.[39] Cisco Systems.[32] Tele2.[34] and Telia Sonera.[35] The company's technology partners[36] include AeroMobile.[40] Qualcomm.[29] Monaco Telecom.[41] Quortus.[37] Altobridge.[43] Awards Corporate.Femtocell Service (Commercial.[30] SFR.[31] T-Mobile.access' Oyster 3G is the core technology of AT&T's 3G MicroCell 2007 • • • • Light Reading Leading Lights Awards .[2] Bouygues Telecom.[31] SPIE SA.Best New Product (Private Company)[44] Global Mobile Awards .

access (http:/ / gigaom. "ip. etsi. Retrieved June 14.access" (http:/ / newsroom. com/ 2008/ 05/ 21/ qualcomm-backs-femtocell-maker/ ).A New Body to Promote Femtocell Standardisation and Deployment" (http:/ / www. 2009). "ATT Wireless" (http:/ / www. Michelle. asp?Member=ALL_PARTNERS& SortMember=Name& DirMember=ASC& SortPartner=Name& DirPartner=ASC& SortMarket=Name& DirMarket=ASC& SortObserver=Name& DirObserver=ASC& SortGuest=Name& DirGuest=ASC& Name=& search=Search). ipaccess. Press release. 2010). co. asp?doc_id=153681). org/ femto/ membership. 2011. [19] ip.access (http:/ / www. [25] Ip. "Femto Forum Completes World's First Femtocell Plugfest" (http:/ / femtoforum. [14] Higginbotham. cambridgenetwork. 2008). uk/ fast500emea/ fast-500-winners/ winners-2009/ ).access Prep Femto Combo (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 2. thinkfemtocell. 2011. February 15. com/ research/ 1003580-Picocell+ Equipment+ Vendor+ Matrix). February 2.access Moves to New Offices to Support Growth" (http:/ / www. 2011. 2011. co. Amarendra. Phone News. abiresearch.ip. The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. [13] Cisco Systems (January 23.com. 2011.Femtocell Network Element Design and Technology Innovation[51] Community Support ip. ETSI. May 1.[52] References [1] ip. php?id=243). [17] Picocell Equipment Vendor Matrix (http:/ / www. The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. 2006). Retrieved June 3. EDAGeek. deloitte. Ken. 3GPP. . 2011. com/ dlls/ 2008/ fin_012308. [26] Weaver. com/ att-to-deploy-femtocell-technology-from-uk-firm-ip. php?id=5). fasttrack. Press release. com/ content/ news/ press. . [11] Motorola gobbles up TTPcom (http:/ / www. 2008. Qualcomm Backs Femtocell Maker. uk/ fasttrack/ leagues/ dbIndex. Retrieved June 14.5 million Funding to Accelerate Growth in Cost-Effective Cellular Infrastructure for Homes and Businesses" (http:/ / www. org/ Portal_IntegrateAppli/ QueryResult. ipaccess.access (September 15. Press release. 2005). co. 2011.access is a corporate supporter of East Anglia's Children's Hospices (EACH). 2008. 2007. "Cisco Makes Strategic Investment in ip. ip. which provides care for children and young people with life-threatening illnesses and support for their families. theregister. [8] "About TTP" (http:/ / www. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 7867091. 2011.access and Altobridge Collaborate to Provide GSM ‘Sky/Sea Phone’ Services" (http:/ / www. ipaccess. 2002. com/ content/ news/ press. php?id=51). Press release. Retrieved June 2. php?id=20).access Demonstrates Progress on Femtocell Standards (http:/ / ceoworld. nviot-forum. 2008. . org/ 3gppmembership/ Results. "ip. php?id=27). [7] NVIOT Forum Members (http:/ / www.access 101 2011 • Femto Forum Awards . May 13. Retrieved June 9. ttp.access Joins Board of the Femto Forum . [3] 3GPP Membership (http:/ / webapp. [20] Bhushan.).access Organization Profile (http:/ / www. 2006. asp?Alone=1& SortBy=& SortDirection=& Param=). femtoforum. asp?siteID=3& yr=2007& sort=num& area1=99& x=19& y=7). BBC News. [6] Femto Forum Members Listing (http:/ / www. 2011. [10] ip. "ip. "ip. 2011. June 7.access (March 13.access (July 06. Press release. Retrieved June 30. stm). fasttrack. May 21.UK (http:/ / www. 2009. Telecoms. 2011.access (http:/ / edageek. com/ document. Retrieved June 3. [2] Mobiles Connect Across the Waves (http:/ / news. ADC Makes Investment in ip. Think Femtocell. lightreading. Cambridge Network. [4] ip. uk/ fasttrack/ leagues/ dbIndex. shtml#NVIOT Forum Members). AT&T to Deploy Femtocell Technology from UK Firm ip. co. [9] ip. . phonenews. com/ corporate/ about/ ). [5] ETSI Member Information (http:/ / portal. com/ document. [16] 2008 Tech Track 100 League Table . Light Reading Mobile. ABI Research. 2011. Retrieved June 2. bbc.access Secures £8. Femtocells Grow Into the Enterprise Space (http:/ / www. TTP Group. 2011. etsi. and Femto Forum. com/ 24665/ femtocells-grow-into-the-enterprise-space/ ). Retrieved June 8. Deloitte. Light Reading Mobile. ip.UK (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 07/ 30/ ip-access-adc/ . Retrieved June 8. Retrieved June 2. 2011. biz/ ceo/ 2009/ 04/ 07/ ipaccess-demonstrates-progress-on-femtocell-standards). lightreading. The Register. php). Retrieved June 8. December 3. . [21] Femto Forum (March 30. co. 2011. html). 2011. Retrieved June 2. asp?doc_id=25238). Humberto. . [18] 2009 Winners (http:/ / www. . 2009. July 30. com/ Operators/ att-wireless. Network Vendors Interoperability Testing Forum. Cisco. asp?siteID=3& yr=2008& sort=num& area1=99& x=30& y=17). CEOWorld Magazine. [12] Cheung. . Retrieved June 8. Pamela. html). Press release. Stacey. access-3378/ ). [22] Saabedra. co. . telecoms. ipaccess. GigaOM. ip. [24] Donegan. com/ content/ news/ press.access Goes Indoors (http:/ / www. 2011. com/ content/ news/ press. org/ fem2/ pressreleases. uk/ directory/ orgprofile/ default. 2007). Retrieved June 14. aspx?objid=73435). cisco. uk/ 2006/ 06/ 07/ motorola_buys_ttpcom/ ). [15] 2007 Tech Track 100 League Table . org/ About_the_NVIOT_Forum.access (February 2. April 07. [23] David Chambers. 2011. Retrieved June 2.

asp?doc_id=187958). com/ en/ femtocell-and-picocell-solutions-from-our-partners). Femto Forum. January 30.com. com/ usubmit/ 2009/ 02/ 12/ 3984377. [40] Teleware Plc Selects ip. Light Reading Mobile. [49] Mallinson Makes Telecoms Power List (http:/ / www. Light Reading Mobile.access Revs Up Coverage for Monaco Telecom (http:/ / www. html). February 15. [34] ip. [35] TeliaSonera Picks ip.. September 16. October 22. September 03. EDN Magazine. Bharti Airtel Deploys ip. [33] Tele2 Picks ip. com/ Article/ 2277416/ Search/ Results/ GTB-Innovation-Awards-Wireless-network-infrastructure. com/ file/ 98130/ tele2-picks-ipaccess-for-picocells. gsmworld. Jan. EACH. Telecommunications Insight. [31] ip. each. 2010. 2003. [29] Bouygues Picks ip. techwatch. February 12. [46] "2007 World Communication Awards Winners" (http:/ / www. [47] "Femto Forum Femtocell Awards 2009" (http:/ / www. 2009. php).access for Picocells (http:/ / www. Mobile Comms Technology. [52] "EACH Corporate Supporters" (http:/ / www. com/ document. html?Keywords=innovation& OrderType=1). [42] Harris. Retrieved June 16. [51] "2011 Winners" (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 9. TMCNet. telecompaper. net/ mobile/ qualcomm-ip-access-sign-femtocell-partnership). [50] "World Vendor Awards 2010" (http:/ / www. htm). tmcnet. 2010. 2011. satnews. Global Telecoms Business. . Total Telecom. totaltele. php?id=96). htm).access (http:/ / www.access NanoGSM Picocell in India (http:/ / ipcommunications. 2007. SatNews. February 05. February 3. com/ article/ 515584-ip_access_revs_up_coverage_for_Monaco_Telecom. LR Names 2007 Leading Lights Winners (http:/ / www.access. [37] AeroMobile Flies with ip. Retrieved June 15. com/ content/ news/ press.co. lightreading.. 2011. asp?doc_id=136327).access (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 16. 2010. TechWatch. ipaccess. com/ 2010/ WVA/ ). cgi?number=1844337422). globaltelecomsbusiness. September 2009.access as Picocell Supplier for Private Mobile Networks (http:/ / www. June 12.access Signs Contract with Czech Operator Telefónica O2 to Enhance GSM In-Building Coverage" (http:/ / www. . ip. [38] ip. lightreading. 3G Femtocell Developer Kit Available From ip. org. stm). Retrieved June 2. com/ cgi-bin/ story. uk/ hi-tech/ 9043-mallinson-make-telecoms-power-list). ipaccess.access (February 10. tmcnet. . September 29. October 13. . telecomsinsight. terrapinn. . [44] Le Maistre. 2011. com/ view.uk/hi-tech/ 9041-company-profile-ipaccess) . co. [48] "GTB Innovation Awards: Wireless Network Infrastructure" (http:/ / www.access. mobilecomms-technology.Vendors (http:/ / www.access Builds Up T-Mobile (http:/ / www. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 1992. telecompaper. ip. businessweekly. asp?doc_id=71508).access + Blue Ocean Wireless (http:/ / www. [28] Shukla. 2007. 2009. 2011.access (http:/ / www.access and Altobridge to Develop GSM Solutions for Ships and Planes (http:/ / www. Terrapinn Holdings ltd. 102 External links • Official Company Website (http://www. [36] "Femtocell and Picocell Solutions from our partners" (http:/ / www.access (http:/ / www. terrapinn. edn. 2009. Retrieved June 30. com/ topics/ ip-communications/ articles/ 99565-bharti-airtel-deploys-ipaccess-nanogsm-picocell-india. Dean. . com/ femto/ aboutforum. [43] Aroso. May 21. February 2. 2005. Terrapinn Holdings ltd. October 16. 2007). [45] GSM Association (February 13. Femtocells Key for Mobile Operators . Retrieved June 8. com/ document. com/ news/ ipaccess-and-altobridge-to-develop-gsm-solutions-for-ships-and-planes). [32] IP. . Qualcomm. . 2011. Light Reading Mobile. Retrieved June 16. html). Telecom Paper. com/ news/ aroso-triagnosys-offer-gsm-services-for-brazilian-operators). . 2008. Light Reading. Telecom Paper. [41] Wilson. Press release. TMCNet. 2010. uk/ how-to-help/ corporate_fundraising/ each_corporate_supporters). 2010. Retrieved June 15. [39] Picocelling Marine Mobile Are ip. 2011. com/ document. TechEye. com/ contractors/ fixed-mobile-convergence/ teleware/ press10. [30] ip.businessweekly. "ip.access Profile (http://www.com. femtoforum. Ray. lightreading. com/ 2008/ wca/ C4415. techeye. "GSM Association Announces 2007 Global Mobile Awards Winners" (http:/ / www. 2011. asp?doc_id=42398). April 6. aspx?C=0& ID=349112). htm). Mary. TriaGnoSys Offer GSM Services for Brazilian Operators (http:/ / www.access [27] Lennighan. 2003. 2007.net. com/ document. org/ awards2011/ 2011-winners/ ). femtoforum.ipaccess. Business Weekly. Femto Forum. 2011. lightreading. SFR Business Team and SPIE Collaborate to Bring Picocells to French Market (http:/ / www. Press release. lightreading. Light Reading Mobile.access Sign Femtocell Partnership (http:/ / www. October 23.ip. asp?doc_id=144533). 2010. Anuradha. uk/ 2010/ 02/ 05/ 3g-femtocell-developer-kit-available-from-ip-access/ ). 2011.com) • Business Weekly ip. co. php?id=13). com/ document. 2005).

. see Kitáb-i-Íqán. IQAN is a trademark[1] for electronic control systems for mobile machinery.IQAN 103 IQAN This article is about the Parker Hannifin trademark. Notes [1] USPTO registration No. is an acronym för Volvo-Atlas Copco as well as a trademark. 1994. 1828046. bought this company and in february 1996 VOAC Hydraulics was acquired by Parker Hannifin. . USPTO registration No. around 1995 the Swedish company VOAC Hydraulics Co. owned by Parker Hannifin corporation. date March 29. For Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude. History The CAN bus based system IQAN was developed by a small Swedish company around 1990-95. Shortly after. VOAC Co. 2405313. The IQAN-system was integrated into Parkers product range of system components for mobile machinery. date November 21. First version was introduced on the market 1995. 2000. Source • VOAC history. no longer existing company. The system has been was further developed within the Parker organisation.

a performance model based on Queueing Networks (QN). • A validation framework enabling off-line and on-line validation of networked services regarding functional and extra-functional properties. Bluetooth. • Non-functional analysis tools: they are L-to-QN and QN-Solver. in particular assisting the development of services targeted at mobile devices. The former allows the developer to model the functional and non-functional behavior of the service.and resource-aware services. The project started in January 2006 and will end in September 2008. including handheld devices. 2008 Cross-platform ? ? [1] Plastic. which may be deployed on the various networked nodes. The former derives. which may be deployed on the various networked nodes. is a project that develops a design framework for mobile B3G services.0. Introduction to Plastic The PLASTIC platform enables robust distributed lightweight services in the B3G networking environment through three different tools • A development environment leveraging model-driven engineering for the thorough development of SLA.1 / April 7.IST-Plastic 104 IST-Plastic PLASTIC Original author(s) Initial release Stable release Operating system Type License Website Plastic consortium April 7. WiFi. including handheld devices (that can exploit different network interfaces. The Plastic project belongs to the EU's Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technology Development (RTD).g. The PLASTIC development environment can be organized into the following five main blocks. inscribed into STREP Information Society Technologies (IST). The latter is a QN solver for performing performance . • A service-oriented middleware leveraging multi-radio devices and multi-network environments for applications and services run on mobile devices. The latter is for defining the service level specification by taking into account the feedbacks from the non-functional analysis tools. • Modeling tools: they are the PLASTIC service model editor and the PLASTIC SLA editor. 3G). from the service model. Development environment The PLASTIC development environment enables the rigorous development of SLA and resource-aware services. e. The PLASTIC project adopts and revisits service-oriented computing for the B3G network. acronym of Providing Lightweight & Adaptable Service Technology for Information and Communication. further enabling context-aware and secure discovery and access to such services.. 2008 0.

B3G CBR provides content-based networking. The PLASTIC middleware specifically enriches the Web service architecture with key features for services to become truly pervasive by taking full benefit of the rich capacities. The lightweight WS-Security Services allow for adapting the security provision to the capacity of mobile device resources.e. The PLASTIC middleware brings multi-radio. all the tools of the PLASTIC development environment are implemented as Eclipse plug-ins. according to quality parameters. 105 Service-oriented middleware The PLASTIC middleware empowers the service-oriented architecture with B3G networking capabilities. each tool has been developed in a modular way hence providing also an API that would allow a developer to use the tool also outside Eclipse. information needed for Service Level Agreement (SLA) management and the service WSDL specification. from the resource-aware implementation of the service. This code is resource-aware in the sense that it adapts to possible different hosting devices. from the service model. Last but not least. loosely coupled. in particular accounting for extra-functional properties. the alternative that better fits the resource constraints of the device over which the service will run. • Resource-aware adaptation tools: they are an Abstract Resource Analyzer and a Customizer and are used at deployment-time in order to "extract". the PLASTIC middleware is mobility-aware so that its functionalities adapt to the physical mobility of both clients and services. The Discovery Service enables the advertising and location of networked services. to support the communication modes underlying large-scale.IST-Plastic analysis. selecting the optimal communication link to/from nodes. in particular exploiting the rich multi-radio.. However. multi-network connectivity. now embedded in wireless devices. . including multi-radio interfaces. PLASTIC model to Adaptable Java Java skeleton of the service's code. i. The Publish-Subscribe Service enables effective event-based communication in the B3G network through CBR. multi-network links. multi-network connectivity to services through a comprehensive layered architecture: • The multi-radio device management and networking layers together abstract multi-radio connectivity. multi-party. • Code generation tools: UML to HUTN and UML to WSDL are used to derive. The PLASTIC development environment relies on the Eclipse framework. Implementation of the PLASTIC middleware prototype is being finalized and will soon be available for download under open source licenses. in particular enabling adaptive lightweight services to be run on mobile nodes and access to services over multi-radio. • Resource-aware programming model: it is a resource-aware extension of Java used to write the resource-aware code of the service. distributed applications. • The middleware services layer brings advanced distributed resource management functionalities customized for the B3G networking environment. • The communication layer allows for communication in the B3G networking environment according to the SOAP or CBR (content-based routing) protocols. complementing traditional unicast and multicast addressed-based networks. B3G SOAP in particular allows for multi-network routing of SOAP messages over the multi-radio links. Functionalities provided by the PLASTIC middleware may be used in conjunction but also in isolation according to the resource capacities of the host and the applications' requirements. SLA monitor generator and WS-Agreement generator generate monitors in order to check SLA at run-time. The Context awareness Services feature concepts for managing contextual information and further easing the adaptation of services to best match user situations.

or in combination. The mock services automatically generated by Puppet exhibit a correct behaviour with respect to given extra-functional properties. performed during live usage. thus. The tools of the PLASTIC Validation Framework can be downloaded from the Tool Repository Validation Framework. configurable. Weevil is intended to facilitate experimentation activities for distributed systems by providing engineers with a flexible. it/ wiki/ tools . and on-line validation. checking whether the responses conform to a given specification. fr/ plastic [2] http:/ / plastic. expressed as a Service State Machine. • SLAngMon: a light-weight technology that can dynamically detect violations of extra-functional properties specified in SLAng. During the off-line stage. cnr. depending on the constraints and requirements of a considered application/scenario. Events related to the extra-functional characteristics are logged and can be used to resolve controversies concerning SLA violations. cnr. The tools made available for this purpose within the PLASTIC validation framework are: • Jambition: a model-based testing tool that automatically derives and executes invocation sequences on a service. isti. PLASTIC services validation is structured around two main stages: off-line validation. Jambition is equipped with a visual interface (Minerva library) based on the common formalism of UML 2. services are tested in a simulated environment that reproduces functional and/or extra-functional run-time conditions. The validation framework is not conceived as a fixed methodology. automated and. it [3] http:/ / plastic. by means of automatically generated on-line monitors. repeatable process for evaluating their software on a networked testbed. but rather as a set of techniques/tools that can be used alternatively.0 state machines. • PUPPET: a tool to generate stubs implementing external services invoked by the service under development. • WEEVIL: a synthetic-workload generator coupled with an environment for managing the deployment and execution of experiments. carried on at development time. isti.IST-Plastic 106 Validation framework The PLASTIC validation framework [2] supports the validation of networked services with regard to both functional and extra-functional properties. [3] of the Plastic References [1] http:/ / www-c. inria. PLASTIC provides tools developed to support this phase in verifying both functional and extra-functional properties: • Dynamo-AOP: a framework for monitoring functional properties of the external services with which a BPEL process interacts to realize a composite service. On-line validation foresees testing of a service after deployment and during live usage.

and highlight the combination one wants.cam. entering "prog" will suggest "program". iTap provides suggestions for word completions after only one key press in all cases. If a different word is desired. T9 completes custom words after one key press and on most phones other words that users have entered previously can be retrieved after three key presses.ac. (the most recent version of T9). If the phone does not recognize a word it then stores the word as an optional choice. iTap guesses the rest of the word. the phone automatically shows additional letters that form a suggested combination. Scroll right to view other possible combinations. iTap is also able to complete words and phrases. When the memory space is filled the phone deletes the oldest word to make space for the new word. This dictionary also contains phrases and commonly used sentences. A space is automatically inserted after the word. iTap will guess the best match based upon a built in dictionary. References [1] Data entry apparatus having a limited number of character keys and method (http:/ / www. T9 provides an API that can be used to create a similar UI if phone manufacturers decide to do so. It was designed as a replacement for the old letter mappings on phones to help with word entry. As the user types. including words sharing the typed prefix.inference. When entering three or more characters in a row. For example. T9 enables these UI decisions to be largely up to the phone manufacturer and so far none of them have chosen to mimic the UI of iTap with T9. This way the predictive guesses iTap offers are enhanced based upon context of the word that is being typed. com/ patents?id=zQAGAAAAEBAJ) US Patent 6204848 (2001) External links • Some notes on iTap (http://www. Press keypad keys (one press per letter) to begin entering a word. iTap typically uses a different user interface (UI) than T9 does. in order of descending commonality of their use. an arrow key can be pressed to highlight other words in a menu for selection. such as "progress" or words formed with different letters but requiring the same keypresses like "prohibited" or "spoil". iTap in action Enter words 1.iTap 107 iTap iTap is a predictive text technology for mobile phones. This makes some of the modern mobile phones features like text messaging and note-taking easier. However. google. 2. 3. However.uk/mackay/itprnn/itap/) . Press direction key "up" to enter the highlighted combination when it spells a word. developed by Motorola[1] as a competitor to T9. Comparison with T9 Similar to XT9.phy.

Ad Manager – A tool to manage advertisements on the mobile inventory to support monetization . July Systems is a privately funded and backed by leading venture funds such as Intel Capital and Sequoia Capital. Ad Manager www.Studio. New York.Atlanta. Company Overview July Systems provides cross-platform mobile software to businesses. Kuala Lumpur Products Website Mi™ Platform . Analytics . California Offices in .July Systems 108 July Systems July Systems Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Internet 2001 Headquarters Los Angeles.A tool for evaluating the effectiveness and popularity of mobile sites and applications 4. Atlanta. July Systems has offices located in Los Angeles. 2. Rajesh and many of the same executive members started July Systems. Customer Relationship Management (Mi™ Console) .com [1] July Systems is a business that makes software for mobile telephones.An editorial and management tool set for mobile sites and applications. Analytics. At present. New York. Studio .julysystems. After VeriSign bought Unimobile. Mumbai and Kuala Lumpur with a service footprint across 150 countries. It was co-founded in 2001[2] by the Indian entrepreneurs Rajesh TS Reddy and Ashok Narasimhan[3] . Los Angeles. Products July Systems’ Mi™ comprises the following tools: 1. Bangalore. Mi Console. This Platform was the first internet to mobile social network (Unimobile messenger) and was used by people in 100+ countries. Bangalore. Mumbai.A tool with features such as push notifications and alerts 3. Rajesh and the executive team built the first internet to mobile platform (1997-98).

asp?privcapId=1997546). July Systems partner to develop mobile marketing opportunity (http://www. com/2010/03/04/july-systems-raises-7-million-in-funding-ties-in-espn-univision-discovery/) • Intel Capital Invests in July Systems.com/ watch-ipl-on-your-mobile-courtesy-july-systems) • Bangalore-based July Systems leads in tech for live streaming on cell (http://articles. com/ article/ work-in-progress/ theres-something-about-rajesh/ 2372/ 1).com/news/home/20110404005613/en/ July-Systems-Powers-74-Million-Page-Views) • July Systems Launches HTML5 WebApps for Smartphones (http://www.July Systems 109 Notes [1] http:/ / www. businessweek. Forbes Magazine.com/press-release/ july-systems-launches-html5-webapps-for-smartphones-1509173.com/) • Mobile Internet & Advertising Conference 2009 (http://www. References • Omnicom Media Group MENA. Business Week. ameinfo. Inc. . Courtesy July Systems (http://mobigyaan.com) . KLG Systel and MCX (http://www. com/ [2] "July Systems.com/265907. Univision & Discovery (http://www.indiatimes. com/2010-05-04/news/28457851_1_mobile-internet-mobile-screens-gprs-handsets) • July Systems Raises 7 Million $ In Funding – Ties In ESPN. July 2009. in.businesswire.mia-india.watblog.marketwire." (http:/ / investing. julysystems.julysystems. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. .html) • July Systems Powers Over 74 Million Page Views in a Single Game During the Cricket Championship 2011 (http://www. [3] "There's Something About Rajesh" (http:/ / business.pluggd.htm) • Watch IPL on your Mobile.economictimes.com/news/ july-systems-wins-mobile-excellence-awards/726122/) External links • Official website (http://www.financialexpress.in/ intel-capital-invests-in-july-systems-klg-systel-and-mcx-297/) • July Systems wins Mobile Excellence Awards (http://www.

Jumptap received the following awards and recognition: • Gold award for Best Advertising and Marketing Search Engine at the Visiongain Mobile Advertising and Marketing Awards[10] • AlwaysOn Northeast 100 Private Company Award[11] .Jumptap 110 Jumptap Jumptap.with targeted advertising solutions so they can reach their audience with advertising. Massachusetts.These companies provide (the "inventory") and can contribute data to increase advertising relevancy and profit.com [1] Employees Website Jumptap. Massachusetts. CMO. Paran Johar. Inc. Adam Soroca. app developers. publishers. Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Advertising 2004 Headquarters Cambridge. • Mobile operators (wireless carriers) & content publishers . The company partners with digital and media agencies. Mobile Advertising Network Monetization Platform 51-200 (2011) www.Jumptap provides advertisers . agencies and mobile shops . President and CEO.[4] and WPP. VP and GM Search and Advertising. • Advertisers .jumptap.[2] Jumptap's network has a unique reach of over 83 million users in the U. Jumptap has strategic alliances with Autodesk.S. USA Key people Products George Bell. to deliver a powerful array of mobile advertising solutions.. CFO. Inc. wireless carriers and brand advertisers.[5] Awards and recognition In 2007.brands. with offices across North America. Jumptap received financial support of US$22 million from Valhalla Partners in 2006 as Round C financing.[3] Openwave. is a mobile ad network headquartered in Cambridge. Lacey Brandt. Jumptap received the following notices of recognition and excellence: • • • • • AlwaysOn Top 100 Companies[6] IDC's Ten Emerging Players to Watch in 2007[7] FierceWireless Top Wireless Companies[8] Frost and Sullivan Entrepreneurial Award for Mobility Fortune Magazine Top 24 Innovators[9] In 2008.

Fortune Magazine. Tekrati. [11] "The Northeast 100 Winners" (http:/ / alwayson. Retrieved 2010-05-07. tekrati.jumptap.com/answers/ threadview?id=754120) . cgi?id=54846& u=pg_dtl_art_news& m=286). [6] "The 2007 AO 100 Top Companies" (http:/ / alwayson. 2007" (http:/ / www. . fiercewireless. fortune_innovators.brand. com/ 022007/ online/ openwave-jumptap-combine-context-and-profiling-for-mobile-ads/ ). Oliver. fortune/ 11.Jumptap 111 References [1] http:/ / www. [10] "Jumptap Wins Best Advertising and Marketing Search Engine Award" (http:/ / www. goingon. com/ permalink/ post/ 15899/ ).pushingthebarrier. Hajim. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0EIN/ is_2006_Oct_4/ ai_n27047573) [3] "Autodesk and Jumptap form Strategic Alliance to Advance Development of Location-Enabled Search Services for Mobile Operators" (http:/ / www. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. (http://businessweek. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS122527+ 20-Mar-2008+ BW20080320). .Fierce15. "Top 24 Innovators" (http:/ / money.com/pushing_the_barrier/2007/03/ • • • • • • • • jumptap_issues_.google. html). .com/news/view/ 354) JumpTap clears $21M in financing (http://www. Mediasoon.com/boston/stories/2005/12/05/daily15. Fierce Wireless. AlwaysOn.com/blog/?p=245) Google Answers Thread with discussion of the JumpTap business model (http://answers. reuters. goingon. Inc. . Press release. com/ [2] Valhalla Partners Leads $22M Series C Round in JumpTap (http:/ / findarticles. .com/press-releases) Sponsored Podcasts About Timely Topics with JumpTap Executives (http://www.com/) • JumpTap issues 30 new patents (http://www.com/product-overview) JumpTap Press Releases (http://www.com/EFX_dll/EDGARpro.com/) WPP Digital has acquired 2.generalcatalyst. .typepad. . . jumptap. FierceWireless . [5] "WPP bolsters digital with Jumptap stake" (http:/ / www. pl?ACCT=104& STORY=/ www/ story/ 10-30-2006/ 0004462037& EDATE=). com/ research/ 8331/ ). Corey. co. com/ permalink/ post/ 25771). marketingweek. uk/ cgi-bin/ item. [9] Ryan. prnewswire. AlwaysOn. edgar-online.jumptap.dll?FetchFilingOrig1?SessionID=cXB8jAWGR6rglcG&ID=4911130) FierceMobileContent Presents JumpTap with Top App Award (http://www.jumptap.html) Review -"JumpTap . [4] "Openwave Jumptap combine context and profiling for mobile ads" (http:/ / mediasoon. Press release.5% of the issued share capital of JumpTap. com/ galleries/ 2007/ fortune/ 0704/ gallery.msearchgroove. .bizjournals.Pure Mobile Search" (http://wapreview. External links • Official website (http://http://www. Marketing Week. [8] "Top Wireless Companies. [7] "IDC: Ten Emerging Mobile Players To Watch in 2007" (http:/ / vendor.html) JumpTap's Product Overview (http://www. cnn. com/ Fierce15/ 2007/ ).

[2] The system included a hand-held device designed for use by clinicians. Although many of the engineers received offers from Symbol to re-locate to New York. permitting true mobile collaborative possibilities. consisting of unique hand-held mobile devices and accompanying software. audio. venture capital backed company based in Winnipeg. Librestream provides technologies that enable mobile enterprise collaboration. a significant advancement in mobile device technology at that time. Mobile collaboration Mobile collaboration is a technology-based process of communicating utilizing electronic assets and accompanying software designed for use in remote locations. hand-held mobile devices. The group was convinced that together they could design and develop the necessary technology to allow individuals. Differing from traditional video conferencing. In addition to Thacher. all declined. This activity led to the development of high-volume hand-held mobile expertise in Winnipeg for the first time. In August 2003 Thacher left Symbol. Kent Wotherspoon. Canada. continuing to operate out of Winnipeg. Symbol Technologies Inc. when Kerry Thacher co-founded Ubitrex Corporation. Rob McConnell. Over the next few years.[1] Company history The origins of Librestream date back to the late 1980s in Winnipeg. Thacher bought back the device side of the business from Continental and formed AirWire Mobile Technologies Inc. extends traditional video conferencing and collaborative services to places previously unreachable such as an off-shore oil rig or a manufacturing plant floor a continent away.S-based Continental Healthcare Systems. this group included Bill Gillanders. one of which delivered Voice over IP (VoIP). Canada.Librestream 112 Librestream Librestream Technologies Inc. Where traditional video conferencing has been limited to boardrooms. and there existed a tangible [3] opportunity to develop enhanced video-handling capabilities for a next generation of hand-held devices. and lecture theatres. recent technological advancements have extended the capabilities of video conferencing for use with discreet. a capability that would later form the foundation for the creation of Librestream. a small high-tech start-up that designed and developed a clinical information system for use in hospitals to capture patient data. Librestream is notable in that its technology. Two things were clear: the emergence and continued growth of the Internet was certain. Later in 2003. regardless of location. took notice of AirWire’s unique expertise and contracted with Airwire to create a product to help Symbol pursue the healthcare market. and telestration (on-screen drawing) capabilities broadcast over secure networks. Subsequent to successful clinical use of this system. In 1999. Conway Wieler. Don Freiling. The technology would extend the boundaries of traditional . offices.S-based manufacturer of mobile devices. and Chris Kavanagh. which continued to support the substantial base of hospitals using the technology. and weeks later Symbol closed its Winnipeg office.. a group of eight professionals from the former Winnipeg arm of Symbol gathered to plan their next venture. Ubitrex was sold in 1994 to U. the team. Newest generation hand-held electronic devices include video. successfully designed and developed a number of mobile devices. is a privately-owned. a large U. cellular and broadband technologies enabling effective collaboration independent of location. the ability to collaborate in new ways. Tim Braun. Symbol bought AirWire. enabling multi-party conferencing in real time. Only a few weeks into AirWire’s operation. Two years later. mobile collaboration utilizes wireless.

pdf). com/ index. one of multiple rugged hand-held devices in the Onsight product line. . With Verizon Wireless. Control Engineering. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. Gerry (March 25. improvements in customer service and increased productivity. esecurityplanet. html). . Librestream has successfully tested the Onsight system over the Inmarsat BGAN satellite network to provide mobile collaboration to land and maritime satellite customers.[6] healthcare. "New hand-held device targets work on shop floor: veteran high-tech team launches new venture" (http:/ / www. Live. [6] Wadhwa. justforcanadiandoctors. Librestream developed their first alpha product. controleng. Control Engineering. Just for Canadian Doctors. pdf). coupled with desktop collaboration software. Winnipeg Free Press. librestream. Librestream is a Registered Cisco Developer Network member. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). 2005). aspx?aid=1000228332). [8] Macdonald.[4] Led by the founding team’s vision. Robert and Crumb. librestream. The arrangement offered Librestream industry exposure and allowed the breadth and depth of the product to grow in response to evolving requirements. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). [9] Blackwell. Librestream has tested and optimized the Onsight mobile devices for 4G LTE networks. the MCD-1000. bodyshopbiz. [7] Van’t Haaff. . and Onsight is a core component of the Cisco Manufacturing Mobile Video Collaboration (MMVC) solution. Librestream’s customer base grew to include global enterprises. Eventually the mobile collaborative device evolved into the Onsight 1000. In 2006. controleng. Renee (May 28.[8] government and public safety. 22. in industries such as manufacturing. After the arrangement expired in July 2010. controleng. . with Whitely. visual interaction removes traditional restrictions of distance and time. com/ pdf/ EnergyManufacturing2010. html). librestream. By 2010. Anil (2010). Librestream (a combination of ‘free’ and stream’) was formed. downloadic. Martin (July 11. com/ News/ July_11_2005. Librestream continued to develop the technology and support their growing customer base. Backed by venture capital and individual investors. Cindy (December 2008). Winnipeg Free Press. e-security Planet. . [4] Robbins. Librestream formed a marketing partnership with Tandberg. com/ index. . Energy Manufacturing. Alex (March 9. Bodyshop. htm). Control Engineering. . 2009).[9] 113 Technological advancement The impact of mobile collaboration technology is significant in its potential to change the way people work. html). Martin (July 11.[7] insurance. The desktop collaboration software evolved into the Onsight Expert application. many of them Fortune 500 firms.[11] Strategic partners Librestream works with three strategic partners. MCA. 4.[5] energy. [3] Cash. 2009). pp. com/ index. com/ trends/ article. "New hand-held device targets work on shop floor: veteran high-tech team launches new venture" (http:/ / www. 2005). With Cisco Systems. [2] Cash. Renee (May 28. in 2006. one of the leading video conferencing industry players at that time. reductions in downtimes and travel. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. [5] Robbins. pp. Elizabeth. 2010). php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). [10] Robbins. com/ issues/ story.[12] With Inmarsat. . Forrester Research White Paper. . Corey (March/April 2009). . php/ 3872836/ Secure-Wi-Fi-Video-On-The-Battlefield.[13] References [1] Herrell.Librestream video-conferencing beyond the boardroom to workplaces previously unreachable such as a manufacturing plant floor a continent away. .[10] Business processes are optimized through accelerated problem resolution. "Secure Wi-Fi Video on the Battlefield" (http:/ / www. 2009). com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. Renee (May 28. "Estimating from a distance now possible" (http:/ / www. "Being in Two Places At One Time" (http:/ / www. com/ pastissues/ JFCD2009/ JFCD-Mar-Apr2009. "Virtually On-sight" (http:/ / www. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. com/ News/ July_11_2005. 2010).

[13] Santo. 2010). "Verizon Wireless Plays Full-Court Press on Broadband" (http:/ / www. Robert and Crumb. with Whitely. cedmagazine. html). allitwares. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. . downloadic. aspx). Brian (January 5. 2011). html). 114 List of devices with Assisted GPS List of devices with Assisted GPS: Apple • • • • • Apple iPad[1] Apple iPad 2 Apple iPhone 3G[2] Apple iPhone 3GS Apple iPhone 4 BlackBerry (RIM) • BlackBerry Bold[3] • BlackBerry Curve 8900[4] • BlackBerry Storm[5] • BlackBerry Storm 2 Dell • Dell Inspiron 1110 (Inspiron 11z) • Dell Streak E-TEN • E-TEN Glofiish X500 • E-TEN Glofiish M700 ESCORT • ESCORT Entourage CIS[6] • ESCORT Entourage PS[7] Google • Nexus One • Nexus S Hewlett Packard (HP) • Hewlett Packard IPAQ 614c • Hewlett Packard IPAQ 914 • Hewlett-Packard Veer HTC • • • • • • HTC Advantage X7500 (HTC Athena 100) HTC Advantage X7501 (HTC Athena) [8] HTC Advantage X7510 HTC Artemis 100[9] (HTC P3300) HTC Census (HTC P6000) HTC Desire[10] . Forrester Research White Paper. "TelePresence in Manufacturing: IP-based video conferencing provides effective tools for remote collaboration" (http:/ / www. com/ featured-articles-body-TelePresence-in-Manufacturing-523-1. .Librestream [11] Herrell. [12] Presher. Elizabeth. Alex (March 9. . com/ News/ 2011/ 01/ Verizon-LTE-CES-broadband-Hitachi-Alcatel-Sierra-Motorola. CEDMagazine. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. Automation and Control – Design News. Al (December 2010).

Verizon Wireless XV6800) HTC Touch2 [16] HTC Touch Cruise[17] (HTC P3650. HTC Kaiser 120.List of devices with Assisted GPS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • HTC Desire HD HTC Desire Z HTC Dream (with Android software release 1. HTC P4550) • HTC Wildfire[21] Land Rover (vehicle) • Land Rover S1 LG • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • LG KC910 LG KM900 Arena Lg Incite Lg Rumor2 Lg GT505 Pathfinder LG Optimus Android GT540 LG Sentio Motorola A3100 Motorola A1600 Motorola A1000 Motorola A925 Motorola A835 Motorola MT710 Motorola Droid/Milestone Motorola Droid 2 Motorola Droid X Motorola Neo • Neo 1973 . HTC P3700) HTC Touch Find (HTC Polaris 200) HTC Touch HD (HTC Blackstone) HTC Touch Pro[19] (HTC Raphael 100) 115 • HTC Trinity 100 (HTC P3600) • HTC TyTN II[20] (AT&T Tilt. Sprint Mogul PPC-6800. HTC Polaris 100) HTC Touch Diamond[18] (HTC Diamond.5)[11] HTC EVO 4G HTC Hero HTC HD2 HTC Legend[12] HTC Magic HTC Omni HTC P3600i HTC Pharos 100[13] (HTC P3470) HTC Sedna 100 (HTC P6550) HTC Sirius 100[14] (HTC P6500) HTC Surround HTC Titan 100[15] (HTC P4000.

List of devices with Assisted GPS • Neo FreeRunner Nikon • Nikon Coolpix P6000 Compact Digital Camera[22] Nokia • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nokia 5230 Nokia 5800 Xpress Music Nokia 6110 Navigator Nokia 6210 Navigator Nokia 6220 Classic Nokia 6650 fold Nokia 6700 Classic Nokia 6710 Navigator Nokia E5-00 Nokia E52 Nokia E55 Nokia E66 (Dora) Nokia E71 Nokia E72 Nokia E75 Nokia E90 Communicator Nokia N78 Nokia N79 Nokia N8 Nokia N82 Nokia N85 Nokia N86 8MP Nokia N95 Nokia N95-3 North America Nokia N95 8GB Nokia N95 8GB North America Nokia N96 Nokia N97. Nokia N97 Mini Nokia N810 (with Diablo firmware upgrade) Nokia N900 Nokia X6 Nokia C5 Nokia C6 Nokia C7 116 Novatel • Novatel X720 • MiFi (tethering devices) • Novatel MiFi 2200 • Novatel MiFi 23xx series Orange • Orange San Francisco .

List of devices with Assisted GPS Palm • Palm Pre • Palm Treo 800w • Palm Treo Pro Sony • Sony HDR-XR520V Handycam Camcorder with built-in GPS receiver[23] Sony Ericsson • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sony Ericsson Satio Sony Ericsson XPERIA X1 Sony Ericsson XPERIA X2[24] Sony Ericsson Xperia X8[25] Sony Ericsson XPERIA X10[26] Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 mini[27] Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 mini pro[28] Sony Ericsson XPERIA Arc Sony Ericsson Aino[29] Sony Ericsson C702 Sony Ericsson C905 Sony Ericsson G705 Sony Ericsson TM506 Sony Ericsson W715[30] Sony Ericsson W760 Sony Ericsson W995 Sony Ericsson Z780 Sony Ericsson Elm 117 BlackJack • Samsung Blackjack II Samsung • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Samsung Focus[31] Samsung i5700 Samsung Galaxy 3 Samsung Galaxy 5 Samsung Galaxy Fit Samsung Galaxy S Samsung Galaxy Tab Samsung Galaxy Ace Samsung GT-i8510 INNOV8 Samsung i8910 Samsung Monte S5620 Samsung Mythic (SGH-A897) Samsung Omnia Samsung Omnia Pro 7320 Samsung Omnia II Samsung Omnia 7 [32] Samsung SGH-i550 .

com/ entourage/ ) ESCORT Entourage PS portable vehicle security and location awareness (http:/ / www. android. PDA Phone. html#perf) [12] (http:/ / www. org/ wiki/ BlackBerry_Curve_8900/ BlackBerry . com/ www/ product. php) [13] HTC – Touch Phone. com/ blackberrybold/ http:/ / en. htc. php) [11] Android 1. com/ www/ product. gsmarena. recovery and location awareness (http:/ / www. aspx?id=32678) [14] HTC – Touch Phone. com/ us/ browse/ home/ shop_iphone/ family/ iphone) http:/ / www. PDA Phone. com/ htc_legend-3141.S. PDA Phone. htc. com/ www/ product. escortradar. htc. aspx?id=436) [9] HTC – Touch Phone. PDA Phone.iPhone 3G (http:/ / store.20-E QUEST Sonim Technologies XP3. aspx?id=526) [15] HTC . 5-highlights. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P3300: Overview (http:/ / www. htc. Smartphone. Smartphone. Smartphone.) . apple.List of devices with Assisted GPS • • • • Samsung SGH-i780 Samsung Galaxy Pop S5570 Samsung Nexus S I9023 Samsung Wave S5253 118 • Samsung Transform[33] Sierra Wireless • Sierra Wireless (some devices) Spice • Spice Mi-300[34] Sonim • • • • Sonim Technologies XP3. gsmarena. com/ ipad/ ) Apple Store (U.Storm Specs for 9550 and 9530 (http:/ / us. com/ entourage/ ) HTC – Touch Phone.20-A QUEST Sonim Technologies Ingrid Sonim Technologies XP 3300 Force Sprint • Sprint Navigation Synapse-Phones • Synapse One Teltonika • Teltonika GH3000[35] Toshiba • Toshiba TG01 Tracker • Tracker G400 Zoombak • Zoombak tracking devices[36] References -iPad (http:/ / www. com/ us/ FAQ_Detail. com/ htc_desire-3077. wikipedia. escortradar. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P6500: Overview (http:/ / www. blackberry. apple. com/ smartphones/ blackberrystorm/ storm_specifications. PDA Phone. jsp) ESCORT Entourage CIS GPS vehicle security.Touch Phone. com/ sdk/ android-1. blackberry. htc. aspx?id=392) [10] (http:/ / www. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Advantage: Overview (http:/ / www.5 Platform Highlights (http:/ / developer. com/ www/ product. Mobile Computer (http:/ / www. Smartphone. Smartphone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P3470: Overview (http:/ / www. aspx?p_id=75& act=sd) [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] .

spicecorp. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC TyTN II: Overview (http:/ / www. com/ mobile/ samsung/ reviews/ 92412. PDA Phone. com/ cws/ products/ mobilephones/ overview/ aino?cc=ro& lc=ro) Sony Ericsson Aino [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] SE W715 in GSM Arena (http:/ / www. htc. Car Security Device (http:/ / www. com/ samsung_i550-2115. com/ Find-Your-Nikon/ Product/ Digital-Camera/ 26135/ COOLPIX-P6000.List of devices with Assisted GPS [16] http:/ / www. Smartphone. nikonusa. htc. brighthub. htc. PDA Phone. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/ ProductDisplay?catalogId=1& storeId=10151& langId=-1& productId=8198552921665736672& SR=sony_search_seo& SQS=HDR-XR520V) [24] (http:/ / www. sonyericsson. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-300003-wpx10minia1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 mini White Paper [28] (http:/ / developer. aspx?id=640) [21] (http:/ / www. Dog & Pet Tracking. sonyericsson. com/ sony_ericsson_w715-2642. htc. sonystyle. com/ cws/ products/ mobilephones/ overview/ x2?cc=ro& lc=ro) Sony Ericsson XPERIA X2 [25] (http:/ / developer. zoombak. gsmarena. PDA Phone. com/ www/ product. Smartphone. sonyericsson. aspx?id=167) (http:/ / www. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Pro: Specification (http:/ / www. aspx?id=46286) [19] HTC – Touch Phone. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ x8wp1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X8 White Paper [26] (http:/ / developer. teltonika. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-300004-wpx10minipro1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 mini pro White Paper [29] (http:/ / www. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-102192-wpx102?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 White Paper [27] (http:/ / developer. gsmarena. aspx) (http:/ / www. com/ www/ product. aspx?id=794) [18] HTC – Touch Phone. php) [22] Product's official page (http:/ / www. html) [23] HDR-XR520V 240GB High Definition Handycam Camcorder with built-in GPS receiver (http:/ / www. com/ www/ product. com) 119 . PDA Phone. gsmarena. php) Samsung Focus Samsung SGH-i550 in GSM Arena (http:/ / www. sonyericsson. com/ htc_wildfire-3337. sonyericsson. com/ www/ product. sonyericsson. com/ sea/ product/ touch2/ overview. in/ spicemobiles/ Model. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Diamond: Specification (http:/ / www. html [17] HTC – Touch Phone. aspx?id=49524) [20] HTC – Touch Phone. php) (http:/ / www. htc. Smartphone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Cruise: Overview (http:/ / www. Smartphone. eu/ en/ pages/ view/ ?id=982) Zoombak GPS Auto & Vehicle Tracker.

and mobile user pays for incoming calls). It was also a major point made by CLECs (Competitive Local Exchange Carriers) preventing customers from leaving ILECs (Incumbent Line Exchange Carriers). In the rest of the world it is referred to as mobile number portability. number portability is usually mandated for all operators by telecommunications regulatory authorities. have argued against portability on the grounds that providing this service incurs considerable overhead. so long as the number is being ported to the same geographical area or telephone exchange. Due to this conflict of interest. especially incumbent operators with large existing subscriber bases. while others argue that it prevents vendor lock-in and allows them to compete fairly on price and service. History Though it was introduced as a tool to promote competition in the heavily monopolized wireline telecommunications industry (see the First Report and Order on LNP and Number Pooling [4]). Although Hong Kong government approved for fixed-mobile number portability. and most European countries including Britain. This latest mandate included carriers outside the top 100 MSAs that theretofore enjoyed a rural carrier exemption. thus hindering competition. call billings are identical no matter for calling to fixed or mobile.[2] Wireless Number Portability is available in some parts of Africa. service area coverage and technology. Australia. and are billed identically for the calling party. As of late November 2003. In the US. Details regarding the reasons for LNP and how it is to be implemented can be found in the First Report and Order referenced above. the FCC has mandated this in order to increase competition among providers.[3] because mobile and fixed line numbers are mixed in the same area codes. there are limitations to transferability with regards to geography. The mandate required all carriers in the top 100 MSAs (metropolitan statistical areas) to be "LNP-capable" and port numbers to any carriers sending a BFR (bona fide request). LNP was mandated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1996 with the First Report and Order on LNP and Number Pooling [4] . LNP was required for all landline and wireless common carriers. Some operators. In the US. .Local number portability 120 Local number portability Local number portability (LNP) for fixed lines. this service is still not available (see below for details). refers to the ability to transfer either an existing fixed-line or mobile telephone number assigned by a local exchange carrier (LEC) and reassign it to another carrier. changing one's operator would require changing one's number. without portability. mobile number portability is referred to simply as WNP or WLNP (Wireless LNP) . Hong Kong also fulfills the criteria listed above (no area code in Hong Kong. Asia. and full mobile number portability (FMNP) for mobile phone lines. however. In most cases. [1] In the United States and Canada. The ability to keep a number while switching providers is thought to be attractive to consumers. in other countries all mobile numbers are placed in higher priced mobile-dedicated area codes and the originator of the call to the mobile phone pays for the call. this relates to transferability between mobile phone lines only. and the United States are the only countries in the world that offer full number portability transfers between both fixed lines and mobile phone lines. Canada. (MNP). since in most countries different mobile operators are provided with different area codes and. number portability became popular with the advent of mobile telephones. Some cellular telephone companies will charge for this conversion as a regulatory cost recovery fee. the mobile user usually pays for incoming calls.

Technical issues Complexity for number portability can come from many sources. The donor operator checks its own database and obtains a new route. Numbers were also recycled in blocks. The operators. If the subscriber ceases to need the number then it is normal that the original donor receives the number back and “snaps back” the number to its network. In number portability the “donor network” provides the number and the “recipient network” accepts the number. 2nd and 3rd Reports and Orders by the FCC (publicly available at fcc. The donor operator verifies the call and informs that it no longer possesses the number. No central database is consulted. The donor operator checks its own database and provides a new route. In this case the second operator will return the number to the first and then it is assigned to the third. Once this occurs the granularity of such operations will represent a greater workload for the telecommunications provider. [7] . Query on Release (QoR) The operator that originates the call first checks with the operator to which the number initially belonged. numbers were assigned to various operators in blocks. With number portability. the donor operator. With phone numbers assigned to various operators in blocks. who were often also service providers. Onward Routing (OR) The operator that originates the call checks with the donor operator. The situation becomes somewhat more complex in a wireless environment such as that created by cellular communications.Local number portability 121 Portability schemes There are four main methods to route a number whose operator has changed[5] .) In the US. Call Dropback Also known as Return to Pivot (RoP). In cellular communications the concept of a location registry exists to tie a “mobile station” (such as a cellular phone) to the number. These rules. The operator that originates the call first checks with the donor operator. Some mechanism for such forwarding must exist. Historically. see the article on the GSM network. first defined in the 1st. the system worked quite well in a fixed line environment since everyone was attached to the same infrastructure. The operator to which the number was designated routes itself the call to the new operator.gov). The operator that originates the call then checks the centralized database.[6] All Call Query (ACQ) The operator that originates the call always check a centralized database and obtains the route to the call. The operator that originates the call then uses this route to forward the call. This model is called indirect routing. as well as NANPA and the ATIS [8] which are agreed upon by all member providers to help make LNP as cost-efficient and expedient as possible while still retaining a healthy level security for all providers and in respect of the highest level of customer service. as is done with ACQ. (For an example of such a system. it is envisioned that the size of these blocks may grow smaller or even to single numbers. If a number is dialed it is necessary to be able to determine where in the network the mobile station exists. there are standards for portability defined by the FCC and the LNPA. are further detailed by the LNPA in order to ensure any provider can successfully port numbers to any other provider. then provided these numbers to the subscribers of telephone services. The operation of donating a number requires that a number is “snapped out” from a network and “snapped into” the receiving network. The situation is slightly more complex if the user leaves the first operator for a second and then subsequently elects to use a third operator.

Calls to ported numbers are completed when a customer who calls a ported number sends the dialed number to a provider's SSP (Service Switch Point)." Once the number is pulled or pushed. so it sends a routing request to the STP (Signal Transfer Point) which accesses a local database that is updated by an LSMS (Local Service Management System) which holds all routing for all ported numbers to which the carrier is responsible for completing calls. the call is passed on to the STP and routed until it gets to a local carrier who will perform the "query" mentioned earlier and route the call accordingly. it sends back FOC (Firm Order Confirmation) and the process of porting the number(s) begins. wireline/competitive local exchange carriers must provide portability.[12] Mobile Number Portability was officially [13] launched in April 1. a response is sent to the "query" containing the information necessary to properly route the call. that provider sends an industry-standard LSR (Local Service Request) to the existing (or "old") provider. SS7 accesses databases for various services such as CNAM. There are a few technical differences. 2007. If routing information is found. the number is ported. If the new provider initiates the port. of course. If the call is local. LNP. however. Either provider can initiate the port using a SOA or LSOA (Service Order Activator) which directly edits the NPAC database mentioned before. As of March 14. If it is not a local number. it is called a "pull. wireless carriers must provide portability in most of Canada. where it is identified either as a local call or not." and if the old provider initiates. Much of this process is duplicated in intermodal portability (porting between wireline and wireless providers). The Americas Canada In Canada. it is a "push. 122 Portability by country Africa Kenya The Communications Commission of Kenya announced in 2004 that mobile number portability would be available as of July 1. the providers must concur the request and the new provider must "activate" the number using the LRN of the switch serving the customer on the agreed due date. the switch has the NPA-NXX in its routing table as portable. 2011. The routing information necessary to complete these calls is known as an LRN (Local Routing Number). When the Old Provider receives this request. Providers use SS7 to route calls throughout the US/Canada network. CLASS and. Providers can also make these requests within the NPAC database directly. 2005 and fixed-line number portability as of July 1. The NANC [10] maintains detailed documentation [11] of the procedure common among US carriers to port numbers as described here.Local number portability NeuStar provides a national database called the NPAC [9] (National Portability Administration Center) which contains the correct routing information for all ported and pooled numbers in the US and Canada. 2006. in WLNP—Especially with concern to the time intervals allowed. The LRN is no more than a simple 10-digit telephone number that resides in the switch of the service provider currently providing service for the ported telephone number.[14] . At the point this is completed. LIDB. When a provider receives a request to port a telephone number from a new customer.

Local number portability United States In the United States. 2003 (in metropolitan areas). LNP was first implemented in the U.[17] Brazil In Brazil. A neutral third party. 2009. reversal of franchised monopoly). the Dominican Telecommunications Institute (INDOTEL) selected Informática El Corte Inglés to administer the number portability. which was a requirement from the government. if the Mexican company wanted to enter to the video market Triple play (telecommunications). However. 2009. FCC since has mandated Wireless Local Number Portability starting November 24. 1999. and allowed operators to charge an additional monthly Long-Term Telephone Number Portability End-Use Charge as compensation. upon the establishment of the original Number Portability Administration Center (NPAC) in Chicago.[16] Dominican Republic In the Dominican Republic.S. the FCC additionally ruled that number portability applies to landline numbers moving to mobile telephones and. Illinois in 1998. As of October 2009. On November 10. The number portability is available since July 5 of 2008. In March. in defense and regulation of the great monopoly that Telmex has.[16] The handling of the service is handled by Telcordia Technologies. 123 Asia Hong Kong In Hong Kong. as switches and telephone networks were upgraded with Local Routing Number (LRN) capability. It was also one condition for Telmex. The U. October 2009.[24] Although the government allowed porting a fixed line number to a mobile carrier or vice versa. 2007. the FCC made clear that the obligation to provide LNP extends to VoIP providers. fixed line number portability is available since July 1. 2009.[16] The Federal Commission of Telecommunications (COFETEL) applied this law. number portability in both mobile and local telephony was launched September 30. it's not possible to port a fixed line number to a mobile line number and vice-versa[18] .[15] Mexico Mexico is the first Latin American country to have number portability in both mobile and local telephony.[19] Ecuador In Ecuador.[25] .e.[23] Mobile number portability is available since March 1. the FCC first mandated LNP among wireline carriers in 1997. fixed-mobile number portability is not available.S. on October 31. This service covered select rate centers in the Ameritech region. the same day of fixed line telephone market liberalization (i. as well. Mobile Number Portability has been available since 12. 2003. 1995. the introduction of this service shall be decided by the fixed/mobile carriers in a voluntary basis. the "Concorcio Systor [20] Telconet [21] JR Electric Supply [22]" has implemented and is operating the ASCP (Administrador del Sistema Central de Portabilidad). LNP was deployed sequentially to the remaining RBOC areas. Thereafter. number portability (both fixed and mobile) is available nationwide since March.

via the licenses issued to them by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA).[26] It was finally launched all over India on January 20. Mobile Number Portability was mandated on the Public Mobile Operators. 2006. The Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) spent three years to put mobile number portability into practice. Japan In Japan. As a result.com launched in India in Haryana state on November 25. A centralized number portability clearinghouse (NPC) solution was implemented by CITC [30](the telecom regulation authority) and the two mobile phone operators were obliged to implement the MNP solution in their networks and to interface with the NPC. but it was of little effect due to already competitive price plans and customer loyalty. MNP was launched in July 8. Mobile number portability was launched on August 26. e-mail addresses are subject to change. KDDI and Softbank accelerated the price battle. phone carriers without changing their number for a fee of 5000 yen. 2001. ‫ﻥ ﻥﻥ‬the PTA mandated mobile number portability on March 23. mobile number portability plan to start by mid 2008.mnp-india. However. allowing operators to fence in subscribers with price plans. Malaysia In Malaysia. mobile number portability in Japan was not very successful. since its initial workgroup started in November. Overall. fixed line portability began in March. the service was provided to the mobile subscribers for free. They just have to pay the charges of new sim cards depending upon the provider they are migrating [32] 124 . 2011.Local number portability India Mobile number portability www. the long time it took to establish mobile number portability. 2003. 番 号 ポ ー タ ビ リ テ ィ ー 制 度 (bangō portability seido – [27] [28] Users are able to change cellular commonly referred to as portability or MNP) began on October 24. to be the first country to launch this service in the ME region. 2006. NTT DoCoMo. according to an article on the National News Agency Bernama [29] Saudi Arabia In Saudi Arabia. 2010. and the significance of mobile Internet mail. and music/data downloaded may not be used. Oman In Oman.[31] Pakistan In Pakistan. because of high transition costs for the customer due to SIM lock. Users are able to change cellular phone carriers without changing their number for a nominal fee of 3 OMR. Users are able to change their ‫ﻥﻥﻥﻥ‬ cellular phone service for a free. Nawras and Oman Mobile. 2007. 2006.

9% of lines were ported in 2006.974. 125 Europe In the European Union. 2004. with the implementation of a Centralised Number Portability Database Solution. 2001. as proposed by the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore. As a result. 2004. Belgium In Belgium. 2008.[34] Fixed-line portability began as of August 1.9%.[38] roughly 7. mobile number portability service started from January 1. To prevent users' churning to the dominant operator.7% to 87. non-geographic and mobile number portability is required as of July 12. 2003. True number portability will be realized from June 13. This is currently implemented through voice call & SMS forwarding.[39] The impact of mobile number portability in Finland exceeds that of other countries.[40] .[37] In 2006. number portability was implemented in Oct 2004. only SK Telecom's subscribers could move to other operators during the first six months. One thing different from other countries is that it started from SK Telecom. geographic. Estonia In Estonia. In one year (June 2003 – June 2004). 2001. number portability is required from fixed operators since January 1. mobile number portability was implemented on July 25. 2004 and should be required from mobile operators as from January 1. 238. 2005. Cyprus In Cyprus.293 fixed lines were ported. Austria In Austria. This is supported by Sri Lanka Telecom owned Mobitel Lanka and other cellular operators. [33] South Korea In South Korea. Mobile number portability was implemented on July 1.000. the combined market share of TeliaSonera.000 and the number of mobile lines was 5. along with 456. the government gave six months' and one year's delay to the second and the third operator. all telephone providers are required to provide number portability under the Universal Services Directive (2002/22/EU).Local number portability Singapore Singapore was one of the first countries to introduce number portability for mobile telephones in 1997.828. 2004.[36] Finland In Finland. Elisa and DNA fell from 98. Considering that the number of fixed lines by the end of 2006 was 2. portability of fixed line numbers and ISDN was implemented on January 1. respectively.[36] Denmark In Denmark.[35] Sri Lanka The Sri Lankan government made a policy decision in August 2007 to introduce number portability for cellular phones in Sri Lanka. number portability was implemented in Oct 2002.159 mobile lines. the dominant operator which has over 50% of market share.

installed and operated by Systor Trondheim AS [20] of Norway.[42] However. it became possible to change geographic location or operator while keeping the same number.I.[41] Mobile number portability was introduced on June 30. [45] operator group and developed.[36] Greece In Greece. 2002. portability exists for geographic numbers since January 1. 2004. was put into commercial operations from February 2005. 2003.G. Mobile number portability was implemented on March 1. number portability was implemented in Jul 2003. installed and is presently operated by Systor Trondheim AS [20]. a new system was launched on May 21. fixed number portability was introduced on January 1.[43] Germany In Germany. Italy In Italy. Norway Fixed number portability was introduced in Norway in 2000. mobile number portability is available since April 30. one year before the introduction of mobile number portability. Portability for non-geographic numbers (including mobile numbers) is available since May 1. 2002. due to its lack of effectiveness. 1998.E Telcom E. for geographic numbers and numbers for non-geographic services. the National Reference Database (NRDB). 2001. The NRDB is owned and managed by the 8 largest network operators in Norway through the company NRDB AS. geographic number portability has been available since January 1. 2007 with two objectives: having a single contact for the customer (the new operator should take all the steps towards mobile number portability) and a maximum period of ten days for mobile number portability to have effect. The administrative solution for fixed and mobile number portability in Norway. The Mobile Number Portability Central (MNPC) managed by the G. 2004. 2004.[36] Ireland In Ireland.[36] Hungary In Hungary.[44] Luxembourg MNP was introduced in Luxembourg in June 2004. Mobile number portability was implemented on November 1. fixed number portability is available since January 1. The reference database was developed. 1998.I. 2003. As of January 1. was put into service in 2000.Local number portability France In France. 126 .

In the mature Spanish cell phone market (as of June 2007. with 107 lines per 100 inhabitants [49] 127 .556 cell phone lines switched carriers via this proceeding. Telefónica was fined in excess of €152 million by the European Commission on July 4. and so depriving consumers and business of a choice of broadband suppliers". that is.041. "72".[51] Fixed line market is peculiar in Spain. R and many others) and the former State monopoly (Telefónica). Portabil S. From June 2006 to June 2007 alone. with the customer receiving a single bill. Slovakia In Slovakia. ) and fixed numbers (usually beginning with 9 or 8). cell number portability must complete in 5 business days (i.e. As of August 2007. number portability was implemented in May 2004. 2001. "71". a joint venture between the internationally well known companies Logica [48] and Systor Trondheim AS [20]. The sole of them operating statewide—Telefónica—is obliged to provide other firms with access to their exchange facilities or rental/transfer of their copper last-mile loops. fixed number portability was implemented on June 30. as Telefónica set up a reselling program for their fixed lines and DSL internet access. Mobile number portability has been available since January 1. without any cost to the end user. See Telephone numbering in Spain for more information. a distinction must be made between cellphone numbers (beginning with "6" or. 2002. including profitable broadband access. with more than 9 million carrier switches completed as of April 2007. In fact.[52] Due to the billing scheme used in the Spanish phone call market. 3.A.[49] Spain is the one country in the European Union where more customers have switched cell phone providers. number portability among cell phone carriers is available since October 1.957. The technical details for the process are regulated by the CMT (Comisión del Mercado de las Telecomunicaciones or Telecoms Market Commission) and all carriers are obliged to comply with their requirements. 2007 on ground of "impeding competition on the Spanish broadband internet access market for more than five years. with the actual switch occurring late at night to avoid missing any calls. As cable providers do not have a statewide footprint. In the end. [47]. 1.[50] As for the fixed line market. many users have no actual chance of applying for "true" fixed number portability. usually offering them free handsets or extra credit.Local number portability Portugal In Portugal. 2000. As of August 2004. but weaker competition meant that actual adoption of the fixed number portability process was quite sluggish. from October 2011.246 fixed line switches were completed. about 10% of all cellular lines in use. and calling a cellphone is usually more expensive than calling a fixed line. number portability is also available since year 2000. portability has been widely used by the competing carriers as a way to steal each other's customers.[46] The administrative Reference Entity (Entidade de Referencia (ER)) interconnecting all network operators and service providers is operated by a local third party. Full number portability in which a customer transfers a cell to a fixed number or vice versa is thus not possible. the former monopoly is still much in control of the fixed line market. at fees regulated by the CMT (practice known as local loop unbundling). ). "73" or "74". since only two local loop providers can operate at each particular region (or demarcación as regulated by the CMT): a cable carrier (such as Ono. The user wakes up using a new SIM-card from the new cell provider while keeping the number. excluding weekends) from the moment the request is confirmed by the customer. Spain In Spain. Some of them can however get their service from a third company who will bill the service and then pay Telefónica for the copper pair rental and maintenance fees. giving up Telefónica's service altogether. where the calling party assumes the full cost of the call.

2008. local telephone numbers have been portable since 1999. are working to get the process going and performing interoperability tests. [3] Saltzman.[57] New Zealand In New Zealand. . nanpa. fcc. Retrieved March 31. it was not until September 9. Retrieved April 4. pdf) (PDF). At the introduction of mobile number portability the Swedish operators joined forces and procured a central solution. . Mobile number portability has been available as of September 25. As the UK is an EU member country. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA). M. "'Wireless number portability' arrives in Canada" (http:/ / technology. The porting process is based on a peer to peer file exchange between fixed line operators. faqs. . Yu. aspx?isfa=1& newsitemid=ab2bc4b4-6274-4552-8317-ef1ee2227a07& feedname=MARC-SALTZMAN& show=False& number=0& showbyline=True& subtitle=& detect=& abc=abc). [6] Foster. However. org/ rfcs/ rfc3482. References [1] http:/ / wireless. T. com. msn. J. the Ofcom direction is intended to reflect the requirements of EU Directive 2002/22/EU. gov. [7] http:/ / www. mobile number portability was implemented in Nov 2008. org/ . local number portability came into full effect at the start of 2000. José Barbosa. 2009 that the regulator approved the procedure for fixed number portability. Network Working Group. mobile phone providers and broadband service providers to provide number portability under the Porting Authorisation Code rules and Migration Authorisation Code code of practice respectively.[55] United Kingdom In the United Kingdom. local and mobile number portability began on April 1. According to ACMA. gov/ Bureaus/ Common_Carrier/ Orders/ 1996/ fcc96286. asp). they can either form agreements with all of the fixed line operators. fixed line portability was implemented in 1999 and mobile number portability was implemented on September 1. 2001. which is a central reference database now containing both the fixed and mobile portings. pta. Sympatico MSN. "RFC 3482 – Number Portability in the Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN): An Overview" (http:/ / www. 2007. html). Retrieved April 4.. 2009. txt [5] Mello. 2008. For service providers who require knowledge of porting activity to enable them to deliver voice calls directly to the current "network owner". "Portabilidade Numérica (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. sympatico. 2001. 2008.[53] [54] Turkey In Turkey. McGarry. Retrieved April 2. . fixed and mobile operators. . However. com/ [8] http:/ / www. and the incumbent. SNPAC CRDB. br/ tutoriais/ tutorialport/ pagina_3. ca/ Wireless+ number+ portability+ arrives+ in+ Canada/ How-To/ ContentPosting_MS. 2008. gov/ wlnp/ [2] "MNP Introduction" (http:/ / www. or use a third party LNP provider such as Paradigm. fcc. Marc. pk/ media/ mnp_intro_080807. Since then. teleco.One [56]. Ofcom directs fixed-line telephone network providers. there is still progress to be made and the progress for fixed number portability has not proved to be going ahead as in-time as the mobile number portability. 128 Oceania Australia In Australia. on May 9.Local number portability Sweden In Sweden. Fixed number portability was initially planned to take place exactly 6 months following the mobile number portability. atis. [4] http:/ / www.

