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Nuclear Power Shared Negative
Solvency Frontline.......................................................................................................................................................................................3 Solvency Frontline.......................................................................................................................................................................................4 Solvency Frontline.......................................................................................................................................................................................5 Ext #1 - Status Quo Solves the Case............................................................................................................................................................6 Ext #2 - Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve........................................................................................................................................................7 Ext #2 - Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve........................................................................................................................................................8 Ext #2- Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve.........................................................................................................................................................9 Ext #3 - Long Timeframe..........................................................................................................................................................................10 Ext #4 - Shortages......................................................................................................................................................................................11 Ext #5 - Defaults........................................................................................................................................................................................12 Case Turns.................................................................................................................................................................................................13 Terrorism Turn...........................................................................................................................................................................................13 Ext- Nuclear Power -> Terrorism..............................................................................................................................................................14 Accidents Turn...........................................................................................................................................................................................15 Ext- Nuclear Power -> Accidents..............................................................................................................................................................16 Proliferation Turn.......................................................................................................................................................................................17 Environmental Racism Turn......................................................................................................................................................................18 Imperialism Turn.......................................................................................................................................................................................19 Tradeoff Turn.............................................................................................................................................................................................20 Economy Advantage Frontline..................................................................................................................................................................21 Economy Advantage Frontline..................................................................................................................................................................22 Ext #1 - Nuclear Energy Expensive...........................................................................................................................................................23 AT: CO2 Internal Link...............................................................................................................................................................................24 Warming Advantage Frontline..................................................................................................................................................................25 Ext #1- Too Slow.......................................................................................................................................................................................26 Ext #2A – Nuclear Power Emits C02 .......................................................................................................................................................27 Ext #2B - Can’t Build Enough Plants........................................................................................................................................................28 Free Market Counterplan Solvency...........................................................................................................................................................29 States Counterplan Solvency.....................................................................................................................................................................30 Carbon Tax Counterplan............................................................................................................................................................................31 Solvency Extensions..................................................................................................................................................................................32 Politics-Agenda Bad Net Benefit...............................................................................................................................................................33 AT: Counterplan Hurts the Economy........................................................................................................................................................34 Economy DA Links...................................................................................................................................................................................35 Spending DA Links....................................................................................................................................................................................36 Spending DA Links....................................................................................................................................................................................37 Politics Links- Agenda Good....................................................................................................................................................................38 Politics Links- Agenda Good.....................................................................................................................................................................39 Politics Links- Agenda Bad.......................................................................................................................................................................40 Politics Links- Agenda Bad.......................................................................................................................................................................41 Elections Links- Plan Unpopular...............................................................................................................................................................42 Elections Links- Plan Popular....................................................................................................................................................................43 McCain Solves the Aff...............................................................................................................................................................................44 Topicality 1NC- Alternative Energy = Not Nuclear..................................................................................................................................45
JDI 08 Murray/Naputi
JDI 08 Murray/Naputi
1. Loan guarantees for nuclear power are already in place
CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office, “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity,” May 2008, http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear.pdf) Current energy policy, especially as established and expanded under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), provides incentives for building additional capacity to generate electricity using innovative fossil-fuel technologies and an advanced generation of nuclear reactor designs that are intended to decrease costs and improve safety.2 Among the provisions of EPAct that specifically apply to newly built nuclear power plants are funding for research and development; investment incentives, such as loan guarantees and insurance against regulatory delays; and production incentives, including a tax credit. Since the enactment of EPAct, about a dozen utilities have announced their intention to license about 30 nuclear plants.
2. Loan guarantees aren’t sufficient- plants may still not be built
Daks 07 (Martin C. Daks, NRG Seeks The Lead in Going Nuclear, Oct. 1, 2007, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5292/is_200710/ai_n21269535) Another federal benefit that Crane calls a "significant motivation" for NRG's decision to move ahead is a provision that lets the secretary of energy authorize loan guarantees for up to 80 percent of the cost of a nuclear plant. "We believe this will encourage banks to extend loans for projects like the Texas generators," says Crane, who adds that NRG expects to tap its own resources for about 20 percent-or $1.2 billion-of the estimated cost, with banks and capital markets making up the difference. The 2005 Energy Act also provides tax breaks for operators of new nuclear plants based on the energy they produce, and requires the federal government to indemnify operators in the event of an accident. While such provisions may add up to a sweet deal for new entrants into nuclear power, they don't guarantee that any proposed projects will actually get built. For one thing, there's plenty of opposition to nuclear power from organizations like Common Cause that question the safety of such plants and note that there is still no federal repository for federal waste.
3. Even if the process were to begin now, a nuclear plant won’t be online for 6 years
Melvin 07 (Becky Melvin, CNBC, Nuclear Energy Industry Powers Back Up, http://www.cnbc.com/id/22007461/) The Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides incentives for new electricity generation, including renewable energy and nuclear power. The three biggest draws, say companies considering nuclear plants, are production tax credits of up to $6 billion, which will likely to be divided among the first nine newly-built units; regulatory risk insurance to cover licensing delays, worth up to $2 billion; and loan guarantees, which would cover most of the financing in case any of these multi-billion dollar projects wind up in default. For an unregulated energy provider like NRG Energy, federal incentives were a primary driver in plans to move forward with two new nuclear units in Texas, says Crane. The incentives were also important to UniStar, a joint venture between Baltimore-based Constellation Energy and French
electricity group EDF. UniStar plans to submit the second half of its application for a new reactor in Maryland by March of 2008. CEO George Vanderheyden says the company is also considering an application for a new reactor in New York. In all, 21 new reactor license applications for a total of 32 units are expected between now and 2009, according to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. More than half the proposals are for the southern part of the country. The Tennessee Valley Authority submitted a request in October to build two units in Alabama; Virginia-based Dominion received early site plan approval for a unit northwest of Richmond, Va. and South Carolina Electric and Gas, a unit of SCANA, is expected to submit a request for two units in December. “Whether we go ahead with one or two units is still up in the air,” says spokesman Robert Yanity. Decisions on the first set of applications are expected by the middle of 2011, according to
NRC spokesman Scott Burnell. Construction – which takes three to four years – can begin after that, putting the first new nuclear unit in operation by mid 2014 at the earliest.
JDI 08 Murray/Naputi
4. It’s structurally impossible for the nuclear industry to expand: A. There is a big labor shortage
Lavelle 08 (Marianne Lavelle, A Worker Shortage in the Nuclear Industry, March 13, 2008, U.S. News & World Report, http://www.usnews.com/articles/business/careers/2008/03/13/a-worker-shortage-in-the-nuclear-industry_print.htm) The reason for the hurry: Big energy construction will be booming in the next decade, concentrated in the South—not only nuclear generators but coal plants, liquefied natural gas terminals, oil refineries, and electricity transmission lines. All projects need skilled craft workers, and they are in drastically short supply. The utility Southern Co. estimates that existing energy facilities already are short 20,000 workers in the Southeast. That shortfall will balloon to 40,000 by 2011 because of the new construction. Pay is inching up and hours are
increasing for workers who are certified craftsmen. Fluor says skilled workers at the Oak Grove coal project are putting in 60-hour weeks instead of the well-intoovertime 50-hour weeks that had been planned. Looking ahead, the nuclear industry views itself as especially vulnerable to the skilledlabor shortage. It hasn't had to recruit for decades. Not only were no nuke plants getting built, but workers in the 104 atomic facilities already in operation tended to stay in their well-paid jobs for years. But in the next five years, just as the industry hopes to launch a renaissance, up to 19,600 nuclear workers—35
percent of the workforce—will reach retirement age. "The shortage of skilled labor and the rising average age of workers in the electric industry are a growing concern," likely to push up the cost of nuclear power plant construction, said Standard & Poor's Rating Services in a recent report. The nuclear industry faces a different world compared with when it last was hiring three decades ago. "Parents, guidance counselors, and society in general push high school students to complete their secondary education with the intention of then attending a four-year college program," concludes a recent white paper on the Southeast workforce issues prepared by the Nuclear Energy Institute. "High-paying skilled labor jobs, once considered excellent career options, are now perceived as second class."
B. There will be uranium shortages
Harding 07 (Jim Harding, a consultant from Olympia, Washington. He's worked on a whole series of energy and environmental issues, “Council on Foreign Relations Symposium: American Nuclear Energy in a Globalized Economy, Session II: What Is the Investment Climate for Nuclear Energy?” Council on Foreign Relations, June 15, 2007, http://www.cfr.org/publication/13717/council_on_foreign_relations_symposium.html) On the uranium issue, this is a very peculiar commodity. Today, world consumption -- let me state it differently -- world production of uranium is about 60 percent of consumption. It doesn't happen in turkey, butter, milk or many other commodities. And the reason for that is that you
need to procure uranium quite a long ways in advance, and beginning sort of in the mid- to late 1970s, people had ordered a lot of reactors in the U.S., Western Europe and Russia, secured long- term contracts -- meaning seven to 10 years for uranium -- at a high price, and they cancelled the plan. So all that secondary supply came into the market, depressing the price. It was followed by privatization of centrifuge -- of enrichment in the United States. We also bought lots of surplus enriched uranium from Russia. And most recently, we are blending down or diluting surplus weapons uranium into U.S. fuel. So we're running the global nuclear industry
on a secondary supply that pops pretty quick. And it's had the unfortunate impact that existing contracts have fixed prices for uranium; the same is generally true on the enrichment side. You need to procure the product about four years in advance of burning it. We're at a price of $135 a pound, pretty much a historical peak. Utilities for the most part run out of their existing supply by 2012, 2013. They've got to get back into this market. And it's hard to tell what the long- term price will be. This is not -- it's not a physical shortage of uranium, it's a
shortage of milling capacity and also enrichment capacity. The enrichment issue was somewhat complicated, because when you go to a higher uranium price, you want to decrease the tails assay at the enrichment plant. Effectively, you reduce the output of that plant by 30 percent. We don't have the capacity to do that and meet demand. So utilities are also -- there are two possibilities. One is, utilities are going to pay -- are going to buy more uranium than they'd ideally like, or enrichers are going to use market power to the same extent that uranium miners are going to use -- based on this set of problems, we came up with significantly higher numbers in the Keystone report for future nuclear fuel. It's about three times current levels, at the low end, and about five times at the high end -- now, not a
big number, but it is a -- for a utility thinking about a building a reactor today, they have to worry at little bit about whether or not there are sufficient fuel supply and enrichment capacity out there to meet their needs, because the mines may not exist to support that purchase. You could buy it, but we've got to double enrichment and mining capacity in the next few years to meet demand, even without significant growth in this industry.
or gas-fired facilities. it has not assumed formal responsibility for one atom of fuel. A number of power companies went bankrupt. 2008.com/article. local politics. and there aren’t enough locations in the world that are safe from droughts." says Tyson Slocum. There literally aren’t enough sites for nuclear power to expand Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power. That huge startup cost might make financial sense. http://www. Over 24 nuclear plants are at risk of needing to be shut down this year because of the drought in the Southeast. given a reactor's low operating expenses.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Solvency Frontline 5. Furthermore. The federal government took responsibility for managing the fuel. NEI officials told The New York Times in July.most plants won’t be built Clayton 07 (Mark Clayton. http://www. 28.asp? idCategory=35&idsub=175&id=15414&t=Nuclear+power+needed+to+offset+environmental+laws) 4.7 billion.energypublisher. Jack Spencer is the Research Fellow in Nuclear Energy at The Heritage Foundation's Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies. 17. Put industry in control of fuel cycle management. director of energy program at Public Citizen. critics worry federal costs will be huge. 6. If nuclear power is going to have a sustainable rebirth in the U. it has completely failed in collecting the waste. NRG – the company that filed Monday's permit application – emerged from bankruptcy caused by overexpansion in the 1990s.coopamerica. The nuclear industry should establish responsibility for spent fuel management. Nuclear plants need to be located near a source of water for cooling. especially if government begins to charge utilities for the greenhouse gases they produce.000 new plants? 5 .com/2007/0928/p01s05-usgn. Nuclear power surge coming. a Congressional Budget Office analysis warned of potential default rates of 50 percent or more on new plants. While the federal government has been very successful in collecting the fee. 7. Staff Writer. Energy Publisher. And there are whole areas of the world that are unsafe because of political instability and the high risk of proliferation. The federal government would still have roles to play in terms of providing oversight and taking title of the waste once the geologic repository is decommissioned. Nuclear power needed to offset environmental laws.S. but the federal government has proven incapable of providing that service. despite being legally obliged to do so beginning in 1998. no nuclear power. or other potential disasters that could trigger a nuclear accident. http://www. and nuclear energy producers were supposed to pay for the service through a fee. In short.000 -. Those that were finished were delayed for years and cost far more than estimated. if we need to build 17. geography. The Energy Policy Act of 1982 created a framework for managing used nuclear fuel. The reason is that nuclear power plants are far more expensive to build than coal.. Indeed. Nuclear power won’t be sustainable without a solution for spent fuel Spencer 08 (Jack Spencer. let alone. How could we get enough communities on board to accept the grave risks of nuclear power. Nuclear power is virtually emission-free. hurricanes. in part because of fears caused by the accident at Three Mile Island. Ralph Nader's consumerprotection group. Defaults likely. "This is the second or third 'nuclear renaissance' I've seen. Christian Science Monitor. filed its application with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to build two reactors in Texas at a cost between $5. due to all of the other strikes against nuclear power. Sept. For example: On Monday. which in turn reduces the number of feasible sites for nuclear power plants. flooding. Not enough sites – Scaling up to 17. New Jersey-based NRG Energy Corp. There are many communities around the country that simply won’t allow a new nuclear plant to be built – further limiting potential sites. many communities will actively fight against nuclear plants coming into their town.html) The nuclear industry has already put Congress on notice that it could require loan guarantees of at least $20 billion for planned projects – and more later.4 and $6. If defaults occur in the new round. But the last time that the nuclear industry was on a building spree – in the 1980s – roughly half of the power plants proposed were never finished." In 2003.cfm) 6.csmonitor. earthquakes. No water. In late 2003. but what happens to the fuel between the time it leaves the reactor and the time it is permanently disposed should be in the hands of industry. there are not enough sites for a scaled up nuclear power strategy.500 or 3. Remember that climate change is causing stronger storms and coastal flooding. 2007.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear.000 – or 2.nuclear plants isn’t possible simply due to the limitation of feasible sites. June 3. the nuclear waste problem must be fixed. "When you look at the cost of these plants and the massive financial subsidies by US taxpayers. I think that money would be better invested in cheaper sources of emissions-free power that don't have the fatal flaws nuclear power does. political instability and climate change itself.
nuclear power industry. the outlook recently has been improving for the U. Hillary Clinton. Science. http://publicutilities. natural gas.S. Sept.the next president will support nuclear power Miller 07 (William H. despite differences over energy policy.utah.org/issues/nuclear-energy-policy/) Nevertheless.Y. Resources. Financing the next generation of nuclear power plants. ( ) Status quo solves.. Nuclear plants generate more than half the electricity in six states.. and Industry Division. Sens. several presidential candidates recognize the need for additional nuclear power.S. after a 22-year shutdown and $1. electricity generation.. and John McCain. nuclear power plants is greater than that from oil. (That number includes TVA’s Browns Ferry 1. 2007. which currently comprises 104 licensed reactors at 65 plant sites in 31 states. The near-record 823 billion kilowatt-hours of nuclear electricity generated in the United States during 2006 was more than the nation’s entire electrical output in the early 1960s. Barack Obama. and behind only coal. McCain says there is "no way that you could ever seriously attack the issue of greenhouse gas emissions without nuclear power. 2007. when the first large-scale commercial reactors were being ordered. Specialist in Energy Policy." 6 . which accounts for more than half of U. which restarted May 22. and anybody who tells you differently is not telling the truth.) Electricity production from U.8 billion refurbishment. “Nuclear Energy Policy.pdf) It's encouraging to know that.Status Quo Solves the Case ( ) Nuclear power inevitable Holt 07 (Mark Holt.” July 12. Miller is a professor at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute at the University of Missouri and at the University's research reactor. D-N. and hydropower.gov/news/financingthenextgenerationofnuclearpowerplants.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #1 . R-Ariz.sefora. D-Ill. http://sharp.S. 2007. support federal incentives to power companies to build more nuclear plants. 23.
