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Nuclear Power Shared Negative
Solvency Frontline.......................................................................................................................................................................................3 Solvency Frontline.......................................................................................................................................................................................4 Solvency Frontline.......................................................................................................................................................................................5 Ext #1 - Status Quo Solves the Case............................................................................................................................................................6 Ext #2 - Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve........................................................................................................................................................7 Ext #2 - Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve........................................................................................................................................................8 Ext #2- Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve.........................................................................................................................................................9 Ext #3 - Long Timeframe..........................................................................................................................................................................10 Ext #4 - Shortages......................................................................................................................................................................................11 Ext #5 - Defaults........................................................................................................................................................................................12 Case Turns.................................................................................................................................................................................................13 Terrorism Turn...........................................................................................................................................................................................13 Ext- Nuclear Power -> Terrorism..............................................................................................................................................................14 Accidents Turn...........................................................................................................................................................................................15 Ext- Nuclear Power -> Accidents..............................................................................................................................................................16 Proliferation Turn.......................................................................................................................................................................................17 Environmental Racism Turn......................................................................................................................................................................18 Imperialism Turn.......................................................................................................................................................................................19 Tradeoff Turn.............................................................................................................................................................................................20 Economy Advantage Frontline..................................................................................................................................................................21 Economy Advantage Frontline..................................................................................................................................................................22 Ext #1 - Nuclear Energy Expensive...........................................................................................................................................................23 AT: CO2 Internal Link...............................................................................................................................................................................24 Warming Advantage Frontline..................................................................................................................................................................25 Ext #1- Too Slow.......................................................................................................................................................................................26 Ext #2A – Nuclear Power Emits C02 .......................................................................................................................................................27 Ext #2B - Can’t Build Enough Plants........................................................................................................................................................28 Free Market Counterplan Solvency...........................................................................................................................................................29 States Counterplan Solvency.....................................................................................................................................................................30 Carbon Tax Counterplan............................................................................................................................................................................31 Solvency Extensions..................................................................................................................................................................................32 Politics-Agenda Bad Net Benefit...............................................................................................................................................................33 AT: Counterplan Hurts the Economy........................................................................................................................................................34 Economy DA Links...................................................................................................................................................................................35 Spending DA Links....................................................................................................................................................................................36 Spending DA Links....................................................................................................................................................................................37 Politics Links- Agenda Good....................................................................................................................................................................38 Politics Links- Agenda Good.....................................................................................................................................................................39 Politics Links- Agenda Bad.......................................................................................................................................................................40 Politics Links- Agenda Bad.......................................................................................................................................................................41 Elections Links- Plan Unpopular...............................................................................................................................................................42 Elections Links- Plan Popular....................................................................................................................................................................43 McCain Solves the Aff...............................................................................................................................................................................44 Topicality 1NC- Alternative Energy = Not Nuclear..................................................................................................................................45
JDI 08 Murray/Naputi
JDI 08 Murray/Naputi
1. Loan guarantees for nuclear power are already in place
CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office, “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity,” May 2008, http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear.pdf) Current energy policy, especially as established and expanded under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), provides incentives for building additional capacity to generate electricity using innovative fossil-fuel technologies and an advanced generation of nuclear reactor designs that are intended to decrease costs and improve safety.2 Among the provisions of EPAct that specifically apply to newly built nuclear power plants are funding for research and development; investment incentives, such as loan guarantees and insurance against regulatory delays; and production incentives, including a tax credit. Since the enactment of EPAct, about a dozen utilities have announced their intention to license about 30 nuclear plants.
2. Loan guarantees aren’t sufficient- plants may still not be built
Daks 07 (Martin C. Daks, NRG Seeks The Lead in Going Nuclear, Oct. 1, 2007, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5292/is_200710/ai_n21269535) Another federal benefit that Crane calls a "significant motivation" for NRG's decision to move ahead is a provision that lets the secretary of energy authorize loan guarantees for up to 80 percent of the cost of a nuclear plant. "We believe this will encourage banks to extend loans for projects like the Texas generators," says Crane, who adds that NRG expects to tap its own resources for about 20 percent-or $1.2 billion-of the estimated cost, with banks and capital markets making up the difference. The 2005 Energy Act also provides tax breaks for operators of new nuclear plants based on the energy they produce, and requires the federal government to indemnify operators in the event of an accident. While such provisions may add up to a sweet deal for new entrants into nuclear power, they don't guarantee that any proposed projects will actually get built. For one thing, there's plenty of opposition to nuclear power from organizations like Common Cause that question the safety of such plants and note that there is still no federal repository for federal waste.
3. Even if the process were to begin now, a nuclear plant won’t be online for 6 years
Melvin 07 (Becky Melvin, CNBC, Nuclear Energy Industry Powers Back Up, http://www.cnbc.com/id/22007461/) The Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides incentives for new electricity generation, including renewable energy and nuclear power. The three biggest draws, say companies considering nuclear plants, are production tax credits of up to $6 billion, which will likely to be divided among the first nine newly-built units; regulatory risk insurance to cover licensing delays, worth up to $2 billion; and loan guarantees, which would cover most of the financing in case any of these multi-billion dollar projects wind up in default. For an unregulated energy provider like NRG Energy, federal incentives were a primary driver in plans to move forward with two new nuclear units in Texas, says Crane. The incentives were also important to UniStar, a joint venture between Baltimore-based Constellation Energy and French
electricity group EDF. UniStar plans to submit the second half of its application for a new reactor in Maryland by March of 2008. CEO George Vanderheyden says the company is also considering an application for a new reactor in New York. In all, 21 new reactor license applications for a total of 32 units are expected between now and 2009, according to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. More than half the proposals are for the southern part of the country. The Tennessee Valley Authority submitted a request in October to build two units in Alabama; Virginia-based Dominion received early site plan approval for a unit northwest of Richmond, Va. and South Carolina Electric and Gas, a unit of SCANA, is expected to submit a request for two units in December. “Whether we go ahead with one or two units is still up in the air,” says spokesman Robert Yanity. Decisions on the first set of applications are expected by the middle of 2011, according to
NRC spokesman Scott Burnell. Construction – which takes three to four years – can begin after that, putting the first new nuclear unit in operation by mid 2014 at the earliest.
JDI 08 Murray/Naputi
4. It’s structurally impossible for the nuclear industry to expand: A. There is a big labor shortage
Lavelle 08 (Marianne Lavelle, A Worker Shortage in the Nuclear Industry, March 13, 2008, U.S. News & World Report, http://www.usnews.com/articles/business/careers/2008/03/13/a-worker-shortage-in-the-nuclear-industry_print.htm) The reason for the hurry: Big energy construction will be booming in the next decade, concentrated in the South—not only nuclear generators but coal plants, liquefied natural gas terminals, oil refineries, and electricity transmission lines. All projects need skilled craft workers, and they are in drastically short supply. The utility Southern Co. estimates that existing energy facilities already are short 20,000 workers in the Southeast. That shortfall will balloon to 40,000 by 2011 because of the new construction. Pay is inching up and hours are
increasing for workers who are certified craftsmen. Fluor says skilled workers at the Oak Grove coal project are putting in 60-hour weeks instead of the well-intoovertime 50-hour weeks that had been planned. Looking ahead, the nuclear industry views itself as especially vulnerable to the skilledlabor shortage. It hasn't had to recruit for decades. Not only were no nuke plants getting built, but workers in the 104 atomic facilities already in operation tended to stay in their well-paid jobs for years. But in the next five years, just as the industry hopes to launch a renaissance, up to 19,600 nuclear workers—35
percent of the workforce—will reach retirement age. "The shortage of skilled labor and the rising average age of workers in the electric industry are a growing concern," likely to push up the cost of nuclear power plant construction, said Standard & Poor's Rating Services in a recent report. The nuclear industry faces a different world compared with when it last was hiring three decades ago. "Parents, guidance counselors, and society in general push high school students to complete their secondary education with the intention of then attending a four-year college program," concludes a recent white paper on the Southeast workforce issues prepared by the Nuclear Energy Institute. "High-paying skilled labor jobs, once considered excellent career options, are now perceived as second class."
B. There will be uranium shortages
Harding 07 (Jim Harding, a consultant from Olympia, Washington. He's worked on a whole series of energy and environmental issues, “Council on Foreign Relations Symposium: American Nuclear Energy in a Globalized Economy, Session II: What Is the Investment Climate for Nuclear Energy?” Council on Foreign Relations, June 15, 2007, http://www.cfr.org/publication/13717/council_on_foreign_relations_symposium.html) On the uranium issue, this is a very peculiar commodity. Today, world consumption -- let me state it differently -- world production of uranium is about 60 percent of consumption. It doesn't happen in turkey, butter, milk or many other commodities. And the reason for that is that you
need to procure uranium quite a long ways in advance, and beginning sort of in the mid- to late 1970s, people had ordered a lot of reactors in the U.S., Western Europe and Russia, secured long- term contracts -- meaning seven to 10 years for uranium -- at a high price, and they cancelled the plan. So all that secondary supply came into the market, depressing the price. It was followed by privatization of centrifuge -- of enrichment in the United States. We also bought lots of surplus enriched uranium from Russia. And most recently, we are blending down or diluting surplus weapons uranium into U.S. fuel. So we're running the global nuclear industry
on a secondary supply that pops pretty quick. And it's had the unfortunate impact that existing contracts have fixed prices for uranium; the same is generally true on the enrichment side. You need to procure the product about four years in advance of burning it. We're at a price of $135 a pound, pretty much a historical peak. Utilities for the most part run out of their existing supply by 2012, 2013. They've got to get back into this market. And it's hard to tell what the long- term price will be. This is not -- it's not a physical shortage of uranium, it's a
shortage of milling capacity and also enrichment capacity. The enrichment issue was somewhat complicated, because when you go to a higher uranium price, you want to decrease the tails assay at the enrichment plant. Effectively, you reduce the output of that plant by 30 percent. We don't have the capacity to do that and meet demand. So utilities are also -- there are two possibilities. One is, utilities are going to pay -- are going to buy more uranium than they'd ideally like, or enrichers are going to use market power to the same extent that uranium miners are going to use -- based on this set of problems, we came up with significantly higher numbers in the Keystone report for future nuclear fuel. It's about three times current levels, at the low end, and about five times at the high end -- now, not a
big number, but it is a -- for a utility thinking about a building a reactor today, they have to worry at little bit about whether or not there are sufficient fuel supply and enrichment capacity out there to meet their needs, because the mines may not exist to support that purchase. You could buy it, but we've got to double enrichment and mining capacity in the next few years to meet demand, even without significant growth in this industry.
csmonitor.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Solvency Frontline 5. and nuclear energy producers were supposed to pay for the service through a fee. but the federal government has proven incapable of providing that service. which in turn reduces the number of feasible sites for nuclear power plants.coopamerica. or other potential disasters that could trigger a nuclear accident.or gas-fired facilities.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. Ralph Nader's consumerprotection group. http://www. Nuclear plants need to be located near a source of water for cooling. The federal government would still have roles to play in terms of providing oversight and taking title of the waste once the geologic repository is decommissioned. There are many communities around the country that simply won’t allow a new nuclear plant to be built – further limiting potential sites.html) The nuclear industry has already put Congress on notice that it could require loan guarantees of at least $20 billion for planned projects – and more later. If defaults occur in the new round. 28. Jack Spencer is the Research Fellow in Nuclear Energy at The Heritage Foundation's Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies. given a reactor's low operating expenses.asp? idCategory=35&idsub=175&id=15414&t=Nuclear+power+needed+to+offset+environmental+laws) 4. Put industry in control of fuel cycle management. Remember that climate change is causing stronger storms and coastal flooding. Those that were finished were delayed for years and cost far more than estimated. Staff Writer. flooding. 17. geography.000 -.S. a Congressional Budget Office analysis warned of potential default rates of 50 percent or more on new plants. http://www." In 2003. Furthermore.cfm) 6. political instability and climate change itself. it has completely failed in collecting the waste. "This is the second or third 'nuclear renaissance' I've seen." says Tyson Slocum. 7. In late 2003.com/2007/0928/p01s05-usgn.. the nuclear waste problem must be fixed.000 – or 2. director of energy program at Public Citizen. especially if government begins to charge utilities for the greenhouse gases they produce. let alone. hurricanes. NEI officials told The New York Times in July. For example: On Monday. Sept. 6. Christian Science Monitor. But the last time that the nuclear industry was on a building spree – in the 1980s – roughly half of the power plants proposed were never finished. despite being legally obliged to do so beginning in 1998.4 and $6. If nuclear power is going to have a sustainable rebirth in the U. Nuclear power surge coming. I think that money would be better invested in cheaper sources of emissions-free power that don't have the fatal flaws nuclear power does.com/article. June 3. New Jersey-based NRG Energy Corp. NRG – the company that filed Monday's permit application – emerged from bankruptcy caused by overexpansion in the 1990s. 2007. due to all of the other strikes against nuclear power. In short. Over 24 nuclear plants are at risk of needing to be shut down this year because of the drought in the Southeast. but what happens to the fuel between the time it leaves the reactor and the time it is permanently disposed should be in the hands of industry. critics worry federal costs will be huge. Nuclear power is virtually emission-free. No water. "When you look at the cost of these plants and the massive financial subsidies by US taxpayers. Not enough sites – Scaling up to 17. Nuclear power won’t be sustainable without a solution for spent fuel Spencer 08 (Jack Spencer. filed its application with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to build two reactors in Texas at a cost between $5. many communities will actively fight against nuclear plants coming into their town. no nuclear power. Nuclear power needed to offset environmental laws. Energy Publisher. if we need to build 17. Indeed. local politics. The Energy Policy Act of 1982 created a framework for managing used nuclear fuel.500 or 3. there are not enough sites for a scaled up nuclear power strategy. in part because of fears caused by the accident at Three Mile Island. A number of power companies went bankrupt. 2008. That huge startup cost might make financial sense.energypublisher. earthquakes. The reason is that nuclear power plants are far more expensive to build than coal. There literally aren’t enough sites for nuclear power to expand Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power.000 new plants? 5 . And there are whole areas of the world that are unsafe because of political instability and the high risk of proliferation. it has not assumed formal responsibility for one atom of fuel. http://www.7 billion.nuclear plants isn’t possible simply due to the limitation of feasible sites. How could we get enough communities on board to accept the grave risks of nuclear power.most plants won’t be built Clayton 07 (Mark Clayton. Defaults likely. and there aren’t enough locations in the world that are safe from droughts. The nuclear industry should establish responsibility for spent fuel management. The federal government took responsibility for managing the fuel. While the federal government has been very successful in collecting the fee.
