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t T, E.



PH.D., LL.D.

E. H.


L. A.









rRovBgsoK or classical literature ik stantobd urnvBRarrv OALIFORNTA





1 1 1945

Virsi printed 1926

Revised and rtpritUed 1929 RepriMted 1932, 1936, 1939, 1942

Printed in Great Britain.



this many it other volumes in the Loeb trans- Classical has been found necessary to make lation — something its book something more than a mere approaching a new edition of the poet. and the results of both old and recent scholarship have been utilized poet's transitions are not it . Numerous allusions have been explained in the notes or Index many dubious f)assages have been discussed. and. Acknowledgements are due of the series. one of to the general editors whom. and no easy matter to re-establish the connexion. Page. E.PREFACE As is the case with Library. a careful effort has been made to indicate the sequence of thought. T. inasmuch as the seldom rather abrupt. however briefly. duly registered and considered. in translation or interpretation. has read my manuscript carefully and offered many a timely vii . and the Latin text itself has been scrutinized in every All important variant readings have been detail. Each of the with often Satires and Epistles has been provided own is Introduction. Dr.

1929. December 15. In preparing for a reprint of this volume. February 4. R. H. Smiley of Carleton College. Some explanations given of puzzling passages are due to him. and Professor B.PREFACE and wise suggestion. F. Harvard University. Foster of Stanford University. 1925. H. O. F. R. especially Charles N. I take the opportunity of thanking all who have Professor offered me helpful criticism. .

124 134 149 183 ix . „ IX. . „ „ HI. — PAOI xi XIV xvii xxiii Relation of Horace to Lucilius D. V. II. „VIII. Earlier History of Satire C. Satire I. Abbreviations xxvii XXX satiresBook I. „ II. 1-123 2 17 Satire I. „ « . . Editions and Bibliography F. H. . X. „ VI. „ „ III. Manuscripts and Commentaries E. 30 46 62 75 89 95 103 112 1 Book 24-245 .CONTENTS Introduction A. Chronology of the Poems B. „ IV. . „ VII. IV.

309 313 321 . . . . HI. IX. XV. . „ VII. Epistle I. IV. XI. „ „ XIX. „ VI. VIII.CONTENTS PAOR Satire V. 392 421 442 491 ARS POETIC A OR Epistlk TO THE PiSONES . . 392-441 . V. „ XVII.3 . VI. . XX. . Index of Proper Names . „ XVIII. . XIV. 348 358 366 379 387 Book II. . „ « „ „ „ „ „ X. . . . XIII. . . . 196 208 221 236 EPISTLES— Book I. . . 327 333 337 34. XII. 24. XVI. ElMSTLE « „ „ « „ „ II. . „ II- . «VIII. . VII. . 248 260 269 275 279 284 293 3o:> .8-391 I.

C. and keeping in view certain passages in Satires ii. In 33 B. Horace received from Maecenas the gift of his Sabine farm. we miay claim 35 B. 10. The Sixth Satire of this book makes several allusions to pohtical events. though it is possible that some of the Epodes were composed before any of the Satires.C. i. to be aroused. 6. and in 1. Chronology of the Poems The First Book of the Satires is the first work which Horace pubhshed. i.INTRODUCTION A. 6.) is commonlyassigned to 38 B. referred to in Sat. . which figures so prominently in Book II. and for the general interest. Allowing some time for the friendship between the poet and statesman to mature. as the probable date of the publication of Book I. 45 Horace refers to Virgil's Eclogues. while the introduction to Maecenas {Sat.C. At this time the poet was in his thirtieth year. 38 Horace speaks of the administration of home affairs After the battle as being in the hands of Maecenas. In 1. 6. which were published in 37 b.g. 40). 54 ff. who in the struggle between Octavian and Antony offered themselves first to one leader and then to the other. i.c. At this time Octavian was necessarily absent from Rome. 53 mention is made of the Dacians. 47. In Sat. (e.

but the Mss. i.. appeared before 29 b. In the intei'val between the appearance of the and that of the Epistles.C. the restoration of the standards taken from Crassus {Epist. 144. Horace published the Epodes (29 B.) public lands were assigned to the disbanded soldiers (1.). of the Odes (23 b. 3.).C.. 55).c). i. yet in view of Horace's renunciation of lyric poetry (Epist. The next work to appear was Book I. On the other hand the absence of any allusion to the closing of the temple of Janus or to the celebration of a triple triumph shows that Book II. giving the third an independent position and a special name as Ars Poetica. as the year of its pubhca- tion. 20.c. show that the book was not published before the following year (20 b. 28) gives the consulship of LoUius as the date of writing. 2. such as the close of Agrippa's Cantabrian campaign.C. 26 ff.). i. this Epistle can hardly have been written in the years when the Carmen Saeculare and Odes iv. The three Literary Epistles which remain are often classed together as the three Epistles of Book II. i. but allusions to later events. The occasion for this absence need not be the same as for the earher letter. and the triumphal progress of Tiberius through the East (ib. ii. and who is still absent from Rome in the suite of Tiberius.INTRODUCTION of Actium (31 B. were produced (17-13 Satires . Of the two the Second undoubtedly precedes the first in point of composition. the last verse of which {Epist. and Scholia recognize only two Epistles in that Book.c.c). 12. 65 ff.) and Books I. of the Epistles. to whom Epist. We may therefore claim 30 b. It is addressed to Florus. 3 had been sent. This would naturally imply that the book was finished in 21 B.-III.

ii. which was pubhshed in 13 b.c. 16-13 b.C.c. See Fiske. Lucius. and Cruquius It (1578) first called it the Third Epistle of Book II. inclusive " {Horac«.c. who. but the fact that it reflects so much of the influence of Lucilius would indicate a still earlier date of composition. p. He had a son. as Wickham has pointed out. It was therefore. like Horace. 252-256. praefectus urbi in a. Gnaeus. 14. fought under Brutus at Phihppi and was afterwards consul in 23 B. Thus 11.. which indicate a connexion between it and Horace's later lyrics. 1 gives the main reason for believing that the Epistle to Augustus was v\Titten after both the Epistle to Florus and the Ars Moreover. 446-475. who was consul 1 b.c. the Ars Poetica appears after either the Carmen Saeculare or Odes iv.C. It is more hkely that Piso pater was Cn. According Y. In the Mss. and 11. pp. Campbell. who was consul 7 B. " the Ars Poetica was written at some time between 23-20 b. 132-137 refer unmistakably to the Carmen Saeculare of 17 b.c. there are several passages in it Poetica. 235). . but could hardly have had grown-up sons several years before Horace's death.d. written about 19-18 The introduction to Epist.c. B. He was born in 49 b. Its present position is due to sixteenth-century editors.c. and became consul 15 b.C.INTRODUCTION B. According to Porphyrio. Lucilius and Horace. Calpurnius Piso. the father was L. in all probability. show certain correspondences with the political Odes of Book IV." It is not certain who the Pisones (a father and two sons) addressed in it are. was perhaps pubhshed by Horace independently.C. and another.).. Calpurnius Piso. " to Professor A. while Augustus was absent in Gaul.