April 24. in 1975 and the meltdown at Three Mile Island in 1979.Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve ( ) Loan guarantees empirically haven’t inspired nuclear power expansion Parenti 08 (Christian Parenti. 2008. Before ground is broken for the first new plant. The fundamental fact is that nuclear power is too expensive and risky to attract the necessary commercial investors. many in the industry expect Congress to clarify the rules to provide more generous guarantees.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2 . The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expects up to thirty applications to be filed to build atomic plants. Most of these projects are expected to be financed by bonds.there are problems in how they are applied Schoen 07 (John Schoen. ( ) An increase in loan guarantees is inadequate. All of which raises the question: why is the much-storied "nuclear renaissance" so slow to get rolling? Who is holding up the show? In a nutshell. But that critical guarantee has already hit a serious snag. But consider this: the average two-reactor nuclear power plant is estimated to cost $10 billion to $18 billion to build.com/id/16286304/) Nukes for sale But it’s far from clear that this new round of plants will ever be built. To do that. MSNBC. five or six of those proposals are moving through the complicated multi-stage process. began construction in 1973 and took twenty-three years to complete.msnbc. Congress has provided loan guarantees for 80 percent of the financing for the first several projects to win NRC approval. Senior Producer. the first plants won’t come online before 2014 and will cost an estimated $4 billion each. nuclear power has not recovered from the crisis that hit it three decades ago with the reactor fire at Browns Ferry. But no new atomic power stations have been fully licensed or have broken ground. they face several important hurdles. the TVA's Watts Bar 1. http://www. the power industry will have to convince state regulators and investors that the numbers add up. it is difficult or almost impossible to get proper financing and insurance." the Bush Administration has pushed one package of subsidies after another.com/doc/20080512/parenti) In an effort to jump-start a "nuclear renaissance. these projects would be financed with 80 percent debt and 20 percent cash or equity put up by the owner of the plant. Nuclear power has been in steady decline worldwide since 1984. Even with vast government subsidies. The massive federal subsidies on offer will cover up to 80 percent of construction costs of several nuclear power plants in addition to generous production tax credits. “You had a lot of people who voted for the (Energy Policy Act of 2005) that have a pet project at home that they thought they were arranging a loan guarantee for. "Wall street doesn't like nuclear power. Using that math. Even if all goes as proponents hope. with almost as many plants canceled as completed since then.” 7 . Last year's appropriations bill set the total amount on offer at $18. Does nuclear power now make financial sense?. Congress to the rescue? Though the current interpretation of the rules could throw cold water on efforts to raise money. the energy industry analyst.” said Tezak. And two newly proposed projects have just been shelved.5 billion. That could be more risk than Wall Street is ready to assume — especially for the projects that go first. http://www. as well as risk insurance. For the past two years a program of federal loan guarantees has sat waiting for utilities to build nukes. The fact is.thenation. The last nuclear power plant ordered by a US utility. Alabama. Typically. “But it has the potential to be a deal breaker.msn." says Arjun Makhijani of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research. and no US nuclear power plant has ever been delivered on time or on budget. the loan guarantee — 80 percent of 80 percent — will only cover about two-thirds of the total cost. To help reassure investors that the bonds are a safe investment. What Nuclear Renaissance?. That's before cost overruns. But federal officials in charge of loan guarantees have interpreted the law to mean that those guarantees apply only to the debt portion of the financing package. blame Warren Buffett and the banks--they won't put up the cash. Then came what seemed to be the coup de grâce: Chernobyl in 1986. And now the Lieberman-Warner climate change bill is gaining momentum and will likely accrue amendments that will offer yet more money.
Lovins notes that the U. which implies that investors’ equity would cover the remaining 20 percent—would most likely reduce the levelized cost of new nuclear capacity by about 10 percent. and some nations like Germany are looking to phase out existing atomic plants. argues in a report released last week that a massive new push for nuclear power doesn't make dollars or cents. and staff remain absent. not to mention the huge liability risk of an accident — the insurance industry won't cover a nuclear plant.pdf) A provision of the Senate bill exempts DOE’s loan guarantee program from Sec.00. The 30 plants currently being proposed use five reactor designs. If adopted. in the case of nuclear technology.5 billion for each plant (depending on the size of the reactor). At the same time. while the nuclear workforce has aged and shrunk.5 ( ) The Department of Energy doesn’t have the resources to implement the loan guarantee program EESI 07 (Environmental and Energy Study Institute.Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve ( ) Most utilities won’t be eligible for guarantees CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office.1812540. (The President’s budget proposed a limit of $18. Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?.pdf) The maximum coverage available under the loan guarantee program—a guarantee on debt covering 80 percent of a plant’s construction costs. nuclear industry has received $100 billion in government subsidies over the past half-century. the cleanest fossil fuel — but nuclear energy still seems like the power of yesterday. this provision removes Congressional authority and the safeguards in place through the appropriation process.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. That reverse is chiefly due to safety concerns — the lingering Chernobyl fears of nuclear meltdown. a new nuclear power plant hasn't come on line in the U.)4 The loan guarantee program could encourage investors to choose relatively risky projects over more certain alternatives because they would be responsible for only about 20 percent of a project’s costs but would receive 100 percent of the returns that exceeded costs. The Department of Energy has indicated that it will deny a utility’s application for a loan guarantee if the project is not deemed to be both innovative (essentially. Nuclear supporters like Moore who argue that atomic plants are much cheaper than renewables tend to forget the sky-high capital costs. Is Nuclear Power Viable?. procedures. Initial analyses of the loan guarantee program have shown that DOE lacks the infrastructure necessary to effectively implement its program. 30. and that no more than three plants based on each advanced reactor design can be considered innovative. Reports from the GAO and DOE’s Office of the Inspector General state that the necessary policies. the price of building a plant — all that concrete and steel — has risen dramatically in recent years. to say the least. There's no question that a nuclear plant. Oct. once it's up and running.org/briefings/2007/energy_climate/10-30-07_loan_guarantees/Nuclear_LGP_Issue_Brief_2007. as they pose potentially significant risks and high costs to America’s taxpayers.S. http://www. produces comparatively little carbon dioxide — a British government report last year found that a nuclear plant emits just 2% to 6% of the CO2 per kilowatt-hour as natural gas. But to Amory Lovins — a veteran energy expert and chairman of the Rocky Mountain Institute — there's a much better green reason to be against nuclear power: economics. "Wall Street has spoken — nuclear power isn't worth it. and that federal subsidies now worth up to $13 billion a plant — roughly how much it now costs to build one — still haven't encouraged private industry to back the atomic revival.com/time/health/article/0. a commitment that has not been proposed. 2008. titled "The Nuclear Illusion.cbo. won't do the trick either.time.5 billion [in nominal dollars] on the cumulative amount of loan guarantees for new nuclear plants over the 2008–2011 period. which many on Capitol Hill are pushing for. 2007.S. But not all prospective nuclear plants would necessarily receive a guarantee of debt covering 80 percent of construction costs because the criteria for qualifying are restrictive.” May 2008. More nuclear subsidies. the nuclear industry attracted nothing. since 1996. let alone funded. After a burst of construction between the 1950s and late 1970s. June 6. 8 ." he says. Under the base-case assumptions. for DOE to write unlimited loan guarantees without Congressional oversight." he points out that while the red-hot renewable industry — including wind and solar — last year attracted $71 billion in private investment. In his study. Lovins. http://www. covering 80 percent of construction costs would require guaranteeing debt with a face value of $4. In addition. Providing the maximum coverage to three plants based on each of the five reactor designs would result in roughly $100 billion in loan guarantees. a plant design that has not been built in the United States) and commercially viable. but McCain's idea of a crash construction program to build hundreds of new nuclear plants in near future seems just as unrealistic. Conservatives like Republican presidential candidate John McCain tend to promote nuclear power because they don't think carbon-free alternatives like wind or solar could be scaled up sufficiently to meet rising power demand. The Senate provision allows. among other things. an environmentalist who is unusually comfortable with numbers. and shifts the financial risk from private lenders to taxpayers.8599. just because a plant is considered both innovative and commercially viable does not mean it will receive the maximum guarantee of 80 percent. raising questions about DOE’s ability to manage its loan guarantee program. or the fact that we still have yet to devise a long-term method for the disposal of atomic waste. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity.eesi.5 billion to $7. 504(b) of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (FCRA).html) That's debatable. This Issue Brief explores these issues raised by the 2007 energy bill provisions. so it's up to government to do so. http://www. 15 of those plants would qualify as innovative.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2 . ( ) Incentives won’t revive nuclear power Walsh 08 (Bryan Walsh. so at most.
DOE had not taken steps to ensure that it had in place the critical policies. “In reviewing audits of past governmental loan guarantee programs. DOE initiated its loan guarantee program for innovative technologies in fiscal year 2006. paying specific attention to the lack of staff essential to implement the program. “At the time of our review a full complement of Federal staff designated to administer the loan guarantee program was not in place and plans to utilize technical experts to assist in the administration of the program had not been fully developed. 9 . procedures. DOE did begin implementation. The White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) expressed its concern about such an action. Without having received specific appropriations. it stated.Loan Guarantees Don’t Solve ( ) The Department of Energy is structurally incapable of implementing the loan guarantee programthere are a rash of bad policies and resource shortages EESI 07 (Environmental and Energy Study Institute. DOE chose to solicit preapplications prior to finalizing its regulations.eesi.31 Such findings demonstrate that the infrastructure required to carry out a successful loan guarantee program has yet to be attained at DOE. leaving much of the program’s structure and authority in question. and mechanisms necessary to ensure the program’ssuccess. the DOE Office of the Inspector General issued a report with many similar findings. 28 Along with a lack of both manpower and procedure in DOE’s loan guarantee program. In its report released in September 2007. This was prior to having appropriations or regulations in place.” though at the time of the report.org/briefings/2007/energy_climate/10-3007_loan_guarantees/Nuclear_LGP_Issue_Brief_2007. its early actions in initial stages of the program raise doubts as well about its management. “The Administration believes that it is unwise to amend that authority while the program is still in the early stages of implementation. 2007. stating. these had not yet been taken. and its approach to the LGP raised serious questions about whether this program and its financial risks would be well managed.” it found.”30 Even DOE’s own Office of the Inspector General noted prior actions by governmental agencies in similar situations were sometimes questionable.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2. Nevertheless. DOE proposed transferring funds from some of its accounts to start the program. “There are a number of additional steps that should be taken to foster the success of the loan guarantee program. Oct. we found that the agencies involved had not always exercised due diligence during critical phases of the loan guarantee process.”27 The Inspector General’s report concluded. followed by a solicitation for preapplications to the program a few months later in August. A report released by the GAO in February 2007 made note of the fact that many necessary policies and procedures for the program were still lacking: “At the time of our review. the GAO offered its review of the actions taken by DOE: “[It] should not have begun implementation of the LGP without a specific appropriation.pdf) Following the passage of EPACT 05 in 2005.”29 Similarly. DOE first proposed transferring appropriations from other appropriated DOE accounts in May 2006. http://www. Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?.”26 Likewise. 30.
com/view/nuclear-energy-an) Meserve points out that the U." said JohnMoens." he said. "There are so many things that can change in a hurry. Moens says. "Even with the rising cost of materials. Pricey Alternative: Nuclear Energy. Jun. nuclear industry specialist at the EIA ." But.pdf) The commercial viability of new nuclear capacity depends on investors’ perceptions of future market conditions and carbon dioxide constraints when investment decisions are finalized. just because of the delay in getting plants up and running. http://www.Long Timeframe ( ) It’s takes a long time for new nuclear power plants to come online CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. 2008. "but there aren't going to be any by 2015. and uncertainty about future policy on carbon dioxide emissions—indicates that a wide range of costs are plausible for each of the technologies considered. just because companies are applying to build new plants." If costs don't come down. A combination of factors—recent volatility in construction costs and natural gas prices. and some may never be built Sood 08 (Suemedha Sood . “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. according to the Energy Information Administration.washingtonindependent. the commercial viability of a new plant would depend on anticipated market conditions and policy outcomes over the operating life of the plant. nuclear power’s history of construction cost overruns. that waiting period could stretch out much longer. So far. which may exceed 40 years. At that point. "it sounds like more companies are getting interested in building the reactors and the list of companies that [the government] anticipates will apply has been growing rather than shrinking. Those ranges demonstrate that the future competitiveness of each technology and thus the conclusions presented in this analysis are quite uncertain. 10 . so the construction of the first new nuclear plants would be unlikely to start until 2010 at the earliest.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #3 . http://www. 12.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. The Washington Independent. doesn't mean those plants will definitely get built.” May 2008. ( ) Plants won’t be built for years.cbo. these obstacles haven't stopped energy companies from submitting applications to the government for new plants. is at least seven years away from any new plants getting built. Licensing and regulatory approval for building new nuclear plants in the United States are expected to take about three years." he said.S. "We might have some eight plants in place by 2020.
( ) A rapid expansion would be counterproductive.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. Scientists in both the US and UK have shown that if the current level of nuclear power were expanded to provide all the world's electricity. Oct. http://www.21 Such risks are difficult to quantify and therefore estimate. sometimes reaching over 350 percent of the estimated costs for the project. For example. 11 .the more construction the more likely there will be shortages of materials and workers EESI 07 (Environmental and Energy Study Institute.org/briefings/2007/energy_climate/10-30-07_loan_guarantees/Nuclear_LGP_Issue_Brief_2007.2 Also. As uranium supplies dwindle.000 megawatts of existing coal capacity would require hundreds of new nuclear plants.pdf) The cost to taxpayers from underestimated subsidy costs and possible loan guarantee defaults is potentially high. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity.pdf) Even if carbon dioxide charges over $45 per metric ton were implemented. prior to the start of construction. Replacing the 300. stated in a report on nuclear energy.cbo. President of the Council on Foreign Relations. it would take decades for sufficient nuclear capacity to be put in place before most utilities could consider substituting new nuclear capacity for existing coal plants. Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?. and so is the risk.3 ( ) Uranium shortages will thwart a robust nuclear energy program Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power. The capacity of the industry that builds nuclear plants and its suppliers of components is currently constrained and unlikely to expand rapidly enough for even tens of plants to be built in the next decade.20 Additional costs could also come as supplies become scarce from increased construction of nuclear power plants. 30. “The rapid rate of nuclear reactor expansion required to make even a modest reduction in global warming would drive up construction costs and create shortages in building materials. The US Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported cost overruns for the years 1966 through 1977 that ranged in each two-year period from 200 to 380 percent of the original estimated costs for construction. our uranium would be depleted in less than ten years. which produce ever more climate-change-producing emissions – resulting in a climate-change catch 22. and safety controls.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #4 .labor and steel shortages CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office.cfm) 7. the Brattle Group (a consulting firm) has pointed out that the skilled labor necessary to erect power plants is in short supply and could be slow to expand if asurge in the demand for nuclear plants occurred. Not enough uranium – Even if we could find enough feasible sites for a new generation of nuclear plants. In its history within the United States.coopamerica. 2007. nuclear plants will actually begin to use up more energy to mine and mill the uranium than can be recovered through the nuclear reactor process.Shortages ( ) Building plants would take decades. http://www.” Richard Haass. we’re running out of the uranium necessary to power them. the nuclear energy industry has experienced significant cost overruns.” May 2008. the supply of steel forgings necessary to build a reactor’s containment vessel—a structure that prevents radiation from leaking into the atmosphere —is limited. trained personnel.eesi.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. dwindling supplies will trigger the use of ever lower grades of uranium. What’s more. http://www.