Hillary Clinton. ( ) Status quo solves.sefora. and hydropower. after a 22-year shutdown and $1. which restarted May 22. Miller is a professor at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute at the University of Missouri and at the University's research reactor.S.org/issues/nuclear-energy-policy/) Nevertheless. Specialist in Energy Policy.. nuclear power industry. Barack Obama.” July 12.Y.pdf) It's encouraging to know that. and anybody who tells you differently is not telling the truth. 2007. electricity generation. the outlook recently has been improving for the U. Nuclear plants generate more than half the electricity in six states. The near-record 823 billion kilowatt-hours of nuclear electricity generated in the United States during 2006 was more than the nation’s entire electrical output in the early 1960s.. nuclear power plants is greater than that from oil. Science. 2007.) Electricity production from U. which currently comprises 104 licensed reactors at 65 plant sites in 31 states. natural gas.S. McCain says there is "no way that you could ever seriously attack the issue of greenhouse gas emissions without nuclear power.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #1 ." 6 . and behind only coal. Resources. D-N. despite differences over energy policy. which accounts for more than half of U. Sens. Financing the next generation of nuclear power plants. D-Ill.8 billion refurbishment. support federal incentives to power companies to build more nuclear plants. and John McCain.S. Sept. http://publicutilities. 2007. 23.gov/news/financingthenextgenerationofnuclearpowerplants.the next president will support nuclear power Miller 07 (William H.. “Nuclear Energy Policy. and Industry Division. several presidential candidates recognize the need for additional nuclear power. R-Ariz. http://sharp.utah. (That number includes TVA’s Browns Ferry 1. when the first large-scale commercial reactors were being ordered.Status Quo Solves the Case ( ) Nuclear power inevitable Holt 07 (Mark Holt.
began construction in 1973 and took twenty-three years to complete.msn. they face several important hurdles. these projects would be financed with 80 percent debt and 20 percent cash or equity put up by the owner of the plant. Most of these projects are expected to be financed by bonds. For the past two years a program of federal loan guarantees has sat waiting for utilities to build nukes. Using that math. ( ) An increase in loan guarantees is inadequate. Congress to the rescue? Though the current interpretation of the rules could throw cold water on efforts to raise money. “But it has the potential to be a deal breaker. Before ground is broken for the first new plant. But no new atomic power stations have been fully licensed or have broken ground. That's before cost overruns. And now the Lieberman-Warner climate change bill is gaining momentum and will likely accrue amendments that will offer yet more money. What Nuclear Renaissance?.there are problems in how they are applied Schoen 07 (John Schoen. Senior Producer. the loan guarantee — 80 percent of 80 percent — will only cover about two-thirds of the total cost. April 24. The massive federal subsidies on offer will cover up to 80 percent of construction costs of several nuclear power plants in addition to generous production tax credits. All of which raises the question: why is the much-storied "nuclear renaissance" so slow to get rolling? Who is holding up the show? In a nutshell.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2 . http://www. Alabama. To do that. blame Warren Buffett and the banks--they won't put up the cash. 2008. the first plants won’t come online before 2014 and will cost an estimated $4 billion each. To help reassure investors that the bonds are a safe investment.msnbc. Even if all goes as proponents hope. Last year's appropriations bill set the total amount on offer at $18. Even with vast government subsidies.” said Tezak. and no US nuclear power plant has ever been delivered on time or on budget. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expects up to thirty applications to be filed to build atomic plants. The last nuclear power plant ordered by a US utility. “You had a lot of people who voted for the (Energy Policy Act of 2005) that have a pet project at home that they thought they were arranging a loan guarantee for. Nuclear power has been in steady decline worldwide since 1984. Congress has provided loan guarantees for 80 percent of the financing for the first several projects to win NRC approval. Then came what seemed to be the coup de grâce: Chernobyl in 1986. five or six of those proposals are moving through the complicated multi-stage process. http://www. many in the industry expect Congress to clarify the rules to provide more generous guarantees.” 7 .com/id/16286304/) Nukes for sale But it’s far from clear that this new round of plants will ever be built. it is difficult or almost impossible to get proper financing and insurance.com/doc/20080512/parenti) In an effort to jump-start a "nuclear renaissance. Typically. the energy industry analyst.Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve ( ) Loan guarantees empirically haven’t inspired nuclear power expansion Parenti 08 (Christian Parenti." says Arjun Makhijani of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research. The fact is. in 1975 and the meltdown at Three Mile Island in 1979. That could be more risk than Wall Street is ready to assume — especially for the projects that go first." the Bush Administration has pushed one package of subsidies after another. the TVA's Watts Bar 1. "Wall street doesn't like nuclear power. the power industry will have to convince state regulators and investors that the numbers add up. MSNBC. And two newly proposed projects have just been shelved.5 billion. But that critical guarantee has already hit a serious snag. nuclear power has not recovered from the crisis that hit it three decades ago with the reactor fire at Browns Ferry. The fundamental fact is that nuclear power is too expensive and risky to attract the necessary commercial investors. Does nuclear power now make financial sense?. But federal officials in charge of loan guarantees have interpreted the law to mean that those guarantees apply only to the debt portion of the financing package. as well as risk insurance. with almost as many plants canceled as completed since then.thenation. But consider this: the average two-reactor nuclear power plant is estimated to cost $10 billion to $18 billion to build.
That reverse is chiefly due to safety concerns — the lingering Chernobyl fears of nuclear meltdown. Reports from the GAO and DOE’s Office of the Inspector General state that the necessary policies. and that federal subsidies now worth up to $13 billion a plant — roughly how much it now costs to build one — still haven't encouraged private industry to back the atomic revival.org/briefings/2007/energy_climate/10-30-07_loan_guarantees/Nuclear_LGP_Issue_Brief_2007. since 1996. http://www.5 ( ) The Department of Energy doesn’t have the resources to implement the loan guarantee program EESI 07 (Environmental and Energy Study Institute.5 billion [in nominal dollars] on the cumulative amount of loan guarantees for new nuclear plants over the 2008–2011 period. not to mention the huge liability risk of an accident — the insurance industry won't cover a nuclear plant.” May 2008.pdf) The maximum coverage available under the loan guarantee program—a guarantee on debt covering 80 percent of a plant’s construction costs.)4 The loan guarantee program could encourage investors to choose relatively risky projects over more certain alternatives because they would be responsible for only about 20 percent of a project’s costs but would receive 100 percent of the returns that exceeded costs. this provision removes Congressional authority and the safeguards in place through the appropriation process.time. as they pose potentially significant risks and high costs to America’s taxpayers. or the fact that we still have yet to devise a long-term method for the disposal of atomic waste. After a burst of construction between the 1950s and late 1970s. nuclear industry has received $100 billion in government subsidies over the past half-century. The Department of Energy has indicated that it will deny a utility’s application for a loan guarantee if the project is not deemed to be both innovative (essentially. which implies that investors’ equity would cover the remaining 20 percent—would most likely reduce the levelized cost of new nuclear capacity by about 10 percent. and shifts the financial risk from private lenders to taxpayers. In addition. The 30 plants currently being proposed use five reactor designs. Lovins notes that the U. titled "The Nuclear Illusion." he points out that while the red-hot renewable industry — including wind and solar — last year attracted $71 billion in private investment. so it's up to government to do so. June 6. 504(b) of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (FCRA). but McCain's idea of a crash construction program to build hundreds of new nuclear plants in near future seems just as unrealistic. to say the least. The Senate provision allows. the nuclear industry attracted nothing. Conservatives like Republican presidential candidate John McCain tend to promote nuclear power because they don't think carbon-free alternatives like wind or solar could be scaled up sufficiently to meet rising power demand. and that no more than three plants based on each advanced reactor design can be considered innovative. for DOE to write unlimited loan guarantees without Congressional oversight.5 billion for each plant (depending on the size of the reactor). a commitment that has not been proposed. covering 80 percent of construction costs would require guaranteeing debt with a face value of $4.S.Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve ( ) Most utilities won’t be eligible for guarantees CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. http://www.pdf) A provision of the Senate bill exempts DOE’s loan guarantee program from Sec. and some nations like Germany are looking to phase out existing atomic plants. among other things. Providing the maximum coverage to three plants based on each of the five reactor designs would result in roughly $100 billion in loan guarantees. an environmentalist who is unusually comfortable with numbers. just because a plant is considered both innovative and commercially viable does not mean it will receive the maximum guarantee of 80 percent." he says. so at most. "Wall Street has spoken — nuclear power isn't worth it. (The President’s budget proposed a limit of $18. If adopted. 2008. But not all prospective nuclear plants would necessarily receive a guarantee of debt covering 80 percent of construction costs because the criteria for qualifying are restrictive.cbo.html) That's debatable. This Issue Brief explores these issues raised by the 2007 energy bill provisions. which many on Capitol Hill are pushing for. let alone funded. 2007. the price of building a plant — all that concrete and steel — has risen dramatically in recent years. 30. Under the base-case assumptions. procedures. the cleanest fossil fuel — but nuclear energy still seems like the power of yesterday. Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?. More nuclear subsidies. Nuclear supporters like Moore who argue that atomic plants are much cheaper than renewables tend to forget the sky-high capital costs. produces comparatively little carbon dioxide — a British government report last year found that a nuclear plant emits just 2% to 6% of the CO2 per kilowatt-hour as natural gas. won't do the trick either.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. Is Nuclear Power Viable?. ( ) Incentives won’t revive nuclear power Walsh 08 (Bryan Walsh. once it's up and running. There's no question that a nuclear plant. 15 of those plants would qualify as innovative. in the case of nuclear technology. But to Amory Lovins — a veteran energy expert and chairman of the Rocky Mountain Institute — there's a much better green reason to be against nuclear power: economics.8599.S. and staff remain absent. Initial analyses of the loan guarantee program have shown that DOE lacks the infrastructure necessary to effectively implement its program. raising questions about DOE’s ability to manage its loan guarantee program. a plant design that has not been built in the United States) and commercially viable. In his study. a new nuclear power plant hasn't come on line in the U. while the nuclear workforce has aged and shrunk. At the same time.com/time/health/article/0. http://www.5 billion to $7.00. 8 . “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. Oct. argues in a report released last week that a massive new push for nuclear power doesn't make dollars or cents.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2 .1812540.eesi. Lovins.
the GAO offered its review of the actions taken by DOE: “[It] should not have begun implementation of the LGP without a specific appropriation. 28 Along with a lack of both manpower and procedure in DOE’s loan guarantee program. “At the time of our review a full complement of Federal staff designated to administer the loan guarantee program was not in place and plans to utilize technical experts to assist in the administration of the program had not been fully developed.”29 Similarly. leaving much of the program’s structure and authority in question. Without having received specific appropriations. “The Administration believes that it is unwise to amend that authority while the program is still in the early stages of implementation. http://www. stating.”26 Likewise.pdf) Following the passage of EPACT 05 in 2005. its early actions in initial stages of the program raise doubts as well about its management. and its approach to the LGP raised serious questions about whether this program and its financial risks would be well managed. these had not yet been taken. we found that the agencies involved had not always exercised due diligence during critical phases of the loan guarantee process. paying specific attention to the lack of staff essential to implement the program. the DOE Office of the Inspector General issued a report with many similar findings.Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve ( ) The Department of Energy is structurally incapable of implementing the loan guarantee programthere are a rash of bad policies and resource shortages EESI 07 (Environmental and Energy Study Institute.” though at the time of the report. DOE chose to solicit preapplications prior to finalizing its regulations. DOE first proposed transferring appropriations from other appropriated DOE accounts in May 2006. Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?. followed by a solicitation for preapplications to the program a few months later in August.eesi. 9 . DOE initiated its loan guarantee program for innovative technologies in fiscal year 2006. A report released by the GAO in February 2007 made note of the fact that many necessary policies and procedures for the program were still lacking: “At the time of our review. Oct. “In reviewing audits of past governmental loan guarantee programs.” it found.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2.”30 Even DOE’s own Office of the Inspector General noted prior actions by governmental agencies in similar situations were sometimes questionable. and mechanisms necessary to ensure the program’ssuccess. DOE had not taken steps to ensure that it had in place the critical policies. The White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) expressed its concern about such an action.31 Such findings demonstrate that the infrastructure required to carry out a successful loan guarantee program has yet to be attained at DOE. “There are a number of additional steps that should be taken to foster the success of the loan guarantee program. 30.”27 The Inspector General’s report concluded. 2007. it stated. Nevertheless. This was prior to having appropriations or regulations in place. DOE proposed transferring funds from some of its accounts to start the program. DOE did begin implementation.org/briefings/2007/energy_climate/10-3007_loan_guarantees/Nuclear_LGP_Issue_Brief_2007. In its report released in September 2007. procedures.
A combination of factors—recent volatility in construction costs and natural gas prices. nuclear power’s history of construction cost overruns.” May 2008. Pricey Alternative: Nuclear Energy. and some may never be built Sood 08 (Suemedha Sood . nuclear industry specialist at the EIA ." he said.Long Timeframe ( ) It’s takes a long time for new nuclear power plants to come online CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. just because companies are applying to build new plants. 2008. "it sounds like more companies are getting interested in building the reactors and the list of companies that [the government] anticipates will apply has been growing rather than shrinking." he said.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #3 . So far. "We might have some eight plants in place by 2020. "Even with the rising cost of materials.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. ( ) Plants won’t be built for years. which may exceed 40 years. Those ranges demonstrate that the future competitiveness of each technology and thus the conclusions presented in this analysis are quite uncertain. Licensing and regulatory approval for building new nuclear plants in the United States are expected to take about three years. doesn't mean those plants will definitely get built." said JohnMoens. 10 ." But. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity.com/view/nuclear-energy-an) Meserve points out that the U. "There are so many things that can change in a hurry. "but there aren't going to be any by 2015. At that point. http://www. the commercial viability of a new plant would depend on anticipated market conditions and policy outcomes over the operating life of the plant. The Washington Independent. 12. according to the Energy Information Administration. just because of the delay in getting plants up and running.cbo. http://www. these obstacles haven't stopped energy companies from submitting applications to the government for new plants.S.pdf) The commercial viability of new nuclear capacity depends on investors’ perceptions of future market conditions and carbon dioxide constraints when investment decisions are finalized. Jun. so the construction of the first new nuclear plants would be unlikely to start until 2010 at the earliest. is at least seven years away from any new plants getting built.washingtonindependent." If costs don't come down. Moens says. and uncertainty about future policy on carbon dioxide emissions—indicates that a wide range of costs are plausible for each of the technologies considered. that waiting period could stretch out much longer.
The capacity of the industry that builds nuclear plants and its suppliers of components is currently constrained and unlikely to expand rapidly enough for even tens of plants to be built in the next decade. The US Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported cost overruns for the years 1966 through 1977 that ranged in each two-year period from 200 to 380 percent of the original estimated costs for construction.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. Not enough uranium – Even if we could find enough feasible sites for a new generation of nuclear plants.eesi. “The rapid rate of nuclear reactor expansion required to make even a modest reduction in global warming would drive up construction costs and create shortages in building materials. Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?.coopamerica. we’re running out of the uranium necessary to power them.cfm) 7.2 Also. President of the Council on Foreign Relations.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #4 . dwindling supplies will trigger the use of ever lower grades of uranium.the more construction the more likely there will be shortages of materials and workers EESI 07 (Environmental and Energy Study Institute.labor and steel shortages CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. http://www.Shortages ( ) Building plants would take decades. ( ) A rapid expansion would be counterproductive.cbo. Scientists in both the US and UK have shown that if the current level of nuclear power were expanded to provide all the world's electricity.21 Such risks are difficult to quantify and therefore estimate. 2007.3 ( ) Uranium shortages will thwart a robust nuclear energy program Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power.” May 2008.org/briefings/2007/energy_climate/10-30-07_loan_guarantees/Nuclear_LGP_Issue_Brief_2007. nuclear plants will actually begin to use up more energy to mine and mill the uranium than can be recovered through the nuclear reactor process. which produce ever more climate-change-producing emissions – resulting in a climate-change catch 22.20 Additional costs could also come as supplies become scarce from increased construction of nuclear power plants. our uranium would be depleted in less than ten years. 11 . As uranium supplies dwindle. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. What’s more. the Brattle Group (a consulting firm) has pointed out that the skilled labor necessary to erect power plants is in short supply and could be slow to expand if asurge in the demand for nuclear plants occurred. stated in a report on nuclear energy.pdf) Even if carbon dioxide charges over $45 per metric ton were implemented. http://www. the nuclear energy industry has experienced significant cost overruns. In its history within the United States. prior to the start of construction.000 megawatts of existing coal capacity would require hundreds of new nuclear plants. trained personnel.” Richard Haass. and safety controls. Oct. http://www. For example. 30. it would take decades for sufficient nuclear capacity to be put in place before most utilities could consider substituting new nuclear capacity for existing coal plants. sometimes reaching over 350 percent of the estimated costs for the project.pdf) The cost to taxpayers from underestimated subsidy costs and possible loan guarantee defaults is potentially high. and so is the risk. Replacing the 300. the supply of steel forgings necessary to build a reactor’s containment vessel—a structure that prevents radiation from leaking into the atmosphere —is limited.
