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Cloud computing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cloud computing logical diagram Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.[1]

3 Architecture  2 History  3 Layers  3.10 Abuse  7 Research  8 See also  9 References Overview Cloud computing provides computation.2 Compliance  6.4 Private cloud  5 The Intercloud  6 Issues  6. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources[2][3] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.1 Comparisons  1.[5] .1 Public cloud  4. data access.1 Privacy  6.9 Sustainability  6.2 Characteristics  1.1 Client  3. consumption. and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services.[4] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if they were programs installed locally on their own computers. software. wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.2 Application  3. Parallels to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid.Contents  [hide]1 Overview  1.7 Open standards  6.4 Criticism  6.8 Security  6.5 Server  4 Deployment models  4.5 Legal  6. and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols.3 Hybrid cloud  4.4 Infrastructure  3.3 Platform  3.2 Community cloud  4.3 Performance  6.6 Open source  6. Cloud computing describes a new supplement.

g.  Service-oriented computing – Cloud computing provides services related to computing while. In some cases. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet.[8]  Grid computing — "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing.[6] Comparisons Cloud computing shares characteristics with:  Autonomic computing — computer systems capable of self-management. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. in other cases.[13]  Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus . while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location.Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service level agreements (SLAs). such as computation and storage."  Mainframe computer — powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications. enterprise resource planning. entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).[11] Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:  Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. users can connect from anywhere.[9]  Utility computing — the "packaging of computing resources. and financial transaction processing. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. which are accessed from a Web browser. such as electricity."[7]  Client–server model – client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).[13]  Device and location independence[14] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.[12] This is purported to lower barriers to entry.  Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. service-oriented computing consists of the computing techniques that operate on software-as-a-service."[10]  Peer-to-peer – distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. in a reciprocal manner.  Application Programming Interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies. legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology.. typically bulk data processing such as census. mobile phone). as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers and appearing as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs. industry and consumer statistics. PC. while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location.

typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over loose coupling mechanism such as messaging queue. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. etc.[15]  Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. increased security-focused resources.. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.)  Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible loadlevels)  Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilized. electricity. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.[20] and later to depict the Internet in computer network . They are easier to support and to improve. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network.[17] Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford.[18] However. History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. and the lack of security for stored kernels. etc. In addition. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. without users having to engineer for peak loads.[16]  Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible.[13]  Security could improve due to centralization of data.  Performance is monitored. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. as the changes reach the clients instantly. selfservice basis near real-time.allowing for:  Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate.  Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier.[19] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. Architecture Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture.

like most computer networks. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. government. OpenNebula. provided as a utility. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. . Details are abstracted from end-users.[25] In the same year. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits."[28] Layers Once an Internet Protocol connection is established among several computers. By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project.. which. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. fastmoving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily.[26] By mid2008. autonomic. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. and community forms. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. and for the federation of clouds. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.[23] After the dot-com bubble. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. In early 2008. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. who no longer have need for expertise in. or control over. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[27] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . illusion of infinite supply). just to leave room for occasional spikes. private. and utility computing. serviceoriented architecture. they were able to utilize their overall network bandwidth more effectively. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision..[21] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book.[15][24] In early 2008. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.[22] The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers. online. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers.diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.

and browsers. phones and other devices.[35] Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are . deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. operating systems. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service.[32] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. data-center space or network equipment. Cloud platform services. Rather than purchasing servers. Cloud infrastructure services. Examples include some computers. along with raw (block) storage and networking. also known as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). also known as Platform as a Service (PaaS). often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.Client See also: Category:Cloud clients.[33][34] Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure.[29][30][31] Application See also: Category:Cloud applications. software. A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it.

whereby resources are dynamically provisioned to the general public on a fine-grained. including multi-core processors. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud).[1] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organisation. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.[36][37][38][39] Deployment models Cloud computing types Public cloud Public cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense. etc. build. [1] Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.[13] Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organisations from a specific community with common concerns (security. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realised.[40] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".[41][42] The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud . jurisdiction. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. via web applications/web services. cloudspecific operating systems and combined offerings.[1] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy.specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. from an off-site third-party provider who bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.). and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. self-service basis over the Internet. community. compliance.