“This outrageous demand from the already highly subsidized nuclear industry amounts to highway robbery of U. The Congressional Budget Office has said there is a good chance that the DOE will underestimate the costs of administering these loans and that more than 50 percent of new reactor projects will default on their loan repayments.org/pressroom/release." But that's not all. http://www. The key factor accounting for the risk is that we expect that the plant would be uneconomic to operate because of its high construction costs.” 12 . http://www. taxpayers. U. According to a May 2003 Congressional Budget Office (CBO) report. U. 30.well above 50 percent. ( ) Probability of defaults are over 50%. the equivalent of six or seven new power plants.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #5 . relative to other electricity generation sources.S.S. legislative director of Public Citizen’s Energy Program. taxpayers will be fully liable for any potential shortfalls.cfm?ID=2488) These loan guarantees would put taxpayers – rather than investors – on the hook to pay back the loans should any of the plants default. ( ) Over 50% of nuclear projects will default Nayak and Taylor 03 (Navin Nayak is an environmental advocate with U.tradewatch. Oct. July 31.it’ll cost taxpayers billions Public Citizen 07 (Congress Should Not Bow to Nuclear Industry Demands for More Than $50 Billion in Loan Guarantees to Build New Nuclear Reactors.php?pub_id=3134) The most egregious proposal in the energy bill has the federal government providing loan guarantees covering 50 percent of the cost of building 8.” June 21.” said Michele Boyd. http://www.com/events/2007/10/30/loan-guarantee-provisions-in-the-2007-energy-bills-doesnuclear-power-pose-significant-taxpayer-risk-and-liability) Not only is the cost to the taxpayers potentially very high.” “With those odds. leaving taxpayers at risk. 2007.cato.hillheat. The Congressional Budget Office believes "the risk of default on such a loan guarantee to be very high -.S. Cato Institute. The nuclear industry ask is $25 billion for FY 2008 and more than that in FY 2009-more than $50 billion in two years.potentially at above market rates. 2003.Defaults ( ) Defaults likely Hill Heat 07 (Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?. this is more than the $49. This is also well over the Administration’s target of $4 billion in loan guarantees for nuclear and coal for FY 2008. The Congressional Research Service estimated that these loan guarantees alone would cost taxpayers $14 to $16 billion. 2007. so is the risk. the risk of default on loan guarantees for new nuclear plants is “very high – well above 50 percent. According to the Congressional Research Service. The bill also authorizes the federal government to enter into power purchase agreements wherein the federal government would buy back power from the newly built plants -.400 Megawatts of new nuclear power. “No Corporate Welfare for Nuclear Power.” Although the company receiving the guarantee is expected to pay the “subsidy cost” of the guarantee (the net present value of the anticipated cost of defaults).org/pub_display.S. Public Interest Research Group and Jerry Taylor is director of natural resource studies at the Cato Institute.7 billion spent by the DOE for all nuclear power R&D in the 30 years from 1973-2003. a June 2007 CBO report on the recently passed Senate energy bill concluded that it is “more likely that DOE’s loan guarantee portfolio will have more projects where the subsidy fee has been underestimated than overestimated. taxpayers will be on the hook for billions of dollars when the nuclear utilities default on their loans.
” He points out that NRC studies conclude that a serious accident at one of Indian Point’s two working reactors could cause 50.000 early fatalities.5-foot steel-reinforced concrete containment structures protecting the reactor and other radioactive materials are “among the strongest structures built by man. http://www. including misunderstanding of the manifold specific factors that contribute to terrorism's expansion. Aug. and the site is vulnerable to an airborne attack. Likewise. director of the reactor watchdog project at the Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS).JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Case Turns Terrorism Turn ( ) Terrorist attacks are likely Motavalli 04 (Jim Motavalli A Nuclear Phoenix?: Concern about Climate Change is Spurring an Atomic Renaissance. “They’re proposing a replay of a demonstrated failure. 2001. E The Environmental Magazine. considered attacking nuclear facilities. by their own admission. radiological. 28 2003. thus far at least. professor and director of Inter-University for Terrorism Studies. the religionization of politics.g. Washington Times) Last week's brutal suicide bombings in Baghdad and Jerusalem have once again illustrated dramatically that the international community failed. biological. director of Hudson Riverkeeper. regional and global security concerns. and our concerns about safety issues are heightened now that these plants are known terrorist targets. Plant operator Entergy refutes these charges.” says Paul Gunter. declares. contemporary terrorists have introduced a new scale of violence in terms of conventional and unconventional threats and impact. It is not surprising. as well as scores of other countries affected by the universal nightmare of modern terrorism surprised by new terrorist "surprises"? There are many reasons. Al Qaeda operatives have. 13 . let alone a suicidal mission. Unlike their historical counterparts. Why are the United States and Israel. Riverkeeper says that the proposed evacuation plans for the area are woefully inadequate. to understand the magnitude and implications of the terrorist threats to the very survival of civilization itself. that on September 11. Israel and its citizens. Opponents of the nuclear renaissance point to a host of serious concerns. The internationalization and brutalization of current and future terrorism make it clear we have entered an Age of Super Terrorism [e. weak punishment of terrorists. nuclear power may simply be too risky. nuclear and cyber] with its serious implications concerning national. nuclear power plants pose an unacceptable risk. and the exploitation of the media by terrorist propaganda and psychological warfare. chemical. double standards of morality.emagazine. therefore.” Alex Matthiessen. and says that the 3. terrorism causes extinction Alexander 03 (Yonah Alexander. “In the post-9/11 era.com/view/?3780) In spite of its obvious benefits. such as lack of a universal definition of terrorism. only 19 percent of Indian Point guards think they can protect the facility from a conventional assault. And according to Riverkeeper. Even the United States and Israel have for decades tended to regard terrorism as a mere tactical nuisance or irritant rather than a critical strategic challenge to their national security concerns.” ( ) And. “The financial risks have only gotten worse. despite the collapse of the Oslo Agreements of 1993 and numerous acts of terrorism triggered by the second intifada that began almost three years ago. Americans were stunned by the unprecedented tragedy of 19 al Qaeda terrorists striking a devastating blow at the center of the nation's commercial and military powers. are still "shocked" by each suicide attack at a time of intensive diplomatic efforts to revive the moribund peace process through the now revoked cease-fire arrangements [hudna].
Nuclear Power -> Terrorism ( ) Nuclear plants are easy terrorist targets Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power.cfm) 3.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. without adequate evacuation plans in the case of an emergency. In researching the security around nuclear power plants.coopamerica. Jr. What’s more. Robert Kennedy. National Security – Nuclear reactors represent a clear national security risk. 14 . found that there are at least eight relatively easy ways to cause a major meltdown at a nuclear power plant. The unfortunate fact is that our nuclear power plants remain unsecured. to point out the lack of security around nuclear plants. Remember the government response to Hurricane Katrina. Kennedy has sailed boats right into the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant on the Hudson River outside of New York City not just once but twice. and an attractive target for terrorists. http://www. and cross that with a Chernobyl-style disaster to begin to imagine what a terrorist attack at a nuclear power plant might be like.
even “off-line. http://www. ( ) That turns the case.pdf) Finally. ``One incident could put a stop to nuclear energy in the United States. Overall blackout risk increases as the number of outages increases.nirs. Nuclear Information and Resource Service. As cited above.html) Accidents at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979 and the Chernobyl plant in Ukraine in 1986 continue to shadow the industry. Since the core of a reactor continues to generate heat for years. Boyd. in part because of intermittent use. but there is an elevated risk. May 3. The loss of grid power will not necessarily trigger a nuclear crisis. station blackout contributes a full one-half of the total risk of a major reactor accident at US nuclear power stations. most often in the form of diesel generators. even though advanced reactor designs make such mishaps less likely.'' said David Lochbaum. Despite doubts. are not terribly reliable. ``Nuclear power continues to pose serious risks that are unique among the energy options being considered for reducing global-warming emissions. 2008. Nuclear energy is an enormous liability in these turbulent times. 9. nuclear reactors – all of them – depend on energy from the grid to operate.com/science/story/26864. Commission on Sustainable Development. and perhaps most compelling – hurricanes and cyclones.48 Recent years have seen an escalation in all kinds of extreme weather: intense heat.” According to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.47 When both the grid and the back-up power fail. nuclear energy making comeback. tornados. United Nations.” it is vital that emergency cooling equipment be operable around the clock. Unfortunately these generators. All of these conditions may contribute to electric grid failures. the site is said to be in “station blackout. Feb. the director of the Nuclear Safety Project at the Union for Concerned Scientists in Washington. McClatchy Newspapers. Pa.one accident could put a halt to any more nuclear expansion Boyd 08 (Robert S. drought. blizzards..JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Accidents Turn ( ) Accidents likely Olson 06 (Mary Olson. Confronting a False Myth of Nuclear Power: Nuclear Power Expansion is Not a Remedy for Climate Change. 2006.org/climate/background/climateandnukestalkunmay32006.'' warned James Miller. http://www. the chief executive of PPL Corp. Director of the Southeast Office.mcclatchydc. as a crowning point – nuclear power is not qualified to operate in extreme weather. of Allentown. which operates atomic reactors in Pennsylvania and Montana. every reactor site is equipped with back-up power. 15 . As is sensible.
with thousands poisoned by radiation. evacuation would be impossible.coopamerica. For example. and topped more than one billion dollars in cost. http://www. in both dollars and human cost – and if we were to scale up to 17.Nuclear Power -> Accidents ( ) Accidents are super likely at nuclear power plants Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power. the partial meltdown at Three Mile Island in 1979 triggered a clean-up effort that ultimately lasted for nearly 15 years.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. is it reasonable to imagine that not one of them would ever have a single meltdown? Many nuclear plants are located close to major population centers. The cost of cleaning up after one of these disasters is simply too great. 16 . If there was an accident. there’s a plant just up the Hudson from New York City.000 people.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext. The Chernobyl disaster forced the evacuation and resettlement of nearly 400.cfm) 4.000 plants. and remember that mere accidents – human error or natural disasters – can wreak just as much havoc at a nuclear power plant site. Here in the US. Accidents – Forget terrorism for a moment.
What if these nations refuse our demands? If they refuse we should destroy their industrial capacity and capture their leaders. biological.. We should demand that countries like Iraq.” Iran and North Korea are reminding us of this every day.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. Iran. should use whatever means necessary to stop our enemies from gaining the ability to kill millions of us. There is simply no way to guarantee that nuclear materials will not fall into the wrong hands ( ) Prolif leads to extinction Miller 02 (James D. http://www. for example. Had Iraq possessed atomic weapons. and not push the next generation of nuclear proliferation forward as an answer to climate change. If we want to be serious about stopping proliferation in the rest of the world.com/comment/comment-miller012302. His ability to hurt us will effectively put him beyond our military reach. or perhaps even a European city. America should refocus her foreign policy to prioritize protecting us all from atomic. Our conventional forces might even be made impotent by a nuclear-armed foe.S. and North Korea make no attempt to acquire weapons of mass destruction. Nuclear proliferation – In discussing the nuclear proliferation issue. Once a dictator has the ability to hit a U. http://www. and chemical weapons. Smith College). Libya. We should further insist on the right to make surprise inspections of these countries to insure that they are complying with our proliferation policy. January 23. we would probably have been unwilling to expel them from Kuwait. every nuclear weapons proliferation issue we dealt with was connected to a nuclear reactor program.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Proliferation Turn ( ) Expansion of nuclear power increases the risk of proliferation Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power. Here too.nationalreview.shtml) The U. we need to get serious here at home. 2002. Miller. National Security First: Stopping the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. nuclear power proponents hope that the reduction of nuclear waste will reduce the risk of proliferation from any given plant. (assistant professor of economics. Al Gore said. “During my 8 years in the White House.coopamerica. but again. with atomic weapons it will be too late for America to pressure him to give up his weapons. We can’t develop a domestic nuclear energy program without confronting proliferation in other countries. the technology is not there yet. 17 .cfm) 2. The greatest threat of extinction surely comes from the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Even the short-term survival of humanity is in doubt.S..
A small and predominantly white minority of the global population derives its power and privilege from the sufferings of vast majority of peoples of all color. The limitations imposed on people of color by poverty. of military buildups and violent aggression. restraints and limitations. in our separate prisons we are all prevented from achieving the human potential God intends for us. the effects of uncontrolled power. The danger point of self-destruction seems to be drawing even more near. privilege. We have looked at barriers and fences. the walls of racism. Fact Sheet: Nuclear Power. 1991. We are not condemned to an inexorable fate. ghettos and prisons. and greed. http://www. and powerlessness are cruel." p. stone by stone. The results of centuries of national and worldwide conquest and colonialism. institutional. All sites proposed for “temporary” and permanent storage of high level nuclear waste have been Native American lands. co-director of Crossroads. Environmental Justice. 18 . and cultural racism can be destroyed. 2007. a ministry to dismantle racism. inhuman. people of color and white people alike. It shackles the victimizer as well as the victim. The prison of racism confines us all. Nov. Brick by brick. For the sake of the world and ourselves. to the targeting of black and Hispanic communities for new uranium processing facilities to the targeting of black and Hispanic and Native American communities for “low-level” nuclear waste dumps. which are the marks of our white prison. You and I are urgently called to join the efforts of those who know it is time to tear down. subservience.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Environmental Racism Turn ( ) Nuclear power is environmental racism.net/nuclear/factsheet. But we have also seen that the walls of racism can be dismantled. The walls forcibly keep people of color and white people separate from each other. but are offered the vision and the possibility of freedom. 155-6) To study racism is to study walls. "Dismantling Racism: The Continuing challenge to White America. ( ) Racism should be rejected Barndt 91 (Joseph Barndt.energyjustice. the prison of individual. and unjust.it disproportionately affect communities of color Ewall 07 (Mike. once and for all. of overconsumption and environmental destruction may be reaching a point of no return. from the mining of uranium on Native American and Aboriginal lands.pdf) Nuclear power disproportionately affects communities of color. will inevitably destroy us as well. we dare not allow it to continue.