dramatic type. were miscellaneous both in subjects and in metrical forms. Different from these were the saturae of Ennius and Pacuvius. satura {sc. comio scenes performed separately after tragedies. Of the Satires of Pacuvius we know nothing. satira quidem iota nostra est (x. poem on gastronomy . is essentially correct. 93). i. Certain writers. and ment of mythology heroic . fahuld) was a miscellaneous story. As lanx satura filled with various kinds of fruit offered to the gods. like the mimes and the Atellanae. to be sure. a rationalistic treat. however.^ but the saturae of Livius Andronicus and Naevius were probably of the earlier. and lex satura was a law which included a variety of provisions. in the Sotadean metre and the Scipio and the Ambracia. wliich dealt with contemporary persons and events. 1." After the introduction of the regular drama from Greece. Earlier History of Satire The great litei'ary critic Quintilian proudly claims Satire as a purely Roman creation. These. though somewhat confused. have regarded Livy's " It is of the account as pure fiction. The Saturae of Ennius included the Epicharmus. "" . a mock the Sota. This kind of literature had originated in a sort of rustic farce. the dramatic saturae. a philosophic poem the Euhemerus. the Hedupkagetica.e.INTRODUCTION B. but they were composed for reading. notably Leo and Hendrickson. so. survived as afterplays (exodid). not for acting. here assumed that the account given of the origin drama in Rome by the historian Livy (vii. . in the literary sphere. which was a dish was originally presented as a dramatic entertainment. the mixed character of which had given it its name. 2).

* Published in University of Wisconsin Studies in Language and Literature.'' to which every future editor of Horace will be much indebted. have been preserved. ii. a study in the Classical Theory of Imitation. we must often refer. 1920. Sat. . elegiacs and iambics." written partly in trochaics.). did edition by F. " self b XV . who Uved from 180 to 103 b. numbering over 1300 verses. He was of equestrian rank and a man of wealth.c. 48) was Gaius LuciUus. 1039). The writer uniformly recognized as the founder of Horace. and we are fortunate in having a very thorough survey of the subject in LuciUus and Horace. the maternal uncle of Pompey the Great and a member of the Scipionic circle. quo fit ut omnis votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella vita senis. i. 1904. which has supplanted all earlier collections. and are accessible in the splenliterary Satire (inventor. The Satires of LuciUus were largely autobiographical.INTRODUCTION those of Ennius were quite overshadowed by his epic and dramatic poems. and if they had survived intact we should to-day have Cited thus by grammarians but called by LuciUus himludus ac semiones (fr. . Note that the latter term sermones (or " Talks ") was adopted by Horace in his turn as the title of his Satires. and to which. but mostly in hexameters. 1905). therefore. His thirty books of Saturae. (Horace.. .. Sat. 1. by Professor George Converse Fiske. Marx (2 vols. A study of these throws a flood of light upon the important question of the relation of Horace to his model in the satiric field. Fragments. 10. 32 ff. Madison. handled a great variety of topics.

Sardinian. He alludes to Socrates and Aristippus. and Umbrian. Euripides. as well as the ancient mode of adhering closely to " Fiske. Etruscan words."" He was. Oscan. dramatic expression. even ^ bits of Greek dialect slang. religion. are found in his pages. and at the same time discoursed upon the follies and vices of his day. In his criticism of others Lucilius was unrestrained. as complete a picture of the poet's life any modern diarist has . and makes citations from Homer. it is true. as well as upon philosophy. p." We must remember both the plebeian origin of satire. for " GaUic words. and grammar upon travels and adventures upon eating and drinking. and words from the Italic dialects. Pehgnian.). but in this he harks back. as to " the vivid and impromptu utterances of the Cynic and Stoic popular preachers. and Plato. and it is because of this Tvapp-qa-la or freedom of speech that Horace makes him dependent upon the Old Comedy of Athens {Sat. Menander. 128. . Syrian words. ^ Fiske. tl6. Lucilius was quite unlike Terence. 1 ff. i. ." In his diction. familiar with the whole range of Greek literature. Lucihus does indeed show an inexhaustible power of invective. literature. not so much to Aristophanes. that puri sermonis amator. and draws freely upon the Academy and later exponents of Greek philosophy. Praenestine. and the many incidents of daily life. vigorous. p.INTRODUCTION and times as given of his. Aristophanes. and the chief characteristics of Lucilius. 4. Fiske aims at showing that " Lucilian satire is the product of a highly sophisticated Hellenistic environment combined with the Italian penchant for frank. Lucilius portrayed not only himself but also his friends and foes.

is trial scene before the to be closely associated with a satire in Book II. too. literary tjrpes. The Eighth. the fierce invective. if G. Of the — — » Fiske.INTRODUCTION we are to understand some of the features of later satire. is the only one of this First Book which shows no obvious connexion with Lucihus." " Both of these poems. It is a Priapeum a late genre in Roman hterature but treated in satirical fashion. pp. In the Second. Thus its excessive coarseness. The famous Fifth and Ninth Satires. of Lucihus. as well as the Eighth. not only " the satiric moulding of the material. is a distinct inheritance from Lucihus. strictly limited to Book I. the Seventh. ." but even the vocabulary is " distinctly Lucihan. are nevertheless modelled somewhat closely upon Lucihus. Relation of Horace to Lucilius In the Satires and Epistles of Horace. is due to our poet's following here too closely in the footsteps of Lucihus.. however. and this element in Horace's Satires. where Scaevola is accused by Albucius of peculation in the province of Asia. though giving personal experiences of the writer. which Juvenal has taught us to regard as the main feature of satire. it is easy to trace an interesting development in tone and character from the more pecuharly Lucilian compositions to those that are more distinctly independent and Horatian. So. which sketches a court of Brutus. is largely a sxu-\'ival from early days. were probably composed before Horace's introduction to Maecenas. 272. Thus in the First Book of Satires. 271. deahng with a repulsive subject. especially in Juvenal.