. 2008. php?id=295374 [30] http:/ / www. 2008. pdf) (PDF). Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA). com/ bernama/ v3/ news_lite. aspx [34] "Demand for Number Portability in the Korean Telecommunications Market: Contingent Valuation Approach" (http:/ / sce. . gov. "Mobile Number Portability: Case Finland" (http:/ / www. net [22] http:/ / www. com/ EFX_dll/ EDGARpro. html). htm) [15] "FCC Expands Local Number Portability to VoIP" (http:/ / hraunfoss. pdf [33] http:/ / www. FCC. Retrieved March 18. Retrieved March 19. tct. anatel. dk/ numbering-issues-and-domain-aspects/ numbering-issues/ number-portability). pag?docid=99382528). Retrieved November 5. 2010. dll?FetchFilingHtmlSection1?SectionID=6677886-127408-269887& SessionID=0gHoHv7tKXdQl77). Retrieved March 18. hk/ en/ ca_bd/ mnp. . Hong Kong Government (March 28. [39] "Mobile Number Portability" (http:/ / www. [16] "Desde el 5 de julio regirá la portabilidad numérica" (http:/ / www. Retrieved March 18. [17] "Number portability launched. [14] Cellular (wireless) telephone services (http:/ / www. Timo. . archive. 2008. National IT and Telecom Agency (Denmark). 2008.. uhcl. Retrieved March 19. [40] Smura. com/ cmas/ documents. Inc. shtml#Misc [12] "Regulations Governing Number Portability (2004)" (http:/ / www. mx/ 2008/ 04/ 15/ index. ofta. html). Retrieved October 19. dk/ numbering-issues-and-domain-aspects/ numbering-issues/ number-portability) on March 9. 2010. Retrieved August 6. fi/ en/ index/ palvelut/ palvelutaiheittain/ numerointi/ siirrettavyys/ matkapuhsiirrettavyys. ca/ eng/ INFO_SHT/ t1021. htm) [32] http:/ / www. [13] "Extracts of the Stakeholders Forum on the Unified Licensing Framework and New Market Structure Held on Thursday 19th March 2008 at KCCT" (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / en. pdf). ofta. bnamericas. 129 . . pta. National IT and Telecom Agency (Denmark). [25] "Press Release – Voluntary Implementation of Fixed Mobile Number Portability" (http:/ / www. doc) (DOC). cck. dk/ statistics/ telestatistik/ halvarsstatistik/ 2007/ first-part-of-2007-1/ Telestatistik for 1 Halvar 2007. pdf) (PDF). php?section=economia& article=024n2eco). gov. [29] http:/ / www. fi/ opetus/ / s38042/ s04/ Presentations/ 06102004_Smura/ Smura_paper. gov/ edocs_public/ attachmatch/ DOC-277752A1. itu. Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). "Business News Americas". fr/ fileadmin/ reprise/ publications/ resportabili-gb. go. ofta. do?caminhoRel=Cidadao& codigoDocumento=139897). frost. com [27] Takeuchi. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved March 18. 2008. int/ ITU-T/ inr/ misc/ files/ bdt_numbsurvey-en. html). html). 2008. Idea Group. Izumi. Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA). Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL). [28] "FY 2007 Outline of Japan's Info-Communications Policies" (http:/ / www. International Telecommunication Union (ITU). 2009. Retrieved November 5. 2008. com [10] http:/ / www. Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP). gov. . gc. nanc-chair. Statement No 1" (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 5. Edgar-Online. hk/ en/ press_rel/ 2009/ Jul_2009_r1. itst. 2008. edu/ cs/ pub/ Kim_J6_JGIM. 2010. anatel. . . jp/ menu_05/ kouhoushi/ pdf/ 060530-e_1. bernama. [41] "Results of the Public Consultation on the implementation of number portability" (http:/ / www. pk/ media/ Code_of_practic_22-03-2007. com [23] Office of the Telecommunications Authority. regulator wants "war of competition"" (http:/ / www. citc. "Interconnection and Related Competition Issues. [37] "Number Portability" (http:/ / web. go. com/ news/ telecommunications/ Number_portability_launched._regulator_wants_*war_of_competition*). 2010. gov. gov. . [36] "Replies to Telecommunication Regulatory Survey" (http:/ / www. htm). La Jornada. Retrieved March 18. . 2008. . 2008. brand. [35] "SK Telecom Co Ltd: Company Information" (http:/ / google. Agência NAcional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL). Retrieved March 31. sg/ News%20and%20Events/ 20080416085608. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC). ke/ links/ consultations/ closed_consultations/ Number_portability2. 2009. . hut. com/ prod/ servlet/ market-insight-top. "MNP-Japan Case" (http:/ / www. Retrieved July 28. . gov. Retrieved September 29. crtc. ficora. Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK). . . fcc. . pdf). . arcep. Retrieved March 18. ke/ links/ consultations/ closed_consultations/ unified_licensing/ Extracts_stakeholders_2008. unam. [26] http:/ / www. br/ Portal/ exibirPortalPaginaEspecial. edgar-online. telconet. cck. . org/ web/ 20080309125104/ http:/ / en. 2008. jrelectricsupply. [38] "Telecom Statistics – First Half of 2007" (http:/ / en. npac. [20] http:/ / www.com. systor. pdf). 1995). Retrieved November 5. mnp-india. itst. Retrieved November 19. tra. soumu. . Retrieved March 18. Frost & Sullivan. 2008. do?acao=& codItemCanal=1362& codigoVisao=4& nomeVisao=Cidadão& nomeCanal=Telefonia Fixa& nomeItemCanal=Portabilidade). hk/ en/ tas/ interconnect/ ta950328.Local number portability [9] http:/ / www. sa [31] (http:/ / www. st [21] http:/ / www. 2009. pdf). gov. om/ test1/ pressroom. br/ Portal/ exibirPortalRedireciona. Retrieved November 5. 2010. gov. [19] "Portabilidade (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK). [24] "Mobile Number Portability in Hong Kong" (http:/ / www. [18] "Portabilidade numérica é aprovada e será assegurada inicialmente ao usuário que solicitar mudança de endereço (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. go. gov. jornada. itst. ida. npac. 2009. org/ [11] http:/ / www.

ca Mobile phone numbers go portable (http://www. tietoenator.portnumber. 58/2005. [47] http:/ / www. [43] "The new mobile number portability process comes into force on Monday 21 May 2007 in Metropolitan France" (http:/ / www.pta. php) [52] Neelie Kroes. arcep. pt/ template20.gov.pta. doc) (DOC).html) • http://www.fcc. Retrieved March 19. it/ rel_03/ eng/ Relaz_eng_part04. 2008. . . European Commissioner for Competition Policy. com. pdf) (PDF). 2008. pt [49] CMT June 2007 monthly report (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. anacom.gov.25381.gc. Retrieved March 31. pdf) [50] AECOMO Spanish Mobile Communications Association news report (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. lu [46] "Regulation no. org/ web/ 20071020150339/ http:/ / www. jsp?categoryId=160182& contentId=289489) on October 20.27257. [54] "Number portability for Telenor Mobile in Sweden" (http:/ / www.27273). 2008. published on August 18" (http:/ / web. org/ content.ca//news/column/ 46e109880a010408001a024c0b8ced7d/pg0. Telekomünikasyon Kurumu (Telecommunications Authority).php?option=com_content&task=view&id=870&Itemid=636 • An excellent single source of links to authentic regulatory and procedural documentation for LNP in the US (http://ported.uk UK guide to mobile number porting (http://www. jsp?categoryId=160182& contentId=289489). 2007.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/numbport. fr/ index. asp?path=25361.fcc. pts. cz/ default. telcom. html [57] "Mobile number portability FAQs" (http:/ / acma. 2008. php?id=8142). Retrieved March 18. 2008. Autorità per le Garanzie nelle Comunicazioni. Retrieved April 4.org/ • Mobile Number Portability Launched in India (http://www. Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações (ANACOM). Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP). . gov. . Retrieved March 31.ca/eng/INFO_SHT/t1021. portabil.co. do?reference=SPEECH/ 07/ 460& format=HTML& aged=0& language=EN& guiLanguage=en). arcep. aecomo.nanc-chair. Brussels.pk/media/Code_of_practic_22-03-2007.crtc. Retrieved April 7. Swedish Post and Telecom Agency (PTS). pt [48] http:/ / www.pta. Retrieved April 4. [44] "Actions Undertaken by the Authority" (http:/ / www.Local number portability [42] "Mobile Communications Services Qualitative Questionnaire" (http:/ / www. asp?ContentTypeID=2& ContentID=7422& CatTypeId=2& CatId=148) [51] Consumer magazine (in Spanish) (http:/ / www.htm) (March 2007) • http://www.pdf) (March 2007) External links • • • • http://wireless.pcworld.pk/index.com/) • http://gsmsignalling.25552.25514. [56] http:/ / www. . europa. . [55] "Annual Work Plan (2008)" (http:/ / www. es/ es/ home/ novedades/ anexos/ NM_Junio07. July 4. agcom.gov/wlnp/ http://www. Retrieved March 18. 2008. [45] http:/ / www. es/ web/ es/ tecnologia/ 2005/ 04/ 16/ 141248. . logica.gc. au/ LNPDatafeed.ca/eng/INFO_SHT/t1021. gov. pt/ template20. paradigmone. 2008. 2007 [53] "Nummerportabilitet (in Swedish)" (http:/ / www.php • PortNumber.gov. Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). tk.com/index3.co. archive. 2008. se/ sv/ Bransch/ Telefoni/ Nummerfragor/ Nummer--och-adressplaner/ Nummerportabilitet/ ). consumer. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cmt.crtc.mnp-india. Press conference on Telefónica decision (http:/ / www.uk) .com/blog/2007/02/ are_you_ready_for_mobile_number_portability_mnp_1. . fr/ fileadmin/ reprise/ dossiers/ marches/ questionnaire/ quest-comm-mobiles-ang.htm) (March 2006) • (http://www. anacom.html) • Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission – Cellular (Wireless) Telephone Services (Fact Sheet) (http://www.com/number_portability. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. TietoEnator. tr/ Yayin/ Is_Planlari/ workplan2008. Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP).htm) (March 2006) PCWorld.html CRTC (Canadian) Factsheets (http://www.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=870&Itemid=636) (March 2007) • (http://www. au/ WEB/ STANDARD/ pc=PC_1787). 130 • Malaysia Mobile Number Portability Watch (http://jerryong. pdf) (PDF).pk/index.

the term was redefined to include consumer-focused applications. Surveying equipment identifies location with respect to a well-known locationa wireless communications device. real-time locating and positioning support with global. Real-time locating adds timely delivery of results.[16] Fuzzy locating offers less precision. logistics.110—General Information and subsequent standards. For example. e. using wireless signals or optical sighting. make user interaction implicit and build smart environments. Context models have been proposed[3] to support context-aware applications which use location to tailor interfaces. especially for moving targets. discover services. Telecommunications Signaling System#7 (SS7)[8] and mirroring ANSI Standards T1.[17] .[7] Location in mathematical terms offers coordinates that refer to a nominated point of reference. • ISO procedure call addressing according to URN/UUID International standards ISO/IEC 11578[13] and ISO/IEC 9834[14] and IETF RFC 4122. Coordinates are relative to either a standardized system of coordinates.[15] Variants "Crisp" locating offers precise coordinates. the notion was extended to reflect movement. refine application-relevant data. WGS84.g. Location awareness is supported by navigation systems. possibly with phase angle measurements. increase the precision of information retrieval. regional or local scope.. as with fixed RFID readers and RFID tags. or a fixed object such as a building plan. With the advent of global positioning systems and radio-equipped mobile devices. Location awareness without the active participation of the device is known as non-cooperative locating or detection. presence "near" a point of reference. International standardisation offers a common method using ISO/TS 16952[5] as originated with German standards DIN EN 61346[6] and DIN EN 81346. Navigational instruments provide location coordinates for vessels and vehicles. Location in network terms relates to locating network nodes. History of terminology The term originated for configurations settings of network systems and addressed network entities. a location-aware mobile phone may confirm that it is currently in a building. Real time locating is defined with ISO/IEC 19762-5 and ISO/IEC 24730-1. Less sophisticated systems can use wireless distance measurements to estimate a point of reference in polar coordinates (distance and direction) from another site.[1] [2] The term applies to navigating. Network location awareness (NLA) services collect network configuration and location information. Measuring wireless power levels can supply this degree of precision.Location awareness 131 Location awareness Location awareness refers to devices that can passively or actively determine their location. Network location awareness (NLA) describes the location of a node in a network. The term has been applied to traffic.[9] • IEEE media access addressing according to MAC International standard ISO/IEC 10038[10] with ISO/IEC 11802[11] and ANSI/IEEE[12] edition. e.[4] Determining location Description in logical terms uses a structured textual form. business administration and leisure applications. Index locating indicates presence at a known location. positioning systems and/or locating services. These include: • ITU switched line access addressing according to International Telecommunications Union Q-Series standards. and notify applications when this information changes. While location awareness began as a matter of static user location.g.

which is sufficient for applications that limit access.[19] Surveying Surveying is the static complement to navigating. Conversely. distance and direction to destination. independent localized systems exist at scales ranging from one building to sub-national regions.Location awareness 132 Applications Location-aware systems address the acquisition of coordinates in a grid (for example using distance metrics and lateration algorithms) or at least distances to reference points (for example discriminating presence at a certain choke point on a corridor or in a room of a building). Local systems degrade as distance from the locality increases. individuals gain self confidence with confirmation of current whereabouts. It is essential for delineating land ownership and for architects and civil engineers designing construction projects. such as charging tolls for crossing a bridge. Optical surveying technology preceded LASER triangulating aids. (SAR) and combat search and rescue. Applications include avalanche rescue or emergency and mountain rescue as well as with search and rescue. wireless LAN or DECT. but does not indicate that the object remains at that location. such as tracking objects entering and leaving a warehouse. location aware search can prioritize results that are close to the device. On mobile devices.[21] Warehouse and routing RFID provides a time/location reference for an object. and is integral to ubiquitous and wearable computing. with results in proprietary terms of floor plans or room numbers. Local Such solutions may apply concepts of RTLS and WPAN. (CSAR).[20] Business process Currently location awareness is applied to design innovative process controls. GPS and similar systems have become ubituitous in long-haul transport operation and are becoming a standard automobile feature. The task is to dynamically determine the current location and the time. Such applications include publishing a user's location to appropriate members of a social network.[24] Infrastructure While governments have created global systems for computing locations. aviators and professional drivers.[22] [23] Consumer Location awareness enables new applications for ubiquitous computing systems and mobile phones. the device location can be disclosed to others.[18] Navigation Navigation and reckoning are key concerns for seafarers. and allowing retailers to publish special offers to potential customers who are near to the retailer. Allegedly. . or for objects moving on a fixed route. at some cost to the bearer's privacy. RADAR served for regional demand and NAVSTAR satellite systems for global demand.

iso. ieee. teco.Location awareness 133 Regional This approach uses for example mobile phone systems. wiley-vch. "Social psychology. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. (1989).1 Object Identifier components (http:/ / www. pp. lancs. [5] ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation -. . de/ index2. Schreiber and Letizia Tanca (2007). currently supplied by NAVSTAR and may in future employ the pending Galileo (satellite navigation) system. Signalling and Switching (http:/ / www. Springer LNCS. us/ documents/ curino-context2007-survey. curino. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development 29 (3): 225–239.. tekelec. html) [13] ISO/IEC 11578 Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Remote Procedure Call (RPC) (http:/ / www. . Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte . K. "There is more to Context than Location" (http:/ / www. [24] Blank. int/ rec/ T-REC-Q/ e) [9] ANSI Standard T1. uni-karlsruhe. comp. [4] Schmidt.Computing in Context" (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). rlehmann.1361353. com/ wiki/ Network_Location_Awareness_(NLA)) [2] Registering a Service Instance with NLA (http:/ / msdn. K. teco. de/ ~albrecht/ publication/ draft_docs/ context-is-more-than-location. (2006). uk/ ~albrecht/ phd/ ). Curino and Elisa Quintarelli and Fabio A. aspx) [3] Cristiana Bolchini and Carlo A. 149–158. 1st International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC99). "RFID für Dummies" (http:/ / www. htm?csnumber=53416) [15] A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). org/ reading/ ieee/ std_public/ description/ lanman/ 10038-1993_desc. Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte – Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung] [7] Industrielle Systeme. Ajay (2009). de/ publish/ dt/ books/ forthcomingTitles/ EE00/ 0-470-39868-X/ ?sID=2k2e8lg2r8ruf5ghork2ed46g1). M. proceedings of workshops and doctoral consortium. .2190/WUQU-VT01-021N-GX33. Lancaster University.Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln (IEC 81346-1:2009) (http:/ / www. Elsevier 23 (6): 893–902. itu. 1993 edition (http:/ / standards. . [17] Sweeney. A. "Context-aware process design: Exploring the extrinsic drivers for process flexibility". such as 3GPP. J. Michael Beigl and Hans-W. [19] Test TomTom Navigator 6 (http:/ / www. pdf) [21] Albrecht Schmidt. 1707. htm?csnumber=2229) [14] Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Procedures for the operation of OSI Registration Authorities: Generation and registration of Universally Unique Identifiers (UUIDs) and their use as ASN. and a contextual world view". com/ ss7/ itu. de/ publish/ dt/ books/ bySubjectBA00/ ISBN3-527-70263-6/ ?sID=lvkjcmj8ene7n5qci56q5gqsb3).Reference designation system . htm?csnumber=38178) [6] [DIN EN 61346 Industrielle Systeme. T. wm-user.A. doi:10. org/ rfc/ rfc4122. de/ cmd?bcrumblevel=1& contextid=dke& subcommitteeid=54759251& projid=103797592& level=tpl-proj-detailansicht& committeeid=54738887& languageid=de) [8] International Telecommunications Union Q-Series Standards. Computers & Graphics Journal. 85). (1999). "Advanced Interaction in Context" (http:/ / www. GSM or LTE. ac. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. [18] Schmidt. In T. de/ article-00146. 89–101. 18th international conference on advanced information systems engineering. Latour & M.. iso. Patrick (2006). ch/ data/ Das_neue_Messen_2-14. O. ISSN 0163-5808.. Notes [1] Network location awareness (http:/ / wiki.1145/1361348. A. PhD dissertation. . & Recker. rfid-basis. Luxembourg: Namur University Press. doi:10. "Ubiquitous Computing . [22] Fünf Jahre nach dem RFID-Hype erste Ernüchterung (http:/ / www. html) [23] Rosemann. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. iso. Takaluoma. (ACM) 36 (4): 19–26. "A data-oriented survey of context models" (http:/ / carlo.1D. php?option=com_content& do_pdf=1& id=76) [20] Das neue Messen (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF).. Tuomela. typically returning information in standardized coordinates as with WGS84 in standardized formats such as NMEA for outdoor usage or in symbolic coordinates referring to street addresses.. SIGMOD Rec.Part 1: General application rules (http:/ / www. . Van de Velde W. blackviper. . Gellersen (December 1999). contexts of aging. wiley-vch. microsoft. Van Laerhoven. PMID 2634031. Vol. "RTLS für Dummies" (http:/ / www. pp. Albrecht (2003). din. Petit. Aidoo.. dke.110 (http:/ / www. edu/ ~albrecht/ publication/ huc99/ advanced_interaction_context. asp) [10] International Standard ISO/IEC 10038: 1993 (http:/ / www. U. generally adopting WGS84 and NMEA. txt) [16] Malik. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. htm?csnumber=18000) [11] [ISO/IEC TR 11802-2:2005 Information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Technical reports and guidelines—Part 2: Standard Group MAC Addresses] [12] ANSI/IEEE Std 802.Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung . com/ en-us/ library/ ms740123(VS. ietf. Global This approach relies on GPS technology. iso.

patentstorm. Austin.[1] In other words mobile learning decreases limitation of learning location with the mobility of general portable devices.tokloc. M-Learning also brings strong portability by replacing books and notes with small RAMs.Location awareness 134 References • Sonitor Technologies. sonitor.rfcode. is also collaborative. Norway: SONITOR Ultra sound proprietary approach (http://www. or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies. M-learning is convenient in that it is accessible from virtually anywhere.html) • Albis Zurich Switzerland: ZOMOFI Microwave proprietary approach (http://www. There is also a new direction in MLearning that adds mobility of the instructor and includes creation of learning materials "on-the-spot. sharing is almost instantaneous among everyone using the same content. and learning that reflects a focus on how society and its institutions can accommodate and support an increasingly mobile population.ist-midas.php) • Location estimation in wireless telecommunication networks: Ekahau proprietary modified WLAN fuzzy locating system (http://www. M-learning focuses on the mobility of the learner.org/) MLearning The term M-Learning. ist-e-sense. "in the field" using predominately smartphone with special software such as AHG Cloud Note. the Bluetooth LowEnergy based approach (http://www. Although related to e-learning and distance education. or "mobile learning". interacting with portable technologies. .ist-mobilife. predetermined location. One definition of mobile learning is: Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed.com. Using mobile tools for creating learning aides and materials becomes an important part of informal learning. In addition. M-Learning.) • ReadPost Bremerhaven Germany: TokLoc. NO-0314 Oslo.html) External links • Capturing Ambient Intelligence for Mobile Communications through Wireless Sensor Networks (http://www. it is simple to utilize mobile learning for a more effective and entertaining experience.com) • RF Code.portable-personality.org/) (Research Project) • Middleware for context collection and personal profile exchange (http://www.org/) (Research Project) • Bring advances in mobile applications and services within the reach of users (http://www.org) (Research Project) • Middleware Platform for Developing and Deploying Advanced Mobile Services (http://www. which leads to the reception of instant feedback and tips.de/ tokloc/tokloclocating/mission/mission. MP3 players. TX 78758. has different meanings for different communities. like other forms of E-learning. Wikipedia on Nokia 770 is an example of mobile learning The term covers: learning with portable technologies including but not limited to handheld computers. USA: RF Code 433 MHz proprietary approach (http://www.com/ products/zone_monitoring/index.albistechnologies. filled with tailored learning contents.us/patents/7228136. notebooks and mobile phones. it is distinct in its focus on learning across contexts and learning with mobile devices.

8 track tape. • Good IT support is needed. • It is important to bring new technology into the classroom. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) in partnership with Orange Grove Middle School of Tucson. Mobile Learning in Malaysia. A+ and MCSE certification using the core tools that later became LMA.[3] Universities in Europe and Asia develop and evaluate mobile learning for students. including: mLearn. 1980s Alan Kay and his colleagues in the Learning Research Group at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center [PARC] propose the Dynabook as a book-sized computer to run dynamic simulations for learning. Companies were formed that specialize in three core areas of mobile learning. forecast) Value The value of mobile learning[5] --Tutors commented on the value of mobile learning as follows. Their interim Dynabooks are the first networked workstations 1990s In May 1991. • Mobile learning can be a useful add-on tool for students with special needs. etc. • Mobile learning needs to be used appropriately. SALT Mobile in USA. • Mobile learning can be used as a ‘hook’ to re-engage disaffected youth. and CDs[2] 1970s. Handheld Learning in London. • It will be more light weight device compare to books. WMUTE. according to the groups of students involved. 2000s The European Commission funds the major multi-national MOBIlearn and M-Learning [4] projects. Delivery and Tracking 3. • Mobile learning could be utilised as part of a learning approach which uses different types of activities (or a blended learning approach).MLearning 135 History Pre-1970s Arguably the first instance of mobile learning goes back as far as 1901 when Linguaphone released a series of language lessons on wax cylinders. Content Development Conferences and trade shows were created to specifically deal with mobile learning and handheld education. Analysis (costs / benefits. and IADIS Mobile Learning international conference series. 1. use mobile computers connected by wireless networks for the 'Wireless Coyote' project. for SMS and MMS this might be dependent on the students’ specific disabilities or difficulties involved. Arizona. PCs. . Palm corporation offers grants to universities and companies who create and test the use of Mobile Learning on the PalmOS platform. • It is necessary to have enough devices for classroom use . Knowledgility creates the first mobile learning modules for CCNA. ICML in Jordan. However. Authoring and publishing 2. • Mobile learning supports the learning process rather than being integral to it. to cover compact cassette tapes. This was followed up in later years as technology improved.

MLearning 136 Challenges Technical challenges include • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Connectivity and battery life Screen size and key size[6] Ability for authors to visualize mobile phones for delivery Possibilities to meet required bandwidth for nonstop/fast streaming Number of file/assets' formats supported by a specific device Content security or copyright issue from authoring group Multiple standards.and m-learning Design of technology to support a lifetime of learning[7] [8] Tracking of results and proper use of this information No restriction on learning timetable Personal and private information and content No demographic boundary Disruption of students' personal and academic lives[9] Access to and use of the technology in developing countries[10] Social and educational challenges include Growth Over the past ten years mobile learning has grown from a minor research interest to a set of significant projects in schools.7% and revenues reached $538 million in 2007. cities and rural areas around the world. . The mLearning community is still fragmented. job aids and just-in-time (J. content conversion. "the US market for Mobile Learning products and services is growing at a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21. and between the school. and media services and that the healthcare sector accounts for 20% of the total US market for mobile learning."[11] The findings of the report indicate that the largest demand throughout the forecast period is for custom development services. higher education and lifelong learning sectors. multiple operating systems Reworking existing e-Learning materials for mobile platforms Accessibility and cost barriers for end users: Digital divide. workplaces. Current areas of growth include: • • • • • Testing. museums.) learning Location-based and contextual learning Social-networked mobile learning Mobile educational gaming Deliver M-Learning to cellular phones using two way SMS messaging and voice-based CellCasting (podcasting to phones with interactive assessments) According to a report by Ambient Insight in 2008. multiple screen sizes. Developing an appropriate theory of learning for the mobile age Conceptual differences between e. The data indicate that the demand is relatively immune from the recession. with different national perspectives.T.I. surveys. differences between academia and industry. How to assess learning outside the classroom How to support learning across many contexts Content's security (or) pirating issues Frequent changes in device models/technologies/functionality etc.

MLearning 137 Future Technologies currently being researched for mobile learning include:[12] • • • • • • • • Location aware learning Point-and-shoot learning with camera phones and 2D codes Near Field Communications (NFC) secure transactions Sensors and accelerometers in mobile devices in behavioral based learning Mobile content creation (including user generated content) Games and simulation for learning on mobile devices Context-aware ubiquitous learning Augmented reality on mobile devices Delivery While many think of mobile learning as delivering eLearning on small form factor devices. or parts of courses. Mobile devices can also serve as powerful data collection tools and facilitate the capture of user created content. any number of portable devices can quickly and easily deliver and support these functions. personal digital assistants (PDAs). personal media players (PMPs).g. and certifications). Smartphones are one of the platforms used for mobile learning. making it more portable and accessible. mobile learning can enhance and support more traditional learning modes. or wireless single-purpose devices can help deliver coaching and mentoring. In these ways. tests. surveys/polls. or often referred to as eLearning “lite”. it has the potential to do much more than deliver courses. It includes the use of mobile/handheld devices to perform any of the following: • • • • • Deliver Education/Learning Foster Communications/Collaboration Conduct Assessments/Evaluations Provide Access to Performance Support/Knowledge Capture Evidence of Learning Activity Today.. provide on-the-job support and access to information. and deliver podcasts. forms and checklists.[12] . Cell or smartphones. multi-game devices. quizzes. conduct assessments and evaluations (e. update alerts. education and references.

At work • On the job training for someone who accesses training on a mobile device "just in time" to solve a problem or gain an update. and can be used to review live lectures (Clark & Westcott (2007) and to provide opportunities for students to rehearse oral presentations. Miller & Newnham 2009). Podcasts maybe be delivered using syndication. For blended learning Mobile learning can provide support that enhances training in a corporate business or other classroom environment. The use of mobile learning in the military is becoming increasingly common due to low cost and high portability. etc. venue changes and cancellations. • Continuous learning and portable tools for military personnel. It can also be of value to business people e. sales representatives who do not wish to waste time away from their busy schedules to attend formal training events. Podcasts may also provide supplemental information to enhance traditional lectures (McGarr 2009) (Steven & Teasley 2009). Podcasting Podcasting consists of listening to audio recordings of lectures. Class management The mobile phone (through text SMS notices) can be used especially for distance education or with students whose course requires them to be highly mobile and in particular to communicate information regarding availability of assignment results. Outdoor • Learning in museums or galleries with handheld or wearable technologies • Learning outdoors. • Students using mobile devices(such as a Pocket PC) in the classroom to enhance group collaboration among students and instructors. for example on field trips. smartphones or handheld voting systems (such as clickers) in a classroom or lecture room (Tremblay 2010).g. PDAs. Psychological research suggests that university students who download podcast lectures achieve substantially higher exam results than those who attend the lecture in person.MLearning 138 Approaches In the classroom • Students using handheld computers. but only in cases in which students take notes (Callaway & Ewen 2009). . although it should be noted that this method of delivery is not always easily adopted (Lee.

such as using handheld dictionaries and other devices for language learning. Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL). e. camera phone and SmartPhone Technical and delivery support for mobile learning: • 3GP For compression and delivery method of audiovisual content associated with Mobile Learning • GPRS mobile data service. for listening to audio recordings of lectures (podcasting) Personal Digital Assistant. in museums and galleries Handheld game console. mobile phone. Mobile technologies and approaches.g. provides high speed connection and data transfer rate • Wi-Fi gives access to instructors and resources via internet Authoring: • Learning Mobile Author. numeracy and participation in education amongst young adults. modern gaming consoles such as Sony PSP or Nintendo DS Personal audio player. are also used to assist in language learning. development and application of mobile and contextual learning. It organizes the annual mLearn international conference series. Other • Improving levels of literacy.: sending media or texts into a central portfolio. For instance handheld computers.g. cell phones. .MLearning 139 Lifelong learning and self-learning The use of personal technology to support informal or lifelong learning. i.e. in the classroom and outdoors Tablet PC UMPC. e.g. for authoring and publishing WAP. or exporting audio files from a learning platform to your phone) Technologies Mobile devices and personal technologies that can support mobile learning. and teaching resources. emerging technologies. IAMLearn manages a website to collate and disseminate information about new projects. but also podcasting (Horkoff Kayes2008) have been used for helping people to acquire a language. • Using the communication features of a mobile phone as part of a larger learning activity (e. Java ME and Smartphone Relevant organisations • The International Association for Mobile Learning[13] • The International Association for Mobile Learning (IAMLearn) has been formed as a membership organization to promote excellence in research. include: • • • • • • • E-book Handheld audio and multimedia guides.

C. . "Language Learning by iPod: An Emerging Model" (http://www. Journal of Software 3 (4): 51–61. Newnham. ISBN 978-972-8924-36-2. com/ p7/ MobileLearningUpdate. Budapest. acm.p8 [6] Maniar. [10] Masters. (2005). uk/ 17441/ ). October 2003. J. The Internet and Higher Education 12 (2): 88–92. 2009. 57-59 [4] http:/ / www. ac. S. April 2005. G (2008).MLearning 140 Relevant journals • International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning • International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation References [1] "Guidelines for learning/teaching/tutoring in a mobile environment" (http:/ / www. Barcelona. • McGarr. M. m-learning. S. 17. Spain. Kayes. "After the broadcast: disrupting health sciences’ students' lives with SMS". Hungary. MOBIlearn.edu. doi:10. Volume 36 Issue 5.1016/j.org/p/32314). (2009). • Lee. ecs.htm).10. [2] "Mobile Learning Community" (http:/ / trainandgo. 28 September 2007. 3.. . Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning. The University of Sydney Symposium. org/ citation.002. com/ Resources/ Documents/ AmbientInsight_2008-2013_US_MobileLearning_Forecast_ExecutiveOverview. [13] The International Association for Mobile Learning (http:/ / mlearning.. 6. The MASIE Center. pp. "A review of podcasting in higher education: Its influence on the traditional lecture" (http://www. Retrieved June 8.2008. M. Bennett.com/Research-Articles/language-learning-by-ipod-an-emerging-model. "The design of personal mobile technologies for lifelong learning". (2000). L. masie. • Horkoff. [7] Sharples. • Tremblay. Understanding. K. Lonn. 2009. Chesapeake. VA: AACE. com/article/dn16624-itunes-university-better-than-the-real-thing. 29(2). "Low-key m-learning: a realistic introduction of m-learning to developing countries" (http:/ / www. Ng'ambi D. org/ archive [5] Mobile learning in practice:Piloting a mobile learning teachers’ toolkit in further education colleges.au/ajet/ajet25/mcgarr. pp. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning.C. . 217-227. Retrieved June 8. • Steven. doi:10. . noe-kaleidoscope. (2007). org/ ) Bibliography • Callaway.au/ pubs/procs/2007/08. "Using short podcasts to reinforce lectures" (http://science. Westcott. "Podcasting syndication services and university students: Why don't they subscribe?".. 5. "'iTunes university' better than the real thing" (http://www. Miller.iheduc.S. pdf). K.html).. M.org. . Wireless Coyote: A Computer-Supported Field Trip. Learning Consortium Perspectives. "The effect of mobile phone screen size on video based learning". cfm?id=155062) Wayne C.1016/S0360-1315(99)00044-5.2009. 171–175. Retrieved June 9. Portugal.uniserve. 2009. [11] Adkins.. 2010. J. [9] Masters. Communications of the ACM . pp. pdf). Learning in the Mobile Age. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 25 (3): 309–321. com/ 2010/ 01/ mobile-learning-in-cortina. (2008).06. S. Lisbon. "Educating the Mobile Generation – using personal cell phones as audience response systems in post-secondary science teaching" (http://www.pdf). (2009). blogspot.htm). . & Allan. pdf). . Grant. (2007). New Scientist.newscientist. hu/ mobil/ 2005/ Masters_final. • Clark. Teasley. Eric (2010). soton.1016/j.. 5–13. 2008.ascilite. Ambient Insight. Stephanie D. pp. pdf). Mobile Learning History. doi:10. May 1993. Hand. Computers & Education 34 (3-4): 177–193. (December 2008). ambientinsight.Special issue on technology in K–12 education. [8] Moore. fil. The Internet and Higher Education 12 (1): 53–59. E. html).Savill etc. "Podcasting in higher education: What are the implications for teaching and learning?"..editlib. Oliver (2009).iheduc. "The US Market for Mobile Learning Products and Services: 2008-2013 Forecast and Analysis" (http:/ / www.001. Hank. (2009). Seeing. [3] Wireless Coyote (http:/ / portal. W. Jonathan M. Ewen (18 February 2009). (1993). "A portable document search engine to support off-line mobile learning" (http:/ / eprints. mobilearn. N. [12] "Mobile Learning Update" (http:/ / masieweb. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching. org/ download/ results/ guidelines.

Over a smaller cell area. uk/ sitefinder/ glossary/ jargon/ ) External links • Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained (http://stakeholders. Matthew Broersma. ofcom. February 13. the business was sold to Marvell in 2006 for $600 million. org. html). Picocells are for areas even smaller than microcells.com/wireless/femto_small_cells. rooftops and other existing structures. a mall. The antennas for macrocells are mounted on ground-based masts. Intel's smart-phone "wireless Internet on a chip" is here (http:/ / www. wi-fitechnology.[1] After the chip's failure in the marketplace. It was a mostly unsuccessful attempt by Intel to break into the smart phones market.uk/sitefinder/glossary/jargon/) • White Paper: The Business Case for Metrocells (http://www. References [1] Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained (http:/ / stakeholders. com/ displayarticle19.alcatel-lucent. References [1] Manitoba. a microcell is used in a densely populated urban area. html) Manitoba (computer chip) Manitoba was a system-on-a-chip (SoC) introduced by Intel Corporation in 2003. a digital signal processor and an XScale processor core.ofcom.org. [1] Scale The term macrocell is used to describe the widest range of cell sizes. Macrocells are found in rural areas or along highways. at a height that provides a clear view over the surrounding buildings and terrain. or train station. macrocells provide coverage larger than microcell. . Currently the smallest area of coverage can be implemented with a femtocell: used in homes or small offices. Macrocell base stations have power outputs of typically tens of watts. An example of usage would be a large office. The chip integrated flash memory.Macrocell 141 Macrocell A macrocell is a cell in a mobile phone network that provides radio coverage served by a high power cellular base station (tower). CNet Asia. Generally. 2003.

GIP so that GSM networks could make use of it for microcellular access.[1] although AT&T calls its product. which provided access to a looser network (without handover). was provided with an interworking profile. Cell size flexibility is a feature of 2G (and later) networks and is a significant part of how such networks have been able to improve capacity.[2] A micro cellular network is a radio network composed of microcells. CT2's successor. only provide microcellular (and picocellular) coverage. Microcells are often deployed temporarily during sporting events and other occasions in which extra capacity is known to be needed at a specific location in advance.Microcell 142 Microcell A microcell is a cell in a mobile phone network served by a low power cellular base station (tower). CT2's limitations ensured the concept never took off. or a transportation hub.. cordless phone system where its low power profile ensures that nearby DECT systems do not interfere with each other. a hotel. . a picocell is 200 meters or less. such as train stations. including use as cordless phone systems. and creating more cells to help serve high density areas. and the ability of GSM to support microcells without using alternative technologies. notably PHS and DECT. PHS is deployed throughout major cities in Japan as an alternative to ordinary cellular service. Microcellular systems are typically used to provide low cost mobile phone systems in high-density environments such as large cities. covering a limited area such as a mall. and a femtocell is on the order of 10 meters. A microcell uses power control to limit the radius of its coverage area. Microcell/picocell-only networks Certain mobile phone systems. DECT. and DECT's use in general was limited to non-GSM private networks. microcells are usually used to add network capacity in areas with very dense phone usage. Power controls implemented on digital networks make it easier to prevent interference from nearby cells using the same frequencies. a "microcell". non-networked. a cellular network operator can optimize the use of spectrum and ensure capacity can grow. Typically the range of a microcell is less than two kilometers wide. DECT is used by many businesses to deploy private license-free microcellular networks within large campuses where wireline phone service is less useful. meant GIP was rarely used. with a range of 40 feet (12 m). but in practice the success of GSM within Europe. By subdividing cells. A microcell is usually larger than a picocell. A forerunner of these types of network was the CT2 cordless phone system. By comparison. Rationale Like picocells. again with base stations deployed in areas where large numbers of people might need to make calls. older analog systems have fixed limits beyond which attempts to subdivide cells simply would result in an unacceptable level of interference. DECT is also used as a private. though the distinction is not always clear.

att. com/ learn/ why/ 3gmicrocell/ faq.Associated Press (USA) APA . nokia.Polska Agencja Prasowa (Poland) PA .Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau (The Netherlands) AP .Ritzaus Bureau I/S (Denmark) SDA .Suomen Tietotoimisto (Finland) TM News (Italy) TT .Yonhap News (South Korea) MINDS’ Mission Statement: MINDS International is a global network and platform of equal news agencies sharing ideas and exchanging knowledge to put business concepts forward in order to raise revenues and save costs in digital markets.Deutsche Presse-Agentur (Germany) EFE . com/ ericsson/ press/ releases/ 20070209-1103860.Kyodo News (Japan) Lusa .Agencia EFE (Spain) Kyodo . com/ EUROPE_NOKIA_COM_3/ r2/ support/ tutorials/ 7200/ english/ glossary.Microcell 143 External links • Ericsson press release describing a GSM/UMTS picocell base station intended for residential use [3] • Nokia 7200 Tutorial including definition of "Micro Cellular Network" [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. jsp http:/ / www. MINDS International acts as a research and development unit for innovations in the field of digital information and communication solutions for the media industry and supports technology exchange between the agencies.Norsk Telegrambyrå (Norway) PAP .Russian News and Information Agency (Russia) Ritzau . MINDS International (Mobile Information and News Data Services) was founded as an Association in fall 2007 by 11 news agencies from Europe and the USA. com/ blog/ 2007/ 12/ do-we-really-need-femto-cells/ http:/ / www.Agência de Notícias de Portugal (Portugal) MTI . wireless.Agence Telegraphique Belge de Presse (Belgium) CTK . visionmobile.Česká tisková kancelář (Czech Republic) dpa .Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå AB (Sweden) Yonhap . shtml http:/ / www.Magyar Távirati Iroda (Hungary) NTB . . The MINDS network comprises the following agency partners: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • aap .Agence France-Presse (France) ANP .Austria Presse Agentur (Austria) Belga .australian associated press (Australia) AFP . html#2 MINDS Initiated as an EU-funded project in 2004.Schweizerische Depeschenagentur (Switzerland) STT . ericsson.Press Association (UK) RIA Novosti .

minds-international. com .MINDS 144 External links MINDS International website [1] References [1] http:/ / www.

backbonemag. me Mobify is a mobile web company providing an interface to convert existing websites into a version optimized for mobile phones. com/ Magazine/ 2010-04/ Top300-2010/ top-25-up-and-comers. Canada Employees Website 20 http:/ / www. References [1] Backbone Magazine Top 25 Up and Comers (http:/ / www. In May 2010. aspx) External links • Mobify corporate site (http://mobify. Mobify was named one of the “Top 25 Up and Comers”[1] in Backbone Magazine’s annual ranking of Canadian technology companies.Mobify 145 Mobify Mobify Type Industry Founded Mobile publishing & m-commerce Wireless 2007 Headquarters Vancouver.com) . mobify.

A conformance test definition is outside the scope of this standard. This interface gives access to and defines network layer procedures for call set-up and data transfer as specified in MPT 1327 and MPT 1343 or derivations thereof. Member commitments Members of the Alliance agree to. the Alliance seeks to create significant barriers to the misuse of mobile networks and services for hosting. Through a combination of technical measures. the growth of non approved content around the world. to participate in the Alliance. · implement notice and take down processes to enable the removal of any child sexual abuse content posted on their own services · implement technical mechanisms to prevent access to websites identified by an appropriate agency as hosting child sexual abuse content The Alliance encourages all mobile operators worldwide. accessing. there is a danger that broadband networks now being rolled out by mobile operators could be misused in the same way. Goal of the Alliance The Alliance’s ultimate aim is to help stem. among other measures: · support and promote ‘hotlines’ or other mechanisms for customers to report child sexual abuse content discovered on the Internet or on mobile content services. co-operation and information sharing. or profiting from not approved content. Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content The Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content was founded in 2008 by an international group of mobile operators within the GSM Association [1] to work collectively on obstructing the use of the mobile environment by individuals or organisations wishing to consume or profit from child sexual abuse content. Founding members The founding members of the Mobile Alliance were: • • • • • • • • • GSMA Hutchison 3G Europe mobilkom austria Orange FT Group Telecom Italia Telefonica/02 Telenor Group TeliaSonera T-Mobile Group . While the vast majority of child sexual abuse content (child pornography) is today accessed through conventional connections to the Internet. and ultimately reverse. regardless of access technology.Mobile Access Protocol 146 Mobile Access Protocol MAP27 Mobile Access Protocol for MPT 1327 equipment This standard specifies an interface between a mobile radio and a data terminal equipment.

GPRS. There is a lack of common industry view on architectural framework. This increases costs and slows down 3rd party mobile development. The applications layer to be bearer agnostic (examples: GSM. • Secure – Encryption is important. transmission protocols must support encryption (SSL) via secure transit such as HTTPS • Reliable – Reliability is always important in all technologies and Mobile Architecture is no different Best Practices • • • • Data should be populated for database views Use version numbers to track updates during synchronization Maintain only necessary user details in middle ware The application should recognize when CPU battery is low and adjust background running to low to extend battery power • UI on multiple screens should have common elements[2] Future of Mobile Architecture A consortium of companies are pushing for products and services to be based on open. mobile architecture is the pieces of technology needed to create a rich. Important Components of a Mobile Architecture • Scalability – A Mobile Architecture must be able to be utilized with all recovery requirements on both large and small scale. seamless geographic and intergenerational roaming. . CDMA. UMTS). shtml) Mobile Architecture In the past computers needed to be disconnected from their internal network if they needed to be taken or moved anywhere. protocols and interfaces and are not locked to proprietary technologies. Currently there is a lack of uniform interoperability plans and implementation. Each day the number of mobile devices is increasing. Mobile architecture allows maintaining this connection whilst during transit[1] .GSMA Selects LG Handsets to Lead ‘Horizon Phone’ Campaign (http:/ / www. There will be support for interoperability of applications and platforms. com/ news/ press_2008/ press08_09. EDGE. global standards.Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content • Vodafone Group • dotMobi 147 References [1] GSMA Press Release 2008 . connected user experience. An open approach is required across all industries to achieve same end results and services. The architecture framework and service enablers will be independent of Operating Systems (OS). gsmworld.

Thornton and Houser (2002. com/ pdf/ Journal14. They also developed a course management system. P. United Kingdom’s Open University used voice recorders and mini-camcorders to record interviews with other students and locals and to create audiovisual tours in distance-learning German and Spanish course (Kukulska-Hulme. Crawley [2] Best Practices: Extending Enterprise Applications to Mobile Devices (http:/ / www. adapt.architecture. Vanderdijs. 2005). 2005). University of Wisconsin–Madison. MP3 and MP4 players. Amongst the pilot courses utilizing the players were several language courses.(transform. PDAs and devices such as the iPhone or iPad. MALL has evolved to support students’ language learning with the increased use of mobile technologies such as mobile phones (cellphones). S. Bukhres. html) (1997) O. C. anywhere. • 2001). edu/ bukhres97proposed. students are able to access language learning materials and to communicate with their teachers and peers at any time. ist.[1] [2] MALL is a subset of both Mobile Learning (m-learning) and Computer-assisted language learning (CALL). pdf) (1997) The Architecture Journal : Journal 14 Kulathumani Hariharan Also: Mobile Architecture . msarchitecturejournal. psu. 2005). to facilitate deploying language learning material to mobile phones. With MALL. a tipe of building or building components. Morton. E. developed several foreign language courses which have used wireless handheld computers for various classroom activities (Samuels. The Open University also recently used mobile phones for language learning[4] • • • • • A project in Ireland used MALL for Irish Language learning and assessment [5] [6] • The Le@rning Federation (TLF) used MALL for Indonesian Language learning across three states[7] [8] . Collier. Duke University provided all incoming freshmen with free iPods equipped with voice recorders. 1990s • Instructors at Brigham Young University-Hawaii taught a distance education English course from Hawaii to Tonga via telephone and computer (Green. 2005) developed several innovative projects using mobile phones to teach English at a Japanese university.Mobile Architecture 148 References [1] A Proposed Mobile Architecture for Distributed Database Environment (http:/ / citeseer. which utilized both their listening and recording capabilities (Belanger. 2001) 2000s • Dickey (2001) utilized teleconferencing to teach an English conversation course to students in South Korea. Zhang. • Stanford University learning lab used integrated mobile phones in a Spanish learning program in 2001 (Brown. City College Southampton [3] developed a web based “media board” (similar to a web-board but supporting Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) as well as Short Message Service (SMS) and supplied learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) with mobile phones with inbuilt cameras and voice recording facilities (JISC. interact) Mobile Assisted Language Learning Definition Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) describes an approach to language learning that is assisted or enhanced through the use of a handheld mobile device. & Evans. 2003). 2003. move. Poodle. History 1980s • Twarog and Pereszlenyi Pinter used telephones to provide distant language learners with feedback and assistance.

MALL designers have begun to move away from merely copying the traditions of standard non-mobile language learning and are implementing techniques that maximize the benefits of these new devices.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • The first mobile phone language learning service. iPods. http://www. and achieve. What mobile devices lack in capability (regarding sound and video quality and screen size) they make up for in portability. connect. we can expect mobile devices to deliver better quality than is currently available among most mobile devices. flexible and collaborative learning strategies. Additionally. media-rich. Some of the resources for MALL are primarily language learning websites with some space dedicated to technology in language learning. hand-held computers. as it relates to academia. from very-short tutorials to full courses. industry. http://www.com opens for business in English providing lessons in Italian.uk/ • SALT conference include sessions on learning languages over mobile phones • Mobile Learning Global Consortium – This LinkedIn group serves as a collaborative forum for the ways and methods being used to push the envelope beyond the cutting edge of mobility. demand and the advent of content generation tools that simplify the programming process through the use of templates and macros. due largely to a combination of increased popularity. government. the time necessary for formal.linkedin. (Search for the group at http://www. Through mobile participation in short exercises and tasks. The number of people capable of producing MALL content is also on the rise. Their conference is the international signature event for learning using mobile or ubiquitous technologies. Predicted growth is reinforced by the overall decrease in free time. tablet PCs. however.com) . learners are able to keep their linguistic talents sharp while reducing the risk of degradation of valuable knowledge. handheldlearning.language2yourphone. The increasing number of possible delivery tools has spawned a wide-range of mobile language learning programs. MALL Professional Organizations At the writing of this article. due to the growth of wireless and emerging technologies.co. German and French. Other resources are primarily educational technology websites that dedicate some of their efforts to language learning. With people working longer hours. and the mass consumer market. In the future. providing 60 text message (SMS) lessons for €9. MALL currently serves not only as a primary source of language education for students but also supports the retention and utilization of newly-acquired language skills—however they were acquired. PDAs. Smartphones and more. which help people learn. MALL is available through numerous devices including mobile phones. MALL will be an ideal solution to busy students and professionals seeking to acquire one or more new languages. 149 Current Trends Today. changes in the cost and availability of wireless service—a luxury to most in the not-too-distant past—will make MALL available to a far wider and diverse audience. it is difficult to find organizations that focus specifically on Mobile Assisted Language Learning. The Future of MALL Consensus among the limited literature and studies available specifically about MALL indicate that the demand for it will only increase—along with the demand for second language acquisition and learning flexibility. MP3 players. traditional classroom-based or even standard online courses will decrease. skills and abilities. It is expected that designers will capitalize on this increase in quality—designing MALL programs that employ student-focused. Spanish. • Handheld Learning – Promotes learning with mobile or ubiquitous technologies.

Handheld delivery also affords new dynamics for collaborative learning as users can share the language learning process in small synchronous groups (Nah. [9] Collaborative learning is a student-centered approach to learning where the instructor is more like a facilitator than a teacher. skills or attitudes occurring in individuals as a result of group interaction. and for researchers to be acquainted with the market needs related to mobile learning. palm pilots or laptops.Wireless.htm 150 Collaborative Learning in MALL Collaborative learning is the acquisition of knowledge.org/index. In each instance learning can take place but the phones serve only as the delivery method for that information. The university provided a new tool for the students. Kloper et al.wmute2008. be they phones. et al. A language can be learned through collaborative learning with the use of mobile devices But mobile devices don’t actually drive the learning. The devices. learners do. The effectiveness of collaborating varies on the project and mobile device. Duke University's use of iPods in 2004 is an example of using collaborative learning in MALL. Because the collaborative learning is student-centered it often succeeds in engaging the learner. In the same way. • Context sensitivity-mobile devices can both gather and respond to real or simulated data unique to the current location. Collaborating on mobile devices is dependent on the device. 2008). Some of these affordances are even unique to m-learning compared to regular e-learning. • A tablet PC or a PDA can allow learners to collaborate on documents while at different locations. Among the most noted affordances for MALL is ubiquitous access to learning anytime at any place that the user has reception. environment and time. http://www. WMUTE provides opportunity for communication among local and international researchers. The following are examples of collaborative learning using mobile devices: • Collaboration on a mobile phone can be achieved by asynchronous text messaging and instant messaging or a phone conversation. downloading podcasts. store and listen to songs in the language they were learning. Compared to classroom or e-learning. (2002) claimed 5 properties of mobile devices which can produce unique educational affordances: • Portability-the small size and weight of mobile devices means they can be taken to different sites or moved around within a site. particularly those taking a language course. • Social interactivity-data exchange and collaboration with other learners can happen face-to-face. The students in language courses used the iPods in various ways. the user does not need to be sitting in a classroom or at a computer to access learning materials. This enables users to brush up on language skills just before or just after a conversation in the language they are learning. Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • WMUTE . The students also used the iPods to record conversations in the language they were learning. like a pencil or calculator. and make information about learning activities portable and easily accessible. are used as tools. find information from multiple sources to build ideas with partners. to accentuate or aid the learning process. there are some constraints to m-learning that limit what can be done in language acquisition through m-learning compared to traditional e-learning or classroom learning. . Unlike other techniques collaborative learning encourages all involved to help support and motivate each other to achieve the learning goal. The students would record themselves completing an oral assignment and the tutors provided feedback on their assignment. Affordances and Constraints Enhancing language learning through MALL affords some dynamics not available through the traditional classroom that the language learner can take advantage of. including working collaboratively with language tutors.

2) JCAL .International Journal on e-Learning http:/ / www." Routledge. Klopfer. 2005 vol.earning program (pp. Language Learning & Technology . & Evans.pdf BJET . Multimedia learning with mobile phones." Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education. 71–82).scaffolding for difficult activities can be customized for individual learners. Vaxjo.International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning http:/ / www. drawing on course-level feedback. H. jisc. Innovative Practices with Elearning. (Ed. blackwellpublishing.msu.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • Connectivity-a shared network can be created by connecting mobile devices to data collection devices.E.2005. other devices or to a common network. edu/ pdf/ipod_initiative_04_05. E. Traxler.pdf [BOOK] Klopfer. "Teaching tomorrow's class today:English by telephone and computer from Hawaii to Tonga. blackwellpublishing. resources that focus specifically on Mobile Assisted Language Learning are not common (check Augmented Reality Language Learning).A. edu/ projects/ tomprof/newtomprof/postings/290. com/ journal. having functions and capacities similar to laptop computers (Nah. Y. "Environmental Detectives: PDAs as a window into a virtual simulated world. asp?ref=0007-1013 (2008 vol. K and Jenkins. Case studies: Anytime. et al." In L. This evaluation focused on the feasibility and effectiveness of the iPod as a tool for faculty and student academic use. uk/ uploaded_documents/ southampton.Joint Information Systems Committee." MIT Press. and discussions and feedback among staff. asp?ref=0266-4909&site=1 (2003 vol. http:/ / cit.edu/ [REPORT] Menzies. aace. Inc. Belanger. "Augmented Learning: Research and Design of Mobile Educational Games. 2008)." Duke's University Center for Instructional Technology coordinated an evaluation of the academic use of iPod. 2008. • Individuality. Distance-."http:/ / sll. Henrichsen (Ed. duke. Alexandria.Language Learning & Technology is a refereed journal which began publication in July 1997..) "Mobile learning explorations at Stanford Learning Lab.. "Duke University iPod First-Year Experience.). 19. irrodl. K. The most notable constraints for earlier MALL include poor sound and display quality coupled with very limited devices and download speeds. Eric. stanford. N. "Duke University iPod first year experience final evaluation report". 2005 http:/ / www. The journal seeks to disseminate research to foreign and second language educators in the US and around the world on issues related to technology and language education.British Journal of Educational Technology http:/ / www. Newer integrated PDA devices have narrowed the gap with higher access speeds. org/ pubs/ IJEL/ (Specific volumes dedicated to m-learning) IRRODL .Journal of Computer Assisted Learning http:/ / www.html2001 [13] [12] [11] [10] Green. http://llt. No. 151 MALL Resources As with Professional Organizations. David. E. John. 21) JISC . 39) Brown. Squire. 95-98 2002 [20] [19] [18] [17] [16] [15] [14] [BOOK] Kululska-Hulme. 2001 IJEL .J. student and faculty focus groups. 8. This report summarizes the main findings of [21] [22] . "Mobile Learning: A Handbook For Educators and Trainers (The Open and Flexible Learning Series). any place Learning. administrators and important campus stakeholder groups. 2005. ac. com/ journal. We more often find resources that are primarily language learning websites with some space dedicated to technology in language learning and vice-versa. larger screens. Sweden: IEEE Computer Society.Collier. org/ (2007 Vol. B. a broad survey of first-year students and faculty. Agnes. VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Language.

"Using mobile phones in English Education in Japan. Directions in CALL: Experience. uk/ innoprac/ learner/ southampton. Madison.au/confs/2002/stacey... 2005 Nah. 217-228. ac.org. "Wireless and handheld devices for language learning. P. com/ blog/ index. & Houser. msu. 1: 9-16. 3: 2008) on Mobile Assisted Language Learning: http:/ / www. & Pereszlenyi-Pinter. html [4] http:/ / openuniuk. html#sep08 [3] http:/ / www. (2006) "Going to the MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning". uwex. L. Proceedings ASET Conference 2002." In S.. eurocall-languages. "Telephone-assisted language study and Ohio University: A report. you can enter “language learning” as an exact phrase and turn up some resources specific to MALL. Language Learning & Technology 10. 2006 [26] [27] Thornton. C.). edu/ vol10num1/ emerging/ default. (2008). edublogs. C. http:/ / www. P. http:/ / connect. Australia. Peter." The Modern Language Journal.pdf [9] [25] [24] Stacey.. & Houser. 7-10 July. "M-learning in transit.org/recall/index. White. learnosity. com/ go/ client-ncca-ireland/ Learnosity Voice with Irish language learners [7] http:/ / thelearningfederation. org/ NCCA MALL/ FÓN Project [6] http:/ / www. 2003. html [2] Shield L. com/ Open University Mobile Phone based language learning [5] http:/ / foghlaim." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 2002 Thornton. 20 (3): 331-347 2008 http:/ / www. html [8] http:/ / www. C. http://mlearnopedia.). David S.html [31] [30] Askraba. cfm/ tlf The Le@rning Federation (TLF) MALL Project [9] 17 [10] 1 [11] 2 [12] 3 [13] 4 [14] 5 [15] 6 [16] 7 [17] 8 [18] 9 [19] 10 . P. McNamara and E. MNetComp Thesis. WI. org/ recall/ r_contents. 2006 mLearnopedia – By using the “search” function. C. 207–224). 229–243). Motteram (Eds. Roland. Lewis (Ed. Morrison. M. & G. 72." HRD Press.aset. E. elearning. Mobile Assisted Language Learning and its Impact on Student Motivation and Acquisition." In P.com/ Samuels." ReCALL. 426-434. " In B. "Learning links online: Establishing constructivist and collaborative learning environments. & Houser. edu/ disted/ conference/ Resource_library/proceedings/03_50. The changing face of CALL(pp. Stacey (Eds). "The Potential of Using mobile Phone to Access the Internet for Learning EFL Listening Skills Within a Korean Context. "mLearning: Mobile Learning and Performance in the Palm of Your Hand. edu. V. and Sussex. Monash University.monashmall. (eds. Melbourne. eurocall-languages. learnosity. Untangling the Web: Establishing Learning Links. 2003 [29] [28] Thornton.) (2008) Special edition of ReCALL (20. learnosity. [Online]: http:/ / llt. edu/ Library/ Abstract/ DukeUniversityiPodFirstYe/ 36325 [23] 152 [BOOK] Metcalf. Green. Ki-Chune.net References [1] Chinnery G. J. http://www. "Using mobile web and video phones in English language teaching: Projects with Japanese college students.html Twarong. au/ for_jurisdictions/ research_and_trials/ research2009." Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning. experiments & evaluation (pp. 21. (2002). http://www.Mobile Assisted Language Learning this collaborative assessment effort. educause. & Kukulska-Hulme A.

[5] healthcare.[8] Mobile collaboration allows multiple users in multiple locations the ability to synergistically combine their input while working towards the resolution of problems or issues in today’s complex work environments. the use of mobile collaboration technology extends to industries as diverse as manufacturing. and virtually every smart phone will be equipped with video chat. and other UC features within a few years. collaboration tools. permitting true mobile collaborative possibilities. Forecasts Cisco Systems predicts “two-thirds of the world’s mobile data traffic will be video by 2015.”[3] Impact on industry To date. conferencing and telepresence systems. audio. IM. Newest generation hand-held electronic devices feature video. recent technological advancements have extended the capabilities of video conferencing for use with discreet. mobile collaboration utilizes wireless. offices. and mobility. Differing from traditional video conferencing.”[2] The Unified Communications Interoperability Forum (UCIF).[4] energy.[9] .[1] Scope The scope of mobile collaboration takes into account a number of elements that continue to evolve in their sophistication and complexity: video. transmission technologies. Where traditional video conferencing has been limited to boardrooms. cellular and broadband technologies enabling effective collaboration independent of location. This can be done in real time with advanced video.[6] insurance. directory. No segment is growing faster than mobile communications. and lecture theatres. hand-held mobile devices.[7] government and public safety. comparable to working together in the same room but without the associated expense and downtime typically involved in getting the experts to remote locations. audio and telestration capabilities. audio and telestrator capabilities. and telestration (on-screen drawing) capabilities broadcast over secure networks. a non-profit alliance of technology vendors states that “one important driver for the growth of UC (unified communications) is mobility and the remote worker. enabling multi-party conferencing in real time.Mobile Assisted Language Learning [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 153 Mobile collaboration Mobile collaboration is a technology-based process of communicating utilizing electronic assets and accompanying software designed for use in remote locations.

[10] The flexibility of hand-held mobile collaboration devices allow real-time communication to take place at any location where products are being designed. "Virtually On-sight" (http:/ / www. "TelePresence in Manufacturing: IP-based video conferencing provides effective tools for remote collaboration" (http:/ / www. downloadic.[11] Energy Companies in the energy sector face unique challenges due to. safety audits. aspx?aid=1000228332). harsh environment of an offshore oil rig.[12] Healthcare Although telemedicine technology has been in use for a number of years in the healthcare sector. com/ pdf/ EnergyManufacturing2010. UCIForum White Paper. 2011. Robert and Crumb. pdf). Cindy (December 2008). Automation and Control – Design News. Homeschooling could really benifit from this technology as you participate in a lecture from anywhere in the world. aspx). as well as the often inadequacies or absence of necessary transmission networks. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. and customers the world over. com/ featured-articles-body-TelePresence-in-Manufacturing-523-1. [7] Macdonald. have meant that companies need to communicate with employees. Alex (March 9. Internet schools. . suppliers. 22. From one on one tutoring to large classes it has many uses. html). html). or a patient’s home. 2011. maintenance. "Being in Two Places At One Time" (http:/ / www. Corey (March/April 2009). . [2] "CISCO Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update. pp. for example. as well as IT/communication infrastructure troubleshooting. built. pp. Anil (2010). Al (December 2010). 4. pdf). .[14] References [1] Herrell. The use of mobile collaboration technology within the heathcare sector has the potential to improve the quality and access to care. 2010-2015" (http:/ / www. [5] Wadhwa. Bodyshop. . The use of mobile collaboration in the energy sector is enabling companies to conduct remote inspections. with Whitely. supply chain management and equipment field service. Elizabeth. Recent advancements in mobile collaboration technology and transmission networks are making it possible for employees in these situations to collaborate in secure and reliable ways with colleagues thousands of miles away. . Energy Manufacturing. cisco. Forrester Research White Paper. com/ issues/ story. ucif. allitwares. repair and overhaul work. justforcanadiandoctors. . librestream. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. Just for Canadian Doctors. 2010). [4] Presher. . [3] "UC: Driving the Next Step to Interoperability" (http:/ / www. and assess patient issues. the vast distances between a head office and the remote. html).Mobile collaboration 154 Manufacturing Manufacturers of all kinds use mobile collaboration technology in a number of ways. [6] Van’t Haaff. com/ en/ US/ solutions/ collateral/ ns341/ ns525/ ns537/ ns705/ ns827/ white_paper_c11-520862. org/ Resources/ whitepapers. bodyshopbiz. February 1. long-term care facility. discuss. such as an automotive assembly plant a continent away. will most certainly also benifit from this development in mobile education. . Healthcare professionals in multiple locations can together view. Though these methods are not widely used they are quite useful and most likely will become widely popular. com/ pastissues/ JFCD2009/ JFCD-Mar-Apr2009. "Estimating from a distance now possible" (http:/ / www. Recent trends in globalization and outsourcing in particular. inluding higher education.[13] Education Mobile callaboration technology might also be used for remote education. CISCO White Paper. mobile collaboration technology extends these capabilities to locations now reachable through the use of hand-held devices such as a remote community. Most useful you can record your classes or lectures and review them. while making its delivery more cost-effective. and inspected. Improved communication through mobile collaboration affects many aspects of complex manufacturing such as production line maintenance.

ph/ money/ ) in the Philippines. Renee (May 28. pdf). 2009). [14] "Mobile Collaboration Tool for University Education" (http:/ / www. com/ index. Norway launched mobile parking payments. com/ trends/ article. Government Purchasing Guide. which is initiated and/or completed by using mobile access to computer-mediated networks with the help of an electronic device. 2003. Robert and Crumb. The first book to cover mobile commerce was Tomi Ahonen's M-profits in 2002." (http:/ / www. The first university short course to discuss mobile commerce was held at the University of Oxford in 2003. html). . Mobile Commerce has been defined as follows: "Mobile Commerce is any transaction. [13] Saunders. Motorola. IEEE Computer Society. also using SMS. December 3. librestream. Daniel. The first conference dedicated to mobile commerce was held in London in July 2001. such as a mobile phone. com/ issues/ story. 2003. Japan offered mobile purchases of airline tickets.Mobile collaboration [8] Blackwell. and Qualcomm are working with carriers such as AT&T Wireless and Sprint to develop WAP-enabled . . with Tomi Ahonen and Steve Jones lecturing. Bentley demonstrated the potential for medical applications on mobile devices. Peter (October 8. Forrester Research White Paper. . Gerry (March 25. Elizabeth. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. In order to exploit the potential mobile commerce market. pdf). com/ Brochures/ PR/ DreamlinerUseofMobile Video. or other emerging mobile equipment such as dashtop mobile devices. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. downloadic. computer.[2] PDAs and cellular phones have become so popular that many businesses are beginning to use mobile commerce as a more efficient way to communicate with their customers. Mobile commerce was born in 1997 when the first two mobile-phone enabled Coca Cola vending machines were installed in the Helsinki area in Finland. As of 2008. . Ericsson. Two major national commercial platforms for mobile commerce were launched in 1999: Smart Money (http:/ / smart. 2010). 2010). the first sales of digital content as downloads to mobile phones were made possible when the first commercial downloadable ringtones were launched in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj). [9] Herrell. aspx?aid=1000395046). com. Austria offered train ticketing via mobile device. a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). . . "Case Study: Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre. and returned 91 percent to the content owner. [10] Michaels. mobile phone manufacturers such as Nokia. controleng. Surgeons Using Wireless Mobile Communications in a New Assessment and Support System. newtechmagazine. is the ability to conduct commerce using a mobile device. and NTT DoCoMo's i-Mode Internet service in Japan. esecurityplanet. . Alex (March 9. In 1998. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. e-security Planet. org/ portal/ web/ csdl/ doi/ 10. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). with Whitely. Peter (November 2009). com/ Brochures/ PR/ GovernmentPurchasing. Control Engineering. Mobile-commerce-related services spread rapidly in early 2000. 1109/ WETICE. i-Mode offered a revolutionary revenue-sharing plan where NTT DoCoMo kept 9 percent of the fee users paid for content."[1] History First thought up by Matt Wilson. "Secure Wi-Fi Video on the Battlefield" (http:/ / www. "Dreamliner Production Gets Closer Monitoring" (http:/ / www. [12] "RigNet Signs Deal with Librestream for Onsight Mobile Collaboration System" (http:/ / www. a smartphone. UCL Computer Science and Peter J. The Wall Street Journal. The first mobile phone-based banking service was launched in 1997 by Merita Bank of Finland. [11] Robbins. also known as M-Commerce or mCommerce. involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services. librestream. 2010. htm). php/ 3872836/ Secure-Wi-Fi-Video-On-The-Battlefield. 2009). Sanders. 155 Mobile commerce Mobile Commerce. The machines accepted payment via SMS text messages. 10002). New Technology Magazine.

Smartphones offer fax. and phone capabilities. wallpapers. Knowing the location of the user allows for location-based services such • Local discount offers • Local weather • Tracking and monitoring of people . e-mail. as well as more open to premium mobile content and applications. Since the launch of the iPhone. improvements in the capabilities of modern mobile devices make it prudent to place more of the resource burden on the mobile device. and is being utilized by physical retailers as a way to compete with the lower prices typically seen through online retailers. even though it is widely available and accessible. have made an effort to take advantage of mobile commerce by utilizing a number of mobile capabilities such as location based services. coupons and loyalty cards Mobile ticketing technology can also be used for the distribution of vouchers. and loyalty cards. Perennial early adopters. This is seen as a bridge between the gap created by e-commerce and in-store shopping. In addition." said Burchett. By creating what is referred to as a 'bricks & clicks' environment. Location-based services The location of the mobile phone user is an important piece of information used during mobile commerce transactions. coupons. and coupons) while still shopping in the physical store. barcode scanning. such as the youth market. and push notifications to improve the customer experience of shopping in physical stores. mobile content purchase and delivery mainly consists of the sale of ring-tones. Users are then able to use their tickets immediately. which are the least price sensitive. or by accessing the WAP portals of various travel agents or direct service providers. and big-box retailers in particular. Mobile vouchers. A customer presenting a mobile phone with one of these tokens at the point of sale receives the same benefits as if they had the traditional token. These items are represented by a virtual token that is sent to the mobile phone. by presenting their phones at the venue. portable audio players. SMS has significant security vulnerabilities and congestion problems. Content purchase and delivery Currently. Tickets can be booked and cancelled on the mobile device with the help of simple application downloads. "Profitability for device vendors and carriers hinges on high-end mobile devices and the accompanying killer applications. The convergence of mobile phones. mobile commerce has moved away from SMS systems and into actual applications. 156 Products and services available Mobile ticketing Tickets can be sent to mobile phones using a variety of technologies. brick and mortar business owners. information. Stores may send coupons to customers using location-based services to determine when the customer is nearby. physical retailers can allow customers to access the common benefits of shopping online (such as product reviews. must also be a key target for device vendors. and video players into a single device is increasing the purchase and delivery of full-length music tracks and video. and games for mobile phones.Mobile commerce smartphones. The download speeds available with 4G networks make it possible to buy a movie on a mobile device in a couple of seconds. More recently.

rather than mailing a paper catalog to the customer. In some cases. The research firm is predicting that in 2015. however. Mobile Browsing Using a mobile browser—a World Wide Web browser on a mobile device—customers can shop online without having to be at their personal computer. $119bn worth of goods and services will be purchased via a mobile phone. Mobile StoreFront The reinvention of the mobile phone as a touch sensitive handheld computer has for the first time made mobile commerce practically feasible. Unlike traditional auctions. Mobile Purchase Catalog merchants can accept orders from customers electronically. the reverse auction (or low-bid auction) bills the consumer's phone each time they place a bid. or M-Banking. Mobile banking Banks and other financial institutions use mobile commerce to allow their customers to access account information and make transactions. 'According to ABI Research. based on a user's actual travel patterns. the merchant may even deliver the catalog electronically. This service is often referred to as Mobile Banking. Some merchants provide mobile websites that are customized for the smaller screen and limited user interface of a mobile device. reverse auctions offer a high return for the mobile vendor as they require the consumer to make multiple transactions over a long period of time. remitting money. can be sent to a mobile device.Mobile commerce 157 Information services A wide variety of information services can be delivered to mobile phone users in much the same way as it is delivered to PCs. such as purchasing stocks. Auctions Over the past three years mobile reverse auction solutions have grown in popularity. These services include: • • • • • News Stock quotes Sports scores Financial records Traffic reporting Customized traffic information.' Mobile brokerage Stock market services offered via mobile devices have also become more popular and are known as Mobile Brokerage. They allow the subscriber to react to market developments in a timely fashion and irrespective of their physical location. Many mobile SMS commerce solutions rely on a one-time purchase or one-time subscription. This customized data is more useful than a generic traffic-report broadcast. . via the customer's mobile device. but was impractical before the invention of modern mobile devices due to the bandwidth requirements. mobile is going to get a lot bigger in the ecommerce market.

South Korea. was used to attract and retain an audience." said Gibran Burchett. based on their experience with previous generations of South Koreans.. On a 2007 trip to South Korea. Which then brings us to Casual Collapse: the ongoing demise of many beliefs. New technologies.-). mobile marketing refers to marketing sent to mobile devices. rituals. Early pioneers in mobile advertising include Vodafone. adding tera-peta bytes of new text. From women's rights to gay marriage to not wearing a tie to work if you don't feel like it!ref>"Increasing Trend of Mobile Marketing" [3]. which continue to 'collapse' without causing the apocalyptic aftermath often predicted by conservative minds. The two main drivers fuelling this trend? (1) The creative urges each consumer undeniably possesses. This demonstrated how the global youth mobile market can react autonomously and create trends. Casual Collapse. and Japan involving viral mobile direct-marketing campaigns delivering products and coupons with instant savings to mobile devices. audio and video on an ongoing basis. images. The control group was not given such a list This experiment measured the rate at which ideas and phrases were typically transmitted. Rolando created a Venn-diagram model of rapidly evolving youth lifestyle trends. It also showed how products take on new life because of the mindset of the young. John Sokol and Gibran Burchett are memetic researchers who pioneered mobile advertising with their early experimentation of DVB-H in 1999 with Sony BMG recording artist Wu-Tang Clan. and Celebrity. if not artists! (Notice we didn't mean talented artists . the link with GENERATION C is obvious.com defined Content Generation a description of those born of the digital age of content and how their brains were re wired to think in real time content exchange. Mobile companies in South Korea believed that mobile technology would become synonymous with youth life style. The experiments used disc jockeys and mobile youth street teams to drive instant purchases of event-ticket sales.Mobile commerce 158 Mobile marketing and advertising In the context of mobile commerce.</ref> Influence on youth markets Mobile media is a rapidly changing field. and the sales of three different viable youth products to over 200. These studies were commissioned by top mobile providers like Deutsche Telekom (operator of T-Mobile) and Orange. Rolando conducted other experiments in Europe.. Companies have reported that they see better response from mobile marketing campaigns than from traditional campaigns. Youpark ApS.000 end-users in eight days. The Term is now globally The GENERATION C phenomenon captures the an avalanche of consumer generated 'content' that is building on the Web. who tend to be early adopters of any form of social technology services. Youpark. Memetic research Leveious Rolando. One group of subjects were given words and phrases to be used regularly in conversation. combined with the rate at which the test subjects passed on particular information to others. Mobile devices are heavily used in South Korea to conduct mobile commerce. formal requirements and laws modern societies have held dear. We're all artists. Leveious and others members of Trendwatching. Rolando and his colleagues performed an experiment in which viral marketing. Mobile campaigns must be based on the global Content Generationor what is called Generation C and four other 'C's: Creativity. in the form of mobile commercials (or "mobisodes"). These researchers. such as WiMax. but until now we neither had . we're all creatives. in partnership with leading mobile software and network providers. The two tested a theory of rapid memetic dissemination. along with others. "Profitability for device vendors and carriers hinges on high-end mobile devices and the accompanying killer applications. A brief introduction. 2010. developed methods deployed globally through concerts and events involving any form of youth culture in 2008. They observed the youth cultural styles and trends. act to accelerate innovation in mobile commerce. Creativity: let's face it. The diagram explained vital aspects of mobile adoption and sales of mobile global products and services. Orange. Retrieved August 23. and SK Telecom. And as creativity normally leads to content. Control.

edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10. psu. Stephan. 2010. php?p=21 • Tiwari. peterjbentley. Retrieved August 23. to produce.50 External links • Greene.net/techmon/06sep_oct/tm/pdf/06sep_oct_sf4. Mobile Commerce News. . Cornelius (Sept-Oct 2006). and to participate. "Effective Optimization of Web Sites for Mobile Access: the transition from eCommerce to mCommerce" (http://jiad.of course -. Rajnish. Retrieved August 23. to listen. "From electronic to mobile commerce: opportunites through technology convergence for business services" (http://www. Retrieved November 23. 46& rep=rep1& type=pdf& ei=r_pxTPS7IYOBlAfWz4yJDg& usg=AFQjCNFiJARcpjsvcpZg5lzSoaXsgik8Mw) (PDF). html). Rory (2008). Buse. R. who relentlessly push us to unleash that creativity. 1. 159 Payment methods Consumers can use many forms of payment in mobile commerce.their ever cheaper. including deductions to pre-paid calling plans • Credit cards • Some providers allow credit cards to be linked to a phone's SIM card • Micropayment services • Stored-value cards. 33.pdf) (PDF). . Steve (Fall 2008). S.php?option=com_content&view=category& layout=blog&id=1&Itemid=50). com/ blog/ index. com/ Blog/ ?e=53483& d=08/ 29/ 2010& s=iStethoscope Pro in a medical journal). "New arena service testing delivery to your seat" (http://www. to passively consume. Asia Pacific Tech Monitor (New Delhi (India) 23 (5): 38–45. Journal of Interactive Advertising 9 (1): 65–70. Timpson. [3] http:/ / youpark. (2007). Buse. • "Mobile Storefront" (http://www. 1. often used with mobile-device application stores or music stores References [1] Tiwari. com/ url?sa=t& source=web& cd=1& ved=0CBkQFjAA& url=http:/ / citeseerx. 94. ISSN 1525-2019. which apply charges to the consumer's long-distance bill • Charges added to the consumer's mobile telephone bill.thefango. using -.thefango.techmonitor. • (http://www. ever more powerful gadgets and gizmos. Instead of asking consumers to watch.global-innovation. Herstatt. . Jim (2008). Kentucky Kernel. to play. 2010. "Concessions one button away" (http://www.. 2010. • Jordan. 2010. The Mobile Commerce Prospects: A strategic analysis of opportunities in the banking sector (http:/ / www.com/hot-news.com/hot-news. ISBN 978-3-937816-31-9. Hamburg: Hamburg University Press. [2] "iStethoscope in Medical Journal" (http:/ / apps.html).org/article111).Mobile commerce the guts nor the means to go all out. the race is on to get them to create. ist. including: • Premium-rate telephone numbers'. p.net/ publications/PDF/APTM2006. Retrieved August 23. Marci. (2) The manufacturers of content-creating tools.mobilestarterstore. Herald Leader. google.pdf) • Troutman.com/index.

. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. such as printers. price information or distance travelled. things to be considered are: • • • • Users are not attached to a fixed geographical location Mobile computing devices: low-power. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. • Limited life of power supply(battery) • The changing topology of network If your application meets any of those requirements. Need for mobile databases • Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. While those same analysts can’t tell us exactly which applications will be the most popular. mobile units. and base stations. • Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. portable Wireless networks Mobile computing constraints Three parties Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. An example of this is a mobile workforce. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. The client and server have wireless connections. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. They are typically low-power devices such as mobile phones. it is clear that a large percentage will require the use of a database of some sort. Many applications such as databases would require the ability to download information from an information repository and operate on this information even when out of range or disconnected.Mobile database 160 Mobile database A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. A database is a structured way to organize information. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. low-cost. mobiles and PDAs is increasing and likely to increase in the future with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. • Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred).[1] The use of laptops. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange mission-critical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. bar code scanners. only recently modified data. • Users don't require access to truly live data. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. the chances are good that you will be required to build a mobile database application with synchronization. portable phones.) Base stations are two-way radios. Mobile database system architecture For any mobile architecture. With the advent of mobile databases. This could be a list of contacts. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). installations in fixed locations. or wireless routers. • Applications must provide significant interactivity.

Mobile database 161 When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. Calif. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. HanDBase from DDH Software Inc.and Cellica Database from Cellica Corporation NY [2]. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. might serve your needs equally well. Products from lesser-known vendors.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the mobile-database field. Products Sybase Inc.. Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. such as SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of Redwood Shores. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. . IBM’s DB2 Everyplace is a relational database and enterprise synchronization server that extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. of Lake Worth. Fla.

PalmOS. Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. which: • • • • Allows synchronization between DB2e and server database Mobile Device Administration Center (MDAC) Table encryption for version 8. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. retrieves. C++. DB2e is currently available for Palm OS.1 Java ME Sync Client for cell phones and pagers Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. Neutrino. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. Delphi. EPOC. Windows CE. and EPOC database clients. QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-and-forward mobile messaging applications. session-based synchronization technology for exchanging data among relational databases and other non-relational data sources.1. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly powerful. Ultralite: UltraLite is a database-management system designed for small-footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and smart phones. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. zero-administration environments. .Mobile database 162 SQL Anywhere Technologies SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing and embeddable relational database-management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. Windows CE and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: • IBM DB2 Database Engine • IBM Sync • Query By Example (QBE) DB2e includes a component called Synchronization Server. SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere databases using a file or message transfer mechanism. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a server-based relational database management system (RDMS). and so on). It includes support for Win32. programming APIs. IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) DB2e stores. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. organizes and manages data on a handheld device.

This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. It is increasingly being used in aviation and transportation industry. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity). versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. com External links • • • • • • • • SQL Anywhere Official Site (http://www.com/products/databasemanagement/sqlanywhere) http://www. and delivers the performance.uk/programming-languages/jdatastore-developer-edition http://www. Uses Mobile databases are highly concentrated in the retail and logistic industry.informit.softpedia.com http://www. cellica. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards.di. com/ windowsmobile/ en-us/ business/ solutions/ small-business-database. mspx) [2] http:/ / www.effiproz.unl. scalability.com/mobile_database http://www.mcobject.pdf http://www.asc. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments.informit.co.com/product_cf.aspx .Mobile database 163 Others Borland's JDataStore Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. and Web server applications.sybase. Microsoft. References [1] Organize your business with a mobile database. mobile. microsoft. requires practically zero maintenance. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. the JDataStore database features a very small footprint.com/articles/article. and synchronization capabilities of a full-power database.fct. MobiSnap will be based on SQL.aspx?p=25328 http://www. focusing only on application specific problems. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments.pt/dagora/docs/papers/epcm99-np. Kevin Ebi.dooyoo.com/articles/article. MobiSnap MobiSnap. retrieved 14/12/08 (http:/ / www.aspx?p=26223&seqNum=3 http://www.com.

strictly on the wireless automation of asset management data for such processes. planning and selecting an implementation strategy. which refers more broadly to the actual tools. Mobile EAM technology When viewed and used on a handheld device. redundancy setup and maintenance budgets. contrasting with a PC (personal computer) environment where in most cases software requires relatively few. workflow-specific mobile applications. by definition. safety alerts. break/fix or service requests) via communication between a mobilized workforce and computer systems to maintain an organization’s facilities. instruments and containers organizations use to track and secure equipment and other such assets frequently on the move. This is to distinguish from the term mobile asset management. as mobile applications are faced with a diversity of device operating systems. replacement. over-hauling. the organization eliminates a need for paper forms or other data reporting and communication methods (push-to-talk and radio) to move work order information to and from the point where the work is being performed.Mobile Enterprise Asset Management 164 Mobile Enterprise Asset Management Mobile enterprise asset management (or mobile EAM) refers to the mobile extension of work processes for maintenance. asset managers can expect an ever more tech-savvy workforce. output media (voice and data) and connectivity methods. . accurate data flow between their remote workers and central management such as planners and schedulers. Organizations looking to implement mobile EAM applications often seek the help of technology consulting firms and spend months researching. operations and repair of corporate or public-entity physical assets. docking station or other synchronization method. giving a maintenance technician or other remote worker more detailed asset information as well as the ability to transmit work data to the organization’s enterprise system when completed – through a wireless network. which thereby improves capital and labor allocation decision processes (including an ability to schedule more planned/preventive maintenance work). typically using a handheld or other mobile computer. Using computer software to achieve standard mobile EAM practices. While enterprise asset management encompasses the management of an organization’s entire asset portfolio across processes including equipment addition/ reduction. updates and lower upfront costs. if major. buildings and grounds. lock-outs and prior work history on the asset. lower costs in mobile devices and a higher propensity of feature-rich. The idea behind mobile EAM as a business practice is that it enables remote workers – employees who spend part or all of their time away from a central office – access to data from the organization’s computer application software for enterprise asset management (commonly referred to as an enterprise system. With the proliferation of smartphone and other mobile computing technologies. structures and other assets. It involves management of work orders (planned. organizations often report such advantages as an increase in timely. Developing and implementing a mobile application architecture on the enterprise scale is not an easy undertaking by any means. In the mobile EAM process. mobile enterprise asset management is focused. mobile work order applications provide details such as location. equipment. Challenges Nearly all challenges in mobile EAM practices can be traced to two factors: time and labor resources (including IT or information technology management) and investment costs. EAM system or backend system). stepwise job plans.

designed around service-oriented architecture principles for multiple systems integration and custom modification. mobileenterprisemag. com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728 [2] http:/ / www.Mobile Enterprise Asset Management 165 Industries using mobile EAM The use of mobile enterprise application platforms (MEAPs)[1] . com/ ME2/ dirmod. Enterprise Systems Mobilized The enterprise systems you will find most often mobilized are: • • • • • • SAP Maximo Oracle TRIRIGA Datastream Ventyx References [1] http:/ / www. “for the MEAP and packaged mobile application market…we now expect market growth annually of 15 to 20% through 2013. These industries can include: • • • • • • • Facilities Management Utilities Life Sciences Government organizations Manufacturing Oil & Gas industry Transportation industry In such high-value asset scenarios. particularly when part of an enterprise-wide capital and labor management strategy that integrates multiple systems in an enterprise architecture (EAM system. market analyst Gartner. gartner. the asset lifecycle improvements introduced by the increase in enterprise data flow of mobile EAM processes can bring significant savings. who are themselves increasingly mobile. planned and proactive maintenance and other industry best practices. mobile EAM application. life cycle costing. forecasted. asp?sid=& nm=& type=MultiPublishing& mod=PublishingTitles& mid=B4771C6F22F34E4CA3FFFDA61E0EA2C5& tier=4& id=CEFEEBFEA2484118849FC7820858E920 . GIS. and other forms of wireless computing technology for mobile EAM solutions[2] is growing rapidly. this means that an increasing proportion of organizations in capital-intensive industry sectors (such as those above) are adopting mobile technology as an integral part of their enterprise asset management strategy – corresponding with an enterprise-wide emphasis on whole life planning. etc.). For EAM practices as a whole. labor dispatch/scheduling software. Inc. Market growth In a 2009 study[1] . particularly in industries where physical assets form a significant cost proportion of organizations’ total assets.” Gartner attributes this anticipated growth to enterprises’ increasing willingness (and ability) to extend decision-relevant information to employees.

the ESN is still a required field in many messages—for compatibility. The check digit (CD) is not considered part of the MEID. and both can include an optional check-digit. . http:/ / www. This is defined by 3GPP2 standard X. because there is no bar code or the bar code is unreadable). whose virgin form was exhausted in November 2008 [2] . and a 24-bit manufacturer-assigned serial number. Regional code R R Manufacturer code Serial number CD C X X X X X X Z Z Z Z Z Z An MEID is 56 bits long (14 hex digits). it is not intended to be a checksum or CRC to detect transmission errors. com/ gsm-imei-number-allocation. The number format is defined by the 3GPP2 report S. In this case. It consists of three fields. If both the first two digits are in the range '0' through '9' then the check digit is calculated using the standard base 10 Luhn algorithm as the number meets the definition of IMEI.asp The middle ground between IMEIs and MEIDs is for inter-standard "worldphone" devices.S0008 [4]. and the GSM Association acts as the Global Decimal Administrator. a 24-bit manufacturer code. A check-digit can be calculated from the 18 digit result using the standard base 10 Luhn algorithm and appended to the end.Mobile Equipment Identifier 166 Mobile Equipment Identifier A Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) is a globally unique number identifying a physical piece of CDMA mobile station equipment. The check-digit is never transmitted or stored. As of August 2006. devices with an MEID can use a pseudo ESN (pESN). The decimal form is specified to be 18 digits grouped in a 5 5 4 4 pattern and is calculated by converting the manufacturer code portion (32 bits) to decimal and padding on the left with '0' digits to 10 digits and separately converting the serial number portion to decimal and padding on the left to 8 digits.g. the check-digit is calculated using a modified (base 16) Luhn algorithm.R0048 [1] but in practical terms it can be seen as an IMEI but with hexadecimal digits. IMEI administrators can just assign numbers for dual-technology phones out of their existing ranges.[3] Administration The separation between International Mobile Equipment Identifiers (IMEIs) used by GSM/UTMS and MEIDs is based on the number ranges. babt. As of TIA/EIA/IS-41 Revision D and TIA/EIA/IS-2000 Rev C. Consequently it may be printed on phones or their packaging in case of manual entry of an MEID (e. The hexadecimal form is specified to be 14 digits grouped together where at least one of the first two ('RR') digits is in the range 'A' through 'F'. It is intended to detect most (but not all) input errors. which is a manufacturer code of 0x80 (formerly reserved) followed by the least significant 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the MEID. Display formats There are two standard formats for MEIDs. including an 8-bit regional code (RR). These devices will have all decimal digits and can be allocated by any administration. The MEID was created to replace ESNs. the TIA acts as the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA) to assign MEID code prefixes (0xA0 and up). Since they must have all decimal digits the GHA has opened up the range '99' for these assignments. There are two administrators: the Global Decimal Administrator (GDA) for IMEIs and the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA).

S0066-0_v1. pdf) [6] http:/ / www. 0_050630. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. This specification also allows the PLCM to be based on the MEID or IMSI. it is estimated that even on a heavily loaded network the frequency of this situation is closer to 1 out of 1 million calls than to 1 out of 100 000. A different problem occurs when ESN codes are stored in a database (such as for OTASP). It is easy for the base station to ensure that all PLCM codes are unique when this is done. org/ Public_html/ specs/ S. S0008-0_v2. pdf [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] .S0072 [6] provides a solution to this problem by allowing the PLCM to be established by the base station. 3GPP2 specifications C. These will cause an extremely rare condition known as a 'collision' on a pure ESN-only network as the ESN is used for the calculation of the Public Long Code Mask (PLCM) used for communication with the base-station. pdf http:/ / www.800 pseudo-ESN entries. S0072-0_v1. pdf [8] http:/ / www. import hashlib meid = raw_input("Enter an MEID: "). White Paper on Pseudo-ESN Collisions.Mobile Equipment Identifier 167 pESN conflicts Because the pESN is formed by a hash on the MEID there is the potential for hash collisions. tiaonline. 3gpp2. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ esn_meid_milestones_timeline.sha1(meid. pdf Pellegrino G.hexdigest()[-6:]. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. Two mobiles using the same pESN within the same base-station area (operating on the same frequency) can result in call setup and page failures.S0066 [8] have been modified to allow the replacement MEID identifier to be transmitted. S0016-C_v1. 0_040830. Another problem is that messages delivered on the forward paging channel using the pESN as an address could be delivered to multiple mobiles seemingly randomly. In this situation. the risk of at least two phones having the same pseudo-ESN can be calculated using the birthday paradox and works out to about a 50 per cent probability in a database with 4. 0_050727. 3gpp2. pdf CDG Resources on MEID and EUIMID (http:/ / cdg. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. The probability of a collision has been carefully examined [5] . resolving this problem. TIA. tiaonline. (http:/ / www. Quick F. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ Collisions_pESN_wp. 3gpp2. This problem can be avoided by using MIN or IMSI based addressing instead. 3GPP2 specification C. 3gpp2. 3gpp2.upper() #put the last 6 digits of the hash after 80 print "pESN: " + pesn References http:/ / www. R0048-A_v4. pdf [7] http:/ / www. 0_051018.S0016 [7] (Revision C or higher) and C. org/ meid) http:/ / www.upper() s = hashlib.decode('hex')) #decode the hex MEID (convert it to binary!) pesn = "80" + s. 26 May 2005. org/ Public_html/ specs/ X. Code to convert This short Python script will convert an MEID to a pESN. 0_041025. Roughly.

Open IPTV Forum. video. The development of Mobile IPTV specification is at an early stage. The outstanding activities in this approach are Digital Video Broadcast (DVB)-CBMS (Convergence of Broadcasting and Mobile Services) and WorldDAB (DAB: Digital Audio Broadcasting) Forum. users can enjoy IPTV services anywhere and even while on the move. and ITU-T FG IPTV internationally. DVB-IPI (IPI: IP Infrastructure) (is an open DVB standard that enables audio/video services to be delivered to and through the mobile device via IP networking. The reason why it is pursued is to build a content environment that combines the stability and usability of broadcasting and the diverse services of Internet. Currently.tiaonline. IPTV services are originally targeted to fixed terminals such as set-top boxes. mobility. however. text and graphic services through IP-based the wired and wireless networks with support for Quality of Service/QoE. Technical approaches to Mobile IPTV Mobile TV plus IP This approach uses the traditional digital broadcast networks to deliver IP-based audio. security. audio. This is a prime example of the increasing convergence of broadcasting. In Open IPTV Forum. telecommunications and computing. wide area wireless networks such as cellular networks are integrated to support interactivity. mobility service entirely based on IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) which is a set of specification from 3GPP for delivering IP multimedia to mobile users will be forthcoming. video. In addition. To make this approach more attractive. The outstanding activities are ATIS in the US.org/standards/resources/meid/) • PhoneScoop MEID article (http://www.com/articles/meid/) • CDMA Development Group MEID resource page (http://www. IPTV plus Mobile approach Although many think that “networked TV” will be the future of television. and interactive functions. Eureka 147 was originally developed for digital radio applications and extended to support video services. issues on the requirements for mobility support were raised as an out-growth under the auspices of the Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) trend. Through Mobile IPTV. graphics and other broadband data services to the user on the move.Mobile Equipment Identifier 168 External links • Official TIA Resource Page for MEID (http://www. ITU-T FG IPTV is collecting requirements regarding mobility and wireless characteristics. the usage of broadcasting networks may incur the loss of individuality of IP. .phonescoop. Even though this approach is classified as Mobile IPTV technically. DVB-CBMS is developing bi-directional mobile IP based broadcasting protocol specifications over DVB-H.cdg.org/meid) Mobile IPTV Mobile IPTV is a technology that enables users to transmit and receive multimedia traffic including television signal. WorldDAB Forum is enhancing and extending Eureka 147 to support IP based services. IPTV is currently dominated by Telco giants in an attempt to find a new source of cash-in. ATIS has not shown any interest in mobility support yet. DVB-CBMS already finished Phase I and currently is working in Phase II.

or simply a consumer. is only applicable to mobile terminals up to now and showing interest in expanding its specification to cover fixed terminals in Phase II. most of the technical obstacles are related to the usage of the wireless link. However this Internet approach has a shortcoming that the quality of services is not guaranteed since it is based on the best effort service model. Bandwidth limitation Even though the effective bandwidth of wireless links is growing rapidly. They are usually termed as Internet TV or Web TV. considering its rapid adaptation to customer needs. and limited storage. Capability limitations implicate very strict requirements that only a restricted set of technologies can be considered as possible Mobile IPTV solutions. customer needs for watching TV programs on the go seems not to be so high. This resulted in a universe of highly diversified and dynamically independent production. users can access an IPTV service through various wireless access networks. There are many obstacles on the path to the successful launch and widespread use of Mobile IPTV businesses.g. The wireless link will always have less bandwidth than the wired link. due to the characteristics of the IPTV service. the openness gives global reach. As for business perspective. low power processors. These are outgrown for a niche entertainment business.g. however. which means any Broadcast Distribution Network can be adopted as its transport means. A minimum of 2–3 Mbit/s of bandwidth needs to be provided. OMA BCAST. Wireless technologies for short-range use or control purposes are not fully considered yet. and be short of bandwidth. content might be a major player. In addition. Internet approach There are already countless Internet video services worldwide. Obstacles In addition. light-weightiness is essential. Since Mobile IPTV assumes at least one wireless link between the source (e. One group of obstacles is technical and the other business. mobile terminal). bandwidth greedy applications will come out: such as Ultra High Definition quality video services. this approach may be dominant in the near future. there can be quite different models developing on the business type and infrastructure used. As long as mobile devices use the Internet. Even when the 4G wireless network is available. a service provider. With this approach. Its features are bearer agnostic. This mainly ascribes to portability considerations. Mobile IPTV Use Bandwidth Minimum 2-3 Mbps . This approach is open for anybody to play a role in the value chain: anybody can be a content provider. which lead to small displays. Its goals are to define an end-to-end framework for mobile broadcast and compile the set of necessary enablers. Capability limitation Most of the mobile terminals have limited capabilities compared to fixed terminals. Mobile IPTV has at least one wireless interface with a device.Mobile IPTV 169 Cellular approach Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) BCAST is working for IP based mobile broadcasting networks. stream server) and the destination (e. However. For the second obstacle. it’s not until the 4G wireless network is fully deployed that the wireless link bandwidth becomes broad enough to accommodate High Definition quality video services.

The lack of mobile contents frustrates the early adopters of Mobile TV. This is mainly because there is limited time for enjoying visual services on the go. Coverage implication The main reason for carrying mobile terminals is to get access to the services any time and any where. a service provider can control the usage of IPTV service remotely. temporal reflectors and obstacles around the mobile terminals can affect the received signal and cause burst packet losses. middleware acts as a transparent solution for adopting IPTV services on to various and different platforms. New killer features are required. By slimming down the existing middleware. however. A highly creative and new way of interfacing is required. However. services are restricted in some areas. IP address—in a blink. . Currently. Therefore many solutions devised for the relatively static wired computer network environment may not work properly. Contents must be tailored for mobile environments. For example. the coverage issue can be considerably mitigated. vertical handover can change almost everything—the whole path between the sources and the sink. Middleware concern Middleware is one of the key functions of the IPTV service. Usability is another main obstacle for the success of Mobile IPTV business. these may be able to be applied to Mobile IPTV.Mobile IPTV 170 Vulnerable wireless link The wireless link is very vulnerable. it is not possible to adopt fancy User Interface methods. For example. customers have many channels to enjoy their favourite TV programs whenever they want. bandwidth. Because it is practically impossible to deploy wireless networks to cover all geographical areas with no dead spots. Business issue The most significant problem of the Mobile IPTV business (this applies to Mobile TV in the same way) is that the consumer need for watching TV program on the go is not so high. Watching favourite TV programs live may be the most attractive feature of Mobile IPTV. This requires Mobile IPTV services to be far more attractive than the consumers’ expectation. fast/slow fading. Even if mobile terminals are stationary. small display sizes. PHY/MAC. Also. Dynamic environment The wireless link is highly dynamic compared to the wired link. Considering the movement of mobile terminals. So far. there are several well known middleware solutions on a set-top box. It is. Due to the small form factor of mobile devices. by adopting vertical hand-overs (hand-overs between different networks). This means the liveness of TV programs become less and less important except for some events such as sports. By deploying middleware. random and short watching time should be considered. too heavy to be implemented on a mobile device. packets delivered through the wireless link are exposed to a variety of signal degradation such as shadowing. Packet losses are intrinsic and inevitable in the wireless link. etc. The characteristics of the wireless can vary due to a variety of causes and the rate of change is very abrupt.

-H. “IPTV over WiMAX: Key Success Factors. AICCSA 2008.–L. Cheolju Hwang and el. 8. no. 2007 • Mushtaq. 45. pp. Issue 3. 23–31.or. 2008. February 2008 • Djama. C and Walden. Seong-Ho Jeong and Cheolju Hwang. Vol. Mubashar.int/ITU-T/gsi/iptv/) • Open IPTV Forum (http://www. IEEE Internet Computing. 382–390. pp. TTA Technical Report (TTAR-08.8) • Soohong Park.0001). 1.kr/) • Internet Protocol Television Global Standards Initiative (http://www. 87–93. Aug. Standards and QoS Support". Toufik. Ahmed. 2007 • J.openiptvforum. Challenges. Mobile IPTV Expanding the Value of IPTV. 2007 Related standard activities • TTA PG 219. P2P-based mobile IPTV: Challenges and opportunities. 53.tta. 2008-April 4.1109/AICCSA. F. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting. A Cross-Layer Interworking of DVBT and WLAN for Mobile IPTV Service Delivery. 13. (DOI 10. vol.org/) . 51–60. 2008. IEEE Communications Magazine. and L. Challenges and Solutions”.2008.itu. al. Computer Systems and Applications. P. Mobile TV–To Live or Die by Content. "Mobile IPTV: Approaches. pp. pp. IEEE/ACS International Conference on March 31. 296–301. pp.Mobile IPTV 171 References Related publications • Soohong Park and Seong-Ho Jeong. She.1109/ICN. No. 2008 Page(s):975 . Vol. IEEE 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.980 (DOI 10. Ho. WG 2193 . I and Ahmed. The seventh International Conference on Networking. Mobile IPTV Requirements for Non-NGN.4493663) • Carlsson. May–June 2009 • Soohong Park.2008. Xie. P.Mobile IPTV Working Group (http://www. T. Hou.

Localization may occur either via multilateration of radio signals between (several) radio towers of the network and the phone. temporarily resides. GSM localization is the use of multilateration to determine the location of GSM mobile phones.[2] Technology The technology of locating is based on measuring power levels and antenna patterns and uses the concept that a mobile phone always communicates wirelessly with one of the closest base stations.[3] Localization-Based Systems can be broadly divided into: • • • • Network-based Handset-based SIM-based Hybrid . Recent allocation of 3G and WiMax licenses in Europe and India (only 3G in India) have been auctioned. wireless service provider. Mobile phone tracking Mobile phone tracking refers to the attaining of the current position of a mobile phone. The government allocates spectrum using whichever method it chooses. The precise spectrum obtained does depend on the type of mobile phone technology the operator intends to deploy. usually with the intent to locate the user. it must emit at least the roaming signal to contact the next nearby antenna tower. To locate the phone using multilateration of radio signals. so if you know which base station the phone communicates with. and thereby also its user (bearer). For example. wireless carrier. also known as mobile phone operator (or simply mobile operator or mobo ). The more properly applied term locating refers to the purpose rather than a positioning process. Further approximation can be done by interpolating signals between adjacent antenna towers. Advanced systems determine the sector in which the mobile phone resides and roughly estimate also the distance to the base station. Qualified services may achieve a precision of down to 50 meters in urban areas where mobile traffic and density of antenna towers (base stations) is sufficiently high. most notably the radio transmitter network and the core network. other service platforms such as voicemail and SMS centre will be deployed as well as billing and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems. Such service is offered as an option of the class of location-based services (LBS). is a telephone company that provides services for mobile phone subscribers. In addition. However the operator must also deploy essential equipment in order to offer the services. which includes location based service that discloses the actual coordinates of a mobile phone bearer. stationary or moving. carrier service provider (CSP). GSM is based on the signal strength to nearby antenna masts. but the process does not require an active call. a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network operator will require a GSM frequency range.Mobile network operator 172 Mobile network operator A mobile network operator (MNO). or simply via GPS. Rural and desolate areas may see miles between base stations and therefore determine locations less precisely. One essential characteristic that defines a mobile network operator is that they must have acquired a radio spectrum license from the government before they can clear mobile phone service within a country. or cellular company. although the most common method is an auction. is a technology used by telecommunication companies to approximate where a mobile phone. you know that the phone is close to the respective base station.[1] Mobile positioning.

SIM-based Using the SIM in GSM and UMTS handsets.Mobile phone tracking 173 Network-based Network-based techniques utilize the service provider's network infrastructure to identify the location of the handset. Another difficulty would be to address the issue of foreign handsets that are roaming in the network. The accuracy of network-based techniques varies. The key disadvantage of this technique (from mobile operator's point of view) is the necessity of installing software on the handset. The advantage of network-based techniques (from mobile operator's point of view) is that they can be implemented non-intrusively. such as E911. E-OTD. it is possible to obtain raw radio measurements from the handset.[6] [7] [8] . if the handset is also equipped with GPS then significantly more precise location information is then sent from the handset to the carrier. This avenue has not made significant headway. The accuracy of network-based techniques is both dependent on the concentration of base station cells. iPhone. and the implementation of the most current timing methods. Alternatively tracking with both systems can also occur by having the phone attain his GPS-location directly from the satellites. e. Windows Mobile. or Android. would be able to run such software. One of the key challenges of network-based techniques is the requirement to work closely with the service provider. round trip time and signal strength. Both types of data are thus used by the telephone to make the location more accurate (ie A-GPS). without affecting the handsets. it may not be possible to obtain any raw measurements from the handset directly. One example would be some modes of Assisted GPS. smart phones. It requires the active cooperation of the mobile subscriber as well as software that must be able to handle the different operating systems of the handsets. which can both use GPS and network information to compute the location. and then having the information sent via the network to the person that is trying to locate the telephone. with cell identification as the least accurate and triangulation as moderately accurate. Hybrid Hybrid positioning systems use a combination of network-based and handset-based technologies for location determination. The type of information obtained via the SIM can differ from what is available from the handset. Services allowing such cellphone tracking are Mologogo. instaMapper. and newer "Forward Link" timing methods as the most accurate. One proposed work-around is the installation of embedded hardware or software on the handset by the manufacturers. yet still obtain measurements via the SIM. a legislative framework. Often. Buddyway and Google Latitude. signal strengths of the home and neighboring cells. Handset-based Handset-based technology requires the installation of client software on the handset to determine its location. Windows Phone. Typically. For example.[4] [5] The measurements that are available can include the serving Cell-ID. which is continuously sent to the carrier. such as one based on Symbian. This technique determines the location of the handset by computing its location by cell identification.g. as it entails the installation of hardware and software within the operator's infrastructure. In addition. with urban environments achieving the highest possible accuracy. would need to be in place to compel the cooperation of the service provider as well as to safeguard the privacy of the information. BlackBerry OS. due to the difficulty of convincing different manufacturers to cooperate on a common mechanism and to address the cost issue.

since it enables someone to check where a person is without the person's consent.[10] In some instances law enforcement may even access a mobile phone's internal microphone to eavesdrop on local conversations while the phone is switched off. Strict ethics and security measures are strongly recommended for services that employ positioning. The U. As the phone changes location. The United States however has no explicit constitutional guarantee on the privacy of telecommunications. Privacy Locating or positioning touches upon delicate privacy issues. including USA v. explicit consent to a service provider before the service provider can compute positioning data from the user's mobile phone.[11] The Electronic Frontier Foundation is tracking some cases.[13] China has proposed using this technology to track commuting patterns of Beijing city residents. Justice Department has argued that current laws allow them to track suspects without having probable cause to suspect a law is being violated. By comparing the relative signal strength from multiple antenna towers a general location of a phone can be roughly determined. Pen Register government tracking of individuals. the locating of vehicles is equally sensitive to the constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence and thus any further use of tolling information beyond deducting the road fee is prohibited. Even obviously criminal intent may not be inferred by such means.[9] Bearer interest A phone's location can be uploaded to a common web site where one's "friends and family" can view one's last reported position.Mobile phone tracking 174 Operational purpose In order to route calls to a phone the cell towers listen for a signal sent from the phone and negotiate which tower is best able to communicate with the phone.S. so use of location data is limited by law. as in Germany. location data obtained from mobile phone networks is usually given the same protection as the communication itself. With tolling systems. the antenna towers monitor the signal and the phone is roamed to an adjacent tower as appropriate. and the user must give an informed. Other means is the antenna pattern that supports angular determination and phase discrimination. Newer phones may have built-in GPS receivers which could be used in a similar fashion. Officially. but with much higher accuracy. Newer phones may also allow the tracking of the phone even when turned on and not active in a telephone call-. the authorities (like the police) can obtain permission to position phones in emergency cases where people (including criminals) are missing. In Europe. although such a use is technically possible. where most countries have a constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence. This results from the roaming procedures that perform hand over of the phone from one base station to another. . regarding Some "Free" tracking services allow the cellular telephone number being tracked to be added to telemarketers' lists.[14] [12] .

com/ politics/ security/ news/ 2006/ 05/ 70829). 2011). mologogo. [10] Ryan Singel (May 8. China [4] ETSI TS 102 223 V9. The Washington Post. 2006). IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008. co. "China plans to track cellphone users. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 4738219.openBmap. bbc. [15] WhereAreYou? GPS. Shu Wang. googlepages. BBC News.Protecting Your Privacy in the Age of the Super-Phone • Cell Reception (http://www. html). Jungwon Min and Byung K. . Beijing. stm). 2006. Beijing. FREE Phone Tracking System. com/ posttech/ 2011/ 03/ china_said_it_may_begin. com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2.cs.cellreception. com/ 2006/ 12/ roving-bug-in-cell-phones-used-by-fbi. The Chicago Syndicate.org (http://www. "Cell-Phone Tracking: Laws Needed" (http:/ / www. org/ ). com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2. 2005-08-03. org/ issues/ cell-tracking [14] Cecilia Kang (March 3. cnet. html). [6] InstaMapper (http:/ / www.org/fs/fs2b-cellprivacy. swang. sparking human rights concerns" (http:/ / voices.cs. Yi. . com/ ) [8] Buddyway (http:/ / www.opencellid.org) • CellSpotting: A Global Cell Id-Based Information Service (http://www. html). Cnet. pdf). whereareyougps.com/techtopics/mobility/apis/articles/location/) • Location API for J2ME (http://www-users.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/ 22/AR2007112201444.Mobile phone tracking 175 References [15] [1] "Tracking a suspect by mobile phone: Tracking SIM and handset" (http:/ / news.edu/~czhou/docs/jsr179/lapi/) • openBmap: Map and tools for a free and open Cell ID database in GPL and Creative Common Licence (http:// www. instamapper. Wired. swang.html?hpid=topnews).cellspotting.org) .privacyrights.0 SIM standard [5] Vodafone Local Zone (http:/ / pcworld.toronto. wired. [2] "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to. com) External links • privacyrights. . com/ ) [7] Mologogo (http:/ / www. eff. nsf/ mobwire/ F41D663EAD41BC01CC2574B000133BB3) PC World. org/ legal/ cases/ USA_v_PenRegister/ [13] http:/ / www. Retrieved June 24. Jungwon Min and Byung K. 2010. China [3] "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to.edu/~walex/papers/ are_gsm_phones_the_solution_for_localization_wmcsa2006. . IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008 (http:/ / www.com) • J2ME and Location-Based Services (http://developers. [11] "FBI taps cell phone mic as eavesdropping tool" (http:/ / news.Google maps API to locate cell towers in the United States • Cellphone Tracking Powers on Request (http://www.umn. Yi." [12] http:/ / www. eff.1. ieee-icc. . co.com • GSM Localization on Mobile Phones (http://www. washingtonpost. "Kaplan's opinion said that the eavesdropping technique "functioned whether the phone was powered on or off. Shu Wang.html) • OpenCellID: An OpenSource CellID database (http://www. com/ 2100-1029_3-6140191. buddyway. December 1. some Nokia models will wake up when turned off if an alarm is set. googlepages.htm#5) .com/towers/) . nz/ pcworld/ pcw.washingtonpost. (http:/ / www. thechicagosyndicate. washingtonpost. Retrieved 2010-01-02. pdf). for instance.sun." Some handsets can't be fully powered down without removing the battery. com/ ) [9] "Roving Bug in Cell Phones Used By FBI to Eavesdrop on Syndicate" (http:/ / www.

[1] A sales person or radio repair shop would understand the word mobile to mean vehicle-mounted: a transmitter-receiver (transceiver) used for radio communications from a vehicle. such a device is typically powered by the host vehicle's 12 volt electrical system. Instead of hanging out of a locomotive cab and grabbing train orders while rolling past a station. Some mobile radios are mounted in aircraft. These systems used one-way broadcasting instead of two-way conversations.Mobile radio 176 Mobile radio This article is about professional equipment. In time. (1. Railroads used medium frequency range (MF) communications (similar to the AM broadcast band) to improve safety. (called crossband). Early police radio systems were initially one way using MF frequencies above the AM broadcast band. For mobile radios used in amateur radio. 25 to 50 MHz (vhf "low band") is particularly susceptible to the problem of electrical noise. They run on telephony-based infrastructure such as AMPS or GSM. Mobile radios are mounted to a motor vehicle usually with the microphone and control panel in reach of the driver. Power may vary with each platform. Certain modern two-way radio systems may have full-duplex telephone capability. on motorcycles. For US licensing purposes. This plus the need for more channels led to the eventual expansion of two-way radio communications into the VHF "high band" (150 to 174 . There are a variety of views about what constitutes mobile equipment.7 MHz). The connection is taken down when the end button is pressed. A parallel to this concept is the convergence of computing and telephones. Mobile radio or mobiles refer to wireless communications systems and devices which are based on radio frequencies. In the US. For example. (sometimes called portable). mobiles may include hand-carried. shipboard. Radios linked the caboose with the locomotive cab.or 30-volt DC power. equipment. (aeronautical mobile). An obsolete term is radiophone. (maritime mobile). voice communications with rolling trains became possible. The connection sets up based on the user dialing. Early mobile radios used amplitude modulation (AM) to convey intelligence through the communications channel. Radiotelephones are full-duplex (simultaneous talk and listen). History Early users of mobile radio equipment included transportation and government. circuit switched. and primarily intended to communicate with other radios rather than telephones. Disambiguation: Two-way versus telephone The distinction between radiotelephones and two-way radio is becoming blurred as the two technologies merge. problems with sources of electrical noise showed that frequency modulation (FM) was superior for its ability to cope with vehicle ignition and power line noise. Two-way radio is primarily a dispatch tool intended to communicate in simplex or half-duplex modes using push-to-talk. and where the path of communications is movable on either end. MPT-1327. Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR). Some early systems talked back to dispatch on a 30-50 MHz link. and primarily communicate with telephones connected to the public switched telephone network. A large ship with 117V AC power might have a base station mounted on the ship's bridge. These systems run on push-to-talk-based infrastructure such as Nextel's iDEN. or railroad locomotives. see amateur radio mobile operation. a mobile radio installed in a locomotive would run off of 72. Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR) or conventional two-way systems. The frequency range used by most early radio systems. The backbone or infrastructure supporting the system defines which category or taxonomy applies.

Manufacturers of mobile radios built customized equipment for large radio fleets such as the California Department of Forestry and the California Highway Patrol. The requirement that unauthorized persons be prohibited from using the radio transmitter meant that many radios were wired so they could not transmit unless the vehicle ignition was on. This was done to allow more radio spectrum availability to accommodate the In the early 1970s. The UHF band has since been expanded again. scanning. named for its "universal" 6 or 12 Volt power supply General Electric Progress Line (Early models without "T-Power" power supply) Kaar Engineering Model 501 177 Equipment from different US manufacturers had similar traits. In order to be type accepted. leading two-way radio users. Some early mobile radios were the size of a suitcase or had separate boxes for the transmitter and receiver. These high voltage power supplies were inefficient. by the FCC before it could be offered for sale. Early tube-type radios operated on 50 kHz channel spacing with plus-or-minus fifteen kilohertz modulation deviation. As time went on. 1970s. Early tube-type radios used dynamotors . Systems with multiple-CTCSS tone encoders and more than two channels were unusual. These traits continue in the design of modern radios. From the 1960s to the 1980s.essentially a six or twelve volt motor that turned a generator to provide the high voltages required by the vacuum tubes. Examples of US 1950s-1960s tube-type mobile radios with no transistors: • • • • Motorola FMTRU-140D (dynamotor powered) Motorola Twin-V. tube-type transmitter power amplifiers had been replaced with high-power transistors. the California Department of Forestry requirement for 6-frequency rapidly growing national group of transmit. One of the major challenges in early mobile radio technology was that of converting the six or twelve volt power supply of the vehicle to the high voltage needed to operate the vacuum tubes in the radio. the radio set had to be equipped with an indicator light. large system users with specialized requirements often had custom built radios designed for their unique systems. taxing vehicle electrical systems. with more efficient circuitry and smaller size.Mobile radio MHz) and UHF (450 to 470 MHz). usually green or yellow. Radios were also required to have a lamp (usually red) indicating when the transmitter was on. and a 5-tone burst encoder was unusual. then solid-state power supplies to provide high voltage for the vacuum tubes. The power supply then rectified this high voltage to make the high voltage DC required for the vacuum tubes. called "inverters". Solid state equipment arrived in the 1960s. Equipment had to be "type accepted". or technically approved. . 3-frequency receive. (called valves in British English). Sometimes. The power supplies needed to power vacuum tube radios resulted in a common trait of tube-type mobile radios: their heavy weight due to the iron-core transformers in the power supplies. power supply technology evolved to use first electromechanical vibrators. This was partly dictated by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations. Persons without a key to the vehicle could not transmit. and the filaments of the vacuum tubes added to current demands. a generator or alternator upgrade was needed to support the current required for a tube-type mobile radio. that showed power was applied and the radio was ready to transmit. This meant that the number of radio channels that could be accommodated in the available radio frequency spectrum were limited to a certain number. Channel spacing narrowed to 20-30 kHz with modulation deviation dropping to plus-or-minus five kilohertz. By the mid to this custom-built mobile radio. dictated by the bandwidth of the signal on each channel. changed the 6V or 12V direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) which could be passed through a transformer to make high voltage. These circuits.

"Boston Base". Hole arrays in the back of the microphone pick up ambient noise. Ideally. Details Commercial and professional mobile radios are often purchased from an equipment supplier or dealer whose staff will install the equipment into the user's vehicles. In order to fit into smaller. At speeds over 100 MPH. effectively reducing or canceling any sound which is present both in front and back of the microphone. Some mobile radios use noise-canceling microphones or headsets. Menus of options may be several levels deep and offer a complicated array of possibilities. Noise-canceling microphones require the operator speak directly into the front of the microphone. Most fire engines and radios in heavy equipment use noise-canceling headsets. vehicle stability computer. to the back of the microphone. separate speaker which can be positioned and oriented facing the driver to overcome ambient road noise present when driving. and a microphone with a push-to-talk button. today's radios are trending toward radically smaller sizes than their tube-type ancestors. For example. Mobile radios installed on motorcycles are subject to extreme vibration and weather. A computer and software is typically required to program the features and channels of the mobile radio. or air bags. The installer would have to locate this equipment in a way that does not interfere with the vehicle's sun roof. Large fleet users may buy radios directly from an equipment manufacturer and may even employ their own technical staff for installation and maintenance. out-of-phase. Each installation would also have a vehicle-mounted antenna connected to the transceiver by a coaxial cable. Modern mobile radio equipment is "feature rich". Shock mounting systems are used to reduce the radio's exposure to vibration imparted by the motorcycle's modal. These protect the occupant's hearing and reduce background noise in the transmitted audio.5 kilohertz. only the voice present on the front side of the microphone goes out on the air. Radios are now designed with a myriad of features to preclude the need for custom design. such as "Providence Base". California Highway Patrol mobile radios have noise-canceling microphones which reduce road and siren noise heard by the dispatcher. Examples of US microprocessor-controlled mobile radios: • Motorola Astro Digital Spectra W9 • Kenwood TK-690 As use of mobile radio equipment has virtually exploded. etc.5-15 kHz with modulation deviation dropping to plus-or-minus 2. housed in a single box. A mobile radio may have 100 or more channels. F2) to a phrase more meaningful to the user.Mobile radio Examples of US hybrid partially solid state mobile radios: • • • • • Motorola Motrac Motorola MJ IMTS Car Telephone (1963) General Electric Transistorized Progress Line General Electric MASTR Professional and MASTR Executive RCA Super Carfone 178 Today Custom design for a particular customer is a thing of the past. be microprocessor controlled and have built-in options such as unit ID. Some mobile radios have alphanumeric displays that translate channel numbers (F1. channel spacing has had to be narrowed again to 12. more economical vehicles. Some models may have an external. shaking. electronic engine management system. or resonant. the ambient road and wind noise can make radio communications difficult to understand. Professional equipment designed for use on motorcycles is weather and vibration resistant. . A modern mobile radio consists of a radio transceiver. This is applied.

179 Antenna A mobile radio must have an associated antenna. or hidden on the floor pan or underside of a vehicle. Mobile radio equipment is manufactured to specifications developed by the Electronics Industries Association/Telecommunications Industries Association (EIA/TIA). Temporary installations may have antennas which clip on to vehicle parts or are attached to steel body parts by a strong magnet. One example of this problem occurred in a car with a concealed two-way radio installation where the microphone and coiled cord were hidden inside the glove box. or rough diesel engine idle vibrations may damage antennas quickly. Some types of vehicles in 24-hour use. The most common antennas are stainless steel wire or rod whips which protrude vertically from the vehicle. US Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines for non-ionizing radio energy generally say the radio antenna must be two feet from any vehicle occupants. on its roof. These specifications have been developed to help ensure that mobile radio equipment not only performs as expected by the user. Aircraft antennas look like blades or fins. The location and type of antenna can affect system performance drastically. a driver may be upset when a dispatcher assigns a call (s)he wanted to another driver and may deliberately hold the transmit button down (for which the owner can be fined by the FCC). which looks like a white plastic blade or fin. frequently damaged antennas can be costly to replace since they are usually not included in maintenance contracts for mobile radio fleets. (Read the OSHA guidelines before attempting to install an antenna. Though initially relatively inexpensive mobile radio system components. causing the push-to-talk button to be depressed and locking the transmitter on. but also to prevent the sale and distribution of inferior equipment which could degrade communications. or may be installed inside windows.) This rule of thumb is intended to result in passengers being exposed to safe levels of radio frequency energy in the event the radio transmits. An operator tossed the mike into the glove box and shut it.or 60-seconds. . All specifications should be reviewed by radio system engineers to ensure that appropriate equipment is used to meet the end user's needs. The standard "quarter wave" antenna in the 25-50 MHz range can be over nine feet long. Microwave antennas may look like flat panels on the aircraft's skin. A transit bus may have a ruggedized antenna. A 900 MHz antenna may be three inches long for a quarter wavelength. On taxi systems. Large fleets usually test a few vehicles before making a commitment to a certain antenna location or type. The volume level of the tone on some radios is loud and cannot be adjusted. a rearview mirror.Mobile radio Many radios are equipped with transmitter time-out timers which limit the length of a transmission. after which the transmitter automatically turns off and a loud tone comes out of the radio speaker. the tone stops and the timer resets. A bane of push-to-talk systems is the stuck microphone: a radio locked on transmit which disrupts communications on a two-way radio system. with stiff suspensions. Some vehicles with concealed radio installations have antennas designed to look like the original AM/FM antenna. As soon as the push-to-talk button is released. the size and shape being determined by frequencies used. tall heights. Physics defines the antenna length: length relates to frequency and cannot be arbitrarily lengthened or shortened (more likely) by the end user. usually 30. Radios with time-out timers transmit for the preset amount of time.

These installations are sometimes referred to as jerk-and-run systems. Receiver performance is a problem in congested radio signal and urban areas. tow cars may have one radio for towing company communications and a second for emergency road service communications. Walkie talkie converters in place of mobile radios Intended as a cost savings. take place over the separate radio. The charger or converter 1) connects the walkie talkie to the vehicle's two-way radio antenna. [4] The weak point of these systems has been connector technology which has been proven unreliable in some installations. this means data and voice communication can take place simultaneously over a separate radio. Ambulances may have a similar arrangement with one radio for government emergency medical services dispatch and one for company dispatch. some systems employ vehicular chargers instead of a mobile radio. A data terminal A mobile radio in a US ambulance often has two sets of controls: one in the patient area radio allows data communications to and another near the driver. If a tow car company had a frequency on the same band as its auto club. microphones US ambulances often have radios with dual controls and dual microphones allowing the radio to be used from the patient care area in the rear or from the vehicle's cab. For example. and 4) charges the walkie talkie's battery. In the same way that a facsimile machine has a separate phone line. allowed voice communication to the dispatch center. may have several radios in each vehicle. Early Federal Express (FedEx) radio systems used a single radio for data and voice. Each radio works over a single band of frequencies. 3) connects a mobile microphone. . Each vehicle is equipped with a charger system console. a single radio with scanning might be employed for both systems. Each radio user is issued a walkie talkie. Multiple controls. such as tow cars or ambulances. 2) connects an amplified speaker.[2] Data radio Both tow cars and ambulances may have an additional radio which transmits and receives to support a mobile data terminal.Mobile radio 180 Multiple radio sets Dispatch-reliant services. Since a mobile radio typically works on a single frequency band. The radio had a request-to-speak button which. when acknowledged. multiple radios may be required in cases where communications take place over systems on [3] more than one frequency band. The walkie talkie inserted into a vehicular charger or converter while the user is in the vehicle.

Motorola has trademarked the name Converta-Com for a system which accomplishes all three of these tasks. Mobile search Mobile search is an evolving branch of information retrieval services that is centered around the convergence of mobile platforms and mobile phones and other mobile devices. Westlund." Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2. Simply put. The 11th edition of Newton's Telecom Dictionary says radiophone is an. Research from Qpass suggests that less than 36% of an operator's portal is within 30 seconds navigation distance for the user . Web search engine ability in a mobile form allows users to find mobile content on websites which are available to mobile devices on mobile networks. both of which show a fast-paced evolution. It was also seen on some Kaar Engineering mobile products." Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2. most of available content that has been written for mobile users is effectively invisible to users.'Exploring the logic of mobile search'. or almost 15% of a total mobile advertising market worth nearly $4. DC: Department of Transportation. By 2011. given the limitations of a mobile phones screen size and general navigability.[3] There is a similar situation developing in the mobile content industry.7 billion". according to a leading market research firm. Web or technology factors. portals were unable to provide total coverage. pp. As this happens mobile content shows a media shift toward mobile multimedia. Early internet content was largely provided by portals such as Netscape.[2] Mobile Search is important for the usability of mobile content for the same reasons as internet search engines became important to the usability of internet content. 15. As a result Internet web search engines such as Google and AltaVista proved popular as a way of allowing users to find the increasingly specialist content they were looking for. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. One example is the title on a Special Products service manual Model T31BAT-3100B-SP3 'Dispatcher' Radiophone 25-54 MC 12 W RF Power 12VDC. "obsolete term. thanks to the large US online ad market and strong pushes by portals. (Washington. Compañó. saying radiophone is interchangeable with radiotelephone.4(e). mobile search will account for around $715 million. DC: Department of Transportation. (Washington. 1995) pp. and Feijóo(2011) outline a through review of research on mobile search usage. [3] Paragraph 2.[1] Depending on a researcher's particular bias toward telecom. Arizona Phase II Final Report: Statewide Radio Interoperability Needs Assessment. Most of the operators run their own portals that showcase the best available content. the published forecasts for global mobile search vary from $1. There are now few large organizations that do not offer a mobile service of some sort. As the depth of available content grew. In a international journal article. 45-49. [4] For example. Given early adopter usage of mobile services.this being the expected time users expect to find content in. but is witnessing more of treelike branching into specialized segments of mobile broadband and mobile content. Market description "Competition for the US mobile search market promises to be fierce. . Some Converta-Com systems allow the attachment of signaling devices or external devices not usually compatible with walkie talkies. (Chicago: Motorola Communications Division.5 billion by 2011 (from Informa Telecoms & Media) to over $11 billion by 2008 (according to Piper Jaffray). Later HT-200s dropped the term.Mobile radio 181 Notes [1] Cited in many references including on escutcheons and silk-screened face plates on 1960s Motorola products including early HT-200 and Dispatcher-series mobiles. The Oxford English Dictionary conflicts with some uses. 1965). 45-49. Regional-level Planning Guide. Gómez-Barroso. However. 1995) pp. and also present an in-depth study of user patterns. Regional-level Planning Guide. One historic example is the NLN-4470A for MT-500 series radios. State of California Radio Communications System. They conclude that mobile search has started to change mobile media consumption patters radically. mobile search is not just a spatial shift of PC web search to mobile equipment. 2004. there has been a vast increase in the depth of content developed for mobile phones. Macro Corporation and The State of Arizona. and "Evaluating Regional Alternatives." [2] "Evaluating Regional Alternatives. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. they also emphasize that future developments of mobile search must be sensitive to the mobile logic.

" Mr. The algorithms for mobile search engine results are thought to be evoloving and aspects such as location and predicitive searching will become increasingly important. by a real person. and media planners and buyers needing to evaluate one category with another or one directory with another. places. Some of the advances by the major portals in Internet search. Searcher behaviour on mobiles is markedly different than on desktop machines. landmarks. individuals. weather and sports. analytic engines." "Mobile search is a battle to define perhaps the most important new interface with the consumer. The lack of clean comparative analysis based upon application occupancy of an individual category creates a challenge for marketers looking to maximize the value of applications to the supply chain including brand marketers looking to embed advertising within an application. Yahoo has launched a product branded as Yahoo [OneSearch][6] and Google has launched a mobile friendly version of their search engine as well." 182 Types of mobile search Within the broad umbrella of mobile search (the ability to browse for mobile specific content). Cell phones also offer much less space to enter in search terms and smaller screens to display results. such as Google's famous page-ranking scheme. Beebe said. financial media analysts. A new approach by AskMeNow and MobileBits is to . "Whoever cracks the consumer and commercial code for delivering and monetizing relevant answers for people on the go will secure a license to print money. For example. Searches can be seen to fall into two categories 1. on the couch where mobiles are being used to surf for information in between watching TV and engaging in other mobile communication such as sms or using social networks. These parameters provide structure to vertically deep and horizontally broad data categories that can stand-alone or are combined to comprise searchable directories.[5] The early deals are taking place as cell phone operators recognize that mobile Internet search is an inherently different business than its desktop counterpart. Alltel's group president of operations. Most mobile 'Q&A' services are powered by human researchers and are therefore a type of organic search engine. they are more likely to use cell phones to find targeted information like news. neighborhoods. where every question is answered via text message. cities. says the Internet search giants aren't yet delivering the kind of results the mobile content industry wants. Given the relative immaturity of the market. at least for a time. Whereas people might use a Web-connected personal computer to search for information about an 18th-century British author. eMarketer Senior Analyst and the author of the new report. MLS can occupy several application categories/directories simultaneously. These parameters are evolving. don't apply in the mobile world since people aren't searching for Web sites as much as answers to specific questions. on the move/commuting where there the context of local and immediate is inherent in the searcher's need and 2. Mobile optimized search engines — Most major search engines have implemented a mobile optimized version of their products that take into consideration bandwidth and form factor limitations of the mobile platform. What is Mobile Local Search (MLS)? Are all searches local? What are the component technologies of a powerful MLS application? How can advertisers purchase inventory ad units available within the application structure? Mobile Local Search is the search and discovery of persons. An example of such a service in the US is Question Mania [7]. "What they're trying to do is take that core search capability and just jam it onto the phone. and future location. and things within an identifiable space defined by distinct parameters." says John du Pre Gauntt. Mobile question and answer services — These services allow a user to text a question to a central database and receive a reply using text. there are a range of services. Kevin Beebe. A usage example would be a user that wants to know the answer to a very specific question but is not in front of his/her computer. "That's probably not the right approach.[4] Thus.Mobile search Beyond navigation is location-aware technology for mobile search. Mobile Local Search is 30% of all digital searches with a surge in growth expected world-wide in 2010. Mobile Search: Clash of the Titans. This is a double-edge sword for product designers and developers. Today they include social networks. and actions that are relevant to the searcher’s past. not all of these can be expected to become the industry standards. current.

without the need for text entry. It can also be known as 'Find My Nearest' or 'Mobile Yellow Pages' services. They operate. or page-scrolling. Callers to the Orange landline DQ service are given the business and residential numbers they have requested verbally by an operator. An example of usage would be a user looking for a local cab or taxi company after a night out. The basics of the services allow users to find local services in the vicinity of their current location. Unique in that SMS messages are then broadcast on TV.sadko. In addition. Mobile directory search — This service is known by different names dependent on country and operator. typically in minutes. Mobile discovery services These services offer users recommendations on what they should do next. An example of real usage is the Directory Enquiries (DQ) service operated by Orange in the UK. It was the first company to provide such a service using only a premium short code and not a mix of shortcode and keyword. Some emerging services such as MyHelpa in the UK address the perceived limitations of one-shot. services and other interesting information in the local area that the user has searched on. Widget app for Android-based smartphones allowing one-button [10] access to any of 260 search engines. The services often use location-based technology to pinpoint exactly where the user currently is. 183 Main providers Name & Mobile URL 199QUERY SMS# 19978379AUS 272NZ AU C..com US . More details can be found in mobile local search. result review. Uses real humans to answer any questions sent to the shortcode 66666. An example is the service offered by Yell in the UK which is powered by MobilePeople's technology.com UK IE Founded by ex-Symbian and Psion CEO Colly Myers. in a similar way to the recommendation engines provided by internet retail shops such as Amazon. Launch April [9] 2006 4info 44636 4Info. which provides users with a push-button experience of selecting from thousands of human-screened and categorized Web selections in three or four seconds. Description Founded by Seb Maslin. They index the content already on the operators' portal but also provide users access to mobile specific content that is available outside the confines of the portal. . The information contains a text reminder of the requested information as well as links to local businesses. An example would be recommending a user a similar ringtone to the one that s/he has just browsed for. Services also usually come with a map and directions to help the user. An example of such search tools is the Worldport Navigator [8] for the iPhone.mobi US answerly.. Mobile navigation services — These services provide the indexing structure to the portals provided by mobile operators.com askdroid.Mobile search use Semantic Web technology to automate the process. Free service where real people research questions and deliver [12] answers. Orange sends the information in text format to the users mobile phone. 199QUERY is the premier Australian and New Zealand Text service that answers any question sent to it by SMS using a mix of human experts and intelligent organic search engine. reverse billed SMS messages by using VoIP to connect the Caller directly to the Human search agent.com. questions may range from settling pub quizzes to standard directory enquiries. October 2010 October [13] 2008 2004 Any Question Answered 63336UK 57275IE Ask Any Question 66666UK UK AskDroid Desktop Search Widget [11] Answerly. in a mobile context. search. Dynamic Mobile Selection Interface Services — A new category of mobile search tool that is emerging is one in which a pre-selected set of possible search content is downloaded in advance by a mobile user and then allows for a final internet search step. AQA uses human researchers to provide answers to any free form search queries or customer questions. no keyword needed.

com 1066958866(Chinese) 106695882929(English) China mInfo is a mobile search provider based in China. May 2009 Interchan www. a WAP 2.google. Has an exclusive deal with China Telecom to power its Omni-search platform. Limited to the categorical information they offer. and KDDI Corp. An SMS and voice natural language-based question answering service by ChaCha (search engine).minfo.Mobile search AskMeNow [14] askmenow. DOTGO is an extension of the internet to cell phone text messaging. 2005 ChaCha [15] www. or as GuruGold in support of the on-screen 'Games Guru' on Sky One's primetime computer games program 'Gamezville'.com. appeared in the [19] magazine in May. ? 2006-11 mInfo wap. They offer 2005-11 services on SMS. Uses natural language search that allows users to ask a question and receive an answer. by calling a toll-free number. Offers Google SMS which allows users to obtain information by texting in structured syntax to an SMS shortcode. Ask and Microsoft at the same time. in a white labeled approach. first in-print co-branded service.55155. Designed for all mobile devices. allows users on any carrier network to ask any question on any subject and the answer is provided by a human "guide". in Japan but not specifically for the SMS product.tw [21] Jumptap Microsoft Live Search for Mobile (also Bing [22] Mobile ) 55155 Taiwan ? 1 800 CALL 411 (dial-in.com [18] 466453 AT Mindbreeze takes care of mobile information access to all 2005 enterprise ressources including content conversion to fit all kinds of mobile devices. from any phone.com 27563 (ASKME) 184 US CA Gives users the option of searching for information using an SMS short code. innovative because it enables Internet users (only with a US work permit) to earn money by finding answers. Users have the option of searching from their mobile browsers [23] (homepage ). Totally free mobile search which also enables free connect function. download client applications specifically designed for Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices (download [24] ).com.com Google m.askmenow. not an SMS#) ? US? JumpTap offers white-label mobile search.chacha. AskMeNow has a carrier deals with Rogers Wireless and Bell Mobility in Canada and Alltel Wireless in the United States. a technology by which they search the ? search engines and allow users the ability to search Google. such as T-Mobile as the 'T-Mobile Cheat Service'.0 site m. Available on all three mobile carriers. Google has carrier deals with Britain's Vodafone. 2004. Yahoo. China Mobile. Launched by AlienPants initially as a generalised service but later deliberately limited to computer game cheats.com [16] DOTCOM (368266) DOTEDU (368338) DOTGOV (368468) DOTNET (368638) DOTORG (368674) US 2008 Fabasoft Mindbreeze [17] mindbreeze. Infospace also provides local search services and offers many of these serivces to mobile carriers. ? US GTIP and other co-branded customer implementations 61199 81444DE WAPUK/DE 82149IE(closed) 83246UK(closed) 83149UK(closed) UK UK IE DE January [20] 2003 Infospace ? ? Provider of meta-search. the service is made available to multiple customers under each customer's own brand.com Text 242 242 or voice 800-2ChaCha US 2008-01-03 DOTGO dotgo. . in association with GamePlayer magazine. or mobile applications. and search by voice. WAP and on-phone applet.

It is currently available for the iPhone. January 2008 2008 Picollator http:/ / [27] picollator.. The company builds mobile presence.mosio. com (WAP) http:/ / www. They focus on entertainment resources. Sensis (AUS). Sarah McVittie. com sms to ask@mosio. 2006-11 Mosio m. HTC. video etc. founded by Thomas Roberts. videos.. It's similar to ChaCha except the answers are provided by the community as opposed to paid searchers. Mosio is a mobile community based "question & answer" / search service.worldport. Motorola. Promedia (BE). Global customers include. Schibsted (NO). a unique mix of data access engine and mobile search abilities. image. SonyEricsson. Mosio won the best mobile app award at SXSW in 2008. US & Intl Developed by Incandescent.com China Roboo is a mobile search provider based in China. Denver (US) and Melbourne (AUS). EDC (DK). according to the developer's most recent 2009 test results. Yellow Pages Group (NZ) and Local Matters (USA). roboo. By providing a mix of extensive cached pre-selected common data search options (so that direct access to the internet is only needed for the final search option selected) plus a more intuitive GUI. built from the bottom up for mobile uses. Schibsted (SE). Wikipedia. its graphical user interface (GUI) includes an unusual hexagonal ring structure to enable faster selection of options than with conventional mobile search systems. music.net Roboo 413-648-7141 347-mshdnet US Free Question answering service 2010 185 http:/ / roboo. mobilePeople is headquartered in Copenhagen (DK) and has regional offices in London (UK). LG and Samsung.com [29] US & Intl Aggregates results from multiple search engines. Yahoo. It caters for any handset including iPhone. and price comparison shopping tools.net Question Answering Serive [25] www.towza.. A mobile local search that is offered via mobile applications. Google.Mobile search mshd. Worldport Navigator users can access data up to 50 times faster than with other search engines. also has a directory listing of the mobile specific versions of popular websites. Páginas Amarelas (PT). Mobile specific. Yell (UK). Designed for Windows Mobile and Nokia devices. theme. distribution and advertising utilising its award winning liquid Mobile Platform. mobi Taptu taptu. music.com [26] US 2008 MobilePeople A/S Leading provider of Local search and advertising solution for mobiles ? DK mobilePeople is a private independent global leader in local mobile 2002-01 search and advertising solutions for directory publishers and directory assistance providers. also offers refined searches for images. Golden Pages (IE). SMS-based service that uses a mix of human experts and sophisticated algorithms to provide bespoke answers to any customer query.net Worldport Navigator 2009 Yahoo! oneSearch [30] UK US . Users upload an image from their mobile phones and search for relevant resources. [31] 92466US (YAHOO) [8] www. Gouden Gids (NL). Nokia. Yahoo! has a search deal with British carrier Hutchison 3G UK Ltd.com [28] ? ? US UK Texperts (formerly Re5ult and 82ASK) 66000 UK 2003-06 or 08? 2008 Towza m. which include restaurant guides. Eniro (NO). It's differentiated from Google's and Yahoo's mobile search in that it only returns mobile results whereas the others may return links to non-mobile websites which may not render properly on a mobile phone. including ring. Inc.mshd. Blackberry. Eniro (DK). ? .

php?article_id=128&page=13& action=article&) . Gómez-Barroso. worldport. Ltd. 2010 (http://avmediasearch. questionmania.informaworld.forrester. Compañó. com [8] http:/ / www. aspx?id=1005170& src=article1_newsltr) eMarketer .com provides a comprehensive search engine for Iphones. Search and navigate results specifically designed for mobile cellular phones. fiercewireless.com (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. com/ External links • Forrester research on Western European Mobile internet usage (http://www. and Search Application Developers (http:/ / www. com [16] http:/ / dotgo. Mobile Local Search Saturates Profit over LBS Vendors. 2010 186 References [1] [2] [3] [4] eMarketer .com/smpp/ content~db=all~content=a927256739~frm=abslink • Prospects of mobile search. php [21] http:/ / www. yahoo.Mobile search [32] www.html) • Mobile Search in the US (http://www. Get answers with search designed for mobile (http:/ / mobile. chacha. com/ Article.com/reports/ 1-mobile_local_search_2010_locationbased_search_market) • Westlund. Oscar . 2006-04-01. answerly. com [30] http:/ / mobile.aspx?id=1005170&src=article1_newsltr) • Mobile Local Search 2010 (http://mobilelocation. Advertisers.Mobile Search in the US. mobi/ [28] http:/ / taptu. Compano & Feijo. php?release=1). net [9] "Question Answer SMS Service Launched in Australia" (http:/ / 199query. sadko.com review on KillerStartups. com [15] http:/ / www. net [26] http:/ / m.The Search Wars Are Going Mobile (http:/ / www.com (http:/ / www.com/Research/ Document/Excerpt/0. com/ p/ search [7] http:/ / www. com [24] http:/ / wls. com/ news/ prevreleases/ 06-01-03-smscheats. tw/ [22] http:/ / m.00.37634.7211. alienpants. com/ news/ prevreleases/ 21-05-04-gameplayer. Retrieved 2008-02-10.answerly. m. 55155. frompo. com/ ) [14] http:/ / askmenow. php [20] http:/ / www. com/ news. Claudio (2011) 'Exploring the logic of mobile search'. killerstartups. Blackberrys and cellular phones. com/ [17] http:/ / mindbreeze. com/ press-releases/ mobile-local-search-saturates-profit-over-lbs-vendors-advertisers-and-search-applicat) [6] http:/ / us. com/ ) [12] Answerly. bing. com [29] http:/ / m.emarketer. queryable. and Search Application Developers (http:/ / www. Behaviour & Information Technology' 'http://www. José-Luis . yahoo. com/ onesearch) [32] http:/ / www. com/ details?id=com. com/ Article. yahoo. mshd. aspx?id=1005083) (Westlund. com [19] http:/ / www.. towza. [10] https:/ / market. askdroid [11] www. mosio. fiercewireless. com/ [27] http:/ / picollator. android.com/ Mobile Phone Search Engine US & Intl Frompo. Advertisers. . com/ [18] http:/ / m. com. 2011). Ramón and Feijóo. com/ press-releases/ mobile-local-search-saturates-profit-over-lbs-vendors-advertisers-and-search-applicat) [5] Mobile Local Search Saturates Profit over LBS Vendors. google.eu/index.frompo. emarketer. com [25] http:/ / www. live. com/ User-Gen-Content/ answerly-com-all-you-have-to-do-is-ask) [13] (http:/ / www. emarketer.heroku. alienpants. com [23] http:/ / m. 199QUERY Pty. com/ [31] Yahoo! oneSearch. live. Gomez-Barroso.com/Article.

Their programmes have currently reached 50 million people across 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. education. The ultimate aim of non-profit mobile technology is to make it free. However. managing emergencies and disasters (54%). 50% of Africans have mobile phones. where mobile technology often represents the first modern infrastructure of any kind. companies like Cell-Life and GeoMed and HealthSMS use mobile technology for health. This means enlisting donors and getting mobile networks on board. and their penetration is expanding rapidly. companies such as TextToChange. Thus non-profit mobile technology is not aimed at advanced smart phones. health call centres. information initiatives and patient monitoring among others. emergency toll-free telephone services (55%).[5] mHealth activities come in the form of appointment reminders. However. people who are very poor have very basic phones. mHealth initiatives were health call centres (59%). Internationally. Ushahidi all work with mobiles in health. health surveys.[7] Fight HIV/Aids The Praekelt Foundation is a South African example of a non profit organisation that is using mobile technology to create social change.[9] . Users do not need to have airtime or data bundles on their phones to use it. head of operations at Praekelt Foundation. the majority of mHealth activities were limited in size and scope. and mobile telemedicine (49%). who then joined with other partners in forging the mHealth Alliance. In South Africa. For example mobile technology is used to provide information on health. disaster relief and aid management. emergency toll-free telephone services.[3] However. RapidSMS. relationships and sex and HIV/AIDS. the lowest percentage in the world.Mobile technology in Africa 187 Mobile technology in Africa Mobile technology in Africa is a fastest growing market. Non-profit mobile technology Thus mobile technology can be used.[8] The founders saw that the technology they were creating for corporate clients could be useful for NGOs to provide information to their target markets.[1] Nowhere is the effect more dramatic than in Africa. FrontlineSMS.[6] In June 2011 the first African mobile health summit was held in Cape Town. not only to generate profit from high income groups. One of the mobile technologies developed by Praekelt Foundation is a mobile community called YoungAfricaLive (YAL).” says Marcha Neethling. community mobilization and health promotion. finances or to access specific groups such as the youth. At the summit the World Health Organization (WHO) released a report stating that eighty-three per cent of governments surveyed had at least one mHealth project in their country. It was pioneered in part by the UN Foundation and Vodafone Foundation through partnerships with WHO and the social enterprise DataDyne. “Full profit want to reach people for different reasons.[4] This means that mobile technology is the largest platform in Africa. Promote health mHealth is using mobile technology to provide groups with health information. but ranges from sending out bulk SMSs to USSD. and can access a wide range of income groups.[2] Only 10% of Africans have access to the internet. but people should not be charged for having access to life saving information. mobi-sites and mobile communities. The aim of the mobile community was to create a space that would be interactive and fun where young people could talk candidly and learn about love. but to provide information and create social change for low income groups. or as near to free for the end user.

The South African Police Service also runs a national crime line which they encourage citizens to SMS in and report crimes in their communities. Vodacom’s mobile platform. they participate in polls. org/ our-solutions/ mobile-technology/ tech4dev/ index. edu/ http:/ / www. Each mobile phone donated has internet capabilities and the members of the Club will be allocated a mobile phone that they will use to capture events. Experts come on to the chat rooms to discuss sexual topics and allow users to ask personal questions anonymously. org/ news/ mobile-health-activity-spreads-over-4-5-countries-remains-limited-small-scale-and-single-issue[7] http:/ / www. Vodacom is sponsoring the bandwidth. The community is aimed at users between 16 and 24 and users receive daily news and celeb stories.[12] They partnered with The Khulisa's Youth out of School Ubuntu Club in Tembisa. Johannesburg and donated a computer and seven mobile phones to the Club. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / aiti. unfoundation. watch videos that link to stories and can engage in anonymous chat rooms. habarimedia. org/ [9] http:/ / www. All with a social call to action at the end. Users have commented saying YoungAfricaLive creates a platform for them to express their ideas. The ongoing challenge with free mobile communities and technology is continuing to engage the service provider to allow the community to be entirely free. unfoundation. was receiving 3. internetworldstats. interview members of the community and create video clips. budde. For example well known South African sexologist Dr Eve hosts live chats once a week. com/ news_article..[10] As (young) people were already using mobile technology to surf the net and download songs etc it seemed the perfect place to engage with this target group. mit. as well as update the community on current events. com. vodacom. “With YoungAfricaLive South Africa.”[11] 188 Community crime fighting In 2011 Vodacom pioneered a project in South Africa to fight crime using mobile phones. These are used by the young patrollers in the community to keep in touch and to report all crime incidents. au/ Research/ 2010-Global-Mobile-Communications-Key-Trends-and-Growth-in-a-Challenging-Environment. Users have engaged with the community and many of the updated features of the community have come directly from user suggestions. which is a massive investment. making them proud of their status and encouraging them to be responsible around sex. At the end of 2010. which is notorious for high levels of criminal activity. php?articleID=958& pid=press_releases .2 million unique users monthly. . html [8] http:/ / www. mhealthalliance.Mobile technology in Africa The mobile community is unique to the Vodacom network. html [6] http:/ / www. co. org/ global-issues/ technology/ mobile-health-for-development. com/ magazine/ content/ 07_39/ b4051054. za/ mobile/ vodafone-live [11] South African sexologist Dr Eve [12] http:/ / www. htm http:/ / www. html [5] http:/ / www. Vodafone Live. praekeltfoundation. com/ stats1. org/ [10] http:/ / www. htm https:/ / www. These will be uploaded to their Facebook page and website all in an effort to report on criminal activity in the community. The project is based in the Phomolong area of Tembisa. (thus) sustainability is always a question. praekeltfoundation. businessweek.