Also. 2007 issue that Dick Cheney has been mulling a plan to convince the Israeli’s to bomb the Iranian nuclear power plant at Natanz.S. Why is Uncle Sam so Committed to Nuclear Power?. 4. Keep in mind that the Bush regime has no legitimate reasons for attacking Iran. Newsweek reported in its October 1. If you are dependent on nuclear power for electricity and you are dependent on us for reactor fuel.S. Arguably. http://www. hoping to provoke the Iranians into striking back so that the U.co.S. I doubt if they would stay idle while the US conquered Iran. some may be drawn into a major war that could spread beyond the middle east. Pakistan and other Islamic states may erupt if the US slaughters millions of Muslims with nuclear weapons. wind and other renewable energy alternatives lend themselves to smallscale. The Iraq war made the Bush regime war criminals. Witness North Korea. It provide a rationale for a large centralized bureaucracy and tight military and police security to thwart terrorists. you are in our pocket. we’ve already devoted $800 billion to splendid little wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. nuclear reactors can provide excuses to invade and bomb when no other excuses exist. at least partly to secure U. Uncle Sam’s desperate attempts to revive nuclear power can perhaps best be understood as part of that ongoing effort at oil recovery.S. Iran wants nuclear power plants partly to show how sophisticated and capable it has become. serving to further unite much of the Arab world against us. So perhaps Uncle Sam considers it worth investing a few hundred billion dollars of taxpayer funds to keep this all-purpose Swiss army knife of U. Even so. oil supplies. 19 .celsias. nuclear power is preferable to renewable-energy alternatives because it is extremely capital-intensive and the people who provide the capital get to control the machine and the energy it provides. On the other hand. Who knows where that could lead? Then I think of the present situation in the Middle East. the war momentum and slaughter can trigger a sequence of disastrous actions and reactions that can spiral out of control. In the past five years.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Imperialism Turn ( ) Nuclear power is the epitome of U.htm) If Bush is not stopped and launches the attack. They have a special appeal around the world because they have become double-edged symbols of modernity. The Bush-Chaney regime have been compared to desparate cornered animals who will resort to any crime to survive. 2007. So clearly there are more important uses for nuclear power than just making electricity. as we have seen. Oct. foreign policy — being offered.scoop. solar. This kind of central control can act as a powerful counterweight to excessive democratic tendencies in any country that buys into nuclear power. like shiny toy guns that can be loaded with real bullets. I’m not making this up.S.com/2007/10/04/why-is-uncle-sam-so-committed-to-reviving-nuclear-power/) So why is Uncle Sam hell-bent on reviving nuclear power? I don’t have a firm answer and can only speculate. And now something similar is unfolding in Iran. anymore than it had for attacking Iraq. They are now desparate and selfjustifying criminals wrappped in the flag and other symbols of patriotism. Saddam Hussein started down the road to nuclear power until the Israelis bombed to smithereens the Osirak nuclear plant he was building in 1981. they have less than 30% of Americans supporting them. leading to US control of middle east oil resources. And.nz/stories/HL0701/S00362. political control becomes a powerful (though unstated) part of the bargain. Both Russia and China have strong defence links with Iran and each have nuclear weapon arsenals. nuclear reactors have become essential tools of U. and partly to thumb its nose at the likes of Don Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney — and perhaps to try to draw us into another war that would indelibly mark us for the next hundred years as enemies of Islam. imperialism and causes a strike on Iran Montague 07 (Peter Montague. foreign policy available in our back pocket.S. That ended his dalliance with nuclear power and nuclear weapons — but that didn’t stop Don Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney from using Saddam’s nuclear history as an excuse to invade his country and string him up. ( ) Striking Iran would escalate into global nuclear war Ross 07 (Larry is the Secretary/Founder of The New Zealand Nuclear Free Peacemaking Association. Because of this special characteristic. and bargained over. It manufactured excuses and lies to attack Iraq and is now engaged in doing the same to justify the attack on Iran. Perhaps from the viewpoint of both Washington and Wall Street. would then have an excuse to bomb Iran. Is this kind of thinking totally nuts? I don’t think so. withheld. There are 8 to 9 nuclear weapon states. or one of its close allies for delivery of fuel and removal of radioactive wastes. Bush claims God directs him. they have enormous appeal and can provide enormous bargaining power. http://www. Particularly if they sign a contract with the U. independent installations under the control of local communities or even households.
solar.thenation. geothermal and tidal kinetics to build a green power grid.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Tradeoff Turn ( ) Nuclear buildup would trade off with better forms of energy Parenti 08 (Christian Parenti. public safety will continue to be menaced by problems at new as well as older plants. What Nuclear Renaissance?. helps keep people distracted. April 24. 2008. But there will be no massive nuclear renaissance. http://www. Talk of such a renaissance.com/doc/20080512/parenti) This much seems clear: a handful of firms might soak up huge federal subsidies and build one or two overpriced plants. however. their minds off the real project of developing wind. While a new administration might tighten regulations. 20 .
http://blogs. It’s the Economics.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Economy Advantage Frontline 1. Progress Energy Inc. Everybody from John McCain to Newt Gingrich to Patrick Moore is pitching more nuclear power as a zero-emissions answer to America’s energy needs.greenpeace. The original cost estimate was $45 billion. and renewable energy isn’t immune. and FPL Group Inc. 2008.S. double to quadruple earlier rough estimates. but the projected cost is causing some sticker shock: $5 billion to $12 billion a plant. High construction costs will translate into high electricity prices Johnson 08 (Keith Johnson. said Jim Hempstead. unless substantial carbon dioxide charges were imposed. the Tennessee Valley Authority's Watts Bar reactor took almost 23 years to build and cost nearly $8 billion. May 19. It has been the nuclear industry's inability to manage the construction and operation of its nuclear reactors that has solidified public opposition to nuclear power in the United States. Three Mile Island ghosts. since 1973. nuclear power became an economic disaster. nuclear power program ranks as the largest managerial disaster in business history.. Chronic escalation of construction costs coupled with high operation and maintenance costs have sealed nuclear power's economic fate. http://www. Rebecca Smith reports today in the WSJ (sub reqd. Even the bean counters can’t keep pace. The actual cost was $145 billion! Forbes magazine recognized that this "failure of the U. —skyrocketing construction costs. Part of the cost escalation is bad luck. utilities have canceled almost as many nuclear reactors as they have constructed.wsj." However. The question. or environmental protesters. is the same: Who’s going to pay for it? 21 ." 2. steel and copper.. amid a growing shortage of skilled labor. "only the blind.org/usa/news/nuclear-reactors-are-an-expens) At the dawn of the nuclear era. It matters because nuclear power’s ability to provide electricity at a competitive price compared to regular sources like coal and natural gas depends largely on those construction costs. Stupid: Nuclear Power’s Bogeyman. The dramatic decrease in nuclear construction can be directly tied to the meltdown at Three Mile Island. Though all power sectors are affected to different degrees by rising capital costs.S. they win when legislation penalizes carbon-heavy sectors like coal (and even natural gas). Even while acknowledging that historical costs for nuclear plants always doubled or tripled their initial estimates. or the biased. The last nuclear reactor to be constructed in the United States was completed in 1996..) on the biggest hurdle to the nascent nuclear-energy revival in the U." According to Forbes. Notes the paper: A new generation of nuclear power plants is on the drawing boards in the U. nuclear power is actually in decline in the United States. the head of the Atomic Energy Commission predicted that nuclear power would supply "electrical energy too cheap to meter. Plants are being proposed in a period of skyrocketing costs for commodities such as cement. Exelon Corp. No nuclear reactors have been ordered and subsequently completed in the U. Department of Energy compared nuclear construction cost estimates to the actual final costs for 75 reactors. either—and the nuclear power industry enjoys healthy loan guarantees and other federal subsidies designed precisely to alleviate those kinds of uncertainties. May 12. the meltdown at Three Mile Island and the explosion at Chernobyl irreparably altered the image of nuclear power.S. The paper notes: Estimates released in recent weeks by experienced nuclear operators — NRG Energy Inc. though.S. Over the last five years.S. It’s economics. the CBO took heart from promises made by manufacturers of next-generation reactors and a single on-time and on-budget project in Japan to project cheaper nuclear construction costs in the future. Why is that such a big deal? Coal plants have been shelved recently because of rising capital costs. — “have blown by our highest estimate” of costs computed just eight months ago. Since nuclear plants don’t emit CO2. causing this prediction to prove false. The Congressional Budget Office just finished a rosy-glasses report on nuclear economics. Not exactly electricity "too cheap to meter. Fuel costs for nuclear power are miniscule. The horrific images of the Chernobyl disaster and the ever-growing death toll are a constant reminder of the dangers of nuclear power." Despite talk of a renaissance. can now think the money has been well spent. a senior credit officer at Moody’s Investors Service credit-rating agency in New York. Wall Street Journal. nuclear power’s vulnerability puts it in a class by itself. and against the backdrop of a shrunken supplier network for the industry. nuclear capacity would probably be an unattractive investment even with EPAct incentives. a disaster of monumental scale.com/environmentalcapital/2008/05/12/its-the-economics-stupid-nuclear-powers-bogeyman/) It turns out nuclear power’s biggest worry isn’t Yucca Mountain. Southern Co. And if those cost estimates are wrong? From the CBO: If those factors turned out not to reduce construction costs in the United States.. 2003. U. When construction costs skyrocketed and operation and management costs spiraled out of control. the risks of nuclear power are only part of the problem. The U. However. The only way to handicap the field in nuclear power’s favor is to put a big price tag on emissions of carbon dioxide. cost estimates for new nuclear power plants have been continually revised upward.S. Nuclear energy is extremely expensive and unreliable Greenpeace 03 (Nuclear Reactors are an Expensive and Dangerous Source of Electricity.
The first cells were used to power space satellites. Through the ensuing half-century.com/articles/business/careers/2008/03/13/a-worker-shortage-in-the-nuclear-industry_print. without the need for taxpayer guarantees or government-backed catastrophic liability insurance. Not only were no nuke plants getting built. So in 1957. The nuclear industry faces a different world compared with when it last was hiring three decades ago. but workers in the 104 atomic facilities already in operation tended to stay in their well-paid jobs for years. Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission--promised electricity that would be "too cheap to meter. Congress passed the Price-Anderson Act." 4. But in the next five years. and that a "new generation" of reactors will somehow reverse a half-century of catastrophic economics." The pledge has turned into the biggest lie in U.000 workers in the Southeast. The scale of the During the deregulation crisis of 1999-2001. the first of these plants is already two years behind schedule and $2 billion over budget. Dwight Eisenhower chose nuclear power instead. Solar. The industry promised that improving technology would entice private insurance companies to take the risk. Nuclear power is a huge drain on the economy NukeFree. Nuclear power can’t increase jobs. New Hampshire for a total of $250 million turned into one for $7 billion. The key decision was made in 1953. http://www.usnews.000 by 2011 because of the new construction. http://www. Looking ahead.htm) The reason for the hurry: Big energy construction will be booming in the next decade. the nuclear industry views itself as especially vulnerable to the skilledlabor shortage. estimates that existing energy facilities already are short 20. News & World Report. March 13. That shortfall will balloon to 40.S. Pay is inching up and hours are increasing for workers who are certified craftsmen. Pledging to share the Peaceful Atom worldwide. And the renewable energy industry on which Eisenhower turned his back on 1953 has come of age. A year earlier. are now perceived as second class. Fluor says skilled workers at the Oak Grove coal project are putting in 60-hour weeks instead of the well-intoovertime 50-hour weeks that had been planned. In an essentially military decision. Far from being cheap or reliable. Reactor owners argued that nuclear power was too expensive to compete in a deregulated market. liquefied natural gas terminals. It hasn't had to recruit for decades. In 1953. And despite today's hype about new designs. Overall.org 07 (Atomic Economics. up to 19. no private company will assume the risk for new reactors either. and electricity transmission lines. decades late.S. just as the industry hopes to launch a renaissance. financial history. But even with huge government subsidies. said Standard & Poor's Rating Services in a recent report. The utility Southern Co. can be installed quickly. "collapse" was "appalling.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Economy Advantage Frontline 3. and that they were owed compensation for having risked their capital on an experiment that failed." 22 . All projects need skilled craft workers. and helps solve rather than worsen the global warming crisis." likely to push up the cost of nuclear power plant construction. The two reactors proposed in the 1960s for Seabrook. concentrated in the South—not only nuclear generators but coal plants. the industry took more than $100 billion in "stranded cost" payouts from state and federal sources. nuclear power plants have drained the American economy of hundreds of billions of dollars.org/facts/uninsurable) Fifty years ago the pushers of the "Peaceful Atom"---including Lewis Strauss. "The shortage of skilled labor and the rising average age of workers in the electric industry are a growing concern. atomic reactor construction was defined by epic cost overruns and delays. But in Finland. guidance counselors.nukefree. once considered excellent career options. no utilities would step forward to build Ike's atomic reactors. Wind power is far cheaper than nukes. But the prospect of making homes and offices energy self-sufficient with PV rooftop installations was a monumental moment in technological history. Harry Truman's Blue Ribbon Paley Commission reported that the future of American energy was with renewable sources." concludes a recent white paper on the Southeast workforce issues prepared by the Nuclear Energy Institute. "High-paying skilled labor jobs. But after fifty years it hasn't happened. 2008. perfecting photovoltaic (PV) technology to the point that cells made of silicon could transform sunlight into usable electric current. Predicting 15 million solar-heated homes by 1975. the Truman Administration knew that our best route to energy independence and economic security was with green power. which made the taxpayer and the victims of any potential disaster the ultimate insurers. To invest in nukes is to throw still more good money at a bad technology. U. Forbes compared the losses on nuke power to "a commitment bigger than the space program ($100 billion) [and] the Vietnam War ($111 billion). oil refineries. "Parents. Long Island's $7 billion Shoreham operated briefly.the skilled workers just don’t exist Lavelle 08 (Marianne Lavelle. Those who do so guarantee us all fifty more years of economic chaos and energy shortfalls. and they are in drastically short supply. then shut. A Worker Shortage in the Nuclear Industry. Today the nuclear industry says all that is behind them. Eisenhower turned the US away from green power. That money could have financed green power sources that would have avoided the global warming crisis and freed the US from dependence on foreign energy sources. efficiency and conservation all have investors lining up for them. bio-fuels. and society in general push high school students to complete their secondary education with the intention of then attending a four-year college program. Bell Laboratories made an historic breakthrough.600 nuclear workers—35 percent of the workforce—will reach retirement age.