viz. " From no other Satire. He makes a plea for satire as a literary form and tries to prove that it should not be disliked because of its subject matter.." The First Satire handles two themes which were much discussed in the popular philosophy of the Stoics. viz. 247. Fourth. • • ." and Horace's encounter with the bore will lose none of its interest. 246." the Tliird. " In fact. as the commentators point out. the Third. p. The Fourth and Tenth Satires still further show that the poet is casting off the spell of Lucilius. for while the Second is coarse." as Fiske says. Both of these figured in more than one satire of Lucilius. so as to stand in direct contrast with it.^ In the remaining Satires of Horace's First Book. pp. discontent with one's lot and the love of riches. " Fiske. brutal. and extremely personal. Fiske. which was his direct model. He is ready to criticize the very founder of the satiric genus scrihendi and to set up standards of his own. Sixth and Tenth.** " Horace's Fourth satire may be regarded as an aesthetic and " Fiske. 278. even when we learn that the Sixth Book of Lucilius contained a similar satire. do we have such an extensive portrait gallery of contemporaries " (Fiske. the scanty fragments of whose Nineteenth Book furnish sufficient material to enable Fiske to reconstruct the particular Satire which was Horace's model here. " Lucilio hac satyra aemulatuT Horatius.INTRODUCTION Fifth Porphyrio says. It is therefore not without reason that he places the Third next to the Second in the collection.. Horace is on his defence against hostile criticism. p. dropping all abuse and invective. p. 270). 335. shows a kindly and genial tone which must tend to disarm all criticism.

1903). Cf.* In the Second Book of the Satires. 6. * See Sat. have been settled in his favour. His position as a writer is now well estabhshed. published as we have seen in 30 B. The fragments show that in the Thirtieth Book Lucihus had discussed liis own relations to some patron." the Tenth. where claro natum patre probably refers to Lucilius." " And as the Fourth and Tenth Satires are a defence of his art. 318. p. Horace finds it no longer necessary to make a serious defence of his satire. 59. and the controversies underlying Book I. p. composed under the smart of hostile criticism. Fiske.. in Studies in Honor o/B. » Gild^rsleeve. who. who upheld the standards or lack of standards illustrated by the Satires of Lucilius. and had placed the poet's calling above the lure of wealth. i. p. as well as of his noble patron and the circle of friends to which Horace has been admitted. we should doubtless find that Horace had drawn a contrast between his owti lowly birth. xix ." that Horace here " treats LuciUus with consideration. and the aristocratic origin of Lucihus. and in acknowledgement of his skill in the employment of the harshest weapons of satire. L. It is " only in the general recognition of his predecessor as the originator of the poetical form.INTRODUCTION Lucihan theory of satire. 320. Fiske. not so much against Lucilius himself. Yet the poet is not wholly ethical analysis of the while • Hendrickson. is a vigorous polemic directed.* If we had the whole poem. so the Sixth is a defence of the poet himself. 58. according to Cichorius. as against those critics of Horace's owti day. Horace and Lucilius. as Horace places it above political ambition.C. had estates near Tarentum. 162 (Baltimore.

as well as position. and that he must have the same privilege as Lucilius enjoyed. a theme which it would seem Lucilius had handled at least twice. just as the earlier one applied it to sexual morality.'* Horace. that of writing down his inmost thoughts and his personal comments upon the world. however disguised in its humorous form. temporaries are criticized . The Second Satire of Book II. " It applies the philosophic doctrine of " the mean to daily living. in II. In Book I. 416. Closely connected with the Second are the Fourth and Eighth. » See Lejay. satiric SeiTrvov. though. corresponds in theme. twenty-four conSo Filbey. only four. It is strongly under the influence of Lucilius. as a satirist. eating and drinking. cited » bv Fiske. asserts his right to freedom of speech. was represented in Lucilius by at least five satires. he is armed for defence not offence. like Sat.INTRODUCTION free restrictions that from anxiety. 289-292. 2. in the First Satire of this book. The influence of Lucilius is still strong in the lengthy Third Satire. p. it abounds in ideas which were common in the sermons of philosophers. upon the libel laws of Rome. which deals with the Stoic on 7ras ac^puiv /xatverat. XX . and makes an attack. 390 ff. which belong to a genre whose history The is outlined in the introduction to the Fourth. with the Second of Book I. for there were certain legal might prove embarrassing to the writer of satire . i. Fiske.* It is interesting to find that even the scene reproduced paradox. pp. of which the Cena Trimalchionis of Petronius is the most famous example. therefore. pp. proclaiming at the same time that.

The Epistles belong essentially to the same literary class as the Satires. illustrates autobiographical element so conspicuous in Lueilius. the influence of Lueilius seems to be very slight. " * ? xxi . however. says Acron. was doubtless employed by Lueilius. we realize that now at least he can be independent of his model. 259-271) from the Eunuckus of Terence. and give us incidents and scenes from daily life. " See Fiske. indeed." In the remaining Satires of Book II. pp. The Sixth. and when in the Seventh we find the poet professing to make himself a target for the shafts of satire. In subject matter the Epistles cover much the same field as the Satires. the influence of Lucihus upon the Epistles is relatively very slight. it is true. xviii. are the offspring of Horace's maturity. and epic parody. pp. Sixth and Seventh. open windows upon the poet's domestic circle." These poems. even as it had figured in the Middle and New Attic Comedy. " Are the Letters of Horace Satires American Journal of Philology. 312-324. exemphfied in the Fifth. 394 ff. discuss philosophic principles. They deal with human foibles and frailties. and Horace came to realize that this was the most satisfactory mould for him to adopt. but Horace is no longer under his sway. Lueilius had used the epistolary form in a satire of his Fifth Book. also utilized by Lucilius. and themes the : Fiske. Both kinds are conversational ^ epistulis ad absentes loquimur.INTRODUCTION by Horace was (U. the Fifth. pp. As to thought and contents.. Hendrickson. sermone cum praesentibus. when expressing his personal feelings and when passing judgement upon the hterary and social problems of his time. 427-440.