The systems in the MTSO are the heart of a cellular system. authentication. If it finds a control channel to listen to. If the subscriber has previously registered to a particular MSC then the MSC will have a record in its VLR and will therefore know the subscriber last registered location. DS3. It also provides connectivity to the PSTN. and once the phone and the tower switch on those frequencies. reassigning frequencies for handoffs. location updating and call routing. The MTSO contains the switching equipment or Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for routing mobile phone calls. With the subscriber's VLR Profile the MSC can determine the last known LAC/CID for this subscriber and knows which BTS to use when it needs to ring/page that phone for an incoming call. recording billing data and processing data from the cell site controllers. It also contains the equipment for controlling the cell sites that are connected to the MSC. To achieve this. Its subordinate BSC/RNC are responsible for assigning frequencies to each call. Anytime a MSC successfully registers a subscriber the HLR record is also updated. A subscriber's VLR profile has a LAC(Location Area Code . If the subscriber is unknown to the MSCs VLR. it listens for the network operator's SID (System Identification Code) on the control channel. etc. Then it picks a frequency pair the phone will use in that cell to take the call. The phone also transmits a registration request along with the SID. the call is connected. . It also provides resources needed to efficiently serve a mobile subscriber such as registration. The MSC is connected to a close telephone exchange by a trunk group. there has to be a method of connectivity between the MTSO and the cell site. It is responsible for interconnecting calls with the local and long distance landline telephone companies.Area server by cluster of BTS/cell sites) CID (Cell ID) as well as a list of allowed and disallowed services/features and other information. it will query the HLR to obtain the subscriber's profile and save it for a set length of time in its VLR. the cell site controllers provide control functions for a group of cell sites and actions of mobile phones through command and control data channels. If it cannot find any control channels to listen to then it assumes it is outside the range and displays a message indicating no service. compiling billing information (with the help of its CBM/SDM). All cellular systems have at least one MTSO which will contain at least one MSC. controlling handoffs so a mobile phone leaving one cell (formally known as BTS)'s coverage area. When the MSC gets the call. These cells are ideally hexagonal in shape and they are initially laid out with their centers about 4 to 8 miles apart from each other. If both SIDs match then it knows that it is communicating with a cell in its home system. This provides an interface to the (Public Switched Telephone Network) (PSTN). can be switched automatically to a channel in the next cell. The region to be served by a Cellular Geographic Serving Area(CGSA) is split into geographic cells. The MSC communicates with the phone over the control channel to tell it which frequencies to use. OCn or Ethernet circuits. receives the SID and then compares it to the SID programmed into the phone. Other MTSO equipment. it checks its database for the location of the phone. When a mobile phone is turned on. Subscriber Registration The MSC also plays a major role in call routing. This may be by DS1.Mobile Telephone Switching Office 189 Mobile Telephone Switching Office The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) is the mobile equivalent to a PSTN Central Office. The MSC is responsible for switching calls to mobile units as well as to the local telephone system. This will help when a call is received outside of the MSC's coverage area or for an incoming PSTN call.

The Irwin handbook of telecommunications. The BTS. This process is called handoff. The data regarding the new channel are sent rapidly (in about 50 milliseconds). McGraw-Hill Professional. Telecommunication system engineering. Mobile ticketing is the process whereby customers can order. The remaining functions of a MSC are identical to a PSTN switch. then print a hard copy for the offender. As a result a MSC can serve a large are typically hundreds of miles. Freeman (2004). and the entire returning process takes only about 300 milliseconds. pay for. McGraw-Hill Professional. Muller (2003). The above in a MSC is what's considered as it's mobility management. • Roger L. place by analyzing measurements of radio signal strength made by the present controlling cell site and by its neighbors. The advantages of mobile ticketing include reduced paperwork time. Highly populated areas require more BTSs and BSCs/RNCs which will in turn obviously. After handoff. 2. John Wiley and Sons. Freeman (2005). • James Harry Green (2005). Mobile ticketing is a prime example of horizontal telecommunication convergence. BSC/RNC are the RAN/UTRAN (Radio Access Network & UMTS Radio Access Network) subset in the mobile network. References • Nathan J. Fundamentals of telecommunications. then the phone assumes that it is roaming. • Roger L. Mobile ticketing is a method by which law enforcement agencies use in-car computers to create traffic citations in the field. Mobile ticketing 1. reduced chance of tickets being made void by human error and immediate accessibility of citation information by other departments. will reduce the geographic coverage of a DMSC. the BSC(GSM) or RNC(3G UMTS) will automatically instruct it to tune to a different frequency. The returning instructions for handoff sent during a call must use the voice channel. Mobile tickets reduce the production and distribution costs connected with traditional paper-based ticketing channels and increase customer convenience by providing new and simple ways to purchase tickets. Wireless A to Z. if the SID on the control channel does not match the SID programmed into the phone.Mobile Telephone Switching Office 190 Handovers As a mob unit engaged in a call moves away from a cell site or formally known as Base transceiver station and its signal weakens. one assigned to the newly entered BTS. John Wiley and Sons.[1] Applications for Mobile Tickets • • • • • • Airline check-in Cinema ticketing Concert/Event ticketing Consumer voucher distribution Mass transit Trade shows . A MSC can serve many BSCs/RNCs which in turn server many BTS. The MSC also performs handovers/handoffs which occurs when a call needs to be handed off to a different BSC/RNC it serves or to completely new MSC. obtain and validate tickets from any location and at any time using mobile phones or other mobile handsets.

with many consumers becoming increasingly comfortable with purchasing online.Mobile ticketing 191 Advantage of mobile tickets • • • • Improved consumer convenience Increased revenue by increasing accessibility of tickets Reduced infrastructure costs (scanners retail at 30 times the cost of 1d scanners) Reduced ticket printing/mailing cost Using Mobile Tickets Mobile Purchase Over the past 10 years. Other methods for billing include having a mobile wallet that allows the phone user to charge their credit card. which is not viable when the ticket has a conventional profit margin. Sweden) to a service number.g.or distance based pricing and different zone systems. BCBP is said to be able to save the industry over US $500 million annually. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) 2007 announced a global standard that paves the way for global mobile phone check-in using two-dimensional (2D) bar codes. The revenue share model need to be re-negoatiated separately with teleoperators to suit for mobile ticketing.[2] Mobile Tickets can be purchased in a variety of ways including online. The industry has set a deadline of the end of 2010 to implement 100% bar coded boarding passes (BCBP). The price of the ticket can be added to the users mobile phone bill or debited from their pre-paid service using premium SMS billing. The main business limitation is that when premium SMS is used for billing. around 40% of the transaction value is retained by the mobile operator and sms aggregator. but the limitation is the low usage volume of these kind of payment solutions.g. either time. Different ticket types can be ordered with a different code (e. Upon full implementation. The drawbacks to text message purchasing is that either the vendor loses 40% of their revenue to the mobile operator. A return message is sent containing the mobile ticket. or a secure mobile application. WAP page. For repeated purchases such as daily train tickets. The use of different ordering codes enables creating a variety of ticket types. SMS Purchase SMS purchase is usually achieved by sending an SMS message containing a short code (e. via text messaging or over the phone from a voice call. GV for a single adult ticket in Gothenburg. or any credit card purchase has to be achieved through a web page as the SMS has no security suitable for credit card entry. GU for a youth ticket or GN as a night tariff ticket in Gothenburg). The next logical step for consumers who are looking for even more convenient methods of doing business is mobile purchase. e-commerce has exploded. This trend will be accelerated by the increased functionality of today's mobile devices. mobile applications or text messaging are good options. . and very few ticket choices can be easily remembered and entered by SMS.

Picture-based messages require a laser scanner (for 1-dimensional/linear barcodes) or camera based imager (for 2-dimensional barcodes) to photograph the message and decode it into a ticket ID. Picture messaging is supported by almost all phones and is generally the delivery method of choice. reflections). New systems that make use of encryption of the data inside the barcode enable off-line scanning and validation. which is especially important if users are purchasing tickets immediately prior to use. (Many transport ticketing systems.) . Each of the above methods has its specific benefits and drawbacks. RFID is only supported by a very few phones yet. Barcodes rendered on the device by a dedicated application have the advantage of being full screen without clutter. Very few phones outside Japan have RFID/NFC tags and so this method of delivery is largely unsupported.Mobile ticketing Online Purchase Online purchase is still an option for mobile tickets. Most forms of mobile tickets require some form of device to read the ticket from the user's device. such as the London Oyster card travel system and the M-PhaTic system of the Swedish state railways SJ are designed so that scanners can operate as disconnected islands when connectivity to central systems is lost. which is especially useful for transport tickets. Optically reading the display of a cell phone is heavily influenced by the quality of the display (resolution. Text-based codes use OCR software. Text-only messaging is supported by all mobile phones and is the simplest method of delivery.visual inspection or OCR Text messaging with WAP Push .visual inspection or OCR Picture messaging (SMS. and the portable venue or on-vehicle scanning devices cannot always have a connection to the live ticket database.This is the method proposed under the Near Field Communication (NFC) specification but not yet in general use. It usually requires the sender to know the phone model in advance so that the picture is rendered at the correct resolution. GPRS. 192 Mobile Ticket Delivery Delivery of tickets to mobile phones can be done in a variety of ways: • • • • Text messaging (SMS) . IRDA or RFID.which can store and render barcodes delivered via SMS. allowing the user to setup an account and choosing payment options etc. Southend United Football Club is currently the only team in the UK to have a mobile ticketing facility offered to fans. EMS. WAP Push and MMS) . except of Japanese Osaifu-Keitai. size of pixels. Mobile Ticket Scanning Visually validated mobile tickets do not require a scan device. A dedicated mobile application can also help the user to organise and sort their tickets better than when an SMS or MMS inbox is full of similar tickets. Bluetooth. Mobile Ticket Redemption Visually validated mobile tickets are validated without connection to a back office system. Near Field Communication devices scan using an RFID reader. • Device RFID . meaning faster and more successful scanning.usually uses a barcode Dedicated Mobile application . Other forms of mobile ticket systems contact a server that is able to verify the ticket and record that it has been used.

Secure real time redemption of ticket. text push. Secure. Secure. For budget-conscious (scanner already in pocket). Customer types unique code into kiosk. Mobile with partners in Europe. Requires Worldwide. dynamic user experience. PDA communicate with BO via WiFi/GPRS connection. United States scanner devices. strong device support. also offering solutions for the purchase of turnstiles.Brisbane/Australia Mobile Tickets Ltd In-Mobile Application. reliable. integrated thermal printer. Barcode 1D and 2D delivered via secure encrypted SMS or GPRS. PDA or Chip and PIN handset.. bCode Text-based SMS. Unique and multi use tickets available. Utilises existing Chip and PIN technology for ticket code capture and data transfer.. Capture of significant customer data. Worldwide. possible. North America Banking and Payments. Electronically (camera). codeREADr Barcode:1D and Embedded data 2D print or virtual. . WAP Purchase. The solution includes PDA software and Back Office system. Remote or local server. Text-based SMS as response to text in. Asia and Tickets. iPhone at point of entry. Remote or local server. secure & also working customizable on Mobile Tickets in Facebook App Offices: Sofia/Bulgaria. Eagle Eye Solutions Limited Central server lookup utilising either internet or existing financial networks.Mobile ticketing 193 Solutions Company Delivery Method Scanning Method Validation Method Advantages Disadvantages Location Mobile Ticketing Solution Bissano Software ltd Worldwide delivery! Barcode scanner. The solution is used to sales tickets on move. PDA or kiosk rental costs. scanner and kiosk equipment required for Mobile Ticketing Investment for Australia. fast. using a 3kb Java Platform Providers of the first ever Twitter to Mobile Barcode delivery solution Consulting on Offices based in London (UK). Integration into Chip and PIN system. Remote or World wide delivery local server. validated in real-time.

worldwide . integration with ticketing. Secure. Secure. Integration with proximity couponing via Bluetooth own servers. no phone settings or pre-registration required. Remote or local server. No settings or pre-registration needed. CRM and access management solutions. Secure. single SMS. Off-the shelf image scanner. including handheld units from well-known brands. Tampere. Sweden.reliable. Secure. API to integrate to existing ticketing solutions Rental of or investment for scanner devices. barcode 1D and 2D. Investment for scanner devices. No investment for scanner devices. Secure and easy.strong device support. EMS or MMS. Email. INA secure server and/or local server. local server as ticket code contains full information Investment in scanner devices required if existing units cannot be used.Mobile ticketing GEAR. EXIO & MD-20 barcode scanners. strong device support. Visually / validators. optional extra verification by phone. Investment in scanner devices required if existing units cannot be used. API integration into existing systems Rental of or investment for scanner devices. No visual validation. fraud prevention. Worldwide Impact Mobile Barcode-based SMS w/WAPpush or MMS.it Barcode-based MMS. InMoDo (M-PhaTic) Text-based SMS. RFID Imager/Camera-based Remote or scanners. integrated marketing services. single SMS. Finland. Codes validated with mBARC/Newland scan engine. (service worldwide) INA Finland Text-based SMS w/WAPpush. although implementation possible. Problem with several phone models. Europe. live voucher. SMS. Remote or local server. Remote or local server. wide-reach. Secure control code system for visual validation. range of scanners for different use-cases. High telecom costs of MMS messages. Italy 194 Gavitec AG Barcode-based SMS.

API available. Secure. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner local server World wide delivery. visual ID included. MMS. Secure. MBO Barcode-based Off the shelf image SMS. Worldwide delivery. 2D barcodes on mobiles Remote or local server Investment for scanner devices. Keyword Text-In/Push/WAP Purchase/Secure Interfaces Barcode SMS 1D. live voucher. WAP. optimised 1D and 2D barcodes tailored to the mobile to ensure successful scanning Secure ticket purchase and delivery from the mobile. Worldwide . Worldwide deployments Micket Mobile Ticket Barcode-based SMS. MMS. usually Java Platform. API integration into existing systems Removal of human visual validation. (SMS. WAP Push or MMS. integrated marketing services. total fraud prevention. secure. visual ID included. without any sign-up process or passwords. Handheld QR code scanners. Barcodes delivered in a single SMS. wide-reach. Micro Edition. Mobile and Event Ticketing Solutions Secure. Twitter. WAP Push or MMS Remote or local server Integrated branding Phone model and marketing required solution. Mobiqa Barcode-based SMS. MMS. Encrypted/Plain text QR code.Mobile ticketing Liquid Barcodes Barcode. barcode tickets delivered via encrypted SMS or GPRS Any 2D barcode scanner. Mobile application must be installed on phone by the user or the operator Norway 195 Masabi Dedicated mobile application. United Kingdom. optimised barcode tailored to the mobile to ensure successful scanning - Worldwide Moo! Mobile Technology Barcode-based 2D barcode scanner SMS. Rental of or Worldwide Investment for scanner devices. Secure and Encrypted. 2D M-Scan Validator 1D. Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner. Integration with Facebook. Mobimatics Caching GPRS manifest downloads stored on local devices. More reliable barcode scanning because of full-screen rendering of the barcode. Investment for scanner devices. EMS). EMS. scanner / visually WAP. NOKIA SMART. local server. including using other mobile phones as the inspection device Encrypted barcode contents enable off-line validation without synchronising ticket databases onto the local scanner. Remote or local server. fraud prevention. Nokia Smart. or on-line validation. Netherlands.

secure solutions Rental of or investment for scanner devices - Global. global delivery. Still often uses paper ticket for confirmation. binary SMS to carry bar codes) Visually (naked eye) or validators reading textual content Remote or local server. ScreenTicket SMS with link delivered to web based mobile tickets and coupons. even an Android smart phone with camera and downloadable software can be used as handheld validator. Plusdial SMS text message (one SMS is enough. Investment for Worldwide scanners needed (but only if automatic validation is required). No investment needed when using visual checking. As textual SMS used. Fixed and handheld scanners available.Mobile ticketing MogoTix QR code-based ticket delivered through SMS Validated using MogoTix iPhone or Android apps Remote or local server Self-service ticketing. system works in all mobile phone models without registration or even data settings requirements. No scanners needed Off-the shelf image scanner Remote server. Patented control code system for visual validation. based out of Denmark ShowClix Ticketing LLC Remote server United States . phones. fast setup. all options available Delivers tickets via SMS text message PCT patent pending On Device Verification® and dynamic elements on tickets and coupons. Operated since 2001 with over 60 million tickets sold. no need for e. easy integration of API. data necessary On Device None Verification®.g. downloaded to RFID chip (Mobile FeliCa) RFID reader (PaSoRi) Online lookup Secure RFID system Not usable for without visual non-compliant scanning. event organizers can sign up to quickly sell mobile tickets to events iPhone or Worldwide Android phone required to scan tickets 196 NTT DoCoMo (Osaifu-Keitai) Online purchase. Credit card registration needed. tested with 2 optional scanner/validator systems.

MMS and Email. Customised version for car parks Online lookup via GPRS or WiFi. Scalable worldwide with connectivity. wide-reach. EMS). remote or local. Secure. local server or trickle fed PDA database. Secure. Barcode-based SMS. custom built local server. Rental of or investment for scanners needed. Western Europe Trinity Mobile Limited Barcode (SMS. NFC or RFID via Sincoda terminal. MMS specialist. Secure. 2D) Online lookup. Off-the-shelf 2D Local or scanners and/or smart Remote phones authenticated Server. 2D-Barcode-based SMS. or Kiosk NOKIA. PDA MMS. Smartmachine CCD-camera based Online or barcode scanner. Content sent via SMS/WAP Push. Wifi and GPRS Online. local. strong device support. attached to an access control reader or built into a kiosk. CRM and access management solutions. United Kingdom 197 Skycore LLC 2D barcode creation. Strategic partnership with IATA for mobile boarding passes. visual ID included. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Any 2D barcode scanner Removal of human visual validation. WAP Push. end-to-end. (SMS. Secure RFID/NFC reader with dual SAM slots. Worldwide Timoco Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner. authentication and redemption. remote or local. Free software tyntec Secure. (SMS. Connectivity. total fraud prevention.Chamrajpet. Rental of or investment for scanners needed. WAP Push or MMS. Worldwide Investment for Worldwide availability. through end-to-end control over the entire GSM delivery path. NFC. MMS. Strong device support. Highest scanner privacy protection devices. optional printer dock. delivery and redemption. NOKIA SMART. Pyrumas Software Pvt. local database or custom integration Open system .can integrate with any coupon/ticket/loyalty programme. Cross carrier (US). API option. NOKIA SMART. WAP. Barcode reader. EMS). enterprise solution. 2D-Barcode via Mail to BlackBerry/PDA. Investment in traditional 2D scanners or smart phones. MMS. to scan/read 2D barcodes. Keyword Text-In/Push/WAP Purchase/Secure Interfaces Barcode. Bangalore. delivery. scanner Highest privacy devices. Content sent via WAP and embedded email 2D barcode. unique one time use codes. Investment for scanner devices. Strong device support. MMS. WAP.Mobile ticketing Sincoda Limited 2D barcode creation. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Any 2D barcode scanner Online. protection through end-to-end control over the entire GSM delivery path. Ltd Barcode. barcode scanners (1D. Read paper and mobile barcodes. WAP. Indian Investment for India . . EMS). USA. integration with ticketing.

secure & required for America customizable customization and messaging service White label solution. prnewswire. The solution is used to sales tickets on move. and remote or imager/camera-based local scanners No sign-up needed. 2D) WapOneline SMS. WAP and EMAIL(Optional for Smartphones).Mobile ticketing Unwire SMS. World wide delivery Investment Offices: Finland. 3G. www. Barcode scanner. Mobile Ticketing Solution The solution includes PDA software and Back Office system. Android. Ikôn. Latin possible. strong devices device support. Romania. Smart camera image scanner.Brisbane/Australia References [1] http:/ / www. WAP & Mobile Web Interfaces Premium and Standard Rate SMS Connections to 30+ Carriers Handheld units IPhone. Inc. Investment for EU base and soon Worldwide No phone settings or scanner Partner. code lookup Online.strong and reliable device support .Secure.co Text base SMS 100% compatible with all mobile handsets. custom Remote or built barcode local server scanners (1D . php?pageID=14 . com/ index.only SMS. fraud prevention. required. integrated marketing services. pl?ACCT=109& STORY=/ www/ story/ 03-11-2008/ 0004771817& EDATE= [2] http:/ / mttnow. Off-the shelf. PDA communicate with BO via WiFi/GPRS connection. DataTEK Group. No need additional software to install on the phone. Motorola . live voucher.mTicket. smartphone apps and mobile web Visual. USA. Easy integration of api. integrated thermal printer. 198 Wayin Solutions 1D and 2D Barcode-based message (SMS. Worldwide delivery! Offices: Sofia/Bulgaria. highly flexible ticket product types Secure. Investment for Europe multiple payment scanner methods. pre-registration devices.MMS. WiFi. rental of scanner units available (South Africa Only) Investment for South Africa scanner devices. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. API integration into existing systems. EMS. Purchase Conf# or Barcode delivered to handset Remote or local server validation.

which allows more flexibility and ownership of the subscriber's mobile phone number (MSISDN). such as mobile switching centers (MSCs) or a radio access network. Some may own their own home location register. country. And have therefore either openly embraced potential MVNO partners or endeavored to launch their own branded MVNOs. and the individual situations of the MNO and MVNO. a company that does have frequency allocation(s) and all the required infrastructure to run an independent mobile network is known simply as a mobile network operator (MNO). in this case. and as a network within its own region. In many of the early markets the regulator forced Host Network Operators (HNO's) to open their network to a potential competitor. an MVNO is an entity or company that works independently of the mobile network operator and can set its own pricing structures that are subject to the rates agreed with the MNO. There is a distinction between MVNOs and service providers. The regulatory perception was that the MVNO model would be a time efficient and cost effective route for telecoms companies to enter the market and therefore bring increased competition for the benefit of the consumer. nor does it necessarily have all of the infrastructure required to provide mobile telephone service. Some MVNOs run their own billing and customer care solutions known as business support systems (BSS).Mobile virtual network operator 199 Mobile virtual network operator A mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) is a company that provides mobile phone services but does not have its own licensed frequency allocation of radio spectrum.[2] Background and history The emergence of the MVNO model in a market is often a result of one of two factors. Conversely and more recently many mobile network operators believe that there is merit in operating a wholesale MVNO business unit to complement their retail model. who purchase wholesale mobile minutes and resell to end-users. The efficiency is obtained by the nature of the MVNO business model. MVNOs are roughly equivalent to the "switchless resellers" of the traditional landline telephone market. The first commercially successful MVNO in the United Kingdom was Virgin Mobile UK. For some of the earlier markets that embraced the MVNO model. the MVNO does not own any GSM. Service providers generally do not have their own SIM cards. or HLR. the regulatory authority sought to introduce the MVNO/wholesale model to drive competition into a market that was considered to involve significant market power which existed for early entrant MNO's in those countries. such as in the Scandinavia region. or other core mobile network related infrastructure. In general. The situation created was one of a reluctant HNO which felt that it was being forced into a commercial relationship that would eventually have a negative impact on its revenues. An MNO that does not have a frequency spectrum allocation in a particular geographical region may operate as an MVNO in that region. most notably with regard to negotiating the best wholesale deal possible.[1] Conversely. Virgin replicated its UK success through its US operation Virgin . Many use a Mobile Virtual Network Enabler. CDMA. nor does it have the time consuming task of rolling out extensive radio infrastructure. Usually. An MVNO's roles and relationship to the MNO vary by market. Regulatory intervention designed to lower the barriers for market entry and ultimately increase competition or a strategic decision by an MNO looking to extend its existing operations and target niche or underserved segments through a second or perhaps multiple brands.[3] launched in 1999 and currently has over 4 million customers in the UK. which presented a more favorable environment for a potential MVNO. the MVNO appears as a roaming partner to other networks abroad. and the services they provide depend on the services of the hosting MNOs or MVNOs. in that an MVNO doesn’t incur the significant capital expenditure on spectrum and infrastructure that an MNO does. This resistance presented a challenging operating environment for the MVNO.

Convergys. 120 MVNOs now offer mobile broadband services. 6GMOBILE. while others will go out of business (examples are Disney Mobile and Helio in the USA and easyMobile in Europe). LogicStar. and Baraka Telecom in Asia. ASPIDER Solutions. Aggregator MVNEs with their own platforms this includes aggregators which have developed one or more back-office solutions internally. data platforms and billing solutions. and failed in Singapore. and have complemented them with partnerships to provide end-to-end enablement services. aql. Most industry observers believe that over time. . These are distinct from domestic MVNO agreements and are intended to provide transparency of international tariffs.[4] However ventures in Australia have not been so successful. The first MVNO was created by Tele2 in Denmark. They are not solely focused on the MVNO market. Companies include Ztar and TMNG. Virgin ran using a service provider model—essentially reselling capacity on T-Mobile. consolidation will take place on the market. Specialised enablers these offer only parts of the back-office network such as messaging platforms. and Baraka Telecom in Asia. which in turn are operated by 515 companies (some companies operate multiple MVNOs in the same country). According to Pyramid Research. Effortel. Qualution. Companies include Teleena. Transatel. Tyntec. there are three main categories of MVNEs. txtNation. and subsequently rolled out in several European markets. rMVNOs. created when Telia failed to obtain a 3G license in their home market. Elephant Talk. distribution and customer care systems. particularly their logistics. operationally light MVNOs of today have generally worked with an aggregator MVNE that managed the limited back-end operations on behalf of the MVNO. and mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE). Besides leveraging their own existing assets. Companies include [7] Cognatel. One specific sector of MVNO operations focuses on international. according to their MVNO solutions: Aggregator MVNEs these offer consulting and integration services and have bundled all of the back-office network components through alliances. They still work with MVNEs. Martin Dawes Systems. 6GMOBILE. This model formed the basis between the co-operation between Tele2 in Sweden and Telia. Elephant Talk. 200 MVNOs worldwide As of May 2011 there are 645 active MVNO operations in the world. ASPIDER Solutions. Initially. roaming mobile virtual networks operators (rMVNO).Telogic Teleena. The voice-centric. Cognatel. However the majority of MVNOs are consumer-focused and most have a focus on price as their unique selling point.Mobile virtual network operator Mobile USA. These promote their ability to quickly provide order-to-cash solutions to MVNOs. [6] Terminology The industry is going through stages characterized by alphabet soup nomenclature. Transatel. strong brand MVNO is transforming the dynamics of the MVNE market. Examples of a non-consumer MVNO being wireless maingate and white Machine-to-Machine (M2M) data-based MVNOs. but they tend to opt for specialised ones with best-of-breed solutions and a strong reputation.[5] MVNOs target both the consumer and enterprise markets. including MVNO. albeit with a different strategy. they choose to own more of their platforms. which was acquired by Sprint Nextel for a total equity value of approximately USD$483 million. The new breed high-end.

and content to their subscribers. The opportunity for mobile operators to take advantage of MVNOs generally outweighs the competitive threat. EVDO. An MVNO strategy can generate economies of scale for better network utilisation. 201 MVNO classification Business MVNOs like BeyondMobile and Abica provide bespoke services to businesses. whether alone or with partners and they can help attack targeted segments. product. customer service. MVNOs are a way to implement a more specific marketing mix. MVNO models mean lower operational costs for mobile operators (billing. . text. grow average revenue per user by providing new applications and tariff plans and also can help with difficult issues like how to deal with fixed-mobile convergence by allowing MVNOs to try out more experimental projects and applications. Mobile operators and MVNOs There are three primary motivations for mobile operators to allow MVNOs on their networks. and provide access to their content in different countries via specialized Mobiles and existing IP coverage. sales. Lifestyle MVNOs like Helio focus on specific niche market demographics. other Global Service or specialized application based MVNO are also growing. such as GPRS. Network utilisation-driven strategies Many mobile operators have capacity.Mobile virtual network operator Exploiting the wireless IP networks competing infrastructure bandwidth with low traffic due to the lack of Mobile Driven Content. marketing). Discount MVNOs provide cut-price call rates to market segments. and segment needs–especially in new areas like 3G. Advertising-funded MVNOs like Blyk or MOSH Mobile build revenues from advertising to give a set amount of free voice. Ethnic MVNOs like Lebara iCard Mobile and Globalcell Mobile who target ethnic communities by providing inexpensive calls to their home country. help fight churn. along with specific domain knowledge software applications with specific content. These are generally: Segmentation-driven strategies mobile operators often find it difficult to succeed in all customer segments. These companies are pushing their own business model as content driven MVNO. They usually host their services in one location. Product-driven strategies MVNOs can help mobile operators target customers with specialised service requirements and get to customer niches that mobile operators cannot get to.

but is a technology provider that uses innovative hardware and software to enable MVNOs to create their own actual mini-networks. Using its agreement with the MNO. A typical MVNO will be able to handle customer service. but the MVNO has the direct customer relationship with the end user. but the MNE has . There is no impact on the MNO's mainstream network and it can. and the MVNO will typically be able to handle producing SMS and MMS messages. but the MVNE will typically be able to handle producing SMS and MMS messages. this is a task for the MVNE's wholesale customers. and operating within the MNO's spectrum license. if it chooses. invoicing and collect consumption data and handle handset management themselves. The MVNO is able to handle Network Routing themselves and will typically have entered into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. The MNE will typically be able to handle customer relationship. Additionally the MNO will usually handle marketing and sales to end users themselves. Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) The MSSE has no mobile infrastructure of its own.unlike the MNO . The MVNO is often able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic. the MSSE helps the MVNO to deploy its own network of low-power base-stations into areas the MNO could not justify. using Pico. A typical MVNE will handle customer service. SMS and MMS messaging and data traffic themselves. The MVNE handles the technical side and often also tasks like customer service and legal assistance for mobile providers without their own network. their own mobile infrastructure and direct customer relationship to the end user. this is a task for the MNE's wholesale customers. . while preserving and enhancing the relationship between MVNO and MNO. customer billing and collection of consumption data and handset management. The MNO can produce and distribute for example voice-minutes. The MNE handles the technical side of the business and often also handles areas like customer service and legal assistance for mobile providers without their own network. Mobile network enabler (MNE) An MNE is characterised by having their own mobile licence and own mobile infrastructure. The MNE is able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes. Mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) An MVNO is characterised by neither having their own mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. collection of consumption data and mobile handset management.Mobile virtual network operator 202 Understanding the MVNO value chain Mobile network operator (MNO) The traditional MNO is characterised by having their own mobile licence. The MNO can handle Network Routing and will usually have roaming deals with foreign MNOs. customer billing. Furthermore the MVNO will usually handle marketing and sales to end-users them self. SMS and MMS messages and data traffic.no direct customer relationship with the end user. The MNE is capable of handling Network Routing themselves and the MNE will typically have roaming deals with foreign MNOs. while the MVNO can improve its profitability by offering specialist and niche mobile solutions. Mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE) MVNEs are characterised by neither having a mobile licence nor mobile infrastructure or any direct customer relationship with the end-users. The MNO can typically handle customer service. extend the reach of the its network at no cost. Additionally the MVNE will not handle marketing and sales to end-users. customer billing and collection of consumption data and mobile handset management. The MNE will not handle marketing and sales to end-users. It is therefore only an MNO that can establish themselves as an MNE.and Femto-cell technologies. The MVNE functions as a middleman between the MNO and the mobile providers without their own networks. The MVNE is capable of handling Network Routing and the MVNE has typically entered into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. typically by tagging onto their existing fixed line operation. The MVNE is not capable of producing and distributing for example voice minutes and data traffic.

but the SP has the direct customer relationship with the end user. customer billing consumption data and handset management themselves. • The MVNO is able to route and bill "on-net" call. in order to control traffic and subscriber services. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can be qualified by the MVNO for voice/data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The BR cannot handle Network Routing themselves and the BR will not enter into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. there are several models of MVNO. MSISDN. the MVNO own its SIM card. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • The MVNO own in the country national Point Code. The SP will typically handle customer relationship. The SP is not able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic and cannot produce SMS or MMS messages themselves. IMSI.Mobile virtual network operator Service provider (SP) An SP has neither a mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. MNP. GGSN). This partner allocate a specific IMSI range. and own roaming agreement). or other mobile/fixed operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. or mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This model is the most independent full MVNO model. • The MVNO can be extended in future as MNO. and core network elements (MSC. customer billing or collection of consumption data and handset management themselves. • Interconnect. Example : 6GMOBILE (The Netherlands) aql (UK) [8] . Additionally. Full MVNO On-Brand • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. • IMSIs are from MVNO for national call (with its Mobile Network Code in the country) and roaming agreement is negotiated with a roaming partner. The BR cannot produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic themselves and are not able to produce SMS or MMS messages. An SP is not able to handle Network Routing themselves and a SP will not enter into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. 203 MVNO models and value chain As such. Branded reseller (BR) A BR has neither a mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. the SP will typically handle their own marketing and sales to end-users. The BR will primarily concentrate their activities around marketing and sales to end-users. A typical BR will not handle customer service. AuC. and the vocabulary must be technical in order to split the different models. and manage the IMSI translation between national and roaming cases. The Host-MNO is seen as a utility in order to initiate a national mobile originating call without host-MNO Intelligent Network triggering • The MVNO numbering plan is completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. The MVNO is as such as possible independent from the host-MNO. own subscriber provisioning. own billing. The BRs' positive contribution to the value chain is (naturally) their "brand". but their distribution power will also be a central asset for many Branded Resellers. but has the direct customer relationship to end-users. HLR.

and manage the IMSI translation between national and roaming cases. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) . and own roaming agreement). own subscriber provisioning. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO • The MVNO own in the country National Point Code. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. IMSI are arranged by host operator MNO • MNP. own subscriber provisioning. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. MNP. AuC. • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan.Mobile virtual network operator 204 Full MVNO Basic • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. • Interconnect. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Example : KPN Spain. • IMSIs are from MVNO for national call (with its Mobile Network Code in the Country)and Roaming agreement is negotiated with a roaming partner. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. • IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • The MVNO own in the country National Point Code. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. AuC. own billing). MSISDN. IMSI. but not its own roaming agreement. • Interconnect. own billing. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. Telecable (Spain) Full MVNO Mono-IMSI • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. This partner allocate a specific IMSI range.

or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. • IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. IMSI. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO • The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). MNP. own billing).Mobile virtual network operator 205 Complete or extended MVNO • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The MVNO owns HLR and IN. own subscriber provisioning. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. The Host-MNO is completely controlling mobile calls via Intelligent Network triggering. IMSI. are arranged by host operator MNO • AuC. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is Complete MVNO without any routing capabilities (no MSC in the MVNO network). @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. MNP are arranged by host operator MNO AuC. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Medium MVNO • • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. . • Interconnect. and partially the subscriber provisioning. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. but not its own roaming agreement. Interconnect. • Roaming agreement is negotiated by Host-MNO.

The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. Auc. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. Effortel Diameter MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. IMSI. MNP. The Host-MNO is completely controlling mobile calls via Intelligent Network triggering. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. KPN France. The MVNO owns only IN. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The Host-MNO is completely controlling all mobile calls andIntelligent Network triggering. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. MNP. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. R (cable operator) (Spain). The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card. no HLR in the MVNO network). IMSI. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is IN MVNO without any charging capabilities (no MSC. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is Medium MVNO without any routing capabilities (no MSC. Auc. Transatel (France). Interconnect. The MVNO owns only Rating capabilities via Host-MNO Diameter oriented interfaces. Example : Fastweb (Italy). Example : Sisteer (France) . The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card. no HLR in the MVNO network). Interconnect.Mobile virtual network operator 206 IN MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service.

. Blycroft. 2011-05-20. Blycroft. pdf) (Swedish) [3] About Virgin Mobile. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. Legislation Presently many companies and regulatory bodies are strongly in favour of MVNOs. "Sprint Nextel to Acquire Virgin Mobile USA" (http:/ / www. telecomsnetworks. References [2] Liikenne. fi/ fileserver/ mvno pricing structures in finland. Jordan's TRA has issued its first MVNO regulations in 2008 facilitating the entrance of the first MVNO in the region. The Host-MNO is completely controlling all mobile calls and Intelligent Network triggering. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). com/ home/ mvno-directory).understandingmvno. washingtonpost. The MVNO owns only marketing. [5] "MVNO Directory" (http:/ / www. com/ aboutus/ media/ news/ 2001/ 2001-06-25/ ) [4] Cecilia Kang (28 July 2009). dk [8] http:/ / www. AuC.zyairwireless. the European Commission issued a recommendation to national telecom regulators (NRAs) to examine the competitiveness of the market for wholesale access and call origination on public mobile telephone networks. . The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. Washington Post. ofcom. the MVNO was regulated by Anatel. The study resulted in new legislation from NRAs in countries like Ireland and France forcing operators to open up their network to MVNOs. Interconnect. virginmobile. Retrieved 2011-05-31. and sometimes billing and provisioning. the Brazilian Agency of Telecommunications in November 2010.com (http:/ / about.com) • ZyAir Wireless (http://www. in 2003. 2011-05-31. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. [7] http:/ / www. In the Middle East. uk/ consult/ condocs/ mobile_call_termination/ wmvct/ annexf/ ) • Understanding MVNOs (http://www. Retrieved 21 Mar 2011.ja viestintäministeriö .Mobile virtual network operator 207 Light MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. Retrieved 2011-05-20. [6] "1 in 4 MVNOs upgraded to offering mobile broadband" (http:/ / www. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. telecomsnetworks.Etusivu (http:/ / www. For example. IMSI. com/ home/ mvno-directory/ press-releases). or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Known also as reseller or service provider model. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. lvm. The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card. org. html). telogic. aql. . In Brazil. virginmobile. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 07/ 28/ AR2009072800878. MNP. com [1] OFCOM report (http:/ / www.com) .

field service management. handling the necessary network logins in a manner transparent to the user.[6] Function Persistence Roaming Application compatibility Security Acceleration Strong authentication Description Open applications remain active. throughout the working day. the device. as users roam between different cellular networks or Wi-Fi access points). In a mobile environment. the mobile VPN handles the logins automatically Software applications that run in an "always-connected" wired LAN environment run over the mobile VPN without modification Enforces authentication of the user. launches applications that connect to corporate resources as needed. causing applications to disconnect. smart card.[4] Makers of mobile VPNs draw a distinction between remote access and mobile environments.Mobile virtual private network 208 Mobile virtual private network A mobile virtual private network (mobile VPN or mVPN) provides mobile devices with access to network resources and software applications on their home network. notably for access to CJIS systems in law enforcement . the Internet. as well as encryption of the data traffic in compliance with security standards such as FIPS 140-2 Link optimization and data compression improve performance over wireless networks.[4] A remote-access user typically establishes a connection from a fixed endpoint. the endpoint changes constantly (for instance.[1] . which provide for access through a Web browser and are commonly used by remote workers (telecommuting workers or business travelers). a laptop goes into hibernation. or both. or suspend-and-resume their devices to preserve battery life. utilities and other industries. or even the computing device itself to crash. required by some regulations. and then logs off. A conventional VPN cannot survive such events because the network tunnel is disrupted. public key certificate or biometric device. which are useful for point-to-point connections when the network endpoints are known and remain fixed.[3] Increasingly. or SSL VPNs. encrypted tunnel for securely passing data traffic over public networks (typically. they are being adopted by mobile professionals and white-collar workers as well. or a handheld user suspends and resumes the device Underlying virtual connection remains intact when the device switches to a different network. open and available when the wireless connection changes or is interrupted.[2] Mobile VPNs are commonly used in public safety. home care. when they connect via other wireless or wired networks. especially on cellular networks where bandwidth may be constrained. A mobile VPN maintains a virtual connection to the application at all times as the endpoint changes. time out. as they connect via various wireless networks.[2] Comparison with other VPN types A VPN maintains an authenticated. hospital settings. encounter gaps in coverage.[5] Mobile VPN functions The following are functions common to mobile VPNs. Enforces two-factor authentication or multi-factor authentication using some combination of a password. fail.) Other VPN types are IPsec VPNs. Mobile VPNs are used in environments where workers need to keep application sessions open at all times.

parts ordering. and in some VPNs. etc. work order management. criminal databases including the CJIS system. where they give mobile workers access to software applications. and offers the ability to quarantine a device if there is possibility that it may have been lost or stolen Policy Management Enforces access policies based on the network in use. automatic vehicle location. scheduling. electronic medical records. parts ordering. on layer-3 attributes (IP address. and historical customer service data as well as databases of customer-premises equipment. scheduling. documentation access Customer relationship management. time of day.[7] Function Management console Description Displays status of devices and users.). state driver's license and vehicle services personnel. bandwidth of the connection. estimating applications Field-service engineers. this is useful for ensuring delivery of the essential "mission-critical" applications (such as computer-assisted dispatch for public safety) or giving priority to streaming media or voice-over-IP Evaluates the patch status. and other aspects of the "health" of the device before allowing a connection. pharmacy. TCP and UDP port.[8] Industry Public Safety Home Care Workers Applications Police officers. and parts inventory. dispatch. housekeeping. testing and training applications Claims systems. order fulfillment Dispatch. Computerized physician order entry. Picture archiving and communications systems. in-home physical therapists and occupational therapists. customer-service. installation and repair technicians. home care aides and hospice workers Physicians. maintenance tracking. delivered via SMTP. Electronic medical records. anti-virus and anti-spyware protection status. inventory. geographic information systems. and optionally may integrate with policies to remediate the device automatically Gives administrators a view into how wireless networks and devices are used Alerts administrators of security concerns or connection problems that impact users. work-order management. nurses and other staff Electronic health records. dashcam software. billing. SNMP or syslog Network Access Control (NAC) Mobile Analytics Notifications Mobile VPN industries and applications Mobile VPNs have found uses in a variety of industries. first responders registration plate databases. patient registration. asset tracking. field-service engineers Claims adjusters . firefighters. accounting Field Service Management which can include customer relationship management. the ability to control access by individual application software Quality of service Specifies the priority that different applications or services should receive when contending for available wireless bandwidth. giving information technology departments visibility and control over devices that may not be on the corporate premises or that connect through networks outside IT's direct control. emergency Computer-assisted dispatch. access requirements. scheduling and billing applications Hospitals and Clinics Field Service Electronic health records.Mobile virtual private network 209 Mobile VPN management Some mobile VPNs offer additional "mobile-aware" management and security functions. departmental intranet Visiting nurses. repair technicians Field Sales Utilities Insurance Sales representatives Linemen.

Roger. com/ tip/ 0. Lisa.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. SearchMobileComputing. by providing additional services and guarantees high quality for best value. it connects remote and mobile users with the company. such as the Panasonic Toughbook or the Itronix GoBook. http:/ / www. gd-itronix. com [10] http:/ / www. July 16.289483. com/ article/ SB119717610996418467. 2007.[12] Using mVPNs the company has the following advantages:[13] • Direct connectivity – the corporate network becomes part of mobile operator's network through direct connection • Private numbering plan – the communication is tailored to company organisation • Corporate Business Group – all offices and employees are part of one common group. netmotionwireless.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. no meter on his mobile or desk phone • Smart Divert – easy divert within company group • Groups and subgroups – Several sub-groups could be defined within the group with different changing as well as with separate numbering plan • Calls control – certain destinations could be allowed or barred both on mobile and desk phones. com/ resources/ case_studies. com. techtarget. http:/ / www. radio-ip.00. "Lost Connections" (http:/ / online. Vendors • • • • • • • Birdstep Technology ERICSSON Radio IP Software Columbitech NeoAccel NetMotion Wireless Nokia References [1] Phifer. com/ products/ mobilevsssl.[10] Mobile VPN is available for all Symbian OS based smartphones by Nokia. com/ industries/ default.[11] Mobile VPNs in telecommunications In telecommunication. netmotionwireless. com/ support/ technotes/ 1515. com/ business/ Toughbook. aspx [5] http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. html [6] http:/ / www. "Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap" (http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. com [8] http:/ / www. http:/ / www.Mobile virtual private network 210 Mobile VPN devices Some mobile environments call for devices built to handle physical shock. Some manufacturers create ruggedized computers. netmotionwireless. com [7] http:/ / www. com.289483. Operating systems are typically Microsoft Windows-based. Through a connection between a leased line (E1/T1) and an enterprise PABX (Private Automatic Branch Exchange) system. including special mobile-capable versions such as Windows CE and Windows Mobile. netmotionwireless. techtarget. Simultaneously mVPN makes internal communication more efficient. wsj.com. columbitech. 2006. a mobile VPN is a solution that integrates all offices and employees in a common network that includes all mobile and desk phones. [2] Cheng. aspx [4] http:/ / www. that includes all mobile and desk phones • Short dialling – a short number to access each employee.[9] Various handhelds and smartphones may also be used. aspx . in laptop or Tablet PC configurations. netmotionwireless. html).00. netmotionwireless. December 11. html). panasonic. weather extremes or other conditions encountered outdoors or in the field. [3] http:/ / www. The Wall Street Journal. aspx [9] http:/ / www. com/ tip/ 0.

org/) • "An Introduction to IPsec VPNs on Mobile Phones" (http://msdn. Leipzig. Network World (24 November 2006) Mobile workflow Mobile Workflows can be defined as specialized Workflows aimed to address deployment of workflows in mobile device infrastructure enabling automation of process interaction with traditional business processes from within the device. Utah. SABRE. com/ projects/ mobile_business_processes .An unified Messaging Interface". pdf [13] http:/ / www. 24–27 September 2007. July 2007 References [1] http:/ / research. Salt Lake City. Germany. Sameh Galal. Lasse Pajunen. com/ mobilevpn [12] http:/ / media.techtarget.com/columnists/ 2006/112706-mobile-ssl-vpn-yes. nokia. MSDN Magazine. wiley. USA. In the proceedings of The IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). July 9–11.Lasse Pajunen.html) • "Face-off: Mobile VPN is a better choice than an SSL VPN" (http://www.microsoft. The 11th International conference on EDOC-2007.Workflows for Mobile centric services composition [1] • "Developing Workflow Engine for Mobile Devices". nokia.networkworld.The 6th International Conference on mobile business ICMB 2007. 5–8 October 2007 • "ActiveForms: A Runtime for Mobile Application Forms". September 2009 • Search Mobile Computing: mobile VPN (http://searchmobilecomputing. Vila Real. huawei. Suresh Chande. aspx) by Ramon Arja. Lasse Pajunen.Mobile virtual private network [11] http:/ / www. USA. WWW/internet 2007. Annapolis.com/en-us/magazine/ee412260.vpnc. Suresh Chande. Portugal. com/ product_data/ excerpt/ 10/ 04712190/ 0471219010. • "Modeling and Generating Mobile Business Processes". Anna Ruokonen. Lasse Pajunen. Sameh Galal.sid40_gci1227022. Toronto Canada.html) by Tom Johnaton.com/sDefinition/ 0. Lasse Pajunen. Suresh Chande. Maryland. Suresh Chande. • "Designing User Interfaces for Mobile Business Processes using Messaging Interfaces". • "Mobile Process Forms . com/ publications/ view.290660. do?id=131& cid=79& pid=61 211 External links • VPN Consortium (http://www.00. 15–19 October 2007. Mobile Process .

Media & Broadcast [12] Volkswagen AG [13] WDR [14] The project management and administration was performed by K&S GmbH Projektmanagement [15]. Mobile to mobile convergence (MMC) is a term to describe a technology used in modern computing and telephony. which is delivered by Belgian company Mondial Telecom. In theory.Info is a technical platform for the distribution of traffic information and other location-coded services. This is viewed as a more efficient use of networking technology than standard FMC solutions that are available as well. The first offering known in the market successfully deploying MMC is beCherry. since most of the latter use the carrier network as the primary means of communication and do not leverage the lower cost and controls of internet protocol-based networks that are generally installed at most modern businesses. . iOS and Android. Other smartphone OS's are also considered. They offer a MMC solution on Symbian. It was developed between 2004 and 2006 by an industry consortium and successfully tested during 2007 in a series of large-scale field trials. The term is an offshoot of fixed mobile convergence (FMC) and uses dual mode (cellular network and WiFi) phones with a special software client and an application server to connect voice calls and business applications via a VoWLAN and/or through a cellular service. It is significant since it is viewed as a means to compete with carrier companies since the calls are routed around the cellular network. Mobile to mobile convergence differs from conventional FMC in that the technology uses the WLAN to route calls via the internet as a primary function. Mobile.info Mobile.Info platform: • Audi AG [1] • Bayern Digital Radio GmbH [2] • Bayerische Motoren Werke AG [3] • • • • • • • • • • • Blaupunkt GmbH [4] Daimler AG [5] DDG Gesellschaft für Verkehrsdaten mbH [6] GEWI Hard.Mobile-to-mobile convergence 212 Mobile-to-mobile convergence The term mobile to mobile calling is used in many mobile phone plans to refer to making calls to other mobile phones using the same provider's network--which is often cheaper than other calls. The Mobile.Info consortium The following companies were involved in the development of the Mobile. and uses the wireless carrier network if the WLAN is not present as a secondary function. The introduction of first operational services is expected for 2008.und Software Entwicklungsgesellschaft [7] Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltung [8] Navteq [9] Siemens VDO Automotiv AG [10] Teleatlas [11] T-Systems International GmbH. it also provides the capability of providing a greater voice coverage area than either carrier or WLAN technology alone since some areas do not have cellular service coverage and others do not have WiFi.

de/ [9] http:/ / www. mobile-info.Mobile. specifically the development and standardization of new services and applications. iis. External links • • • • Mobile. gewi. com/ http:/ / www. wdr. org [18] http:/ / www. t-systems-mediabroadcast. daimlerchrysler. com/ [10] http:/ / www. com/ [13] http:/ / www. ks-pm. com/ [14] http:/ / www. audi. de/ http:/ / www. org/ . siemensvdo. org/ [17] http:/ / www. com/ [11] http:/ / www. bmwgroup.Info consortium. volkswagenag. com http:/ / www. de/ [15] http:/ / www. tpeg. tisa. com/ http:/ / www. bayerndigitalradio. fraunhofer.info 213 Future development The work of the Mobile. is from 2008 on continued within the Traveller Information Services Association TISA [16]. com/ http:/ / www. de/ http:/ / www. de/ [16] http:/ / www. blaupunkt. navteq. teleatlas. com/ [19] http:/ / www. tmcforum. com/ http:/ / www.Info [17] TISA [16] TMC Forum [18] TPEG Forum [19] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. com/ [12] http:/ / www. ddg.

mobispine. Currently we employ 25 people and the organization is constantly growing. com/ . Products also come in line with iPhone MMS sending and receiving and also User Generated Content products that the mobile operators can benefit from. Ukraine. The services including eSMS (Executive Short Message System) service enabling users to send messages from PCs to mobile phones and aggregation of news and content via its Really Simple Syndication (RSS) based news reader. Sweden with development offices in Cluj. External links • Mobispine home page [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Romania and Kiev.Mobispine 214 Mobispine Mobispine a Value Added Services (VAS) company. Corporate headquarter is in Stockholm. provides services for operators and end-users.

[2] .9 million $[3] Concept Today's modular phones are designed to pack in as many applications as possible. known as modu jackets. modu company holds the record for the world’s lightest mobile phone. The modu phone enables users to personalize their mobile's looks and features in a simple way by inserting it into a range of unique phone enclosures. The modu phone is the opposite: small and compact (it holds the Guinness world record for most compact phone at a depth of 7. most of whom are suing the company in order to receive back pay. Each modu jacket has its own style and unique functions. . and has over 130 employees.modu 215 modu modu Industry Founder(s) Telecommunications Dov Moran Headquarters Kfar Saba. the modu phone essentially “changes” functionality and shape according to the user’s different needs and desires throughout the day. Israel Area served Services Employees Website Israel and worldwide Mobile phone services 130+ [1] modu is an Israeli mobile phone company that was founded in 2007 by Dov Moran. In mid May 2011 Google acquired several patents of Modu Mobile for 4. and are thus larger in size. and can be inserted into a variety of modu jackets. The concept behind this design is that the phone is small enough to fit into any jeans pocket.8 millimeters). On January 14 2011. Israel. In this way. modu is headquartered in Kfar-Saba. it was announced that modu will be ceasing operations in February 2011 as it attempts to pay back debts and salaries owed to its workers.

and Bluetooth™ applications. The modu express. The i-mu speaker. the modu phone adopts a new interface and range of functions. Further models are planned for the future. The modu phone enables complete mobile functionality – texts. It contains 2GB of internal memory and a music player. Hence. each surface creates a unique sound according to the density of the material from which it is made.75G or 3. and shiny jackets offer enhanced mobile interfaces and experiences along with an ample range of fun new applications. With each individual modu jacket. uses innovative technology to turn any surface on which it is placed into a resonance amplifier. calls. plays music and ensures that the user is available when needed.5G. modu 1 phone Alternatively. the modu night jacket turns the modu phone into a stylish device with a distinctive angled keyboard. as cited by the Guinness Book of World Records™. which wraps easily around the arm.modu 216 Core: The modu 1 Phone The modu 1 phone is the heart of the modu jacket ecosystem and is the world’s lightest. It can also be operated with a remote control. modu jackets Seven types of modu jackets are currently available. the modu sport jacket offers extended functionalities for training sessions. The modu jacket. It is scheduled for distribution winter 2010 and holds the record for the lightest touch phone in the world. monitors workouts. The photo frame jacket enables hands-free conversation and features a practical keypad that allows easy dialing and navigation through the modu phone menu. speedy. Incredibly light. included in the product box. yet fully functional and innovative. the phone will include a music player and a mass storage device of either 2. fully functional phone and a record holder of the Guinness Book of Records™. cool and designed surround lighting and a camera. including the new generation of the modu phone – modu T phone. which also acts as a charger. The photo frame jacket serves as a desktop companion that charges the modu phone while displaying pictures and playing music. modu sport jacket modu express jacket modu night jacket modu shiny jacket modu speedy jacket photo frame jacket i-mu speaker . Designed especially for exercisers.

modumobile. . cnet. Peru.com/353637/modu-cellphone-changes-function-with-jackets) • News stream about modu from TalkingMobile (http://talkingmobile.Israel Claro .online sales in United Kingdom TDT Distribution . cnet. [3] "Google acquires Modu" (http:/ / news.online sales in Australia PurelyGadgets . El Salvador. com/ 8301-13506_3-20064624-17.com/?s=modu) External links • modu entry (http://www. Guatemala. .com/) • Official modu blog (http://blog. html).techcrunch.modumobile. Honduras Conoxel . com/ 2011/ 01/ 14/ modu-closing-up-shop-in-february/ ). Retrieved 2011-05-20. Engadget.Philippines Mobicity . engadget.Romania Micromax . References • crunchgear entry (http://www.modumobile.India Notes [1] http:/ / www.com/2008/02/07/modu-revealed/) • Gizmodo entry (http://gizmodo. com/ [2] "Modu closing up shop in February" (http:/ / www.Nigeria Globe .modu 217 Partnerships modu partners include: BUG .com) .Brazil. Retrieved 2011-01-14.

It was introduced in 1974 by the company and could selectively deliver a radio message to a particular individual. had no display and could not store messages. pagers quickly began to replace public announcement systems in hospital and factories. after the less known 1955 (not 1956 as believed) Pager called "Handie-Talkie Radio Pocket Pager". infostream.6 Volt nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd). carriers. The successor of this device was the Motorola Pageboy II. com/ mot/ doc/ 0/ 613_MotDoc. model H03BNC1102D0 External links • • • • • MULTITONE ELECTRONICS Inventors & manufacturers of paging systems [1] A Timeline of Motorola Milestones and Innovations (PDF) [2] POCSAG and FLeX pager gallery [3] NotePage technical support [4] . However.Technical information on protocols. htm http:/ / www. pdf http:/ / www. com.4 Volt mercury or 3. It used a UHF frequency from 464 to 475 MHz. com/ http:/ / www. thanks largely to the success of this initial venture. multitone. The first implementation of the Pageboy alarm receiver could only give an attention tone. Infostream designer of pagers [5] Technical information on pager products References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. However. The first pager-like system was used in 1921 by the Detroit Police Department. ru/ pagers/ pagers. after which a voice message was transmitted. it was portable and notified the wearer that a message had been sent. au/ . Motorola Pageboy. the first pager that we would today recognize as such was Motorola's Pageboy I. The Motorola Pageboy used to be very popular with fire brigades as an alarm receiver and.Motorola Pageboy 218 Motorola Pageboy Motorola Pageboy was the second pager ever produced by Motorola with individual-unit addressing. notepager. Later versions of the Pageboy were able to deliver tone & voice. etc. com/ support. html http:/ / www. and they ran on a rechargeable 4. starboy. The pager was activated by a 5-tone code. motorola.

a provider of software and services for the management and delivery of mobile data services. This last was part of a USD$185 million round of funding. Type Founded Founder(s) Public (NASDAQ: MOTR 2001 Ryan Weurch [1] ) Headquarters Bellevue. PowerByHand acquired a number of commercial Internet companies. The company currently has over 300 employees and is headquartered in Bellevue.motricity. and Intel Capital. The name Motricity is a combination of the words mobile and electricity. and Smartphone. with the smartphone applications business going to the newly created Pocketgear. to focus the company on mobile content delivery services. a company that provides content. Advanced Equities . Corporate history In 2001. led by Advanced Equities Inc. with offices in Morrisville. In October 2004. a European mobile content portal. the company changed its name to Motricity in October 2004 after its merger with Pinpoint Networks. USA Key people Services Website Ryan Weurch (Chairman and CEO) Mobile Portal Services www. Originally formed as PowerByHand. including New Enterprise Associates and Technology Crossover Ventures.de [3]. Inc. • USD$30 million in July 2005.com in October 2002. Washington. led by Advanced Equities Inc.. with participation from other existing investors. Inc.com. Additional funding came from Carl Icahn in the form of USD$50 million in March 2007 and another USD$50 million in October of that same year. eReader. New Enterprise Associates.. Washington. Motricity later sold off these acquired units. the company changed its name to Motricity and announced the acquisition of Mobile2Day.. 2008[4] . North Carolina and London. as well as such existing investors as Technology Crossover Ventures. information and education for hand-held and mobile devices. These rounds raised the company's total funding to over USD$150 million.net in March 2004. from Chicago–based Advanced Equities Inc.Motricity 219 Motricity Motricity. • USD$32 million in August 2006. and PocketGear. Private Funding • USD$27 million in July 2004. in June.com [2] Motricity was formed in 2001 by Ryan Wuerch to provide integrated mobile content solutions for handheld and mobile devices. including PalmGear. • $40 million in April 2006. In April 2004. led by Silicon Valley-based Technology Crossover Ventures. Wuerch founded PowerByHand. one of the largest amounts of capital ever raised by a private company in North Carolina.com in September 2003. PowerByHand merged with Pinpoint Networks. with participation from other existing investors.

Motricity found that the mCore storefront acquired from InfoSpace was more technically appealing. . com/ http:/ / mobile2day. 2008-06-04. raised its investment by another USD$100 million. nasdaq. newsobserver. The initial strategy of the company was to leverage the Fuel storefront solution with the newly acquired mCore mobile portal solution to present a total solution for mobile providers.Motricity Inc. "Motricity to slash 250 jobs. The company went public on June 18. Norton. Retrieved 2008-09-02. The News & Observer. com/ 2010/ 01/ 22/ motricity-ipo). techcrunch. . Jason (2010-01-22). and the corporate headquarters moved to Bellevue. WA. de/ "Motricity Co-Founder Launches New Venture.000. html). "Motricity shares fall in IPO despite reduced price range" (http:/ / www. newsobserver. The total raised by this point in time was reported to be USD$405 million. asp?symbol=MOTR& selected=MOTR http:/ / www. adding to its USD$50 million already invested. . Frank (2008-03-04). Benjamin (2010-06-18). offering 6. . Shortly after the InfoSpace acquisition was completed. MarketWatch. PocketGear" (http:/ / www. 220 Acquisition of InfoSpace Mobile Division and Future Direction The October 2007 round of funding was used in large part to finance the January 2008 acquisition of the mobile division of Seattle based Infospace for a reported USD$135 million[5] . leaving approximately 100 employees remaining in Durham[6] . Kincaid. TechCrunch. businesswire. Retrieved 2008-09-02. com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. move headquarters" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ google/ 20080604005431/ en). 2010 the company filed for a $250 million IPO[7] . and decided to move forward with that solution. com/ business/ story/ 980542. External links • Official website (http://www. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / quotes. motricity.com/) . IPO On January 22. "Mobile Tech Developer Motricity Files For $250 Million IPO" (http:/ / www. .motricity. BusinessWire. Retrieved 2010-07-29. html). 2010. com/ business/ story/ 737571. Wolf. Alan (2007-10-15). The News & Observer. marketwatch.000 shares at US$10 per share[8] . "Motricity to buy InfoSpace unit for $135 million" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-09-02. com/ story/ motricity-shares-fall-in-ipo-2010-06-18). Pimentel. This was followed shortly by the announcement that 250 employees based in Durham would be laid-off. Retrieved 2010-01-24.

e. MSRN contains the current visitor country code(VCC).the MSRN is one of the returned parameters into SRI_ACK message. while the MTV-1B would only work with British and South African UHF PAL signals.and the address is also stored in the HLR. the GSM specification indicates that the MSC and VLR (Visitor Location Register) do not need to reside on the same switch. Another temporary address that hides the identity of a subscriber. Sources • Retro thing [1] This device was uniquely small for a CRT-based television. In particular the MSRN is used into an MNP scenario (in this case it can be modified as 'RgN + MSISDN').Mobile Station Roaming Number The Mobile Station Roaming Number is an E. the visitor national destination code (VNDC).214 defined telephone number used to route telephone calls in a mobile network from a GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Centre) to the target MSC (see Network Switching Subsystem). MTV-1 The MTV-1 was the first model of a near-pocket sized television. They are considered two different nodes as they have their own routing addresses. • Consider the Panasonic IC TV MODEL TR-001 introduced in 1970 as the first in this category. It can also be defined as a directory number temporarily assigned to a mobile for a mobile terminated call. A MSRN is assigned for every mobile terminated call. not only the calls where the terminating MS lives on a different MSC than the originating MS. It was developed by Clive Sinclair and was released in 1978. the identification of the current MSC together with the subscriber number. There were two versions. The VLR generates this address on request from the MSC. Its physical size is almost identical to the Sinclair MTV1. The MTV-1 used a minuscule 2" CRT. making it the smallest CRT built onto a commercially marketed product. Although this seems unnecessary since many vendors' VLR's are integrated with the MSC.[2] . If we have all the MSC working as a GMSC like the latest technologies so what would be the states of the MSRN ? we can use it only for test to route the calls to a specific MSC otherwise we don't need it to use it.MSRN 221 MSRN MSRN . the MTV-1A could receive PAL or NTSC transmissions on VHF or UHF. i.

the terms multi-band. htm http:/ / www. the purpose of doing so is to support roaming between different countries/regions whose infrastructure cannot support mobile services in the same frequency range.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. Motorola Timeport. net/ journal/ time-line/ http:/ / www. guenthoer. de/ mtv1/ index. de/ e-tube. htm Multi-band In telecommunications. the first tri-band mobile phone (1999) . visions4. retrothing.visions4.MTV-1 222 External links • Franks Handheld TV Pages-Part 2 [3] • Franks Handheld TV Pages-Internal Pictures [4] • Vintage Micro Television http://www. quad-band and penta-band refer to a device (especially a mobile phone) supporting multiple frequencies used for communication. dual-band. com/ video_tv/ index. tri-band. In the mobile case. guenthoer. html http:/ / www.

CA: CDMA Development Group Technology Forum (http:/ / www. MVDS MVDS is an acronym for terrestrial Multipoint Video Distribution System. & Hobin Kim (2006). . In European Union MWS works in 10. References [1] Shu Wang. pdf).7 .5 and 40. San Francisco. googlepages. Toward Forward Link Interference Cancellation (http:/ / to. The near-far is more serious in CDMA-liked wireless multi-user communication systems.13. org/ news/ events/ CDMASeminar/ 060420_NetworkCap/ ). swang.Multiuser detection 223 Multiuser detection Multiuser detection (also known as joint detection) is one of the receiver design technology for detecting desired signal(s) from interference and noise. Research for 42 GHz frequency has been done under the European Commition EMBRACE (Efficient Millimetre Broadband Radio Access for Convergence and Evolution) initiative.5 GHz frequency bands. Soonyil Kwon. Kim. And multiuser detection techniques can help the receiver solve this problem [1] . Standards ETSI • EN 300 748 • EN 301 215-3 • EN 301 997-2 UK Standards • MPT 1550 (obsolete) • MPT 1560 (obsolete) CEPT • ERC/DEC/(99)15 • ECC/REC/(01)04 Manufacturers of MVDS equipment • • • • • • • MDS America Inc Newtec EF Data BluWan Philips Broadband Network Hughes Network systems Thales Group (Thomson) . Sang G.5 .43. MVDS currently is a part of broader MWS (Multimedia Wireless System) standards. where a near-by or strong signal source may block the signal receiption of far-away or weak user(s). cdg. Traditionally single-user receiver is known suffering from the so-called near-far problem. com/ CDG-TowardForwardLinkInterferenceCan.

MVDS • • • • • • Trophy electronics Technosystem Digital Network S. com . and behaves nearly like a web solutions including device level controls. browseable content serving technology for hand held devices. Mxim Content Server Mxim Content Server is content serving solution for mxim applications. It is a benchmark architecture for serving browseable content on cross platform devices. External links • Official Site [1] • Mxim hosting servers [1] References [1] http:/ / www. mximframework.A (TDN) Marconi Technology Centres (GMTT) United Monolithic Semiconductors (UMS) DOK Ltd (Elvalink) Q-par Angus Ltd 224 Mxim Mxim (Method to serve text and images) is an application development framework for hand held devices. It allows web developers can work using mxml to port web sites to the mobile applications.p. Mxim. How it works? Mxim applications can develop using mxml and Mxim server renders mxml application user interface. It works with Java enabled devices. Overview Mxim Framework is application development framework for mobile phones.

CEO Navizon Virtual GPS Location-Based Services & Positioning Technologies http:/ / www.. Europe and urban areas worldwide. Applications Navizon includes some built-in features such as the Buddy Finder. .S. Mexens Technology Inc has received a Patent for its “System and Method for Enabling Continuous Geographic Location Estimation for Wireless Computing Devices” [2] (US Patent No. Moreover. Inc Type Industry Founded Founder(s) Inc Telecommunications 2005 Cyril Houri Headquarters New York. Wi-Fi and Cellular triangulation techniques. allowing the user to open other applications on his device at the same time. Navizon was the first virtual GPS available for a jailbroken iPhone and the most downloaded through Installer.app The software uses a unique technology to improve the coverage and accuracy of the system and covers the U. Symbian S60 and some Java ME phones. It calculates the geographic location of a wireless device by analyzing the signals from nearby Wi-Fi access points and cellular towers and comparing it against a database of known data points. Technology Navizon is an open system with a collaborative approach: it uses the data collected by users with a GPS device to improve the coverage and accuracy of the system when used in Wi-Fi or Cellular positioning modes. navizon. the Alert System (also known as Geofencing). United States Key people Products Services Website Cyril Houri. The software can be installed on several platforms such as Windows Mobile. 7397424). trail logging capability and MobiFindr that lets a user get a device's location just by sending a text message to it. It can be used as an Assisted GPS by switching to Wi-Fi or Cellular positioning modes when GPS signals are weak or unavailable such as in an indoors environment. It can also be used to improve the time of acquisition of a position fix which can take up to 5 minutes with a standard GPS and less than one second with Wi-Fi or Cellular triangulation. NY. iPhone. Navizon has the ability to run in the background. BlackBerry.Navizon 225 Navizon Mexens Technology. com [1] Navizon is a hybrid positioning system combining GPS. It can also be used as an alternative to GPS on devices that don't have a GPS chip but have a Wi-Fi or Cellular radio.

Navizon 226 Community Navizon's strong growing community is unique by its diversity of cross-platforms and cross-carriers users."Location Technologies Primer" (http://www. com [2] http:/ / patft. uspto.html) • Navizon Patent (http://patft. 700.php) • Engadget Mobile June 2008 -"Navizon's Mobfindr gets your phone to text home" (http://www. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.com) • Navizon Official Blog (http://navizon.intomobile.navizon.&OS=PN/7397424&RS=PN/ 7397424) External links • Navizon Official Website (http://www. This is one of the key factor of the community growth. PN. Contributors are rewarded when they discover new Wi-Fi access points or new cell towers.PN. & OS=PN/ 7397424& RS=PN/ 7397424 • Gizmodo September 2007 -Navizon faux GPS Hacks for IPhone works and is awesome (http://gizmodo.techcrunch.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7397424.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1& u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum. com/2008/06/29/navizons-mobfindr-gets-your-phone-to-text-home/) • Techcrunch June 2008 . The application runs in the background of the device allowing the location to be updated while other applications are running.com) . htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=7397424.typepad.com/2008/06/04/ location-technologies-primer/) • Navizon updates (http://www.com/2008/02/11/ navizon-updated-to-include-moving-mode-alerts-and-more.000 people are registered worldwide thus improving every day the precision of the navigation system.engadgetmobile. Development The Navizon Software Development Kit (SDK) allows developers to include the Navizon positioning system into their own application.uspto. navizon. References [1] http:/ / www.com/ gadgets/notag/iphone-faux+gps-hack-works-and-is-awesome-301459.