S.” June 21.tradewatch. This is also well over the Administration’s target of $4 billion in loan guarantees for nuclear and coal for FY 2008.” Although the company receiving the guarantee is expected to pay the “subsidy cost” of the guarantee (the net present value of the anticipated cost of defaults). leaving taxpayers at risk." But that's not all.it’ll cost taxpayers billions Public Citizen 07 (Congress Should Not Bow to Nuclear Industry Demands for More Than $50 Billion in Loan Guarantees to Build New Nuclear Reactors. taxpayers.org/pub_display.S. http://www. According to the Congressional Research Service.400 Megawatts of new nuclear power.” “With those odds.hillheat. 2003. so is the risk. “This outrageous demand from the already highly subsidized nuclear industry amounts to highway robbery of U. U. taxpayers will be fully liable for any potential shortfalls.php?pub_id=3134) The most egregious proposal in the energy bill has the federal government providing loan guarantees covering 50 percent of the cost of building 8. U. the equivalent of six or seven new power plants. The nuclear industry ask is $25 billion for FY 2008 and more than that in FY 2009-more than $50 billion in two years.potentially at above market rates.org/pressroom/release. The bill also authorizes the federal government to enter into power purchase agreements wherein the federal government would buy back power from the newly built plants -.com/events/2007/10/30/loan-guarantee-provisions-in-the-2007-energy-bills-doesnuclear-power-pose-significant-taxpayer-risk-and-liability) Not only is the cost to the taxpayers potentially very high.well above 50 percent. The Congressional Research Service estimated that these loan guarantees alone would cost taxpayers $14 to $16 billion. The Congressional Budget Office has said there is a good chance that the DOE will underestimate the costs of administering these loans and that more than 50 percent of new reactor projects will default on their loan repayments. legislative director of Public Citizen’s Energy Program. Cato Institute. http://www. According to a May 2003 Congressional Budget Office (CBO) report. The Congressional Budget Office believes "the risk of default on such a loan guarantee to be very high -.7 billion spent by the DOE for all nuclear power R&D in the 30 years from 1973-2003. ( ) Over 50% of nuclear projects will default Nayak and Taylor 03 (Navin Nayak is an environmental advocate with U.S. July 31.Defaults ( ) Defaults likely Hill Heat 07 (Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?. taxpayers will be on the hook for billions of dollars when the nuclear utilities default on their loans. 30. “No Corporate Welfare for Nuclear Power.” 12 .” said Michele Boyd. Oct. this is more than the $49. The key factor accounting for the risk is that we expect that the plant would be uneconomic to operate because of its high construction costs.S.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #5 . http://www. Public Interest Research Group and Jerry Taylor is director of natural resource studies at the Cato Institute. the risk of default on loan guarantees for new nuclear plants is “very high – well above 50 percent. 2007. 2007. ( ) Probability of defaults are over 50%.cfm?ID=2488) These loan guarantees would put taxpayers – rather than investors – on the hook to pay back the loans should any of the plants default. a June 2007 CBO report on the recently passed Senate energy bill concluded that it is “more likely that DOE’s loan guarantee portfolio will have more projects where the subsidy fee has been underestimated than overestimated.cato. relative to other electricity generation sources.
2001. and the exploitation of the media by terrorist propaganda and psychological warfare. nuclear and cyber] with its serious implications concerning national. 13 . Likewise. as well as scores of other countries affected by the universal nightmare of modern terrorism surprised by new terrorist "surprises"? There are many reasons. E The Environmental Magazine. that on September 11. are still "shocked" by each suicide attack at a time of intensive diplomatic efforts to revive the moribund peace process through the now revoked cease-fire arrangements [hudna]. weak punishment of terrorists. http://www. the religionization of politics.” He points out that NRC studies conclude that a serious accident at one of Indian Point’s two working reactors could cause 50. thus far at least. and the site is vulnerable to an airborne attack. “The financial risks have only gotten worse. Why are the United States and Israel. such as lack of a universal definition of terrorism. director of the reactor watchdog project at the Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS). radiological. Americans were stunned by the unprecedented tragedy of 19 al Qaeda terrorists striking a devastating blow at the center of the nation's commercial and military powers. 28 2003.” says Paul Gunter. Israel and its citizens. Aug.” ( ) And. by their own admission. and says that the 3. Washington Times) Last week's brutal suicide bombings in Baghdad and Jerusalem have once again illustrated dramatically that the international community failed. considered attacking nuclear facilities. declares. biological. director of Hudson Riverkeeper. professor and director of Inter-University for Terrorism Studies. despite the collapse of the Oslo Agreements of 1993 and numerous acts of terrorism triggered by the second intifada that began almost three years ago. therefore.” Alex Matthiessen. terrorism causes extinction Alexander 03 (Yonah Alexander.com/view/?3780) In spite of its obvious benefits. and our concerns about safety issues are heightened now that these plants are known terrorist targets. let alone a suicidal mission. including misunderstanding of the manifold specific factors that contribute to terrorism's expansion. regional and global security concerns. It is not surprising. Even the United States and Israel have for decades tended to regard terrorism as a mere tactical nuisance or irritant rather than a critical strategic challenge to their national security concerns. nuclear power plants pose an unacceptable risk.emagazine.5-foot steel-reinforced concrete containment structures protecting the reactor and other radioactive materials are “among the strongest structures built by man.000 early fatalities. only 19 percent of Indian Point guards think they can protect the facility from a conventional assault. The internationalization and brutalization of current and future terrorism make it clear we have entered an Age of Super Terrorism [e. Unlike their historical counterparts. “In the post-9/11 era. to understand the magnitude and implications of the terrorist threats to the very survival of civilization itself. Al Qaeda operatives have. contemporary terrorists have introduced a new scale of violence in terms of conventional and unconventional threats and impact. “They’re proposing a replay of a demonstrated failure. And according to Riverkeeper. nuclear power may simply be too risky. double standards of morality.g. Riverkeeper says that the proposed evacuation plans for the area are woefully inadequate.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Case Turns Terrorism Turn ( ) Terrorist attacks are likely Motavalli 04 (Jim Motavalli A Nuclear Phoenix?: Concern about Climate Change is Spurring an Atomic Renaissance. Plant operator Entergy refutes these charges. chemical. Opponents of the nuclear renaissance point to a host of serious concerns.
14 .org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear.coopamerica. and cross that with a Chernobyl-style disaster to begin to imagine what a terrorist attack at a nuclear power plant might be like. National Security – Nuclear reactors represent a clear national security risk. What’s more. found that there are at least eight relatively easy ways to cause a major meltdown at a nuclear power plant. and an attractive target for terrorists. Jr.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext. In researching the security around nuclear power plants. Kennedy has sailed boats right into the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant on the Hudson River outside of New York City not just once but twice.cfm) 3. Remember the government response to Hurricane Katrina. to point out the lack of security around nuclear plants. http://www. Robert Kennedy. The unfortunate fact is that our nuclear power plants remain unsecured. without adequate evacuation plans in the case of an emergency.Nuclear Power -> Terrorism ( ) Nuclear plants are easy terrorist targets Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power.
com/science/story/26864. ( ) That turns the case. but there is an elevated risk. nuclear energy making comeback.'' warned James Miller. Unfortunately these generators. every reactor site is equipped with back-up power. 2008. which operates atomic reactors in Pennsylvania and Montana. United Nations. drought. in part because of intermittent use. of Allentown.nirs. http://www.. As is sensible. May 3. Nuclear energy is an enormous liability in these turbulent times. the chief executive of PPL Corp. are not terribly reliable. 9.48 Recent years have seen an escalation in all kinds of extreme weather: intense heat. Boyd. nuclear reactors – all of them – depend on energy from the grid to operate. 15 . the site is said to be in “station blackout. even though advanced reactor designs make such mishaps less likely. Despite doubts.” According to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. as a crowning point – nuclear power is not qualified to operate in extreme weather.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Accidents Turn ( ) Accidents likely Olson 06 (Mary Olson.one accident could put a halt to any more nuclear expansion Boyd 08 (Robert S. 2006. Confronting a False Myth of Nuclear Power: Nuclear Power Expansion is Not a Remedy for Climate Change. blizzards. Pa. Overall blackout risk increases as the number of outages increases. The loss of grid power will not necessarily trigger a nuclear crisis.mcclatchydc. most often in the form of diesel generators. the director of the Nuclear Safety Project at the Union for Concerned Scientists in Washington. As cited above. Since the core of a reactor continues to generate heat for years. http://www. station blackout contributes a full one-half of the total risk of a major reactor accident at US nuclear power stations. and perhaps most compelling – hurricanes and cyclones. ``Nuclear power continues to pose serious risks that are unique among the energy options being considered for reducing global-warming emissions.” it is vital that emergency cooling equipment be operable around the clock.html) Accidents at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979 and the Chernobyl plant in Ukraine in 1986 continue to shadow the industry. even “off-line. Director of the Southeast Office. ``One incident could put a stop to nuclear energy in the United States. McClatchy Newspapers.'' said David Lochbaum. Feb.org/climate/background/climateandnukestalkunmay32006. tornados. All of these conditions may contribute to electric grid failures.pdf) Finally. Nuclear Information and Resource Service. Commission on Sustainable Development.47 When both the grid and the back-up power fail.
000 people. is it reasonable to imagine that not one of them would ever have a single meltdown? Many nuclear plants are located close to major population centers. and topped more than one billion dollars in cost.cfm) 4. Here in the US.Nuclear Power -> Accidents ( ) Accidents are super likely at nuclear power plants Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power. the partial meltdown at Three Mile Island in 1979 triggered a clean-up effort that ultimately lasted for nearly 15 years. For example. in both dollars and human cost – and if we were to scale up to 17. there’s a plant just up the Hudson from New York City. If there was an accident. 16 . and remember that mere accidents – human error or natural disasters – can wreak just as much havoc at a nuclear power plant site. http://www. with thousands poisoned by radiation.coopamerica. The cost of cleaning up after one of these disasters is simply too great.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. The Chernobyl disaster forced the evacuation and resettlement of nearly 400.000 plants.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext. evacuation would be impossible. Accidents – Forget terrorism for a moment.
http://www. Iran. and not push the next generation of nuclear proliferation forward as an answer to climate change.S. There is simply no way to guarantee that nuclear materials will not fall into the wrong hands ( ) Prolif leads to extinction Miller 02 (James D. The greatest threat of extinction surely comes from the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. but again.S.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Proliferation Turn ( ) Expansion of nuclear power increases the risk of proliferation Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power. America should refocus her foreign policy to prioritize protecting us all from atomic. we would probably have been unwilling to expel them from Kuwait. Our conventional forces might even be made impotent by a nuclear-armed foe.. Libya. We can’t develop a domestic nuclear energy program without confronting proliferation in other countries. the technology is not there yet. His ability to hurt us will effectively put him beyond our military reach.cfm) 2. Once a dictator has the ability to hit a U. and chemical weapons. January 23..nationalreview. and North Korea make no attempt to acquire weapons of mass destruction. If we want to be serious about stopping proliferation in the rest of the world. nuclear power proponents hope that the reduction of nuclear waste will reduce the risk of proliferation from any given plant. National Security First: Stopping the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Even the short-term survival of humanity is in doubt. Smith College).com/comment/comment-miller012302.” Iran and North Korea are reminding us of this every day. We should demand that countries like Iraq. should use whatever means necessary to stop our enemies from gaining the ability to kill millions of us. with atomic weapons it will be too late for America to pressure him to give up his weapons. we need to get serious here at home. Al Gore said. for example. every nuclear weapons proliferation issue we dealt with was connected to a nuclear reactor program. (assistant professor of economics. 2002. or perhaps even a European city. Here too. http://www. 17 . What if these nations refuse our demands? If they refuse we should destroy their industrial capacity and capture their leaders.coopamerica. We should further insist on the right to make surprise inspections of these countries to insure that they are complying with our proliferation policy. biological.shtml) The U. Miller. Had Iraq possessed atomic weapons. “During my 8 years in the White House. Nuclear proliferation – In discussing the nuclear proliferation issue.
For the sake of the world and ourselves. a ministry to dismantle racism. the effects of uncontrolled power. privilege.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Environmental Racism Turn ( ) Nuclear power is environmental racism. 1991. and unjust. which are the marks of our white prison. the prison of individual. of military buildups and violent aggression. restraints and limitations. ghettos and prisons. will inevitably destroy us as well. institutional. The prison of racism confines us all. The limitations imposed on people of color by poverty. in our separate prisons we are all prevented from achieving the human potential God intends for us. 155-6) To study racism is to study walls. from the mining of uranium on Native American and Aboriginal lands. http://www. All sites proposed for “temporary” and permanent storage of high level nuclear waste have been Native American lands. "Dismantling Racism: The Continuing challenge to White America. inhuman. 18 . We are not condemned to an inexorable fate.net/nuclear/factsheet. A small and predominantly white minority of the global population derives its power and privilege from the sufferings of vast majority of peoples of all color. stone by stone.it disproportionately affect communities of color Ewall 07 (Mike. and greed. and powerlessness are cruel. we dare not allow it to continue. people of color and white people alike. You and I are urgently called to join the efforts of those who know it is time to tear down. It shackles the victimizer as well as the victim. The results of centuries of national and worldwide conquest and colonialism. Nov. 2007. subservience. but are offered the vision and the possibility of freedom. ( ) Racism should be rejected Barndt 91 (Joseph Barndt." p. co-director of Crossroads. once and for all. to the targeting of black and Hispanic communities for new uranium processing facilities to the targeting of black and Hispanic and Native American communities for “low-level” nuclear waste dumps.energyjustice. Brick by brick. Environmental Justice.pdf) Nuclear power disproportionately affects communities of color. The walls forcibly keep people of color and white people separate from each other. and cultural racism can be destroyed. The danger point of self-destruction seems to be drawing even more near. of overconsumption and environmental destruction may be reaching a point of no return. the walls of racism. But we have also seen that the walls of racism can be dismantled. Fact Sheet: Nuclear Power. We have looked at barriers and fences.