may be found traces of Lucilian influence. good taste.* As to the puzzling Ars Poetica. 441-446."" The Epistles. 14. • Fiske. good feeling. pp. 1. life. who had a theory of literary criticism " formulated according to the same rhetorical cr^rnxara. it is evident from the researches of Cichorius*^ and Fiske that it is quite largely indebted to Lucilius. Untersuchungen zu Lucilius. . 468. are the best expression of that " urbanity. he is nullius addictus iurare in verba magistri. The two Epistles of the Second Book are devoted to literary criticism. as Horace's Ars Poetica. p." * Moreover. 109-127. " Good sense." says Mackail. and which. "* Epist. ii. which is an important element in the First Book of the Satires. « ^ Fiske. was first suggested to Horace by his relation to Lucilius. the Avriter disclosing a riper judgement and a more subtle refinement of mind. " these qualities. p. pp. we may well believe. 111.INTRODUCTION already handled in the Satires are now presented in more systematic fashion. therefore. and under substantially the same rhetorical influences . Even in these late productions. indeed. To the present " Latin Literattire. and in his literary.^ but Horace writes with a free spirit. as in his philosophic. had obtained a final mastery over the coarser strain with which they had at first been mingled." which has ever been recognized as the most outstanding feature of Horace. with their criticism of life and literature... latent from the first in Horace. a detailed comparison of the fragments of Lucilius with the Ars Poetica show numerous and striking similarities.

all of the extant Horatian manuscripts are of the cursive type. D. putting Virgil aside. was sacked by a mob. when the Benedictine abbey of St. Cruquius . Horace. who. has fared very well. and afterwards adjusted.INTRODUCTION writer it would seem to be an obvious inference jfrom these facts that the Ars Poetica was largely composed some years before it was pubhshed. edited separate portions of Horace. Whereas the great epic \vTiter is represented to-day by as many as seven manuscripts ^^Titten in uncial or capital letters. Manuscripts and Commentaries The text of Horace does not rest on as firm a foundation as that of Virgil. The MSB. and their comparative value. and finally in 1578 published a complete edition of the poet at Antwerp. their hne of descent from a common original. beginning with 1565. Yet. These mss. Of these lost Blandinian mss. had. and his text has suffered comparatively httle in the process of transmission. at Blankenberg near Ghent. and not one can claim to be older than the ninth century. It may have been -WTitten originally in the regular satiric form. been rather carelessly collated a few years earlier by Cruquius. Peter. for publication. which were destroyed in 1566. Such questions have been rendered more uncertain by the incomplete knowledge which we possess of the four Blandinian mss. their classification. and have given rise to endless discussion as to their mutual relations. however. number about two hundred and fifty. to the epistolary mould. in comparison ^^ith the other Augustan poets.

beyond which. returning to the principles of Bentley. however far this may have departed from the original Horatian text. I. he includes K.. and wliich Bentley. doubt has been cast upon the accuracy of the statements of Cruquius. as an emendator or Stop^wrijs. 527. in eight mss. Vollmer enumerates only fifteen mss. endeavours to reconstruct the sixth century Mavortian " edition. \. A simpler and more satisfactory grouping has been attempted by Professor Vollmer of Munich in his recension of 1906 (2nd edition 1912) in which the editor. The claim is made that a reading found in the mss. and other later editors have regarded as the soundest foundation for the estabhshment of a correct Horatian text. in three classes. who was consul in a.INTRODUCTION valued most highly the one which he calls vetustissimus. The three classes are distinguished from one another by the degree of systematic alteration and interpolation to which they have been subjected. one can hardly hope to go. Unfortunately. the most painstaking editors of the Horatian text.. and II.d. a codex not known " The name of Mavortius. xxiv . including A. The three archetypes are ultimately derived from an original archetype of the first or second century. orator urbis Romae. This elaborate classification of Keller and Holder's has proved too complicated and has failed to win general acceptance. The two scholars just named. Lachmann. In Class I. appears in association with that of Felix. I. and Goth. which he divides into two groups. have adopted a grouping of the Mss. of two classes should take precedence over that found in only one. each of which is based on a lost archetype. and Keller and Holder depreciate the value of this lost ms.

. now in Milan.. which Keller had overestimated but Vollmer had rejected as of httle value. Tenth century. W. The readings of wliich reveals its kinship ^\ith V. which is a mere dupUcate of a. H. 27 to ii. i. 6. 7. which he finds to have httle significance. and to supplement a. 441. ii. cited in this edition are as follows : = codex Ambrosianus ^ 136. = Parisinus 7900 a. he omits R. . 8. from Class I. == B codex Bernensis 363 in Bern. C and ^= codex century. 5. but drops some mss. ii. are often to be preferred to those of Class I. D = codex Argentoratensis.. Eleventh is available from Sat. The vetustissimus {V^ he places in Class II. Garrod of Oxford carried this simplification still further.INTRODUCTION to Keller and Holder. and for Ars Poet. up to 1. A (Parisinus On the other hand. . Destroyed at Strasburg 1870. to 476. Class II. and for Ars Poet. Available for Satires and Epistlet. 33 . Mr. up to 1. A. 40 E is available for Satires and Epistles. Vse^ for Epistlesi. 135. except 11. he recalls M. 87 up to ii. except from Sat. He adopts Vollmer's classification. and . Goth. 3. Written by an Irish scribe at the end of the ninth century. 441. Tenth century. Tenth century. from Avignon. 4. and Z ( = Leidensis Lat 28). is held in high esteem. 6. Available for Saiires and Epistles. Available for Satires up to i. while from Class II. In 1912. 95. K . in rexising for the Clarendon Press Wickham's text edition of Horace. . The MSS. along with a Vatican MS. viz. 7972). Switzerland. i.. V. 8 and for Ars Poet. ii. 122 up to for Sat. of the ninth century and the Gothanus of the fifteenth century. except for Sat. placed outside the two classes. 441 C . R. Monacensis 14685 (two parts). (here by a second hand).

1. i. Tenth century. 95 and a portion of ii. 6. 5. The most striking instance of this is given in Sat. F In a number of cases F . Complete. 2. . Eugendi. (designated as Bland. Eleventh century. 16 to ii. but other examples are afforded by ii. 8. 2. 28 to i. Ninth or tenth century. 126. the chief of which was alone (or in conjunction with Goth. Tenth century. now St. i. 4.INTRODUCTION except from Sat. except from i. Complete. but for Satires only up to i. and for Ars Poet. 9 V was probably just as faulty as are most of the (^=ivetustissimus). constitute Class I. 112. from ii. 95. Available and Epistles. 303 Sat. Available S = codex Harleianus 2725. 4. 25. 1. 8. This lacks the Goth. i. and for Epistles up to i. 75 . = Gothanus. 56 On the whole. aAvailable for Epistles and Ars Poetica. 70. 95 Ars Poet. Available for Satires up to 2. Tenth century. Epist. ii. except from Sat. The above mss. 35. / = codex Parisinus 10310. Satires. ii. Fifteenth century. 2. 43. Not available for ii. i. xxvi . Eleventh century. 5. ii. 3. 88 . Claude. and from Sat. except from Sat. 108 . for Satires R = Vaticanus Besides these. Ninth century. Reginae 1 703. 2. These constitute Class II. 3 and for Epistles. 132 to ii. = Lcidensis Lat. Ninth century. n.) preserved the correct reading. to Epist. ii. i. however. account must be taken (through the edition of Cruquius) of the four lost Blandinian mss. X = Parisinus 7972. Ars Poetica.). 8.16. 67 to i. <p = codex Parisinus 7974. Complete. M= codex Mellicensis. 6. 10. 114 . 8. ii. 2. 3. 16. K = codex S. 19 to the end of Ars Poetica. Complete. 8. ii. 28. and from ii. . for Satires up to i. ^ = codex Parisinus 7971. Ninth century. 2. Available for . 3. 44 .