This type of transmission is referred to as "near-field. low-power. Background: technical concepts Near field magnetic induction communication (NFMIC) systems differ from other wireless communications in that most conventional wireless RF systems use an antenna to generate and transmit a propagated electromagnetic wave. An eavesdropper would have to be standing next to the radio. This slow attenuation over distance allows far-field transmissions to communicate effectively over a long range. This magnetic bubble has a radius of approximately 1. Uses Near Field Magnetic Induction technology secures wireless communication between two-way radio accessories by creating a magnetic communication "bubble" around headsets. In Diagram 2. the carrier frequency is 13. This magnetic field energy resonates around the communication system. The concept is for a transmitter coil in one device to modulate a magnetic field which is measured by means of a receiver coil in another device. within the magnetic bubble. In these types of systems all of the transmission energy is designed to radiate into free space. at which point the propagating energy from the NFMI system conforms to the same propagation rules as any far-field system. and frequency modulation) can be used in near-field magnetic induction systems.000 times) lower than an equivalent intentional far-field system. is immune from radio frequency (RF) interference and virtually secure from eavesdropping. the power density of far-field transmissions attenuates or rolls off at a rate proportional to the inverse of the range to the second power (1/range2) or -20dB per decade. The concept is for a transmitter coil in one device to modulate a magnetic field which is measured by means of a receiver coil in another device. .Near-field magnetic induction communication 227 Near-field magnetic induction communication A near field magnetic induction communication system is a short range wireless physical layer that communicates by coupling a tight. At this frequency the crossover occurs at 3. the power density of near-field transmissions is extremely restrictive and attenuates or rolls off at a rate proportional to the inverse of the range to the sixth power (1/range6) or -60dB per decade. phase modulation. non-propagating magnetic field between devices. Near Field Magnetic Induction Communication technology enables users of two-way radios to experience wireless mobility. This type of transmission is referred to as "far-field. but does not radiate into free space." According to Maxwell's equation for a radiating wire. The crossover point between near-field and far-field occurs at approximately _/2_. The standard modulation schemes used in typical RF communications (amplitude modulation.5 meters.56MHz and has a wavelength (_) of 22 meters. wireless safety and wireless security with portable radio accessories." As shown in the graph below. non-propagating magnetic field between devices. speaker-microphones and radios. At this distance the propagated energy levels are -40dB to -60dB (10.000. low-power. to intercept wireless transmissions to and from a microphone or headset.52 meters. The properties that make long range communication possible are a disadvantage for short range communication systems. NFMI systems are designed to contain transmission energy within the localized magnetic field. The system uses a short range (less than 2 meters) wireless physical layer that communicates by coupling a tight. rolling off at -20dB per decade.000 to 1.

pdf http:/ / www. uspto. com/ downloads/ FreeLinc%20NFMI%20White%20Paper. freelinc. com/ downloads/ LawOrder_Aug2006_1-18103181-eprint. com/ downloads/ FreeLinc_Intro_WhitePaper_8-01-06. freelinc. pdf http:/ / www. freelinc. gov/ . freelinc. com http:/ / www. pdf http:/ / www.Near-field magnetic induction communication 228 References • • • • • FreeLinc [1] Near-Field Magnetic Induction Technology [2] Law and Order: The Magazine for Police Management [3] Two-way Radio Wireless Communication Accessories: Technology & Company Abstract [4] United States Patent and Trademark Office [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.

Washington.[9] It also has strategic alliances with cellular carriers. Sierra Wireless. Washington (2001) Founded Headquarters Seattle. NetMotion merged with Padcom.[2] In September of 2010. to help those organizations secure and optimize their investments in wireless data networking. RSA. a private equity firm with more than $1 billion under management. Datastrip. public safety. Palm. Washington. healthcare. Three sales offices in Europe handle international sales including sales into Australia. NetMotion Wireless develops software and solutions for organizations with mobile workforces.[3] In 2006. Sybase iAnywhere.[8] NetMotion Wireless has an intellectual property portfolio of a dozen U. Motorola. Washington Products Employees Website Mobile VPN Software ~100 [1] NetMotion Wireless is a privately-held software company. patents. These partners include AT&T.NetMotion Wireless 229 NetMotion Wireless NetMotion Wireless Type Industry Private Computer software technology services Seattle. Microsoft. focusing on productivity and management. OESIS OK. wireless industry executive Bob Hunsberger became CEO.[7] Operations The bulk of the company's operations are located at the North American headquarters in Seattle. knk. InfoExpress. as one of the fastest-growing private companies in America. T-Mobile and Verizon Wireless. telecommunications. founded in 2001 and based in Seattle. Ipelium. Motion Computing. software developers. TELELOGOS. Avaya. insurance. In 2005.[6] Other venture firms hold minority positions. hardware manufacturers. New Zealand and several African countries. Inc.[10] . system integrators and standards and certification bodies. transportation and other industries. Inc. Intermec. Its software is used in public utilities.[2] History The company was formed in 2001 as a spin off from WRQ. the company was recognized by Inc. Scientel Wireless.S.[4] The majority shareholder became Liberty Partners[5] . Sprint. field service.

S. Cox Communications.. City of Orlando.QoS capability for real-time applications such as VoIP • Version 8.900 organizations and more than 500. St. Monroe County Sheriff’s Department (FL). Continental Airlines.[14] It also includes management features that give administrators visibility and control over those mobile devices. Bell Ambulance. Colorado Springs Police Department. Unilever. James Parish (LA). and Worksafe BC.2 . Visiting Nurses of New York. media. • Named on the Inc. Ameren Corporation.[15] Mobility XE Releases:[16] • Version 6. Beckman Coulter. 500 | 5000 list of America's Fastest-Growing Private Companies[7] • Recognized as one of Washington State's 100 Fastest-Growing Private Companies[21] • Voted one of Washington State's 100 Best Companies to Work For[2] • Microsoft Gold Certified Partner for Mobility Solutions[22] . and their network connections and application sessions alive as they encounter coverage gaps and interruptions and roam between networks. Southeast Water (UK). Grange Insurance.Support for Windows 7 64-bit client and Windows Server 2008 R2 and additional support for FIPS 140-2 Customers Among the 1. Wichita Clinic. Ltd. life sciences and clean technology companies in North America in 2009[19] and 2010[20] . Comcast.000 mobile workers.6 .509v3 digital certificates • Version 9.[11] [12] [13] Mobility XE is used by more than 1. Florida Highway Patrol. Gallatin County (MT).Web acceleration and new policy management features for controlling access from/to specific applications and networks • Version 6. Lee Memorial Health System.0 . New York State Police. TSI Terminal Systems Inc.[8] The essential functionality of the product is its ability to keep workers continuously logged in. Hertz.900 customers of NetMotion Wireless are Advocate Health Care. including: • Ranked on the Deloitte LLP list of the fastest growing technology. JEA.5 .Expanded capacity of up to 15. Marshfield Clinic. while resolving performance and security issues. MHMR Centers of Texas. for greater security and integration with systems management software • Version 9. Windstream Communications. Trican Well Service. City of Aurora (CO).FIPS 140-2 validated encryption • Version 7.0 . It secures.1 . Johnson County (KS). St. telecommunications. maintains and optimizes data connections for these workers as they move in and out of wireless coverage areas and roam between networks. Joseph’s Hospital (WI).Analytics Module and support for two-factor authentication via smart cards and X.[18] Industry Awards and Recognition NetMotion has been named as one of the fastest-growing wireless companies in the U.Authentication of the device as well as the user. Strack.0 .5 . Luke Medical System. Mobile County (AL). City of Hays (KS). St. Orange County Sheriff’s Department. a Mobile VPN for mobile workers who use computing devices.NetMotion Wireless 230 Products NetMotion’s primary product is Mobility XE. Birmingham City Council (UK). Diamond Management and Technology Consultants.Network Access Control and recovery from Packet loss for real-time applications[17] • Version 8. Optident. Puget Sound Blood Center..000 concurrent device sessions and support for RSA SecurID two-factor authentication • Version 7. and has earned more than 25 industry awards[2] .

cfm/ Fuseaction/ Portfolio. com) [7] "Meet the 2010 Inc.289483. 2010 [21] "Washington's 100 Fastest-Growing Private Companies revealed" (http:/ / www. SearchMobileComputing. 2-Whats-New_2010. July 16. [4] "NetMotion. 2010 (retrieved December 10. 2010.aspx) • Customer Case Studies (http://www. "Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap" (http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. [15] Product Datasheet. pdf). com/ article/ 20060615/ SUB/ 606150710). com/ seattle/ stories/ 2010/ 09/ 13/ daily35.NetMotion Wireless • Motorola Enterprise Mobility Validated Solution[23] 231 References [1] http:/ / www. com). com/ assets/ MobilityXE_datasheet. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_Fast500winners_101509. 2006-06-15. html). Lisa. netmotionwireless. Padcom settle patent lawsuit with merger" (http:/ / www. [5] NetMotion Wireless page on Liberty Partners site (http:/ / www. aspx). php/ 3745401).com/resources/case_studies. bioportfolio. netmotionwireless. [14] Phifer. VoIP Planet. Adds Industry Veteran as New Chief Executive (http:/ / www. cfm) [6] www. 2010. rcrwireless. NetMotion Web site (http:/ / www. [19] "Deloitte's 2009 Technology Fast 500" (http:/ / www. com/ partners/ alliances. motorola.00.netmotionwireless. retrieved December 11. libertypartners. February 8. [18] www.libertypartners. netmotionwireless. netmotionwireless. com/ tip/ 0. html). retrieved December 10. com/ corporate/ company/ 12369/ Netmotion-Wireless. pdf) [16] Release history on NetMotion Web site (http:/ / www. html). com/ magazine/ 20100901/ index. 2010). 2005 (retrieved December 10. 2010) [22] "NetMotion Wireless Attains Gold Certified Partner Status in Microsoft Partner Program" (http:/ / www. com/ solutions/ article. retrieved December 10. (searched/confirmed December 10. [23] "Enterprise Mobility Validated Solutions Search (http:/ / www. voipplanet. aspx?LinkIdentifier=id& ItemID=1381) [3] NetMotion Wireless Achieves Record Growth in Second Half of 2004. com/ company/ NetMotion_Wireless_Inc/ ryrchri-1. crunchbase. netmotionwireless.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. 5000 | A List of America's Fastest-Growing Private Companies" (http:/ / www. pdf). September 17. 2006. aspx). 2010. html).com.netmotionwireless. com/ uploadedFiles/ Resources/ Collateral/ NetMotion-Wireless_Fact-Sheet_CO. aspx) [17] "NetMotion Brings Cross-Network Support to Wireless VoIP".com/partners/alliances. 2010. [11] BioPortfolio company profile (http:/ / www. com/ company/ press/ 02_2005. viewCompany/ companyID/ 31. retrieved December 10.netmotionwireless. netmotionwireless. 2010) External Links • Official website (http://www. com/ WorkArea/ linkit. [12] CrunchBase company profile (http:/ / www. 2008-05-07 (http:/ / www.com/) • Strategic Alliance and Marketing Partners (http://www. 2010. RCR Wireless News. pdf) [9] What's New in Mobility XE 9.com (http:/ / www. com [2] NetMotion Company Backgrounder (http:/ / www. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2010 Technology Fast 500 Winners Brochure_191010. com/ company/ netmotion-wireless).netmotionwireless. netmotionwireless. html). aspx). techtarget. retrieved December 11. hoovers. netmotionwireless.com (http:/ / www. libertypartners. com/ index. retrieved December 10. com/ products/ whatsnew. 2010. deloitte. deloitte. bizjournals. [13] Hoover's company profile (http:/ / www.aspx) . netmotionwireless. 2010) [8] NetMotion Wireless Company Fact Sheet (http:/ / www. retrieved December 10.2 (http:/ / www. com/ Business/ US-EN/ Channel+ Partners/ PartnerSelect/ Motorola+ Validated+ Solutions/ Enterprise+ Mobility+ Validated+ Solutions). netmotionwireless. September 2010 (retrieved December 10. [10] Strategic Alliance and Marketing Partners (http:/ / www. amalgamated from case studies and press releases. com/ uploadedFiles/ Resources/ Collateral/ NetMotion-Wireless_Mobility-XE_9. com/ company/ press/ 09_01_2009. inc. pdf) [20] "Deloitte's 2010 Technology Fast 500" (http:/ / www.

Interconnect is divided into two layers. In order to maintain system level modularity. The latter one is uni-directional and used for large amounts of data like media content. Low Interconnect provides network socket interface with uniform addressing mechanism. Sub-system consists of all the software and hardware resources (including peripherals. NoTA) is a modular service based system architecture for mobile and embedded devices. The former is bi-directional and used for Service Messages.) needed to implement the defined Nodes. MIPI Alliance originated solutions are expected to be key enablers for wide use of NoTA. NoTA Main architecture NoTA Interconnect architecture NoTA Sub-system provides the physical implementation for a set of Nodes (ANs and/or SNs). Additionally NoTA makes it possible to quickly bring-in 3rd party innovations into the products due to loosely coupled and functional-driver -less approach. IN provides two basic means of communication. controllers. L_IN internally can be divided into transport network independent and dependent [1] parts. internal buses etc. Service Nodes and Application Nodes map into sub-systems consisting of all software and hardware resources needed to implement those.e. The only means for a sub-system to use the other Sub-systems' resources is via Service Nodes.Network on Terminal Architecture 232 Network on Terminal Architecture Network on Terminal Architecture (i. NoTA enables mobile device makers speed-up their product development by shortening the integration phase. the only way for a node to use SW&HW resources from other sub-systems is through Services Nodes. NoTA device consists of Service Nodes (SN) and Application Nodes (AN) that communicate through logical Interconnect (IN). memories. Every NoTA Sub-system consists of the NoTA Interconnect stack. Service Nodes have unique Service Identifier (SID). namely message based and streaming type. The former provides means for service activation and deactivation as well as service and stream accesses. namely High Interconnect (H_IN) and Low Interconnect (L_IN). NoTA principles • • • • • Loosely coupled Service based Interconnect centric Message & data driven (GALS) Implementation-wise heterogeneous .

The objective of this work was to develop a novel embedded device architecture that could solve the existing R&D challenges. through stacking) and use package internal interconnect technologies. In addition.g. NoTA Interconnect Release 1 was released in December 2005.org/knota [5]. Firstly system-level modularity allows free and fair competition between different technology vendors reducing Sub-system costs. Reference implemenation source code packages (user-space) can be downloaded from either www. in Finland (SHOK DIEM [6]) and in Japan to aply NoTA in the ubiquitous world. called DOA (Direct Object Access). the application engine). Release 2 added efficient data communication means. An excellent outcome reveiled in the TronShow2010 [7] is the intelligent house built in Taiwan utilizing both the T-Kernel and NoTA technologies. NoTA type system-level modularity allows technology vendors to do the implementation and testing without heavy involvement with other Sub-system provides (e. Release 3 became the official public release comprising all the essential functionalities. Release 1 only consisted of Service communication. Secondly in many cases product vendors do not have to bear costs incurring from sub-system adaptation work specific to their technologies. allows direct memory-to-memory streaming between different NoTA subsystems. Release 2 came out during the second half of 2006.g. off-chip interconnect with on-chip interconnect does not destroy the device functionality. discovery and access. Product vendors can purchase already productized NoTA Sub-systems removing time needed for vendor specific requirements definition.g. There are currently projects running e. Scalability in integration level allows product companies to do fast cost optimization without major extra R&D effort. In case there are no ready-made products on the market. Performance and features meeting end-user needs. Future Development Due to being agnostic to transport technology. More practical example is to integrate multiple ICs into the same package (e. NoTA can be used for many inter-device use-cases (wireless based L_INdown). So called NoTA Virtual Device (NVD) is expected to provide a solution here.g. inter-device and/or in the Internet. The NoTA basic framework was strongly influenced by Network-on-Chip (NoC) and Web Services research. Benefits in product development Fast-time-to-market is possible due to multiple reasons. activation/deactivation.org [3] or gitorious. NoTA core is physical interconnect agnostic and hence replacing e. [4] Linux Kernel optimized Debian package is also available through gitorious.org/nota. Product companies are more agile to adopt new technology or technology that better meets users' needs in digital convergence devices. with a handle based stream referencing approach. .Network on Terminal Architecture 233 History The NoTA concept and the first implementations were the result of internal Nokia Research Center [2] activities started in 2003. implementation and integration phases. Through the NVD one can build combined service platforms where the services can be running intra-device. as well as prepare the company to face the expected horizontalization and digital convergence. This functionality. Cost reduction in product development can be achieved in two dimensions.notaworld. [8] Extending NoTA to the Internet is one of the research topics. VTT (Technical Research Center of Finland) has demonstrated their NoTA (and Smart M3) based intelligent Greenhouse.

nokia. fi/ opencms/ opencms/ OhjelmaPortaali/ ohjelmat/ ELMO/ fi/ Dokumenttiarkisto/ Viestinta_ja_aktivointi/ Seminaarit/ MARTES_seminar_2006/ MARTES_Tampere_170506. jsp?lang=en [11] https:/ / projects. Finland. DSD 2006 • A Method for Mobile Terminal Platform Architecture Development. Artist workshop on Foundations of Component-Based Design. php?fname=TR841.Rakkola. org/ [2] http:/ / research. 2009 [10] References • NoTA Rel3 Specifications. J.notaworld. org/ knota/ [6] http:/ / www. ncl. Ian Oliver. CA. Samu Kontinen. tucs. com/ NoTA/ wiki#no1 [12] http:/ / www. 4th Oct. 2006 [15]. D.2nd International NoTA Conference. nokia. Johan Lilius. Dragos Truscan. ac. • Specification and Validation of Non-Functional Constraints. May 17. 2006. Johan Lindqvist. Shanghai. I.1st Oct.S. jsp?lang=en [10] http:/ / www. youtube. et al. Risto Suoranta. T. • Mobile Service based Platform Architecture for Mobile Devices. com/ [3] http:/ / www. San Jose. 2007.Latva-Aho. . html [8] http:/ / www. Turku Centre for Computing Sciences. pdf [14] http:/ / rodin. 11th June 2008 [9] • NoTA2009 . ISQED 2006. com/ watch?v=bBiZKInFm-8 [9] http:/ / www3. J. Risto Suoranta. pdf [13] http:/ / www. artist-embedded. Helsinki. MARTES Finnish Partners’ Workshop Tampere. org/ docs/ Events/ 2007/ Components/ Slides/ JohanLilius.841. Jörg Brakensiek.Lilius. Risto Suoranta. org [4] http:/ / gitorious. Dr.org [3] • Testable Specifications of NoTA-based Modular Embedded Systems. tronshow.Network on Terminal Architecture 234 Events • NoTA2008 . 30th Sept. TUCS Technical Report No. notaworld. Rodin Project IST-511599 [14].Porres. Eriksson. Ivan Porres and Timo O. September 2007 [12] • Distributed intelligence – From devices to Smart spaces. pdf [15] http:/ / akseli.Eriksson. pdf . tekes. Klaus Kronlöf. fi/ publications/ attachment. A. Vesa Luukkala. tivit. References [1] http:/ / www. UBIQ Seminar. • Mobile Device Industry Goes Horizontal.1st International NoTA Conference. Keynote material. forum. vtt. [11] • http://www. vtt. fi/ proj/ notaconference/ index. fi/ proj/ notaconference2009/ index.Truscan. Ian Oliver and Timo Eriksson. 2007 [13] • Section 4.. • Use Case Driven Platform Development.Lindqvist. org/ index-e. org/ nota/ [5] http:/ / gitorious. uk/ deliverables/ rodinD8. • New Directions in Mobile Device Architectures. fi/ en/ device [7] http:/ / www. cs. Springer Netherlands. mipi. Advances in Design and Specification Languages for Embedded Systems. U. Report on the case study: Formal Techniques in MDA context. WWRF-16. 9 May 2007. J. 9th EUROMICRO Conference. Samu Kontinen.A. Klaus Kronlöf.

.....-+ | Link Layer | +.| HTTP +.......-+ | Transport | +.. +......-+ | Network Layer| +....| NAS +..Non Access Stratum 235 Non Access Stratum Non Access Stratum (NAS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Core Network and User Equipment.-+ Functionality Following form the part of Non Access Stratum • • • • Mobility management Call control Session management Identity management .| Channels +............ The layer supports signalling and traffic between those two elements..-+ | Physical | +......-+ | Application | +.| IP +.-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +.| AS +......| TCP +............-+ | Internet | +...

and its charging execution process is not directly involved in service application control. Versatile system infrastructure The OCS has abstracted major objects of all charging processes as the pillars of its infrastructure and adopts customer-oriented design ideas.or multi-NAM features offer users the option of registering the phone with a local number in more than one market. based on service usage Architecture Functions within the OCS Online Charging Functions Characteristics Unified charging engine for all services The traditional IN provides real-time charging & rating capabilities only to prepaid subscribers. It handles non real-time charging requirements. to create personalized and feasible promotion strategies that meet the marketing objectives. offers unified online charging and online control capabilities and can be used as a unified charging engine for all network services. making it a core basis for convergent billing in the network. or you could say. in real time. Rapidly boosted marketing capabilities Both the traditional IN and the billing system are somewhat passive support systems for market promotion with the limited charging capabilities. The OCS offers unprecedented flexibility and extendibility. With the OCS. It is based on a model that separates subscribers from accounts as well as features an off-the-shelf product management mode. the marketing department can really explore network resource potentials and the desires of subscribers. The OCS is oriented to all subscriber types and service types. Phones with dual.The NAM is the electronic memory in the cellular phone that stores the telephone number and an Electronic Serial Number. gives the ball to the marketing department to run with it. which enables online tariff configurations through rule-driven engine technology. The traditional billing system is always offline based on CDR file processing.Number Assignment Module 236 Number Assignment Module Number Assignment Module (NAM) . This leads to a stable but versatile system infrastructure. Online charging system Online charging system (OCS) is a system allowing a Communications service provider to charge their customers. It completely breaks away from the traditional offline hard coding development mode based on service flow. . and the product launch period is greatly shortened.

the Director of Service Architecture. simpler and more effective than innovating service functions. multi-service association. Most likely they would be happy to keep the subscription and tell their friends what a great deal it is. etc. their recharge value on that day would be doubled as a bonus. the operator can create differentiated pricing policies that meet market needs while increasing customer satisfaction and generating word-of-mouth advertising. it is faster and more cost-effective for operators to adjust tariff policies than to modify product functions and services. operators were wondering whether or not they needed the OCS. A couple of years ago. frequency and traffic. access channel. Successful operations remain the biggest concern for operators. Telus. there are a variety of new elements including: location. Its billing system can offer superb flexibility and a much wider billing space. wide-range penetration of the Internet. Based on customer segmentation As market competition heats up. to some particular local events for a group of users. but a practical scheme that can be integrated into the existing network environment. By flexibly using these widely ranged factors and source materials. Although various bells and whistles influence some customers. Canada. and interwork with subscribers in real time. while improving subscriber experiences. but now many of them are busy figuring out how they could implement the OCS in their existing networks. nationalities and behavioral patterns and so on. or even to the status of a single user. and explosive growth of service innovations.Online charging system 237 Seizing earlier market opportunities Innovating tariff policies is much easier. or accumulation of usage. such as call duration. Many operators show far more enthusiasm towards new services than towards tariff policies when choosing from the two core parts of communications products. Worldwide commercial successes Presently. The communications market might be the most complicated and flexible in product pricing among all the consumable industries. as to be detailed below. Based on real applications Due to the development of new communications technologies. telecom product pricing is much more diversified. end users can be segmented not only according to their ages. and they would be entitled to new discounts on each 100th day thereafter. operators can be proactive in the battle with changing market environments. Suppose that end users receive SMSs from the mobile operator. price is usually the most important consideration when subscribers make their final choices. In addition to the traditional basic elements. As a matter of fact." said Shane Logan. It has helped many operators to accumulate valuable experience. but also according to cultures. contents. a subscriber can be charged according to how long he/she has used the service. The operator can then accurately work out differentiated pricing policies based on customer segmentation. Based on various occasions Promotion offers can also be implemented from periodic holidays for the whole customer base. . bearer type. occupations and income. and revenue distribution in the value chain. even based on his/her birthday. informing them that since they have used the network for 300 days. to achieve the marketing targets. strengthen competitiveness and win in their respective markets. namely services (including tangible applications and intangible customer care) and pricing. the OCS solution is quite technically mature. In this way. "What we need is not a new technology. to satisfy the value perceptions of different subscribers. For example.

org/ . If their existing charging systems possess strong technical capabilities and market performance. To realize convergent billing. To date. Charging management.296 [1] • 3GPP Telecommunication management. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 32240. By offering more flexible tariff policies. openmobilealliance. China Mobile Guangdong planned to gradually integrate existing prepaid and post-paid systems into the new solution. the telecom industry has witnessed overwhelming success through commercial applications of the OCS. the largest multinational mobile operator in the Middle East. different measures should be taken to implement the OCS. aspx http:/ / www. Other operators might need to adopt a new OCS to replace the existing systems if they will not support evolution. The system is able to cover the charging and billing requirements for all subscribers and services. According to experts in the telecom industry.. Charging architecture and principles 3GPP 32. in Southern China has constructed the world's largest mobile IN. 3gpp. 238 References • 3GPP Telecommunication management. China Mobile Guangdong completed reconstructing the existing IN and deployed the first commercial OCS in the world which meets 3GPP specifications and paved the way towards large-scale evolution for existing INs.0 [3] External links • Opencharging [4] Java Open Source Online Charging System References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. org/ technical/ release_program/ charging_v1_0. A new operator can construct the OCS or even a comprehensive convergent billing network directly.0 OMA Charging V1. some operators can reconstruct their existing networks to make the networks evolve to the OCS. China Mobile Guangdong. Middle East. htm http:/ / www. opencharging. Etisalat. Charging management.240 [2] • Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Charging V1. adopted a unified convergent billing system with the OCS as the core while constructing a new network in Nigeria. Their efforts were soon rewarded. In April 2007. Asia Pacific and Africa are integrating the OCS in their networks. 3gpp. new networks have for the most part discarded the traditional mode of constructing the IN and the billing system separately. As a result. Online Charging System (OCS): Applications and interfaces 3GPP 32. and adopted the convergent billing scheme with the OCS as the core. Operators from more than a dozen countries in Europe. and increasingly more are welcoming their debut. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 32296.Online charging system In different network environments. htm http:/ / www. China Mobile Guangdong has won a bigger market share and provides outstanding service to more than 80 million subscribers. these new operators can provide network services quickly and lower the TCO greatly.

and Samsung Electronics (bada). HTC. led by Google with 34 members including mobile handset makers.[1] An early look at the SDK was released to developers on 12 November 2007. is based on an open source license and competes against mobile platforms from Apple. HP (formerly Palm). Sony Ericsson. Sony. Software companies. Qualcomm.openhandsetalliance. Microsoft. application developers. and Wind River Systems. Nokia. Research In Motion. the flagship software of the alliance.(Symbian).[3] The first commercially available phone running Android was the T-Mobile G1 (also known as the HTC Dream). It was approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on 18 August 2008. Samsung.[2] Android. LG.[5] . an open source mobile phone platform based on the Linux kernel of the GNU/Linux operating system.[1] History The OHA was established on 5 November 2007. the OHA also unveiled Android.com www. T-Mobile. Texas Instruments. Intel. some mobile carriers and chip makers.com] The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a business alliance of 83 firms to develop open standards for mobile devices.openhandsetalliance. Dell. Nvidia. Handset manufacturers [www. Semiconductor companies. Commercialization companies. Motorola. Products At the same time as the announcement of the formation of the Open Handset Alliance on 5 November 2007.[4] and became available on 22 October. Member firms include Google.Open Handset Alliance 239 Open Handset Alliance Abbreviation Formation Type OHA 2007 Open mobile platform (Android) development organization Region served Worldwide Membership Website Mobile operators.

(joined as SiRF) Intel Corporation Marvell Technology Group Nvidia Corporation Qualcomm Synaptics Texas Instruments AKM Semiconductor ARM Atheros Communications ST-Ericsson (joined as Ericsson Mobile Platforms) HTC LG Sony Motorola Samsung Electronics December [7] 2008 • • Vodafone Softbank Borqs Teleca • • • • • • • • • • ASUSTek Garmin Huawei Technologies Sony Ericsson Toshiba Dell May-June 2009 September 2009 January 2010 • China Unicom [8] • SVOX [9] • • Acer [10] MIPS [11] Technologies • • Sasken Communication Technologies [12] Limited ZTE [13] Corporation May 2010 • NXP [14] Software Access [15] [17] • July 2010 November 2010 • • MediaTek [16] VisualOn .Open Handset Alliance 240 Members The members of the Open Handset Alliance are: Joining date Mobile operators KDDI Corporation NTT DoCoMo Sprint Nextel T-Mobile China Mobile Telecom Italia Telefónica Software companies • • • • • • • • • Commercialization Semiconductor companies companies • • • • Handset manufacturers • • • • • • Founding [6] • members • • • • • Ascender Corporation eBay Google LivingImage Myriad Nuance Communications PacketVideo SkyPop SONiVOX Aplix Noser Engineering The Astonishing Tribe Wind River Systems • • • • • • • • • • • Audience Broadcom Corporation CSR Plc.

Open Handset Alliance. engadget. [17] "VisualOn Joins the Open Handset Alliance to Enhance the Multimedia Capabilities of the Android Platform" (http:/ / www. com/ developers. Will You Answer?" (http:/ / www. . com/ news/ home/ 20101109005339/ en/ VisualOn-Joins-Open-Handset-Alliance-Enhance-Multimedia). OMRON • • • • • • • Accenture L&T Infotech SQLStar International Inc. [3] "Developers" (http:/ / www. openhandsetalliance. [15] "Access Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. SASKEN. mediatek.com/2007/11/05/technology/05cnd-gphone.wsj. com/ newsroom/ press/ 2010/ 22_Jan_2010. [16] "MediaTek Joins the Open Handset Alliance Continuous Commitment to Providing Multimedia-Rich Android Solutions" (http:/ / www. MediaTek.. 2009-06-01. SVOX. [7] "Open Handset Alliance announces 14 new members" (http:/ / www. com/ oha_members. Retrieved 2007-11-05. Open Handset Alliance. html?mod=dist_smartbrief) . html?ex=1352005200&en=d7a169e184415788&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss) • Google's wireless initiatives go beyond Android (http://online. openhandsetalliance. [6] "Open Handset Alliance Members" (http:/ / www. openhandsetalliance. . NXP. . Acer. zte. . Retrieved 2007-11-05. 2010-11-09. 2010-07-12. Inc.Open Handset Alliance Unknown • China Telecommunications • Corporation [18] • Telus Bouygues [18] Telecom 241 Cooliris MOTOYA Co. com. com/ oha_members. 2008-08-18. . com/ 2009/ 06/ 01/ acer-joins-oha-expects-end-of-year-android/ ). html). businesswire. [12] "Sasken joins Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. [2] "Open Handset Alliance members page" (http:/ / www. 2009-05-27. nxp. 2010-12-27. com/ oha_members. . Access. . . html). . dot). html). com/ press_releases. pdf). . html). Engadget. aspx). 2009. . [18] "Open Handset Alliance Members Mobile Operators" (http:/ / www. MIPS Technologies. svox. openhandsetalliance.nytimes. . [4] "FCC Approved HTC Dream" (http:/ / www. Open Handset Alliance. com/ News-Items-SVOX-brings-speech-solutions-to-Android. . html). com/ press_120908. com/ en/ news/ info. [14] "NXP Software Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. Open Handset Alliance. Wipro Technologies • • • • • Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Freescale Semiconductor Gemalto Renesas Electronics Corporation Via Telecom • • • • • • • • Alcatel Mobile Phones Compal Communications Foxconn Haier Kyocera Lenovo Mobile Communication Technology Ltd NEC Sharp Corporation References [1] "Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices" (http:/ / www. 2010-05-18. Open Handset Alliance. . [9] "SVOX announces its joining of the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. 2008-10-15. org/ templates/ story/ story. access-company. php?storyId=94982690). 2010-07-91.. com/ 2008/ 08/ 18/ htc-dream-fcc-approved-android-clear-for-launch/ ). 2007-11-05. . Retrieved 2007-11-05. [8] "Open Handset Alliance member announcements" (http:/ / www. 2007-11-05. 2007-11-05. html).com/article/SB119517445580795065. openhandsetalliance. html). openhandsetalliance. . com/ userfiles/ PR NXP Software_OHA_Agreement_Final(1). php?sn=43). com/ news-events/ newsroom/ release-archive-2009/ 9_30_09. . 2010-01-15. openhandsetalliance. 2010-01-22. html). [5] "Google Is Calling. [13] "ZTE to launch Android handsets this quarter" (http:/ / wwwen. [11] "MIPS Technologies Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. sasken. software. VisualOn. ZTE. html#mobile). . npr. • Google enters the wireless world (http://www. com/ press_110507. mips. [10] "Acer announces its joining of the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / phandroid. 2009-09-30. cn/ en/ press_center/ press_clipping/ 201001/ t20100115_179607. Ltd. htm). 2008-12-09. com/ news/ press/ ACCESS/ 2010/ 20100729_oha.

ORFS measurements are defined and required in order to prove conformance by various institutions.. ORFS . California.exxplain. neighbor analysis were extended to the new standard with addition of pilot pollution analysis. parameter auditing. GSM.S..com/) official site • Google's Android and the Open Handset Alliance (http://www. . e.Open Handset Alliance 242 External links • Open Handset Alliance (http://www..S.g.com video) Optpcs OptPCS is a 2G/3G/4G (LTE) dual band. located in Pleasanton. the U.g. The tool was developed in 1997 by Dr. drive data analysis. e. multi-vendor wireless network optimization tool developed by Telecom Technology Services. aspx?Ticket=de5d0d74-0f06-4a4f-be8e-ec31f80ff968) (Exxplain.openhandsetalliance. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or ETSI. The acronym ORFS is used in the context of mobile communication systems. measured in a specific bandwidth and time. produced by the mobile station due to effects in modulation and power ramping and switching. Inc. where RF stands for Radio Frequency. It stands for the relationship between (a) the frequency offset from the carrier and (b) the power. Lin Weng PhD in a effort to reduce the amount of time engineers spent troubleshooting and optimizing GSM (2G) networks. These features and functions are now extended to LTE (4G).O-Ring Face Seal: Hydraulic sealing system for hoses and fittings. As UMTS (3G) networks began to emerge in the U. the features and functions of network topology creation. ORFS ORFS stands for Output RF Spectrum.com/TrainingDetails.

Typically it is done via the former method to avoid service disruption at an inconvenient time. Libelium has implemented a smart and easy-to-use OTA programming system for ZigBee WSN devices. or can be performed automatically. Interop Technologies provides a number of nationwide wireless operators in the US with an SS7 Based Over-the-Air device management solution.4 and ZigBee. option 2 updates the PRL. a carrier will send a broadcast SMS text message to all subscribers (or those using a particular model of phone) asking them to dial a service number to receive a software update.Over-the-air programming 243 Over-the-air programming Over-the-air programming (OTA) may refer to either free-to-air. Often.S. . OTA is taken to a new direction: for the first time OTA is applied using unlicensed frequency bands (2. saving time and money if the nodes must be re-programmed. Verizon Wireless in the U. Various standardization bodies were established to help develop. It is often necessary to turn the phone off and back on for the new programming to take effect. over-the-air service provisioning (OTASP). Methods Depending on implementation. where the networks consist of hundreds or thousands of nodes. namely the receipt and installation of new software received via the wireless network from the provider. Some phones with this capability are labeled as being "OTA capable. over-the-air provisioning (OTAP) or over-the-air parameter administration (OTAPA). Similarly Voitel Wireless that uses Verizon network uses *22890 service code to program Verizon based Voitel wireless phones. Option 1 updates phone configuration. installed. For service settings.[1] When OTA is used to update a phone's operating firmware. This system enables firmware upgrades without the need of physical access. oversee. it is sometimes called Firmware Over The Air (FOTA). OTA via SMS optimises the configuration data updates in SIM cards and handsets and enables the distribution of new software updates to mobile phones or provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with which to access services such as WAP or MMS. but this requires subscribers to manually call the provider. OTA configuration has become increasingly important as new updates and services come on stream. One of them is the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA). methods of distributing new software updates to cellphones or provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with which to access services such as WAP or MMS. digital television. [4] This solution allows operators to manage wireless device functionality including renumbering handsets." As mobile phones accumulate new applications and become more advanced.4 GHz.15. updating phone settings. or in the mobile content world. [2] Motes are often located in places that are either remote or difficult to access. such as a call to the provider's customer support system or other dialable service. and manage OTA. 900 MHz) and with low consumption and low data rate transmission using protocols such as 802. though many phones will automatically perform this action. and put into use. personalization and programming of a new service for mobile operators and telco third parties. applications and subscriber data and adjusting PRL to manage cost structures. OTA software delivery can be initiated upon action. More recently. New software is transferred to the phone. 868 MHz. provides a number of OTA functions to its subscribers via the *228 service code. with the new concepts of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things. the technology is often known as Device Configuration. OTA messaging provides remote control of mobile phones for service and subscription activation. As an example. [3] Mechanism The OTA mechanism requires the existing software and hardware of the target device to support the feature.

Alberto. Retrieved 19 April 2011. parameters changed or firmware or software updated. Over-the-air provisioning(OTAP) is also available in wireless environments (though it is disabled by default for security reasons). etc.15. It is sent in plain text however which would make it vulnerable to sniffing and why it is disabled by default.OTA (http:/ / www. a Device Management client in a device may be capable of receiving and provisioning applications. add software to device. com/ libeliumworld/ articles/ 111291292000) [3] Over the Air Programming with Waspmote. htm . which use TFTP as a way to remotely receive new programming.Mobile Explorer" (http:/ / web. Non-OTA options for a user are a) to go to a store and seek help b) use a PC and a cable to connect to the device and change settings on a device. It allows an access point(AP) to discover the IP address of its controller. . libelium. thus reducing the amount of time spent by both the owner and the user of the device on maintenance. microsoft. [2] Gascón.4 and ZigBee . Genicio. asp).Over-the-air programming To provision parameters in a mobile device OTA. David. processing and setting the parameters. Microsoft. com/ mobile/ phones/ mme/ default. com/ mobile/ phones/ mme/ default. Marcos Over the Air Programming with 802.GSM 03. One of the first . For example. 244 OTA Standards There is number of standards that describes OTA functions.48 series. the device needs to have a provisioning client capable of receiving. tmcnet. References [1] "Mobile Phones . org/ web/ 20010811201929/ www.this is so that the user does not have to go to a store or a service center to have applications provisioned. microsoft. archive. Félix. Bielsa. com/ wifirevolution/ articles/ 24338-alaska-digitel-buys-ota-programming-solution-from-interop. the controller tells the other APs to include additional information in the Radio Resource Management Packets (RRM) that would assist a new access point in learning of the controller. the term OTA implies the use of wireless mechanisms to send provisioning data or update packages for firmware or software updates to a mobile device . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. libelium. When enabled. 2001. or connectivity parameters. com/ ota) [4] http:/ / www. such as cable modems.OTA (http:/ / www. Similarities OTA is similar to firmware distribution methods used by other mass-produced consumer electronics. In general. asp) on 11 August 2001. Yarza.

P2000 (network) 245 P2000 (network) P2000 is a one-way communications network for pagers based on Motorola's FLEX-protocol in the Netherlands. livep2000. The P2000 network is maintained by the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations. which means means any message can be read by everyone with a receiver. Messages are similar to SMS-messages. nl/ . Several tests have shown the network can cope with the largest disasters when large numbers of emergency personnel need to be reached. Several websites provide a live monitor for all messages on this network. A P2000 pager External links • Live P2000 monitor [1] References [1] http:/ / monitor. The FLEX-protocol does not provide encryption. The network is used by all emergency services and provides nationwide coverage.

Major product groups from PV are: • CORE. Cheuk Chan. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. Osama Al-shaykh. including the Open Handset Alliance. CORE is an established framework that can support any media services. including the display of video on mobile handsets. Mobile DTV Alliance. Brailean. International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium. com PacketVideo Corporation or PV is a San Diego-based company that produces software for wireless multimedia. with its headquarters in San Diego. Affiliations PacketVideo is a member of industry forum and consortiums. History PV was founded in San Diego. Tampere. United States Key people Website James C. Charlotte. which provides a universal structure for mobile multimedia applications. http:/ / www. In 2003 PacketVideo sold its infrastructure division to Alcatel. Charlotte. Chandigarh. Locations PacketVideo has presence in three continents. Tampere. a white-label client-server software application to develop and launch on-device portals for rich media services. • MediaFusion. MPEG Industry Forum. Chicago. California on 10 August 1998 by James C. Broadcast Mobile Convergence Forum. CEO and Team[1]. Berlin. and the Digital Living Network Alliance . Major development centers are in San Diego. Sales and customer support centers are in San Diego. Chicago. Gene Wen and Mark R Banham.PacketVideo 246 PacketVideo PacketVideo Corporation Type Founded Privately Held San Diego. Tokyo. Products PV's customers include mobile operators such as Verizon Wireless. packetvideo. Open Mobile Alliance. California. and Basel. and consumer electronics companies. handset manufacturers. and Basel. • TwonkyMedia suite of products that connect home entertainment devices. FLO Forum. NTT DoCoMo and Orange. Tokyo. Brailean. California. PV's software is embedded in more than 249 million devices worldwide and more than 248 different products. USA Headquarters San Diego. Boston. Nice.

often used in combination. and SMS messages. pagers mainly support the "critical messaging" markets. all pagers are given unique phone numbers while alphanumeric pagers are given an email address. The actual pager device was developed and manufactured by Reevesound Company of New York and weighed approximately 200 grams (6 oz). In general.PacketVideo 247 References [1] http:/ / www. and sometimes giving the caller an option to leave a voice mail message. The numeric message given is usually a phone number. Generally. as well as two-way pagers that have the ability to send and receive email. • Beepers were the first and are the simplest form of paging. others light up and some vibrate. They were named beepers because they originally made a beeping noise. pagers filled the role of common personal and mobile communications.[1] The first practical pager was introduced in 1950 by physicians in the New York City area.packetvideo.[2] A Motorola alphanumeric pager used in Brazil in the 1990s. Function and operation Paging is a subscription service offered in a variety of plans and options to meet the needs of a subscriber and the type of device used. The first pager system had a range of approximately 40 km (25 mi) and the physicians paid US$12 per month for the service.com/) Pager A pager (often called a beeper) is a simple personal telecommunications device for short messages. operated by Teletrim Until the popular adoption of mobile phones in the 1990s. the calling party reaches a recorded greeting asking the caller to enter a numeric message. The current numeric pager . When calling a phone number assigned to a pager. the paged person will receive an alert from the pager with the phone number and/or a pager code within a few minutes. but current pagers in this category use other forms of alert as well. usually consisting of the phone number. the text is displayed. com/ management_team. A one-way numeric pager can only receive a message consisting of a few digits. packetvideo. The majority of restaurant pagers fall into this category. Some use audio signals. Today. Alphanumeric pagers are available. In the case of email paging. typically a phone number that the user is then requested to call. html External links • PacketVideo Corporation (http://www. numeric pages.

or the message can be typed from a wireless keyboard and is received by the pager. Within a short timespan. The U. two-way pagers are offered with GPS. Most modern paging systems use simulcast delivery by satellite controlled networks.S. to improve response times by designating jobs or activities only to the closest field personnel. the units either have a small built in keypad that allows the user to input messages. Many paging transmitters may overlap a coverage area. and. Increasingly. satellite systems continue to perform. the functionality of the pager shifted from necessary professional use to a social tool integrated in one's personal life. The front end of a numeric pager Pager use in the 21st century Pagers are still in use today in places where mobile phones typically cannot reach users. down from $6. customers are given a theft-protected portable receiver which usually vibrates. This type of distributed system makes them inherently more reliable than terrestrial based cellular networks for message delivery.this has the advantage of standardising communications. where radio transmitters are thought to interfere with sensitive medical equipment and where there is a greater need of assurance for a timely delivery of a message. or when their meal is ready. while cellular systems are built to fill holes in existing networks. To do this. paging industry generated $2. GPS allows field agents location information to be sent back to a control centre that can use the information to send only location relevant information. an informal language wherein sets of numbers symbolize preset messages.[4] A pager technology in wide use today is the restaurant pager. and also in places where the operation of the radio transmitters contained in mobile phones is problematic or prohibited. increasing speed of a message reply and reducing the chance of a miss-communication. pagers are often used by first responders in emergencies. • Alphanumeric pagers are essentially modified versions of numeric pagers with sophisticated display to accommodate text.[3] • Numeric pagers are the type of devices offering only a numeric display of the phone number to be called and pager codes. Because of superior building penetration and availability of service in disaster situations. pagers evolved from a A Skyper pager that is in use for ham radio . flashes or beeps when a table becomes free. One such type of location is a large hospital complex. Mainly used in the hospitality industry. usually from the beeper category. where cellular coverage is often weak or nonexistent. These devices are usually given an email address to receive text messages. When terrestrial networks go down in an emergency. 248 • Two-way Alphanumeric pagers are alphanumeric pagers capable of both sending and receiving text messages and email.1 billion in revenue in 2008.2 billion in 2003. Other pager models rely on existing message templates that the user can choose to send back .Pager • Voice/Tone pagers provide the ability to listen to a recorded voice message when an alert is received.[3] A dual-frequency Unication pager for use by EMS units In popular culture As is the case with many new technologies.

if a pager has nationwide service. due to the widespread adoption of email. However. Common paging protocols include TAP. along with underground acts such as A Tribe Called Quest began referencing forthcoming mobile technologies. Commercial paging transmitters typically radiate 1000 watts of effective power. Justin Timberlake states "You know I just got a page from a girl. This shift accounts for Sam Flynn's amusement when Alan Bradley says "I was paged last night" in Tron: Legacy.[7] Security Pagers also have privacy advantages compared with cellular phones. ERMES and NTT. This can result in pager messages being delayed or lost. POCSAG.Pager tool for "technocratic elites" to a tool used by "kids living in the projects"[5] During the rise of the pager. This is convenient for many users. the 30 Rock sitcom character Dennis Duffy attracts disdain and mockery for his career as a pager salesman. Likewise. it became the subject of various forms of media. Thus. Q-Tip conveys that the skypager "serves an important communicative function for a young professional with a full calendar". FLEX. 249 A mid 1990s opaque black Avont pager model Original Motorola "beeper" pager. older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel. its location cannot be tracked. it also discussed the humorous use of calculator spelling to send messages through the devices. pagers typically receive signals using the FLEX protocol in the 900 MHz band. and are less subject to these delays. In the song 3-Way (The Golden Rule) by American comedy troupe The Lonely Island. resulting in a much wider coverage area per . Since a one-way pager is a passive receiver only (it sends no information back to the base station). used in NYC in the late 1970s. but email-based message submission methods do not usually provide any way to ensure that messages have been received by the paging network. as a message sent to a pager must be broadcast from every paging transmitter in the pager's service area. Golay. For this reason. The segment explored the device's entrance into mainstream pop culture. Pagers were a featured segment on the 1991 episode I Love the '90s: Part Deux. most notably in the 1990s hip-hop scene. A Tribe Called Quest's single 'Skypager' directly speaks of the importance of such a wireless communication device. That I met last week at the Pay-less". in particular the pager. this can also be disadvantageous. Older forms of message submission using the Telocator Alphanumeric input Protocol protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network. The growing popularity of cellphones in the early 21st century was accompanied by a corresponding decline in pager use by the general population. ReFLEX. a message sent to it could be intercepted by criminals or law enforcement agencies anywhere within the nationwide service area. Past paging protocols include Two-tone and 5/6-tone. Upcoming mainstream artists such as Ice Cube and Method Man. In the United States. Technical information Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email.[6] The smash hit "Bugaboo" from Destiny's Child also makes reference to pagers.

com/ lyrics/ The+ Lonely+ Island/ 3-Way+ The+ Golden+ Rule/ [8] http:/ / www. lyricshall. and Popular Culture (p175) [6] Heckman. pagercall.6 Watts per channel. htm). co. This was useful for times when the pager was off/out of coverage area. howstuffworks. com/ books?id=ZyEDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA104& dq=popular+ science+ 1950+ can+ our+ jets+ support& hl=en& ei=4n2-TJmUBNnhnQfCvvGJDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CD8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage& q& f=true) [3] Tyson. African-Americans. anythingresearch. Since one-way pagers do not contain transmitters.sid40_gci212739. called the Subsidiary Communications Authority. Messages can be sent in the form of SMS. “‘Do You Know the Importance of a Sky Pager?’: Telecommunications. one-way paging networks have no way to track whether a message has been successfully delivered to a pager. retrieved 17 January 2010 [4] AnythingResearch. com/ industry/ Paging. and have numeric messages read back to them. com/ sDefinition/ 0. . This is especially critical in hospital settings where emergency staff must be able to reliably receive pages in order to respond to patient needs. Jeff. Other radio bands used for pagers include the 400 MHz band.Pager tower than a mobile phone transmitter. email or from a web interface.com report on Paging Industry market size (http:/ / www. Although 900 MHz FLEX paging networks tend to have stronger in-building coverage than mobile phone networks. if a one-way pager is turned off or is not receiving a usable signal at the time a message is transmitted. uk/ sectors/ pager-patient. Patient Paging Systems offer waiting patients the opportunity to leave the waiting area but still be contactable. and 900 MHz bands include POCSAG and ERMES. commercial paging service providers will work with large institutions to install repeater equipment in the event that service is not available in needed areas of the subscribing institution's buildings. Onsite Paging Systems in Hospitals Unlike wide area paging systems on site pager systems are local area services. Davin (2006). and Popular Culture. which allowed a customer to call their pagernumber. Davin (2006). African-Americans. hospitals commonly use on site paging for communication with staff and increasingly for calling waiting patients when their appointment is due (Patient Paging Systems). htm) 2003 and 2008 research data used with permission [5] Heckman. Popular Science (http:/ / books. html [2] Pocket Radio Pages Doctors Night Or Day. ‘Do You Know the Importance of a Sky Pager?’: Telecommunications. the VHF band. Pager in movies • 2001 The Debut References [1] http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. com/ restaurant-pager.” [7] http:/ / www. Unlike mobile phones.. Because of this. Other paging protocols used in the VHF. most one-way pagers do not display any information about whether a signal is being received or about the strength of the received signal. January 1951. How Restaurant Pagers Work (http:/ / electronics.00. Reference: Patient Paging Systems [8] 250 Satellite pager A service based on the Iridium satellite constellation uses satellites to deliver short text messages to one-way pagers similar to those used by terrestrial paging networks. Pagers using the commercial FM band receive a subcarrier. techtarget. google. as it would know what number paged you even if you never actually received the page. In the mid 1990s. Despite the fact that the network provides world-wide coverage the messages are only sent to pre-selected message delivery areas which can be set on a web-based interface or by binding the service to a satellite phone. and the FM commercial broadcast band (88-108 MHz). of a broadcast station. which typically radiates around 0. some paging companies began offering a service. asp . the message will not be received and the sender of the message will not be notified of this fact. 400 MHz UHF.

com/support. • 800Beepers User Manuals (http://www. The session is normally a video stream. stm) • NotePage technical support (http://www. etc. References  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration.bbc. P2P video sharing does not require a full IMS implementation. In the future USIM/ISIM based authentication could be introduced.800beepers. please see the Wikipedia entry for Video Share.Pager 251 External links • BBC news reports closure of UK domestic pager systems in 2001 (http://news.com/index. Note 1: The PCS switching center represents a collection of one or more network elements.800beepers.co. So the IMS adds up extra security and management features that are normally required by a mobile operator by default. Peer-to-peer video sharing Peer-to-peer video sharing is a basic service on top of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). and (b) is responsible for interconnection of access and network systems to support end-to-end services.uk/1/hi/uk/1137923. The GSM Association calls it "Video Share". While talking on the CS line the speaker can start in parallel a multimedia IMS session.php?main_page=page&id=25& zenid=f081fb7631873c12bf1fdddc007ec50d) • 800Beepers Enhanced Options / Services (http://www. The most basic form is typically connected to a classical circuit-switched (CS) telephone call.Technical information on protocols. a facility that (a) supports access-independent call control/service control.htm) . Early proprietary implementations might also run a simple SIP infrastructure.notepager.com/index. Note 2: The term "center" does not imply a physical location.php?main_page=page&id=6& zenid=f081fb7631873c12bf1fdddc007ec50d) PCS switching center PCS switching center: In personal communications service. too. with audio being optional (since there is an audio session already open on the CS domain). For a more detailed description of the full GSMA Video Share service. carriers. It is also possible to share photos or files. mobile operators may want to use it without username/password provisioning and the related frauds problems. One possible solution is the Early IMS Authentication method. It could work with a pure IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) infrastructure and simple HTTP Digest authentication. . too. The peer-to-peer video sharing functionality is defined by the Phase 1 of the GSMA Video Share service. and connection control (switching) functions. Actually. However.

gsmworld. the video sharing client looks up the destination URI based on the MSISDN number of the B party of the current open CS voice call. it is difficult to make a good business model for it. and the resulting increased revenue would be enough to cover the costs of the video sharing service.pdf (http://sw.com/ id/ced67f36-2a98-4f21-9277-209bb4a2429c/Video_Sharing. shtml) .Technical description on the Forum Nokia site • http://press. History The P2P video sharing was introduced in 2004 by Nokia.GSM Association Video Share homepage • http://sw. The first handsets to support P2P video sharing were the Nokia 6630 and 6680. Supported handsets • Nokia 6630. it/ consumer/ c366/ i56102/ o683_684/ servizio.nokia. tim. do) Service description at TIM (in Italian) External links • http://www.Peer-to-peer video sharing 252 Early implementation by Nokia The early Nokia implementation requires the manual setting of an attribute in the phone book.nokia.shtml (http://www.nokia. Usually.com/sip/e2e/videoshare. Later the Nokia N70 was added to the commercially supported handsets. However. The video sharing is possible only if this number has a valid entry in the phone book and a valid URI for the SIP call. since the user has to enter very complex strings into the phone book manually.html (http://press. 6680 • Nokia N70 • Nokia 5230 References [1] (http:/ / www. The 6680 is especially suited for turning on the video sharing by having a slider on top of the back-side camera.com/sip/e2e/videoshare. When the video session is triggered (by simply pulling down the back-side camera cover on a 6680).com/PR/200502/980522_5. Two major operators started commercial implementations: "Turbo Call" [1] from Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) in Italy and Telecomunicações Móveis Nacionais.nokia. the first commercial services were based on the idea that video sharing will increase the length of the voice sessions.com/id/ced67f36-2a98-4f21-9277-209bb4a2429c/Video_Sharing.gsmworld. Because this service does not involve any application server.com/PR/200502/980522_5.html) Announcement of the "Turbo Call" service from TIM in cooperation with Nokia . SA (TMN) in Portugal. Popularity TIM Italy reported about 10% penetration (based on the potentially available customers with appropriate handsets). this method is not really scalable.pdf) .

[3] The International Telecommunications Union describes Personal Communications Services as a component of the IMT-2000 (3G) standard.webcitation. "Personal Communications Services (PCS) A new generation of wireless-phone technology that introduces a range of features and services surpassing those available in analog- . Wireless service providers may deploy equipment using any of several air interface and channel access methods.[4] In Canada. References • "Glossary of Telecom Terms : P" (http://www. and service profile management.[2] Described in more commercial terms. PCS is a generation of wireless-phone technology that combines a range of features and services surpassing those available in analog.[5] This frequency band was designated by the United States FCC and Industry Canada to be used for new wireless services to alleviate capacity caps inherent in the original AMPS and D-AMPS cellular networks in the 800-894 MHz frequency band (commonly referred to as the "850 MHz band"). Sprint PCS originally built out the network using GSM radio interface equipment. Retrieved 2011-03-11. typically incorporating digital technology. and data service. Cambridge Telecom Report 2000. 2011. Archived from the original (http://www22. verizon. Mexico and the United States. Sprint PCS was the first company to build and operate a PCS network. International Telecommunications Union 1997. Verizon Communications Inc.com/wholesale/glossary/?l=p) on 2011-03-11. 1995 in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. These frequency bands are particular to North America and other frequency bands may be designated in other regions. 2011. Federal Communications Commission 2008.[1] More specifically. launching service in November. as long as the network meets the service description characteristics described in the standard.verizon. messaging. Sprint operated the two networks in parallel until finishing a migration of its area customers to the CDMA network. providing a user with an all-in-one wireless phone. as well as wireless communications to homes. 2011. In addition. including services that allow people to place and receive communications while away from their home or office.org/5x7DguDqd). PCS refers to any of several types of wireless voice and/or wireless data communications systems. launching service in 1997.[6] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Institute for Telecommunication Sciences 2011. PCS can also be used to provide other wireless communications services. office buildings and other fixed locations. Sprint PCS sold the GSM radio interface network equipment to Omnipoint Communications in January 2000. Cellular Networking Perspectives Ltd.and digital-cellular phone systems. providing services similar to advanced cellular mobile or paging services. Sprint PCS later selected CDMA as the radio interface for its nationwide network and built out a parallel CDMA network in the Baltimore-Washington area. First PCS Network in the United States In the United States. personal mobility. PCS services are provided in the 1850-1990 MHz frequency band (commonly referred to as the "1900 MHz band").Personal Communications Service 253 Personal Communications Service At the most basic level Personal Communications Service or PCS describes a set of wireless communications capabilities that allows some combination of terminal mobility.com. After completing the customer migration. paging. PCS and the IMT-2000 standard of which PCS is a part do not specify a particular air interface and channel access method. Verizon Communications Inc.

gov/glossary.int. Archived from the original (http://www. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Federal Communications Commission. "PCS1900 North American PCS frequencies.org/5x7EBShz6). Archived from the original (http:// 254 • • • • findarticles." "Glossary of Telecommunications Terms" (http://www. messaging.bldrdoc. PCS provides the user with an all-in-one wireless phone.1224 Vocabulary of Terms for International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) (Question ITU-R 39/8)" (http://www. its. "PCS: Abbreviation for Personal Communications Service.org/5x7DGMe4m). Archived from the original (http://www.fcc. voice and/or data communications systems. The Institute for Telecommunication Sciences. International Telecommunications Union. 1997-07-01. 2010-10-07. Archived from the original (http://www. 1850-1990 MHz" External links • United States Federal Communications Commission Broadband PCS service description (http://wireless.Personal Communications Service and digital-cellular phone systems. A set of capabilities that allows some combination of terminal mobility. fcc.1224-0-199702-I!!PDF-E. typically incorporating digital technology. "An affiliate of Sprint launched the GSM system in Washington/Baltimore.webcitation. "PCS system A collection of facilities which provide some combination of terminal mobility. org/5x7EyxALO).gov. 2008-11-15.webcitation. Retrieved 2011-03-11. and service profile management.gov. gov/services/broadbandpcs/) .bldrdoc. Retrieved 2011-03-11.com.webcitation.fcc. the nation's first PCS network. in November 1995.com/ glossary." • "Wireless.Company Business and Marketing" (http://www. cnp-wireless.gov/fs-1037/) on 2011-03-11.html#p) on 2011-03-11. Cellular Networking Perspectives Ltd. personal mobility." "PCS" (http://www.pdf) on 2011-03-11." "Recommendation ITU-R M.com/p/articles/mi_m0BFP/is_2000_Jan_3/ai_58463612/) on 2011-03-11.itu.webcitation. www.int/ dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/m/R-REC-M. and data service. Cambridge Telecom Report. CBS Interactive.webcitation. Retrieved 2011-03-11.itu. personal mobility.its.html) on 2011-03-11. Archived from the original (http://www. and service profile management. paging.cnp-wireless. "PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE (PCS) Any of several types of wireless." "Sprint Sells GSM Wireless Network Infrastructure in Washington/Baltimore Area To Omnipoint After Upgrading Customers to Newer CDMA System . 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-11.org/5x7GHvEsu) (PDF).org/5x7CwBtjf). 2000-01-03. Telecom and Computer Glossary" (http://www.

The platform specifically allows for mobile marketing campaigns to be set up and run that can pass along useful information to audiences.0 Type Website Web application. magazine ads. retail stores. and local advertisers to converge and deliver targeted ads to their focused audiences. History The idea for Phizzle came about in late 2005 after Ben Davis sold a mobile game company that he helped found in 2004. highways. the Phizzle platform also serves as a mobile ad network for sports teams. and beyond TV networks[6] . voting and polling. and NHL. Inc. brands. Instead the platform user will advertise an invitation to participate to their audience where they frequent such as traditional or digital signage in venues. Phizzle has been bringing in other major professional sports teams and sports networks to facilitate reach . com [2] Phizzle is a mobile marketing technology platform that allows its users to connect with their audiences via mobile interactivity. or other means such as TV and radio commercials. Inc. to name a few. Type Private Headquarters San Francisco. The mobile connection to audiences usually begins with a "call to action" that is not on the mobile platform itself. mobile communication Phizzle Website [1] Phizzle. fans and customers. TV networks. Since then. There are a variety of campaign types that can be set up that include alerts and subscriptions. Phizzle identified the Sports/Entertainment Industry as the prime market ready for the technology and began working with the Cleveland Cavaliers in 2008. Phizzle has a strong Sports/Entertainment Industry focus with clients in the NBA[3] . Stable release Version 1. and local advertisers. Advertising and sponsorship can also be a part of the SMS messages or WAP sites that the Phizzle platform initiates. The name "Phizzle" was chosen due to the futuristic nature of mobile phones and because it is slang for and a play on the word phone[7] . phizzle. networks. and with such networks as Fox Sports Network[5] in regions across the US. The communication that usually transpires is by SMS (text messages). Thus. etc. contests and sweepstakes. The platform does also have reach into the retail and pharmaceutical markets. The mobile platform allows the user to communicate with its audience through the opt-in campaigns. arenas. The platform establishes a mobile ecosystem as it provides intimate interaction for audiences and fans with their sports teams. California Key people Website Benjamin Davis. and trivia. NFL [4] . The text messages may also have WAP push links that launch WAP sites for the audience or fan to continue further interaction with. After a platform build out in 2006 and 2007. CEO http:/ / www.Phizzle 255 Phizzle Phizzle Developer(s) Phizzle.

March 09. com/ stories/ phizzle-goes-to-the-mobile-hoop-for-nba-all-star-weekend-2010/ ) [4] (http:/ / www. com/ / [2] http:/ / www. 256 Features The Phizzle platform features the following capabilities and mobile campaign types: text2screen[8] .April 10.Urban Dictionary (http:/ / www. mercurynews. com/ sports/ cavs/ 44090407. shtml) External links • Phizzle. php?term=phizzle) [8] "" BNET . trivia games. com/ news/ Raiders.Phizzle to their audiences and fans across the US. phizzle. 2009 (http:/ / findarticles. org/ portal/ artman/ publish/ printer_15041.SJ Mercury News . com [3] "Phizzle Goes To The Mobile Hoop For NBA All-Star Weekend 2010" .sportsvideo.OaklandRaiders.Sports Video Group . com/ note.phizzle. mobile coupons. References [1] http:/ / www. php?note_id=68283858018) [10] "Fox Sports Ohio Adds Sizzle Via Phizzle for Reds Fans" . (http://www. htm) "Oakland Raiders Raiders' Billboard Campaign" . facebook.Mar 27. 2009 (http:/ / www.digiday:Daily . 2009 [5] "FSOhio connects with Cavs fans" . Inc. sweepstakes[9] and contests.shtml) . and campaign tracking and data tools.com/) • Sports Video Group . 2009 (http:/ / www. html) [6] "Advantage Broadcast Solutions Partners with Phizzle to Further Enhance Interactivity of Satellite Meetings" .com July 10. phizzle.org/portal/dsports/articles/publish/ Ben_Davis_III. com/ p/ articles/ mi_pwwi/ is_200910/ ai_n39266353/ ) [9] "FSN Wisconsin: AirTran Airways/Fox Sports Wisconsin "Text Me Out to the Ballgame Get Away Sweepstakes" Rules!" . These features allow for real-time interaction with audiences and fans while on their mobile devices.October. phizzle. voting and polling[10] . ohio. 2009 (http:/ / www. urbandictionary. 2010 (http:/ / businesswire. 2010 (http:/ / www. com/ portal/ site/ mercurynews/ ?ndmViewId=news_view& newsId=20100309005180& newsLang=en) [7] "Phizzle" .Akron Beacon Journal Apr 30. com/ define. WAP sites. digidaydaily.Ben Davis profile (http://www. sportsvideo. subscription alerts.February 12.

President & COO of Helio. it reveals a full 35-key QWERTY keyboard. and manufactured by Pantech Curitel.4" QVGA display. 2007.61 ounces / 0. A deactivated Helio Ocean still is able to be used as a digital camera allowing images and video files to be downloaded via the included USB interface cable directly to a computer. 2006 showed the Ocean in test apparatus documentation. it reveals a telephone keypad."[6] The Ocean is seen as a breakthrough device for Helio. 2006 from a FCC filing. Virgin Mobile USA terminated the wireless voice and data services of those customers who had a Helio Ocean or other Helio branded devices on May 25.35 pounds 200 MB + up to 2 GB extra memory available via microSD. A distinctive design feature of the Ocean is its dual sliding mechanism — when slid down in the vertical position.[1] Photos released on December 9. [2] and later on February 21.20" (W) x 0. Wonhee Sull. Customers had until this date to port out their wireless phone number to another wireless carrier without a loss of service.[7] Dr. bluetooth The Helio Ocean is a dual slider Internet-enabled multimedia wireless mobile device sold by mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) wireless carrier Helio. 2007 a full gallery depicting the Helio Ocean was available through the FCC website.Helio Ocean 257 Helio Ocean Helio Ocean PN-810 Compatible networks Dimensions Weight Memory Display CDMA 1xEV-DO 800/1900 MHz 4."[8] .[3] [4] When publicly released on Friday. 2010. SDHC is not compatible 2.33" (H) x 2. said that work on the Ocean device started "before Helio was officially a company. appealing to a more mainstream audience and not just the "ultra-cool hipsters" the company had previously targeted. May 11. 240 x 320 resolution Ringtones & notifications Polyphonic ringtone Connectivity USB. Release The device became first known to the public on November 24. 262K color TFT-LAC. When slid down in the horizontal position. Since their acquisition by Sprint Nextel.[5] the Ocean was billed as "the ultimate messaging and talking machine" and "the definitive mobile social networking experience.86" (D) 5.

AAC. the Buddy Beacon [9] application allows friends with Buddy Beacon-enabled phones (as of Dec 2008. however. GPS The device is location aware with its internal GPS. built-in GPS. and WMA) and allows for over-the-air (OTA) downloads. an alarm clock and a calendar. an efficiency that allows for an estimate 15 hours of music listening on a single battery charge. 3G speed EV-DO network support. to telephony functions. a voice memo recorder. TXT) as well as several image types in both landscape and portrait modes. The Ocean is loaded with a version of Google Maps. allowing the device to be able to read a variety of popular file formats (among them DOC. PDF. and a removable battery. T9 Text. Yahoo! Mail. visible via MapQuest. 2007 Helio released a file viewer program for Ocean users. EarthLink. a speaker phone. a MPEG-4 video camera. the device includes caller ID (with support for photo caller ID). Additionally. MMS support. The Ocean device has several advanced features such as stereo bluetooth. In addition. along with automatic notifications for POP/IMAP accounts. AOL Mail. 2007. and Windows Live Messenger. PPT. On April 23. which displays turn-by-turn directions. The Helio Ocean has a considerable amount of features at the time of its release. and two additional user-defined POP or IMAP accounts. a 2 megapixel camera with flash. XLS. 2008 push support was added for Gmail. . Windows Live Hotmail.[13] For a nominal fee per month.264. HTML.Helio Ocean 258 Features The Ocean is a prime example of a converged device. a calculator. The music player runs on a separate microprocessor. MPEG-4. For communication. and Korean character set support.[11] [12] Ultimate Inbox The Helio Ocean also includes several choices of E-mail communication with support for Helio Mail. Helio Ocean running Google Maps in portrait mode. address book (with multiple online syncing abilities). Gmail. H. Yahoo! Messenger. only Helio phones) to broadcast their current location to each other. connectivity to Microsoft Exchange has been available on the Ocean since July 25.[14] [15] There is also instant messaging support for AOL Instant Messenger. Standard programs include an internet browser. Helio began adding support for push e-mail to the Helio Ocean in July 2007 with Push support for Yahoo! Mail. the Ocean's functions include those of a camera phone and a portable media player. Multimedia The integrated music and video player supports multiple file formats (including MP3. the application warns users that it should not be used while driving. Windows Live Hotmail. and AOL Mail.[10] On November 29.

com [22] Helio Launches Most Complete YouTube Experience (http:/ / www. html) . (http:/ / www. Opera Mini now surfing Helio's Ocean.[22] [23] The Ocean is able to do video capture and upload to YouTube as well as GPS tagging of videos. com/ id/ 17800969) .msn.engadget.com [7] Ocean smart phone could broaden Helio's appeal (http:/ / www. heliocity. com/ livefiles/ support/ ocean_fact_sheet. com/ pressreleases/ en/ 2008/ 03/ 19/ ) .[16] [17] Several months later.download.net [14] Helio Launches Mail for Microsoft Exchange (http:/ / www.com [11] Helio File Viewer Now Available for Ocean Users (http:/ / www.helio. com/ 2007/ 11/ 19/ helio-outs-file-viewer-for-ocean-reads-most-of-the-important-st/ ) .crave. com/ 2006/ 12/ 09/ the-next-kickflip-helio-branded-pantech-in-the-wild/ ) . cnet.msnbc.com [8] Meet the New Helio Ocean (http:/ / www.com [3] Helio's Pantech PN-810 QWERTY device pops up in FCC (http:/ / www. on March 19. com/ id/ 11374772) . helio.helio.com [23] Helio brightens its YouTube offering (http:/ / crave.com [21] Helio Continues to Lead Mobile Social Networking with New Myspace on Helio Application (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ 8301-2007_4-9897598-12. net/ 2007/ opera-mini-for-everybody-custom-apps-yay/ ) heliocity. info/ 2007/ 02/ 21/ helios-pantech-pn-810-qwerty-device-pops-up-in-fcc/ ) . 2007 Helio announced a more enriched YouTube experience. engadgetmobile. com/ buddybeacon. com/ 8301-1_105-9749860-1. html) .com [18] Opera Mini Surfs on the Helio Ocean (http:/ / www. engadgetmobile. On July 19.helio. those in the Helio community had figured out how to build custom applications (the device is Java-based) . helio. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1184806233919) .com [2] The next Kickflip? Helio-branded Pantech in the wild (http:/ / www. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1174770553372) . Users can fully log in to personalize. com/ 8301-1_105-9832752-1. cnet. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1197419200979) . engadgetmobile. helio.Helio Ocean 259 Opera Mini On August 2.com [12] Helio outs File Viewer for Ocean. html) . pdf) .info [4] Helio's Pantech PN-810 QWERTY device pops up in FCC (Gallery) (http:/ / www. heliocity. download. engadget. net/ 2008/ gmail-gets-push-support-in-ultimate-inbox) . com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1195242138800) helio. helio. php [10] Cell industry gathers under iPhone cloud (http:/ / www.com [9] http:/ / www. References [1] FCC Fridays (http:/ / www.cnet. reads most of the important stuff (http:/ / www.com [20] MySpace users to get their own cell phones (http:/ / www.opera. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1178851101604) . the Ocean got official software support for the Opera Mini browser when Helio became the first U. opera.com [5] Helio Ocean now available (http:/ / www.[21] YouTube On December 12. at the time the "most complete" on a mobile device.news.[18] [19] It was speculated that Helio had followed the "incredible community response to Opera Mini. com/ Ocean-smart-phone-could-broaden-Helios-appeal/ 2100-1039_3-6171062."[20] Helio was the first cellular provider to take the MySpace experience mobile. com/ 2006/ 11/ 24/ fcc-fridays/ ) .crave.engadgetmobile. leading some to refer to the Ocean as a "MySpace phone."[16] MySpace Mobile MySpace Mobile is available for the Helio Ocean. msn. 2008.cnet.helio.helio.msn.engadgetmobile. computer-advice.S carrier to sign a deal with Opera. download.msnbc. com/ photos/ helios-pantech-pn-810-qwerty-device-pops-up-in-fcc/ ) .news.engadgetmobile. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1185327373909) helio. ulocate. html) . 2007.com [13] Gmail (and POP/IMAP!) gets Push support in Ultimate Inbox (http:/ / www.com [15] The Ocean gets Exchange Activesync (http:/ / crave. news. helio.computer-advice.heliocity. msnbc. com/ 8301-2007_4-9754949-12. 2007 Helio announced the launch of an improved version of Myspace Mobile that operates nearly five times faster than Helio's original self-developed application.net [17] Give a wave. html) .including Opera Mini. helio. helio.com . rate videos and use other community features.com [6] Ocean Media Fact Sheet (http:/ / www.com [19] Opera Mini officially surfs Helio's Ocean (http:/ / www.com [16] Opera Mini for everybody! Custom apps! Yay! (http:/ / www.

net) . without the need for the BSC/MSC infrastructure. In particular. and hearing a conversation on the other side that changes audibily depending on the position of the pickets relative to the listener.fcc. This form of picocell is sometimes called an access point base station or 'enterprise femtocell'. or if it actually referred to the chopping sound itself. picocells are typically used to extend coverage to indoor areas where outdoor signals do not reach well. but also many of the functions of the BSC and some of the MSC. such as GSM. which imitates the noise produced by dragging a stiff object across a picket fence. the phrase was used to describe the way an FM transmitter will cut in and out as it nears the capture threshold of the receiver.com/watch?v=e3R_ExzzF3k) . etc. Multiple picocell 'heads' connect to each BSC: the BSC performs radio resource management and hand-over functions. the unit contains all the capability required to connect directly to the Internet. the picocell base station[2] is typically a low cost. or to add network capacity in areas with very dense phone usage. Originally from amateur radio. more recent systems use Ethernet cabling. Although originally deployed systems (1990s) used PDH links such as E1/T1 links. or (more likely) by the landline user to whom the cellphone is connected.helio. More recent work has developed the concept towards a head unit containing not only a picocell. the integration of picocells with macrocells through a Heterogeneous Network can be useful in seamless handoffs and increased mobile data capacity. In cellular networks.com Compare AT&T iPhone to Helio Ocean (http://compare. Picocells provide coverage and capacity in areas difficult or expensive to reach using the more traditional Macrocell approach[1] .youtube.gov Picket-fencing Picket fencing is slang for the chopping effect sometimes heard by cell phone users at the edge of a cell's coverage area.helio. reasonably simple unit that connects to a Base Station Controller (BSC).helio-ocean2.Helio Ocean 260 External links • • • • • • • Helio Ocean updates (http://www. Picocell A picocell is a small cellular basestation typically covering a small area. cgi?attachment_id=731378&native_or_pdf=pdf) .[4] . such as in-building (offices.com) .fcc.). shopping malls. Aircraft use satellite links[3] . This is potentially a more cost effective approach.com/) .com Internal photographs of the Ocean (https://fjallfoss. small (typically the size of a ream of A4 paper).helioocean. In cellular wireless networks. "Picket fencing" refers to the way portions of speech are stripped from the conversation.heliocity.com Helio Ocean video review (http://www. In this case. or more recently in-aircraft. It is not clear if the phrase was intended to describe the loss of the speech.helio ocean updates Unofficial Helio Ocean Site (http://www.net Custom community-maintained applications (http://www.gov/prod/oet/forms/blobs/retrieve. Picocells offer many of the benefits of "small cells" (similar to femtocells) in that they improve data throughput for mobile users and increase capacity in the mobile network. thus chopping the speech of the transmitting operator.com) .myhelioapps.com/) .helioocean.youtube.myhelioapps. as if the listener was walking by a picket fence. such as train stations.heliocity. train stations. and aggregates data to be passed to the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and/or the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). Connectivity between the picocell heads and the BSC typically consists of in-building wiring.com Unofficial Helio community (http://www.

