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Cloud computing logical diagram Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
Contents [hide]1 Overview 1.9 Sustainability 6.1 Public cloud 4.4 Criticism 6.2 Community cloud 4. .10 Abuse 7 Research 8 See also 9 References Overview Cloud computing provides computation. and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services.2 Characteristics 1.3 Architecture 2 History 3 Layers 3. This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if they were programs installed locally on their own computers.7 Open standards 6.8 Security 6.1 Client 3.5 Legal 6.4 Infrastructure 3.5 Server 4 Deployment models 4. consumption. wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. data access.3 Platform 3.6 Open source 6. Parallels to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid.3 Performance 6.1 Comparisons 1.2 Compliance 6. and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols.1 Privacy 6. software. Cloud computing describes a new supplement.2 Application 3.3 Hybrid cloud 4.4 Private cloud 5 The Intercloud 6 Issues 6.
while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. such as computation and storage. PC. Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers and appearing as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs. In some cases." Client–server model – client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). typically bulk data processing such as census.Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet. industry and consumer statistics. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Utility computing — the "packaging of computing resources.. users can connect from anywhere. Grid computing — "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing." Mainframe computer — powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications. and financial transaction processing. service-oriented computing consists of the computing techniques that operate on software-as-a-service. but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies. Application Programming Interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. mobile phone). which are accessed from a Web browser. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). This is purported to lower barriers to entry. such as electricity. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service level agreements (SLAs). while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. in other cases. Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. Service-oriented computing – Cloud computing provides services related to computing while. in a reciprocal manner. enterprise resource planning. Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus .g. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. Comparisons Cloud computing shares characteristics with: Autonomic computing — computer systems capable of self-management. legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house)." Peer-to-peer – distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.
) Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible loadlevels) Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilized. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. electricity. without users having to engineer for peak loads. and later to depict the Internet in computer network . In addition. History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. etc. Performance is monitored. However.allowing for: Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. increased security-focused resources. and the lack of security for stored kernels. Architecture Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture. etc. Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. They are easier to support and to improve. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over loose coupling mechanism such as messaging queue. as the changes reach the clients instantly. Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems. the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. Security could improve due to centralization of data. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. selfservice basis near real-time.
" Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. and utility computing. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. private. government. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit. or control over. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. they were able to utilize their overall network bandwidth more effectively. fastmoving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time." Layers Once an Internet Protocol connection is established among several computers. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds.diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. In early 2008. illusion of infinite supply). . Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. Details are abstracted from end-users. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility. After the dot-com bubble. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. and community forms. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book.. autonomic. provided as a utility. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. In the same year. Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization. online. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. OpenNebula. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. like most computer networks. By mid2008. who no longer have need for expertise in. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. In early 2008.. just to leave room for occasional spikes. serviceoriented architecture. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. those who use IT services and those who sell them" and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. and for the federation of clouds. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. which.
also known as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). phones and other devices. Cloud platform services. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. and browsers. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. software. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. along with raw (block) storage and networking. Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. Rather than purchasing servers. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis.Client See also: Category:Cloud clients. Cloud infrastructure services. Examples include some computers. Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are . eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. also known as Platform as a Service (PaaS). Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms. A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure. operating systems. Application See also: Category:Cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. data-center space or network equipment. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service.
offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. build. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud).specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. via web applications/web services.). whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". compliance. Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organisations from a specific community with common concerns (security. jurisdiction. Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organisation. cloudspecific operating systems and combined offerings. They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy.  Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. etc. from an off-site third-party provider who bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realised. whereby resources are dynamically provisioned to the general public on a fine-grained. community. Deployment models Cloud computing types Public cloud Public cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense. self-service basis over the Internet. The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud . whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. including multi-core processors.
the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. Providers typically make this information available on request. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonize" the legal environment. thus. Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. This makes cloud computing impractical in many environments." Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. less CPU intensive setups (for the client) simply stream video over the internet or a LAN. HIPAA. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. Depending on the setup cloud computing can require very fast internet.The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA" and Rackspace Cloud are able to claim PCI compliance. in fact many local networks would struggle to serve multiple cloud instances. and Verizon. otherwise likening it to a "marketing hype campaign". Performance With the American average download speed at 4MiB/S cloud computing relies on a high speed infrastructure that does not exist. working with AT&T. and SOX in the United States. describing what he calls "cloud washing"—companies simply relabeling their products as "cloud computing". GNU's Richard Stallman insists that the industry will only use the model to deliver services at ever increasing rates over proprietary systems. Instances such as the secret NSA program. Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. under non-disclosure agreement. and. claiming that the company could simply "change the wording on some of our ads" to deploy their cloud-based services. resulting in mere marketing innovation instead of "real" innovation. can monitor at will. lawfully or unlawfully. Forrester Research VP Frank Gillett questions the very nature of and motivation behind the push for cloud computing. CEO Larry Ellison of Oracle Corporation asserts that cloud computing is "everything that we already do". but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. . Criticism Some have come to criticize the term as being either too unspecific or even misleading.
Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through the adoption of this new model. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. calling the requirement "unduly restrictive of competition. that promote external management of . The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. Trademark 77.) Please improve this section if you can. The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was canceled in August. Security This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards." Scholars have pointed out that. It is the very nature of cloud computing based services. Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U. the prevalence of open standards and open source may have an impact on the way that public entities choose to select vendors. and services has increased rapidly. (Consider using more specific clean up instructions.S. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. and trademark analysts predict that over 500 such marks could be filed during 2010. which has happened in a number of cases. Other legal cases may shape the use of cloud computing by the public sector. Open source Open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. the number of trademark filings covering cloud computing brands. As companies sought to better position themselves for cloud computing branding and marketing efforts. goods. The talk page may contain suggestions.082) in the United States. Legal In March 2007. Google sued. Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security based services. In 2009. beginning in 2005. Department of Interior.139. 2010.S. 116 cloud computing trademarks were filed. Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards. resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later. Google filed a lawsuit against the U. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. which opened up a bid for software that required that bidders use Microsoft's Business Productivity Online Suite. On October 29. Since 2007. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. (July 2011) Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. In November 2007. private or public. There are also concerns about a cloud provider shutting down for financial or legal reasons. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. cloud computing trademark filings increased by 483% between 2008 and 2009.
account control. Thus countries with favorable conditions. In 2009. 2011. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. a nonprofit organization called Open Networking Foundation was founded. vendors and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing: In October 2007 the Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI) was announced as a multi-university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing. the environmental effects will be more moderate. use of multiple cloud providers. Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. . and multi-tenancy issues. privacy. This delivers great incentive among cloud computing service providers in producing a priority in building and maintaining strong management of secure services. This includes password cracking and as a means of launching attacks. such as Finland. data segregation. are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. Sweden and Switzerland. Solution to various cloud security issues vary through cryptography. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware. Abuse As with privately purchased hardware.provided services. recovery. bug exploitation. Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". focused on providing support for a new cloud initiative called Software-Defined Networking. Research Many universities. improving virtual machine support and legal support. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI). accountability. On March 23. management console security. malicious insiders. Security issues have been categorized into sensitive data access. standardization of APIs.
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