the mss. The term Commentator Cruquianus is given to a collection of notes gathered by Cruquius from the marginaha in his Blandinian mss. 1578. Lemaire (Paris. but the scholia now surviving under Acron's name are as late as the fifth century. Collections of Horatian scholia. Among nineteenth-century editors may be mentioned Doring (Leipzig. as a group. Yet. 1482.INTRODUCTION extant mss. Acron being the earlier of the two. 1711. of Class I. Modern editions xxvii . are distinctly superior to those of Class II. Both collections are largely interpolated. 1829). Editions and Bibliography The editio princeps of Horace appeared in Italy. in point of time. These scholars lived probably in the third century of our era. though not infrequently the latter preserve correct readings which the former had lost. and was followed by the annotated edition by Landinus. or explanatory notes. 1612. Both. E. Amsterdam 1713. which first appeared in 1561. may be said to Bentley's (Cambridge. Leyden. and frequently republished) marks an epoch in Horatian study. have come down to us from antiquity under the names of Porphyrio and Acron. Peerlkamp at Antwerp. and are therefore valuable in determining the priority of conflicting readings. was frequently repubhshed in Paris and elsewhere. however. The complete edition by Cruquius was issued begin with Heinsius. about 1470. Lambin's. without date or name of place. 1803). precede our mss.. Florence.. no one of which stands out as con» spicuous for accuracy.

Ritter's edition is dated 1856Keller and Holder's (editio maior. 1834). 1878) is based on an Leipzig. 1901 Turin. 2 vols. Morris. . London and New York. 1910. was revised by Garrod. Leipzig) has a serviceable apparatus criiicus. i. 18911893. . then by Hirschfelder and Mewes fourth large edition. 1912. One of the best annotated editions revised by is A. annotated. P. 1844). Muller. 1896. and one by L. . Greenough. Berlin. Cambridge. Of the Plessis and Lejay edition only the volume of Satires by Lejay has thus far appeared (Paris. Vollmer's important edition (2nd. Morris. 1878 and I891. 5th. 1869 (4th. Special editions of the Satires and Epistles are numerous. 1881) Oxford. In France. — . Berlin. 1900. 1892) became the standard.The best complete edition in Italy is Fumagalli's. Berhn. 1911). In America the best complete editions are tliose by C. Leipzig. 1912. . whose text and commentary (revised by Baiter 1852. P. Milan. 19O6 E. Kiesshng's. Wickham's text edition. Another good one is that of Schiitz.. S. English editions are Macleane's. J. 1887. Rasi. 1883 A. A few that we may mention are those by A. 1906-07 Boston. and by C. I894.INTRODUCTION (Harlem. Smith and J. P. there is the Waltz edition. L. Gow. . Dillenburger (Bonn. . 1885 J. 1849) and Orelli. New York. Rolfe. Epistles. editio minor. 1864-70 exhaustive study of the mss. . 1884 and later Heinze. Satires. Duentzer (Brunswick. and the Page. B. London and New York. Palmer. . 1857. 1909-11. 1880-83. Leipzig. C. London and New York. Boston. New York. 1912 (see p. Rome. xxv). Moore and E. . Oxford. Wilkins. Wickham's. Paris. Satires. H. Palmer and Wilkins edition. I9OI Sabbadini. 1909. London.

Marx. may be mentioned other •works of importance for the study the follo^\^ng : W. London. London and New York. Duff. Literary History of Rome. E. 1902-4. Oxford. Horace and his Age. Lucilii carminum reliquiae. The Country of Horace and Virgil. Latin Poetry . 1922. R. New York. Leipzig. Leo. Boston. Roman Poetry. A History of Roman Literature. D 'Alton. New to J. Haven. Fiske. Institution). 1923 (2nd edition). Berlin. Porphyrionis commentarii in Horatium. 1879-80. 1916. Hovenden. A Concordance Washington (The Carnegie the Works of Horace. C. Courtand. C. 1893. 1892. F. O. Psendacronis scholia in Horatium vetustiora. Leipzig. Lane Cooper. Sikes. MadL-on. 1923. Gaston Boissier. Tyrrell. 1908. New York. Paris. London. 1899. Wisconsin. London. N. 1864-66. 1920. W.. Sellar. 1913. Epilegornena zu Horaz. MackaU. The Influence of Horace on the Chief English Poets of the Nineteenth Century. Berlin. Y. J. 1895. Untersuchungen zu Lucilius. Horace's Life and Character. F. W. Meyer. 1874. 2 vol. sa vie et sa pensee d. Horace. Keller. G. G. W. A. translated by Fisher. Cartault. J. 1896. M. F. Keller.INTRODUCTION Among of Horace F. Latin Literature. Horace and his Influence. Paris. O. R. 1914. ttude sur les Satires d' Horace. Y. Leipzig. Geschichte der romischen Literatur. H. Fowler. Grant Showerman. . 1917. Leipzig. Acronis et Porphyrionis commentarii in Horatium. 1877. Berlin. Cichorius. Mary Rebecca Thayer. Horace. Roman Poets of the Augustan Age. E. 1904-6. Lucilius and Horace : a Study in the Classical Theory of Imitation. New York. I'epoque des ipitres. 1916. 1909. Hauthal. Jolms Hopkins Lectures.

also There are many pamphlets and periodical too numerous to record. C. Haight. 1924. Y. = American Journal of Philology. Fiske. York. C. C. New articles. ¥iske = Lticilius and Horace. London. Elizabeth H.P. Harv.INTRODUCTION A. e. A. Rh. V. Abbreviations A. which must be consulted by an editor of Horace. St. V. F. M. = Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. J. Horace and his Art of Enjoyment. Campbell.P. = Classical Review. A. = Classical Weekly.g. = Classical Philology. = Rheinisches Museum fiir klaasische Philologie. 1925. Lejay = the Lejay edition of the Satires. by G. Editions of Horace are often referred to by the name of the editor alone. Horace. a riew Interpretation. XXX . 3. = Journal of Philology.R. = Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. C.W.