they have enormous appeal and can provide enormous bargaining power. This kind of central control can act as a powerful counterweight to excessive democratic tendencies in any country that buys into nuclear power. independent installations under the control of local communities or even households.S. Why is Uncle Sam so Committed to Nuclear Power?.S. I’m not making this up. nuclear reactors can provide excuses to invade and bomb when no other excuses exist. Is this kind of thinking totally nuts? I don’t think so. ( ) Striking Iran would escalate into global nuclear war Ross 07 (Larry is the Secretary/Founder of The New Zealand Nuclear Free Peacemaking Association. 2007 issue that Dick Cheney has been mulling a plan to convince the Israeli’s to bomb the Iranian nuclear power plant at Natanz. Even so. They have a special appeal around the world because they have become double-edged symbols of modernity. serving to further unite much of the Arab world against us. So perhaps Uncle Sam considers it worth investing a few hundred billion dollars of taxpayer funds to keep this all-purpose Swiss army knife of U. There are 8 to 9 nuclear weapon states. Arguably. we’ve already devoted $800 billion to splendid little wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Also. In the past five years. they have less than 30% of Americans supporting them. So clearly there are more important uses for nuclear power than just making electricity.htm) If Bush is not stopped and launches the attack. It provide a rationale for a large centralized bureaucracy and tight military and police security to thwart terrorists. leading to US control of middle east oil resources. Pakistan and other Islamic states may erupt if the US slaughters millions of Muslims with nuclear weapons. That ended his dalliance with nuclear power and nuclear weapons — but that didn’t stop Don Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney from using Saddam’s nuclear history as an excuse to invade his country and string him up. Bush claims God directs him. foreign policy available in our back pocket. solar. at least partly to secure U. you are in our pocket. http://www. The Bush-Chaney regime have been compared to desparate cornered animals who will resort to any crime to survive. foreign policy — being offered. Uncle Sam’s desperate attempts to revive nuclear power can perhaps best be understood as part of that ongoing effort at oil recovery.S. imperialism and causes a strike on Iran Montague 07 (Peter Montague. and partly to thumb its nose at the likes of Don Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney — and perhaps to try to draw us into another war that would indelibly mark us for the next hundred years as enemies of Islam. They are now desparate and selfjustifying criminals wrappped in the flag and other symbols of patriotism.com/2007/10/04/why-is-uncle-sam-so-committed-to-reviving-nuclear-power/) So why is Uncle Sam hell-bent on reviving nuclear power? I don’t have a firm answer and can only speculate. Witness North Korea. like shiny toy guns that can be loaded with real bullets. Who knows where that could lead? Then I think of the present situation in the Middle East. On the other hand. Perhaps from the viewpoint of both Washington and Wall Street. nuclear power is preferable to renewable-energy alternatives because it is extremely capital-intensive and the people who provide the capital get to control the machine and the energy it provides. the war momentum and slaughter can trigger a sequence of disastrous actions and reactions that can spiral out of control. Because of this special characteristic. wind and other renewable energy alternatives lend themselves to smallscale. political control becomes a powerful (though unstated) part of the bargain. would then have an excuse to bomb Iran. If you are dependent on nuclear power for electricity and you are dependent on us for reactor fuel.S.scoop. 4.S. some may be drawn into a major war that could spread beyond the middle east. and bargained over. Particularly if they sign a contract with the U. oil supplies. Both Russia and China have strong defence links with Iran and each have nuclear weapon arsenals. Saddam Hussein started down the road to nuclear power until the Israelis bombed to smithereens the Osirak nuclear plant he was building in 1981. or one of its close allies for delivery of fuel and removal of radioactive wastes. 19 . as we have seen. I doubt if they would stay idle while the US conquered Iran.celsias.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Imperialism Turn ( ) Nuclear power is the epitome of U.S. nuclear reactors have become essential tools of U. withheld. http://www. The Iraq war made the Bush regime war criminals. Iran wants nuclear power plants partly to show how sophisticated and capable it has become.co. anymore than it had for attacking Iraq. Oct. And now something similar is unfolding in Iran. Newsweek reported in its October 1. And. It manufactured excuses and lies to attack Iraq and is now engaged in doing the same to justify the attack on Iran. Keep in mind that the Bush regime has no legitimate reasons for attacking Iran.nz/stories/HL0701/S00362. 2007. hoping to provoke the Iranians into striking back so that the U.
however.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Tradeoff Turn ( ) Nuclear buildup would trade off with better forms of energy Parenti 08 (Christian Parenti. public safety will continue to be menaced by problems at new as well as older plants. 20 .thenation. Talk of such a renaissance. 2008.com/doc/20080512/parenti) This much seems clear: a handful of firms might soak up huge federal subsidies and build one or two overpriced plants. their minds off the real project of developing wind. solar. What Nuclear Renaissance?. While a new administration might tighten regulations. But there will be no massive nuclear renaissance. helps keep people distracted. April 24. http://www. geothermal and tidal kinetics to build a green power grid.
Progress Energy Inc. nuclear power is actually in decline in the United States. The original cost estimate was $45 billion. However. Notes the paper: A new generation of nuclear power plants is on the drawing boards in the U. The dramatic decrease in nuclear construction can be directly tied to the meltdown at Three Mile Island. The Congressional Budget Office just finished a rosy-glasses report on nuclear economics.greenpeace. though. U. Wall Street Journal. Southern Co." 2. It has been the nuclear industry's inability to manage the construction and operation of its nuclear reactors that has solidified public opposition to nuclear power in the United States. amid a growing shortage of skilled labor. can now think the money has been well spent. the CBO took heart from promises made by manufacturers of next-generation reactors and a single on-time and on-budget project in Japan to project cheaper nuclear construction costs in the future. cost estimates for new nuclear power plants have been continually revised upward. they win when legislation penalizes carbon-heavy sectors like coal (and even natural gas). The U. double to quadruple earlier rough estimates. No nuclear reactors have been ordered and subsequently completed in the U. It’s the Economics.. 2003. May 19. or the biased. The question. When construction costs skyrocketed and operation and management costs spiraled out of control. The actual cost was $145 billion! Forbes magazine recognized that this "failure of the U. or environmental protesters. a disaster of monumental scale. Since nuclear plants don’t emit CO2. Not exactly electricity "too cheap to meter. but the projected cost is causing some sticker shock: $5 billion to $12 billion a plant.com/environmentalcapital/2008/05/12/its-the-economics-stupid-nuclear-powers-bogeyman/) It turns out nuclear power’s biggest worry isn’t Yucca Mountain. Rebecca Smith reports today in the WSJ (sub reqd.S. Nuclear energy is extremely expensive and unreliable Greenpeace 03 (Nuclear Reactors are an Expensive and Dangerous Source of Electricity.S.wsj. causing this prediction to prove false.) on the biggest hurdle to the nascent nuclear-energy revival in the U. Department of Energy compared nuclear construction cost estimates to the actual final costs for 75 reactors. nuclear power became an economic disaster. Chronic escalation of construction costs coupled with high operation and maintenance costs have sealed nuclear power's economic fate. Stupid: Nuclear Power’s Bogeyman. and renewable energy isn’t immune. steel and copper..S. unless substantial carbon dioxide charges were imposed. http://www. 2008. It’s economics. the risks of nuclear power are only part of the problem. nuclear power’s vulnerability puts it in a class by itself.. utilities have canceled almost as many nuclear reactors as they have constructed. Even while acknowledging that historical costs for nuclear plants always doubled or tripled their initial estimates. The horrific images of the Chernobyl disaster and the ever-growing death toll are a constant reminder of the dangers of nuclear power." According to Forbes.S.S. Fuel costs for nuclear power are miniscule. Everybody from John McCain to Newt Gingrich to Patrick Moore is pitching more nuclear power as a zero-emissions answer to America’s energy needs. And if those cost estimates are wrong? From the CBO: If those factors turned out not to reduce construction costs in the United States. and FPL Group Inc. the Tennessee Valley Authority's Watts Bar reactor took almost 23 years to build and cost nearly $8 billion. the head of the Atomic Energy Commission predicted that nuclear power would supply "electrical energy too cheap to meter. the meltdown at Three Mile Island and the explosion at Chernobyl irreparably altered the image of nuclear power. Part of the cost escalation is bad luck." Despite talk of a renaissance. It matters because nuclear power’s ability to provide electricity at a competitive price compared to regular sources like coal and natural gas depends largely on those construction costs. either—and the nuclear power industry enjoys healthy loan guarantees and other federal subsidies designed precisely to alleviate those kinds of uncertainties. — “have blown by our highest estimate” of costs computed just eight months ago.S. and against the backdrop of a shrunken supplier network for the industry. Exelon Corp. High construction costs will translate into high electricity prices Johnson 08 (Keith Johnson.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Economy Advantage Frontline 1. said Jim Hempstead. "only the blind. Plants are being proposed in a period of skyrocketing costs for commodities such as cement. is the same: Who’s going to pay for it? 21 . The only way to handicap the field in nuclear power’s favor is to put a big price tag on emissions of carbon dioxide. The paper notes: Estimates released in recent weeks by experienced nuclear operators — NRG Energy Inc. Though all power sectors are affected to different degrees by rising capital costs. Why is that such a big deal? Coal plants have been shelved recently because of rising capital costs." However.org/usa/news/nuclear-reactors-are-an-expens) At the dawn of the nuclear era. nuclear capacity would probably be an unattractive investment even with EPAct incentives. a senior credit officer at Moody’s Investors Service credit-rating agency in New York. Three Mile Island ghosts. Over the last five years. nuclear power program ranks as the largest managerial disaster in business history. The last nuclear reactor to be constructed in the United States was completed in 1996. —skyrocketing construction costs. since 1973. http://blogs.. Even the bean counters can’t keep pace. May 12.
oil refineries. the nuclear industry views itself as especially vulnerable to the skilledlabor shortage.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Economy Advantage Frontline 3. U. Nuclear power is a huge drain on the economy NukeFree.000 workers in the Southeast. bio-fuels. The industry promised that improving technology would entice private insurance companies to take the risk. perfecting photovoltaic (PV) technology to the point that cells made of silicon could transform sunlight into usable electric current. and helps solve rather than worsen the global warming crisis. financial history." 22 . and society in general push high school students to complete their secondary education with the intention of then attending a four-year college program. In 1953. and electricity transmission lines. Wind power is far cheaper than nukes. But in Finland. Congress passed the Price-Anderson Act. It hasn't had to recruit for decades. then shut. efficiency and conservation all have investors lining up for them.S.nukefree. Reactor owners argued that nuclear power was too expensive to compete in a deregulated market. March 13." 4. are now perceived as second class. A year earlier. Today the nuclear industry says all that is behind them. Not only were no nuke plants getting built." concludes a recent white paper on the Southeast workforce issues prepared by the Nuclear Energy Institute. The nuclear industry faces a different world compared with when it last was hiring three decades ago. and that a "new generation" of reactors will somehow reverse a half-century of catastrophic economics. Through the ensuing half-century. In an essentially military decision. All projects need skilled craft workers. New Hampshire for a total of $250 million turned into one for $7 billion. http://www. no private company will assume the risk for new reactors either. without the need for taxpayer guarantees or government-backed catastrophic liability insurance. Long Island's $7 billion Shoreham operated briefly.org/facts/uninsurable) Fifty years ago the pushers of the "Peaceful Atom"---including Lewis Strauss. And the renewable energy industry on which Eisenhower turned his back on 1953 has come of age.com/articles/business/careers/2008/03/13/a-worker-shortage-in-the-nuclear-industry_print.the skilled workers just don’t exist Lavelle 08 (Marianne Lavelle. And despite today's hype about new designs. Nuclear power can’t increase jobs. can be installed quickly. Those who do so guarantee us all fifty more years of economic chaos and energy shortfalls. But in the next five years. That money could have financed green power sources that would have avoided the global warming crisis and freed the US from dependence on foreign energy sources. the Truman Administration knew that our best route to energy independence and economic security was with green power. estimates that existing energy facilities already are short 20. So in 1957. Eisenhower turned the US away from green power. guidance counselors. But the prospect of making homes and offices energy self-sufficient with PV rooftop installations was a monumental moment in technological history. and that they were owed compensation for having risked their capital on an experiment that failed. which made the taxpayer and the victims of any potential disaster the ultimate insurers. but workers in the 104 atomic facilities already in operation tended to stay in their well-paid jobs for years. Pay is inching up and hours are increasing for workers who are certified craftsmen. Far from being cheap or reliable. The first cells were used to power space satellites. "High-paying skilled labor jobs.600 nuclear workers—35 percent of the workforce—will reach retirement age. The scale of the During the deregulation crisis of 1999-2001. the industry took more than $100 billion in "stranded cost" payouts from state and federal sources. "The shortage of skilled labor and the rising average age of workers in the electric industry are a growing concern. decades late. A Worker Shortage in the Nuclear Industry. nuclear power plants have drained the American economy of hundreds of billions of dollars. liquefied natural gas terminals. Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission--promised electricity that would be "too cheap to meter. To invest in nukes is to throw still more good money at a bad technology." likely to push up the cost of nuclear power plant construction. "collapse" was "appalling. said Standard & Poor's Rating Services in a recent report." The pledge has turned into the biggest lie in U.htm) The reason for the hurry: Big energy construction will be booming in the next decade. Forbes compared the losses on nuke power to "a commitment bigger than the space program ($100 billion) [and] the Vietnam War ($111 billion). 2008. Pledging to share the Peaceful Atom worldwide. up to 19. and they are in drastically short supply.org 07 (Atomic Economics. But even with huge government subsidies.S. "Parents. News & World Report. That shortfall will balloon to 40. Solar. Looking ahead. But after fifty years it hasn't happened.000 by 2011 because of the new construction. atomic reactor construction was defined by epic cost overruns and delays. Harry Truman's Blue Ribbon Paley Commission reported that the future of American energy was with renewable sources. once considered excellent career options. Bell Laboratories made an historic breakthrough. Fluor says skilled workers at the Oak Grove coal project are putting in 60-hour weeks instead of the well-intoovertime 50-hour weeks that had been planned. The utility Southern Co. Dwight Eisenhower chose nuclear power instead.usnews. concentrated in the South—not only nuclear generators but coal plants. the first of these plants is already two years behind schedule and $2 billion over budget. no utilities would step forward to build Ike's atomic reactors. Overall. just as the industry hopes to launch a renaissance. The key decision was made in 1953. http://www. The two reactors proposed in the 1960s for Seabrook. Predicting 15 million solar-heated homes by 1975.
In addition to costing far more. Nuclear Not Only Way To Generate A Kwh.pubrecord. delaying reductions in greenhouse gases by at least a decade. the nuclear plants would not come on line for at least 10 years.php?view=article&id=149%3Anuclear-not-only-way-to-generate-a-kwh-&option=com_content_) At $9 billion for an 1100 megawatt nuclear plant. June 19.Nuclear Energy Expensive ( ) Nuclear energy is very expensive and won’t solve for 10 years Severance 08 (Craig A. nuclear generating capacity is more than 12 times the price of the same power capacity in gas turbines. The Public Record. and 2 to 3 times more costly than comparable power output from wind farms. 2008. 23 .JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #1 .org/index. http://www. Severance.