The Public Record. delaying reductions in greenhouse gases by at least a decade. and 2 to 3 times more costly than comparable power output from wind farms. the nuclear plants would not come on line for at least 10 years. Severance. 23 . Nuclear Not Only Way To Generate A Kwh.pubrecord.Nuclear Energy Expensive ( ) Nuclear energy is very expensive and won’t solve for 10 years Severance 08 (Craig A.org/index. http://www. 2008. June 19. In addition to costing far more. nuclear generating capacity is more than 12 times the price of the same power capacity in gas turbines.php?view=article&id=149%3Anuclear-not-only-way-to-generate-a-kwh-&option=com_content_) At $9 billion for an 1100 megawatt nuclear plant.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #1 .
natural gas and wind. coal costs will likely rise. Managing Editor.). professor of Economics and Sustainable Development at Yale University in New Haven. aimed at limiting the amount of carbon dioxide that power plants–among other emitters–can produce. An Economy in Tatters Over Carbon Rules? Think Again. ( ) Economic growth will be robust.com/Articles/Article_Display. 2191 suggests that even under worst-case assumptions the economy will continue to grow and "at quite a robust pace. higher efficiency coal plants will also be affected. the implicit price paid for a ton of sequestered carbon is high enough that it likely will create a "huge advantage" to advance carbon capture technology and new power plant construction.cfm? Section=ARTCL&PUBLICATION_ID=6&ARTICLE_ID=331946&C=BUSIN&dcmp=rss) Federal carbon capture legislation seems likely to be enacted within the next several years. "Coal isn't going to be replaced. it might cost as much as 3 percent of GDP" by 2030." said Yale University's Robert Repetto. An Economy in Tatters Over Carbon Rules? Think Again." said Robert Repetto." he said. however. Conn. less efficient power plants will likely look less attractive and be retired.pennnet. http://pepei.com/Articles/Article_Display. 2191 or other carbonlimiting legislation. he said. The impetus. changing the relative economics between coal. Older. despite future carbon regulations Wagman 08 (David Wagman. Lieberman-Warner will be "a very high-cost option for all Americans. the more ambitious and short term the goal the more important it is to get the political architecture right. One of the most widely discussed pieces of carbon capture legislation is the so-called "Lieberman-Warner" bill.) and John Warner (RVa. is worry over possible climate change and the affect that carbon dioxide (CO2) may be having on the global environment." 24 .cfm? Section=ARTCL&PUBLICATION_ID=6&ARTICLE_ID=331946&C=BUSIN&dcmp=rss) Much of the available analysis of S. making room for new-builds. of course. http://pepei. Second. The analyses also lay heavy stock in how future greenhouse gas-limiting policies are structured. First. he said.3 trillion by 2050. Repetto said he sees two primary economic outcomes for the electric power industry as a result of S. "We're hearing a lot of propaganda that the economy will be in tatters. Managing Editor. certainly not in the United States. president of the National Manufacturers Association was quoted as saying in a conference call with reporters earlier this year. At a minimum.S." agreed Alex Klein of Emerging Energy Research. introduced by Sens. "There are no winners under Lieberman-Warner.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi AT: CO2 Internal Link ( ) Future carbon regulations won’t hurt the economy Wagman 08 (David Wagman. probably in our lifetime. including coal-fired power plants." Not everyone agrees. While he agrees that carbon regulation will carry some costs." Kraig Naasz. the overall affect on the United States economy is likely to be relatively modest. Power Engineering. the economics of newer. One report produced for the Edison Electric Institute estimated the cost to the U. When annual economic growth rates are factored in the potential effect represents a "very small difference" to the overall economy. "The bottom line is that if (carbon regulation) is phased in over time. Joseph Lieberman (I-Conn. Carbon regulation. Much ink has been spilled debating the possible economic effects of enacting Lieberman-Warner. At the same time. gross domestic product could be $5.pennnet. Power Engineering. does not represent "the end of the United States' economic boom as we know it. "It will continue to have a significant role.
even when mining. new plants could not make a substantial contribution to reducing U. Even taking the $2 billion industry “guestimate.com/view/?3780) The uranium supply is also an issue. and that the enormous construction costs— estimated in the many trillions of dollars—would be much more effectively spent on renewable energy projects. extremely dirty coal power plants. nuclear power emits far lower levels of greenhouse gases. A massive amount of new plants are needed Motavalli 04 (Jim Motavalli A Nuclear Phoenix?: Concern about Climate Change is Spurring an Atomic Renaissance. May 3. Even with this growth. The cycle from uranium mining to milling and processing.½ the previous actual figure.” it would require trillions of dollars to implement this supposed “fix. all involve greenhouse gas emissions.500 new reactors needed to significantly offset global warming. And just one percent of that capacity would be enough to support the construction of 210 nuclear weapons per year. says Smith.org/climate/background/climateandnukestalkunmay32006.” It is plain that a similar investment in efficiency in the USA and other energy-hog nations.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Warming Advantage Frontline 1. some of the last reactors to be built (Vogtle 1 & 2) cost more than $4 billion each! The industry has recently asserted that it will be possible to build reactors for $ 2 billion31 -. In his book Insurmountable Risks: The Dangers of Using Nuclear Power to Combat Global Climate Change (IEER Press).S. but capacity is limited there. 25 . used to dissipate heat generated by the compressors. http://www.” says the Union of Concerned Scientists. emits highly destructive chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). from 16 to 20 percent over the period. Confronting a False Myth of Nuclear Power: Nuclear Power Expansion is Not a Remedy for Climate Change. when compared to fossil fuels. is speculative. this however. NIRS argues that.5 to six. A dozen new enrichment plants would produce thousands of tons of highly deadly plutonium each year. appropriate biomass and other sustainable power innovations! 2. The single remaining uranium enrichment plant in the U. global warming emissions for at least two decades. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion in Kentucky. Director of the Southeast Office. Plan doesn’t expand fast enough to solve warming Olson 06 (Mary Olson.. But to effectively challenge the global warming problem. he calculates that the proportion of electricity coming from nuclear sources would grow only slightly. Also.emagazine. too. There are emissions in the nuclear process 2. a new reactor would have to come online somewhere in the world every 15 days on average between 2010 and 2050. Brice Smith admits that. Nuclear power won’t solve warming. Uranium enrichment also aggravates both global warming and ozone depletion. And the plant is fired by two large. as well as waste storage and transportation. uranium prices have soared as existing reactors have worked through supplies from mothballed plants.pdf) An extensive 2003 study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology30 investigated the future of nuclear power. Demand is projected to exceed supply and push prices higher. 2006.nirs.2 reasons 1. appropriate hydro. enrichment and fuel fabrication are taken into account. One can only imagine the results if a fraction of the residual funds were invested in technology development in solar. The shortfall in uranium mining can be at least partly made up in uranium enrichment (an outgrowth of atomic bomb development). E The Environmental Magazine. and investment in wind energy worldwide would be a far more cost-effective use of capital.S. http://www. The world’s capacity to enrich uranium would have to go up dramatically by a factor of 2. This would roughly mean adding one new reactor every two weeks until 2050. a huge nuclear expansion would increase the dangers of nuclear proliferation. he says. Commission on Sustainable Development. Nuclear Information and Resource Service. Although nukes avoid the smokestack problem. United Nations. On the spot market. in the next 60 years. including its potential to combat climate change. In the USA. the industry is capable of building only half the 1. “Even under an ambitious deployment scenario. MIT’s nuclear boosters project that expanding nuclear generating capacity worldwide to 1000 billion watts would be required to address the climate problem to any meaningful degree. the nuclear process is not emission-free.
It simply isn’t possible to build 17. and it would require decades to accomplish.html) Putting all other arguments aside. the final nail in nuclear’s coffin is time. ( ) Nuclear power isn’t fast enough to solve warming 10.that's three power plants every 30 days for the next 60 years. 2008. national security. April 24. lack of sites. What Nuclear Renaissance?. and a private sector unwilling to insure and finance the projects weren’t enough to put an end to the debate of nuclear power as a solution for climate change.000 – or 2.com/doc/20080512/parenti) Even if a society were ready to absorb the high costs of nuclear power. For nuclear power to achieve this figure would mean building 3000 nuclear plants -." 26 . We have the next ten years to mount a global effort against climate change.com/2008/TECH/science/04/17/Nuclear.briefing/index. too late. http://edition.500 or 17 for that matter – in ten years. president of the Foundation on Economic Trends and author of the Hydrogen Economy. Briefing: Nuclear power. ( ) Nuclear power is too slow to solve climate change Knight 08 (Matthew Knight. cancer and other dangers of uranium mining and transport. 2008. A 2004 analysis in Science by Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow. of Princeton University's Carbon Mitigation Initiative. May 6. accidents. CNN. These plants take too long to build.000-megawatt nuclear plants around the world.cnn. it hardly makes the most sense as a tool to quickly combat climate change." That represents a huge wave of investment that few seem willing to undertake. Jeremy Rifkin. critics say that nuclear power is going to provide too little.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #1. proliferation. told CNN: "To get any appreciable impact on climate change you have to get 20 percent from renewable energies. estimates that achieving just one-seventh of the carbon reductions necessary to stabilize atmospheric CO2 at 500 parts per billion would require "building about 700 new 1. increasing costs.thenation. http://www. No time – Even if nuclear waste.Too Slow ( ) Using nuclear to solve warming would take decades Parenti 08 (Christian Parenti.
plus the eventual processing. nuclear power compares unfavorably to… * conservation through efficiency improvements * run-of-river hydro plants (which use river water power but require no dams) * offshore wind generators * onshore wind generators * power plants run by gas-fired internal combustion engines.4 In the service of this disinformation campaign U. ( ) Making nuclear power emits tons of C02 and relies on coal plants Ewall 07 (Mike. and extensive transportation of uranium in order to make nuclear fuel is considered. transport. Scientists in both the US and UK have shown that if the current level of nuclear power were expanded to provide all the world's electricity.3 Those selling the expansion of nuclear power are on a par with any salesman of counterfeit medicine.pdf) While the nuclear reactors themselves release few greenhouse gases. Oct. in the emission of global warming gases (measured per kilowatt-hour of electricity made available). Nov. the same power plant could produce as much as 750.000 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents. Even now when some Republicans have begun to acknowledge that perhaps we may have a carbon dioxide problem. we’re running out of the uranium necessary to power them. At the time the 2005 energy bill was passed by a Republic-dominated Congress the official position of the Republican leadership was that global warming was a hoax.S. and the disposition of wastes generated: it is also dependent upon a grid that is powered by other sources of energy. http://www. dwindling supplies will trigger the use of ever lower grades of uranium.9 ( ) Nuclear power won’t solve. May 3. A careful life-cycle analysis by the Institute for Applied Ecology in Darmstadt. 27 . where uranium is enriched to make nuclear reactor fuel. Why is Uncle Sam so Committed to Nuclear Power?. nuclear plants will actually begin to use up more energy to mine and mill the uranium than can be recovered through the nuclear reactor process. This is nonsense. Nuclear power is not free from carbon emissions. Commission on Sustainable Development. processing. and six are better. old coal plants exist just to power the nuclear fuel facilities. four are worse than nuclear from the viewpoint of greenhouse gas emissions. (Lazy journalists are in the habit it repeating the industry mantra that nuclear power produces no greenhouse gases.org/programs/climate/dirtyenergy/nuclear. 2006. 5) The study concludes that. decommissioning.S. and burial of nuclear wastes. typically coal.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2A – Nuclear Power Emits C02 ( ) Nuclear power emits just as much C02 as any traditional energy source Olson 06 (Mary Olson.net/nuclear/factsheet. (See Figure 3. Germany. As uranium supplies dwindle. concludes that a 1250 megaWatt nuclear power plant. science tells us that nuclear power plants are not the best way to reduce our carbon dioxide emissions. United Nations. the nuclear fuel cycle is a significant contributor. our uranium would be depleted in less than ten years.com/2007/10/04/why-is-uncle-sam-so-committed-to-reviving-nuclear-power/) It certainly has little to do with global warming. http://www. from the manufacture and eventual dismantling of nuclear plants. Read on.) Substantial carbon dioxide emissions accompany every stage of nuclear power production. http://www. check in with the Nuclear Information and Resource Service (NIRS)].org/climate/background/climateandnukestalkunmay32006.celsias. were released from the U. which produce ever more climate-change-producing emissions – resulting in a climate-change catch 22. Director of the Southeast Office. In other (unspecified) countries besides Germany. http://www. [For a great deal of additional solid information showing that nuclear power is no answer to global warming. transport.cfm) 7. engines ( ) Uranium shortages will cause more emissions Co-op America 05 (Ten Strikes Against Nuclear Power. Environmental Justice. operating 6500 hours per year in Germany. 2007. and enrichment of uranium fuel. pg. Confronting a False Myth of Nuclear Power: Nuclear Power Expansion is Not a Remedy for Climate Change. to the mining. 2007. Nuclear Information and Resource Service.7 Nuclear power is not only dependent upon fossil fuels for the production of uranium fuel. especially plants that use both the electricity and the heat generated by the engine * power plants run by bio-fuel-powered internal combustion Of eleven ways to generate electricity (or avoid the need to generate electricity through efficiency and conservation) analyzed by the Institute. These facilities are so energy intensive that some of the nation’s dirty. Not enough uranium – Even if we could find enough feasible sites for a new generation of nuclear plants. This is due to the simple fact that nuclear reactors cannot “black start”8 – in other words. the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the result of making electricity from uranium is comparable to burning natural gas to make electric power. one must closely examine the motives of anyone associated with nuclear schemes of any kind.coopamerica. Vice President Cheney has publicly stated5 a falsehood: he asserted that nuclear power is carbon-free. They’re not even close to being the best way. produces greenhouse gases equivalent to 250.000 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.6 Additional energy required for decommissioning and disposition of the wastes generated increases this CO2 output substantially. Enrichment Corporation. A number of recent studies have found that when mining. processing. a potent greenhouse gas. Transition away from the combustion of fossil fuels cannot be accomplished solely by the expansion of nuclear power since it depends on the grid being powered up before reactors can come on-line. Fact Sheet: Nuclear Power.nirs.Every stage produces CO2 emissions Montague 07 (Peter Montague.energyjustice. What’s more. they depend on electric power from the external power grid to be able to come on-line. the Institute study shows. Unfortunately nuclear power is not a solution and it is further counterproductive to any real remedy for human impacts on climate. 4. 93% of the nation’s reported emissions of CFC-114.pdf) Nuclear power is being widely promoted as a “solution” to global climate change. In 2001.
At that rate.csmonitor. the world would need to build 21 new 1. this would not even replace the existing nuclear capacity expected to be retired during that time. the lead times are so long and costs so high that it's unclear that the US can build enough nuclear plants to make a dent in greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050. the level set by some scientists as a goal for nuclear power. http://www. Over the next 15 months.csmonitor." says David Schlissel a longtime nuclear industry analyst with consulting firm Synapse Energy Economics in Cambridge. They're so financially risky. "Clearly.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Ext #2B . Sept. says a Keystone Center report endorsed by the NEI.000-megawatt nuclear plants per year – about five of those annually in the US – for the next 50 years. 28. ( ) Can’t build enough nuclear plants to make a dent in warming Clayton 07 (Mark Clayton. Mass. that the only reason building plans are under way is that the federal government has stepped in to guarantee investors against loan defaults. Christian Science Monitor. Christian Science Monitor. costing up to $90 billion to build. 2007. But even some industry experts doubt that's possible. 28. The US industry reached that level in the 1980s. experts say. Staff Writer. reactors are touted as part of the solution to global warming. 28 . [nuclear power companies] are not so confident or they wouldn't want the federal government and taxpayer to be guaranteeing the loans. Sept. But even under its most optimistic assessment. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1 billion tons annually. the Energy Information Administration recently projected that only about 53 nuclear power plants would be built by 2056. the Keystone report said. But the renaissance may be less robust than it looks.html) With virtually no greenhouse-gas emissions. http://www.Can’t Build Enough Plants ( ) They won’t be able to build enough plants to solve warming Clayton 07 (Mark Clayton. Nuclear power surge coming. Staff Writer. Nuclear power surge coming.com/2007/0928/p01s05-usgn. the Nuclear Regulatory Commission expects a tidal wave of similar permit applications for up to 28 new reactors.com/2007/0928/p01s05-usgn.html) The risks might be worth the cost if nuclear power can have a substantial impact in slowing global warming. 2007. Even if the projects are successful and building proceeds at breakneck speed.
The prospect that such legislation will be enacted is probably already reducing investment in conventional coal-fired power plants.pdf) This reappraisal of nuclear power is motivated in large part by the expectation that market-based approaches to limit greenhouse-gas emissions could be put in place in the near future. such limits would encourage the use of nuclear technology by increasing the cost of generating electricity with conventional fossil-fuel technologies.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity.1 If implemented.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Free Market Counterplan Solvency ( ) Cap and trade would bolster the nuclear industry CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office.cbo. http://www. the most common greenhouse gas. Several options currently being considered by the Congress—including “cap-andtrade” programs— would impose a price on emissions of carbon dioxide. 29 .” May 2008.
30 . financial risk is transferred from investors to customers. the only states in that group that had proposed sites for new nuclear power plants were Maryland.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi States Counterplan Solvency ( ) States are effective at promoting nuclear power CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. Over half of the currently proposed new nuclear plants are sited in southeastern states. a state that allows markets a large role in setting electricity prices. In several of those states. which leads to larger reductions in the cost of capitalintense technologies such as nuclear. and New York.cbo. allowing utilities to recover some construction costs before plants begin operations. however. additional incentives that could further reduce the cost of nuclear power are under consideration.pdf) States and localities encourage investment in new nuclear capacity through a variety of policies. Texas. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. http://www. where most electricity-generation capacity is owned by utilities that charge regulated rates. has expanded a tax incentive initially designed to encourage investment in renewable energy technologies to apply to new nuclear capacity. For instance.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. and tax incentives. Last. California and a number of eastern states are considering legislation that would limit carbon dioxide emissions. As of 2007. which could increase the competitiveness of nuclear and innovative fossil-fuel technologies.” May 2008. Those provisions include allowing higher rates of return for nuclear power than for other technologies. Pennsylvania. State incentives for new nuclear power plants are not limited to states with traditional regulation in place. To the extent that rate regulation guarantees that customers will reimburse utilities for the cost of building a new plant.