with thirst though the waters are so near. which provides so wisely for the future but the ant enjoys its store when winter comes. 2 . whereas the money-seeking man never ceases from his labours.THE RACE FOR WEALTH AND POSITION The opening Satire serves as a dedication of the whole book to Maecenas. to give men a chance to change places. They claim to be like the ant. is discontented with his Yet. There is indeed . not argue the point. tortured to his self-esteem. if some god were lot and envies his neighbour. Men will assure you that the only reason why they toil unceasingly is that they may secure a competence and then retire. Everybody. so long as there is one richer than himself (1-40). says Horace. says Horace. The miser claims that the wealthier he I will is the more highly will men think of him. Your avaricious man suffers all the pain. And yet what is the use of large possessions ? If a man has enough. longing for wealth. and deals with a conspicuous feature of social life in the Augustan age. but will leave him He is like Tantalus. more wealth will prove a burden and a peril. they would The cause of this restlessness is the all refuse. and enjoys none of the pleasure that money can buy.

a passage which " smacks of the no\ace in satirewriting " {cf. But enough of this preaching. : p. and later. the . no more certain cause of misery than avarice. xlv. 23-26. I. the weakness of 1. 121 {Horace. 91 ff. 108. everybody is To return to the starting-point trying to outstrip his neighbour in the race for wealth. pp. or you wiU think that I have rifled the papers of Crispinus (120. 936 fF. Lejay thinks that our author composed 165)." Campbell. when dedicating his book to Maecenas. Yet one must not run to the other extreme.). and therefore we seldom see a man who is ready to quit the banquet of life Uke a guest who has had enough (108-119). and the "lame conclusion" in 11.SATIRES. i. points out " distinct signs of immaturity. 120." such as the Lucretian echo in 11. I. added the beginning and the end. however. A minute analysis of this Satire is Knapp in given by Charles Transactions of the American Philological Association." and Morris speaks of its " maturity of style and treatment. Lucr. the discussion of avaritia (28-117) first. but should observe the golden mean (41-107). This is a very plausible view. 121). People are never satisfied. Palmer thinks that this Satire " was probably the last composed of those in the first book.

si quis deus " en ego " dicat. " militia est potior. ne te morer. iactantibus Austris. Maecenas. whose humble clients come Such a citizen would at daybreak to ask for advice. ut nemo. ilia contentus vivat. commonly have had a good legal training. Qui fit. 10 sub galli cantum consultor ubi ostia pidsat. armis conjectured by Bouhier and accepted * cantat B. datis vadibus qui rure extractus in urbem est. audi quo rem deducam. solos felices viventis clamat' in urbe. multo iam fractus membra labore. sors B. 15 fors V Mss. quam sibi sortem seu ratio dederit seu fors^ obiecerit. laudet diversa sequentis ? " o fortunati mercatores " gravis annis^ ! miles ait.SERMONUM LIBER PRIMUS I. ille. loquacem delassare valent Fabium. With him is 4 . adeo sunt multa. 6 coYitra mercator. cetera de genere hoc. * annis mss. 1 : : " The reference is not so much to the professional lawyer as to the influential citizen. quid enim ? concurritur momento cita mors venit aut victoria laeta. by Vollmer." navem : horae agricolam laudat iuri^lcgumque peritus.

ii. when towards cockcrow a ! : client comes knocking at his door. C/. as he feels the weight of years. Maecenas. Sat. come * Horace imagines a dramatic scene where a god appears €x machina. Do you ask why ? There is the battle clash. hear the conclusion to which I am coming. who — — *" : contrasted a countryman. but each has praise for those who follow other paths ? " O happy traders " cries the soldier. therefore. Ara Poetica. If some god were to say yonder. or chance has thro^vn in his way. On the other hand. in some case to the city against his will." One learned in law and statutes has praise for the farmer.SATIRES BOOK Satire I I i^ man li\ing is How comes it. 7. the trader cries life is better. To be brief with you. and in a moment of time comes speedy death or joyous victory. his frame now shattered with hard ser\ice. and must. is who a defendant 5 . when southern " A soldier's gales toss the ship. The other instances of this kind could tire out the chatterbox so many are they Fabius. that no content with the lot which either his choice has given him. :24 ." The man has given surety and is dragged into town from the country cries that they only are happy who Uve in town. 191.

nam -gxemplo est. quod voltis eris tu. consultus modo. ferrum. patiens /. hac mente laborem 30 : . votis ut praebeat aurem ? Praeterea. merito quin illis luppiter ambas 20 iratus buccas inflet neque se fore posthac tarn facilem dicat. 6 . // . senes ut in otia tuta recedant. simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum." : ^ nolent B. haud ignara ac non incauta futuri. — : : : : sese ferre. sapiens F. cum sibi sint congesta cibaria sicut parvola. perfidus hie caupo. quid causae est. * II. the winter. ridens^ percurram quamquam ridentem dicere verum quid vetat ? ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi 25 doctores. miles nautaeque per omne audaces mare qui currunt.^ cum te neque fervidus aestus demoveat lucro neque hiems.HORACE " iam faciam. quae. ut qui iocularia. 23 with order inverted * BK. ignis. ne sic. 40 nil obstet tibi. mare. vilem redigatur ad assem. elementa velint ut discere prima sed tamen amoto quaeramus seria ludo ille gravem duro terram qui vertit aratro. when the year's cycle begins anew. vos hinc mutatis discedite partibus eia quid statis ? " nolint. Quid iuvat immensum te argenti pondus et auri furtim defossa timidum deponere terra ? " quod si comminuas. qui modo miles. 22. non usquam prorepit et illis utitur ante quaesitis sapiens. magni formica laboris ore trahit quJWbumque potest atque addit acervo 35 quern struit. . ' chilHest The sun enters the sign month of a Roman of Aquarius in Januarj-.^ atqui licet esse beatis. dum ne sit te ditior alter. mercator tu. aiunt. rusticus hinc vos.