Retrieved 2010-12-21. com/ design/ audio-design/ 4012603/ A-picocell-primer). and LetterWise/WordWise. This is approximately true providing that all words used are in its database. a calendar. ipaccess.[1] In practice. Predictive text makes efficient use of fewer device keys to input writing into a text message. which when operating on a standard telephone keypad achieves "KSPC=1. com/ picocells/ nanoBTS_picocells. Retrieved 2010-12-21. Typically the range of a microcell is less than two kilometers wide. abiresearch. such as pressing a "next" key to get to the intention. radio-electronics. linguistic settings that offer predictions that are re-prioritized to adapt to each user. these factors are found to cause tremendous variance in the efficiency gain. . . Most predictive text systems have a user database to facilitate this process. . KSPC. ip. [4] "Mobile Experts Picocell Forecast" (http:/ / mobile-experts.00. php). in the same. php?products_id=41). Retrieved 2010-12-21. There are many unique ways to build a device that predicts text. if the user is not careful to review. Eetimes.access. and so generally.access. on average.[6] . to a user's disambiguating feedback that results in corrective key presses. Predictive text systems take time to learn to use well. an address book. net/ product_info. . versus multi-tap systems. a device's system has user options to setup the choice of multi-tap or of any one of several schools of predictive text methods. [3] "In-flight picocell connectivity" (http:/ / www. could. com/ learn/ why/ 3gmicrocell/ faq. comparable to using a keyboard. UMTS and LTE from manufacturers including ip. [6] http:/ / www. result in transmitting misinformation. wireless. punctuation is ignored. visionmobile. iTap.[7] 261 References [1] "picocell primer" (http:/ / www.03. Huawei and Airwalk[5] . att. php). The most widely used.Picocell Picocells are available for most cellular technologies including GSM. Each key press results in a prediction rather than repeatedly sequencing through the same group of "letters" it represents. The choice of which predictive text system is the best to use involves matching the user's preferred interface style. but all predictive text systems have initial. eetimes. with a range of 40 feet (12 m).15" for English. and a femtocell is on the order of 10 meters. of a keyboard is KSPC=1. and of multi-tap is KSPC=2. a picocell is 200 meters or less. There are various levels of risk in predictive text systems. by way of the device memory. Theoretically the number of keystrokes required per desired character in the finished writing is. CDMA. because the predicted text that is automatically written that provide the speed and mechanical efficiency benefit. and no input mistakes are made typing or spelling. a "microcell".[2] The theoretical keystrokes per character. and the like. com/ analysis/ satellite/ 2010-04/ thales-in-flight-connectivity. [5] "picocell vendor matrix" (http:/ / www. com/ research/ 1003580-Picocell+ Equipment+ Vendor+ Matrix).access nanoBTS picocell" (http:/ / www. an e-mail. Eatoni' LetterWise is a predictive multi-tap hybrid. jsp Predictive text Predictive text is an input technology used where one key or button represents many letters. such as on mobile phones and in accessibility technologies. predictive text systems are T9. Predictive text could allow for an entire word to be input by single keypress. . [2] "ip. although AT&T calls its product. com/ blog/ 2007/ 12/ do-we-really-need-femto-cells/ [7] http:/ / www. and the user's efficiency goal. . general. ZTE. This learning adapts. Retrieved 2010-12-21. the user's level of learned ability to operate predictive text software. ABI Research. invariable order.

1971). hoof are also valid disambiguations of the sequence of key strokes. A non-dictionary system constructs words and other sequences of letters from the statistics of word parts. In ideal predictive text entry. twice displays a "b" and three times displays a "c". and the Eatoni Ergonomics' LetterWise and WordWise. requiring potentially many keystrokes to enter a single letter. The user database is for storing words or phrases which are not well-disambiguated by the pre-supplied database. with the risky effect of either enhancing or frustrating user efforts to enter text. The most common system of SMS text input is referred to as "multi-tap". proper nouns. For instance. The user presses the number corresponding to each letter and. disambiguation may be combined with a word completion facility. until mobile phone text messaging came into widespread use. and can be used without any visual feedback. a key is pressed multiple times to access the list of letters on that key. The ideal dictionary would include all slang. provided that a linguistic database in English is currently in use. and as a fully functional keypad to text system for communicating with deaf people via phone in 1988 (Roy Feinson #4. as the user presses the number buttons. no spelling mistakes are made. The most widely used systems of predictive text are Tegic's T9. History Predictive entry of text from a telephone keypad has been known at least since the 1970s (Smith and Goodwin. Dictionary vs. For instance. However. The user can then confirm the selection and move on.754. To attempt predictions of the intended result of keystrokes not yet entered. format text or perform other automatic rewrites. as long as the word exists in the predictive text dictionary. Using multi-tap. all words used are in the dictionary. the user must either pause or hit a "next" button. or use a key to cycle through the possible combinations. A user can type by pressing an alphanumeric keypad without looking at the electronic equipment display. but Eatoni Ergonomics' products uses a disambiguation process. Predictive text was mainly used to look up names in directories over the phone.474) [4]. and txts) as a short message. foreign-language words and other user-unique words. (also called messages. multi-tap is easy to understand. Motorola's iTap. urls. Aspects of predictive text have been patented for instance by Kondraske(1985) [3]. Thus. pressing the"2" key once displays an "a". though Eatoni offers a dictionary-less disambiguation system. All predictive text systems requires a linguistic database for every supported input language. . pressing "4663" will typically be disambiguated as the word "good". hood. In dictionary-based systems. or is correctly disambiguated by non-dictionary systems. T9 and iTap use dictionaries. multi-tap is not very efficient. Either system (disambiguation or predictive) may include a user database. texts. it will appear. though alternatives such as home. an algorithm searches the dictionary for a list of possible words that match the keypress combination. non-dictionary systems Traditional disambiguation works by referencing a dictionary of commonly used words. and no typing mistakes are made.Predictive text 262 Background Short message service (SMS) permits a mobile phone user to send text messages. a set of statistical rules to recreate words from keystroke sequences. and offers up the most probable choice. which can be further classified as a "learning" system when words or phrases are entered into the user database without direct user intervention. Some disambiguation systems further attempt to correct spelling. This ideal circumstance gives predicive text software the reduction in the number of key strokes a user is required to enter a word. abbreviations. punctuation is ignored. To enter two successive letters that are on the same key. SMSes.

161 keypad used for text messaging Companies and products Predictive text is developed and marketed in a variety of competing products. such as "home". dynamic key allocation). Other products include Motorola's iTap. • Press 3 (def) twice to select e. is slang. That hope may be misplaced if the word differs in any way from common usage—in particular. context. A dictionary-based predictive system is based on hope that the desired word is in the dictionary. includes multi-language dictionary. the key sequence 4663 on a telephone keypad. There is at least one reported case of a man stabbed to death in a fight caused by a text message rendered incorrectly by predictive text software. where a single word doesn't necessarily represent a single semantic entity. more complex words. and WordLogic's patented Intelligent Input Platform™ [5](patented. • Press 3 once to select the (def) group for the third character. Intelab's Tauto. The system updates the display as each keypress is entered to show the most probable entry. layer-based advanced text prediction.[8] .Predictive text 263 Example Consider a typical phone keypad: Suppose a user wishes to type "The". Such confusions may lead to mistaken meaning even if all of the words are typed correctly and spelled correctly. In a traditional "multi-tap" keypad entry system. For example. in a phone with predictive text. rather than word-based prediction). provided with a linguistic database in English. Adaptxt (considers language. "Are you home?" could be rendered as "Are you good?" This fact can lead to misunderstandings. However. Oizea Type (temporal ambiguity). Eatoni Ergonomic's LetterWise.[7] though the phenomenon has nothing to do specifically with T9 per se and occurs in other systems. • Press 4 (ghi) twice to select h. Prevalent Devices's Phraze-It. Meanwhile. WordWise (word-based prediction without a dictionary).[6] Words produced by the same combination of keypresses may be referred to as "textonyms" (or "txtonyms") or "T9onyms" (pronounced "tynonyms"). some other mechanism must be used to enter the word. Nuance Communications's T9 is the market leader. The effect is even greater with longer. if the word is not spelled or typed correctly. Xrgomics' TenGO (a six-key reduced QWERTY keyboard system). EQ3 (a Qwerty-like layout compatible with regular telephone keypads). it is only necessary to: • Press 8 once to select the (tuv) group for the first character. Textonyms As mentioned above. spell-check. In these cases. "hoof". In this case. Furthermore. the simple dictionary approach fails with agglutinative languages. it would be necessary to do the following: • Press 8 (tuv) once to select t. "hood" and so on. A standard ITU-T E. will generally be disambiguated as the word "good". "gone". predictive text reduced the number of button presses from 5 to 3. the same key sequence also corresponds to other words. dictionary less. Clevertexting (statistical nature of the language. or is a proper noun. grammar and semantics). • Press 4 once to select the (ghi) group for the second character. built-in Web search and more). (character.

com. .cam. they are very unlikely to be recognized correctly by a disambiguation system. "In a Sea of Cellphones. html?ex=1315281600& en=5da0625183b88386& ei=5088& partner=rssnyt& emc=rss). com/ patents?vid=4754474 [5] http:/ / wordlogic.[9] 264 Disambiguation failure and misspelling Textonyms in which a disambiguation systems gives more than one dictionary word for a single sequence of keystrokes. pdf). respond with "Blairf" upon input of 252473. are not the only issue.ns?id=mg18524832. google. Nytimes. Computer Sci.phy. the use of the word "book" to mean "cool" since book is debatably considered more frequent than "cool" by some predictive text systems .uk/mackay/itprnn/ itap/) . thereby supporting the characterisation and comparison of text-entry methods before labour-intensive implementations and evaluations". [9] http:/ / stream. found by the predictive text system. The Bolton News.300) • An Australian newspaper article on textonyms (http://www. are words for which the disambiguation produces a single. Text_row_man_faces_jail_for_killing_friend/ ).html) • Technical notes on iTap (including lists of textonyms) (http://www.Predictive text Reportedly. 112patent. I (2):189-199. textonyms may be adopted in regular speech. 1971. "KSPC (Keystrokes per Character) as a Characteristic of Text Entry Techniques" (http:/ / www. chicagotribune. PDF). incorrect response. but are not. or even the most important issue. J. Smith and Nancy C. org/ fulltext/ jcs/ jcs12189-199. It is demonstrated that KSPC is useful for a priori analyses. . . though error correction mechanisms may mitigate that effect. com/ usp.12730392. 2005. for example. in this example. html). com/ index. [7] "Slang early-warning alert: `Book' is the new `cat's pajamas' | Change of Subject" (http:/ / blogs. Retrieved 2009-07-08. More important.newscientist.inference. nytimes. framfab.00. theboltonnews. Blogs.com. HUMAN FACTORS. according to the above references.5942. 13(2) Page 189-190 External links • New Scientist article on textonyms (http://www. scipub. com [6] "Text row man faces jail for killing friend" (http:/ / www. Sidney L.news.New York Times" (http:/ / www.ac. .thesundaymail. When mis-typings or mis-spellings occur. 2007-01-19. php?/ weblog/ comments/ how_book_becomes_an_adjective/ = • "Alphabetic Data Entry Via the Touch-Tone Pad: A Comment". com/ news_columnists_ezorn/ 2007/ 01/ slang_earlywarn. The Mitre Corporation. Proceedings of MobileHCI 2002. Scott MacKenzie (2002).com/article.com. a Pearl . "Values [of KSPC] for English range from about 10 for methods using only cursor keys and a SELECT key to about 0. [8] By David Pogue (2006-09-07).5 for word prediction techniques. uk/ news/ districtnews/ 8841133. References [1] I. Retrieved 2009-07-08. Retrieved 1 May 2011. pdf [4] http:/ / www. al. . com/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ technology/ 07pogue. co.au/printpage/ 0. 9 February 2011. Goodwin. The system may. yorku. when the intended word was "Blaire" or "Claire" both of which correspond to the keystroke sequence. [3] http:/ / www. "Investigating Text Input Methods for Mobile Phones" (http:/ / www. ca/ mack/ hcimobile02. [2] O'Riordan et. for example. limiting the effectiveness of predictive text implementations.chicagotribune.

or ON but not set to be 'discoverable'. and advertising. Communications may be both time and place specific. television screens or field marketing teams . images. Current mobile phones usually have bluetooth switched ON by default. Some implementations of Bluetooth proximity marketing require users to run Java applications on their phones to enable them to receive content. a short-range wireless system supported by many mobile devices. Communications may be further targeted to specific groups within a given location. is one transmission medium used for proximity marketing.such as posters. To obtain the optimal user experience with Bluetooth Marketing. many users keep their Bluetooth devices in OFF mode. Others require no handset-side software. Other standard data exchange formats such as Vcard can also be used.Proximity marketing 265 Proximity marketing Proximity marketing is the localized wireless distribution of advertising content associated with a particular place.g. The location of a device may be determined by: • A cellular phone being in a particular cell • A Bluetooth or WiFi device being within range of a transmitter.this is often referred to as a "Call-to-Action.suggesting people make their Bluetooth handsets 'discoverable' in order to receive free content . Uses of proximity marketing include distribution of media at concerts. The diversity of mobile phones is huge. Because of this. Distribution may be via a traditional localized broadcast. audio or video to Bluetooth enabled devices within range of the broadcast server. gaming and social applications. Bluetooth-based systems Bluetooth. Screen sizes and supported file formats varies greatly. or more commonly is specifically targeted to devices known to be in a particular area. Transmissions can be received by individuals in that location who wish to receive them and have the necessary equipment to do so. • An Internet enabled device with GPS enabling it to request localized content from Internet servers. for example content in tourist hot spots may only be distributed to devices registered outside the local area. It used to be the case that due to security fears. or a desire to save battery life. often regions where Bluetooth proximity marketing is in operation it is accompanied by advising via traditional media ." A 'discoverable' Bluetooth device within range of the server is automatically sent a message asking if the user would like to receive the free content. and a majority of users now leave bluetooth switched on for easy connection with car kits and headsets. . information (weblinks on local facilities). e. content at a conference venue may depend on the event in progress. This has the advantage that only those who choose to will receive content. the Bluetooth system must be able to automatically recognize phone models and deliver the proper content automatically. The process of Bluetooth based proximity marketing involves setting up Bluetooth "broadcasting" equipment at a particular location and then sending information which can be text.

a super-regional shopping centre in the UK. Bluewater. GSM-based proximity broadcast systems are used by select Government Agencies for information dissemination on Government-run community-based programs to take advantage of its reach and popularity. Access to PLMN services is achieved by means of an air interface involving radio communications between mobile phones or other wireless enabled user equipment and land based radio transmitters or radio base stations or even fibre optic distributed SDH network between mobile base stations and central stations via SDH equipment (ADMs) with integrated IP network services. In the Philippines. Because Internet Service Providers (ISPs) pay the long-distance carriers for access to their infrastructure. GSM localization accuracy varies depending on location. and in the late 20th century became almost entirely digital in nature — except for the final link from the central (local) telephone office to the user (the local loop).Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB) allows messages (advertising. the access network as well. There are also capabilities for messages to be sent by emergency services. The PSTN is the world's collection of interconnected voice-oriented public telephone networks. . It is also used for commercial service known as Proxima SMS.Proximity marketing 266 GSM-based systems GSM 03. These links mostly incorporate SDH digital transmission networks via fibre optic on land and digital microwave links. for the majority of users. This aggregation of circuit-switching telephone networks has evolved greatly from the days of Alexander Graham Bell.and government-owned. in much the same way that the Internet is the concentration of the world's public IP-based packet-switched networks. and share the circuits among many users through packet switching. Public switched telephone network Public Land Mobile Networks need to connect to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) in order to route calls.[1] A PLMN is identified by the Mobile Country Code (MCC) and the Mobile Network Code (MNC). it also allows each customer with a mobile phone to be tracked though the centre which shops they go into and for how long. It also extends into mobile as well as fixed telephones. The PSTN also furnishes much of the Internet's long-distance infrastructure and. Some phones/devices have an option to turn off the receipt of such messages. PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and Public switched telephone networks (PSTN) for telephone communications or with internet service providers for data and internet access of which links are defined as interconnect links between providers. has a GSM based system supplied by NTL to help its GSM coverage for calls. the end Internet user avoids having to pay usage tolls to anyone other than their ISP. PSTN service may be informally called Plain Old Telephone Service or POTS. A PLMN is a network that is established and operated by an administration or by a recognized operating agency (ROA) for the specific purpose of providing land mobile telecommunications services to the public. It is both commercially. There are provisions for "welcome" messages to be sent when entering new countries introducing networks available. etc. Each operator providing mobile services has its own PLMN.) to be broadcast to all mobile users in a specified geographical area. public information. Philippines has the world's highest traffic of SMS (locally referred to as texting).41 which defines the Short Message Service . The system enables special offer texts to be sent to the phone. Public land mobile network A public land mobile network (PLMN) is a regulatory term in telecommunications.

The PLMN is connected via an NCP to the PSTN/ISDN. • To provide the subscriber a wide range of services and facilities. the Internet has some way to go before this transition can be made. but only through controlled gateways such as private branch exchanges. both voice and non voice. Sometimes it refers to the whole circuit-switched system. • To provide facilities for automatic roaming. A number of large private telephone networks are not connected to the PSTN. Even as times changed.164 addresses (usually called telephone numbers) for addressing. • To give access to the GSM network for a mobile subscriber in a country that operates the GSM system. Its case is same as that of PSTN. If there are two mobile service suppliers in the same country.g. that are compatible with those offered by existing networks like PSTN and ISDN. This is just one view-point on PLMN. The MSCs of a PLMN can be interconnected similarly to allow interaction. PLMN mostly refers to the whole system of hardware and software which enables wireless communication. the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) or as an integral part of the PSTN. . they can be connected through the same PSTN/ISDN. A public land mobile network may be defined as a number of mobile services switching centre areas within a common numbering plan and a common routing plan. Inter-working between two PLMNs may be performed via an international switching centre. The PLMN was specified by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) following up with their GSM specification. irrespective of the service area or service provider. e. The PSTN is largely governed by technical standards created by the ITU-T. and uses E. Access to PLMN services is achieved by means of an air interface involving radio communications between mobile phones or other wireless enabled user equipment and land based radio transmitters or radio base stations PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and PSTNs for telephone communications or with internet service providers for data and internet access. A PLMN may have several interfaces with the fixed network (e. Objectives of a GSM PLMN The general objective of a PLMN is to facilitate wireless communication and to interlink the wireless network with the fixed wired network. 2006) much discussions are going on to form the structure of UMTS PLMN for the third generation systems. the Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee is one aspect that needs to be improved for Voice over IP (VOIP) technology. locating and updating of mobile subscribers.Public land mobile network Many observers believe that the long-term future of the PSTN is to be just one application of the Internet — however. PLMN is network that is established and operated by an administration or by a recognized operating agency (ROA) for the specific purpose of providing land mobile telecommunications services to the public. PLMN is not a term specific to GSM. In fact GSM can be treated as an example of a PLMN system.163/E.g. These days (as of January. even though different PLMNs may be interconnected through the PSTN/ISDN for the forwarding of calls or network information. For example. one for each MSC). the GSM PLMN objectives conceptually remained the same. There are also private networks run by large companies which are linked to the PSTN. Sometimes separate PLMN is defined for each country or for each service provider. 267 Specifications A GSM PLMN may be described by a limited set of access interfaces and a limited set of GSM PLMN connection types to support the telecommunication services described in the GSM 02-series of specifications. the PLMNs may be regarded as independent communications entities. With respect to their functions. A PLMN may be considered as an extension of a fixed network. or else specific to each country. and are used for military purposes (such as the Defense Switched Network).

2. Specifically. email. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR. 3. PLMN can be treated as an integral part of PSTN. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized. voice mail. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. and notification. • GSM interworking unit (GIWU)-The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. • Supplementary Services : Modify or supplement basic telecommunication services and are offered together or in association with basic communication services. Architecture GSM architecture is basically the PLMN architecture itself as the subject is GSM PLMN. Through the GIWU. . regional. PLMN and PSTN can be treated as two separate systems.Public land mobile network 268 Services • Bearer Services : These services give the subscriber the capacity required to transmit appropriate signals between certain access points (user-network interfaces). and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. which are grouped under three major systems: the Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). along with the signaling system and the various components (both hardware and software). fax. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations. Subsystems The GSM PLMN is divided into signaling network and mobile network. the MXE handles short message service. through which it facilitates call routing. cell broadcast. There are three viewpoints of interoperability between PLMN and PSTN: 1. Additional functional elements Other functional elements shown are as follows: • message center (MXE)-The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice. • gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC)-A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. the Base Station Subsystem (BSS). PSTN can be treated as an integral part of PLMN. The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. Operation and Support System (OSS) The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. fax mail. and data messaging. and the operation and support system (OSS). • Tele Services : Provide subscriber with necessary capabilities including terminal equipment function to communicate with other subscribers. Various interfaces between the GSM subsystems are to be considered. Each of these has various subsystems. extending the services offered by PSTN to wireless networks. • mobile service node (MSN)-The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC. which depends on each other or connects to each other for the purpose of call routing.

gov/fs-1037/fs-1037c.htm) (1996) • GSM Overview (http://www.html) .its. PLMN facilitates interoperation with its own subsystems in order to perform operation of the GSM system in particular and any wired network in general. References [1] This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration.com/gsm.Public land mobile network 269 Conclusion A PLMN is essential for the effective working of any wireless network. just like the need for PSTN in wireline networks.bldrdoc.telecomspace. External links • Federal Standard 1037C (http://www.

Media Player Classic.PuppetMaster (application) 270 PuppetMaster (application) PuppetMaster Operating system Windows Type License Website Mobile Application Proprietary [1] PuppetMaster is an application for Windows and mobile which enables the mobile phone to be used as a universal remote control for Microsoft Windows. IM. the device must do something with the notification in order to download or view the content associated with it.. com. A PC component of the program interacts with the mobile component to facilitate the control. you can: • Browse the files on your PC • Navigate the mouse on your screen with real time display feedback • Use keymaps for popular applications like VLC media player. Using the PuppetMaster. Technical specifications WAP Push Process . email. Notifications typically include MMS. Note that only a notification is pushed to the device. and new device firmware notifications. It works using Bluetooth or GPRS technology. The notification will typically be a text string with a URL link. Winamp etc. or create a user-defined keymap References [1] http:/ / www. au/ PuppetMaster Push Proxy Gateway A Push Proxy Gateway is a component of WAP Gateways that pushes URL notifications to mobile handsets. ringtone downloads. lim. Most notifications will have an audible alert to the user on the device.

Push Proxy Gateway


A push message is sent as an HTTP POST to the Push Proxy Gateway. The POST will be a multipart XML document, with the first part being the PAP (Push Access Protocol) Section and the second part being either a Service Indication or a Service Loading. +---------------------------------------------+ | HTTP POST | +---------------------------------------------+ | PAP XML | +---------------------------------------------+ | Service Indication or Service Loading XML | +---------------------------------------------+ POST The POST contains at a minimum the URL being posted to (this is not standard across different PPG vendors), and the content type. An example of a PPG POST:
POST /somelocation HTTP/1.1 Host: ppg.somecarrier.com Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary=someboundarymesg; type="application/xml"

\ | | | / WAP PUSH Flow

PAP The PAP XML contains at the minimum, a <pap> element, a <push-message> element, and an <address> element. An example of a PAP XML:
--someboundarymesg Content-Type: application/xml

<?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE pap PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD PAP 1.0//EN" "http:/ / www. wapforum. org/ DTD/ pap_1. 0. dtd"> <pap> <push-message push-id="some_push_id"> <address address-value="WAPPUSH=+12065551212/TYPE=PLMN@ppg.somecarrier.com" /> </push-message> </pap>

The important parts of this PAP message are the address value and type. The value is typically a MSISDN and type indicates whether to send to an MSISDN (typical case) or to an IP Address. The TYPE is almost always MSISDN as the Push Initiator (PI) will not typically have the Mobile Station's IP address - which is generally dynamic. In the case of IP Address: TYPE=USER@a.b.c.d Additional capability of PAP can be found in the PAP article.

Push Proxy Gateway Service Indication A PUSH Service Indication (SI) contains at a minimum an <si> element and a <indication> element. An example of a Service Indication:
--someboundarymesg Content-Type: text/vnd.wap.si <?xml version="1.0"?>


<!DOCTYPE si PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD SI 1.0//EN" "http:/ / www. wapforum. org/ DTD/ si. dtd"> <si> <indication si-id=345532 href="http://mmsc.somecarrier.com/CFJIOJF43F"> A new MMS has been received, download? </indication> </si>

PPG delivery to mobile station
Once a push message is received from the Push Initiator, the PPG has two avenues for delivery. If the IP address of the Mobile Station is known to the PPG, the PPG can deliver directly to the mobile station over an IP bearer. This is known as "Connection Oriented Push". If the IP address of the mobile station is not known to the PPG, the PPG will deliver over an SMS bearer. Delivery over an SMS bearer is known as "Connectionless Push". Connectionless Push In Connectionless Push, an SMSC BIND is required for the PPG to deliver its push message to the mobile station. Typically, a PPG will have a local SMS queuing mechanism running locally that it BINDs to, and which in turn BINDs to the carrier's SMSC. This mechanism should allow for queuing in the event of an SMS infrastructure outage, and also provide for message throttling. Since a WAP Push message can be larger than a single SMS message can contain, the push message may be broken up into multiple SMS messages, as a multipart SMS. Connection Oriented Push In Connection Oriented pushes (where the device supports it), an SMSC BIND is not required if the gateway is aware of the handsets IP Address. If the gateway is unable to determine the IP Address of the handset, or is unable to connect to the device, the push notification will be encoded and sent as an SMS. Connection Oriented Push is used less frequently than Connectionless Push for several reasons including: • Devices while registered to the network, may not have a data session (PDP Context in the GSM world) established. • A separate IP->MSISDN table has to be maintained in Connection Oriented Push. • Typically, the PPG or another part of the gateway has to receive RADIUS or other accounting packets in order to support Connection Oriented Push.

Push Proxy Gateway


Other PUSH Attributes
• Push notifications can be confirmed or unconfirmed. Most carriers use unconfirmed pushes due to the high volume and resource constraints related to confirmed push. This is controlled by setting confirmed in the quality-of-service tag element. • Push notifications can be set to expire if not delivered before a certain time. This is controlled by setting deliver-before-timestamp in the pushmessage element. Many other attributes exist and are detailed in the specifications at the Open Mobile Alliance and other sites.

PPG Vendors
PPG vendors include Nokia Siemens Networks, Ericsson, Bytemobile, Gemini Mobile Technologies, Openwave, Acision, Huawei, Azetti [1], Alcatel,WIT Software [2] ,ZTE ,and open source Kannel.

• OMA WAP Specifications: • Push Message (Version 22, March 2001 - ref WAP-251-PushMessage-20010322-a) [3] • Service Indication (Version 31, July 2001 - ref WAP-167-ServiceInd-20010731-a) [4] • Service Loading (Version 31, July 2001 - ref WAP-168-ServiceLoad-20010731-a) [5]

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. azetti. com http:/ / www. wit-software. com http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-251-pushmessage-20010322-a. pdf http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-167-serviceind-20010731-a. pdf http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-168-serviceload-20010731-a. pdf

was acquired by Norwegian telecommunications operator Telenor in 2010. He is a First Mover Fellow of The Aspen Institute. Kamal is a founding member of Open World Initiatives.com [5] CellBazaar Inc.bkash. Quadir is a Bangladeshi American entrepreneur and artist best known as the creator of CellBazaar. Industry Mobile Telecommunication Website www. a mobile phone based electronic marketplace which.[4] He is involved with Anwarul Quadir Foundation which recognizes innovations in developing countries. a Lausanne. TED selected Kamal a TEDIndia Fellow[11] and the World Economic Forum recognized him as a Young Global Leader.cellbazaar.[7] Kamal is currently heading bKash which provides financial services through an extensive network of community-based agents and existing technology.Kamal Quadir 274 Kamal Quadir Kamal Quadir Quadir in 2008 Occupation CEO of bKash Limited [1][2] Founder of CellBazaar Inc.com [6] Kamal S.[12] . [3][4] bKash Limited Industry Financial Services Website www. In 2009. including mobile phones. after reaching 4 million users. Switzerland based organization of young thinkers.[8] Kamal is one of the most-cited (recently in the Wall Street Journal[9] ) thinkers in mobile innovations who has been credited for "grass-root level market creation"[10] with emerging technologies.

Providing financial services using this mean can make the service more accessible and cost effective for the vast population of Bangladesh. thereby creating jobs. each of which connects to one customer-generated marketplace. led the Business Development Division of Occidental Petroleum's initiative in Bangladesh and worked for New York City's Chamber of Commerce.[13] CellBazaar CellBazaar is an electronic marketplace. In Bangladesh. and Money in Motion LLC. It has a special focus to serve the low income people of the country and promote sustainable micro-savings to achieve broader financial inclusion by providing financial services that are convenient. He was also the co-founder and creative director of GlobeKids Inc. This will highly benefit the country as 83% of the population lives under $2 a day and access to finance can help in improving their economic situation. including farmers that use the service to sell their harvest at fair market prices and struggling students that find and connect with tutors.. bKash bKash Limited is a joint venture between BRAC Bank Ltd. Bangladesh.. launched in 2006 in Bangladesh. WAP or Internet enabled handset. ensuring access to a broader range of financial services for the people of Bangladesh is the ultimate objective of bKash. stimulating the economy. that allows buyers and sellers to connect with one another and buy and sell goods and services using their mobile phones or computers. He is also an accomplished artist whose art works are in the permanent collection of the Bangladesh National Museum and the Liberation War Museum. and there are no monthly or posting fees. CellBazaar enables entrepreneurs and small businesses in Bangladesh to start and grow operations in a market that wouldn't otherwise be available in their local community. . and delivering products and services that improve the lives of millions of poor people. USA. Computer or Web and Voice (IVR). affordable and reliable. the isolated and uninformed farmers and traders have little bargaining power with exploitative middlemen.Kamal Quadir 275 Early life Quadir was an intern at Insight Venture Partners in New York. CellBazaar has been credited as a revolutionary service in mobile telecommunications to have the potential to significantly contribute to socioeconomic development particularly in developing countries due to the ability to bridge non-existing wired telecommunications and transportation infrastructure and delivering various services directly to the end-user.[14] Nokia. The service is accessible via Text message (SMS). Limited communication has always been a hindrance for performing business. Users pay only the standard SMS or Internet charges for accessing the service on mobile. in their Expanding Horizons magazine. Less than 15% of Bangladeshis are connected to the formal financial system whereas 44% of total population are having mobile phones. an animation company. especially in developing countries.[15] The CellBazaar marketplace is available to more than 25 million people in Bangladesh. bKash is working both as an extension of BRAC Bank and as a full-scale mobile phone-based payment switch. Kamal has a BA from Oberlin College and an MBA from the MIT Sloan School of Management. accredited CellBazaar as a door opener to mobile commerce.

manthanaward. php [14] Revolutionary service in mobile telecommunications [15] Expanding Horizons by Nokia & Nokia Siemens Network (http:/ / expandinghorizons. org/ section_full_story. edu/ office/ creativity/ speakers-and-symposia/ entrepreneurship-week.shtml) Telecom Asia’s award page (http://www.org/laureates/stories/index.html) Kamal Quadir at Crunchbase (http://www. dot [13] http:/ / www. com/ [6] http:/ / www. net/ newDesign/ news-details. bkash. bkash. weforum. net/ newDesign/ news-details.mit.crunchbase. com [4] Highlighted Profiles of the Young Global Leaders.php?id=164) GSMA Global Mobile Award page (http://www. html [11] http:/ / www. thedailystar.com/2008/12/18222207/Making-markets-with-mobiles. php?nid=175903 [3] http:/ / corp. thedailystar. html [10] http:/ / www.edu/newsoffice/2005/awards-ideas-0601. org/ en/ media/ Latest%20Press%20Releases/ PR_YGL2009 [17] http:/ / www. wsj. cellbazaar.html) Wall Street Journal article (http://online. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2005/ awards-ideas-0601. com/ making-markets-mission-markets-and-better-world-books [8] http:/ / www.Kamal Quadir 276 Awards • Year 2009 • "Young Global Leader (YGL)" by the World Economic Forum of Davos [16] • Year 2008 • Global Mobile Award of the GSM Association in the category of "Best Use of Mobile for Social & Economic Development" [17] • Telecom Asia’s “Asian Innovation of the Year” Award [18] • India's Manthan Award for “Best E-Content for Development” [19] • Year 2007 • Tech Award for "Applying Technology to Benefit Humanity” [20] • Year 2005 • MIT Ideas Award [21] References [1] http:/ / www.com/history/index.asp?id=667) World Economic Forum's Young Global Leader (YGL) of 2009 (http://www. globalmobileawards. cellbazaar. techawards.telecomasia. asp?id=667 [20] http:/ / www. htm) [5] http:/ / www. com/ 2008/ 12/ 18222207/ Making-markets-with-mobiles.globalmobileawards. oberlin.livemint.org/en/media/Latest Press Releases/PR_YGL2009) MIT Ideas award page (http://web. com/ article/ SB122081673203508037. nokia.html) Livemint.com/person/kamal-quadir) . html External links • • • • • • • • • • Anuwarul Quadir Foundation (http://www.manthanaward. com/ issues/ ?issue=ExpandingHorizonsQ22008& page=13) [16] http:/ / www.quadir. org/ laureates/ stories/ index. net/ content/ closing-divide-humble-phone-0) [19] http:/ / www. bkash. vilcap. com [2] http:/ / www. livemint. telecomasia.com/article/SB122081673203508037. com/ history/ index.weforum.com article (http://www. shtml [18] (http:/ / www.org/section_full_story. org/ en/ Communities/ Young Global Leaders/ Whoweare/ index.org) The Tech Award page (http://www. com/ About.net/content/closing-divide-humble-phone-0) India's Manthan award page (http://www. php?nid=175903 [9] http:/ / online.techawards. com/ pages/ view?id=305 [12] http:/ / new. com/ [7] http:/ / www. weforum. php?id=164 [21] http:/ / web. ted.wsj. World Economic Forum (http:/ / www.

a company that helps businesses shift to mobile communications. In 2009. Relay.[1] He currently serves as co-founder of his third business venture. Ecount was one of the first providers of corporate prepaid card solutions for the purpose of replacing paper checks and other inefficient payment methods. Ecount was issuing more than US $4 billion in payments worldwide.edu/cidtrade/geneva/sessions/session04. Raden co-founded C/Base – an Internet partnership marketing consultancy. Matt Gillin.com) 277 Paul Raden Paul Raden is an Internet and technology entrepreneur and inventor. in English. Citi Prepaid Services. Amazon. Raden remained as Managing Director and CMO of the renamed business.edu (http://www. Ecount was sold to Citigroup for US $200 million to integrate into Citi’s global transaction services business.com/portfolio/cellbazaar) • Corporate page at CellBazaar. He attended the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame. founded Ecount – an electronic payments company. Pennsylvania.edu/alummag/oamcurrent/oam_winter99/profile. In 2007.com (http://www.omidyar. where he received a B. Hotmail and Citysearch. together with Matt Gillin. After the sale. In 1997 Raden and business partner. He then worked at Drexel Burnham Lambert. Raden began his career teaching English in Tokyo. a corporate electronic payments provider. and Pete Flick. Upon graduation. At the time of its acquisition. He is a frequent guest lecturer on entrepreneurship at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania where he received his MBA.Kamal Quadir • CellBazaar at Crunchbase (http://www.com (http://corp.harvard. Indiana.com/company/cellbazaar) • The Business of Art. where he served as Director of Marketing for two wholly owned subsidiaries. At the time. Raden founded Relay."Cancun: Next Stop on the Road to the 2015 Millennium Development Goals" (http://www.cid.[3] Deloitte Fast 500.A.html) • CellBazaar portfolio at Omidyar. Japan.[5] and Forbes "Best of The Web.[4] Philadelphia Business Journal Best Places to Work. In 2007.com) • Comapny page of bKash Limited (http://www.oberlin.[2] until 2009.cellbazaar. Raden is best known as the co-founder of Ecount. Raden holds two patents in the US Patent Office for his inventions around electronic payments. before attending Business School at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. In 1995.5 billion for companies including Microsoft. Raden has received numerous recognitions for his companies including being named Deloitte Fast 50.crunchbase.html) • WTO Public Symposium 2003: Session IV . Biography Raden was born in Philadelphia. Raden sold Ecount to Citi for US $200 million.bkash."[6] . Oberlin. Steve Gillin. he served as a management consultant before joining Ocwen Financial Corporation. C/Base designed programs valued at over US $1.

com/watch?v=WKUg52ueZwg&feature=related) at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania • Video interviews (http://wep. Relay helps companies reach their customers through their mobile devices with their consent. Pennsylvania Area served Website United States http:/ / www. com/ bow/ b2c/ category. citi. xacp. html) [[Deloitte (http:/ / www.aspx?aiv=2) with Paul Raden for Wharton Entrepreneurial Programs • Citi Prepaid Services (formerly Ecount) website (http://www.linkedin. prepaid. deloitte. Mobile 2009 Headquarters Radnor.youtube. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ us_tmt_fast_Greater Phil.com).newspringcapital. com/ 2007/ 03/ 01/ business/ 01citi.com/pub/paul-raden/0/154/346) with his positions and start-up history • Management Page on Relay website (http://www. pdf)]] [5] Philadelphia Business Journal "Best Places to Work" (http:/ / www.upenn. com/ about/ 2008news/ sept-1-2008.com/EcountNew0301. com Current work Raden is currently co-founder and Chief Xperience Officer of Relay. com/ 9_21_06. html) [6] [[Forbes (http:/ / www.Paul Raden 278 Relay Type Industry Founded Startup company Technology. which Raden founded prior to Relay • Ecount sold to Citigroup (http://www.relaynetwork.php) • Paul Raden speaks (http://www. relaynetwork. deloitte. pdf)] Fast 50] [[Deloitte Fast 500 (http:/ / www.htm) . com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2006TechnologyFast500WinnersBrochure.wharton. nytimes.com/management. jhtml?id=190)] "Best of the Web" Award] External links • Paul Raden’s public profile (http://www. References [1] [2] [3] [4] The New York Times article on Ecount's acquisition by Citi (http:/ / www.edu/alumni/alumniimpact. forbes. corp. html?_r=2) Ecount renames to Citi Prepaid Services (http:/ / www.citiprepaid.

TAPI) into commands supported and understood by the modem.[1] Windows Mobile RIL A RIL is a key component of Microsoft's Windows Mobile OS. however. delivered at Linux World. The RIL.Radio Interface Layer [1] • Top ten tips for developing android handsets [2] by Wayne Lee from Qualcomm. which manages requests from the multiple clients to the single RIL driver.e.. Instead. The RIL provides the system interface between the CellCore layer within the Windows Mobile OS and the radio protocol stack used by the wireless modem hardware.g. therefore. The RIL comprises two separate components: a RIL driver. and dispatches "unsolicited commands" up to the RIL Daemon. It consists of a stack of two components: a RIL Daemon and a Vendor RIL.) In essence. and a RIL proxy. 2008 • MSDN: Radio Interface Layer [3] • Windows Mobile RIL White Paper [4] • RIL Patent information [5] • MSDN: CellCore [6] • MSDN: CellCore Catalog Items [7] • MSDN: RIL Driver [8] • MSDN: RIL Proxy [9] .telephony) and the radio hardware. The Vendor RIL is specific to a particular radio implementation. the final link to the modem is typically the standard serial driver provided by the OEM’s platform.Radio Interface Layer 279 Radio Interface Layer A Radio Interface Layer (RIL) is a layer in an operating system which provides an interface to the hardware's radio and modem on e. Except for PPP connections. which processes AT commands and events. External links • Android Platform Development Kit . Note that the RIL does not communicate directly with the modem. a mobile phone. (PPP connections initially use the RIL to establish the connection. Android RIL The Android Open Source Project provides a Radio Interface Layer (RIL) between Android telephony services (android. the RIL accepts and converts all direct service requests from the upper layers (i. all interaction between the Windows Mobile OS and the device radio stack is via the RIL. The RIL enables wireless voice or data applications to communicate with a GSM/GPRS or CDMA2000 1X modem on a Windows Mobile device. The RIL Daemon talks to the telephony services and dispatches "solicited commands" to the Vendor RIL. but then bypass the RIL to connect directly to the virtual serial port assigned to the modem. also allows OEMs to integrate a variety of modems into their equipment by providing this interface.

com/ en-us/ library/ aa922988. com/ 6826762. org/ android_pdk/ telephony. aspx http:/ / www. com/ en-us/ library/ aa921992. microsoft. microsoft. html http:/ / www. html http:/ / msdn. com/ broadband-presentations/ presentations?itemid=1509 http:/ / msdn. aspx http:/ / msdn. com/ en-us/ library/ aa920475. microsoft. pdf http:/ / www. com/ docs/ services/ RIL_whitepaper_MS_Intrinsyc_June2004. bloobble. aspx http:/ / msdn. aspx http:/ / msdn. microsoft. intrinsyc. aspx . com/ en-us/ library/ aa919915. microsoft. kandroid.Radio Interface Layer 280 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. com/ en-us/ library/ aa921520. freepatentsonline.

0 million for non-profit programs in 2008. including cardboard. Reuse and Recycling Approximately half of the phones ReCellular collects are reprogrammed and sold for reuse.[2] Founded in 1991. iron.100 collection partners. including: • Wireless carriers such as AT&T Mobility and Sprint. Michigan. ReCellular partners raised $4. Used cell phones are a growing electronic waste challenge. Type Private Headquarters Ann Arbor. Inc. collecting more than 125. silver and palladium from circuit boards.ReCellular. • Individual businesses partner with ReCellular to dispose of their corporate communications equipment. ReCellular is headquartered in Ann Arbor. nickel. Michigan. is the world's largest recycler and reseller of cell phones. such as: gold. paper and plastic shipping materials – diverting more than 1 million pounds of materials from landfills per year. cadmium and lead from battery packs. partner with ReCellular to facilitate recycling programs for their customers.000 phones each week. In November 2006. American cell phone subscribers replace their cell phones every 18 months.. between 100 million and 130 million cell phones are thrown away each year.000 collection sites across the nation. Inc. On average. ReCellular. [4] .000 tons of electronics waste. Many organizations use the proceeds from their wireless recycling programs to benefit charitable causes.[3] ReCellular’s zero-waste policy dictates that all donated materials are recycled. and retailers such as Best Buy and Wal-Mart. representing nearly 40.[1] ReCellular collects cell phones for resale and recycling. 281 ReCellular. and plastic from cases and accessories. Inc. Obsolete or non-functional phones are dismantled and recycled to reclaim valuable materials. • Grassroots and charitable organizations such as Cell Phones for Soldiers partner with ReCellular to operate donate-a-phone fundraising programs. In the U. representing an estimated 65. named ReCellular to the Green 50.S. Inc. copper wiring from phone chargers. and more than $20 million for charities since 1996. the magazine Inc. Collection Sources ReCellular has built a network of nearly 1. United States ReCellular.

The primary difference between the ReFLEX versions are inbound speed.7 of the ReFLEX protocol was released.recellular. Inc.7. pdf http:/ / www. technologyreview. com/ green-it/ 58370/ fighting-e-waste-one-cell-phone-time http:/ / www. epa. itworld. ReFLEX25 and ReFLEX50. Devices compliant with ReFLEX 2. Versions ReFLEX is based on the one-way FLEX protocol and originally came in two variants.2-way up to 6400 BPS ReFLEX 50 . The Motorola PageWriter released in 1996 was one of the first devices to use the ReFLEX network protocol. 2001. Later version 2. com/ Infotech/ 21237/ page1/ http:/ / www. inc. pcworld.[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. com/ magazine/ 20061101/ green50_recyclers. com/ article/ 157818/ how_to_keep_your_cell_phone_info_private. gov/ oswer/ docs/ iwg/ CellPhones. 3200 and 6400 BPS ReFLEX 25 .com) ReFLEX ReFLEX is a wireless protocol developed by Motorola which is used for two-way paging.ReCellular. it is finding new uses in AMR Automatic Meter Reading and low cost telemetry applications.2-way up to 9600 BPS ReFLEX 2.x External links • Two Way Paging Article [2] • Article [3] • "ReFLEX Rules: The Role of Pervasive Low-Cost Networks and Devices in the Future of Mobile Data Messaging whitepaper" [1] (pdf). html External links • ReCellular (http://www. Sag Harbor Group. • Skytel ReFLEX Two-Way Paging Service Provider [2] • ReFLEX White Paper [1] .x can operate on both ReFLEX25 and ReFLEX50 networks.7. • • • • FLEX . html http:/ / www. Although ReFLEX Two-Way Paging is a rather dated technology. 282 Data Eraser tool ReCellular also offers a Cell Phone Data Eraser tool that enables consumers to remove personal information from their old cell phones prior to recycling.1-way communications 1600.

skytel. php?id=27675 External links • Official website (http://www. file systems and more Support cases management Mail settings for MS Exchange. Nitrodesk Touchdown among others Application deployment.[4] Technology The main purpose of this technology is to oversee diverse mobile device populations by securing and storing mobile phone data.[1] [2] The Institution was founded in 2006 and is based in Stockholm. idg. Symbian and OMA-DM devices. com REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite is a mobile device management tool developed and provided by The Institution. including iPhone.se/) . Windows Mobile. REVIVAL has been developed to support a range of mobile operating systems. idg. se/ nyheter/ artikel. pdf [2] http:/ / www.theinstitution. 1085/ 1. se/ 2. configuration and handling Location based reporting [3] Backup. restore and migration [1] Remote wipe Mobile activity logging [1] Security References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. se/ nyheter/ artikel. 2683/ 1.[1] [2] [3] REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite can be installed on-site at the customer’s facilities or it can be hosted by a selected hosting partner. telekomidag. 342382/ de-ger-battre-koll-pa-mobilen http:/ / www. IBM Lotus Notes.[1] One of the biggest organizations connected to REVIVAL today is “SJ”. se/ 2. Swedish Railways. 351122/ smarta-telefoner-it-avdelningarnas-huvudvark http:/ / computersweden. It's features include: • • • • • • • • • • Inventory and asset control Remote control of display. using and updating mobile phones. com/ pdf/ reflexwhitepaper.ReFLEX 283 References [1] http:/ / www. It is also used to facilitate in handling. with a research and development office in Hong Kong. php?id=32645 http:/ / www. usamobility. Android. telekomidag.

Rich Communication Suite 284 Rich Communication Suite Rich Communication Suite (RCS) is an industry effort focused on the use of IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) for providing mobile phone communication services. Main features of RCS are: • Enhanced Phonebook. RCS is considered by some to be not fit for purpose [2] and has not been rolled out commercially by any major operator as of September 2010. which enables a large variety of messaging options including chat and messaging history • Enriched Call. For many years Nokia and Ericsson have been pushing a "see what I see" capability. Interoperability between different terminal vendor RCS clients and RCS service interworking between operators are the key aims of RCS Initiative. authorization. Wider and large scale IMS deployment. It is to be noted that much of the capability of RCS is already available from Internet service providers. However. Bundling this feature with the two other features may help to increase uptake. which enables multimedia content sharing during a voice call. RCS reuses the capabilities of 3GPP specified IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) core system as the underlying service platform taking care of issues such as authentication.[1] from the end-user point of view RCS would enable communication such as instant messaging. which enables multimedia content sharing during a voice call. charging and routing. but this has failed to be taken up by operators. 3GPP and OMA and combines them with the Enhanced Phonebook. which refers to the use of more than just voice for communication. According to the press release. The following standardized services are a part of RCS concept: • • • • • • • Presence Voice call IM Video Share Image Share SMS MMS . These capabilities would be available on any type of devices using an open communication between devices and networks. with service capabilities and presence enhanced contacts information • Enhanced Messaging. This allows the service capabilities as well as presence information of the different recipients to be shown in the terminal phonebook application. but has long been touted as a benefit of IMS. The core feature set of RCS includes: • Enhanced Phonebook. with service capabilities and presence enhanced contacts information • Enhanced Messaging. video sharing and buddy lists. "Rich Communication" in itself is meaningless jargon.g. which enables a large variety of messaging options including chat and messaging history • Enriched Call. or the way it was deployed failed to result in great take-up by consumers. registration. thus RCS takes on board different services defined by e. Technical features RCS leverages the various existing standards.

As of 15 September the RCS initiative is moved to a GSMA work program. asp?id=697) Thrutu launches RCS-lite-lite app (http:/ / www. Metaswitch launched the Thrutu service that has been described[8] as 'RCS-lite'. At Mobile World Congress 2009.[7] and demonstrated it at Mobile World Congress 2011. htm) http:/ / www. Subsequent to that event. developed reference implementations of the services and conducted interoperability testing in multi-vendor environment. gsmworld. Note that membership of the RCS initiative does not imply that a company is planning significant launch. sk. there were live demonstrations and many RCS member booths featured information on RCS service components. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www.[5] In January 2009. html Disruptive analysis GSMA press release about RCS integration testing (http:/ / gsmworld. mobileeurope. Bouygues Telecom. and SFR [6] announced intentions to offer a user trial in the second half over 2009. com/ en_EN/ finance/ news/ cp090211en. RCS Initiative demonstrated interoperability of the prototype RCS compatible terminals at the Barcelona 3GSM exhibition 2008. as of September 2010 none of these operators have commercially deployed RCS. Orange. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2008/ 1132. allowing the sharing features of RCS without the infrastructure. com/ 2009/ 08/ mobile-ims-and-lte-networks-dead-parrot. com/ our-work/ mobile_lifestyle/ rcs/ gsma_rcs_project. RCS Initiative also announced a RCS prototype interoperability demo at IMS World Forum 2008 in Paris. htm) GSMA To Take Rich Communication Suite Forwards (http:/ / gsmworld. francetelecom. com/ happychannel/ news/ news_view. by February 2008 the RCS Initiative has defined a core feature set. htm) GSMA RCS work program webpage (http:/ / www. In March 2011. the HD Video Call service also supports sharing photos and sketches over an RCS-based service. blogspot. Current aim is that the first interoperable RCS services are set to be launched in mid 2009. GSMA press release [3] tells RCS integration testing takes place in Helsinki at the end of September 2008 hosted by TeliaSonera with a full update on the progress of initiative in Mobile Asia Congress during November.[4] The GSMA RCS work program contains further details. com/ A4136001?newsid=1189463 Nokia's press release http:/ / disruptivewireless. co. However. SK Telecom launched an RCS service called HD Video Call in South Korea in November 2010. uk/ news/ news-anaylsis/ 8635-thrutu-launches-rcs-lite-lite) . The intention was to have interoperable rich communication services available in 2008. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2008/ 1132. nokia. jsp SK Telecom to participate in Mobile World Congress (http:/ / www. the first multi-operator trial took place using multiple core IMS vendors along with clients and devices.Rich Communication Suite 285 Status According to Nokia . As well as allowing users to share video. the 3 major French mobile operators.

July 2008. Hartlepool since June 2008. further stations were added. Hounslow since December 2006. London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since March 2009 Wandsworth since March 2009. Ealing in limited areas since May 7. High Wycombe since May 7. Shepway since December 2009. Bristol since December 2008. Chiltern Railways. Eastleigh since September 2009.RingGo 286 RingGo RingGo is a pay by phone parking service currently offered in public car parks and on-street locations in the United Kingdom. Taunton since December 2007 Southwark since January 2008 North Cornwall since January 2008. West Dorset since November 2009. Sheffield since January 2010. Stockton-on-Tees since June 2008. The generic advantages to car park operators are: • The reduction in theft from and vandalism to coin based machinery . Cherwell since May 2008. Reigate and Banstead since May 2009 Dover since June 2009 Torridge since June 2008. This implementation project by the First Group. Christchurch since Feb 2007. taking the total to 72 (although not offered at the Reading station Multi Storey Car Park due to a major investment in a chip coin system). Arriva Trains Wales railway station car parks have implemented RingGo (August 2008. Portsmouth since July 2007. was an early step in the fast growing trend away from the established paradigm of paying for parking using electro-mechanical machines which dispense paper tickets – the pay and display model. Luton since November 2009. Epping Forest since March 2010. C2C. The generic advantages to members of the public of phone parking services are: • • • • • Avoidance of the need to have coinage The ability to pay the correct amount only Security – payment can be made from within a locked car Can extend without having to go back to the car Company accounts which are available only to nominated vehicles or drivers can cut expense claim administration costs The specific disadvantages to rail users at Oxford station is that there is no alternative method of payment (apart from paying the full non-rail-user price from the machine in the car park). Phone parking has received some bad press notably in respect to the City of Westminster implementation which is not RingGo. including: Bournemouth since July 2006. October 2009. Trafford for Old Trafford Match Day parking. For contract phones the local telephone number means that it will be included in its free minutes package. Transpennine Express. Brent since July 2008. Canterbury since December 2009. March 2010 and March 2010 respectively). Woking since September 2009. March 2010. Since then. Middlesbrough since June 2008. the daily code number cannot be seen while queuing for a ticket (since this is only displayed on the platform to ensure a rail user discount) and there is an unavoidable phone charge for pay-as-you-go phone users. March 2010. London Borough of Redbridge since November 2009. Teignbridge since January 2010. Suffolk Coastal since June 2008. Scarborough since June 2009. Dorset since February 2010. The service is also offered in NCP operated and managed car parks since March 2010. Test Valley since August 2008 Havant since August 2008. The first major implementation (from June 2006) was for the First Great Western Railway. December 2008. since August 2009. 60 stations were involved such as Taplow railway station. South West Trains. several Network Rail. West Devon since January 2009 Salisbury since Feb 2009. National Express East Anglia. Allerdale since August 2009. North Hertfordshire since March 2010. London Borough of Bromley since May 2010 and Cornwall since June 2010 Parking is a niche in which electronic money as opposed to cash-money is now making some significant advances. Various local authorities have rolled out RingGo. In February 2009. Poole since August 2008. Oxford since May 2008. North Devon since May 2009. First Capital Connect.

com http:/ / www.RingGo • Lower capital costs when contrasted with buying new parking machines • Reduction in cash handling costs such as banking. a UK private company. co. 287 External links • • • • • • The RingGo website [1] and also The MyRingGo website [2] for details on how it works and where it is available First Great Western [3] BBC News item on RingGo [4] Bank for International Settlements [5] Cobalt Telephone Technologies [6] [7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. Richmond Council introduced variable parking charges which are linked to the carbon dioxide emissions of vehicles parking there (carbon metered parking). uk/ Content. firstgreatwestern. aspx?id=185 http:/ / news. com/ fake-one-pound-coins-part-one/ . Payment of the service is either via RingGo or by a special Richmond smart card. stm http:/ / www. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ dorset/ 5179176. alism. co. RingGo phone parking is also now being used as a method of payment for Portsmouth City Council's Park and Ride service (since May 2010). co. org/ publ/ cpss38. html http:/ / www. ctt. MyRingGo. ringgo. bbc. pdf http:/ / www. bis. uk/ index. uk http:/ / blog. counterfeit £1 coins and shrinkage On 1st October 2009. co. The RingGo brand is wholly owned by Cobalt Telephone Technologies Ltd. which can be used in the machine.

or • another Operator who has a roaming agreement with their GSM Operator. such as e. i. and power management. the term "roaming" can also be applied to the CDMA technology. The term "roaming" originates from the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) sphere. Roaming ensures that the wireless device is kept connected to the network. Service scenarios may include access to a range of different services.39): • SIM-based (roaming): GSM subscriber roams onto a Public WLAN operated by: • their GSM Operator. If a subscriber has no entry in the home subscriber register of the network (e. Traditional roaming in networks of the same standard. has already been described above and is likewise defined by the foreignness of the network based on the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register. and • Access to public Internet. from Public WLAN Operators to GSM Networks. the following scenarios can be differentiated (cf. from the subscriber's home network in order that the subscriber can be authenticated and any authorization for using the network services can be checked. GSM Association Permanent Reference Document AA. seamless access to these services across different access types is provided. WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) or GSM. from a WLAN to a WLAN or a GSM network to a GSM network. This can be done by using a communication terminal or else just by using the subscriber identity in the visited network. Roaming is technically supported by mobility management.g.Roaming 288 Roaming In wireless telecommunications. Device equipment and functionality. Home and visited networks The differentiation between home network and visited network is technically given by the type of subscriber entry in a specific network.39) as the ability for a cellular customer to automatically make and receive voice calls. authentication. • Access to operator walled garden services. determine the access possibilities. whereby the technical term "roaming" also encompasses roaming between networks of different network standards. or • another Operator who has a roaming agreement with their GSM Operator. including: • Access to corporate Intranet services. including home data services. e. The "visiting" subscriber acquires . by means of using a visited network.g. the user can have access to the same set of services. However.e. Home Location Register (HLR) in GSM networks or local customer database in WLANs). Although these user/network scenarios focus on roaming from GSM Network Operator's network(s).g. roaming is a general term referring to the extension of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered.[1] Traditional GSM Roaming is defined (cf. antenna and network interfaces. differentiation also exists. such as SIM card capability. In terms of user service scenarios. irrespective of access type. Roaming in general Roaming is divided into "SIM-based roaming" and "Username/password-based roaming". clearly roaming can be bi-directional.g. authorization and billing procedures. the required subscriber data must first be requested by the visited network e. • Username/password based roaming: GSM subscriber roams onto a Public WLAN operated by: • their GSM Operator. or access other services. In the case of session continuity. without losing the connection. Using the example of WLAN/GSM roaming. GSM Association Permanent Reference Document AA. send and receive data. when travelling outside the geographical coverage area of the home network.

this is tested by all the mobile phones are working in roaming condition 289 Roaming agreements The legal roaming business aspects negotiated between the roaming partners for billing of the services obtained are usually stipulated in so called roaming agreements. called party. the possibility of assigning the subscriber data is always indispensable in order that authentication. The home operator then bills these calls to its subscribers and may charge a mark-up/tax applicable locally. Likewise. Visited Location Register (VLR)) and the authorized network services are enabled. as e. 3. 2.. but rather to the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register of the mobile radio network. this is also referred to as Global Service Roaming Capability. The visited network contacts the home network and requests service information (including whether or not the mobile should be allowed to roam) about the roaming device using the IMSI number. Once this number is defined. If successful.g. the home network forwards the incoming call to the temporary phone number. the roaming agreements typically can comprise minimal safety standards. . notices that it is not registered with its own system. The roaming process The details of the roaming process differ among types of cellular networks.. time of call and duration. The GSM Association broadly outlines the content of such roaming agreements in standardized form for its members. For the roaming procedure in practice. While the IREG testing is to test the proper functioning of the established communication links. who then must route it to the visited network.g. in the visited network as well. This agreement is established after a series of testing processes called IREG (International Roaming Expert Group) and TADIG (Transferred Account Data Interchange Group). the public telephone network routes the call to the phone's registered service provider. and service is denied by the visited network. AMPS etc. file and is transferred to the home network. That network must then provide an internal temporary phone number to the mobile. maintenance of service is impossible. the visited network begins to maintain a temporary subscriber record for the device. As recently many carriers launched own retail rate plans and bundles for Roaming. a roaming agreement needs to be in place between the visited network and the home network. the home network updates its information to indicate that the mobile is on the host network so that any information sent to that device can be correctly routed. location update procedures or financial security or warranty procedures. The TAP/CIBER files are rated as per the tariffs charged by the visited operator. A TAP/CIBER file contains details of the calls made by the subscriber viz. If a subscriber can use his personal service profile. and attempts to identify its home network. the TADIG testing is to check the billability of the calls. The usage by a subscriber in a visited network is captured in a file called the TAP (Transferred Account Procedure) for GSM / CIBER (Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Record) for CDMA. For the legal aspects of authentication. authorization and billing of the visiting subscriber. which terminates at the host network and is forwarded to the mobile. the process resembles the following: 1. authorization and billing of the subscriber can be performed in the corresponding network. When the mobile device is turned on or is transferred via a handover to the network. calling party. location. Thus. If there is no roaming agreement between the two networks. which he uses in the home network. TAP records are generally used for wholesale Inter-Operators settlements only.Roaming an entry in a user database of the visited network (e. etc. but in general. the term roaming is not linked to a specific network standard. this new "visited" network sees the device. If a call is made to a roaming mobile. In order that a subscriber is able to "latch" on to a visited network.

carriers define "nationwide" in different ways. All of the major carriers now offer pricing plans that allow consumers to purchase nationwide roaming-free minutes. For example. However.39 (€0.Roaming 290 Tariffs As we know roaming fees are traditionally charged on a per-minute basis and they are typically determined by the service provider's pricing plan.11 (excluding tax) maximum price for SMS text message included into this regulation. the regulation will expire in mid 2012. This charge is called a flagfall charge. For data calls. However. of particular interest to international tourists and business travellers.. operators may have provide commercial offers restricted to a region (sometimes to a town). whereas others define it as anywhere within the carrier's network. Since mid 2009 there is also an €0.46 in 2008. consequently. Initially. Some operators also charge a separate fee for call setup i. discounts etc. there may be problems. to create a more competitive market by allowing the new entrant to offer coverage comparable to that of established operators (by requiring the existing operators to allow roaming while the new entrant has time to build up its own network). The visited operator tariffs may include tax. since countries have allocated different frequency bands for GSM communications (there are two groups of countries: most GSM countries use 900/1800 MHz. etc. a subscriber of T-Mobile USA who is allowed to roam on AT&T Mobility's service would have national roaming rights. and €0.S. international roaming is easiest using the GSM standard. as it is used by over 80% of the world's mobile operators. €0. or lower. this type of roaming is common. but the United States and some other countries in the Americas have allocated 850/1900 MHz): for a phone to work in a .. the Regulation on roaming charges has been in force since 30 June 2007. For commercial and license reasons. and would be based on duration in case of voice calls.49 in 2007. in which there are a number of regional operators.22 in 2008. Due to the success of GSM and the decrease in cost. this type of roaming is not allowed unless under very specific circumstances and under regulatory scrutiny. It is. • International roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move to a foreign service provider's network. where the number of regional operators is high and the country is divided into circles.[2] If the Commission is satisfied that competition will continue to keep prices at this level. In a country like India. • National roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move from one mobile operator to another in the same country.e. for the establishment of a call.19 in 2009) per minute for incoming calls .24 in 2007. This has often taken place when a new company is assigned a mobile telephony license. It later also included EEA member states. For example. Broadly speaking. forcing service providers to lower their roaming fees across the 27-member bloc. Several carriers in the both United States and India have eliminated these fees in their nationwide pricing plans.43 in 2009) per minute for outgoing calls. €0. even then. €0.15 (€0. Russia. The regulation sets a price cap of €0. Roaming in Europe In the European Union. India. some carriers define "nationwide" as anywhere in the U. regional roaming is rarely offered to clients except in nations with wide geographic areas like the USA. An operator intending to provide roaming services to visitors publishes the tariffs that would be charged in his network at least sixty days prior to its implementation under normal situations. the charging may be based on the data volume sent and received. Additional notions and types of roaming • Regional roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability of moving from one region to another region inside national coverage of the mobile operator. €0.excluding tax.

Roaming country with a different frequency allocation. and thus be tri or quad band. or a relative or friends address which is in the required area. • Trombone roaming: Roaming calls within a local tariff area. This is currently an ongoing effort.Hence. This becomes possible because of the increasing popularity and availability of "free roaming" service plan. even if the AP and the end-user have not contracted a commercial relationship with the same MSSP. But this is actually a burden. To accidentally become a permanent roaming customer does not usually happen. Otherwise. they will be denied service. where there is no cost difference between on and off network usage. so it is avoided. and this might be a cost burden. and a 3rd party billing option. • Inter MSC Roaming[4] Network elements belonging to the same Operator but located in different areas (a typical situation where assignment of local licenses is a common practice)pair depends on the switch and its location. The benefits of getting service from a mobile phone operator that isn't local to you can include cheaper rates. these technologies were implemented in accordance with technological standards laid down by different industry bodies and hence the name. but furthermore this situation could introduce the fairly new concept of roaming on a per MSC basis instead of per Operator basis. it must support one or both of that country's frequencies. or to get to a particular mobile phone operator's network to get free calls to other customers of that mobile phone operator through a free unlimited mobile to mobile feature. when at least one of the phones belong outside that area. A number of the standards making industry bodies have come together to define and achieve interoperability between the technologies as a means to achieve inter-standards roaming. this is usually determined by a computer estimate because it its impossible to guarantee coverage (see Dead zone (cell phone)). or features and phones that aren't available on your local mobile phone operator. • Mobile Signature Roaming: The concept of Mobile signature Roaming is: an access point should be able to get a Mobile Signature from any end-user. or be off-network. there is significant challenge in achieving seamless roaming across these technologies. Since mobile communication technologies have evolved independently across continents. 291 . • Inter-standards roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move seamlessly between mobile networks of different technologies. Most mobile phone operators will require the customer's living or billing address be inside their coverage area or less often inside the government issued radio frequency license of the mobile phone operator. an AP would have to build commercial terms with as many MSSPs as possible. Usually implemented with trombone routing[6] also known as tromboning[7] The routing of trombone roaming. Most mobile phone operator discourage or prohibit permanent roaming since they must pay per minute rates to the network operator their customer is roaming onto to.[5] while they can not pass that extra cost onto customers ("free roaming"). This means that a Mobile Signature transaction issued by an Application Provider should be able to reach the appropriate MSSP. If a potential customer's address is not within the requirements of that mobile phone operator. software changes and a greater processing capability are required. and this should be transparent for the AP(reference [3]). In order to permanently roam customers may use a false address and online billing. • Permanent Roaming: This type of roaming refers to customers who purchase service with a mobile phone operator intending to permanently roaming. Typically.

European Commission • Intra MSC Roaming (http://ieeexplore. Eric (Nov 20. jsp?arnumber=686490 [5] Roaming-Included Plans: . com/ en/ infosociety/ new-caps-roaming-charges-place-august/ article-164430). we may.jsp?arnumber=686490) • Mobile Europe describes how the roaming industry will cope with pending EU legislation and the arrival of mobile VoIP (http://www. b.. com/ footer/ termsandconditions/ terms. . In the event that we intend to take any of the above actions.htm) . 2007). centennialwireless... pdf [4] http:/ / ieeexplore. Customers must have a mailing address and live in Centennial’s Primary Service Area. [6] PHS MoU Group: Note . If your minutes of use for roaming services during any two consecutive months exceeds a reasonable roaming usage allowance or if a majority of minutes in a given month are used while roaming. htm) Standardisation Organizations • ETSI website.eu/information_society/activities/ roaming/index_en. html?p=legal_csa) ). com/ cell-phone-service/ legal/ service-agreement.'Guide to International Cell Phone Roaming Services for Travelers • Roaming .. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. terminate your Services..Trombone Rooting (http:/ / www.Roaming 292 References [1] CDMA Roaming (http:/ / wiki. com/ wps/ portal/ AlltelPublic/ c1/ 04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3hnP2-DoCBDAwN_HxcnAyNLZ0PLIE9DIN9MPxykA0mFu3eokYFRgFOwWZi7i5GBgQFE3gAHcDTQ9_PIz03VL8 dl2/ d1/ L0lDU0lKSWdrbUEhIS9JRFJBQUlpQ2dBek15cXchL1lCSkoxTkExTkk1MC01RncvN19DTkswUlIxMDBPTERCMDI5QzE5UkkxMTBHNC9JX19fXzE!/ ?WCM_PORTLET=PC_7_CNK0RR100OLDB029C19RI110G4_WCM& WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/ wps/ wcm/ connect/ Alltel/ alltel. and you may terminate the agreement. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all. any of the following apply: 40% of airtime minutes or 750 minutes of usage are incurred outside Centennial-owned systems. competition-commission. over two consecutive billing cycle. Roaming Services.ehtml?o=2101) . (f) if the majority of your Service is used roaming on a network not owned or operated by Alltel. ieee. com/ terms. wireless. interrupt. • Direct access to ETSI standards publications.internationalcellphoneguide. there is excessive use of free minutes from included calling features. nextel. com/ en/ legal/ legal_terms_privacy_popup. etsi.. Roaming services typically refers to coverage on another carrier’s network that we make available to you based on our agreements with other carriers. phsmou. (http:/ / www. (http:/ / nextelonline. euractiv. Your off-net usage allowance is equal to the lesser of 750 minutes or 40% of the Anytime Minutes included with your plan.. html). deny your continued use of roaming services.ieee. Retrieved 2008-03-15. (http:/ / www.com/) . terminate or refuse to provide a Service for the following reasons. Your roaming usage allowance is equal to the lesser of (i) 300 minutes or (ii) 30% of the anytime minutes included in your plan. org/ wiki/ Main_Page) [2] "New caps on roaming charges in place for August" (http:/ / www. Centennial Wireless may discontinue your service if.uk/magazine/features. jsp?q_termsKey=postpaidServiceAgreement& q_termsName=Service+ Agreement) Zeman. gsmworld.org/xpl/freeabs_all... org/ newsletter/ issue40/ p2. • GSM website. com/ uscellular/ SilverStream/ Pages/ x_page. at our sole option. html) OFF-NET USAGE If your minutes of use (including unlimited services) on other carrier networks ("off-net usage") during any two consecutive months exceed your off-net usage allowance.mobileeurope. Sprint may terminate service if (1) more than 800 minutes. southernlinc. 8 June 2007 [3] http:/ / portal. com/ blog/ main/ archives/ 2007/ 11/ tmobile_dumps_c. asp) Additional Terms . AT&T may. com/ customersupport/ acceptable_use_policy. or change your plan to one imposing usage charges for roaming services. att.europa. Global System for Mobile communications by the GSM Association (GSMA) (http://www. and you may choose to terminate your Customer Agreement without incurring any additional fees for termination. (2) a majority of minutes or (3) a majority of data kilobytes in a given month are used while roaming. informationweek.. or for any other good cause: . AT&T will provide notice that it intends to take any of the above actions.com/) External links • International Cell Phone Guide (http://www.. uk/ rep_pub/ reports/ 1995/ 374telephone. org. uscc. cdg. "T-Mobile Dumps Customers Who Roam Too Much" (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www.. InformationWeek. php) (http:/ / www. at its option terminate your service. shtml) Termination By Us We may limit. php) [7] Competition Commission: Telephone number portability: A report on a reference under section 13 of the Telecommunications Act 1984 (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. alltel.Using my mobile abroad: are prices dropping ? (http://ec.co. org/ docbox/ EC_Files/ EC_Files/ ts_102207v010103p. deny your continued use of other carriers' coverage or change your plan to one imposing usage charges for off-net usage. we will provide you with prior notice.