Depending on the setup cloud computing can require very fast internet. under non-disclosure agreement. and SOX in the United States. otherwise likening it to a "marketing hype campaign".[citation needed] Criticism Some have come to criticize the term as being either too unspecific or even misleading. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones.[56] Performance With the American average download speed at 4MiB/S cloud computing relies on a high speed infrastructure that does not exist. and. thus.[57][58][59][60][61] Forrester Research VP Frank Gillett questions the very nature of and motivation behind the push for cloud computing. resulting in mere marketing innovation instead of "real" innovation. Instances such as the secret NSA program.[62][63] GNU's Richard Stallman insists that the industry will only use the model to deliver services at ever increasing rates over proprietary systems.[55] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. CEO Larry Ellison of Oracle Corporation asserts that cloud computing is "everything that we already do". working with AT&T. in fact many local networks would struggle to serve multiple cloud instances. can monitor at will. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates."[50] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[51][52] and Rackspace Cloud are able to claim PCI compliance.[49] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonize" the legal environment.[54] Providers typically make this information available on request.[53] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS.[46][47][48] Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. . describing what he calls "cloud washing"—companies simply relabeling their products as "cloud computing". This makes cloud computing impractical in many environments. claiming that the company could simply "change the wording on some of our ads" to deploy their cloud-based services. HIPAA. less CPU intensive setups (for the client) simply stream video over the internet or a LAN.The Intercloud[43] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[44][45] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. and Verizon. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. lawfully or unlawfully. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company.

which has happened in a number of cases. beginning in 2005. The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was canceled in August. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. the prevalence of open standards and open source may have an impact on the way that public entities choose to select vendors. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through the adoption of this new model. which opened up a bid for software that required that bidders use Microsoft's Business Productivity Online Suite.[74] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security based services. and services has increased rapidly.[70] Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards. In 2009.S.[68] Open source Open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.[73] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. goods. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development.[69] In November 2007.[67] There are also concerns about a cloud provider shutting down for financial or legal reasons. Google sued. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. As companies sought to better position themselves for cloud computing branding and marketing efforts. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. It is the very nature of cloud computing based services."[66] Scholars have pointed out that. Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U. Department of Interior. resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later. 2010.139. the number of trademark filings covering cloud computing brands. cloud computing trademark filings increased by 483% between 2008 and 2009.S.[72] Security This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. Since 2007. calling the requirement "unduly restrictive of competition. The talk page may contain suggestions. On October 29. and trademark analysts predict that over 500 such marks could be filed during 2010. Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[71]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable.[65] Other legal cases may shape the use of cloud computing by the public sector. (July 2011) Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity.082) in the United States.) Please improve this section if you can. Trademark 77. that promote external management of . Google filed a lawsuit against the U.[64] Legal In March 2007. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. (Consider using more specific clean up instructions. private or public. 116 cloud computing trademarks were filed.

use of multiple cloud providers. the environmental effects will be more moderate.[86] .[78] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. data segregation. vendors and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing:[83][84]  In October 2007 the Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI) was announced as a multi-university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing.[79] Sweden and Switzerland. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. Thus countries with favorable conditions.provided services. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI). improving virtual machine support and legal support. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware. 2011. focused on providing support for a new cloud initiative called Software-Defined Networking. account control. This delivers great incentive among cloud computing service providers in producing a priority in building and maintaining strong management of secure services.[85]  On March 23. malicious insiders.[82] Research Many universities. This includes password cracking and as a means of launching attacks. Solution to various cloud security issues vary through cryptography. bug exploitation. management console security. such as Finland.[81] In 2009. and multi-tenancy issues. privacy.[73][76][77] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". a nonprofit organization called Open Networking Foundation was founded. recovery. standardization of APIs.[75] Security issues have been categorized into sensitive data access.[80] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. Abuse As with privately purchased hardware. accountability.

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