Joseph Lieberman (I-Conn. Second. Conn.pennnet. despite future carbon regulations Wagman 08 (David Wagman. he said. The impetus. natural gas and wind." agreed Alex Klein of Emerging Energy Research.com/Articles/Article_Display. Power Engineering. does not represent "the end of the United States' economic boom as we know it. One of the most widely discussed pieces of carbon capture legislation is the so-called "Lieberman-Warner" bill.S. The analyses also lay heavy stock in how future greenhouse gas-limiting policies are structured.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi AT: CO2 Internal Link ( ) Future carbon regulations won’t hurt the economy Wagman 08 (David Wagman. including coal-fired power plants. ( ) Economic growth will be robust. An Economy in Tatters Over Carbon Rules? Think Again. "The bottom line is that if (carbon regulation) is phased in over time.) and John Warner (RVa." Kraig Naasz. the more ambitious and short term the goal the more important it is to get the political architecture right. Lieberman-Warner will be "a very high-cost option for all Americans. gross domestic product could be $5. 2191 suggests that even under worst-case assumptions the economy will continue to grow and "at quite a robust pace." Not everyone agrees. "It will continue to have a significant role. the economics of newer. Repetto said he sees two primary economic outcomes for the electric power industry as a result of S. aimed at limiting the amount of carbon dioxide that power plants–among other emitters–can produce." said Yale University's Robert Repetto. http://pepei. One report produced for the Edison Electric Institute estimated the cost to the U. Managing Editor. "There are no winners under Lieberman-Warner. the overall affect on the United States economy is likely to be relatively modest. of course. he said. president of the National Manufacturers Association was quoted as saying in a conference call with reporters earlier this year.). higher efficiency coal plants will also be affected. At a minimum. coal costs will likely rise." he said. probably in our lifetime. professor of Economics and Sustainable Development at Yale University in New Haven. While he agrees that carbon regulation will carry some costs.pennnet. 2191 or other carbonlimiting legislation. is worry over possible climate change and the affect that carbon dioxide (CO2) may be having on the global environment. it might cost as much as 3 percent of GDP" by 2030. Much ink has been spilled debating the possible economic effects of enacting Lieberman-Warner. the implicit price paid for a ton of sequestered carbon is high enough that it likely will create a "huge advantage" to advance carbon capture technology and new power plant construction. Power Engineering. certainly not in the United States. introduced by Sens. First. Carbon regulation.cfm? Section=ARTCL&PUBLICATION_ID=6&ARTICLE_ID=331946&C=BUSIN&dcmp=rss) Much of the available analysis of S.com/Articles/Article_Display." said Robert Repetto. changing the relative economics between coal. "Coal isn't going to be replaced. An Economy in Tatters Over Carbon Rules? Think Again.cfm? Section=ARTCL&PUBLICATION_ID=6&ARTICLE_ID=331946&C=BUSIN&dcmp=rss) Federal carbon capture legislation seems likely to be enacted within the next several years. At the same time. making room for new-builds. "We're hearing a lot of propaganda that the economy will be in tatters." 24 . however. Managing Editor. When annual economic growth rates are factored in the potential effect represents a "very small difference" to the overall economy. Older. http://pepei.3 trillion by 2050. less efficient power plants will likely look less attractive and be retired.
Commission on Sustainable Development. a new reactor would have to come online somewhere in the world every 15 days on average between 2010 and 2050. “Even under an ambitious deployment scenario. E The Environmental Magazine. Director of the Southeast Office. A massive amount of new plants are needed Motavalli 04 (Jim Motavalli A Nuclear Phoenix?: Concern about Climate Change is Spurring an Atomic Renaissance. Uranium enrichment also aggravates both global warming and ozone depletion. Although nukes avoid the smokestack problem. On the spot market. global warming emissions for at least two decades. from 16 to 20 percent over the period. in the next 60 years. appropriate hydro.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Warming Advantage Frontline 1. but capacity is limited there. The world’s capacity to enrich uranium would have to go up dramatically by a factor of 2.org/climate/background/climateandnukestalkunmay32006. this however.pdf) An extensive 2003 study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology30 investigated the future of nuclear power. And the plant is fired by two large. he says. the industry is capable of building only half the 1. And just one percent of that capacity would be enough to support the construction of 210 nuclear weapons per year. 25 .” It is plain that a similar investment in efficiency in the USA and other energy-hog nations. Plan doesn’t expand fast enough to solve warming Olson 06 (Mary Olson. enrichment and fuel fabrication are taken into account. The shortfall in uranium mining can be at least partly made up in uranium enrichment (an outgrowth of atomic bomb development). There are emissions in the nuclear process 2. nuclear power emits far lower levels of greenhouse gases. Brice Smith admits that. says Smith. even when mining. http://www. Demand is projected to exceed supply and push prices higher. The single remaining uranium enrichment plant in the U. too.5 to six. The cycle from uranium mining to milling and processing. In his book Insurmountable Risks: The Dangers of Using Nuclear Power to Combat Global Climate Change (IEER Press). all involve greenhouse gas emissions. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion in Kentucky. One can only imagine the results if a fraction of the residual funds were invested in technology development in solar. United Nations.½ the previous actual figure. some of the last reactors to be built (Vogtle 1 & 2) cost more than $4 billion each! The industry has recently asserted that it will be possible to build reactors for $ 2 billion31 -. used to dissipate heat generated by the compressors. a huge nuclear expansion would increase the dangers of nuclear proliferation. This would roughly mean adding one new reactor every two weeks until 2050. uranium prices have soared as existing reactors have worked through supplies from mothballed plants. is speculative. and investment in wind energy worldwide would be a far more cost-effective use of capital. But to effectively challenge the global warming problem.S. Nuclear power won’t solve warming. NIRS argues that. May 3. Confronting a False Myth of Nuclear Power: Nuclear Power Expansion is Not a Remedy for Climate Change. Even with this growth. Nuclear Information and Resource Service.S.nirs. Even taking the $2 billion industry “guestimate. including its potential to combat climate change. the nuclear process is not emission-free. as well as waste storage and transportation.com/view/?3780) The uranium supply is also an issue. http://www. Also. In the USA. when compared to fossil fuels. appropriate biomass and other sustainable power innovations! 2..” it would require trillions of dollars to implement this supposed “fix. extremely dirty coal power plants. MIT’s nuclear boosters project that expanding nuclear generating capacity worldwide to 1000 billion watts would be required to address the climate problem to any meaningful degree. new plants could not make a substantial contribution to reducing U. 2006. A dozen new enrichment plants would produce thousands of tons of highly deadly plutonium each year. and that the enormous construction costs— estimated in the many trillions of dollars—would be much more effectively spent on renewable energy projects.emagazine.” says the Union of Concerned Scientists.500 new reactors needed to significantly offset global warming. he calculates that the proportion of electricity coming from nuclear sources would grow only slightly.2 reasons 1. emits highly destructive chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
cnn. April 24.000 – or 2. ( ) Nuclear power isn’t fast enough to solve warming 10. cancer and other dangers of uranium mining and transport. it hardly makes the most sense as a tool to quickly combat climate change.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #1. too late. It simply isn’t possible to build 17. No time – Even if nuclear waste.Too Slow ( ) Using nuclear to solve warming would take decades Parenti 08 (Christian Parenti. the final nail in nuclear’s coffin is time. and it would require decades to accomplish. 2008. A 2004 analysis in Science by Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow. For nuclear power to achieve this figure would mean building 3000 nuclear plants -.com/doc/20080512/parenti) Even if a society were ready to absorb the high costs of nuclear power. national security. Jeremy Rifkin. CNN. These plants take too long to build.com/2008/TECH/science/04/17/Nuclear. estimates that achieving just one-seventh of the carbon reductions necessary to stabilize atmospheric CO2 at 500 parts per billion would require "building about 700 new 1.html) Putting all other arguments aside. accidents. told CNN: "To get any appreciable impact on climate change you have to get 20 percent from renewable energies.thenation.500 or 17 for that matter – in ten years. What Nuclear Renaissance?. http://www. critics say that nuclear power is going to provide too little.briefing/index. of Princeton University's Carbon Mitigation Initiative. president of the Foundation on Economic Trends and author of the Hydrogen Economy.000-megawatt nuclear plants around the world. and a private sector unwilling to insure and finance the projects weren’t enough to put an end to the debate of nuclear power as a solution for climate change.that's three power plants every 30 days for the next 60 years. lack of sites. May 6. 2008. proliferation. increasing costs." 26 ." That represents a huge wave of investment that few seem willing to undertake. Briefing: Nuclear power. ( ) Nuclear power is too slow to solve climate change Knight 08 (Matthew Knight. http://edition. We have the next ten years to mount a global effort against climate change.
concludes that a 1250 megaWatt nuclear power plant. Nuclear Information and Resource Service.6 Additional energy required for decommissioning and disposition of the wastes generated increases this CO2 output substantially. As uranium supplies dwindle. Enrichment Corporation. This is nonsense. Not enough uranium – Even if we could find enough feasible sites for a new generation of nuclear plants. transport.S. 2007. processing. the Institute study shows. one must closely examine the motives of anyone associated with nuclear schemes of any kind. the same power plant could produce as much as 750. and six are better. transport. where uranium is enriched to make nuclear reactor fuel.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. May 3.Every stage produces CO2 emissions Montague 07 (Peter Montague.energyjustice. Nuclear power is not free from carbon emissions.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2A – Nuclear Power Emits C02 ( ) Nuclear power emits just as much C02 as any traditional energy source Olson 06 (Mary Olson.coopamerica. 2006. typically coal. operating 6500 hours per year in Germany. Unfortunately nuclear power is not a solution and it is further counterproductive to any real remedy for human impacts on climate. http://www.000 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. Director of the Southeast Office. Environmental Justice. A number of recent studies have found that when mining. four are worse than nuclear from the viewpoint of greenhouse gas emissions.nirs. and burial of nuclear wastes. Fact Sheet: Nuclear Power. especially plants that use both the electricity and the heat generated by the engine * power plants run by bio-fuel-powered internal combustion Of eleven ways to generate electricity (or avoid the need to generate electricity through efficiency and conservation) analyzed by the Institute. and enrichment of uranium fuel. the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the result of making electricity from uranium is comparable to burning natural gas to make electric power. Vice President Cheney has publicly stated5 a falsehood: he asserted that nuclear power is carbon-free. science tells us that nuclear power plants are not the best way to reduce our carbon dioxide emissions. United Nations. In other (unspecified) countries besides Germany.) Substantial carbon dioxide emissions accompany every stage of nuclear power production. (See Figure 3. old coal plants exist just to power the nuclear fuel facilities. decommissioning. 27 .9 ( ) Nuclear power won’t solve. 93% of the nation’s reported emissions of CFC-114. nuclear power compares unfavorably to… * conservation through efficiency improvements * run-of-river hydro plants (which use river water power but require no dams) * offshore wind generators * onshore wind generators * power plants run by gas-fired internal combustion engines. Scientists in both the US and UK have shown that if the current level of nuclear power were expanded to provide all the world's electricity. A careful life-cycle analysis by the Institute for Applied Ecology in Darmstadt.net/nuclear/factsheet. Read on. dwindling supplies will trigger the use of ever lower grades of uranium. the nuclear fuel cycle is a significant contributor. nuclear plants will actually begin to use up more energy to mine and mill the uranium than can be recovered through the nuclear reactor process.S. a potent greenhouse gas. http://www. from the manufacture and eventual dismantling of nuclear plants. processing.org/climate/background/climateandnukestalkunmay32006.pdf) Nuclear power is being widely promoted as a “solution” to global climate change.com/2007/10/04/why-is-uncle-sam-so-committed-to-reviving-nuclear-power/) It certainly has little to do with global warming. Commission on Sustainable Development. They’re not even close to being the best way. to the mining. 4. This is due to the simple fact that nuclear reactors cannot “black start”8 – in other words. Confronting a False Myth of Nuclear Power: Nuclear Power Expansion is Not a Remedy for Climate Change. produces greenhouse gases equivalent to 250.7 Nuclear power is not only dependent upon fossil fuels for the production of uranium fuel. Transition away from the combustion of fossil fuels cannot be accomplished solely by the expansion of nuclear power since it depends on the grid being powered up before reactors can come on-line. in the emission of global warming gases (measured per kilowatt-hour of electricity made available). These facilities are so energy intensive that some of the nation’s dirty. pg. check in with the Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS)]. At the time the 2005 energy bill was passed by a Republic-dominated Congress the official position of the Republican leadership was that global warming was a hoax.cfm) 7. were released from the U. In 2001.000 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents.pdf) While the nuclear reactors themselves release few greenhouse gases. Germany. which produce ever more climate-change-producing emissions – resulting in a climate-change catch 22. http://www. ( ) Making nuclear power emits tons of C02 and relies on coal plants Ewall 07 (Mike. engines ( ) Uranium shortages will cause more emissions Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power. http://www. 5) The study concludes that. What’s more. [For a great deal of additional solid information showing that nuclear power is no answer to global warming. Oct. and the disposition of wastes generated: it is also dependent upon a grid that is powered by other sources of energy. 2007. (Lazy journalists are in the habit it repeating the industry mantra that nuclear power produces no greenhouse gases. Nov.celsias.4 In the service of this disinformation campaign U. they depend on electric power from the external power grid to be able to come on-line. plus the eventual processing. we’re running out of the uranium necessary to power them. and extensive transportation of uranium in order to make nuclear fuel is considered. Why is Uncle Sam so Committed to Nuclear Power?. our uranium would be depleted in less than ten years.3 Those selling the expansion of nuclear power are on a par with any salesman of counterfeit medicine. Even now when some Republicans have begun to acknowledge that perhaps we may have a carbon dioxide problem.
the Energy Information Administration recently projected that only about 53 nuclear power plants would be built by 2056. that the only reason building plans are under way is that the federal government has stepped in to guarantee investors against loan defaults. Even if the projects are successful and building proceeds at breakneck speed. "Clearly. 2007. 28. costing up to $90 billion to build. 28. The US industry reached that level in the 1980s. reactors are touted as part of the solution to global warming. 2007. says a Keystone Center report endorsed by the NEI.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2B . Christian Science Monitor. http://www. They're so financially risky. Nuclear power surge coming.html) With virtually no greenhouse-gas emissions.000-megawatt nuclear plants per year – about five of those annually in the US – for the next 50 years. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1 billion tons annually. 28 .csmonitor. Over the next 15 months. http://www. [nuclear power companies] are not so confident or they wouldn't want the federal government and taxpayer to be guaranteeing the loans. Staff Writer. Nuclear power surge coming. Sept. the world would need to build 21 new 1.html) The risks might be worth the cost if nuclear power can have a substantial impact in slowing global warming. But the renaissance may be less robust than it looks.csmonitor.com/2007/0928/p01s05-usgn. At that rate. But even under its most optimistic assessment." says David Schlissel a longtime nuclear industry analyst with consulting firm Synapse Energy Economics in Cambridge. But even some industry experts doubt that's possible. the level set by some scientists as a goal for nuclear power. Staff Writer. this would not even replace the existing nuclear capacity expected to be retired during that time. ( ) Can’t build enough nuclear plants to make a dent in warming Clayton 07 (Mark Clayton.com/2007/0928/p01s05-usgn. the Nuclear Regulatory Commission expects a tidal wave of similar permit applications for up to 28 new reactors. Mass. Sept. Christian Science Monitor.Can’t Build Enough Plants ( ) They won’t be able to build enough plants to solve warming Clayton 07 (Mark Clayton. experts say. the Keystone report said. the lead times are so long and costs so high that it's unclear that the US can build enough nuclear plants to make a dent in greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050.
“Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity.” May 2008. 29 .pdf) This reappraisal of nuclear power is motivated in large part by the expectation that market-based approaches to limit greenhouse-gas emissions could be put in place in the near future.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear.cbo. Several options currently being considered by the Congress—including “cap-andtrade” programs— would impose a price on emissions of carbon dioxide. the most common greenhouse gas.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Free Market Counterplan Solvency ( ) Cap and trade would bolster the nuclear industry CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office.1 If implemented. http://www. The prospect that such legislation will be enacted is probably already reducing investment in conventional coal-fired power plants. such limits would encourage the use of nuclear technology by increasing the cost of generating electricity with conventional fossil-fuel technologies.
financial risk is transferred from investors to customers. 30 . where most electricity-generation capacity is owned by utilities that charge regulated rates. To the extent that rate regulation guarantees that customers will reimburse utilities for the cost of building a new plant. State incentives for new nuclear power plants are not limited to states with traditional regulation in place. additional incentives that could further reduce the cost of nuclear power are under consideration. For instance.pdf) States and localities encourage investment in new nuclear capacity through a variety of policies. has expanded a tax incentive initially designed to encourage investment in renewable energy technologies to apply to new nuclear capacity. Pennsylvania.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi States Counterplan Solvency ( ) States are effective at promoting nuclear power CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. allowing utilities to recover some construction costs before plants begin operations. which could increase the competitiveness of nuclear and innovative fossil-fuel technologies. the only states in that group that had proposed sites for new nuclear power plants were Maryland. Over half of the currently proposed new nuclear plants are sited in southeastern states. Texas. a state that allows markets a large role in setting electricity prices.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. http://www. and tax incentives. however. As of 2007. Those provisions include allowing higher rates of return for nuclear power than for other technologies. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity.cbo.” May 2008. California and a number of eastern states are considering legislation that would limit carbon dioxide emissions. and New York. In several of those states. which leads to larger reductions in the cost of capitalintense technologies such as nuclear. Last.