B EPAct incentives would probably make nuclear generation a competitive technology for limited additions to base-load capacity. even without EPAct incentives. However. More immediately. those that project higher future construction costs for nuclear plants or lower natural gas prices—nuclear technology would be a relatively expensive source of capacity. CBO’s analysis yields the following conclusions: B In the absence of both carbon dioxide charges and EPAct incentives.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. B Also at roughly $45 per metric ton. http://www. However.pdf) In the long run. Below about $5 per metric ton.” May 2008. At charges below that threshold. then new nuclear capacity would not be competitive.it’s comparatively better than incentives CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. Such variations in construction or fuel costs would be less likely to deter investment in new nuclear capacity if investors anticipated a carbon dioxide charge. regardless of EPAct incentives. 31 . because some of those incentives are backed by a fixed amount of funding. CBO anticipates that only a few of the 30 plants currently being proposed would be built if utilities did not expect carbon dioxide charges to be imposed. B Uncertainties about future construction costs or natural gas prices could deter investment in nuclear power. they would be diluted as the number of nuclear projects increased. consequently. if construction costs for new nuclear power plants proved to be as high as the average cost of nuclear plants built in the 1970s and 1980s or if natural gas prices fell back to the levels seen in the 1990s. carbon dioxide charges would probably make nuclear generation competitive with existing coal power plants and could lead utilities in a position to do so to build new nuclear plants that would eventually replace existing coal power plants. under some plausible assumptions that differ from those CBO adopted for its reference scenario—in particular. conventional gas technology would probably be a more economic source of base-load capacity than coal technology. conventional fossil-fuel technologies would most likely be the least expensive source of new electricity-generating capacity. but those charges would probably have to exceed $80 per metric ton in order for nuclear technology to remain competitive under either of those circumstances. Solvency: Carbon tax spurs nuclear energy and keeps prices lower. even in the absence of carbon dioxide charges. In particular. regardless of the incentives provided by EPAct. carbon dioxide charges would increase the competitiveness of nuclear technology and could make it the least expensive source of new base-load capacity. EPAct incentives by themselves could make advanced nuclear reactors a competitive technology for limited additions to base-load capacity. conventional coal technology would probably be the lowest cost source of new capacity. B Carbon dioxide charges of about $45 per metric ton would probably make nuclear generation competitive with conventional fossil-fuel technologies as a source of new capacity.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Carbon Tax Counterplan Text: The United States federal government should impose a carbon tax of $45 per ton of carbon emitted in the United States.
To the extent that carbon dioxide charges are expected. which emits nearly a metric ton of carbon dioxide for every megawatt hour of electricity produced. http://www.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. the comparison of costs is intended to indicate only whether nuclear technology would be a commercially viable choice for up to a few nuclear power plants. the attractiveness of financing a new nuclear power plant depends on investors’ expectations about the costs of emitting carbon dioxide over the operating life of that plant.cbo. conventional fossil-fuel technology would dominate nuclear technology. which means that each eligible plant’s allotment of credits would decrease if more than 6. even without EPAct incentives. specialized steel forgings). As of 2007. http://www. potential carbon dioxide charges are more likely to influence the development of new nuclear capacity than EPAct incentives. EPAct limits production tax credits for nuclear power plants to a total of $7.cbo. For instance.pdf) Carbon dioxide constraints could encourage the use of nuclear technology by increasing the cost of generating electricity with fossil fuels.13 Although the imposition of carbon dioxide constraints would not directly decrease the cost of operating nuclear power plants. If the cost of emitting carbon dioxide was between $20 and $45 per metric ton.” May 2008. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. given certain assumptions about future legislative action and market outcomes. For gauging the long-run competitiveness of nuclear generation. which in all their variants emit at least some carbon dioxide. the study found that conventional fossil fuel technologies would probably remain the least expensive source of new generating capacity. At the same carbon price. Because competing base-load alternatives emit carbon dioxide. Carbon charges make nuclear cheapest choice. investment in new nuclear capacity would be more attractive relative to both the construction of new fossil-fuel capacity and the continued use of existing fossil-fuel capacity. Thus. nuclear would become competitive with conventional fossil fuel technologies even without other incentives.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. The effect on conventional generators fueled by natural gas would be less because they emit carbon dioxide at roughly half the rate of the average coal plant.pdf) Measuring the utilities’ costs across a range of potential carbon dioxide charges indicates which technologies might be competitive. http://www.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9133/05-02-Nuclear. such carbon dioxide capture-andstorage 32 . Newly built power plants based on conventional fossil-fuel technology are designed to burn fuel more efficiently than plants built in the past.org/EECarbon_charges_make_nuclear_cheapest_choice-0605086.incentives aren’t key CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. but their emissions would still be substantial enough for the cost of producing electricity to be sensitive to carbon dioxide charges.” May 2008. such a policy would increase the cost of operating fossil-fuel power plants.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Solvency Extensions ( ) Carbon charges are comparatively more effective than loan guarantees CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. nuclear generation would also become competitive with existing coal power plants. ( ) A carbon tax would spur nuclear energy by making it cost competitive WNN 08 (World Nuclear News. the higher the costs to utilities of emitting carbon dioxide.pdf) The cost of new nuclear capacity would probably be higher if utilities attempted to build a large number of power plants over the next decade. But. However. the more competitive nuclear power would be because it is the only zero-emissions base-load technology. http://www. In the absence of both emission charges and EPAct incentives. if lawmakers enacted legislation that resulted in a carbon dioxide charge of about $45 per metric ton. ( ) Carbon tax would spur investment into nuclear technology CBO 08 (Congressional Budget Office. in the absence of carbon charges or incentives.000 megawatts of capacity (roughly the capacityof five plants) qualified for the credit. The effect is most pronounced for coal. building all of the 30 proposed nuclear plants over the next 10 to 15 years—roughly the period of availability for the production tax credit—could significantly increase construction costs for nuclear power plants by increasing demand for scarce components that are necessary to build reactors (for example. nuclear generation as an option for new capacity would probably be preferred over coal but not natural gas. 2008. “Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. Innovative fossil-fuel power plants that capture and store carbon dioxide are assumed to emit only about 10 percent of the carbon dioxide discharged into the atmosphere by the lowest emitting conventionalplants that burn fossil fuel—but they still emit carbon dioxide.000 megawatts of capacity would qualify.cbo.” May 2008. so utilities would be likely to choose nuclear to replace existing coal plants where possible. a survey conducted by Cambridge Energy Research Associates in 2006 found that about 80 percent of utility executives expected a carbon dioxide charge to be implemented within the next 10 years.world-nuclear-news. and consequently make new nuclear capacity a more attractive source of base-load generation. ( ) Carbon tax solves.5 billion. A large wave of additions could also lead to higher costs by reducing the value of the production tax credits or by exhausting coverage under the loan guarantee program. Many investors appear to anticipate some form of carbon dioxide charge in the near future. May 6.html) With carbon dioxide (CO2) charges of about $45 per tonne. nuclear generation would most likely become a more attractive investment for new capacity than conventional fossil-fuel generation (see the left panel of Figure 1-3).14 CBO’s analysis incorporates the assumption that no more than 6. In general.
( ) Carbon tax unpopular in Congress AP 07 (Associated Press. but those technologies could be an option for new base-load capacity by the time new nuclear plants were deployed and might be the most competitive alternative to nuclear technology under carbon dioxide charges. 33 . 1766. who can offer comments on the Web site. but when it comes to fixing climate change. 2007. LN) Bloomberg was applauded by environmentalists on Friday for attempting to address the issue. but said the problems of global warming will require tough choices. He also acknowledged the unpopularity of any tax increase among his colleagues in Congress. CLIMATE: CBO calls carbon tax 'most efficient' option to address warming.. which would water down its overall effect. Environment and Energy Daily. 3. While several lawmakers have proposed a cap and trade system -.Dingell has said those plans tend to be unwieldy and not as effective. "Something's got to be done. LN) The CBO study -. Bloomberg outlines nationwide proposal to tax companies directly for their carbon emissions. noting that a system in Europe has failed to meet its goals. Bingaman and Sen. demand for energy and emissions of greenhouse gases.” Newsday. Nov. Dingell unveils draft of gas tax: Diesel would get break from proposed increase. Instead. The bill's most unique feature involves a "safety valve" that limits the overall price for industry on how much companies would need to spend to comply with the program. February 14.S. Carbon taxes are the most politically unpopular option in Congress for addressing global warming. the tendency of lawmakers would be to drive the tax down as low as possible. ( ) Carbon tax is political suicide Hyde 07 (Justin Hyde. Detroit Free Press." said Tony Kreindler. by far the best option is cap-andtrade. an earlier effort by President Bill Clinton to pass a carbon tax has been cited by many Democrats as the key reason the party lost its majority in the U." Many policy experts maintain that carbon taxes would be the most effective way to reduce U. Dingell said he would likely make significant changes to his plan before he introduces a bill in Congress based on feedback from constituents.) last summer cosponsored one of many cap-and-trade proposals circulating on Capitol Hill. E&E Daily senior reporter. . 2008. cap-and-trade system. “Mayor's 'pollution pricing' plan. "A carbon tax is going to carry with it a lot of pain.compared a carbon tax with three alternative policies that use a market-based. But as Dingell noted. forcing a change in people's attitudes and a change in the way the business of the nation is done.14 Politics-Agenda Bad Net Benefit ( ) Carbon charges are super unpopular in Congress Samuelsohn 08 (Darren Samuelsohn. a spokesman for Environmental Defense. S. and the only way it can be done is by conservation." Dingell said.) -.where emission limits and credits are divided among polluters and traded on an open market -.M. LN) In an interview Wednesday. House in 1994.requested by Senate Energy and Natural Resources Chairman Jeff Bingaman (D-N. And even if such a measure had a chance of passing.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi technologies had not been used at commercial power plants.. Kreindler said pushing a carbon tax through Congress would be a guessing game of choosing a price without knowing whether it will result in emissions reductions. but many said the politically unpopular concept of a carbon tax would be a heavy lift in Congress and also does not guarantee the same benefits as the more widely supported approach of cap-and-trade. 2007.S. "It's not a baseless solution. 27. Arlen Specter (R-Pa. Changing the economic and personal incentives are the way you do that. lawmakers have shown far greater interest in legislation establishing a cap-and-trade plan. Sept.
The analyses also lay heavy stock in how future greenhouse gas-limiting policies are structured. professor of Economics and Sustainable Development at Yale University in New Haven. Lieberman-Warner will be "a very high-cost option for all Americans.) and John Warner (RVa. "Coal isn't going to be replaced. making room for new-builds. "We're hearing a lot of propaganda that the economy will be in tatters. One of the most widely discussed pieces of carbon capture legislation is the so-called "Lieberman-Warner" bill." Kraig Naasz.com/Articles/Article_Display. the overall affect on the United States economy is likely to be relatively modest. probably in our lifetime. certainly not in the United States. the economics of newer." said Yale University's Robert Repetto.com/Articles/Article_Display. At a minimum. ( ) Economic growth will be robust. An Economy in Tatters Over Carbon Rules? Think Again. gross domestic product could be $5. An Economy in Tatters Over Carbon Rules? Think Again. is worry over possible climate change and the affect that carbon dioxide (CO2) may be having on the global environment. he said.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi AT: Counterplan Hurts the Economy ( ) Future carbon regulations won’t hurt the economy Wagman 08 (David Wagman. Carbon regulation. At the same time. One report produced for the Edison Electric Institute estimated the cost to the U.).pennnet. Repetto said he sees two primary economic outcomes for the electric power industry as a result of S.cfm? Section=ARTCL&PUBLICATION_ID=6&ARTICLE_ID=331946&C=BUSIN&dcmp=rss) Federal carbon capture legislation seems likely to be enacted within the next several years. he said. coal costs will likely rise. "The bottom line is that if (carbon regulation) is phased in over time. The impetus." said Robert Repetto.pennnet." Not everyone agrees." he said. Managing Editor. "There are no winners under Lieberman-Warner. of course. http://pepei. Conn.cfm? Section=ARTCL&PUBLICATION_ID=6&ARTICLE_ID=331946&C=BUSIN&dcmp=rss) Much of the available analysis of S. Joseph Lieberman (I-Conn. 2191 or other carbonlimiting legislation. Managing Editor. including coal-fired power plants. First. natural gas and wind." agreed Alex Klein of Emerging Energy Research." 34 . president of the National Manufacturers Association was quoted as saying in a conference call with reporters earlier this year. Much ink has been spilled debating the possible economic effects of enacting Lieberman-Warner. higher efficiency coal plants will also be affected. Second.S. introduced by Sens. 2191 suggests that even under worst-case assumptions the economy will continue to grow and "at quite a robust pace. http://pepei. less efficient power plants will likely look less attractive and be retired. changing the relative economics between coal. does not represent "the end of the United States' economic boom as we know it. Power Engineering.3 trillion by 2050. despite future carbon regulations Wagman 08 (David Wagman. Power Engineering. aimed at limiting the amount of carbon dioxide that power plants–among other emitters–can produce. it might cost as much as 3 percent of GDP" by 2030. however. Older. When annual economic growth rates are factored in the potential effect represents a "very small difference" to the overall economy. While he agrees that carbon regulation will carry some costs. the more ambitious and short term the goal the more important it is to get the political architecture right. "It will continue to have a significant role. the implicit price paid for a ton of sequestered carbon is high enough that it likely will create a "huge advantage" to advance carbon capture technology and new power plant construction.