it would in the ground ? ^ — ABC — : . until no second man be richer than yourself. and say that never again will he be so easy-going as to lend ear to their . You. " ! I. . Change Well Why parts away with you and with you standing still ? " They would refuse. puff out both cheeks at them in anger. putting to coax them into learning their yon jesting aside. fire. — ! ! prayers ? Furthermore. who A\ith tough plough turns up the heavy soil. shall be a trader you. because she Yet is not unaware and not heedless of the morrow. sea. — 7 . not to skim over the subject with a laugh like a writer of -w-itticisms and yet what is to prevent one from telling truth as he laughs. if in terror you stealthily bury it in a hole " But if one splits it up. quite properly. hard-working ant (for she is their model) drags all she can with her mouth." stirs out no more but uses the store she gathered beforehand. can turn you aside from gain nothing stops you. who were but now a soldier. and adds it to the heap she is building. And yet What reason is 'tis in their power to be happy. nor winter. that when old they may retire into secure ease. wise creature that she is . f^ What good to you is a vast weight of silver and gold. the soldier. there why Jove should not. shall be a farmer. once they have piled up their provisions even as the tiny. even as teachers sometimes give cookies to children ? still. sword.SATIRES. our rascally host here. neither burning heat. she. I. but now a lawyer. soon as Aquarius saddens the upturned year. all say that they bear toil with this in \iew. the sailors who boldly scour every sea. 16-43 Here I am I will grant your prayers forthmth. while as for you. let us turn to serious thoughts farmer.

simul ac — * 1 ac B quam aDEM. nihilo plus accipias quam qui nil portarit." mille aret ? dum ex parvo nobis tantundem haurire relinquas. the miser speaks for himself. libenter quatenus id facit ut quidam memoratur Athenis : sordidus ac dives. at Here and below. cur tua plus laudes cumeris granaria nostris ? ut tibi si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna vel cyatho. Vel die. a stream in Horace's native Apulia. 45 non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac^ meus . et dicas " magno de flumine mallem^ 55 quam ex hoc fonticulo tantundem sumere. populi contemnere voces " populus me sibilat. cum ripa simul avolsos ferat Aufidus acer. Vollmer. at mihi plaudo sic solitus : 66 nummos contemplor in area. at K'^ ut Mss. at qui tantuli eget. " quia tanti jquantum habeas sis. undermining its banks. quid referat intra naturae finis viventi. plenior ut si quos delectet copia iusto. is neque limo turbatam haurit aquam. ut si reticulum panis venalis inter onusto forte vehas umero.HORACE at ni id fit. " The picture is that of a gang of slaves driven market for sale. quid habet pulchri constructus acervus ? milia frumenti tua triverit area centum. At^ bona pars hominum decepta cupidine falso 61 " nil satis est " inquit. Vollmer. became a raging torrent. One of them carries the provisions <» ' times 8 The Aufidus. //." Tantalus a labris sitiens fugientia captat flumina quid rides ? mutato nomine de te ipse domi." quid facias illi ? iubeas miserum esse." eo fit. . to the for all. : : mallei: ^ inalim. quanto est opus. neque vitam amittit in undis. . Bentley. iugera centum an 50 " at suave est ex magno tollere acervo.

what beauty has the piled-up heap ? Suppose your threshing-floor has threshed out a hundred thousand bushels of grain . they say. and Avere to say. nor loses his life in the flood. "I'd rather have taken the quantity from a broad river than from this tiny brook." " Yet if that is not done. but at home I clap my talk hands for myself." ^ Tantalus.* *® Or. since that is his whim. tell me. I. what odds does man who lives ^\ithin it make to the Nature's bounds. " You cannot have enough for you get your rating from what you have. neither draws water thick with mud. misled by bhnd desire.SATIRES. He is hke a rich miser in Athens who. thirsty soul. I. why praise your granaries above our bins ? It is as if you needed no more than a jug or a cup of water. your stomach will not as on that account hold more than mine 'tis if in the slave-gang you by chance should carry the heavy bread-bag on your shoulder." So it comes about that when any find pleasure in undue abundance." ®^ But a good many people. say. raging Aufidus sweeps them away. once I gaze on the moneys in my ! . yet you would receive no more than the slave who carries : nothing." What can you do to a man who talks thus ? Bid him be miserable. catches at the streams that fly from his hps why laugh ? Change but — 9 . whether he ploughs a hundred acres or a thousand ? " But what a pleasure to take from a large heap " So long as you let us take just as much from our little one. 44-69 dwindle to a paltry penny. : : chest. bank and all while the man who craves only so much as he needs. used thus to scorn the people's " The people hiss me.

salvum D. noti. pueri atque puellae. praestet quem non merearis amorem ? an si^ cognatos.® ne facias quod Ummidius quidam. ut te suscitet ac reddat gnatis^ carisque propinquis. parto quod avebas. omnes 85 * oderunt.' non Jonga est fabula dives 93 in Campo : ^ optarem. cumque habeas plus. fomenta paret. ne te compilent fugientes. ? quis an vigilare humana sibi doleat natura negatis. miraris. infelix operam perdas. quidam] qui tam Bentley. vini sextarius adde cogeris aut pictis nescis . incendia. retinere velis servareque amicos. noctesque diesque 75 formidare malos fures. an si] £": ^ habebas B. : • adfixit ' K. et tamquam parcere sacris 70 tamquam gaudere tabellis. servos.HORACE fabula narratur : congestis undique saccis indormis inhians. quem praebeat usum panis ematur. quo valeat nummus. " At si condoluit temptatum frigore corpus aut alius casus lecto te adfixit. /. hoc iuvat ? horum semper ego optarim^ pauperrimus esse bonorum.* ." non uxor salvum te vicini vult. nullo Natura labore quos tibi dat. holus. pauperiem metuas minus et finire laborem incipias. so Bentley ' and most at si editors adflixit * gnatis reddat Goth. te vult most mss. si cum nemo tu argento post omnia ponas. ut si quis asellum 90 doceat parentem currere frenis ? Denique sit finis quaerendi. ' an sic Goth. 10 . metu exanimem.^ habes qui adsideat. 80 medicum non filius roget.

if you sought to hold and keep their love. to be in terror night and day of wicked thieves. or some other mishap has pinned you to your bed. to lie awake half-dead with fear. as if one were to train an ass to race upon the Campus " obedient to the rein ? '^ In short. and when you have won your heart's desire. and such other things as would mean pain to our human nature. have you some one to sit by you. I. a measure of wine. who may rob you and run away is this so pleasant ? In such blessings I could wish ever to be poorest of — the poor. neighbours and acquaintances. when Nature gives you kinsfolk without trouble. to get lotions ready. or take delight in them as if painted pictures. Can you wonder. 11 . your wife does not want you well. when you put money above all else. begin to bring your toil to an end. You sleep with open mouth on money-bags piled up from all sides. and the tale is told of you. what end it serves ? You may buy bread. and must perforce keep hands off as if they were hallowed. 70-95 the name. ^^ " But if your body is seized with a chill and racked with pain. to call in the doctor so as to raise you up and restore you to your children and dear kinsmen ? " No. if withheld. of fire. Don't you know what money is for. boys and girls. I. would it be as fruitless a waste of effort. and as you increase your means let your fear of poverty lessen. greens. set bounds to the quest of wealth. that nobody pays you the love you do not earn ? Or.SATIRES. What. lest you fare like a certain Ummidius 'tis a short story so : — — " The Campus Martius. nor does your son every one hates you. of slaves.