Solvency: Carbon tax spurs nuclear energy and keeps prices lower. because some of those incentives are backed by a fixed amount of funding. under some plausible assumptions that differ from those CBO adopted for its reference scenario—in particular. consequently.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. carbon dioxide charges would increase the competitiveness of nuclear technology and could make it the least expensive source of new base-load capacity. CBO anticipates that only a few of the 30 plants currently being proposed would be built if utilities did not expect carbon dioxide charges to be imposed.pdf) In the long run. conventional coal technology would probably be the lowest cost source of new capacity. they would be diluted as the number of nuclear projects increased. but those charges would probably have to exceed $80 per metric ton in order for nuclear technology to remain competitive under either of those circumstances. However. B Carbon dioxide charges of about $45 per metric ton would probably make nuclear generation competitive with conventional fossil-fuel technologies as a source of new capacity. B Uncertainties about future construction costs or natural gas prices could deter investment in nuclear power. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. those that project higher future construction costs for nuclear plants or lower natural gas prices—nuclear technology would be a relatively expensive source of capacity. B Also at roughly $45 per metric ton. if construction costs for new nuclear power plants proved to be as high as the average cost of nuclear plants built in the 1970s and 1980s or if natural gas prices fell back to the levels seen in the 1990s. However. conventional fossil-fuel technologies would most likely be the least expensive source of new electricity-generating capacity.it’s comparatively better than incentives CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. regardless of the incentives provided by EPAct. conventional gas technology would probably be a more economic source of base-load capacity than coal technology. B EPAct incentives would probably make nuclear generation a competitive technology for limited additions to base-load capacity. even in the absence of carbon dioxide charges. carbon dioxide charges would probably make nuclear generation competitive with existing coal power plants and could lead utilities in a position to do so to build new nuclear plants that would eventually replace existing coal power plants. regardless of EPAct incentives. Below about $5 per metric ton. 31 . even without EPAct incentives.cbo. CBO’s analysis yields the following conclusions: B In the absence of both carbon dioxide charges and EPAct incentives. More immediately. http://www. EPAct incentives by themselves could make advanced nuclear reactors a competitive technology for limited additions to base-load capacity. then new nuclear capacity would not be competitive.” May 2008.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Carbon Tax Counterplan Text: The United States federal government should impose a carbon tax of $45 per ton of carbon emitted in the United States. At charges below that threshold. In particular. Such variations in construction or fuel costs would be less likely to deter investment in new nuclear capacity if investors anticipated a carbon dioxide charge.
As of 2007. in the absence of carbon charges or incentives.incentives aren’t key CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office.cbo. Thus. However.org/EECarbon_charges_make_nuclear_cheapest_choice-0605086. 2008. ( ) Carbon tax solves. http://www. if lawmakers enacted legislation that resulted in a carbon dioxide charge of about $45 per metric ton. Because competing base-load alternatives emit carbon dioxide.pdf) Measuring the utilities’ costs across a range of potential carbon dioxide charges indicates which technologies might be competitive. But.pdf) The cost of new nuclear capacity would probably be higher if utilities attempted to build a large number of power plants over the next decade. Newly built power plants based on conventional fossil-fuel technology are designed to burn fuel more efficiently than plants built in the past. http://www. ( ) A carbon tax would spur nuclear energy by making it cost competitive WNN 08 (World Nuclear News. If the cost of emitting carbon dioxide was between $20 and $45 per metric ton. which emits nearly a metric ton of carbon dioxide for every megawatt hour of electricity produced. Many investors appear to anticipate some form of carbon dioxide charge in the near future. http://www. ( ) Carbon tax would spur investment into nuclear technology CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. but their emissions would still be substantial enough for the cost of producing electricity to be sensitive to carbon dioxide charges. nuclear generation would also become competitive with existing coal power plants. even without EPAct incentives. which means that each eligible plant’s allotment of credits would decrease if more than 6.pdf) Carbon dioxide constraints could encourage the use of nuclear technology by increasing the cost of generating electricity with fossil fuels. The effect on conventional generators fueled by natural gas would be less because they emit carbon dioxide at roughly half the rate of the average coal plant. At the same carbon price. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity.000 megawatts of capacity (roughly the capacityof five plants) qualified for the credit. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. Innovative fossil-fuel power plants that capture and store carbon dioxide are assumed to emit only about 10 percent of the carbon dioxide discharged into the atmosphere by the lowest emitting conventionalplants that burn fossil fuel—but they still emit carbon dioxide. nuclear would become competitive with conventional fossil fuel technologies even without other incentives. In the absence of both emission charges and EPAct incentives.5 billion.html) With carbon dioxide (CO2) charges of about $45 per tonne. such a policy would increase the cost of operating fossil-fuel power plants. so utilities would be likely to choose nuclear to replace existing coal plants where possible. May 6. specialized steel forgings).13 Although the imposition of carbon dioxide constraints would not directly decrease the cost of operating nuclear power plants.” May 2008.world-nuclear-news.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear.14 CBO’s analysis incorporates the assumption that no more than 6. investment in new nuclear capacity would be more attractive relative to both the construction of new fossil-fuel capacity and the continued use of existing fossil-fuel capacity. building all of the 30 proposed nuclear plants over the next 10 to 15 years—roughly the period of availability for the production tax credit—could significantly increase construction costs for nuclear power plants by increasing demand for scarce components that are necessary to build reactors (for example. given certain assumptions about future legislative action and market outcomes. conventional fossil-fuel technology would dominate nuclear technology. such carbon dioxide capture-andstorage 32 . which in all their variants emit at least some carbon dioxide. the attractiveness of financing a new nuclear power plant depends on investors’ expectations about the costs of emitting carbon dioxide over the operating life of that plant. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. To the extent that carbon dioxide charges are expected. In general. nuclear generation would most likely become a more attractive investment for new capacity than conventional fossil-fuel generation (see the left panel of Figure 1-3). the higher the costs to utilities of emitting carbon dioxide. A large wave of additions could also lead to higher costs by reducing the value of the production tax credits or by exhausting coverage under the loan guarantee program. and consequently make new nuclear capacity a more attractive source of base-load generation. For instance. EPAct limits production tax credits for nuclear power plants to a total of $7.” May 2008. For gauging the long-run competitiveness of nuclear generation. potential carbon dioxide charges are more likely to influence the development of new nuclear capacity than EPAct incentives.000 megawatts of capacity would qualify. the more competitive nuclear power would be because it is the only zero-emissions base-load technology. http://www. the comparison of costs is intended to indicate only whether nuclear technology would be a commercially viable choice for up to a few nuclear power plants.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. a survey conducted by Cambridge Energy Research Associates in 2006 found that about 80 percent of utility executives expected a carbon dioxide charge to be implemented within the next 10 years.cbo.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Solvency Extensions ( ) Carbon charges are comparatively more effective than loan guarantees CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. Carbon charges make nuclear cheapest choice. nuclear generation as an option for new capacity would probably be preferred over coal but not natural gas.cbo.” May 2008.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. The effect is most pronounced for coal. the study found that conventional fossil fuel technologies would probably remain the least expensive source of new generating capacity.
( ) Carbon tax is political suicide Hyde 07 (Justin Hyde. Carbon taxes are the most politically unpopular option in Congress for addressing global warming. He also acknowledged the unpopularity of any tax increase among his colleagues in Congress..M. Bloomberg outlines nationwide proposal to tax companies directly for their carbon emissions. Kreindler said pushing a carbon tax through Congress would be a guessing game of choosing a price without knowing whether it will result in emissions reductions. noting that a system in Europe has failed to meet its goals. but those technologies could be an option for new base-load capacity by the time new nuclear plants were deployed and might be the most competitive alternative to nuclear technology under carbon dioxide charges. 2008. “Mayor's 'pollution pricing' plan. lawmakers have shown far greater interest in legislation establishing a cap-and-trade plan..) -. demand for energy and emissions of greenhouse gases. 3. The bill's most unique feature involves a "safety valve" that limits the overall price for industry on how much companies would need to spend to comply with the program.) last summer cosponsored one of many cap-and-trade proposals circulating on Capitol Hill. and the only way it can be done is by conservation.Dingell has said those plans tend to be unwieldy and not as effective. February 14. Bingaman and Sen. While several lawmakers have proposed a cap and trade system -.requested by Senate Energy and Natural Resources Chairman Jeff Bingaman (D-N. cap-and-trade system. And even if such a measure had a chance of passing. LN) Bloomberg was applauded by environmentalists on Friday for attempting to address the issue. 1766." Dingell said. LN) The CBO study -. the tendency of lawmakers would be to drive the tax down as low as possible. an earlier effort by President Bill Clinton to pass a carbon tax has been cited by many Democrats as the key reason the party lost its majority in the U. "It's not a baseless solution. but said the problems of global warming will require tough choices. Changing the economic and personal incentives are the way you do that.compared a carbon tax with three alternative policies that use a market-based.S. CLIMATE: CBO calls carbon tax 'most efficient' option to address warming. 33 . LN) In an interview Wednesday. who can offer comments on the Web site. Arlen Specter (R-Pa. Dingell said he would likely make significant changes to his plan before he introduces a bill in Congress based on feedback from constituents. 2007." said Tony Kreindler.where emission limits and credits are divided among polluters and traded on an open market -. ( ) Carbon tax unpopular in Congress AP 07 (Associated Press. a spokesman for Environmental Defense. 2007. Nov. E&E Daily senior reporter. "Something's got to be done. Sept. Instead. Detroit Free Press.14 Politics-Agenda Bad Net Benefit ( ) Carbon charges are super unpopular in Congress Samuelsohn 08 (Darren Samuelsohn. but when it comes to fixing climate change. S.S. But as Dingell noted. "A carbon tax is going to carry with it a lot of pain. . Dingell unveils draft of gas tax: Diesel would get break from proposed increase. which would water down its overall effect. 27." Many policy experts maintain that carbon taxes would be the most effective way to reduce U. by far the best option is cap-andtrade. House in 1994. but many said the politically unpopular concept of a carbon tax would be a heavy lift in Congress and also does not guarantee the same benefits as the more widely supported approach of cap-and-trade.” Newsday. forcing a change in people's attitudes and a change in the way the business of the nation is done. Environment and Energy Daily.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi technologies had not been used at commercial power plants.
"There are no winners under Lieberman-Warner." he said. less efficient power plants will likely look less attractive and be retired. "The bottom line is that if (carbon regulation) is phased in over time. When annual economic growth rates are factored in the potential effect represents a "very small difference" to the overall economy. Managing Editor. certainly not in the United States. introduced by Sens. Managing Editor. of course. coal costs will likely rise." Not everyone agrees. Second.cfm? Section=ARTCL&PUBLICATION_ID=6&ARTICLE_ID=331946&C=BUSIN&dcmp=rss) Much of the available analysis of S. gross domestic product could be $5.S. he said." agreed Alex Klein of Emerging Energy Research. http://pepei. "Coal isn't going to be replaced. the more ambitious and short term the goal the more important it is to get the political architecture right. At a minimum. 2191 suggests that even under worst-case assumptions the economy will continue to grow and "at quite a robust pace. One of the most widely discussed pieces of carbon capture legislation is the so-called "Lieberman-Warner" bill. First.cfm? Section=ARTCL&PUBLICATION_ID=6&ARTICLE_ID=331946&C=BUSIN&dcmp=rss) Federal carbon capture legislation seems likely to be enacted within the next several years. The impetus. it might cost as much as 3 percent of GDP" by 2030. At the same time. is worry over possible climate change and the affect that carbon dioxide (CO2) may be having on the global environment. One report produced for the Edison Electric Institute estimated the cost to the U." said Robert Repetto. however. he said. Lieberman-Warner will be "a very high-cost option for all Americans. the overall affect on the United States economy is likely to be relatively modest.pennnet. professor of Economics and Sustainable Development at Yale University in New Haven. Carbon regulation. changing the relative economics between coal.com/Articles/Article_Display.). Repetto said he sees two primary economic outcomes for the electric power industry as a result of S. http://pepei. Much ink has been spilled debating the possible economic effects of enacting Lieberman-Warner.3 trillion by 2050. "We're hearing a lot of propaganda that the economy will be in tatters. making room for new-builds. ( ) Economic growth will be robust.) and John Warner (RVa." 34 ." Kraig Naasz. president of the National Manufacturers Association was quoted as saying in a conference call with reporters earlier this year. "It will continue to have a significant role. An Economy in Tatters Over Carbon Rules? Think Again. despite future carbon regulations Wagman 08 (David Wagman. Power Engineering. Joseph Lieberman (I-Conn. aimed at limiting the amount of carbon dioxide that power plants–among other emitters–can produce. higher efficiency coal plants will also be affected.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi AT: Counterplan Hurts the Economy ( ) Future carbon regulations won’t hurt the economy Wagman 08 (David Wagman. 2191 or other carbonlimiting legislation.pennnet. Older. natural gas and wind. The analyses also lay heavy stock in how future greenhouse gas-limiting policies are structured. Conn.com/Articles/Article_Display. including coal-fired power plants. Power Engineering. does not represent "the end of the United States' economic boom as we know it. the implicit price paid for a ton of sequestered carbon is high enough that it likely will create a "huge advantage" to advance carbon capture technology and new power plant construction." said Yale University's Robert Repetto. the economics of newer. probably in our lifetime. An Economy in Tatters Over Carbon Rules? Think Again. While he agrees that carbon regulation will carry some costs.