Whether for nuclear or non-nuclear energy projects. questionable projects tend to crowd out smaller more worthy contenders in gobbling up the subsidies.. one that fiscal conservatives have long propounded. Dec.. It’s an Al Gore Christmas: Congress hands out energy-loan guarantees.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Economy DA Links ( ) Loan guarantees encourage government intervention in the economy Sokolski 07 (Henry Sokolski is executive director of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center in Washington.C.npecweb.pdf) Some environmental economists.e. In this case. D. however. First. these loan guarantees (which also include some of the environmentalists’ favorites) are certain to distort the market. the loan guarantee program for “clean” and “innovative” systems will only get in the way of the real innovation that reliance on market mechanisms and private capital would otherwise propel. 2007.org/Articles/20071219-Sokolski-NRO-AnAlGoreChristmas. This means that projects like USEC’s multibillion dollar enrichment program. If it turns out that it is more economical to produce electricity locally in smaller generators or to rely less on the grid to distribute the electricity or its products. 19. the most wasteful. National Review Online. Second. have a more basic complaint. a project that cannot compete against other enrichers who have already successfully raised private capital to operate in the US—will get far more guaranteed loans than any micro wind project might. the loser centralized systems the government chose to subsidize heavily rather than the ones the market might pick). 35 . we will be stuck with their polar opposites (i. http://www. the largest of these projects all involve central nuclear or coal fired electrical generating stations that will last between 50 and 75 years and that depend on an electrical grid distribution system.
http://www. because someone was reckless enough to loan them the money. 2007. U. In addition to costing far more. 2008. Severance. Do we want our utilities to buy power plants they can’t afford? The taxpayer funded banquet for the nuclear industry would not end with power plants. The Congressional Budget Office has estimated the risk of default on these nuclear loans to be at least 50 percent. and perpetual taxpayer funds for thousands of years to maintain the nuclear waste. The federal government has long been in default of its obligations to existing nuclear plant operators to take the waste away from their sites. Nuclear utilities have had to take the government to court to recover added storage expenses. and 2 to 3 times more costly than comparable power output from wind farms. The key factor accounting for the risk is that we expect that the plant would be uneconomic to operate because of its high construction costs.ART. “No Corporate Welfare for Nuclear Power.46215a2. ( ) Nuclear waste disposal would cost tens of billions Makhijani 08 (Arjun Makhijani is president of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research.com/sharedcontent/dws/dn/opinion/viewpoints/stories/DNmakhijani_26edi. Public Interest Research Group and Jerry Taylor is director of natural resource studies at the Cato Institute. so the industry is pushing for hundreds of billions more.org/pressroom/release.potentially at above market rates. taxpayers will be on the hook for billions of dollars when the nuclear utilities default on their loans.” said Michele Boyd.” “With those odds.5 billion in Federally guaranteed loans for new nuclear plants. 2003.well above 50 percent. The Public Record. This initial pork would be followed by taxpayer subsidies for fuel enrichment. June 19. 2008.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Spending DA Links ( ) Loan guarantees will cost billions Public Citizen 07 (Congress Should Not Bow to Nuclear Industry Demands for More Than $50 Billion in Loan Guarantees to Build New Nuclear Reactors. Nuclear Not Only Way To Generate A Kwh. nuclear generating capacity is more than 12 times the price of the same power capacity in gas turbines. relative to other electricity generation sources. 26. taxpayers. legislative director of Public Citizen’s Energy Program.” June 21.Edition1. Dallas News. http://www. Instead. ( ) Loan guarantees will cost taxpayers billions Nayak and Taylor 03 (Navin Nayak is an environmental advocate with U.S.S. Faced with such bad numbers.dallasnews.html) New nuclear plants would add to the country's problem of nuclear waste. the industry is turning to taxpayers.State.” ( ) Loan guarantees would cause runaway spending on future nuclear projects Severance 08 (Craig A. a June 2007 CBO report on the recently passed Senate energy bill concluded that it is “more likely that DOE’s loan guarantee portfolio will have more projects where the subsidy fee has been underestimated than overestimated. Feb. the equivalent of six or seven new power plants.cfm?ID=2488) These loan guarantees would put taxpayers – rather than investors – on the hook to pay back the loans should any of the plants default. The Congressional Research Service estimated that these loan guarantees alone would cost taxpayers $14 to $16 billion. http://www. July 31. delaying reductions in greenhouse gases by at least a decade.tradewatch.” Although the company receiving the guarantee is expected to pay the “subsidy cost” of the guarantee (the net present value of the anticipated cost of defaults). According to a May 2003 Congressional Budget Office (CBO) report.org/pub_display." But that's not all.cato.S. Cato Institute. Arjun Makhijani: Nuclear is not the right alternative energy source. This massive new outlay for nuclear power would eclipse all public funds for all other energy sources combined. The Congressional Budget Office believes "the risk of default on such a loan guarantee to be very high -.org/index. This will only be enough to fund two plants. the nuclear plants would not come on line for at least 10 years. the risk of default on loan guarantees for new nuclear plants is “very high – well above 50 percent.php?pub_id=3134) The most egregious proposal in the energy bill has the federal government providing loan guarantees covering 50 percent of the cost of building 8. Congress has authorized $18.php?view=article&id=149%3Anuclear-not-only-way-to-generate-a-kwh-&option=com_content_) At $9 billion for an 1100 megawatt nuclear plant. http://www. “This outrageous demand from the already highly subsidized nuclear industry amounts to highway robbery of U. The bill also authorizes the federal government to enter into power purchase agreements wherein the federal government would buy back power from the newly built plants -. the nuclear industry has admitted it cannot find backing from Wall Street.pubrecord. which will cost the taxpayers billions or possibly even tens of billions of dollars over time. 36 .400 Megawatts of new nuclear power. The nation is now reeling from the aftermath of people buying homes they could not afford. plant decommissioning costs.
pdf) If a loan guarantee is granted. ( ) Shortfalls in loan estimations would force the federal gov’t to foot the bill EESI 07 (Environmental and Energy Study Institute. so is the risk.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Spending DA Links ( ) Over half of plants will default and it’ll cost billions Clayton 07 (Mark Clayton. The GAO reports that “DOE will have to estimate the subsidy cost to determine the fees to charge borrowers. should shortfalls occur. Nuclear power surge coming. shortfalls in subsidy costs are funded by a permanent indefinite appropriation.18 This becomes an issue for taxpayers as well.” the GAO says.or gas-fired facilities.”19 37 . For example: On Monday. especially if government begins to charge utilities for the greenhouse gases they produce.html) The nuclear industry has already put Congress on notice that it could require loan guarantees of at least $20 billion for planned projects – and more later. In late 2003.com/2007/0928/p01s05-usgn. a Congressional Budget Office analysis warned of potential default rates of 50 percent or more on new plants.” the GAO notes. If defaults occur in the new round. leaving taxpayers at risk." says Tyson Slocum. But the last time that the nuclear industry was on a building spree – in the 1980s – roughly half of the power plants proposed were never finished. 30. http://www. According to the Congressional Research Service. The nuclear industry ask is $25 billion for FY 2008 and more than that in FY 2009-more than $50 billion in two years. 2007. “Under federal law.S. Nuclear power is virtually emission-free. resulting in a loss to the federal government. http://www. "This is the second or third 'nuclear renaissance' I've seen. Those that were finished were delayed for years and cost far more than estimated. Staff Writer. "When you look at the cost of these plants and the massive financial subsidies by US taxpayers. Because this cost is estimated. 28. Sept. director of energy program at Public Citizen.hillheat. this is more than the $49. U. excluding administrative costs. these costs are to be covered by the federal government. ( ) Defaults likely.csmonitor. Christian Science Monitor. Despite the risk of loss.7 billion spent by the DOE for all nuclear power R&D in the 30 years from 1973-2003. The reason is that nuclear power plants are far more expensive to build than coal. given a reactor's low operating expenses. “the program could result in substantial financial costs to taxpayers if DOE underestimates total program costs. critics worry federal costs will be huge." In 2003. in part because of fears caused by the accident at Three Mile Island. Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?. That huge startup cost might make financial sense.com/events/2007/10/30/loan-guarantee-provisions-in-the-2007-energy-bills-doesnuclear-power-pose-significant-taxpayer-risk-and-liability) Not only is the cost to the taxpayers potentially very high. A number of power companies went bankrupt. New Jersey-based NRG Energy Corp. “Although [loan guarantee program] LGP guidelines call for borrowers to be charged fees to cover program costs. DOE has not yet established a procedure for determining these costs. filed its application with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to build two reactors in Texas at a cost between $5.org/briefings/2007/energy_climate/10-30-07_loan_guarantees/Nuclear_LGP_Issue_Brief_2007. taxpayers will be fully liable for any potential shortfalls. not through the annual appropriations process. This is also well over the Administration’s target of $4 billion in loan guarantees for nuclear and coal for FY 2008. 30.”17 Furthermore.”16 The subsidy cost is like an insurance premium. Oct. The Congressional Budget Office has said there is a good chance that the DOE will underestimate the costs of administering these loans and that more than 50 percent of new reactor projects will default on their loan repayments. DOE would issue a loan for 80 percent of these costs. and may be different for each project. NEI officials told The New York Times in July. Oct. it is possible for shortfalls to occur if the cost estimate is too low. but it currently has no policies or procedures for doing so.eesi.4 and $6. http://www. 2007. I think that money would be better invested in cheaper sources of emissions-free power that don't have the fatal flaws nuclear power does. 2007. Ralph Nader's consumer-protection group. NRG – the company that filed Monday's permit application – emerged from bankruptcy caused by overexpansion in the 1990s. The subsidy cost is defined as “the estimated net present value of long-term cost to the federal government of guaranteeing the loans over the entire period that the loans are outstanding.7 billion. because the money to fund any shortfall will ultimately come from taxes paid to the federal government.means we’ll have to pay millions Hill Heat 07 (Loan Guarantee Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bills: Does Nuclear Power Pose Significant Taxpayer Risk and Liability?. and the nuclear industry would in turn pay a subsidy cost to the Department.
despite the combined opposition from fiscal conservatives and lawmakers who are concerned about nuclear waste. passed in June. the fight is far from over. but it also needs more renewables. 2005. and still others worry that the reactors will become new terrorist targets. 58 percent of Americans disapprove of nuclear energy and 59 percent don't want to see a nuclear power plant built in their community. so a conference committee would have to settle the question. how to settle disputes between states and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission over where to allow liquefied natural gas import terminals and relicensing hydroelectric dams. An aide said the committee continues to consider insurance. ( ) Plan is overwhelmingly unpopular with the public Daks 07 (Martin C. The energy bill passed by the House last month does not include the nuclear incentives. "It's not a question of one incentive over the other. safer nation. 1. NRG Seeks The Lead in Going Nuclear. sponsored by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. "There is a growing consensus that more nuclear power will lead to a cleaner. Those guarantees were dropped during conference talks with the House in favor of production tax credits that would not kick in until a nuclear reactor comes on line. though. such as a subsidy for new reactors and loan guarantees for their construction. such as wind. is packed with incentives to get the nuclear industry rolling. 2007." the institute warned in a report on the conference. LN) President Bush has been a champion for the nuclear industry." Nuclear energy advocates." said Mitch Singer. A 2003 study by Massachusetts Institute of Technology advocates combining the ideas of nuclear plants' proponents and opponents. Some foes worry that financial incentives will deepen the federal deficit. The flip side of the argument is that if new reactors are not built.it sparks huge political battles in Congress National Journal 05 (National Journal's CongressDaily. Are we ready for a nuclear comeback?. if only the federal government could offer incentives to limit the risks of building and operating new reactors. "While the government has never reneged on a loan guarantee once issued. a free-market think tank in New York City. It is also trying to figure out. A nuclear reactor has not been ordered in the United States since the 1970s. Senators included loan guarantees in energy legislation in the last Congress. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Chairman Domenici and Idaho Republican Sens. Daks." Bush said at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. The Senate's version. The House's version doesn't include those packages. May 16. continue to face some stiff political opposition from lawmakers who remain concerned over continued waste problems in some states." The battle is most pitched on Capitol Hill. And at a June conference. and more conservation. President Bush has instructed the Energy Department to work with Congress to offer federal risk insurance to mitigate costs incurred by bureaucratic delays in the licensing of new nuclear plants once they have been built. The country. even though both the chairman and ranking member of the Senate energy committee support the industry. noting that new ideas are still welcome until the committee starts marking up nuclear issues next week. leading to this year's effort. August 4. among other things. where Congress is hashing out an energy bill that could help a nascent nuclear resurgence explode or fade. utility executives say they cannot afford to invest in new reactors and move through the complex and expensive regulatory process. "It is time for this country to start building nuclear power plants again. the cost of electricity might become even more tied to the price of oil as aging reactors leave the power grid and are taken out of service. Weeks of work by the committee staff have not yet led to concrete answers. That approach would not address the issue of companies taking on huge financial risks with no return during the years of construction and licensing hearings that predate the production and sale of energy from the reactor." one exasperated committee aide said late last week.com/p/articles/mi_qa5292/is_200710/ai_n21269535) According to an April poll by CBS News and The New York Times. "We would like to see a mosaic of financial incentives in there. needs more nuclear energy. leaving the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee uncertain how to proceed as it tries to wrap up work on comprehensive energy legislation. But the reactor riddle is particularly hard to solve because of the varied reasons driving the opposition. That attempt to write a comprehensive national energy bill failed.Agenda Good ( ) Loan guarantees for nuclear power are super contentious. a spokesman for the Nuclear Energy Institute. But even if the Senate does find a solution. becoming the first president to visit a nuclear plant in 26 years when he recently stopped by a Maryland plant. Utility executives say Congress should give the nuclear industry flexibility to choose what combination of incentives would be best for them. Without incentives such as liability limits and tax restructuring.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Politics Links. 2005 Senate Panel Slowed By Nuke Aid Talk. according to Bloomberg News. it said. Oct. 38 . But a move in that direction is now stalled in the intersection between what is politically palatable and economically feasible. The Charlotte Observer. "Everything is on the table. There is also the question of where to store nuclear waste for thousands of years. the political climate for other subsidies that could make or break nuke projects could change as federal administrations change. loan guarantees and production tax credits. others object on environmental grounds. ( ) Loan guarantees for nuclear power are contentious in Congress Choe 05 (Stan Choe. doubts were raised about the ability of companies to secure financing for nuclear power projects. Larry Craig and Mike Crapo met with a group of nuclear energy officials in March to begin deciphering what incentives might be feasible. along with the less likely option of investment tax credits to cover up-front construction costs. the largest trade association for the industry. The nuclear knot is not the only issue holding up the committee. http://findarticles. The concern over nuclear waste has been further exacerbated by delays in the Yucca Mountain national repository plan. LN) The idea sounded simple enough for a Congress controlled by business-friendly Republicans: Utility companies said they could help offset the high cost of oil by putting a greater reliance on nuclear energy.
including Domenici -. and feels good about doing something to make America less dependent on the turbulent Middle East. "There are obviously a lot of views about energy problems in America.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Politics Links. 2003. who helped steer Congress to adopt a balanced budget amendment when he was Senate Budget Committee chairman in the 1990s. Domenici said he enjoys the give-and-take with fellow members of Congress." Domenici said. as well. said his new post produces even more headaches than balancing a federal budget. he has taken the less contentious approach of seeking tax credits for the developers. October 12. Domenici.ever said it would be easy. Journal Washington Bureau. Energy Policy Proves Divisive.Agenda Good ( ) Loan guarantees are way contentious in Congress Coleman 03 (Michael Coleman. LN) Domenici managed to avoid similar controversy over his beloved nuclear power incentives by not insisting that Congress adopt controversial loan guarantees for construction of nuclear power plants. Instead. 39 . But it has its rewards. No one -. Albuquerque Journal.