RXQUAL.starhome.org) .aspx?Page=local_roaming_number) . which operated on the 450 MHz frequency band and attracted 100. pdf) (PDF). References [1] "FER. • 1st In Cell Phones (http://www. In the 1980s.Index of GSM operators in a country.dmoz.1st-in-cell-phones. Retrieved 2010-08-19. cn:漫 游 293 RTMI RTMI (Radio Telefono Mobile Integrato) was the first mobile communication service in Italy. Ascom.shtml) . Rxqual RxQual is used in GSM and is a part of the Network Measurement Reports (NMR).[1] This is an integer the value of which can be between 0 and 7 and reflects the quality of voice.com/Content. and DTX DL Rate Measurements in TEMS Investigations (Technical Paper)" (http:/ / www. the Radio Telephone Mobile (RTM) emerged. 2009. Maintained by GSM Alliance • International Forum on ANSI-41 Standards Technology (http://www. and their roaming partners indexed by country.com/roaming/gsminfo/index.com/) . com/ en/ measurements-in-investigation-2.Roaming • GSM operators and their roaming agreements (http://gsmworld. 7 is the worst. . It operated on the 160 MHz frequency band and was used by a few people working in the public sector (public administrations and defense officials). started in 1973.Article talk about the Local Roaming Number Value Add Service.'Money Saving Tips for Travel Phone Users.iFast. ascom.Lists some of the issues in Inter-standards roaming • Local Roaming Number (http://www.000 customers. External links • Mobile Systems (http://www. 0 is the best quality.org/Science/Technology/Electrical_Engineering/Communications/ Mobile_Systems/) at the Open Directory Project .

By using a time-multiplexed scheme called TM-GPS.S-GPS 294 S-GPS Simultaneous GPS or S-GPS is a method to enhance a mobile phone's satellite-based position reporting ability to a carrier. but the commercial availability of S-GPS chipsets. electronicproducts. aspx).[1] References [1] "Improving S-GPS sensitivity" (http:/ / www2. . from manufacturers such as Qualcomm. Simultaneous GPS allows a cellphone to receive both GPS and voice data at the same time. requiring only one RF radio. the reception of the telephone call and the GPS signal are alternated one after the other. . As the name implies. The use of two radios with a single antenna imparts new design challenges. has led to adoption of the method in newer handsets. Avago Technologies. which improves sensitivity and allows service providers to offer location-based services. Ordinarily. com/ Improving_S-GPS_sensitivity-article-farr_avago_jun2008-html. a built-in GPS device is used to determine the location of an E911 call made from CDMA phones.

com [1] Mobile software 2000 Redwood City.[11] In early 2011. in December 2000. SEVEN mobile messaging applications." which recognizes the 15 most promising and innovative wireless startups of the year. SEVEN provides solutions for wireless operators. Inc. applications and social networking for a number of customers worldwide. content providers. multi-service solutions that enable operators and device manufacturers to simplify the delivery of services across a broad device portfolio while optimizing traffic on their network.[6] In 2004 the company was selected as part of FierceWireless' annual list of "The Fierce 15.[8] Since then. Unique to SEVEN applications is their ability to deliver a desktop-like experience for core messaging applications like email. which include SEVEN Mobile Applications.SEVEN Networks 295 SEVEN Networks Industry Founded Headquarters Area served Products Website Seven. In 2010. the company announced Sprint as a customer. Push Notifications and Open Channel. the company claimed in a press release to have more [10] actively synchronized on mobile devices using SEVEN. the company has expanded its product portfolio to include support for a broad range of email services globally. are turnkey multi-device.[7] In 2006. including a facility in Estonia and a green data center in the Bay Area and employs about 265 employees [4] worldwide. The company has research and development centers around the globe. the company announced that it was selected by Samsung Electronics to provide push technology for Samsung Social Hub. and underlying platform.[5] History The company was formerly known as Leap Corporation and changed its name to SEVEN Networks.[2] SEVEN develops and markets a push-based software platform and applications. IM and social networking. CA.[13] . the than eight million accounts company announced Verizon Wireless as a customer[12] and also announced its Open Channel traffic optimization software.[3] Operating on a wide range of mobile devices (from feature phones to smartphones). is a privately funded American corporation founded in 2000. added mobile instant messaging to its application portfolio. and expanded its platform with analytics. CA Worldwide SEVEN Networks. which claims to cuts the data consumption of smartphones and other mobile devices by up to 70 percent. a social networking and integrated messaging solution that will be available worldwide on several of the company’s bada and Android handsets. and device manufacturers with software for real-time messaging.[9] As of January 2010. Inc. Headquartered in Redwood City.

[15] According to early tests. retrieved 17 March 2011 [4] Wireless Week (http:/ / www. retrieved 20 May 2010 [10] Wireless Week (http:/ / www. and infrastructure providers such as Equinix. com/ news. It works by monitoring all requests for data from smartphone applications. Nokia. phonescoop. with only a small fraction of them actually returning data.[20] bada. LG. and are embedded on more than 550 device types. retrieved 17 March 2011 [5] CrunchBase (http:/ / www.[22] Symbian and Windows Mobile. com/ press_releases/ 2010/ SEVENReportsaFullYearofProfitabilityasCompanysUserBaseContinuestoGrowFasterthanMarket. retrieved 20 May 2010. crunchbase. lightreading. which make up to hundreds of requests per hour. like Facebook. retrieved 17 March 2011 [13] Light Reading Mobile (http:/ / www. fiercewireless.[24] The firm has partnered with many of the top Internet Service Providers including Google.[25] Savvis and Oracle. Competition • • • • Apple Push Notification Service (APNs) Good Technology Nokia Messaging Research In Motion (RIM. linkedin. jsp?Id=2916). retrieved 20 May 2010. Motorola. Its systems run on commonly deployed mobile platforms including Android. com/ news/ item.[14] The platform instead acts as a buffer in the network. retrieved 17 March 2011 [6] Businessweek (http:/ / investing. retrieved 17 March 2011 [14] RCR Wireless News (http:/ / www. the solution can help mobile devices reduce their time on a network by up to 40 percent and help reduce mobile traffic by up to 70 percent while boosting battery life by up to 25 percent. retrieved 20 May 2010 [9] Phonescoop (http:/ / www. Samsung. fiercewireless. to sell mobile messaging services. Sanyo. retrieved 17 March 2011 . including: HTC. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. and Sony Ericsson. com/ article/ 20110125/ ENABLERAPPS/ 110129977/ seven-networks-optimization-tool-reduces-data-traffic-improves). Additionally. asp?privcapId=715608). retrieved 20 May 2010 [8] Mobileburn (http:/ / www.equinix. com/ News/ 2010/ 12/ 2-Straight-Out-10-for-Seven-Business/ ). com/ companies/ seven-networks). it does not require changes to the network and can work in conjunction with new standards for fast network dormancy. com/ company/ seven). rcrwireless. email messaging solutions and providers of services in the cloud. com/ special-reports/ seven). Microsoft (Exchange and Windows Live) and Yahoo!. com/ News/ 2010/ 12/ 2-Straight-Out-10-for-Seven-Business/ ).pdf Equinix Case Study].com/download. asp?doc_id=203580). achievement and innovation within the mobile communications industry[18] ) for Best Mobile Technology Breakthrough.[21] J2ME. email. retrieved 20 May 2010 [3] [www. com/ document. php?n=5745). com [2] Linkedin (http:/ / www. com/ press-releases/ verizon-wireless-expands-push-services-using-seven-networks-technology). businessweek. BREW.[16] Open Channel is transparent to connected applications and requires no changes or special integration by mobile developers. seven. seven. device manufacturers. wirelessweek. and infrastructure partners.[19] Partners The firm works with mobile platform providers.[17] In February 2011. retrieved 17 March 2011 [11] Seven Press Release (http:/ / www. INQ. wirelessweek. BlackBerry) References [1] http:/ / www. html). [12] FierceWireless (http:/ / www. mobileburn. [7] Fiercewireless (http:/ / www. Open Channel received the GSMA Global Mobile Award (which recognizes excellence.[23] They work on products from device manufacturers. determining when content for a particular app is available and then allowing the phone to go out and get that content.SEVEN Networks 296 Open Channel Open Channel was launched in February 2011 in order to help carriers manage the impact of push messaging notifications on their networks. smart signaling and other network optimizations.php?file=SEVEN_casestudy. Twitter and others.

net/ topics/ broadband-mobile/ articles/ 39564-seven-develops-integrated-mobile-messaging-solution-qualcomms-brew. intomobile. retrieved 20 May 2010 [25] Equinix (http:/ / www. The term came into usage after Softbank (then Vodafone) introduced the service in November. but has come to apply to all the mobile phone carriers. It can be abbreviated to sha-me (写 メ ) . retrieved 20 May 2010 [24] Seven (http:/ / www. com/ Start-up-Seven-addicted-to-Java/ 2100-1041_3-5427634. html). html). equinix. Sha-Mail is used to send pictures and/or email through mobile handsets. downloadsquad. retrieved 20 May 2010 [23] Gomobi (http:/ / www. astricon.com/) Sha-Mail Sha-Mail (写 メ ー ル ) is a kind of mailing service of J-Phone (now Softbank). retrieved 20 May 2010 [22] Csnet (http:/ / news. as well as to mail with accompanying picture sent via other hand held devices and PCs. but is also sometimes used to refer to the pictures themselves that have been taken with camera phones and other such devices. In current usage.seven. htm). seven. The term has come to mean not only mail with pictures attached. org/ email/ seven-a-free-push-mail-software-for-windows-mobile-symbian-android-palm-and-java-enable-mobile-phones. retrieved 20 May 2010 [21] Astricon (http:/ / www.SEVEN Networks [15] Connected Planet Online (http:/ / connectedplanetonline. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2011/ 6034. com/ about_us. com/ 2011/ 01/ 25/ in-smartphones-seven-finds-a-new-heaven/ ). customers_partners. htm). gsmworld. retrieved 17 March 2011 [18] GSM World (http:/ / www. retrieved 17 March 2011 [19] GSM World (http:/ / www. This term is made from Sha. sha-mail refers not only to Softbank. retrieved 17 March 2011 [16] GigaOM (http:/ / gigaom. gomobi. and Mail. retrieved 17 March 2011 [20] Downloadsquad (http:/ / www. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2010/ 5433. com/ 2011/ 01/ 28/ seven-open-channel/ ). html). htm). html). com/ 3g4g/ news/ MWC-Network-optimization-gets-specific-0131/ index. gsmworld. which is the front part of a Japanese word Shashin meaning photograph. cnet. com/ news/ press/ SEVEN-Networks-Uses-Equinix-to-Connect-to-Growing-Mobile-Ecosystem/ ) retrieved 17 March 2011 297 External links • Official website (http://http://www. retrieved 17 March 2011 [17] IntoMobile (http:/ / www. 2000. com/ 2009/ 11/ 23/ seven-on-android-ah-push-it-push-it-real-good/ ).

(2003). Spanish. SHARK²: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-Based Computers [2].O. CHI 2003. Shorthand Writing on Stylus Keyboard [1]. was purchased by Nuance Communications and the ShapeWriter software was removed from the Android Market indefinitely on June 20.O. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. and mobile phones invented by Shumin Zhai and Per Ola Kristensson at IBM Almaden Research Center and the Department of Computer and Information Science at Linköping University. handheld PCs. This system introduced the notion that every word in a large lexicon should be possible to write by tracing the letters. ShapeWriter. Introduction to Shape Writing [3]. P. • Kristensson. Android ShapeWriter software was made available as a free application for Android (operating system) smartphones through the Android Market. 2006. P. and Zhai. There was also a Beta release for Android 1. It was available only for Android OS versions 1. Inc. 2010. (2006). is had over 50. • Zhai.6 or higher. UIST 2004. S.5 phones including the HTC Hero and Droid Eris. Instead of tapping the keys.ShapeWriter 298 ShapeWriter ShapeWriter (previously known as Shorthand-Aided Rapid Keyboarding (SHARK)). (2004). S. the user draws a pen gesture that connects all the letters in the desired word. a user draws words on a graphical keyboard using a pen. ShapeWriter for Android was available in 7 European languages including English. and Kristensson. .000 .000 words with low latency.000 users on Android worldwide. P. The next version described by Per Ola Kristensson and Shumin Zhai (2004) has a fundamentally different recognition engine that can recognize 50. Proc. and MessagEase. It is this system that was the basis for the software release on IBM alphaWorks that is generally associated with the term "ShapeWriter". Competitors Other similar products include SlideIT. Proc. It used a handwriting recognition algorithm that relied on dynamic programming to recognize the word patterns drawn from a lexicon. The first system described by Shumin Zhai and Per Ola Kristensson (2003) was only a prototype system that could recognize about 100 pen gestures for the top 100 words used in the English language. S. and German. November 1.60. References • Zhai. is a keyboard text input method for tablet. After some usage the user learns the movement pattern for the commonly used words and can write them faster than is possible on a traditional virtual keyboard. and Kristensson. As a touchscreen keyboard replacement. Swype.O. IBM Research Report RJ10393. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Using ShapeWriter text entry software.

250. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. . In some countries. significantly shorter than full telephone numbers. that can be used to address SMS and MMS messages from certain service provider's mobile phones or fixed phones. and so when dialed from landline telephones.938& OS=7.938/ kumhyr [8] http:/ / patft. ordering ringtones. com/ http:/ / www. on a land-line phone. System and method for recognizing word patterns based on a virtual keyboard layout. For instance. for example. 1145/ 642611. with an optional prefix of "1" (the country code for the US and Canada). 642630 http:/ / doi. com/ WebObjects/ MZStore. and thus one can use short numbers without clashing with longer numbers.367. charity donations and mobile services. ibm. inter-operator numbers are called common short codes). dialed numbers are generally seven or ten digits long. org/ 10. 1029640 http:/ / www. one could not use the short code 12345. Even so.ShapeWriter 299 External links Homepage [4] Download a version of ShapeWriter for tablet PC [5] More scientific articles about ShapeWriter are available here [6] United States Patent 7. Like telephone numbers. almaden.250. numbers are terminated with the "Send" or "Call" key and sent all at once over the network. ibm. On mobile phones. shapewriter. some classes of numbers are inter-operator (U. alphaworks. 1145/ 1029632. com/ u/ zhai/ shapewriter-pubs. com/ tech/ sharktext http:/ / www. the word "STOP" to terminate the service.250.[1] Short codes are widely used for value-added services such as television program voting. Messages sent to short code can be billed at a higher rate than a standard SMS and may even subscribe a customer to a recurring monthly service that will be added to their mobile phone bill until they text.164 standard) may be of any length.938& RS=7.251. html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PTXT& s1=7251367& OS=7251367& RS=7251367# [9] http:/ / phobos. There are two types of short codes: dialing and messaging.938 System and method for improved user input on personal computing devices [7] US Patent 7. acm. providers generally have agreements to avoid overlaps. such as the United States. 2002 [8] • Download an email and note application using ShapeWriter for the iPhone or iPod touch (opens in iTunes) [9] • • • • • References http:/ / doi. Technology Normal telephone numbers (following the E. December 20.250. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. short codes are unique to each operator at the technological level. htm http:/ / patft.S. Short codes are designed to be easier to read and remember than normal telephone numbers. since then one could not dial the phone number 1-234-555-4626 (or any other number that shared the prefix 12345). html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PTXT& s1=7. uspto. woa/ wa/ viewSoftware?id=285484703& mt=8 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Short code Short codes (also known as short numbers) are special telephone numbers. uspto. but on a mobile phone there is no such ambiguity. so the network knows the end of the dialed number. apple. for example. com/ u/ zhai/ papers/ IBM_Research_Report_ShapeWriting-rj10393. acm. pdf http:/ / www. almaden. ibm. org/ 10. the network must apply heuristics to determine when dialing is complete — in the US.

116xxx . the advertisement will typically follow this format: Example 1 . starting with nine. standard rate (user is responsible for standard carrier charges).[2] Transactional and Subscription services require a double sms MO opt-in or Web based opt-in with an MO reply. Communications Alliance Ltd and WMC Global are responsible for governing premium and standard rate short codes in Australia. In ads or in other printed material where a provider has to inform about both the prefix and the short code number. SMS sent to 9090930 is billed for Kč30. starting with the prefix "19" followed by an additional four or six digits and two. and premium rate (varies.Short code 300 Short codes and service identifiers (prefix) Short codes are often associated with automated services. Czech Republic Messages sent to/from these short codes are known as Premium Rate SMS. You can have a look at the different categories here [3]. Common Short Codes beginning with a leading '4' are reserved for private use by wireless carriers.directory services. Examples include: 118xxx . There are also other four digit shortcodes.emergency helplines.[4] Chile Codes are three and four digits in length.[2] Belgium Codes are four digits in length. An automated program can handle the response and typically requires the sender to start the message with a command word or prefix. Canadian Short codes are governed by the Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association. Leading three digits are purpose type prefixes (908 for micropayments. e. Four-digit Common Short Codes are not permitted due to handset incompatibilities. also are known as short codes for value added service. digits at position four and five determines the service provider registered by a network operator. used by a network operators for service only purposes (operator dependent) Denmark Codes are four digits in length. 909 for adult content and 900 for everything else). while two or three (depending on billing type=MO/MT) trailing digits express the price. Codes are seven digits in length for MO and five (not billed) or eight (billed) for MT direction. Australia Short codes are six or eight digits in length. .Long version: Text Football to 72404 for latest football news.g.Short version: football@72404 Regional differences European Union Common EU-wide codes are six digit long and start with 11. Example 2 . The service then responds to the command appropriately. Dominican Republic Codes are four or five digits in length. This is in addition to the EU-wide emergency number 112. Albania Short Codes are five digits in length and start with 5. C$1-10). Short code-based messages vary between zero-rated (paid for by campaign). Canada Canadian Common Short Codes can be five or six digits long.

Republic of Ireland Short codes are five digits in length. Short codes are five digits in length and have to start with the digit '5'. France Codes are five digits in length. 3 = €0. Dialing shortcodes are generally 3 digits. Nepal Codes are three to four digits in length. on a typical mobile phone keypad. Lithuania In Lithuania short codes also have no fixed length. represent short codes. 1 = standard text rate only. premium pricing from RM0. Greece Codes are five digits in length. The five digits can be extended by three digits further representing three additional characters. SMS shortcodes are used for a range of purposes.Short code Finland Codes are five or more digits in length. with 0 = completely free. India There are many companies in the Indian market who rent keywords. and are four digits. but few if any of these codes are used. Codes beginning 59 are ostensibly intended for adult services. starting from three digits up to five. start with "2" or "3". ranging from 100–500 (some providers only support). starting from three digits up to five. which is designated by a local telecommunications law for "network services". Indonesia Codes are four digits in length with Rp2000 premium price. South Codes are generally four to six digits in length. Hungary Codes are four or five digits in length. They all start by the digit "4".on a monthly basis. Any length of full message can be sent. Codes are MT billed so subscription services are allowed.60. and start with 5.[5] Italy In Italy short codes have no fixed length. and 7 having no maximum. Germany Codes are four or five digits in length.30 up to 10. dedicated codes are generally live in 4 weeks. Korea. and reserved for public services. The second digit generally indicates the maximum price. Upon service description approval by mobile operators.[6] Morocco Code are four keys digits in length. They all start by the digit "1". however short codes have no fixed length. usually five or six. whose characters. which is designated by a local telecommunications law for "network services". commercial ringtones and mobile stuff download.00. Widely-known short codes are in the 48xxx range. Texts sent to these Short Codes are commonly referred to as Premium Rate SMS Messages and cost around Rs 1 to Rs 3 per text depending on the operator as well as the service. Starting digits define the cost of the service. The Netherlands 301 . Malaysia Codes are five digits in length. and shared codes after 1 week.

affordable and viable infrastructure and services in information and communications technology (ICT) accessible to all. Singapore Codes are five digits in length.[7] Although they are ultimately responsible for the governance of premium and non-premium shortcodes in the Philippines. hence. There is relevant documentation for Bulk SMS and SPAM control via NTC's "AMENDMENT TO THE RULES AND REGULATIONS ON BROADCAST MESSAGING SERVICES". depending on the number and the carrier. Philippines Codes are four digits in length. One company that maintains a list of. The National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) is a regulatory agency providing an environment that ensures reliable.from any type of network .50 to R50. For example.00 using mobile terminated billing. if wishing to reach a particular geographical area. Norway Codes are four and five digits in length. Taiwan 302 .50 to R30. Serbia Codes are four digits in length. their regulatory guidelines are not comprehensive when applied to shortcodes. The cost of the call or SMS to the short number varies from 1. Panama Codes are four digits in length. You will find no information specific to running premium SMS or standard rate SMS services on NTC's website. more focusing on the carriers and their technical infrastructure.00 on mobile originated billing and from R0.[9] Russia Codes are four digits in length. New Zealand Codes are three and four digits in length. Each short code or short code range (a range will generally be 34000 to 34009) are assigned specific tariffs or end user prices (EUP).are routed based on the location of the number originating the call.2 to 300 rubles. the subscriber might need to prefix the short code with an appropriate area code.[8] however again is not directly related to premium SMS. The tariff charges can range from R0. Sweden Codes are five digits in length. Short codes will start with either a "3" or "4".[10] [11] Spain Codes are four digits in length.Short code Codes are four digits in length. 34001 or 42001. Poland Commercial codes are five digit long (1xxxx) and are reachable from both mobile and fixed networks. and advises on the regulatory issues to consider when connecting to a short code in the Philippines is txtNation. South Africa Codes are five digits in length. Nigeria Codes are four to five digits in length. Calls to short codes .

Shortcodes can also be used to deliver additional content or a mobile URL link that when prompted opens the mobile web browser linking the user to a mobile web page. Long Numbers address some of the disadvantages of short codes. In the US.[14] Carriers use short codes with fewer digits for carrier-specific programs . long numbers are non-premium inbound numbers. • Restrictive . long before you go live. but then you are sharing the number with lots of providers and do not have sole control over the number.. United Kingdom Codes are five digits in length.[16] Short codes can be leased at the rate of $1000 a month for a selected code or $500 for a random code. specifically: • Long Lead Time . +44 7624 805000). starting with digits "19".[16] Some carriers assign a subset of their carrier-specific codes to third parties. which can be used in place of short codes or premium-rated short messages for SMS reception in several applications. it can take 2-3 months before your campaign is live with all of the major carriers. Common short codes in the U. Mobile operators sometimes use proprietary codes (either with a different leading digit or shorter in length for their own use). Other codes (typically used by advertisers) can be free to receive “your standard rate applies” or free to send and receive. as well as enabling businesses to have their own number. And you start paying from day one. . Additionally. Codes starting 7 are used by charities.Short Codes don’t support voice. • Limiting .000 a month just to get a number. To stop a subscription based shortcode service text the word 'STOP' to the shortcode number. if you get a short code. You can get a shared short code to lower your costs. SMS shortcodes are often owned by holding companies[13] who then lease them out to service providers and advertisers to promote SMS services. are administered by NeuStar. the standard lengths for interoperable short codes are five and six digits. • Expensive . under a deal with Common Short Code Administration [15] . e. voting and quizzes. The carriers can reject your campaign at their discretion. For example.It costs a lot to get a dedicated short code. Turkey Codes are four digits in length.It takes a long time to launch a short code program.[12] The range of codes may be expanded in time to use other leading digits such as 4." Codes starting with 1 are not permitted.Short code Codes are usually four digits in length. A US short code only works in the US. Long numbers are internationally available. 2006. You have to pay more to an aggregator for connectivity. United States of America As of May 31. UK Premium rated SMS services are regulated by PhonepayPlus.g.S. rather than short codes which are usually shared across a number of brands. charitable fund-raising and marketing promotions such as news alerts. it will cost $500 or $1. product promotions and campaigns.The MMA Best Practices are a 165 pages. "Text 611 to see how many minutes you have remaining on your plan.[17] [18] 303 Alternatives to short codes for SMS reception An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers (international number format.e. Adult related mobile services must use codes starting with 69 or 89. mostly starting with 6 or 8. In the US.CTIA. Premium services use codes that can be set to deliver a charge to a participant’s mobile phone (in accordance with the service provider’s terms of service). Some carriers don’t support short codes. such as television voting.g. 4 digit codes on T-Mobile USA's network are reserved for a "Beta test service" or "Free to end user" marketing campaigns. All charges and associated terms linked to a premium code should be transparent to the consumer.

Short code


[1] Evan Neufeld, Senior Analyst, Common Short Codes: Cracking The Mobile Marketing Code (http:/ / www. youra. com/ stats/ mobileuse. pdf), October 2007 [2] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 129428-australia-premium-sms-regulations [3] http:/ / www. mobileweb. be/ en/ mobileweb/ sms-numberplan. asp [4] http:/ / www. txt. ca/ [5] http:/ / www. regtel. ie [6] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 182820-malaysia-premium-sms-regulations [7] http:/ / portal. ntc. gov. ph/ wps/ portal [8] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ attachments/ token/ 4lczcuqluzi6exm/ ?name=Phillippines_NTC_Guidelines. pdf [9] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 339246-philippines-shared-short-code-requirements-and-restrictions [10] http:/ / www. waspa. org. za [11] http:/ / www. smscode. co. za [12] (http:/ / www. short-codes. com/ ) [13] A Short Guide to a (UK) Short Code (http:/ / www. smsshortcodes. co. uk/ shared-and-dedicated-shortcodes. htm) by "Steve", SMSshortcodes.co.uk March 11th, 2009 [14] Common Short Code Administration Announces Open Registration of 6-Digit Codes (http:/ / www. usshortcodes. com/ csc_press053106. html), Press Release, CTIA, May 31, 2006 [15] http:/ / usshortcodes. com [16] Decoding Short Codes (http:/ / www. wirelessweek. com/ article. aspx?id=146359), by Monica Alleven, WirelessWeek, April 15, 2007 [17] Free to end user (FTEU) (http:/ / www. mobilestorm. com/ digital-marketing-blog/ free-to-end-user-fteu/ ) by "Steve", Digitial Marketing Blog, July 23rd, 2007 [18] Personal communication, T-Mobile Customer Support

14. http://clients.txtnation.com/entries/158302-belgium-premium-sms-regulations 15. http://clients.txtnation.com/entries/158290-canada-premium-sms-regulations

External links
• UK Shortcode availability tool (http://www.availableshortcodes.com/) • Australian short code search (http://web.acma.gov.au/numb/openAccess/inquiry/viewAllocationSearch.do) (Australian Communications and Media Authority) • Short Code Management Group (http://www.short-codes.com/) (U.K.) • Common Short Code Administration (http://www.usshortcodes.com/) (U.S.) • US Short Codes WHOIS Directory (http://www.usshortcodeswhois.com/) (U.S.) • The Mobile Guide to Common Short Codes (http://www.coolshortcodes.com/) • US Shared Short Codes WHOIS Directory (http://www.sharedshortcodeswhois.com/) (U.S.) • Short code Provider in India (http://www.shortcodes.in/) (INDIA)

Short message peer-to-peer protocol


Short message peer-to-peer protocol
The Short Message Peer-to-Peer (SMPP) protocol is a telecommunications industry protocol for exchanging SMS messages between SMS peer entities such as short message service centers and/or External Short Messaging Entities. It is often used to allow third parties (e.g. value-added service providers like news organizations) to submit messages, often in bulk. SMPP was originally designed by Aldiscon, a small Irish company that was later acquired by Logica (now split off and known as Acision). The protocol was originally created by a developer, Ian J Chambers, to test functionality of the SMSC without using SS7 test equipment to submit messages. In 1999, Logica formally handed over SMPP to the SMPP Developers Forum, later renamed as The SMS Forum and now disbanded. The SMPP protocol specifications are still available through the website which also carries a notice stating that it will be taken down at the end of 2007. As part of the original handover terms, SMPP ownership has now returned to Acision due to the disbanding of the SMS forum. The protocol is based on pairs of request/response PDUs (protocol data units, or packets) exchanged over OSI layer 4 (TCP session or X.25 SVC3) connections. PDUs are binary encoded for efficiency. The most commonly used versions of SMPP are v3.3, the most widely supported standard, and v3.4, which adds transceiver support (single connections that can send and receive messages). Data exchange may be synchronous, where each peer must wait for a response for each PDU being sent, and asynchronous, where multiple requests can be issued in one go and acknowledged in a skew order by the other peer. The latest version of SMPP is v5.0. To date SMPP development is suspended and SMS forum is disbanded. From SMS forum website: July 31, 2007 - The SMS Forum, a non-profit organization with a mission to develop, foster and promote SMS (short message service) to the benefit of the global wireless industry will disband by July 27, 2007 A press release, attached to the news, also warns that site will be suspended soon. In spite of this the site is still mostly functioning and specifications can still be downloaded (as of 12 July 2011).

This is an example of the binary encoding of a 60-octet submit_sm PDU. The data is shown in Hex octet values as a single dump and followed by a header and body break-down of that PDU. This is best compared with the definition of the submit_sm PDU from the SMPP specification in order to understand how the encoding matches the field by field definition. The value break-downs are shown with decimal in parentheses and Hex values after that. Where you see one or several hex octets appended, this is because the given field size uses 1 or more octets encoding. Again, reading the definition of the submit_sm PDU from the spec will make all this clearer.

Short message peer-to-peer protocol


00 00 00 3C 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 00 02 08 35 35 35 00 01 01 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0F 48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 77 69 6B 69 70 65 64 69 61

PDU Header
'command_length', (60) ... 00 00 00 3C 'command_id', (4) ... 00 00 00 04 'command_status', (0) ... 00 00 00 00 'sequence_number', (5) ... 00 00 00 05

PDU Body
'service_type', () ... 00 'source_addr_ton', (2) ... 02 'source_addr_npi', (8) ... 08 'source_addr', (555) ... 35 35 35 00 'dest_addr_ton', (1) ... 01 'dest_addr_npi', (1) ... 01 'dest_addr', (555555555) ... 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 00 'esm_class', (0) ... 00 'protocol_id', (0) ... 00 'priority_flag', (0) ... 00 'schedule_delivery_time', (0) ... 00 'validity_period', (0) ... 00 'registered_delivery', (0) ... 00 'replace_if_present_flag', (0) ... 00 'data_coding', (0) ... 00 'sm_default_msg_id', (0) ... 00 'sm_length', (15) ... 0F 'short_message', (Hello wikipedia) ... 48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 77 69 6B 69 70 65 64 69 61'

External links
• Short Message Peer-to-Peer Protocol Specification v3.4 [1] • Short message peer-to-peer protocol

at the Open Directory Project

[1] http:/ / www. spboss. com/ download/ %E8%BF%90%E8%90%A5%E5%95%86%E9%80%9A%E8%AE%AF%E5%8D%8F%E8%AE%AE/ SMPP_v3_4_Issue1_2. pdf [2] http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Computers/ Mobile_Computing/ Wireless_Data/ Short_Messaging_Service/

Once deleted. 3. I. The main duty of an SMSC is to route SMS messages and regulate the process. It is possible to specify a cutoff period after which the SMS message will be deleted from the SMS center. the SMSC will store the SMS message. This is a store and forward option.. The SMS center then forwards the SMS message towards the destination. 4.Short message service center 307 Short message service center A Short Message Service Center (SMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network which delivers SMS messages.An SMS message is stored temporarily in the SMS center if the recipient mobile phone is offline. it will reach an SMS center first.. Message Status Reports . If the recipient is unavailable (for example. This status report is sent to the SMS sender in the form of an SMS. When an SMS message is sent from a mobile phone. when the mobile phone is switched off). Operation When a user sends a text message (SMS message) to another user. An SMS center (SMSC) is responsible for handling the SMS operations of a wireless network. Validity Period of an SMS Message . 1.The SMS sender needs to set a flag in the SMS message to notify the SMS center that he wants the status report about the delivery of this SMS message. 2. References . the message gets stored in the SMSC (short message service center) which delivers it to the destination user when they are available.. II. the SMS message will no longer be available for dispatch to the recipient mobile phone (even if it becomes online). It will forward the SMS message when the recipient is available.

1 mV/m is 1000 µV/m or 60 dBµ (often written dBu). it is expressed in voltage per length or signal power received by a reference antenna. Examples • 100 dBµ or 100 mV/m: blanketing interference may occur on some receivers • 60 dBµ or 1. Consider the case of a center-fed half-wave dipole antenna in free space ( ). In broadcasting terminology. High-powered transmissions. and is the distance to the antenna in meters. the current distribution is essentially sinusoidal and the radiating electric field is given by Current distribution on antenna of length equal to one half wavelength ( ). Substituting the formula for and solving for the maximum electric field yields into the .Signal strength 308 Signal strength In telecommunications. signal strength refers to the magnitude of the electric field at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. It may also be referred to as received signal level or field strength. such as mobile phones. particularly in radio. is the peak current at the feed-point. is the permittivity of free-space. signal strength is usually expressed in dB-microvolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of one milliwatt (dBm). For very low-power systems. is the speed of light in a vacuum. are expressed in dB-millivolts per metre (dBmV/m). Typically.1 mV/m: the minimum strength at which a station can be received with acceptable quality on most receivers Relationship to Average Radiated Power The electric field strength at a specific point can be determined from the power delivered to the transmitting antenna. If constructed from thin conductors. When the antenna is viewed broadside ( maximum and given by ) the electric field is Solving this formula for the peak current yields The average power to the antenna is where one for is the center-fed half-wave antenna’s radiation resistance. where is the angle between the antenna axis and the vector to the observation point. such as those used in broadcasting.0 mV/m: frequently considered the edge of a radio station's protected area in North America • 40 dBµ or 0. its geometry and radiation resistance.

com) • Global map of cell phone signal by network. the maximum electric field for a center-fed short dipole is It must be emphasized that the formulas above are illustrative and only apply when there are no conductive objects near the antenna and observation point and when the path between the two is unobstructed. then the maximum electric field at 313 m (1027 ft) is 1 mV/m (60 dBµ).S.signalmap. (http://www.com/) . For a short dipole ( resistance are ) the current distribution is nearly triangular. operate at around 800 MHz and PCS phones at 1900 MHz. Large buildings such as warehouses. Some rural areas are unlikely ever to be effectively covered since the cost of erecting a cell tower is too high for only a few customers. Based on crowdsourced data. Consequently. In this case. Cellphone signals Although there are cell phone base station tower networks across many nations globally. there are still many areas within those nations that do not have good reception. the electric field and radiation Using a procedure similar to that above. Cell phones in the U. The more advanced models now typically include an external directional antenna and an amplifier (usually operating at 55 dB gain). the terrain and vegetation. Weak signal strength can also be caused by destructive interference of the signals from local towers in urban areas.opensignalmaps. This is particularly true for the networks which operate at higher frequency since these are attenuated more rapidly by intervening obstacles.gotreception.Signal strength 309 Therefore. if the average power to a half-wave dipole antenna is 1 mW. This has led to the rapid growth in the home cellular repeater market. References External links • Maps of Cell Phone Signal Strength Across the United States (http://www. they might not provide accurate estimates of signal strength for radio transmitters in environments where signals are scattered and absorbed by buildings. classified as UHF and low energy microwaves respectively. or by the construction materials used in some buildings causing rapid attenuation of signal strength. hospitals and factories often have no usable signal further than a few metres from the outside walls. Even in high reception areas it is often found that basements and the interiors of large buildings have poor reception.com/) • Cell Phone Signal Strength Map (http://www. which is generally enough to turn a very weak signal into a clear one over the local area (from around a thousand square feet to over twenty thousand). although they are able to use reflection and diffraction to circumvent obstacles.

type part of a word and slide the rest of it) • Predictive suggestions. In 2009 the two keyboards were merged into one product branded SlideIT which offers an 'ABC' mode with the ThumbKey unique algorithm and the 'Slide' mode with the sliding algorithm. Main Features • Two modes for entering text.0 for the Android was released. SlideIT uses advanced pattern recognition and error-correction algorithms together with a complicated language model and word database to ensure maximum accuracy of outputted text while allowing the user a lot of freedom and inaccuracy in entering text.g. Product SlideIT allows a user to enter a word by sliding a finger or stylus from letter to letter on a virtual keyboard. lifting only between words. History The first version was released on 2007 as two separate keyboards. The algorithm processed the typed letters and its disambiguation feature suggested the intended word and also displayed additional possibilities next to the keyboard. Over the last 20 years. Dasur has developed a powerful pattern recognition engine which can be the basis for many applications. regular typing and "sliding". ThumbKey and SlideIT. At the end of 2010 Dasur released a new version for Symbian and in early 2011 version 3. Developer Dasur is a technology company that specializes in complex mathematical applications. allowing numbers and symbols to be entered by drawing them (similar to handwriting recognition) • Speech recognition (only available on the Android OS) . This allows for text input at much higher rates than normal mobile phone and other small touch-screen keyboards. allowing for imprecise typing/sliding • Customizable dictionary • Available in many different languages (40+ as of February 2011) • Can use short abbreviations or other shorthand text to input a long text quickly • Automatic spacing and capitalizing • Automatically doubles letters to ease sliding (e. Based on this engine. "Google" can be entered as "gogle") • Graffiti mode. Dasur's ThumbKey used a unique algorithm that allowed users to just press in the general vicinity of the required key for the intended word to appear on the screen. which suggests words whose letters are near the ones entered.g.SlideIT 310 SlideIT SlideIT is a text input method for touchscreen devices developed by Dasur Ltd [1] based on pattern recognition. Dasur has developed this generation of text input solutions for mobile phones and PDAs. ThumbKey's technology brought the touchscreen method to a more accurate and easier level of operation with the option of using only one hand. allowing only part of a word to be entered • Disambiguation. which can be combined (e.

Lithuanian. Slovenian. Arabic. Robert U. ISBN 1-84542-272-4. SlideIT currently has 40+ freely available language packs: Afrikaans. Finnish. com/ Download. com/ books?id=ksxK7J95IF8C& pg=PA41& dq=typists+ "120+ words+ per+ minute"& hl=en& ei=9sbqTL_zF4HvcMeu1YgL& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CEoQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=typists "120 words per minute"& f=false). 41.199. Polish. Availability SlideIT can be run on any Android phone or tablet computer. Suraqui. and on the Android Market. php [2] Karat.SlideIT 311 Languages The keyboard can be customized with a primary and secondary language. Icelandic. and the user can switch between them at any time by pressing a button. Russian. "Reduced keyboards system using unistroke input and having automatic disambiguating and a recognition method using said system". types 33 words per minute. Brazilian. Halverson.786. English (Qwerty.uspto. Dutch. and Karat. Hungarian. holds the world speed record for text input into a mobile phone. J.M. . mobiletextinput..[4] the Ovi (Nokia) store. C.html&r=1&f=G&l=50& d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/7199786) . Czech. Hebrew. Norwegian. mobiletextinput. p.[3] A sliding style keyboard. Portuguese. Martinás. Greek. French. CHI 99 Conference Proceedings. Katalin (2005). Catalan. google. php) External links • United States Patent 7. Indonesian. Turkish and Ukrainian. google. Dvorak and Colemak layouts). Latvian. (http://patft. Speed The average computer user.[2] PDAs and smartphones allow much slower speeds. Serbian. as of Late 2010. "120 wpm for very skilled typist" (http:/ / books. com/ about. Bulgarian. C. Sliding style keyboards for touch screens can increases typing speed by 30-40% and yields potential typing speeds of more than 50 words per minute – matching the average speed of a professional typist. Spanish. On the Reappraisal of Microeconomics: Economic Growth and Change in a Material World (http:/ / books. Croatian. Swedish. UK & Northampton. Romanian. References [1] http:/ / www. com/ books?id=ksxK7J95IF8C& printsec=frontcover& dq=reappraisal+ microeconomics& hl=en& ei=ZNnqTKykO8XQcaqq1ckK& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false). German. Patterns of entry and correction in large vocabulary continuous speech recognition systems. SlideIT for iPhone and Windows Tablet PC will be available soon. (1999). Slovak. There is a free demonstration version limited to 14 days and a full commercial version which is sold on Dasur's web site. Horn. Competitors Other similar products include ShapeWriter and Swype. 568–575. Estonian. Windows Mobile and Symbian S60 v5. Belorussian. using a standard full-size QWERTY keyboard. Danish. [3] Ayres. Persian. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing. D.. Cheltenham. D. Albanian. retrieved 22 November 2010 [4] SlideIT download page (http:/ / www.gov/netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool. Italian.

CEO of Vodafone. . Among the commonly understood operational models for a MNO are smart pipes. The need for operators to innovate around a smart pipe is rising as they face rising pressure from media companies[2] and new technologies. related to a mobile network operator (MNO or operator). was criticized for some statements he made about how Vodafone will always have a unique relationship with its subscribers through its billing relationship. mobile or application • Mobile operating systems User interfaces Personalization Application programming interfaces (APIs). bloggers. and existing media companies like Google via the Android platform. such as Apple’s iPhone. In addition to pricing. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) introduced around its upcoming 700 MHz spectrum auction. Network operator 3 led the way with the release of its X-Series line of devices in 2006. as the article points out there are several new threats to that exclusivity such as traditional credit card. Examples While there is no real industry standard definition of a smart pipe. and dumb pipes. Yahoo via Go. and often unique. The use of the term “smart” refers to the operator’s ability to add value for added. walled gardens. directory services Quality of service By exposing these types of services to the mobile ecosystem. While not necessarily a full realization of a smart pipe. Arun Sarin. and provides unlimited data access in exchange for a fixed monthly premium. PayPal Mobile.[2] [3] [4] such as: • • • • • • • • • • Location-based services Presence information Customer analytics Computing platforms. Billing Directory assistance. and even the open-access policies of the U.[6] Although Sarin’s point has been true traditionally. there is a set of services commonly viewed as parts of a smart pipe. there are several operators. and the operator’s customer relationships. and Apple via iPhone. network operators can maintain the value of their pipes while enabling entrepreneurs to create new business models and generate entirely new revenue streams. to provide value beyond that of data connectivity only.S. several of which are unique to 3. and researchers who have described aspects of a smart pipe which are generally accepted. Obopay. for devices or networks Payment. refers to an operator’s network which leverages existing or unique service abilities.Smart pipe 312 Smart pipe Smart pipe. 3 is one of the first operators to offer such a combination of bandwidth and value-added services for flat-rate pricing. types of services and content beyond bandwidth and network speed only.[1] The X-Series platform bundles a set of services. Nokia’s consumer portal Ovi.[5] Recently.

wirelessweek. some of which are referenced in this article. There are numerous blog postings and trade articles which refer to the operator dumb pipe/smart pipe dilemma. it is a generally understood term in the mobile industry. Strategic Options & Scenarios 2007-2012: • Juniper Research Report [10] The author is not affiliated with Juniper in any way. dll/ article?AID=/ 20070911/ SUB/ 70911004/ 1008) [6] Vodafone CEO sticks head in sand. co. there are a number of summaries available on the web: • Smart-Pipe Strategy to Provide MNOs with 31% Share of $188bn Mobile Content Market by 2012 [11] • Study About MNOs Share of Mobile Content Market [12] • Mobile Entertainment in Western Europe [13] A Google search will list several more: • Google search of Juniper report [14] References [1] Hutchison Whampoa announces the global launch of the X-Series from 3 (http:/ / www. com/ story/ analysys-wimax-carriers-risk-becoming-dumb-pipes/ 2007-07-16 . goes 'La la la' (http:/ / www. com/ gadgets/ wireless/ magazine/ 16-02/ ff_iphone?currentPage=all [8] http:/ / www. operator portal (or walled garden). theregister. aspx) [5] Making Pipes Smart (http:/ / www. omp?collcid=1019745742912& cid=1163170230108& index=1) [2] The Operators vs. the Media Brands (http:/ / gigaom. uk/ 2007/ 11/ 19/ vodafone_ceo_blind/ ) [7] http:/ / www. three. com/ 2008/ 01/ 13/ the-operators-vs-the-media-brands/ ) [3] The Pipe is Only Dumb if You Make It that Way (http:/ / mobhappy. wired. rcrnews. co. and although the full report requires purchase. com/ blog1/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ the-pipe-is-only-dumb-if-you-make-it-that-way/ ) [4] Staying Relevant in a Dumb Pipe Era (http:/ / www. com/ staying-relevant-in-a-dumb-pipe. com/ apps/ pbcs. fiercebroadbandwireless. uk/ news/ h3gnews/ pressnewsview. Others include: • Wired: How the iPhone Blew Up the Wireless Industry [7] • WiMAX Carriers Risk Becoming Dumb Pipes [8] A reference which describes a smart pipe.Smart pipe 313 Further reading While there is no real industry standard definition of smart pipe. and a dumb pipe is a report from Juniper Research titled Business Models for Mobile Content Players.

or requests for current information like currency exchange rates and deposit interest rates. Large value payment on a credit card or out of country activity on a credit card. permitting them to operate selected banking services over their mobile phones using SMS messaging. a customer can be authorized to carry out either non-financial transactions. Large value withdrawals on an account. etc. Successful or un-successful execution of a standing order. without the customer initiating a request for the information. Pull messages are those that are initiated by the customer. Successful payment of a cheque issued on the account. Insufficient funds. using a mobile phone. The password is expired once it has been used or once its scheduled life-cycle has expired. Typical push and pull services offered under SMS banking Depending on the selected extent of SMS banking transactions offered by the bank. One-time password and authentication . Instead of relying on traditional memorized passwords. Typical push services would include: • • • • • • • • • Periodic account balance reporting (say at the end of month). such as a large withdrawal of funds from the ATM or a large payment using the customer's credit card. for obtaining information or performing a transaction in the bank account. Push messages are those that the bank chooses to send out to a customer's mobile phone. Typically push messages could be either Mobile marketing messages or messages alerting an event which happens in the customer's bank account. (see section below on Typical Push and Pull messages). When the request is received the password is sent to the consumer’s phone via SMS. or both and financial and non-financial transactions. classified by push and pull services as outlined below. The bank’s customer is empowered with the capability to select the list of activities (or alerts) that he/she needs to be informed. SMS banking solutions offer customers a range of functionality. Reporting of salary and other credits to the bank account. Push and pull messages SMS banking services are operated using both push and pull messages. Examples of pull messages for information include an account balance enquiry. OTPs are requested by consumers each time they want to perform transactions using the online or mobile banking interface. Large value withdrawals on the ATM or EFTPOS on a debit card. Another type of push message is One-time password (OTPs). OTPs are Screenshot of a typical SMS Banking message on the latest tool used by financial and banking service providers in the a mobile screen fight against cyber fraud.SMS banking 314 SMS banking SMS banking is a technology-enabled service offering from banks to its customers. This functionality to choose activities can be done either by integrating to the internet banking channel or through the bank’s customer service call centre. as published and updated by the bank.

it is necessary to give the bank customer delivery guarantees of all messages. De-activating a credit or debit card when it is lost or the PIN is known to be compromised. on which a bank's notifications to the customer involves the risk of delayed delivery and response. Foreign currency exchange rates enquiry. are received by the customer instantaneously. [1] 315 Concerns and skepticism about SMS banking There is a very real possibility for fraud when SMS banking is involved. Besides. it is extremely important that SMS gateway providers can provide a decent quality of service for banks and financial institutions in regards to SMS services. but has the limitation of use only when the customer has access to a computer and the Internet. The convenience factor The convenience of executing simple transactions and sending out information or alerting a customer on the mobile phone is often the overriding factor that dominates over the skeptics who tend to be overly bitten by security concerns. etc. Requesting for an ATM card or credit card to be suspended. especially in an emergency situation. Therefore. This capability mitigates the risk of fraud going unnoticed for a long time and increases customer confidence in the bank’s information systems. Stop payment instruction on a cheque. Fixed deposit interest rates enquiry. the bank can push a mass alert (although not subscribed by all customers) or automatically alert on an individual basis when a predefined ‘abnormal’ transaction happens on a customer’s account using the ATM or credit card. like moving money from a savings account to a current account to fund a cheque. email. the provision of Service Level Agreement(SLA) is a requirement for this industry. today mobile phones are perhaps the easiest channel on which customers can be reached on the spot. as SMS uses insecure encryption and is easily spoofable (see the SMS page for details). SLAs give the service parameters in which a messaging solution is guaranteed to perform. such as SMS alerts. Also. the operation of SMS banking functionality over phone key instructions makes its use very simple. the SMS banking channel is not intended to be used for very high-risk transactions.SMS banking Typical pull services would include: • • • • • • • • • Account balance enquiry. e.g. telephone banking. Supporters of SMS banking claim that while SMS banking is not as secure as other conventional banking channels. urgent warning messages. Internet. as they carry the mobile phone all the time no matter where they are. This is quite different from internet banking which can offer broader functionality. [2] Quality of service in SMS banking Because of the concerns made explicit above. throughput. as well as measurements on the speed of delivery. etc. unlike other channels such as the post. The SMS banking channel also acts as the bank’s means of alerting its customers. like the ATM and internet banking. Transfers between customer's own accounts. Mini statement request. when there is an ATM fraud happening in the region. Electronic bill payment. As a personalized end-user communication instrument.[3] .

1 (3). Most online banking platforms are owned and developed by the banks using them. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS'04) . Well developed and mature SMS banking software solutions normally provide a robust control environment and a flexible and scalable operating environment. which is developed to stimulate and empower local banks in development countries.). and Corbitt. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 66(2). Sometimes ATM type PINs are also employed. M. vol. the more advanced SMS banking systems are built to be able to work in a multi-host banking environment. G. G. means to connect to the SMSC could be different. As most banks have multiple backend hosts. & Jack. There is only one open source online banking platform supporting mobile banking and sms payments called Cyclos. Martin Schurig. Suppliers of SMS banking software solutions have found reliable means by which the security concerns can be addressed. [3] Barnes. 5-6. References [1] Peevers.70184a.SMS banking 316 Compensating controls for lack of encryption The lack of encryption on SMS messages is an area of concern that is often discussed. International Journal of Mobile Communications. Advanced SMS banking solutions also cater to providing failover mechanisms and least-cost routing options.J. S.Track 7. The lack of encryption is inherent to the SMS banking channel and several banks that use it have overcome their fears by introducing compensating controls and limiting the scope of the SMS banking application to where it offers an advantage over other channels. B. but the usage of PINs in SMS banking makes the customer's task more cumbersome. p. (2003) Mobile banking: Concept and Potential. Douglas. This concern sometimes arises within the group of the bank’s technology personnel. (2008). A usability comparison of three alternative message formats for an SMS banking service. 2004. pp. "Assessment of Today's Mobile Banking Applications from the View of Customer Requirements". Vol. A. Typically the methods employed are by pre-registration and using security tokens where the transaction risk is perceived to be high. UCP etc. [2] Key Pousttchi. hicss. .. These solutions are able to connect seamlessly to multiple SMSC operators in the country of operation. 7. Technologies employed for SMS banking Most SMS banking solutions are add-on products and work with the bank’s existing host systems deployed in its computer and communications environment.. due to their familiarity and past experience with encryption on the ATM and other payment channels. Depending on the volume of messages that are require to be pushed. and to have open interfaces which allow for messaging between existing banking host systems using industry or de-facto standards. such as using simple modems or connecting over leased line using low level communication protocols (like SMPP.

it makes sense for mobile operators to allocate SMS traffic that belongs to non-connected destinations to an SMS hub. SMS Hubbing is about simplifying the SMS interworking system. it is unlikely that full international SMS reach will be achieved by setting up more and more agreements.[1] Regardless of the maturity of the operator or number of subscribers. As well as this. each subscriber expects to be able to send an SMS to other subscribers. culminating to the development of the SMS Hubbing trials in 2006. by replacing much of the unproductive. part of the Open Connectivity project.SMS hubbing 317 SMS hubbing SMS hubbing is a new structure for the international flow of SMS between operators. many operators connect to hubs to transit MMS messages. reshaping the way that international mobile inter-operability works by implementing hubs to intermediate the SMS traffic and to offer a larger SMS coverage. While SMS interoperability is limited to bi-lateral interworking / roaming agreements between operators. who have multiple agreements in place with other operators. by introducing end-to-end quality of service through Service Level Agreements (SLAs). This initiative created a new structure for international SMS interoperability. which are basically hubs for voice. . meaning that international SMS can only transit from one operator to another if there is a bi-lateral roaming agreement in place. as well as developed standards and requirements that SMS hubs should follow. In the same way. in an attempt to fix the many interoperability problems with this messaging technology. SMS hubbing enables a broad international SMS coverage for mobile operators (“client operators”) through the connection to independent hubs. It is clear that SMS Hubbing does not replace bilateral agreements. In addition to that. regardless of country and mobile network. identical investments in international agreements made traditionally by mobile operators. SMS Hubbing is about providing a higher level of service to SMS. the revenue benefits of an extra interworking connection might not justify the investment required to set it up in the first place. Every operator has the need to establish roaming agreements in order to provide subscribers with the possibility to roam outside their home network. The GSM Association (GSMA) found in SMS Hubbing the solution to a problem that limits the continuing growth of international SMS. voice traffic flows via telehouses. Background The lack of complete international SMS interoperability is caused by the way the GSM world is interconnected: each operator has a need to establish SMS interworking with all other mobile operators. therefore being able to route messages on behalf of the client operators. SMS Hubbing works with the same concept of voice connectivity model: rather than relying on costly and multiple individual agreements. which are time consuming and costly to put in place. Outside this frame of main roaming agreements that generate the majority of international traffic for voice and messaging.

Ubiquity and simplicity in increasing SMS coverage SMS Hubbing allows operators to manage a single legal. gsmworld. being able to send and receive message to all countries and networks.SMS hubbing 318 Benefits With the SMS Hubbing model. also on a per-SMS basis.com) • Making SMS Hubbing a Reality. technical and billing relationship rather than hundreds of additional roaming agreements for SMS messaging only. Mobile subscribers also take advantage of an enlarged SMS reach. Business model Under the GSMA’s SMS Hubbing structure.htm) . References [1] Open Connectivity SMS Hubbing Architecture (http:/ / www. The SMS Hubbing model reduces complexity for operators. Mobile operators can simplify this by connecting to a hub. many operators generally connect to an MMS hub. removing a costly and complex area of technical interface and replacing it with a more efficient and effective outsourced solution. As is the usual practice. Because of many interoperability problems. the originating operator will also pay a termination fee to the terminating operator. such as MMS. Mobile operators have been gradually outsourcing non-core functions to invest on areas that need a closer management of the operator. com/ documents/ IR7520_unrest. a hub will negotiate a transit fee with an originating operator on a per-SMS basis for the use of the hub. hubbing can be applied in different areas. as well as focusing on areas that have a direct interface to customers. an operator looking to increase their international SMS coverage does not need to manage multiple bi-lateral agreements. as well the cost for SMS interworking agreements.160characters.gsmworld. Other types of hubbing Beyond SMS.org/news. 160 Characters (http://www.gsmworld. pdf) External links • GSM Association (http://www.php?action=view& nid=2138) • OC compliant SMS Hubs (http://www. which route the messages more efficiently on behalf of the operator.com/our-work/programmes-and-initiatives/ open-connectivity-programme/sms_hubbing. The hub concept follows this trend.

The home network can incur termination charges caused by the delivery of these messages to interconnect partners. A sender does not have a mobile phone. The UK premium rate regulator. company. However. or the content of the messages may be politically sensitive. in which they stated they were not averse to the operation of such services.[1] Legality In 2007. Their customers may complain about being spammed. Often it is done in order to impersonate a user that has roamed onto a foreign network and is submitting messages to the home network. A sender transmits an SMS message from an online computer network for lower more competitive pricing. Interconnect partners may threaten to cut off the home network unless a remedy is implemented. An SMS Spoofing attack is often first detected by an increase in the number of SMS errors encountered during a bill-run. How SMS spoofing is carried out SMS Spoofing occurs when a sender manipulates address information. from 2008 PhonePayPlus are introducing new regulation covering anonymous SMS which will require anonymous SMS service providers to send a follow-up message to the recipient stating that a spoofed SMS has been sent to them. setting your own mobile number. They must spoof their own number in order to properly identify themselves. Operators can respond by blocking different source addresses in their Gateway-MSCs. or a product name) and illegitimate uses (such as impersonating another person. and operate a complaints helpline. to set who the message appears to come from by replacing the originating mobile number (Sender ID) with alphanumeric text. but fraudsters can change addresses easily to by-pass these measures. If this situation occurs. Home subscribers will be unable to send messages into these networks. While fraudsters normally used spoofed-identities to send messages. available on most mobile phones and personal digital assistants. . The legitimate use cases for SMS spoofing include: 1. 2. This is a major churn risk. PhonepayPlus (formerly ICSTIS) concluded a public consultation on anonymous SMS. These messages can be of concern to interconnect partners. If fraudsters move to using source addresses at a major interconnect partner. 3.SMS spoofing 319 SMS spoofing SMS spoofing is a relatively new technology which uses the short message service (SMS). This is a quantifiable revenue leakage. product). 2. it may become unfeasible to block these addresses. and they need to send an SMS from a number that they have provided the receiver in advance as a means to activate an account. and for the ease of data entry from a full size console. The impact of this activity is threefold: 1. These errors are caused by the spoofed subscriber identities. Frequently. with potentially huge impact on the brand. The risk therefore emerges. due to the potential impact on normal interconnect services. these messages are addressed to destinations outside the home network – with the home SMSC essentially being “hijacked” to send messages into other networks. that genuine subscribers may be billed for roaming messages they did not send. It is illegal in Australia. Spoofing has both legitimate uses (setting the company name from which the message is being sent. the integrity of the home operator’s billing process may be compromised. there is a risk that these identities may match those of real home subscribers.

which requires an SMS from a phone number that the user registers with.crime-research. Examples of SMS spoofing • Messages sent from Google are sent with the Sender ID "Google". the local system may or may not allow the replying message to be sent through to the spoofed "origin. com/ blog/ 2007/ 04/ twitter-and-jot. 2008) (http:/ / www. com/ SMSSpoofing. A dynamically assigned number from an anonymous SMS service will not work because the user is not given the dynamic number in advance to register with. They were able to successfully spoof SMS messages and make them appear to come from other people's cellular phones. Note that when a user attempts to "reply" to the SMS. These people were using GSM based cellular phone services in various parts of India and other Asian as well as African countries. Nitesh Dhanjani discovered a security vulnerability when sending a spoofed SMS message to Twitter. The Asian School of Cyber Laws (Pune) recently conducted experiments in SMS spoofing at the national and international level. openmindnetworks." • A user who does not have a mobile phone attempts to sign up for a Foxytag account. asp) [2] Twitter and Jott Vulnerable to SMS and Caller ID Spoofing http:/ / www. html External links • SMS spoofing . they should contact both law enforcement and their cellular provider.Q&A with Computer Crime Research Center staff (http://www. • Skype sends messages from its users with the mobile number they registered with. who should be able to track where the SMS messages were actually sent from. Nitesh used hoaxMail to spoof the SMS message and therefore could trick Twitter to post the message on the victims Twitter page. A user may also modify the phone's settings so that only messages from authorized numbers are allowed.SMS spoofing 320 Protecting users from SMS spoofing If a user can prove that their SMS sessions have been spoofed. dhanjani. Twitter used the SMS originator to authenticate the user.org/interviews/ sms-spoofing-intro/) .[2] References [1] An overview on how to stop SMS Spoofing in mobile operator networks (September 9. This is not always effective since hackers could be impersonating the user's friends as well.

for IS-95/CDMA2000 CDMA cell phones continuously make power measurements of a list of neighboring cell sites. the boom in the generation of phones with a GPS will raise positioning accuracy. along with information about the quality of the received bits. it is referred to as softer handoff. and collection of movement data is done by a third party at regular intervals. & Mark. 547-561). R. and determine whether or not to request or end soft handover with the cell sectors on the list. The biggest advantage of mobile positioning-based methods is that mobile phones are widespread. all the cell site sectors that are actively supporting a call in soft handover send the bit stream that they receive back to the Radio Network Controller (RNC). Due to the properties of the CDMA signaling scheme. Positioning data is digital. it is possible for a CDMA phone to simultaneously receive signals from two or more radio base stations that are transmitting the same bit stream (using different transmission codes) on the different physical channels in the same frequency bandwidth. Location based services . (2005). the chance is still good that a strong signal will be available at one of the other cell sectors that is supporting the call in soft handover. If the signal power from two or more radio base stations is nearly the same. On the uplink (phone-to-cell-site). If any one of these signals fades significantly.new challenges for planning and public administration? [1] Futures 37. The disadvantage of mobile positioning today is relatively low preciseness. References [1] http:/ / findarticles. . The most important problems of SPM are related to data security. where a cell phone is simultaneously connected to two or more cells (or cell sectors) during a call. it is easy to trace many people at the same time and it is possible to analyse movements in real time. This technique is a form of mobile-assisted handover. com/ p/ articles/ mi_hb4750/ is_200508/ ai_n17323894 Soft handover Soft handover or soft handoff refers to a feature used by the CDMA and WCDMA standards.Social positioning method 321 Social positioning method The social positioning method (SPM) studies space-time behaviour by analysing the location coordinates of mobile phones and the social characteristics of the people carrying them. If the sectors are from the same physical cell site (a sectorised site). if the signal degrades rapidly. Ü. there will be a relatively high probability of having adequate signal strength from one of the other radio base stations. Today mobile positioning can be applied only by obtaining participants’ personal acceptance. The RNC examines the quality of all these bit streams and dynamically chooses the bit stream with the highest quality. The SPM methods and experiments were developed in Estonia by Positium and Institute of Geography University of Tartu during 2003-2006 (Ahas. Again. These problems can be solved with further development of location-based services (LBS) and relevant legal and organisational regulation. positioning works inside buildings. as well as concerns about non-authorized personal surveillance. Soft handover results in a diversity gain called soft handover gain. the phone receiver can combine the received signals in such a way that the bit stream is decoded much more reliably than if only one base station were transmitting to the subscriber station.

ugent. be/ opnet/ OPNET-UMTS_session1.Soft handover 322 External links • Mobile and Broadband Access Networks [1] References [1] http:/ / www. intec. pdf . ibcn.

dozens of TV channels per country. in the Republic of Ireland. particularly in rural and less populated regions. has commented. Applications The EU Telecoms Commissioner."[3] Solaris Mobile primarily intends to provide mobile TV and interactive services to handheld and vehicle receivers. the mobile satellite receivers could also double as web browsers providing full Internet access. Its headquarters is in Dublin. pollution) from moving vehicles. and deliver interactive services such as online reservations. unavailable with purely terrestrial systems. emergency warnings.solarismobile. Ireland Steve Maine (CEO) Mobile Satellite Services www. The Gateway is a compact S-band receiver which decodes DVB-SH transmissions from the Solaris satellite and relays them over WiFi to any compatible handset with a web browser. radio. Viviane Reding. "Mobile satellite services have huge potential: they can enable Europeans to access new communication services. or toll payments. interactive services. To avoid the requirement for mobile phones with S-band reception for the satellite services. such as mobile phones. The agreement to set up Solaris Mobile was reached in 2006 with the company formed in 2008. delivering high-quality live TV. and SES Astra and Eutelsat – both successful European satellite operators. and voice communications. viable at high vehicle speeds. and universal coverage. such as gathering data (traffic. multimedia data. under extreme conditions or when terrestrial networks have been compromised. The Gateway is also planned to be used in vehicles with a roof-mounted . The services to be developed include video.Solaris Mobile 323 Solaris Mobile Solaris Mobile Limited Type Industry Founded Headquarters Key people Products Website Privately owned joint venture Telecommunications 2008 Dublin. [4] Solaris claims the technology brings a "fully-fledged TV experience" to mobile television. radio and data to in-vehicle receivers and to mobile devices[2] . For in-vehicle use. portable media players and PDAs. The primary aim is the delivery of mobile television any time. weather. and support for emergency and rescue services in isolated regions. The coverage across Europe will also enable the system to be used for situations when other means of communication are not possible. anywhere. Solaris Mobile has developed a 'Pocket Gateway' in conjunction with Finnish company Elekrobit.com [1] Solaris Mobile is a joint venture company between SES Astra and Eutelsat Communications to develop and commercialize the first geostationary satellite systems in Europe for broadcasting video. providing TV and other services from geostationary satellites to millions of cable and direct-to-home viewers – have so far invested €130m in the venture.

the European Commission selected two operators. Inmarsat Ventures and Solaris Mobile. Luxembourg. Investigation of S-band payload has confirmed significant non-compliance from its original specifications. TerreStar). 2009. but not all of the services it was planning to offer. allowing the reuse of existing cellular towers and antennas.00 GHz) are reserved for the exclusive use of satellite and terrestrial mobile services.[5] 324 Technology The Solaris Mobile services use DVB-SH technology to deliver IP based data and media content to handheld and in-vehicle terminals using a hybrid satellite/terrestrial system with satellite transmission serving the whole of Europe and beyond.[6] Solaris was intended to first use the Eutelsat W2A satellite at 10° east. following the successful launch on April 3. On 1 July 2009.[8] Regulatory On June 30. which contains an S-band payload. Solaris Mobile. and the simple incorporation of Solaris services in mobile handsets.[9] [10] In May 2009. and was scheduled for launch in early 2009. and sit alongside the UMTS frequencies already in use across Europe for 3G terrestrial mobile phone services. Inmarsat. Sweden and Germany.[15] .[7] Further testing of the satellite was undertaken to establish its future in the Solaris programme. The selection process was launched in August 2008 and attracted four applications by prospective operators (ICO. the S-band payload was found to show "an anomaly" which has put in doubt the payload's capability to provide mobile satellite services for Solaris. the company remains confident of "its ability to meet the commitments made under the European Commission selection process". the company had been actively pursuing licenses from European member states and it had just been granted 18-year licences to operate Mobile Satellite Services in France. giving these operators "the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems". However. and Slovenia. The operators are compelled to start operations within 24 months from the selection decision. The technology was demonstrated at the GSMA Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2010. 2008 the European Parliament and the Council adopted the European’s Decision to establish a single selection and authorisation process to ensure a coordinated introduction of mobile satellite services (MSS) in Europe. Italy.[3] [11] [12] [13] Although the EU’s decision was announced days after the apparent failure of the payload intended to serve Solaris. Solaris Mobile filed the insurance claim. and terrestrial repeaters for urban and indoor penetration. The S-band frequencies used (2. to add to existing licenses for Finland.[14] In May 2010. The technical findings indicate that the company should be able to offer some. EU Member States now have to ensure that the two operators have the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems for 18 years from the selection decision.Solaris Mobile antenna for S-band reception with services accessed on passengers' mobile phones. Handsets equipped with the first DVB-SH chipsets were successfully demonstrated live at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2008. Solaris Mobile announced that following the granting of spectrum by the European Commission.