35 . the largest of these projects all involve central nuclear or coal fired electrical generating stations that will last between 50 and 75 years and that depend on an electrical grid distribution system.. It’s an Al Gore Christmas: Congress hands out energy-loan guarantees. the most wasteful. the loan guarantee program for “clean” and “innovative” systems will only get in the way of the real innovation that reliance on market mechanisms and private capital would otherwise propel.C. one that fiscal conservatives have long propounded. 19.. Whether for nuclear or non-nuclear energy projects. have a more basic complaint.org/Articles/20071219-Sokolski-NRO-AnAlGoreChristmas. http://www. National Review Online. we will be stuck with their polar opposites (i. the loser centralized systems the government chose to subsidize heavily rather than the ones the market might pick). these loan guarantees (which also include some of the environmentalists’ favorites) are certain to distort the market.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Economy DA Links ( ) Loan guarantees encourage government intervention in the economy Sokolski 07 (Henry Sokolski is executive director of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center in Washington. This means that projects like USEC’s multibillion dollar enrichment program. First. a project that cannot compete against other enrichers who have already successfully raised private capital to operate in the US—will get far more guaranteed loans than any micro wind project might. Second. In this case.npecweb. D. If it turns out that it is more economical to produce electricity locally in smaller generators or to rely less on the grid to distribute the electricity or its products. Dec.pdf) Some environmental economists. questionable projects tend to crowd out smaller more worthy contenders in gobbling up the subsidies. 2007.e. however.
which will cost the taxpayers billions or possibly even tens of billions of dollars over time. because someone was reckless enough to loan them the money. The Congressional Budget Office has estimated the risk of default on these nuclear loans to be at least 50 percent. Nuclear Not Only Way To Generate A Kwh.” June 21. “No Corporate Welfare for Nuclear Power.dallasnews.Edition1. In addition to costing far more. the industry is turning to taxpayers. This will only be enough to fund two plants. Dallas News.cfm?ID=2488) These loan guarantees would put taxpayers – rather than investors – on the hook to pay back the loans should any of the plants default. taxpayers will be on the hook for billions of dollars when the nuclear utilities default on their loans. 36 . the equivalent of six or seven new power plants. the nuclear plants would not come on line for at least 10 years. The Congressional Budget Office believes "the risk of default on such a loan guarantee to be very high -. plant decommissioning costs. This initial pork would be followed by taxpayer subsidies for fuel enrichment. nuclear generating capacity is more than 12 times the price of the same power capacity in gas turbines. Cato Institute. The nation is now reeling from the aftermath of people buying homes they could not afford. 26. 2008. http://www. July 31.” said Michele Boyd. the risk of default on loan guarantees for new nuclear plants is “very high – well above 50 percent.State. Public Interest Research Group and Jerry Taylor is director of natural resource studies at the Cato Institute. Nuclear utilities have had to take the government to court to recover added storage expenses.46215a2.php?view=article&id=149%3Anuclear-not-only-way-to-generate-a-kwh-&option=com_content_) At $9 billion for an 1100 megawatt nuclear plant.cato.S. Do we want our utilities to buy power plants they can’t afford? The taxpayer funded banquet for the nuclear industry would not end with power plants.org/pub_display. The federal government has long been in default of its obligations to existing nuclear plant operators to take the waste away from their sites. delaying reductions in greenhouse gases by at least a decade. 2008. The bill also authorizes the federal government to enter into power purchase agreements wherein the federal government would buy back power from the newly built plants -.” Although the company receiving the guarantee is expected to pay the “subsidy cost” of the guarantee (the net present value of the anticipated cost of defaults).400 Megawatts of new nuclear power. the nuclear industry has admitted it cannot find backing from Wall Street.tradewatch.well above 50 percent. relative to other electricity generation sources. so the industry is pushing for hundreds of billions more. This massive new outlay for nuclear power would eclipse all public funds for all other energy sources combined. Severance. Congress has authorized $18. U. legislative director of Public Citizen’s Energy Program.S. http://www. Faced with such bad numbers. ( ) Nuclear waste disposal would cost tens of billions Makhijani 08 (Arjun Makhijani is president of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research.S. 2003. http://www. Feb.org/index. a June 2007 CBO report on the recently passed Senate energy bill concluded that it is “more likely that DOE’s loan guarantee portfolio will have more projects where the subsidy fee has been underestimated than overestimated.html) New nuclear plants would add to the country's problem of nuclear waste. The Public Record.” “With those odds.org/pressroom/release. taxpayers. ( ) Loan guarantees will cost taxpayers billions Nayak and Taylor 03 (Navin Nayak is an environmental advocate with U. 2007.php?pub_id=3134) The most egregious proposal in the energy bill has the federal government providing loan guarantees covering 50 percent of the cost of building 8. The Congressional Research Service estimated that these loan guarantees alone would cost taxpayers $14 to $16 billion. “This outrageous demand from the already highly subsidized nuclear industry amounts to highway robbery of U.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Spending DA Links ( ) Loan guarantees will cost billions Public Citizen 07 (Congress Should Not Bow to Nuclear Industry Demands for More Than $50 Billion in Loan Guarantees to Build New Nuclear Reactors. According to a May 2003 Congressional Budget Office (CBO) report." But that's not all.” ( ) Loan guarantees would cause runaway spending on future nuclear projects Severance 08 (Craig A. The key factor accounting for the risk is that we expect that the plant would be uneconomic to operate because of its high construction costs.5 billion in Federally guaranteed loans for new nuclear plants.com/sharedcontent/dws/dn/opinion/viewpoints/stories/DNmakhijani_26edi. and perpetual taxpayer funds for thousands of years to maintain the nuclear waste. Arjun Makhijani: Nuclear is not the right alternative energy source. June 19.ART. Instead. and 2 to 3 times more costly than comparable power output from wind farms.potentially at above market rates.pubrecord. http://www.
( ) Defaults likely. shortfalls in subsidy costs are funded by a permanent indefinite appropriation.csmonitor. because the money to fund any shortfall will ultimately come from taxes paid to the federal government. Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?.7 billion.eesi. “Under federal law.” the GAO says. The GAO reports that “DOE will have to estimate the subsidy cost to determine the fees to charge borrowers. these costs are to be covered by the federal government. 28. ( ) Shortfalls in loan estimations would force the federal gov’t to foot the bill EESI 07 (Environmental and Energy Study Institute. but it currently has no policies or procedures for doing so. “the program could result in substantial financial costs to taxpayers if DOE underestimates total program costs.7 billion spent by the DOE for all nuclear power R&D in the 30 years from 1973-2003. in part because of fears caused by the accident at Three Mile Island. 2007. Despite the risk of loss. so is the risk.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Spending DA Links ( ) Over half of plants will default and it’ll cost billions Clayton 07 (Mark Clayton. Nuclear power is virtually emission-free. leaving taxpayers at risk. not through the annual appropriations process. The nuclear industry ask is $25 billion for FY 2008 and more than that in FY 2009-more than $50 billion in two years. For example: On Monday. Christian Science Monitor.html) The nuclear industry has already put Congress on notice that it could require loan guarantees of at least $20 billion for planned projects – and more later. NEI officials told The New York Times in July. “Although [loan guarantee program] LGP guidelines call for borrowers to be charged fees to cover program costs. taxpayers will be fully liable for any potential shortfalls. That huge startup cost might make financial sense.” the GAO notes.18 This becomes an issue for taxpayers as well. http://www. Oct. 30. it is possible for shortfalls to occur if the cost estimate is too low. "When you look at the cost of these plants and the massive financial subsidies by US taxpayers. I think that money would be better invested in cheaper sources of emissions-free power that don't have the fatal flaws nuclear power does. and the nuclear industry would in turn pay a subsidy cost to the Department. a Congressional Budget Office analysis warned of potential default rates of 50 percent or more on new plants. given a reactor's low operating expenses. should shortfalls occur. http://www. http://www." In 2003. A number of power companies went bankrupt.hillheat. this is more than the $49. especially if government begins to charge utilities for the greenhouse gases they produce. filed its application with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to build two reactors in Texas at a cost between $5.or gas-fired facilities. Because this cost is estimated.”16 The subsidy cost is like an insurance premium. 30. resulting in a loss to the federal government. NRG – the company that filed Monday's permit application – emerged from bankruptcy caused by overexpansion in the 1990s. 2007." says Tyson Slocum. critics worry federal costs will be huge.com/events/2007/10/30/loan-guarantee-provisions-in-the-2007-energy-bills-doesnuclear-power-pose-significant-taxpayer-risk-and-liability) Not only is the cost to the taxpayers potentially very high. excluding administrative costs. Oct. This is also well over the Administration’s target of $4 billion in loan guarantees for nuclear and coal for FY 2008. The Congressional Budget Office has said there is a good chance that the DOE will underestimate the costs of administering these loans and that more than 50 percent of new reactor projects will default on their loan repayments.com/2007/0928/p01s05-usgn. 2007.S. But the last time that the nuclear industry was on a building spree – in the 1980s – roughly half of the power plants proposed were never finished. U.org/briefings/2007/energy_climate/10-30-07_loan_guarantees/Nuclear_LGP_Issue_Brief_2007. DOE would issue a loan for 80 percent of these costs. If defaults occur in the new round. According to the Congressional Research Service. The subsidy cost is defined as “the estimated net present value of long-term cost to the federal government of guaranteeing the loans over the entire period that the loans are outstanding. New Jersey-based NRG Energy Corp.pdf) If a loan guarantee is granted.4 and $6. Nuclear power surge coming. In late 2003. Those that were finished were delayed for years and cost far more than estimated. "This is the second or third 'nuclear renaissance' I've seen. DOE has not yet established a procedure for determining these costs.means we’ll have to pay millions Hill Heat 07 (Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?. director of energy program at Public Citizen. and may be different for each project. Ralph Nader's consumer-protection group. Sept.”19 37 .”17 Furthermore. Staff Writer. The reason is that nuclear power plants are far more expensive to build than coal.
NRG Seeks The Lead in Going Nuclear. safer nation. the political climate for other subsidies that could make or break nuke projects could change as federal administrations change. But even if the Senate does find a solution. And at a June conference. such as a subsidy for new reactors and loan guarantees for their construction. noting that new ideas are still welcome until the committee starts marking up nuclear issues next week. An aide said the committee continues to consider insurance. it said. LN) President Bush has been a champion for the nuclear industry. so a conference committee would have to settle the question. May 16." said Mitch Singer. becoming the first president to visit a nuclear plant in 26 years when he recently stopped by a Maryland plant. 2005 Senate Panel Slowed By Nuke Aid Talk." Nuclear energy advocates. "Everything is on the table. A 2003 study by Massachusetts Institute of Technology advocates combining the ideas of nuclear plants' proponents and opponents. ( ) Plan is overwhelmingly unpopular with the public Daks 07 (Martin C. passed in June. The concern over nuclear waste has been further exacerbated by delays in the Yucca Mountain national repository plan. Daks. "We would like to see a mosaic of financial incentives in there. Utility executives say Congress should give the nuclear industry flexibility to choose what combination of incentives would be best for them. 2007. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Chairman Domenici and Idaho Republican Sens. the cost of electricity might become even more tied to the price of oil as aging reactors leave the power grid and are taken out of service. The Charlotte Observer. leading to this year's effort. despite the combined opposition from fiscal conservatives and lawmakers who are concerned about nuclear waste. is packed with incentives to get the nuclear industry rolling. Those guarantees were dropped during conference talks with the House in favor of production tax credits that would not kick in until a nuclear reactor comes on line. along with the less likely option of investment tax credits to cover up-front construction costs. but it also needs more renewables. according to Bloomberg News." The battle is most pitched on Capitol Hill. It is also trying to figure out. Some foes worry that financial incentives will deepen the federal deficit. But a move in that direction is now stalled in the intersection between what is politically palatable and economically feasible. utility executives say they cannot afford to invest in new reactors and move through the complex and expensive regulatory process. Senators included loan guarantees in energy legislation in the last Congress. "It is time for this country to start building nuclear power plants again. continue to face some stiff political opposition from lawmakers who remain concerned over continued waste problems in some states. The House's version doesn't include those packages. the fight is far from over. http://findarticles. others object on environmental grounds. 58 percent of Americans disapprove of nuclear energy and 59 percent don't want to see a nuclear power plant built in their community. though. and more conservation. sponsored by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. doubts were raised about the ability of companies to secure financing for nuclear power projects. "While the government has never reneged on a loan guarantee once issued." one exasperated committee aide said late last week. among other things. if only the federal government could offer incentives to limit the risks of building and operating new reactors. Larry Craig and Mike Crapo met with a group of nuclear energy officials in March to begin deciphering what incentives might be feasible. where Congress is hashing out an energy bill that could help a nascent nuclear resurgence explode or fade. "It's not a question of one incentive over the other. Weeks of work by the committee staff have not yet led to concrete answers.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Politics Links. But the reactor riddle is particularly hard to solve because of the varied reasons driving the opposition. The energy bill passed by the House last month does not include the nuclear incentives. That attempt to write a comprehensive national energy bill failed. A nuclear reactor has not been ordered in the United States since the 1970s. August 4.com/p/articles/mi_qa5292/is_200710/ai_n21269535) According to an April poll by CBS News and The New York Times. 1. 2005. 38 . President Bush has instructed the Energy Department to work with Congress to offer federal risk insurance to mitigate costs incurred by bureaucratic delays in the licensing of new nuclear plants once they have been built. There is also the question of where to store nuclear waste for thousands of years. Oct. such as wind. The flip side of the argument is that if new reactors are not built.it sparks huge political battles in Congress National Journal 05 (National Journal's CongressDaily. a spokesman for the Nuclear Energy Institute. That approach would not address the issue of companies taking on huge financial risks with no return during the years of construction and licensing hearings that predate the production and sale of energy from the reactor." Bush said at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. Are we ready for a nuclear comeback?. needs more nuclear energy." the institute warned in a report on the conference. the largest trade association for the industry. The nuclear knot is not the only issue holding up the committee. LN) The idea sounded simple enough for a Congress controlled by business-friendly Republicans: Utility companies said they could help offset the high cost of oil by putting a greater reliance on nuclear energy. "There is a growing consensus that more nuclear power will lead to a cleaner. loan guarantees and production tax credits. ( ) Loan guarantees for nuclear power are contentious in Congress Choe 05 (Stan Choe. even though both the chairman and ranking member of the Senate energy committee support the industry. and still others worry that the reactors will become new terrorist targets.Agenda Good ( ) Loan guarantees for nuclear power are super contentious. a free-market think tank in New York City. how to settle disputes between states and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission over where to allow liquefied natural gas import terminals and relicensing hydroelectric dams. The country. Without incentives such as liability limits and tax restructuring. leaving the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee uncertain how to proceed as it tries to wrap up work on comprehensive energy legislation. The Senate's version.
39 . Energy Policy Proves Divisive. he has taken the less contentious approach of seeking tax credits for the developers.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Politics Links. "There are obviously a lot of views about energy problems in America. and feels good about doing something to make America less dependent on the turbulent Middle East. October 12. Domenici said he enjoys the give-and-take with fellow members of Congress. But it has its rewards. No one -.Agenda Good ( ) Loan guarantees are way contentious in Congress Coleman 03 (Michael Coleman. 2003. Albuquerque Journal. Journal Washington Bureau. who helped steer Congress to adopt a balanced budget amendment when he was Senate Budget Committee chairman in the 1990s. Domenici. Instead.ever said it would be easy." Domenici said. as well.including Domenici -. said his new post produces even more headaches than balancing a federal budget. LN) Domenici managed to avoid similar controversy over his beloved nuclear power incentives by not insisting that Congress adopt controversial loan guarantees for construction of nuclear power plants.