"The rebuilding of the industrial infrastructure to construct and fuel a new generation of nuclear power plants is an important step toward energy security. 2764) signed on December 26 by President George W. Of the 18 companies that have announced plans to go through the permitting process for 32 plants none of those companies has yet decided to build a plant.S. In a May 6 speech at the NEI annual "nuclear energy assembly" May 5-7 in Chicago." 40 . So there's a lot of attention with Wall Street talking with the industry about the importance of some of the things that Congress has done. Bush. Ohio. USEC." ( ) Congress supports loan guarantees for nuclear power E & E News 08 (Environment and Energy Publishing. including $18.5 billion in energy projects. Click for Enhanced Coverage Linking Searches intends to pursue a loan guarantee from the Department of Energy for the construction of the American Centrifuge Plant in Piketon. The legislation includes loan guarantee authority for up to $38. Thirty years ago I don't think you would have had that kind of view right after Three Mile Island until we saw the improved operation of the plants. 2764) signed Wednesday by President George W. Dec.5 billion of loan guarantees for nuclear power facilities. The Department of Energy recently published guidance on how they're going to implement that program that's very positive and has a loan guarantee program that will provide for the risk support that we're going to need as we get back into nuclear construction.is significant in light of upcoming debates over federal climate change legislation.5 billion for new nuclear projects "is not sufficient in either duration or dollars. which was included in the omnibus appropriations legislation (H. The legislation includes loan guarantee authority for up to $38. Bush. expansion of nuclear in U. LN) USEC Inc.R. "Nuclear power is a preferred path for reducing greenhouse gas emissions while providing reliable baseload electric generation. These amounts are the maximum loan guarantees available and are not direct loans or subsidies for any energy project. included in the omnibus appropriations legislation (H. LN) The president of a major labor union--citing nuclear energy as a carbon-free technology--says the group's "primary mission" this Congress is to win an expansion of the federal loan guarantee program for nuclear energy and other clean-energy technologies to help "kick start" a resurgence of the nuclear industry. "Our primary mission is to secure an extension of the loan guarantee program to 'kick start' the renewal of nuclear power generation in this country. Feb." Stating that "more and more interest groups are recognizing the need for nuclear energy in combating global warming trends. has in recent years understood that plants can be operated safely and efficiently. 2008. 24.5 billion for energy projects. adding. ( ) Plan popular with interest groups. a Bethesda-based global energy company. according to a Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) news release. here before they left town in December." USEC said.the AFL-CIO's Building & Construction Trades Department -. IL.R. supported by some as a clean energy source because it doesn't emit greenhouse gases.5 billion for nuclear power facilities and $2 billion for advanced nuclear facilities for the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. unions and Democrats EnergyWashington Week 08 (NEI Touts Union Support. The role of nuclear energy in combating climate change is controversial. union department president Mark Ayers said the current federal loan guarantee program of $18. ( ) Loan guarantees popular in Congress Daily Record 07 (USEC applauds Congress.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Politics Links. The company also applauded the bipartisan federal recognition of the contribution that nuclear power makes in providing clean and efficient electricity for the United States. 28.. Newsroom Notes." Ayers said that during this Congress. the ability to bring plants online and fund those plants is a key part of this next generation of plants. Ohio. May 16. NUCLEAR POWER: Former NRC head Curtiss discusses future of Yucca. 2008. USEC on December 27 commended Congress and the Bush administration for supporting the nuclear renaissance through the loan guarantee program administered by the DOE. LN) USEC Inc. The U. But from a financial standpoint. in terms of funding new nuclear. LN) Jim Curtiss: Well. I think there are a number of dimensions of that. Department of Energy. but opposed by others because of nuclear waste and other concerns. including $18.Agenda Bad ( ) Loan guarantees for nuclear power are bipartisan Nuclear News 08 (USEC to apply for DOE loan guarantee. authorized $18. 2008.5 billion for loan guarantees for nuclear projects. Jan. Support for nuclear power from a major Democratic constituency -. The financial community. 2007. Congress just in the appropriations process. intends to pursue a DOE loan guarantee for construction of its American Centrifuge Plant in Piketon.S. the establishment of the loan guarantee program in the 2005 Energy Policy Act is an important piece of this. So there's a lot of support with some key financial issues that will need to be addressed going forward. The company said it expects to submit an application for the guarantee when the DOE invites nuclear projects to apply.S. commended Congress and the administration for their strong support for the renaissance of the nuclear power industry through the loan guarantee program administered by the U.
with nearly 80% feeling that financial incentives such as tax credits should be used to help push the development of such technologies. hydro and renewable energy. solar.000 adults.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Politics Links. and even stronger support for the use of federal incentives to promote the development carbon-free energy technologies including advanceddesign nuclear power plants. 19-22 by Bisconti Research Inc.” Again. double the 14% who described themselves as strongly opposed to nuclear. 62 percent of Americans agree “we should definitely build more nuclear power plants. at 28%.org/NPOpinion_favours_nuclear_2904089.nei. In the new survey. 76 percent of Americans approve of federal loan guarantees for companies “that build solar. and three percent do not have an opinion. according to a new national survey of 1. Energy security was ranked first or second by 42 percent of respondents. Some 78% agreed that electricity companies should be preparing now so that nuclear plants could be built in the next decade. with the proportion of people "strongly" in favour. to build solar. Last April.” Only 18 percent of those surveyed do not support the use of federal incentives for this purpose. 2008. it would be acceptable to add a new reactor at the site of the nearest nuclear power plant that is already operating. Overall.html) Unrelated surveys of public opinion have found continued support for the use of nuclear energy in both the USA and Russia. Similarly ( ) Incentives for nuclear power are popular with the public WNN 08 (World Nuclear News. Opinion favours nuclear. http://www. with GfK and has a margin of error of plus or minus three percentage points. The survey found that public support for preparing for and building new nuclear power plants remains strong. advanced-design nuclear power plants or other energy technology that reduces greenhouse gases to jump-start investment in these critical energy facilities. Eight of 10 Americans Support Federal Incentives to Jump-Start Carbon-Free Energy Technologies. while 59% agreed that the US should "definitely" build more nuclear power plants. wind and advanced-design nuclear power plants. Seventy-five percent of Americans agree that electric companies should prepare now so that new nuclear plants could be built if needed within the next decade. 56 percent of respondents agreed.prefer our specific evidence NEI 07 (Nuclear Energy Institute. “Given the priority status that Americans affix to air quality concerns. while US citizens are firmly in favour of federal incentives for the development of carbon-free energy options including nuclear. A majority of Americans rank the threat of climate change and air pollution as top energy-related concerns. it’s not surprising that they voice such high levels of support for government assistance for carbon-free energy technologies. 5. In the new survey. strong support for the continued use of the country's existing nuclear plants. 66 percent agreed.org/newsandevents/newsreleases/eightoutoften/) Nearly 80 percent of Americans endorse the use of federal financial incentives to help jump-start construction of carbon-free energy technologies. if needed. The survey showed that 78 percent of Americans approve of government tax credits “as an incentive to companies . Eighty-four percent of those polled agreed that the USA should take advantage of all low-carbon energy sources including nuclear.” 57 percent of Americans named global warming among the top two concerns and 56 percent named air pollution as a first or second choice. 2007.” Only 20 percent disapprove. Americans voiced strong support for some of the specific mechanisms that Congress has approved to help stimulate construction of new electric-generating facilities. http://www. while economic growth was selected by 40 percent of those surveyed. April 29. A survey of 1000 US citizens carried out by Bisconti Research and published by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) found broad support for possible future nuclear construction projects. The new telephone survey was conducted Oct. 59 percent said that. The survey shows that 79 percent of Americans believe “it is appropriate for the federal government to provide some financial assistance to jump-start nuclear. wind.” In last April’s survey.” said Bisconti Research President Ann Bisconti. if a new power plant were needed to supply electricity. Nov. In a national survey conducted last April.Agenda Bad ( ) Loan guarantees for nuclear power is overwhelmingly popular with the American public. 71 percent agreed. Asked to choose which of four issues seem “most important. only 20 percent disapprove. with 33% opposing it. wind and other carbon-free energy technologies in order to meet the national clean-air and carbon reduction goals and reduce the cost to consumers of building the facilities.world-nuclear-news. 63% of those surveyed favoured the use of nuclear energy in the USA. 41 . the survey found.
Daks. "While the government has never reneged on a loan guarantee once issued. NRG Seeks The Lead in Going Nuclear. 42 .Plan Unpopular ( ) Plan is overwhelmingly unpopular with the public Daks 07 (Martin C.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Elections Links. the political climate for other subsidies that could make or break nuke projects could change as federal administrations change. doubts were raised about the ability of companies to secure financing for nuclear power projects. sponsored by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Oct." the institute warned in a report on the conference.com/p/articles/mi_qa5292/is_200710/ai_n21269535) According to an April poll by CBS News and The New York Times. 58 percent of Americans disapprove of nuclear energy and 59 percent don't want to see a nuclear power plant built in their community. 1. a free-market think tank in New York City. And at a June conference. http://findarticles. 2007.
56 percent of respondents agreed. while economic growth was selected by 40 percent of those surveyed.” Again. 63% of those surveyed favoured the use of nuclear energy in the USA. ( ) Nuclear super popular with the public WNN 08 (World Nuclear News.000 adults.Plan Popular ( ) Nuclear power to offset carbon emissions is overwhelmingly popular with the American public. 62 percent of Americans agree “we should definitely build more nuclear power plants.world-nuclear-news. Similarly. if a new power plant were needed to supply electricity. and three percent do not have an opinion. with nearly 80% feeling that financial incentives such as tax credits should be used to help push the development of such technologies.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Elections Links. 5. Asked to choose which of four issues seem “most important. Some 78% agreed that electricity companies should be preparing now so that nuclear plants could be built in the next decade. while 59% agreed that the US should "definitely" build more nuclear power plants. The new telephone survey was conducted Oct. with 33% opposing it. 66 percent agreed. it’s not surprising that they voice such high levels of support for government assistance for carbon-free energy technologies.prefer our specific evidence NEI 07 (Nuclear Energy Institute.” 57 percent of Americans named global warming among the top two concerns and 56 percent named air pollution as a first or second choice. The survey found that public support for preparing for and building new nuclear power plants remains strong.nei. Eight of 10 Americans Support Federal Incentives to Jump-Start Carbon-Free Energy Technologies. 2007. In the new survey. April 29. wind. 19-22 by Bisconti Research Inc. A survey of 1000 US citizens carried out by Bisconti Research and published by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) found broad support for possible future nuclear construction projects. only 20 percent disapprove. at 28%. 2008. http://www. and even stronger support for the use of federal incentives to promote the development carbon-free energy technologies including advanceddesign nuclear power plants.” said Bisconti Research President Ann Bisconti. according to a new national survey of 1. In a national survey conducted last April. double the 14% who described themselves as strongly opposed to nuclear. Seventy-five percent of Americans agree that electric companies should prepare now so that new nuclear plants could be built if needed within the next decade. Energy security was ranked first or second by 42 percent of respondents. advanced-design nuclear power plants or other energy technology that reduces greenhouse gases to jump-start investment in these critical energy facilities. strong support for the continued use of the country's existing nuclear plants. wind and other carbon-free energy technologies in order to meet the national clean-air and carbon reduction goals and reduce the cost to consumers of building the facilities. 76 percent of Americans approve of federal loan guarantees for companies “that build solar. the survey found.org/newsandevents/newsreleases/eightoutoften/) Nearly 80 percent of Americans endorse the use of federal financial incentives to help jump-start construction of carbon-free energy technologies. 71 percent agreed.” Only 20 percent disapprove. A majority of Americans rank the threat of climate change and air pollution as top energy-related concerns. hydro and renewable energy. wind and advanced-design nuclear power plants. Last April. “Given the priority status that Americans affix to air quality concerns. if needed. 43 .” Only 18 percent of those surveyed do not support the use of federal incentives for this purpose. The survey shows that 79 percent of Americans believe “it is appropriate for the federal government to provide some financial assistance to jump-start nuclear. In the new survey.org/NPOpinion_favours_nuclear_2904089. it would be acceptable to add a new reactor at the site of the nearest nuclear power plant that is already operating. 59 percent said that. while US citizens are firmly in favour of federal incentives for the development of carbon-free energy options including nuclear. Opinion favours nuclear. Americans voiced strong support for some of the specific mechanisms that Congress has approved to help stimulate construction of new electric-generating facilities. Overall. with the proportion of people "strongly" in favour.” In last April’s survey. Nov. The survey showed that 78 percent of Americans approve of government tax credits “as an incentive to companies to build solar.html) Unrelated surveys of public opinion have found continued support for the use of nuclear energy in both the USA and Russia. solar. Eighty-four percent of those polled agreed that the USA should take advantage of all low-carbon energy sources including nuclear. http://www. with GfK and has a margin of error of plus or minus three percentage points.
( ) McCain solves the aff Krause 08 (Reinhardt Krause.5 Bil In Loan Guarantees. wind and nuclear. LN) The presidential election may be key to nuclear's revival. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorized loan guarantees for several technologies. "So you can see how the federal loan guarantee program." said Robert Hornick." Others put the per-plant cost at $5 billion to $8 billion. With Federal Help. 2008.5 billion for nuclear. is there are no federal incentives to help defray the costs. “We’re trying to do the right thing without really any incentives. He told reporters at a news conference that a pending Senate bill on climate change. New Nuclear Plants Are On Their Way. “I’m a little wary–I have to give you straight talk–about government subsidies. a senior director at credit rater Fitch. He asked her a simple question: “What do you want me to do?” Sally Jewel replied. California and Oregon (in sunnier markets. solar. the availability of low-interest rate government credit is vital to large-scale projects like nuclear plants. McCain Raises Concerns About Subsidies for Solar Power. needs to add more help for nuclear power. McCain a big supporter." Grumen said.” he said.” and went on to explain that REI plans to open 10 solar-powered stores in Arizona.wsj. “When government jumps in and distorts the market. At a roundtable conducted in the foggy foothills of the Cascade Mountains in North Bend. They take 4-5 years to build -. says Jason Grumen. than the rain-soaked one he was in at the moment). chief energy policy adviser to the Obama campaign. http://blogs.though the approval process can be far longer -. then there’s unintended consequences as well as intended. Hornick says. John McCain made clear today that he is not comfortable with subsidies for solar power. she noted.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi McCain Solves the Aff ( ) McCain would provide incentives to the industry WSJ 08 (Wall Street Journal. “There isn’t anything significant on the federal side to help us make the right decisions. though he has supported incentives for nuclear power plants and thinks more federal support is needed to encourage the industry. June 23." 44 .and cost billions of dollars each. He cited his long-time opposition to ethanol subsidies. 2008. Congress has authorized $42.” she said. she said. May 13.5 billion. The problem. which he hails as a clean technology that can help reduce carbon emissions. with $18.. Democrat Barack Obama isn't likely to support extending loan guarantees. "The range seems to be between $6 billion or $7 billion to $10 billion to build one plant. Investor’s Business Daily. "He is eager to make sure that the (DOE) acts efficiently to move forward with those loan guarantees but he believes that nuclear power has received more than fair treatment in recent legislation. Presidential Divide There is an assumption that the government will offer more loan guarantees. but Obama has signaled no additional atomic aid. He said over-subsidization of the solar industry in the 1970s led to “some pretty shoddy material. Costs vary depending on how much electricity the power plants generate. not subsidies.com/washwire/2008/05/13/mccain-raises-concerns-about-subsidies-for-solar-power/) Sen. An aide to the Arizona senator said Tuesday that McCain hasn’t decided exactly what form of support is needed.” he said.” McCain replied that he preferred for the federal government to invest in research and development. Republican John McCain wants 45 new nuclear reactors by 2030. “It doesn’t go far enough as far as nuclear power is concerned in my estimation. Not so fast. including coal. “It’s a great question. which would establish industry limits on emissions that he favors.” he said.” But he does support help for nuclear power plants. Wash. which have helped push up the price of corn and increase the price of food.5 billion for loans -. With banks short of capital. the outdoor recreation and clothing cooperative. "(Obama) believes that the loan guarantees in the current act were substantial and sufficient.$18. doesn't get you too far. $18. explain what her company is doing to minimize its impact on the climate. but that it likely will be “consistent with” past measures he has supported that would have directed hundreds of millions of dollars to the construction of new nuclear plants. McCain listened to the chief executive of REI.
(Chapter 10) B. geothermal energy. Ground. 45 .co.allowing increases in current forms of energy explodes the topic and doubles the research burden for the neg.Nuclear power is a current energy source. C. not an alternative energy. The sources generally have low pollution implications and use renewable resources. Violation. Standards1. Limits. It’s a voter for competitive equity and education.uk/wps/media/objects/2768/2834452/glossary/glossary. D.html) alternative energy Energy obtained from sources other than fossil fuels or nuclear power. for example biogas. 2. and wind power. hydroelectric power.JDI 08 Murray/Naputi Topicality 1NC. solar energy.Alternative energy is an energy to replace fossil fuels or nuclear power Pearson Education 01 (http://wps.Alternative Energy = Not Nuclear A.pearsoned.including current forms of energy limits our generic disad links and counterplans. tidal power. Interpretation.
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