Press release. [15] Solaris Mobile (May 11. Retrieved July 27. pdf). com/ assets/ downloads/ Solaris Mobile welcomes the European Commission selection decision for the S. com/ business/ en/ news-events/ news-latest/ index. 2009). eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. com/ media-center/ press-releases/ european-license-progress). [4] Broadcasting in motion (http:/ / www. ses-astra. "Commission boost for mobile satellite services paves the way for EU-wide high speed data communications" (http:/ / europa. Press release. Press release. 2009). com/ ses/ siteSections/ newsroom/ Latest_News/ index. "Mobile Satellite Services in Europe: Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / europa. solarismobile. .com) Eutelsat (http://www. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-07-01-1/ index.solarismobile. solarismobile. . Retrieved on June 1. com/ ses/ siteSections/ newsroom/ Latest_News/ index. pdf). 2009 [5] Solaris Mobile (February 10. php). ses.eutelsat. php). 2009). php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-05-14/ index.de/doc_sdat/eutelsat-w2a. solarismobile. europa. 2009). "European License Progress" (http:/ / www. SES ASTRA Statement on Solaris Mobile S-band capacity (http:/ / www. php) [9] European Commission (August 22. com/ assets/ downloads/ Statement re Solaris Mobile S-band capacity_en. Solaris Mobile website. solarismobile. SES ASTRA statement: Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim (http:/ / www. com/ assets/ downloads/ SolarisMobileFilesInsuranceClaim. European Commission Information Society website. ses-astra. Press release. eu/ information_society/ policy/ ecomm/ current/ pan_european/ index_en. . ses-astra. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-05-14/ index.com/) • W2A satellite on Gunter's Space Page (http://space.skyrocket. "Solaris Mobile welcomes the European Commission selection decision for the S-band process" (http:/ / www. [3] European Commission (May 14. "European Commission paves the way for European mobile satellite services" (http:/ / europa. . pdf). . [6] Major Players of the DVB-SH Ecosystem Join Forces to Demonstrate Live Mobile TV (http:/ / www. [11] European Commission (May 14. solarismobile. External links • • • • Solaris Mobile website (http://www. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. [10] European Commission (August 7. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-07-01-1/ index. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. Press release. . com/ business/ en/ news-events/ news-latest/ index.htm) . 2009 [7] Solaris Mobile (May 14. "Pocket Gateway Device" (http:/ / www. Retrieved on June 1. com/ [2] SES ASTRA (February 21.com) • ICO (http://www. SES statement: Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim (http:/ / www. Press release. 2009 [14] Solaris Mobile (May 14. . Press release.ses-astra.ico.com) SES website (http://www. do?reference=MEMO/ 09/ 237). reuters.Solaris Mobile 325 References [1] http:/ / www. do?reference=IP/ 08/ 1250). 2008). 2008). com/ business/ en/ news-events/ press-archive/ 2008/ 08-02-21/ index. Press release. 2009). htm). php) [8] Solaris Mobile (July 1. . Reuters (February 6.Band process_en. 2010). eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. 2008).ses. com/ article/ rbssTechMediaTelecomNews/ idUSBRQ00733920090514) Reuters (May 14. com/ our-solutions/ mobile-tv/ ). [12] Inmarsat and Solaris win EU spectrum rights (http:/ / www. "Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim" (http:/ / www. Retrieved July 27. 2009 [13] Pan-European numbers and services (http:/ / ec. 2010). "Statement re Solaris Mobile S-band capacity" (http:/ / www. . 2007). do?reference=IP/ 07/ 1243). 2009). Press release. "Steve Maine Appointed By SES ASTRA And EUTELSAT As CEO Of Joint Venture For Mobile Satellite Services" (http:/ / www. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS186611+ 06-Feb-2008+ PRN20080206). solarismobile. . "New Satellites for Europe: Commission starts selection procedure for operators of pan-European mobile satellite services" (http:/ / europa. SES Statement on Solaris Mobile S-band capacity (http:/ / www. Press release. com/ media-center/ press-releases/ pocket-gateway-device). ses. solarismobile. do?reference=IP/ 09/ 770).com/) SES Astra (http://www. php). reuters.

where the wrist strap served as the antenna.800 yen. the device was introduced to Europe and North America. .(* Edit) in 1984. The FD-280/285. The FD-3. The FD-40/42/44/45 were among the largest Watchmans. which had a grayscale five centimeter display. The FD-45. utilizing a 4" CRT display. Upon the release of further models after the FD-210. was water-resistant. Roughly two years later. introduced in 1986. The FD-40 introduced a single composite A/V input. a Watchman with a Sony FDL-3500 color LCD display was introduced. the FDL 330S color Watchman TV/Monitor with LCD display was introduced. and new features were introduced. The FD-30. the FDL-310.Sony Watchman 326 Sony Watchman The Sony Watchman is a line of portable pocket televisions trademarked and produced by Sony. the display size increased. introduced in 1984 had a built-in AM/FM Stereo radio. In 1988/1989. Sony Watchman FD210 Later Releases Sony manufactured more than 65 models of the Watchman before its discontinuation in 2000. made from 1990 to 1994. introduced in 1987. with a measurement of 87 x 198 x 33 millimeters. The device weighed around 650 grams. and introduced Sony's Straptenna. One of the last Watchmans was the FDL-22 introduced in 1998. was the last Watchman to use a black and white CRT display. had a built-in digital clock. In 1990. which featured an ergonomic body which made it easier to hold. The device was sold in Japan with a price of 54. FD-210 The initial model was introduced in 1982 as the FD-210.

because they now require to be connected to a digital converter box. the Sony Watchman. are becoming increasingly popular as collector's items. com/ TV_Pages/ panasonic_tr001.Sony Watchman 327 Legacy Due to the switch of over-the-air television to digital. especially the older CRT-based models.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] http:/ / uv201. Because of this. htm .visions4. External links • Reverse Time Page [1] • The Short History of Pocket TV [1] • Vintage Micro Television http://www. most models of the Sony Watchman in the US have lost their usefulness.

swypeinc. Windows Mobile Text input Proprietary [www. word search engine with corresponding database.Swype 328 Swype Swype Original author(s) Swype Inc.[2] Swype is designed for use on touchscreen devices with a traditional QWERTY keyboard.com] Swype is an input method for touchscreens developed by Swype Inc. lifting only between words.[3] [4] On 22 March 2010.swypeinc.[2] Major components Swype consists of three major components that contribute to its accuracy and speed: an input path analyzer.[1] Swype was first commercially available on the Samsung Omnia II running Windows Mobile.[2] The software has a size of less than one megabyte.[5] and reportedly improved on 22 August of the same year to 25.54 seconds was set for the fastest text message on a touchscreen mobile phone using Swype on the Samsung Omnia II. and a manufacturer customizable interface.94 using a [6] Samsung Galaxy S. It also includes a tapping predictive text system in the same interface. which corresponds to a speed of nearly 58 words per minute. and as small as 500–900 kilobytes in most cases. It uses error-correcting algorithms and a language model to guess the intended word.[2] Software Design Swype allows users to enter words by sliding a finger or stylus from letter to letter. with the chief technical officer (CTO) and founder Cliff Kushler claiming to have reached 55 words per minute. or 370 characters per minute. .94 seconds. Bada. The Guinness world record text message consists of 160 characters in 25 words and was typed in 25. Symbian. a new Guinness World Record of 35.[2] Speed The creators of Swype predict that users will achieve over 50 words per minute. such as on devices running the Windows Mobile operating system. Operating system Type License Website Android.com www.

Brazil Portuguese .UK English .Swype 329 Languages Swype is currently available for the following languages:[7] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arabic Basque Bulgarian Catalan Chinese .US Estonian Farsi Finnish French French Canadian Galician German Greek Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malay Norwegian (Bokmål) Norwegian (Nynorsk) Polish Portuguese .Mandarin (simplified) Chinese Traditional w/Bopomofo Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English .Portugal Romanian Russian Serbian (Latin KB) Slovak Slovene Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Ukrainian .

References Swype Home Page (http:/ / www. "Samsung Mobile And Swype Set New Guinness World Record" (http:/ / www. The software's manufacturer.[17] Competitors Swype is similar in concept to SlideIT and ShapeWriter.Swype • Urdu • Vietnamese Support for these languages depends on OEM and carrier decisions. [8] T-Mobile G2 product page (http:/ / www. 2010. jsp [1] [2] [3] [4] . samsungusanews. Motorola CLIQ XT. php?1493). allowing the keyboard to predict the next word in the sentence at a personalised level. Press release. Swype. The manufacturer claims that the same algorithms can be applied to almost any world language. uk/ local/ manchester/ hi/ people_and_places/ newsid_8939000/ 8939790. swype. Motorola CLIQ. virginmobileusa. Motorola Droid X. verizonwireless. Nokia C6-00. . HTC HD2 (T-Mobile USA version.[13] The Samsung Galaxy S. com/ product. . 2010. swypeinc.) T-Mobile G2. 2010. t-mobile.[16] In July 2011. Another well-known input program is SwiftKey. com/ learn-overview#/ mytouch-slide-360) [10] Samsung Omnia II Product Page (http:/ / www. CNet News. Motorola i1. com/ 2010/ 03/ samsung-mobile-and-swype-set-new-guinness-world-record/ ). com/ 8301-17939_109-10037202-2. swype. Virgin Mobile USA introduced Swype on the LG Optimus V [14]. 2010).[11] as well as the Samsung Droid Charge. html). which runs the Android OS. Retrieved July 14. tv/ file/ 1372350) Rafe Needleman. Retrieved June 20. It is available on the Ovi store. is planning to market the software to other mobile device makers and expects a widespread adoption of the software among touch-based mobile devices. and Motorola Droid 2 Android-based smartphones come with Swype pre-installed. aspx?cell-phone=T-Mobile-G2-with-Google) [9] T-Mobile MyTouch Slide product page (http:/ / mytouch. Nokia N97 original and mini. Inc. both of which also involve tracing a path over letters on a virtual keyboard. It does not have input using paths. bbc. com/ shop/ Phones/ cell-phone-detail. and the Nokia X6. html) Tech Crunch 50 Swype Presentation (http:/ / blip.[8] T-Mobile MyTouch 3G 3. stm).[15] In December 2010. swypeinc. Motorola Atrix 4G. Motorola DEFY.g. Move over T9. Swype released a beta version for iOS (Apple) devices(iOS jailbreaking is required). com/ showthread. [7] Do Not Post requests for your device to include other languages! (http:/ / forum. but utilises more advanced predictive software. August 24.5 mm Jack and myTouch Slide 3G (the latter both by T-Mobile USA)[9] It also ships on the Omnia II mobile handset. swypeinc. By the end of this year. 6 November 2010. 2011. [6] "Salford woman makes bid for fastest text title" (http:/ / news. t-mobile. com/ b2c/ store/ controller?item=phoneFirst& action=viewPhoneDetail& selectedPhoneId=5110/ ) [11] http:/ / swypeinc. html) [13] (http:/ / beta. Nokia 5230. Swype is available for the Symbian platform S60 5th edition devices e.[12] On June 16. here comes Swype (http:/ / news. BBC News. 330 Availability Swype currently ships on the Samsung wave s8500. Swype expects to be preloaded on over 100 million devices. 2010. com/ news.[10] The most recent additions include the Samsung Galaxy S GT-i9000 and Nokia C7. an update including Swype was pushed to Sprint's HTC Evo 4G users. Swype was released for Symbian^3 on October 16. cnet. com/ cell-phones/ lg-optimus-v-phone. com/ ) Swype product page (http:/ / www. 9 September 2008 [5] Samsung USA (March 22. Swype opened a public beta for the Android operating system. the Nokia 5800 Xpressmusic. com/ ) [14] http:/ / www. manufactured by Samsung and distributed by Verizon Wireless. co. com/ [12] Swype News Page (http:/ / www.

896) • United States Patent 7.098.uspto. businessinsider.098.938/kumhyr) . allaboutsymbian.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.Swype [15] http:/ / www.896. php [16] http:/ / www.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7.swypeinc. "System and method for continuous stroke word-based text input". Marsden.896&RS=PN/ 7.250.896.com) • United States Patent 7.098. (http://patft.&OS=PN/7. com/ android-keyboard-maker-swype-closes-6-million-c-round-2011-7#ixzz1RubyKO9k 331 External links • Official website (http://www.uspto. C. Kushler.938&RS=7.250.938&OS=7. com/ 23747-htc-evo-4g-update-3-70-651-1-brings-swype-scan-now/ [17] http:/ / www.938 System and method for improved user input on personal computing devices (http:/ /patft. talkandroid.PN.250. html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=7. R.250. com/ news/ item/ 12198_Swype_now_available_for_Symbia.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/ netahtml/PTO/srchnum.098.

EVP. Syclo’s flagship Agentry mobile development platform was introduced a year later. Syclo's SMART Mobile Suite of workflow-specific products. Agentry also includes mobile device management capabilities embedded into its application platform.syclo. Enterprise Asset Management (EAM). developed a computer-based wireless order system for Sprint Nextel field workers.Syclo 332 Syclo Syclo. smartphones. [7] Chicago’s largest healthcare facility. and in 1998 Rush University Medical Center. Partners Syclo's partnership ecosystem is particularly important to its global reach and serving the application architecture of enterprise systems makers such as IBM [8] (IBM Maximo Asset Management). was the first organization to deploy Syclo's SMART Mobile Suite . Richard Padula started Syclo in 1995 in Barrington. Illinois. Competitive Advantage Systems. CEO Jeffrey Kleban. London. to handhelds. Syclo offers the Agentry mobile platform. including packaged software for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). TRIRIGA. LLC is a mobile enterprise application platform (MEAP)[2] [3] and software provider based in the Chicago suburb of Hoffman Estates. enabling SAP [11] and Syclo to co-brand and offer SMART Mobile Suite applications for use with SAP ERP and SAP CRM[12] . and Customer Relationship Management (CRM).com [1] Products Employees Website Syclo. and life sciences. and mobile computers for technicians and staff performing work away from a central office. Of note is the company’s mobile co-innovation development agreement[9] with business software firm SAP in 2009[10] . offering mobile applications to extend enterprise systems. The company’s focus in the mobile middleware market is on business environments across industries. deploying. an extensible framework based on fourth-generation programming language for developing. including utilities. that utilize field service management processes[4] and typically have significantly valued hard assets to service and protect. making Syclo an integral part of SAP’s mobile business application strategy [13] . . Germany) Key people Richard Padula. has been implemented by more than 750 customers in 35 countries and 20 different industries[6] . LLC Type Industry Founded privately held company (LLC) computer software 1995 Headquarters Hoffman Estates. and Oracle. History After his consulting company. SAP AG. a software suite built on the Agentry platform. Alliances & Partnerships Agentry Mobile Platform Syclo SMART Mobile Suite 100+ www. and Stuttgart. oil and gas. Illinois (additional offices in Chicago. Illinois. and managing a wireless business application architecture[5] .

com/topics/smart-mobile/articles/ 100295-syclos-smart-mobile-suite-overcomes-device-diversity.htm) • Volkel.com/research/stocks/ private/snapshot. com/ DisplayDocument?id=930912) External links • Official website (http://www." Gartner. gartner. pdf [4] Drake. Jason (2001-10-08). com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728) [3] http:/ / www.blogspot. (http:/ / www. chicagotribune. gartner.com/2010/05/ mobile-expert-interview-series-syclos. "Magic Quadrant for Mobile Enterprise Application Platforms. Mini (2010-09-08)." TMC. sap. Frank (2010-05-20). (http:/ / articles." SAP. plantservices.syclo.tmcnet.SMART Mobile Suite (http:/ / ecohub." Chicago Tribune. pdf [9] SAP Eco Hub.info/ sap-on-ipad-it s-all-going-mobile/32788/2) • Benedict. syclo.html) . com/ industrynews/ 2009/ 086. com/ 2002-04-18/ business/ 0204180344_1_keyboard-pcs-computer) [8] http:/ / www-935. "Syclo Private Vendor Watchlist Profile: Mobile Middleware with Industry-Specific Focus. html) [7] Rose. Stephen (2010-02). (http://en. (http://mobileenterprisestrategies. sap. "PC Prescription for Hospital's Maintenance Ills. jsp?sessionId=& containerId=222007& sessionId=90D98F98A15C750D9329AE9C5C40BD02) [5] Brooks. (http:/ / www.Syclo 333 References [1] http:/ / www. com/ [2] Clark. (http:/ / www. William and Michael Maoz (2009-04-06).asp?privcapId=10636008/) • Swamy. com/ irj/ ecohub/ solutions/ SMARTMobileSuite) [10] http:/ / www. "App Independence. sdn. plantservices." (2009-05-06.BusinessWeek (http://investing. eweek. "SAP-Syclo Co-innovation Enhances Mobile Field Service Offerings.businessweek. com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728 [13] Clark." eweek. com/ content/ pdf/ Syclo_Gartner_MEAP_Report. com/ services/ us/ gts/ pdf/ eus_br_driving-effiency-with-connected-field-service-workers. William and Michael J. gartner. Syclo Partner for Mobile.blogspot. "SAP on iPad: It’s All Going Mobile. King (2009-12-16). com/ c/ a/ Mobile-and-Wireless/ App-Independence/ ) [6] "SAP." MobileEntepriseStrategies.sap. com/ getdoc.com/) • Syclo LLC Private Company Information . Barbara (2002-04-18).info. (http:// smart-products. Kevin (2010-05-07).) Plant Services. (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. epx [12] http:/ / www. "Syclo's Smart Mobile Suite Overcomes Device Diversity.net. html [11] http:/ / www. syclo. com/ industrynews/ 2009/ 086. ibm. "Mobile Expert Interview Series: Syclo's Jeff Kleban." Gartner. idc.com." IDC. com/ usa/ solutions/ mobility-solutions/ syclo/ index.

This enables users to write messages in their native as well as a foreign language. It allows words to be entered by a single keypress for each letter. Samsung Electronics. which stands for Text on 9 keys. In later versions of T9. Siemens. The number of words stored depends on the implementation as well as the language. is a patented[1] predictive text technology for mobile phones. It looks up in the dictionary all words corresponding to the sequence of keypresses and orders them by frequency of use. Information about common word combinations can also be learned from the user and stored for future predictions. Sanyo.[2] T9 is used on phones from LG. Sagem and others. the next time the user tries to produce that word T9 will add it to the predictive dictionary. NEC.T9 (predictive text) 334 T9 (predictive text) T9. Features Some T9 implementations feature smart punctuation. the system will also provide completions. as opposed to the multi-tap approach used in the older generation of mobile phones in which several letters are associated with each key. and selecting one letter often requires multiple keypresses. the word "testing" would be . When the user uses "home" more often than "good". in addition to words and stems. the user can select a primary and secondary language and matches from both languages are presented. while others implement one for the duration of the session. eventually the two words will switch position. Eatoni's LetterWise and WordWise. SureType created by RIM. by looking at neighbouring keys on the keypad to ascertain an incorrect keypress. Such combinations are known as textonyms. Depending on the context. Depending on the language. enabling them to be recognized in the future. Its main competitors are iTap created by Motorola. For words entered by the user. In later versions of T9. 4663 matches "good". It combines the groups of letters on each phone key with a fast-access dictionary of words. after entering "eat" the phone will suggest "food" and it can be confirmed by simply pressing next). For example. it speeds up the process by offering the most frequently used words first and then lets the user access other choices with one or more presses of a predefined Next key. As T9 gains familiarity with the words and phrases the user commonly uses. T9 also supports word breaking after punctuation to support clitics such as l' and n' in French and 's in English. "gone". Some phone manufacturers implement a permanent user database. won't. originally developed by Tegic Communications. Sony Ericsson. After introducing a new word. if you often write "eat food". "home". The dictionary can be expanded by adding missing words. It was also used by Texas Instruments PDA Avigo during the late '90s. "hood". e. etc. Another powerful feature is its ability to automatically recognise and correct typing/texting errors. the order of the words presented adapts to the usage pattern. word completion can be enabled. The implementation of the user database depends on the version of T9 and how T9 is actually integrated on the device. The UDB is an optional feature which allows words that were explicitly entered by the user to be stored for future reference. smart punctuation inserts sentence punctuation (period) or embedded punctuation (period or hyphen) or word punctuation (apostrophe in can't. Nokia. "home" is referred to as an textonym of "good". now part of Nuance Communications.g. Some implementations also learn commonly used word pairs and provide word prediction (e. When the user enters matching key-presses. The user database (UDB) can be expanded via multi-tap. in English. isn't as well as the possessive 's). Design T9's objective is to make it easier to type text messages..g. and Intelab's Tauto. This feature allows the user to insert sentence and word punctuation using the '1'-key. For instance.

. References [1] Reduced keyboard disambiguating computer.g.com (http://www.com/t9/) • Nuance T9 End user facing site (http://t9. T9 uses an optimized algorithm which maintains the order of words. "testing" (8378464). asp) (2007). External links • Nuance T9 Customer facing site (http://www. and partial words (also known as stems) but because of this compression.T9 (predictive text) entered with the key combination "8378464".validconcept. nuance. e.com/) • History of T9 article at Validconcept. 335 Algorithm In order to achieve compression ratios of close to 1 byte per word. This is a side effect of the requirements for small database sizes on the lower end embedded devices. (http:/ / www.nuance.html/) . it over-generates words which are sometimes visible to the user as 'junk words'.com/articles-t9. com/ news/ pressreleases/ 2007/ 20070824_tegic. google. Entering the same number but with two incorrect keypresses of neighbouring keys. com/ patents?id=PmgCAAAAEBAJ) US Patent 5818437 (1998) [2] Nuance Communications press release (http:/ / www. "8278494" still results in T9 suggesting the words "tasting" (8278464). and "tapping" (8277464).

Its flagship product is the recently launched My Taptu. consumption and sharing of content across all personal screen-based devices. which is available on the iPhone and Android devices. Content comes from a variety of sources. Colorado. or Linked In feeds to My Taptu. Gizmodo. the New York Times Bits Blog. and runs all of the news or content coming only from that source. the technology news stream could contain news flowing from TechCrunch. My Taptu will display a preview of the article and its source in the app itself." or what CNET describes as “content playlists. tools and applications that enable highly personalized creation. discovery. Any time someone in a user's social circle shares a link with them. For example. feature App of the Week shortly after My Taptu launched. UK Key people Products Employees Mitch Lazar (CEO) Mobile Social News Aggregator 40-45 (2009) Taptu is a social media and technology company that builds platforms. 3) Mixed Streams: Mixed streams are curated by topic.” This allows it to watch web sites that have no RSS feed and no mobile presence and turn their content into streams. Wall Street Journal among others. Taptu is a privately held company that was founded in Cambridge in 2007 and is backed by funding from Venture Capitalists including DFJ Esprit and Sofinnova.”[3] My Taptu has tried to separate itself in the increasingly crowded social news space by offering various ways of personalizing and building My Taptu. search.Taptu 336 Taptu Taptu Ltd. 2010. is "aimed at solving information overload. 4) Web Watcher Streams: Taptu has technology that it calls the “web watcher. Taptu Inc Type Industry Founded Private Social Media 2007 Headquarters Cambridge. Read Write Web. Taptu believes mixed streams put a story into a wider context. a social news aggregator that draws heavily on the company’s mobile search heritage but attempts to move them beyond search. curation. They can also add the feeds of select newsmakers or publishers that My Taptu have curated. Products Taptu currently has two products. recommendation. management." or what Taptu calls "app hopping."[2] It presents all the information that a person "is into" in a "one. the app. The company is based in Cambridge and Denver. 2) Single Streams: The single stream of content comes from one source. . Currently. My Taptu was released in the App Store and the Android Marketplace on November 9th. the app lets users add content through: 1) Social Streams: Users can add their Twitter.stop app" through "streams. Engadget. and help people discover content they might have not originally sought out. a person can add “The New York Times” breaking news as a stream. For example. The company uses it to fill out their fashion streams.[1] According to Taptu. Facebook. It has received [4] [5] [6] and Apple promoted the App on its UK App Store front page by selecting it as a several positive reviews. and most significantly on touch screen mobile devices. including the iPhone and Android phones.

com/ 2010/ 11/ 09/ mytaptu-arrives-to-take-on-flipboard-and-pulse-in-the-touch-aggregator-stakes/ [2] Kiss. Taptu Blog. Jemima (9 November 2010). [12] "ME Awards 2008: The winners in full" (http:/ / www. Mobile Entertainment Awards[12] [13] Commercial Category. mobile-ent. com/ 8301-19736_1-20022141-251. . September 2008[11] Best Search Provider 2008. mobilemarketingmagazine. taptu. co. . html [7] http:/ / www. Highly Commended in the category of Best Mobile Start Up[18] References [1] http:/ / eu. February 2008[16] Meffys 2010.Taptu To support the launch of My Taptu. Recognition and Awards • • • • • • • Overall Mobile Search Company of the Year. . MEX Design Competition[14] Red Herring Top 100 European Tech Startups. com/ about/ press/ 2010-09-20 [11] "Taptu Takes Mobile Search Award" (http:/ / www. co. He stepped into the role on 20 October 2010. cnet. com/ article/ 155636/ 2010/ 11/ mytaptu. uk/ standard/ article-23900593-is-it-wheelie-him-mayor-in-boris-bike-video-stunts-on-web. . Mobile User Experience. [3] http:/ / www. taptu. It was closed in early 2011. The Guardian (London). html [4] http:/ / www. "My Taptu app takes the visual news aggregator to mobile" (http:/ / www. laptopmag. Boris Johnson. html [5] http:/ / www. MobileMonday Peer Awards. youtube. com/ watch?v=4iQ0KTYdDhk [8] http:/ / www. . April 2008[15] Global Community Award. uk/ technology/ pda/ 2010/ nov/ 09/ taptu-app-aggregator). former MD of Yahoo Mobile Europe. moved over to president where he remained until early 2011[9] [10] Funding Taptu is backed by Sofinnova and DFJ Esprit. taptu. is CEO of Taptu. [13] "Taptu Wins "Best Search Provider 2008" at Mobile Entertainment Awards" (http:/ / www. guardian. com/ review/ software/ my-taptu. do [9] http:/ / blog. co. Winner of Content Discovery and Personalisation Award[17] TechCrunch Europas 2010. provided as a web site using html optimised for phones. Taptu first product was a mobile search engine. com/ ?p=570). thisislondon. aspx#axzz16i3svHVa [6] http:/ / recombu. [14] "Day One. Mobile Search Awards. com/ 2010/ 10/ 20/ announcing-mitch-lazar-as-taptus-new-ceo/ [10] http:/ / www. uk/ 2008/ 09/ taptu-takes-mob. after spending 3 months as President and COO. com/ apps/ android/ my-taptu-app-review_M12697. riding a “Boris Bike” Danny MacAskill-style at a local London skate park. Management Mitch Lazar. Mobile Entertainment. html). . mobileuserexperience.[8] 337 Other Product Taptu’s other product is Wapedia. MEX 2008 & the winners of the MEX Awards" (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 2008/ 09/ 28/ taptu-wins-best-search-provider-2008-at-mobile-entertainment-awards/ ). One of its successful videos [7] depicts the mayor of London. Steve Ives. The videos are designed to illustrate that My Taptu had a wide enough depth and breadth of content to appeal to any niche interest or passion a person has. with an announcement from Mitch Lazar stating the intention to focus on the news aggregation product. and dedicated "apps" for iPhone and Android. the company commissioned a series of online videos. which bought out 3i’s investments in 2009. a mobile Wikipedia service. founder and former CEO. macworld. biz/ news/ 31544/ ME-Awards-2008-The-winners-in-full). techcrunch. Mobile Marketing Magazine.

com/ peerawards/ ). Meffys 2010. anonymous and accessible way to receive therapeutic advice. computer programmes. Relatively new technology such as mobile phones have also been used to help people with mental health problems by providing timely information. it is argued.com/ skynews/Home/video/Google-10-Years-The-Future-Of-Online-Search-Engines/Video/ 200809115094007?lpos=video_0&lid=VIDEO_15094007_Google+10+Years%3A+The+Future+Of+ Online+Search+Engines) • Mobile Search Company Taptu aims high (http://www. virtual reality. mobilemondaybarcelona. . exercise and a healthy diet. pictures of the patient's family or their voice. SMS. techcrunch.sky. Taptu (http://wapreview.mobileeurope.[2] Technology and the Treatment of Mental Health Issues Traditional methods of helping people with a mental health problem have been to use approaches such as medication. [16] "MobileMonday Peer Awards Barcelona 2008" (http:/ / www.taptu. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Technology can therefore be used in innovative ways to provide support for those with mental health . could improve the accessibility.html) • WapReview.com) . For example. Computer games have also been used to provide therapy for adolescents.Taptu blog (http://blog. . Demo of how Taptu is way better than Google for mobiles by Robert Scoble Technology and mental health issues The use of communicative and other new technologies as a supplement to mainstream therapies for mental disorders is an emerging mental health treatment field which. computer games. TechCrunch Europas 2010.[3] have used Virtual Reality (VR) (simulated real environments through digital media) to successfully treat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). effectiveness and affordability of mental health care. The VR system offers a sense of realism in a safe environment. . the telephone.html) Sky News Technofile: The Google Years: The Future of Online Search Engines (http://news.[5] David Haniff[6] produced a computer application that would present media to someone suffering from depression in order to lift their mood. com/ attend/ meffys-winners-showcase-dynamic-mobile-media-industry).com/portfolio/companies/taptu.3i. For example. 338 External links • • • • Taptu homepage (http://www.co. social networks. . blogs. [17] "Meffys 2010" (http:/ / www. meffys. Taptu Blog. counselling. Rizzo et al.Taptu [15] "Taptu honoured as recipient of Red Herring Top 100 Europe list" (http:/ / www.[1] Mental health technologies used by professionals as an adjunct to mainstream clinical practices include email. com/ blog/ 2008/ 04/ 16/ taptu-honoured-as-recipient-of-red-herring-top-100-europe-list/ ). [18] "TechCrunch Europas 2010" (http:/ / eu. fear of flying or arachnophobia (fear of spiders).net/home/4516/ demo-of-how-taptu-is-way-better-than-google-for-mobiles). instant messaging and podcasts.uk/news_analysis/113999/ Mobile_search_company_Taptu_aims_high. This form of treatment has also been applied to other mental health problems such as phobias (where anxiety is triggered by a certain situation). Mobile Monday Barcelona.com/blog/?p=413) • PodTech. By gradually exposing the person to their fear with a Virtual Environment the patient becomes accustomed to the trigger of their problem to an extent that it no longer becomes an issue.net (http://www.podtech. taptu.com) 3i investors portfolio: Taptu (http://www. New technology can also be used in conjunction with traditional methods. com/ 2010/ 11/ 20/ the-europas-european-startup-awards-2010-the-winners-and-finalists/ ). video conferencing.taptu.[4] Many adolescents are reluctant to have therapy and a computer game is a fun.

Ill. In Roy. TAP defines an industry standard for sending alphanumeric messages to pagers. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6V0D-4YH568S-1& _user=10& _coverDate=07/ 31/ 2010& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=gateway& _origin=gateway& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _searchStrId=1703402087& _rerunOrigin=scholar. Springfield. Goss. by the Personal Communication Industry Association.J. A.Volume 2. Matthews. Stephen (eds) (2010).notepage. (ed. Swindon: British Computer Society. Nagel. Nisbet. . J. Doherty (2005). ac. The Use of Technology in Mental Health: Applications. ISBN 9780398079536. macs. [2] Anthony. com/ books?id=sX87shVB0ugC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ge_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q& f=false).pdf .C: IOS Press. [3] Rizzo. "Mental Health Issues and Pervasive Computing" (http:/ / www.com • Directory of TAP Dialup Numbers (http://www. pp. Sharry. .net/tap-phone-numbers. Washington D. . [6] Haniff. org/ upload/ pdf/ ewic_hc07_popaper4.). "A Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Application for Iraq War Military Personnel with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: From Training to Toy to Treatment" (http:/ / www. . pdf). NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. verisign. . Kate. Ethics and Practice (http:/ / books.htm) from notepage. hw. initially known as Motorola Page Entry (PET) was adopted in September 1988. M.. one size does not fit all and some technologies may not be suitable for certain people. K.com/fileadmin/documents/tap_v1p8.com/Support/TAP/index. [4] Coyle. com/ stellent/ groups/ public/ documents/ data_sheet/ 002641. .Technology and mental health issues problems.[2] TAP. Springfield. In Kate Anthony. Ferns. David. Ethics and Practice. 339 References [1] Doherty. DeeAnna Merz. 171–172.net • (http://www. A. Gavin. B. DeeAnna Merz Nagel and Stephen Goss (eds).[1] This protocol is used to send SMS/text alerts to a cell phone or a pager. hw. ISBN 9780398079536. McNerney. tap-ixo. "Personal Investigator: A therapeutic 3D game for adolecscent psychotherapy" (http:/ / www. P. google. Stephen. M. 56–67. In Devian Ramduny-Ellis and Dorothy Rachovides (eds). Manson. J. [5] Goss.but not as we know it .avtech. Thomas Publishers. pdf).. D. Spira. Graap. ie/ books?id=sX87shVB0ugC& printsec=& pg=PA56). IL: Charles C. David (2007). Thomas Pub Ltd. sciencedirect. info/ External links • Directory of TAP Dialup Numbers (http://www. htm [3] http:/ / www. pdf). Journal of Interactive Technology & Smart Education 2 (2): 73–88. uk/ modules/ F24VS2/ Resources/ RizzoVirtualRealityExposure2006. google. Coyle. pp. M. Mark (July 2010). Joe (2010). B (2006). Wiederhold.[3] References [1] http:/ / www. macs. bcs. "Using Cell/Mobile Phone SMS to Enhance Client Crisis and Peer Support" (http:/ / books. pdf [2] http:/ / dartware. Wiederhold. google& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=f5ee46f9d4213e1f3975dd8f33fefe2a& searchtype=a). BCS-HCI '07 Proceedings of the 21st British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: HCI. Interacting with Computers 22 (4): 243–252. Matthews. pp. However. B.htm) from avtech. The Use of Technology in Mental Health : Applications. Pair. Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol (TAP) is a protocol for submitting requests to a cellular or pager service as a numeric or alphanumeric message. com/ support/ docs/ web/ Content/ 06-Notifiers/ 06-01-ConfiguringNotifications/ AlertViaCellPhone. ISBN 9781902505954. "Design and Mental Health Guidelines for Mental Health Technologies" (http:/ / www.: Charles C. ac. uk/ modules/ F24VS2/ Resources/ RizzoVirtualRealityExposure2006. 235–250.picell.

com: Android 2. including for example. However. "Except with Phone-as-Modem plans.com. Many mobile phones are equipped with software to offer tethered Internet access. or over Bluetooth. or similar device. [4] "T-Mobile Terms & Conditions . are not permitted. using your Device as a modem or tethering your Device to a personal computer or other hardware. examples include T-Mobile in the UK. .2 Froyo. shtml?ECID=vanity:termsandconditions#3). the feature may be branded as a mobile hotspot. t-mobile.US" (http:/ / www.com. t-mobile. As cited in Sprint Nextel's Terms of Service. to support tethering (http:/ / www." [4] Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility currently offer wired tethering to their plans for a fee. you may not use a phone (including a Bluetooth phone) as a modem in connection with a computer. com/ en/ legal/ legal_terms_privacy_popup.[2] Tethering in carriers' contracts Depending on the mobile phone's carrier. PDA. geek. while others forbid tethering or impose added data charges. com/ Templates/ Popup. aspx?PAsset=Ftr_Ftr_TermsAndConditions& print=true). sprint. Retrieved 2011-03-14." T-Mobile has a similar clause in its Terms & Conditions: "Unless explicitly permitted by your Data Plan. The Internet-connected mobile phone acts as a portable router when providing tethering services to others. com/ articles/ mobile/ android-2-2-to-support-tethering-and-turn-your-phone-into-a-mobile-wifi-hotspot-20100514/ ) [2] http:/ / www.Tethering 340 Tethering Tethering means sharing the Internet connection of an Internet-capable mobile phone with other devices. tethering may be provided at no extra cost.US" (http:/ / shop. . The operating system Android supports this . com/ android-internet-tether [3] "Sprint Terms & Conditions . Often phone contracts that advertise unlimited or "all you can eat" Internet and data usage will bury these hidden charges in their terms of use. or by physical connection using a cable.2. This feature was available before but only by 'rooting' devices and using the Linux iptables application. sprint. other uses. starting [1] from version 2. In the case of tethering over wireless LAN. some carriers impose a one time charge to enable tethering. . Retrieved 2010-10-13. androidcentral. We reserve the right to deny or terminate service without notice for any misuse or any use that adversely affects network [3] performance. References [1] Geek. This sharing can be offered over a wireless LAN (Wi-Fi). while Sprint Nextel offers a Wi-Fi connected "mobile hotspot" tethering feature at an added charge.

via cellphone" pp. audio. coming from the generally audio-based podcast. E1.E4. The term is an evolution specialized for original mobile content. Retrieved 2007-04-09. referring to the SMS subscription channels as thumbcasts. "Snippets of news. Our thumbcasts are hand-crafted by local correspondents and delivered direct to you as text messages. References Johnson. Timeline • On 15 March 2007 US mobile media company 80108 Media launches their public Web site at [1]. The Boston Globe (New York Times): References [1] http:/ / www. 80108. the input mechanisms of multi-tap and predictive text. or video content via short message service. • On 9 April 2007 the Boston Globe published an article titled Snippets of news. [2] . or other mobile distribution mechanism. boston. The company provided the following brief definition for the term: Think: podcast for your phone. The term 'thumbcast' became one of that day's 'Hot Searches' on the site. via cellphone [2] with the following opening sentence: Thumbcasts are coming to Boston. WAP push. multimedia messaging service. and the distribution of content directly to mobile phones. Carolyn (2007-04-09).Thumbcast 341 Thumbcast Thumbcast is a term used for the mobile delivery of text. com/ business/ globe/ articles/ 2007/ 04/ 09/ snippets_of_news_via_cellphone/ . picture. com [2] http:/ / www.

It only supports English input. TouchPal v3 significantly improved the predictive algorithm by incorporating its patent pending context-based word prediction and mistyping auto-correction algorithm. full QWERTY layout. It supports three layouts on one virtual keyboard: T+ layout. Below is a summary of the basic usage. and 9-key PhonePad layout. . It is an alternative text input method to the traditional physical keyboards. It also provides changeable keypress sound. It combines two letters and one symbol on each key. TouchPal v2 came out in late December 2007. Technology TouchPal default keyboard layout is designed based on the T+ technology. Tapping on the keys directly to input predictively. Slide up then down to input the numbers on the top. French. Slide to the left/right to precisely input the letter on the left/right. whose layout looks like a "T". 1. Spanish. drag & drop buttons. TouchPal v3 has a lot of new features. With its SDK. There is cool animation effect when turning the pages or switching the layouts. History TouchPal v1 was released in October 2007. Besides what v1 has. 5. It also includes customizable emoticons and a few other features.TouchPal 342 TouchPal TouchPal is an alternative software input method for mobile devices. 4. 3. This makes each button big enough for thumb tapping. its virtual keyboard is resizable by finger sliding. Slide down to input a symbol on the bottom. It only has the T+ layout virtual keyboard. The overall layout of all the letters follows a common computer keyboard layout. and can change the keyboard layout. while keeps the general computer keyboard layout. together with several European input languages. Sliding on a key in four directions like a "+" to input precisely. designed and developed by CooTek. 2. users can self develop the supported input languages. Compared with the previous two versions. It is a software application running on Windows Mobile devices. with which you can enter text by tapping on the screen. TouchPal v3 has much better extensibility than the previous two versions. Italian. TouchPal v3 English version was released in April 2008. The keyboard is one-layer design. TouchPal v3 Chinese input version came out one month later. It supports several European languages input such as English. and Dutch. comprehensive content editing functions. It has many useful features such as self-defined "My Sentences" and "My Commands". Tap directly to input predictively. German. for example the QWERTY layout. There are not additional function keys such as Shift or Ctrl because the functions achieved by them were built-in and can be easily implemented directly by finger tapping or sliding. Slide up to input uppercase letters. the skins. a patent pending technology owned by CooTek. It places a virtual keyboard on the touch screen of the handhelds. Users can switch keyboard layouts by finger sweeping.

com. therefore it may be decided to install TMAs from the start to make the system viable. TouchPal: One of the Best Soft Keyboards. Improving the uplink translates into a combination of better coverage and mobile transmitting at less power. WMExperts. 2008 3. com/ cms/ index. Since the transmitter is a mobile phone it cannot be easily modified to transmit stronger signals. In other words.com) website Tower Mounted Amplifier A Tower Mounted Amplifier or Mast Head Amplifier is a Low-noise amplifier (LNA) mounted as close as practical to the antenna in mobile masts or Base Transceiver Stations. in other words the mobile mast is able to receive weaker signals. CooTek's TouchPal brings iPhone-like touchpad to Windows Mobile (http:/ / www. engadgetmobile. wmexperts. Engadget Mobile. 2007 External links 1. php?q=blogs/ 30/ touchpal_a_very_well_done_soft_keyboard). Great New Soft Keyboard (http:/ / www. Crowded mast with TMAs (white rectangular boxes) mounted behind all the panel (rectangular) antennas TMAs are used in mobile networks to improve the sensitivity of the uplink in mobile phone masts.[1] There are occasions when the cable between the antenna and the receiver is so lossy (too thin or too long) that the signal weakens from the antenna before reaching the receiver. one link. the TMA can only partially correct. com/ articles/ software/ great_new_soft_keyboard.cootek. TouchPal-A Well-Done Soft Keyboard Alternative! (http:/ / www. . or palliate. 2007 4. This can be fixed by making the transmitter on that link stronger or the receiver more sensitive to weaker signals.html). June/July 2008 issue (http://www.TouchPal 343 References 1. Sean Cooper. CooTek (http://www. which in turn implies a lower drain from its batteries. A TMA reduces the base transceiver station noise figure (NF) and therefore improve its overall sensitivity. Nate Adcock. Nate Adcock. pocketpcmag. the link imbalance. there are occasions when one way. Smartphone and Pocket PC Magazine. Smartphone and Pocket PC Magazine. October 4.pocketpcmag. Benefits in mobile communications In two way communications systems. October 12. thus a longer battery charge. Dieter Bohn.com/cms/current-issue/) 2. is weaker than the other. normally referenced as unbalanced links. February 10. com/ 2007/ 10/ 12/ cooteks-touchpal-brings-iphone-like-touchpad-to-windows-mobile/ ).

2. GSM) have a constant link. The second amplifier's temperature ( ) will also influence the total but it is reduced (divided) by the gain of the first amplifier . IS-95 or WCDMA . 3. or gain (G). The third amplifier's temperature is influencing even less. 2. The principle can be demonstrated mathematically. 2. The receiver may alternatively be housed in a cabinet or hut at the base of the tower. link balance changes with traffic load. nothing reduces its contribution to the total. There might be practical room restrictions. [2] 3. unless it can be bypassed. If the received signal is not weak. [3] [4] Mathematical principles In a receiver. the receiving path starts with the signal originating at the antenna. therefore it is possible analyse call records and establish where TMAs are needed. It is actually not amplified all at once but in stages. other mobile networks (e.and thus more expensive . as it is reduced by its preceding amplifier gains . it is not simple to detect and correct unbalanced links since the link balance is not constant.Tower Mounted Amplifier 344 Drawbacks/pitfalls 1. installing a TMA will not deliver its intended benefit. Then the signal is amplified in further stages within the receiver. 3. or structural weight restrictions to install a TMA at the top of a phone mast.as the TMA may be dangerously near (near field) of the antenna and high up in a tower. And so on until N stages. However.[1] 1.aka European 3G -). If the TMA fails. The first amplifier will set the temperature ( ). Simple phone mast with three TMAs (horizontal rectangular boxes) visible at the top of metal tower and before rectangular antennas Note that: 1. .g. it may cause the TMA to create its own interference which is passed on to the receiver. If the received signal is strong enough. The relationship of the stages is known as the Friis formula. Servicing TMAs is harder than servicing receivers . visual. So amplifier number 1 will be right after the antenna and described by and . it may render the system unusable until serviced. In some mobile networks (e. the receiver's noise figure is calculated by modularly assessing each amplifier stage.g. with some stages producing other changes (like changing the signal's frequency). [5] [6] . 4. Each stage consists of a noise figure (F) and an amount of amplification.

longer connecting cable (stage 3) .TMA (stage 2) . is nearly one. that is when the TMA comes into use.). the closer is to zero and the more will increase. Noise (2nd ed. [6] This number is normally expressed in decibels (dB) thus: References [1] [2] [3] [4] Laiho. London: John Wiley & Sons. is from In this way. in order . Updating the Friis formula with this case. com/ tma. powerwave.Tower Mounted Amplifier 345 Applying the Friis formula to TMAs Typical receiver without TMA Start with a typical receiver: Antenna . F. Therefore: • Stage 1: • Stage 2: is equal to the loss of the cable and will increase with ambient temperature [7] will depend on the lossiness of the cable.receiver (stage 4) • Stage 1: By using the shortest. words.Receiver (stage 2).short connecting cable (stage 1) . "Product description of a TMA manufacturer" (http:/ / www. as . but this time its noise addition ( ) is reduced by • Stage 4: Then comes the receiver. The more loss. it will increase What can be done to improve the receiver to pick up very weak signals? It must have a lower noise figure. Typical receiver with TMA It is a chain of 4 modules: antenna .R.. Antennas and Propagation for wireless communication systems. pdf?refer=Library& C=Tower-Mounted+ Amplifier+ Systems& L=ClearGain+ Amplifier+ Systems). net/ Library/ Techpub/ 75177. London: John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. adcbroadband. The first stage after the antenna is actually the connecting cable. Simon R. and from the second cable. So will counteract the effects of . the least lossy connecting cable between the antenna and the TMA. net.. .. • Stage 2: The TMA of noise figure and gain . Novosad. Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS. au/ reception/ tv/ mast_head. installation and trouble shooter of a TMA manufacturer" (http:/ / www. . Powerwave. the cable losses are now negligible and do not significantly affect the system noise figure. [5] Conner. • Stage 3: Then comes the next cable ( and ). Since the element is lossy is less than one. asp). Wacker. the noise figure is now: is low . Ltd. whose noise figure is less downgraded by the cables. . ISBN 0-471-98609-7 [7] Noise Figure of lossy stage .Connecting Cable (stage 1) . the TMA. (1982). ADC. ISBN 0-471-48653-1 "TV distortion cause by too strong received signals" (http:/ / abc. ISBN 0-7131-3459-3 [6] Saunders. "TMA description. London: Edward Arnold. htm).

Transatel works with companies wanting to launch a mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) under their own brand. may it be prepaid or postpaid.tmworld. • LeFrenchMobile is a mobile phone service for foreign visitors coming to France for a short period of time. with services. B2C. CEO MVNO (Easypass...transatel-solutions. • Eurokeitai is an offer for the Japanese community in France. in Luxembourg and in the Netherlands: • The multi-country offers are dedicated to frequent travelers and inhabitants of the border area in France. B2B. adds its service platform and wholesales this airtime to multiple MVNOs.Tower Mounted Amplifier 346 External links • TMA test equipment (http://www. in France.com [3] Transatel is a pan-European company founded in August 2000. Activity As an MVNO. the company has positioned itself on the MVNE market in Europe. Transatel proposes different mobile telephony offers in Belgium.com/article/CA221314. prepaid. documentation and customer service in Japanese. Transatel won several prizes in France. • Phonethic is a charity mobile phone offer available in Belgium. www. As an MVNE. Easyborder. for all kinds of MVNOs (postpaid. and in the Netherlands.). • MVNA (Aggregator) : the MVNA purchases mobile airtime in bulk form the partner mobile operator. Brussels. with headquarters in Paris and offices in London. from 6 to 24 months. Transatel is the technical service provider of either the MNO or the MVNO according to their choice. who each in turn sells the mobile service to end .html) Transatel Transatel Type Industry Founded Private Mobile telecommunications 2000 Headquarters 22 Place des Vosges 92979 Paris La Défense France Key people Products Revenue Employees Website Jacques Bonifay [1] . with SIP services. Switzerland and Benelux. which awards the innovation policy of IT companies. including the OSEO-DeloitteTechnology Fast 50 for the Paris region in 2007[4] . born from a partnership between 4 NGOs and Transatel.com [2] . Equilibre) and MVNE 13 million EUR (2010) estimation 80 (2011) www.transatel. On top of managing several MVNOs. Luxembourg. The MVNE activity is divided into two categories: • MVNE ASP (Application Service Provider): the MVNO signs a contract for purchasing airtime with the MNO.

transatel-m2m. 347 References [1] http:/ / www.com) • Transatel M2M (http://www. transatel-solutions. Oseo.com) Tri-cell Tri-cell is one of several location based services technologies that are used to locate or track the location of a mobile phone. Transatel entered the M2M (Machine-to-Machine) market. Transatel provides provisionning services. Tri-cell makes a number of measurements within the phone and sends these measurements to a central server that uses a hybrid of methods to calculate the location of the phone on a continuous basis.com) • Transatel solutions (Activities : MVNE and MVNA) (http://www. rated billing and voice/data services. transatel. The Business Model for the MVNE activity.Transatel users. primée par OSEO au Deloitte Technology Fast 50 de 2007" (http:/ / www. reusing its MVNE infrastructure across Europe to provide M2M services with similar business models. transatel. External links • Transatel – Corporate website (http://www. com [4] "Transatel.transatel. trisent. com . based on cloud-based services. com [3] http:/ / www.fr (French). transatel-mobile. oseo.transatel-solutions. fr/ a_la_une/ actualites/ transatel_primee_par_oseo_au_deloitte_technology_fast_50_de_2007). The first mobile operator dedicated to crossborder workers and frequent travellers (http://www.com) • Transatel. In 2011. html [2] http:/ / www. Tri-cell was invented by the company Trisent [1] Communication Ltd. Other technologies include TDOA and AGPS. References [1] http:/ / www. As an MVNA. com/ fr-abonnement-equipe.

org/meid) . and if an ANSI-41 message is received containing a different pair it will be rejected. The replacement identifier is EUIMID although for backwards compatibility a pseudo-UIMID (pUIMID) is still retained in cards.org/standards/resources/esn/) • CDMA Development Group MEID and EUIMID resource page (http://www.tiaonline. 0_UIM_ID_Guidelines. References [1] 3GPP2 SC. The reason the UIMID is transmitted instead of the ESN is because the R-UIM contains the MIN or IMSI and devices such as the HLR running the ANSI-41 mobility management protocol insist on a static association between these identifiers. The TIA stopped accepting applications for UIMID blocks on June 30.cdg. It is given a different name to avoid confusion with the hardware ESN stored in the phone. pdf) External links • Official TIA Resource Page for ESN and UIMID (http://www. The HLR will store the MIN or IMSI alongside the ESN in each record. UIMID codes are allocated by the TIA using industry-defined guidelines and with codes that have been transferred from the ESN administrator (also the TIA). The pUIMID is composed of the prefix 0x80 to make it distinct from unique UIMID codes and a 24-bit SHA-1 hash of the EUIMID. Because the UIMID is allocated from the same numbering space as ESN this is transparent to the network.UIMID 348 UIMID A UIMID (user identity module identifier) is a 32-bit Electronic Serial Number (ESN) stored in a R-UIM or CSIM ('smart card') used for TDMA or CDMA2000 phones (mainly the latter). 2010. pUIMID codes are not unique as there are only 224 of them and many times more EUIMID codes. 2010. In all known systems the UIMID displaces the ESN in signaling (based on the 'UsgInd' field stored in the R-UIM). R4004-0_v2. May. Version 2.0. User Identification Module ID Manufacturer’s Code Assignment Guidelines and Procedures (http:/ / www. org/ public_html/ Specs/ SC.[1] ESN and UIMID codes were exhausted by late 2008 at which point only reclaimed codes could be assigned to manufacturers including portions of blocks assigned to manufacturers but never used and portions used for technologies other than CDMA2000. 3gpp2.R4004-0.

UpSNAP is the #1 direct response advertising network on mobile phones. com/ 4x4/ radio/ uhi_harness. mercupgrades. shtml) [3] http:/ / www. With the ability to deliver content and advertising solutions to all US Mobile Devices.com CeBIT 2003. The hands-free capability uses the car's on-board audio system and a microphone located underneath the interior roof light[3] . video and WAP traffic via pay per call. Nokia. urbanup. With 4-1-1 directory queries. com/ uhicradles. It is controlled by COMAND. References [1] Mobile-review. They generate revenue via a pay-per-call model. The company employs an intelligent query search engine to process text queries sent to the number 2SNAP (27627) and quickly returns the relevant info that the user has requested in text form. shtml) [2] Mercedes UHI and MHI Phone Cradles (http:/ / www. The mobile phone is placed in a cradle connected to a telephone network unit and operated using the buttons on the multi-function steering wheel. External links • UpSNAP Mobile search and 411 info services [1] • Urban Dictionary definition of UpSNAP [2] References [1] http:/ / upsnap. a Motorola operating system which also allows SMS messages to be read and edited on the existing dashboard display. Sony Ericsson. aka SMS. UpSNAP developed a patented method of accepting queries and producing results via text messaging. Multi-Handset Interface (MHI) is the US sales name for UHI. com/ 1502912 . the user is also given the option to receive a free call-connect via a VOIP bridge. gif Upsnap UpSNAP is the name of both a mobile-oriented search engine and the company that runs the search engine. Siemens AG. com [2] http:/ / upsnap. mobile-review. com/ exhibition/ cebit-motorola-en. Products from Motorola for both pedestrians and drivers-users (http:/ / www.Universal Handy Interface 349 Universal Handy Interface Universal Handy Interface (UHI) is a Motorola designed universal interface for mobile phone use (Motorola.[1] There are a large number of different cradles now available for various phones[2] . analogous to the pay-per-click model of internet search. SMS. serving close to a billion ads per month. Samsung) in Mercedes-Benz cars. UpSNAP’s multi-modal ad platform drives performance from voice. whnet.

3GPP TS 23. the recipient can choose to reject the streamed video. The default behavior is that the receiving handset will automatically go to speakerphone mode when video is received. . There can be multiple video streaming sessions during a voice call. AT&T [3] (formerly Cingular) is one of mobile operators who have deployed the Video Share service nationwide. The Video Share Client will drop a VS session when the handset transitions from UMTS to GSM during the session. It is intended that both sender and receiver will receive feedback when the other party terminates a session or the link drops due to lack of coverage. and each of these streaming sessions can be initiated by any of the parties on the voice call. video streaming to a web portal. the sender can “narrate” over the CS audio connection while both parties view the video. The Video Share service requires a 3GPP compliant IMS core system.279 and 3GPP TS 24. and integration of video share with instant messaging.Video share 350 Video share Video Share is an IP Multimedia System (IMS) enabled service for mobile networks that allows users engaged in a circuit switch voice call to add a unidirectional video streaming session over the packet network during the voice call. The CS voice call will remain connected. The sending User is then able to stream one-way live or recorded video. either party (calling or called) can start a Video Share (VS) session. along with the receiving User. In the industry. unless the headset is in place. In this scenario.279. The second phase (also called Phase 2) introduces the Video Share Application Server in the solution and supports more complex features and capabilities.279. and either the sender or recipient in a video share session can terminate the session at any time. Video Share is also referred to by other names such as See What I See and Rich Voice Call. GSM Association has split the Video Share service definition [2] into 2 distinct phases. meaning that the service combines a circuit switch voice call with a packet switch multimedia session. The first phase (also called Phase 1) involves sharing a simple peer-to-peer. After a voice call is established. Video share is initiated from within a voice call. The sender will be able to see what is being streamed on their handset. The Video Share service [1] is defined by the GSM Association (GSMA). This concept is described in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specification documents 3GPP TS 22. Any of the parties on the voice call can initiate a video streaming session. Both users will have the ability initiate a video share session. The video source can either be the camera on the phone or a pre-recorded video clip. such as point-to-multipoint video share calls. Video Share is supported only in UMTS and EDGE (with DTM) networks. It is not supported in a GPRS or a CDMA network. It is often referred to as a Combinational Service. but not synchronized to a circuit switch voice call. one-way video stream in conjunction with. As part of the VS invitation.

implemented and tested during the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trials conducted by the GSM Association in 2005/2006.g. and depending on the conversation. such as AT&T. An interoperability technical reference specification for Video Share [7] is also available from GSMA. whereas Video Share involves adding and removing one or more one-way Video sessions to an existing voice call between the 2 parties. the Video Share service used to demonstrate IMS interworking over SIP [4] . Similar services popped under the names of See What I See. Video Sharing has no privacy implications for the recipient since the sharing of video is one-way. Rich Voice Call. Subsequently. By contrast. webcam). During the SIP trials. videophone. you see me” type of service where the camera is pointed at the parties on the call (eg. The GSMA Video Share service [2] was originally defined. Some European operators offered commercial services based on these phones already in 2005. Push-to-Video (P2video or PTV). On the other hand. The camera on the sender’s mobile phone is usually pointed at some object or activity that he/she wants to share with the recipient. This was a proprietary solution on top of a SIP or IMS infrastructure. 2. Phase 1 of the Video Share project built on and leveraged the results from the SIP trials. Video Call involves simultaneous two-way Video and Audio transmission between the 2 parties (from start to finish). Phase 2 of the GSMA Video Share project was kicked off in May/June 2007 and is currently in progress. etc. A 3-4 minute voice call may involve a minute of Video Sharing. Service definition for the first phase of the Video Share project was completed in September/October 2006. Differences between video share and video call Video Share is sometimes confused with traditional two-way Video Call service. a Video Sharing session starts as a normal voice conversation. The caller initiates the call as a Video Call. In a Video Call. Splitting the screen into Picture-in-Picture (in order to display both sending and received video streams) significantly degrades the Video Call user experience on a mobile phone (Video Call with Picture-in-Picture is effective in corporate applications such as video conferencing where a large screen is used). a new car. 3. Parties on the call are fully aware that they are involved in a video call. where a video clip recorded on the phone (or resident in the network) can be shared between two parties – something not delivered in a typical Video Call implementation. . and the length of the video is tied to the length of the voice call. There are other subtle differences between the two services as far as the user experience is concerned: 1. the snow outside. GSMA decided to create a separate project for Video Share.Video share 351 History Peer-to-peer video sharing was introduced by Nokia phones first in 2004. the intent is known upfront. have deployed the Video Share service [6] based on the Phase 1 service definition. Mobile operators worldwide. Extensions to Video Share include Video Clip Sharing. it may lead to one party sharing something with the other party while they talk about it (e. Video Share was also tested on the IPX [5] to prove that the service might become universally available in the future. Video Calling has historically been “I see you. Display screen on a mobile phone has limited real estate.. a video clip of kids).

SIP is used for call control and signaling. VS-compliant handsets contain an ISIM/USIM properly provisioned with IMS public/private identities and access credentials.e. including the codecs supported • Display icon indicating the capability status of the other device (that is. Functionality supported by a GSMA Video Share Client includes: • Registration. Video Share Client The Video Share (VS) Client is a software application running on the mobile handset. The Video Share service uses the standard IMS Core infrastructure to transmit signaling and media traffic. i. Linux. Authentication and Video Share initiation • IMS registration upon power up using IMS access credentials stored in the ISIM/USIM • Video Share Capability Exchange prior to the initiation of a video share call using SIP. and RTP/RTCP is used for video transmission. The Phase 1 Video Share architecture does not include an Application Server. Typically. whether the other device is VS capable or not) • Ability for the user to start and stop a VS session. A user’s subscription is usually bound to their smart card (ISIM/USIM) such that the Video Share service is portable in the sense that the user may be able to send and receive video share on any capable handset. the Video Share Client is implemented as a native application running on mobile operating systems such as Windows Mobile. media is transferred directly between the terminals. IP Packet Exchange (IPX) proxies may be part of this infrastructure to allow interconnection between operators and to provide a collection point for session accounting records used for inter-operator traffic charging. Symbian. The Video Share Client supports SIP and RTP/RTCP transmission. The called party has the option to accept or reject a video stream at the start of the session .Video share 352 Architecture The Phase 2 Video Share solution consists of a Client Application running on mobile handsets and an Application Server deployed in the mobile network. and proprietary RTOS.

Video Share session control policies. Aylus Networks [17].263 Profile 0 (Level 10). The Application Server makes it possible to support a range . The Application Server supports the SIP Back-to-Back User Agent (B2BUA) call control architecture that enables service policy control and enforcement capabilities of the video share session. Support for other codecs is desired but optional • Support for H263-2000 RTP payload format • Support for RTCP sender and receiver reports Vendors providing Video Share clients based on the GSMA service definition include: Alcatel Lucent [8]. A server-based application server will enforce access control and charging policies based on the following triggers: • • • • • • • • Inbound roaming access (mobile originating subscriber requests session from a visited network) Outbound roaming access (session request to a mobile terminating subscriber located in visited network) Home network access Access network type (UMTS. Comneon GmbH [18]. receive-only or both) • Once these trigger conditions are met. Functionality supported by the Video Share Application Server includes: • Video Share Service Control. Policies can be enforced by the Server in real time. LG [16]. NMS Communications [13]. Wi-Fi or both) Time-sensitive promotional period (peak. The Application Server can be configured to include parameters in the charging records that are specific to the Video Share service. The Application Server provides a central point for service control. Motorola [10]. Sony Ericsson [15] . RADVISION [19]. such as the following. off-peak or promotional time period) IMSI or Public User Identifier (PUID) of calling or called user Location area of calling or called user Mobile originating or mobile terminating direction (send-only. provisioning and configuration in the network. (b) video transcoding.Video share • Usability • Privacy policies that allow users to block other users from performing a Capability Exchange with their device and/or streaming video to their device • Ability for either a transmitting or receiving device to terminate a VS session at any point during the session • Ability for both transmitting and receiving devices to display the video that is being streamed • Codec Support • H. Ecrio Inc [14]. or during session establishment by ensuring that the policy on the handset matches the operator-defined policy stored on the Server. can be applied: • Call Termination • Call Barring • Call Gapping • Video Stream Quality Enforcement • Support for point-to-multipoint video share sessions by setting up multiple legs for a video share session • Enable interoperability between different clients/endpoint devices by providing client normalization functions such as (a) protocol conversion. and for enforcing service policies such as admission control and registration control. Samsung [12]. and (c) rate adaptation • Enhanced charging capabilities. The Video Share Application Server typically runs on a carrier grade fault tolerant hardware platform. Operator-defined subscriber and service policies can be enforced even if a subscriber has modified the policy on his/her handset. PicoMobile (Marvell) [11]. 353 Video Share Application Server The Video Share Application Server is an IMS Application Server that interfaces with the S-CSCF network element in the IMS network through the 3GPP-defined ISC interface. this might require overwriting the policy on the handset with that on the Server.Nokia [9]. In some cases.

• Detailed Statistics including: 1. Aylus Networks [20] [17] 354 provides a Video Share Application Server with advanced features and capabilities. terminated. PUID. From and To header information. Contact Address. de-registered. • Ability to record and store the streamed video on a network based Video Share Storage. Active Call Detail information including Time. • Redirection of Video Share session to different endpoints based on configured service policies. Media Stream Quality Statistics 1. Solaiemes sells a customizable Application Server that can be integrated by 3rd parties in enterprise and vertical markets. registration rejected 3. 4. etc. initiated.Video share of charging plans. User registration statistics including those registered. Connection Packet Loss – data obtained from RTCP sender and receiver reports received from the two video sharing client endpoints 2. Session statistics including those established. thereby making it possible to conduct a real time Video Share session with a PC user using a web browser. Jitter and Delay Statistics – data from RTCP sender and receiver reports received from the two video sharing client endpoints • Capability Exchange caching and optimization • Support for non-3G device endpoints such as a Web Portal. Date. Service Description The basic steps involved in setting up and tearing down a Video Share session are as follows: • • • • • • Circuit Switch Call Setup Capability Query Invitation Procedure Video Transmission Teardown of Video Session Teardown of Circuit Switch Call . and failed 2.

The next step is the Capability Exchange in which the other handset is queried to determine if the recipient is capable of supporting a Video Share session. • Option 1: The solution is deployed in the mobile operator’s IMS network. • Option 2: The solution is deployed as a hosted service by a third party. This is performed with the SIP OPTIONS method. The Video Share session is initiated by sending a SIP INVITE message to the called party. Video is sent between Video Share clients using RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol).Video share 355 The Video Share session begins with Circuit Switch call between User A and User B. When either party decides to stop the Video Share session. and accessed using a PC with a web browser. Users download the Video Share client from the third party using a well established handset application download procedure. independent of the mobile operator. Deployment Options There are multiple options for deploying the Video Share service. Video Share clients are pre-loaded on selected handsets by the operator. transmission of the actual video can begin. After the Video Share session has been set up. . The video transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of the data delivery using RTCP RR (Receiver Report) and RTCP SR (Sender Report) packets. After these steps the Circuit Switch voice call session still exists. The Application Server is integrated into the operator’s IMS Core network. which is widely used in internet and mobile communities for video streaming. Users sign up for the service through the operator. and sign up for the service with the third party. the session will be torn down (using RTCP BYE) and the SIP session stopped (using SIP BYE). Both handsets can perform this capability exchange. the video is streamed to the Portal instead of User B. In the case of a Web Portal based Video Share session.

shtml) GSMA Press Release on video share trials. com [14] http:/ / www. nmscommunications. pdf) Video Share Definition 2. lge. com [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] .2. jsp) AT&T FAQ for Video Share (http:/ / www. com [19] http:/ / www. com/ sip/ sip_trial_guide. ecrio. com/ learn/ messaging-internet/ media-entertainment/ video-share-faqs. nokia. com [16] http:/ / www. com [11] http:/ / www. 27 March 2007 http:/ / www.74 Video Share Interoperability Specification 1.0. com/ documents/ services/ se41. com/ documents/ ir7412. jsp (http:/ / www. com/ news/ press_2006/ press06_18. com [15] http:/ / www. wireless. solaiemes. com [9] http:/ / www. gsmworld. comneon. September 2008 [8] http:/ / www. com/ Products/ Developer/ Clients/ VideoShare/ [20] http:/ / www. gsmworld. wireless. com [17] http:/ / www. alcatel-lucent. pdf) The GSMA's SIP Trials. picomobile. GSMA Document. com [18] http:/ / www. att. gsmworld. radvision. com [13] http:/ / www. com/ learn/ messaging-internet/ media-entertainment/ attvideoshare. aylus. gsmworld. com [10] http:/ / www. 15 February 2006 (http:/ / www.Video share 356 References http:/ / www. att. com/ sip/ e2e/ videoshare. February 2007 (http:/ / www. samsung. gsmworld. pdf) IR. sonyericsson. GSMA Document. motorola. shtml (http:/ / www. net/ [12] http:/ / www.

0 flash demo. VoiceMode 2. Other VoiceSignal Products • VSpeak • VSuite • VSearch External links • http://www.com • http://www.VoiceMode 357 VoiceMode VoiceMode Developer(s) VoiceSignal Technologies Stable release 2.voicesignal. rather than creating messages using the keypad of most mobile devices.voicesignal. Small Footprint It is designed specifically for the limited memory of mass market phones. IM.0 VoiceMode 2. It allows users to dictate a messages into their mobile device.com/solutions/voicemode. . and calendar appointments.0 / 5 April 2006 Type License Website Automatic speech-to-text Proprietary VoiceSignal Technologies Website [1] VoiceMode. VoiceMode 2. continuous dictation running entirely embedded in the mobile device. The device-only implementation is server-based as to avoid network related interruptions and delays. VoiceMode provides an easy alternative to multi-tap.0 is fairly accurate and can be used to input text into applications running on most mobile devices including email.0 is compact and handset manufacturers often deploy it in all phone segments. SMS. T-9 or other text creation input methods.0 delivers true large vocabulary. by VoiceSignal.VoiceMode 2. VoiceMode 2. References [1] http:/ / voicesignal.php. com/ . is a speech-to-text (dictation) application that runs on a mobile phone.

and users can change to a different radio module W-SIM without changing the terminal itself. Higher-spec version of WS003SH. The W-SIM core module is an extended version of a SIM card. It is currently used in some terminals (listed below). Similar to traditional handsets made by WILLCOM.W-SIM 358 W-SIM W-SIM (Willcom-SIM) is a SIM card developed by Willcom which. a GSM version called the CM-G100 had been developed for use in other countries. In addition. • WS005IN / nico. For Mainland China. . • WS002IN / "DD" Data communication terminal by Net Index. A terminal device developer can build a customized terminal without the design and development of a radio module. in addition to standard SIM functions. • WS004SH / W-ZERO3 Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. including global roaming with Taiwan and Thailand. though its PHS network is due to be phased out this year. • WS003SH / W-ZERO3 Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. W-SIM terminals can be used in Japan. • WS009KE / 9(nine) Hand-set terminal by KES. built inside. Stylish and slender version of W-ZERO3. • WS007SH / W-ZERO3 [es] Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. • WS008HA / WS008HA ExpressCard data communication terminal by Hagiwara Sys-Com. such as the radio receiver/transmitter. which do not have radio modules. also has the core components of a cellular telephone (PHS). Hand-set terminal by Net Index. containing not only user data but also all the transmission technology needed for a mobile device to work. China Netcom had W-SIMs available. W-SIM ( RX420AL) WILLCOM branded terminals • WS001IN / "TT" Hand-set terminal by Net Index.

. War viewing involves travelling around either in a vehicle or on foot and using a video receiver and screen to view transmissions (usually) in the 2. Expected ranges in an urban environment can be from as little as a few metres up to about 50 metres. com/ entry/ 1234000207064450/ http:/ / www. WarViewing is derived from the term WarDriving (where people drive around with Wi-Fi equipment and look for wireless computer networks) which was originally derived from Wardialing (an outdated practice where people would use a modem to brute-force dial phone numbers searching for other computer modems which would answer). html WarViewing WarViewing (also known as War Watching and Warspying) is the sport and hunt for unprotected 2. but the 2. These are usually broadcast from X10 cameras in major cities from traffic cameras. co. War Viewers will usually mount an external omni-directional antenna to a vehicle to extend the limited range of reception (much like War Drivers do).'s page [1] Engadget entry [2] TT Phone [3] DD "Data Driver" [4] Sharp W-Zero3 PDA phone [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. com/ ja/ lineup/ ws/ 001in/ index. External links • • • • • Willcom Inc. home video senders and Wi-Fi computer networks. jp/ ws/ special/ index. This is a set of international frequency allocations that are intended for a number of public uses.com's Warviewing box free ISM band. sharp.W-SIM 359 Terminals branded by other than WILLCOM • Kids Ke-tai papipo! Hand-set terminal by Bandai. although longer ranges are possible with directional antennas. com/ ja/ lineup/ rx/ 410in/ http:/ / www. lobbies. The internal code is WS006. higher quality equipment or particularly favourable conditions. com/ ja/ lineup/ ws/ 002in/ http:/ / www.4 GHz allocation is predominantly used for wireless cameras.4 GHz license WARspyla. willcom-inc.4 GHz video feeds. html http:/ / www. willcom-inc. willcom-inc. engadget. or locally owned shops.

etc. and a mobile service powered by the said technology. it is not illegal in the UK to receive them even if they are not intended for you. based on the Java MIDP 2.on a wide variety of mobile phones. an LCD screen. and sometimes a signal booster. including non-Nokia ones.Com's Warspying Box [3] References [1] http:/ / www. The widgets are created using Extensible Markup Language (XML). warspyla. home video senders. and was told that Widsets was part of Ovi.0 phones.0 for both the client and the SDK. 360 External links • WARspy Los Angeles [1] • Building a Warspying Box [2] • DeAuthThis. Finds can include wireless covert surveillance cameras.0 platform. Widsets like widgets. CCTV cameras. and was regarded as a mobile counterpart to Netvibes. X10 cameras. it worked on all Java MIDP 2. Widsets are micro-applications intended to perform a single function. which means that the antennas used are interchangeable. Further inquiries. If war viewing is done on foot. Wi-Fi networks currently share approximately the same frequency band as the video transmissions. from the Finnish mobile company Nokia.0. com/ [2] http:/ / revision3. TV senders. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). then sometimes a directional antenna like a patch antenna or yagi antenna is used to try and pinpoint the exact location of a transmitter. a battery.[3] Example widgets include currency converters. com/ systm/ warspyingbox/ [3] http:/ / deauththis.4 GHz video receiver. com/ forum/ forum/ ?action=picasagallerybrowser& album=WarySpyingBox WidSets WidSets is a mobile runtime technology. news headlines retrievers and weather forecast information. generally rely on some kind of web service to provide information to the user. WidSets was officially launched on October 2006.[1] Widsets is a combined application and service that is similar to what a Widget does on a desktop PC . A warspyer uses a 2. and to cut down on interference. however. it is both a widget engine and a widget deployment service where mini-applications called widgets can be uploaded to WidSets servers to be compiled and then automatically deployed to MIDP 2. lead to Nokia admitting that WidSets isn't developed any longer. and Helium scripting language.[2] The current version as of May 2008 is version 2. .0 compliant mobile phones running the WidSets client software. As the video signals are broadcast in a license free ISM band.4 GHz video receiver is usually used to see what video transmissions there are out there.WarViewing A small screen and openly available 2. The Register asked Nokia about the status of WidSets in June 2009.

. com/ wiki/ Getting_started) [2] Mobile 2. com/ archives/ 2006/ 10/ mobile-20-nokia-launches-widse. External links • WidSets Official Website (http://www. Because added complexity across mobile technologies coupled with a rise in market competition makes managing the mobile user experience through traditional support channels an increasingly complex and potentially costly business. oreilly.widsets.nokia. service etc before the problem erupts and drives a costly spike in support calls. Retrieved 2009-08-29. html). . best practices and experiences throughout the mobile value-chain as a means of mitigating end-user support requirements.uk/A4646046) Wireless Informatics Wireless Informatics describes the evolution of traditional customer support practices within the mobile industry from problem management to problem prevention. "Nokia admits killing off Widsets" (http:/ / www.0: Nokia launches WidSets (http:/ / radar. widsets.WidSets 361 References [1] WidSets Developer Wiki (http:/ / dev. device manufacturers and service providers as a means of overcoming the negative impact of service and technology complexity on both operating costs and customer/brand loyalty. Wireless Informatics supports the notion of using collating. The Register.com/) • Mobilise your Web with WidSets . For example. trends analysis made within an existing customer care center can be applied 'upstream'. uk/ 2009/ 06/ 30/ widsets_killed/ print.com/A4361262) • Mobilise your Web with WidSets . validating and disseminating knowledge.co. co. html) [3] Ray. theregister.Europe (http://europe. Wireless Informatics 'methodologies' are being adopted by mobile operators. Bill (2009-07-30). perhaps within the organisation's product management or retail division to eliminate a troublesome component.nokia.UK (http://www.

promoted.htm • http://delson. China decided to enhance World Mobile Congress and Mobile World Congress for its long-term international strategy of the China mobile communication industry. and now strongly supported by China authority and leading industries. Therefore. Sources • http://delson. In middle 2009.org/wwc07/ • http://mobilecongress.World Mobile Congress 362 World Mobile Congress World Mobile Congress aka Mobile World Congress is a global technology and R&D platform to foster international collaboration in next generation mobile wireless communications. organized and produced by China management. It was founded by Delson Group Inc. World Mobile Congress and Mobile World Congress will be marketed.com/ .org/wmc/main.

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