"Our primary mission is to secure an extension of the loan guarantee program to 'kick start' the renewal of nuclear power generation in this country. These amounts are the maximum loan guarantees available and are not direct loans or subsidies for any energy project. adding. 2008. Department of Energy. Feb." 40 . USEC on December 27 commended Congress and the Bush administration for supporting the nuclear renaissance through the loan guarantee program administered by the DOE.Agenda Bad ( ) Loan guarantees for nuclear power are bipartisan Nuclear News 08 (USEC to apply for DOE loan guarantee. Ohio.5 billion for loan guarantees for nuclear projects. Dec." Stating that "more and more interest groups are recognizing the need for nuclear energy in combating global warming trends. So there's a lot of support with some key financial issues that will need to be addressed going forward.is significant in light of upcoming debates over federal climate change legislation. but opposed by others because of nuclear waste and other concerns.S. included in the omnibus appropriations legislation (H.5 billion for nuclear power facilities and $2 billion for advanced nuclear facilities for the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. May 16.5 billion of loan guarantees for nuclear power facilities. here before they left town in December. unions and Democrats EnergyWashington Week 08 (NEI Touts Union Support. commended Congress and the administration for their strong support for the renaissance of the nuclear power industry through the loan guarantee program administered by the U. Jan. Support for nuclear power from a major Democratic constituency -. "The rebuilding of the industrial infrastructure to construct and fuel a new generation of nuclear power plants is an important step toward energy security. has in recent years understood that plants can be operated safely and efficiently. LN) USEC Inc.S. 2764) signed Wednesday by President George W. Congress just in the appropriations process. The U. The company also applauded the bipartisan federal recognition of the contribution that nuclear power makes in providing clean and efficient electricity for the United States.5 billion for new nuclear projects "is not sufficient in either duration or dollars. according to a Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) news release. Bush. The legislation includes loan guarantee authority for up to $38. 24. intends to pursue a DOE loan guarantee for construction of its American Centrifuge Plant in Piketon. In a May 6 speech at the NEI annual "nuclear energy assembly" May 5-7 in Chicago.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Politics Links. LN) The president of a major labor union--citing nuclear energy as a carbon-free technology--says the group's "primary mission" this Congress is to win an expansion of the federal loan guarantee program for nuclear energy and other clean-energy technologies to help "kick start" a resurgence of the nuclear industry. the ability to bring plants online and fund those plants is a key part of this next generation of plants. 2764) signed on December 26 by President George W.R. Bush.R. including $18." USEC said. union department president Mark Ayers said the current federal loan guarantee program of $18. LN) USEC Inc. The legislation includes loan guarantee authority for up to $38. NUCLEAR POWER: Former NRC head Curtiss discusses future of Yucca. authorized $18. IL. 2007. a Bethesda-based global energy company. including $18. "Nuclear power is a preferred path for reducing greenhouse gas emissions while providing reliable baseload electric generation. supported by some as a clean energy source because it doesn't emit greenhouse gases.. Ohio. the establishment of the loan guarantee program in the 2005 Energy Policy Act is an important piece of this." ( ) Congress supports loan guarantees for nuclear power E & E News 08 (Environment and Energy Publishing. ( ) Loan guarantees popular in Congress Daily Record 07 (USEC applauds Congress. The company said it expects to submit an application for the guarantee when the DOE invites nuclear projects to apply. which was included in the omnibus appropriations legislation (H. Click for Enhanced Coverage Linking Searches intends to pursue a loan guarantee from the Department of Energy for the construction of the American Centrifuge Plant in Piketon. 28. 2008.5 billion for energy projects.5 billion in energy projects. 2008. But from a financial standpoint. USEC. LN) Jim Curtiss: Well." Ayers said that during this Congress.S. So there's a lot of attention with Wall Street talking with the industry about the importance of some of the things that Congress has done. Thirty years ago I don't think you would have had that kind of view right after Three Mile Island until we saw the improved operation of the plants.the AFL-CIO's Building & Construction Trades Department -. The Department of Energy recently published guidance on how they're going to implement that program that's very positive and has a loan guarantee program that will provide for the risk support that we're going to need as we get back into nuclear construction. Newsroom Notes. The financial community. I think there are a number of dimensions of that. ( ) Plan popular with interest groups. Of the 18 companies that have announced plans to go through the permitting process for 32 plants none of those companies has yet decided to build a plant. expansion of nuclear in U. The role of nuclear energy in combating climate change is controversial. in terms of funding new nuclear.
2007.” Again. Similarly ( ) Incentives for nuclear power are popular with the public WNN 08 (World Nuclear News.” Only 18 percent of those surveyed do not support the use of federal incentives for this purpose. In the new survey.prefer our specific evidence NEI 07 (Nuclear Energy Institute. 63% of those surveyed favoured the use of nuclear energy in the USA. if needed. Americans voiced strong support for some of the specific mechanisms that Congress has approved to help stimulate construction of new electric-generating facilities. In the new survey. 41 . if a new power plant were needed to supply electricity. 2008. The survey showed that 78 percent of Americans approve of government tax credits “as an incentive to companies . 56 percent of respondents agreed.nei. April 29.000 adults. hydro and renewable energy.world-nuclear-news. while US citizens are firmly in favour of federal incentives for the development of carbon-free energy options including nuclear. The survey found that public support for preparing for and building new nuclear power plants remains strong. double the 14% who described themselves as strongly opposed to nuclear.Agenda Bad ( ) Loan guarantees for nuclear power is overwhelmingly popular with the American public.org/newsandevents/newsreleases/eightoutoften/) Nearly 80 percent of Americans endorse the use of federal financial incentives to help jump-start construction of carbon-free energy technologies. Last April. wind. the survey found. only 20 percent disapprove. to build solar.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Politics Links. The survey shows that 79 percent of Americans believe “it is appropriate for the federal government to provide some financial assistance to jump-start nuclear. wind and other carbon-free energy technologies in order to meet the national clean-air and carbon reduction goals and reduce the cost to consumers of building the facilities. strong support for the continued use of the country's existing nuclear plants. 59 percent said that. 62 percent of Americans agree “we should definitely build more nuclear power plants. with 33% opposing it. 71 percent agreed. at 28%. 19-22 by Bisconti Research Inc. while 59% agreed that the US should "definitely" build more nuclear power plants.” Only 20 percent disapprove. A survey of 1000 US citizens carried out by Bisconti Research and published by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) found broad support for possible future nuclear construction projects. and even stronger support for the use of federal incentives to promote the development carbon-free energy technologies including advanceddesign nuclear power plants. Seventy-five percent of Americans agree that electric companies should prepare now so that new nuclear plants could be built if needed within the next decade.” In last April’s survey. advanced-design nuclear power plants or other energy technology that reduces greenhouse gases to jump-start investment in these critical energy facilities. “Given the priority status that Americans affix to air quality concerns. it would be acceptable to add a new reactor at the site of the nearest nuclear power plant that is already operating.” said Bisconti Research President Ann Bisconti. it’s not surprising that they voice such high levels of support for government assistance for carbon-free energy technologies. http://www. The new telephone survey was conducted Oct. Eighty-four percent of those polled agreed that the USA should take advantage of all low-carbon energy sources including nuclear. Overall. according to a new national survey of 1. with the proportion of people "strongly" in favour. In a national survey conducted last April.” 57 percent of Americans named global warming among the top two concerns and 56 percent named air pollution as a first or second choice. Opinion favours nuclear. Some 78% agreed that electricity companies should be preparing now so that nuclear plants could be built in the next decade. with nearly 80% feeling that financial incentives such as tax credits should be used to help push the development of such technologies. 76 percent of Americans approve of federal loan guarantees for companies “that build solar. Asked to choose which of four issues seem “most important. Energy security was ranked first or second by 42 percent of respondents. while economic growth was selected by 40 percent of those surveyed. 5. http://www. and three percent do not have an opinion.html) Unrelated surveys of public opinion have found continued support for the use of nuclear energy in both the USA and Russia. solar. wind and advanced-design nuclear power plants. Nov. Eight of 10 Americans Support Federal Incentives to Jump-Start Carbon-Free Energy Technologies. A majority of Americans rank the threat of climate change and air pollution as top energy-related concerns. 66 percent agreed.org/NPOpinion_favours_nuclear_2904089. with GfK and has a margin of error of plus or minus three percentage points.
NRG Seeks The Lead in Going Nuclear.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Elections Links. a free-market think tank in New York City. Oct. the political climate for other subsidies that could make or break nuke projects could change as federal administrations change. 42 . "While the government has never reneged on a loan guarantee once issued. doubts were raised about the ability of companies to secure financing for nuclear power projects.Plan Unpopular ( ) Plan is overwhelmingly unpopular with the public Daks 07 (Martin C.com/p/articles/mi_qa5292/is_200710/ai_n21269535) According to an April poll by CBS News and The New York Times. 1. 2007. 58 percent of Americans disapprove of nuclear energy and 59 percent don't want to see a nuclear power plant built in their community. http://findarticles. And at a June conference. sponsored by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Daks." the institute warned in a report on the conference.
2007.world-nuclear-news. 71 percent agreed. 59 percent said that. The new telephone survey was conducted Oct. The survey found that public support for preparing for and building new nuclear power plants remains strong. at 28%. wind. April 29. Asked to choose which of four issues seem “most important.nei. wind and advanced-design nuclear power plants. 62 percent of Americans agree “we should definitely build more nuclear power plants. strong support for the continued use of the country's existing nuclear plants. 63% of those surveyed favoured the use of nuclear energy in the USA. it would be acceptable to add a new reactor at the site of the nearest nuclear power plant that is already operating.org/newsandevents/newsreleases/eightoutoften/) Nearly 80 percent of Americans endorse the use of federal financial incentives to help jump-start construction of carbon-free energy technologies. 56 percent of respondents agreed. wind and other carbon-free energy technologies in order to meet the national clean-air and carbon reduction goals and reduce the cost to consumers of building the facilities.” 57 percent of Americans named global warming among the top two concerns and 56 percent named air pollution as a first or second choice. Seventy-five percent of Americans agree that electric companies should prepare now so that new nuclear plants could be built if needed within the next decade. In the new survey.html) Unrelated surveys of public opinion have found continued support for the use of nuclear energy in both the USA and Russia. and three percent do not have an opinion.” In last April’s survey. advanced-design nuclear power plants or other energy technology that reduces greenhouse gases to jump-start investment in these critical energy facilities.Plan Popular ( ) Nuclear power to offset carbon emissions is overwhelmingly popular with the American public. 19-22 by Bisconti Research Inc. Eighty-four percent of those polled agreed that the USA should take advantage of all low-carbon energy sources including nuclear. A survey of 1000 US citizens carried out by Bisconti Research and published by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) found broad support for possible future nuclear construction projects. 76 percent of Americans approve of federal loan guarantees for companies “that build solar. http://www. if needed.” Only 18 percent of those surveyed do not support the use of federal incentives for this purpose. solar. Americans voiced strong support for some of the specific mechanisms that Congress has approved to help stimulate construction of new electric-generating facilities. it’s not surprising that they voice such high levels of support for government assistance for carbon-free energy technologies. with GfK and has a margin of error of plus or minus three percentage points. with nearly 80% feeling that financial incentives such as tax credits should be used to help push the development of such technologies. according to a new national survey of 1. http://www. and even stronger support for the use of federal incentives to promote the development carbon-free energy technologies including advanceddesign nuclear power plants.000 adults. if a new power plant were needed to supply electricity. hydro and renewable energy. while economic growth was selected by 40 percent of those surveyed. Nov. the survey found. The survey shows that 79 percent of Americans believe “it is appropriate for the federal government to provide some financial assistance to jump-start nuclear. while 59% agreed that the US should "definitely" build more nuclear power plants. while US citizens are firmly in favour of federal incentives for the development of carbon-free energy options including nuclear. The survey showed that 78 percent of Americans approve of government tax credits “as an incentive to companies to build solar. 66 percent agreed. with the proportion of people "strongly" in favour. with 33% opposing it. In a national survey conducted last April.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Elections Links. only 20 percent disapprove. Overall. double the 14% who described themselves as strongly opposed to nuclear. 43 .” said Bisconti Research President Ann Bisconti. “Given the priority status that Americans affix to air quality concerns.prefer our specific evidence NEI 07 (Nuclear Energy Institute. Last April. In the new survey. Energy security was ranked first or second by 42 percent of respondents. 2008. Opinion favours nuclear. Some 78% agreed that electricity companies should be preparing now so that nuclear plants could be built in the next decade.org/NPOpinion_favours_nuclear_2904089.” Again.” Only 20 percent disapprove. Eight of 10 Americans Support Federal Incentives to Jump-Start Carbon-Free Energy Technologies. ( ) Nuclear super popular with the public WNN 08 (World Nuclear News. Similarly. 5. A majority of Americans rank the threat of climate change and air pollution as top energy-related concerns.
He told reporters at a news conference that a pending Senate bill on climate change. but Obama has signaled no additional atomic aid. is there are no federal incentives to help defray the costs.” he said. LN) The presidential election may be key to nuclear's revival.5 billion for loans -. explain what her company is doing to minimize its impact on the climate. McCain a big supporter.though the approval process can be far longer -.com/washwire/2008/05/13/mccain-raises-concerns-about-subsidies-for-solar-power/) Sen." 44 . June 23. a senior director at credit rater Fitch.5 Bil In Loan Guarantees.and cost billions of dollars each. Not so fast. Costs vary depending on how much electricity the power plants generate.” she said. He said over-subsidization of the solar industry in the 1970s led to “some pretty shoddy material. though he has supported incentives for nuclear power plants and thinks more federal support is needed to encourage the industry. “When government jumps in and distorts the market. $18. The problem. doesn't get you too far. Presidential Divide There is an assumption that the government will offer more loan guarantees. solar.” McCain replied that he preferred for the federal government to invest in research and development." said Robert Hornick. which he hails as a clean technology that can help reduce carbon emissions. chief energy policy adviser to the Obama campaign. the outdoor recreation and clothing cooperative. 2008. May 13. which would establish industry limits on emissions that he favors. "So you can see how the federal loan guarantee program. New Nuclear Plants Are On Their Way. “It doesn’t go far enough as far as nuclear power is concerned in my estimation. “There isn’t anything significant on the federal side to help us make the right decisions. With banks short of capital. 2008. http://blogs. McCain listened to the chief executive of REI. John McCain made clear today that he is not comfortable with subsidies for solar power. but that it likely will be “consistent with” past measures he has supported that would have directed hundreds of millions of dollars to the construction of new nuclear plants. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorized loan guarantees for several technologies.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi McCain Solves the Aff ( ) McCain would provide incentives to the industry WSJ 08 (Wall Street Journal. "(Obama) believes that the loan guarantees in the current act were substantial and sufficient. Congress has authorized $42. including coal. she said. An aide to the Arizona senator said Tuesday that McCain hasn’t decided exactly what form of support is needed. Democrat Barack Obama isn't likely to support extending loan guarantees. ( ) McCain solves the aff Krause 08 (Reinhardt Krause. the availability of low-interest rate government credit is vital to large-scale projects like nuclear plants. which have helped push up the price of corn and increase the price of food. than the rain-soaked one he was in at the moment). says Jason Grumen.” he said. Wash. They take 4-5 years to build -. McCain Raises Concerns About Subsidies for Solar Power. “I’m a little wary–I have to give you straight talk–about government subsidies.5 billion.” But he does support help for nuclear power plants. Investor’s Business Daily.. With Federal Help. "He is eager to make sure that the (DOE) acts efficiently to move forward with those loan guarantees but he believes that nuclear power has received more than fair treatment in recent legislation. then there’s unintended consequences as well as intended. He asked her a simple question: “What do you want me to do?” Sally Jewel replied. not subsidies. At a roundtable conducted in the foggy foothills of the Cascade Mountains in North Bend.” and went on to explain that REI plans to open 10 solar-powered stores in Arizona.$18. “It’s a great question.wsj. Republican John McCain wants 45 new nuclear reactors by 2030.5 billion for nuclear. with $18. "The range seems to be between $6 billion or $7 billion to $10 billion to build one plant. needs to add more help for nuclear power. California and Oregon (in sunnier markets." Others put the per-plant cost at $5 billion to $8 billion. He cited his long-time opposition to ethanol subsidies.” he said. wind and nuclear." Grumen said. she noted. “We’re trying to do the right thing without really any incentives. Hornick says.
Violation. not an alternative energy. and wind power.uk/wps/media/objects/2768/2834452/glossary/glossary. Standards1. geothermal energy.co.pearsoned. 2. C. 45 . D. solar energy. It’s a voter for competitive equity and education.Alternative energy is an energy to replace fossil fuels or nuclear power Pearson Education 01 (http://wps. (Chapter 10) B.Nuclear power is a current energy source. tidal power. Limits.including current forms of energy limits our generic disad links and counterplans.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Topicality 1NC.allowing increases in current forms of energy explodes the topic and doubles the research burden for the neg. The sources generally have low pollution implications and use renewable resources.html) alternative energy Energy obtained from sources other than fossil fuels or nuclear power. for example biogas. Ground. Interpretation.Alternative Energy = Not Nuclear A. hydroelectric power.
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