* Both of these names were used by Lucilius. The men 12 .. unde abii. Vollmer. ut metiretur nummos non umquam . Clytemnestra. 100 " Quid mi igitur suades ? ut vivam Naevius aut sic ut Nomentanus ? " pergis pugnantia secum frontibus adversis componere. tabescat. qui se vixisse beatum * qui nemo ut V nemon ut mss. cit. fortissima Tyndaridax-um. daughter of Tyndareus. non ego. • < est inter est modus Tanain quiddam socerumque in rebus. redeo. metuebat. Xen.HORACE ita sordidus. pp. Petronius. sic festinanti semper locupletior obstat. Hellen. ut^ avarus. servo melius vestiret ad usque supremum tempus. ilium 115 praeteritum temnens extremos inter euntem. hunc atque hunc superare laboret. ne se penuria victus opprimeret. Porph. : 105 quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum. slew her husband Agamemnon with an axe. iii. 110 neque se maiori pauperiorum turbae comparet. ut. ut se . 27 . se probet ac potius laudet diversa sequentis. For other attempts to improve the text see Knapp. Illuc. * was Tyndaris. 102 ff. vappam iubeo ac nebulonem. instead of counting it.: cum nemo ut Keck. instat equis auriga suos^ vincentibus. quodque aliena capella gerat distentius uber. The idea was proverbial. represent the spendthrift type. Possibly the freedwoman's name * i. inde fit ut raro. sunt certi denique Viselli fines. c/. cum carceribus missos rapit ungula currus. at hunc liberta securi divisit medium. avarum cum veto te fieri. qui nemo.e. loc. : 2 suis aDEM. 2. Sat. 37.

then. The ' Tanais is said to have been a freedman of Maecenas. Yet a freedwoman cleft him in twain with an axe. Thus it comes that seldom can we find one who says he has had a happy : ' The figure is from rams or • bulls. When opposites in head to head conflict with each other. as Knapp takes componere as " reconcile " {loc. L 512 ff." 101 " What. This passage closely resembles Virgil. how it comes that no man because of his greed is self-contented. 13 . p. other person is unknown. I. in short."* I call on you not to be a miser. 101). There are. Georg.SATIRES. instead of matching himself with the greater crowd of poorer men. There Tanais and the fatheris some mean between a in-law of Visellius. but rather does each praise those who follow other paths. taken. ^^ I return to my starting-point. strives to surpass first one and then another. I am not bidding you become a worthless prodigal. and. In such a race there is ever a richer in your way. 96-117 rich that he measured his money. pines away because his neighbour's goat shows a more distended udder. 'Tis ^ as when chariots are let loose from the barriers and swept onwards behind the hoofed steeds hard on the horses that outstrip his own presses the charioteer. I. would you have me do ? Live as a Naevius or a Nomentanus ? " " You go on to set ." so miserly that he up to his last hour dressed no better than a slave he feared he would die of starvation. caring naught for that other whom he has passed and left in the rear. bravest of the Tyndarid breed. beyond and short of which right can find no place. cit." There is measure in all things. fixed bounds. not so much from gladiators.

ne me ^ Crispini scrinia lippi 120 compilasse putes. quietem ? 14 .HORACE dicat et exacto contentus tempore vita^ cedat uti con viva satur. lam satis est. 938. Cur non ut plenus vitae conviva recedis. stulte. vitae D. Lucretius. Aequo animoque capis securam. reperire queamus. Cf. iii. verbum non amplius addam.

was an aretaloyus." 120 Well. * The of manuscript were 15 . or you will think I have rifled the rolls of blear- eyed Crispinus.SATIRES. hke a guest who has had his fill. will quit life in contentment. in verse. He wrote. I. when his time is sped. we are told. 118-121 life. Crispiniis. one who babbled about virtue. Not a word more ^\ill I add.* scrinia were the cylindrical boxes in which rolls kept. according to the scholiasts. and who. I. 'tis enough.


and Horace liimself (in Sat. of Powell and Barber's Setv Chapters in the History of Greek Literature (Oxford. 4. is closely associated mth the Lucilian type of satire. In his introduction to this Satire. i. Lejay has sho\vn how dependent it ultimately is " upon the erotic literature of the Hellenistic period as expressed in the popular Cynic philosophy.c. and doubtless one of Horace's earhest efforts. but run from one extreme to another. who lived in the latter part of the third century b. and in the Anthology " (Fiske. freely handled. a vice which has become a shocking feature of the age. See Chapter I. 25. It abounds in personalities. Especially may this be illustrated by \'ictims of sensual indulgence and by people guilty of adultery. p. if we are to believe the schohasts.n THE FOLLY OF RUNNING TO EXTREMES Men seldom keep the golden mean. There is a striking parallel between it and a poem on love in the Oxyrhynchus Papyri by the Cynic Cercidas of Megalopolis. c 17 . 92) cites it later as an illustration of the kind of writing which had aroused enmity against the author. is tliinly disguised in the Maltinus of 1. coarse and sensational in tone. in the New Comedy. 1921). Even Maecenas. 251). This immature and forbidding sketch.

inopi dare nolit amico. avi cur atque parentis praeclaram ingrata stringat malus ingluvie rem. Hie ? some editors. tanto acrius urget nomina sectatur modo sumpta veste virili sub patribus duris tironum. Ambubaiarum collegia. dives agris.^ vix credere possis 13 { = Ars ^ depellere. balatrones. " maxime " quis non " luppiter " exclamat. hie] hoc S^i/'. 421) rejected by Sanadon. Fufidius vappae famam timet ac nebulonis. respondet."' atque 15 quanto perditior quisque est. Holder. mendici. dives positis in faenore nummis ^ quinas hie capiti mercedes exsecat. frigus quo duramque fameni propellere^ possit. ' exigit E^. culpatur ab illis. Poet. " The usual rate was one per cent a month. 10 laudatur ab his. contra hie. twelve per 18 . si : omnia conductis coemens obsonia nummis sordidus atque animi quod parvi nolit haberi. ! in se pro quaestu * I. pharmacopolae. simul atque audivit ? "at : . II. hoc genus omne maestum ac sollicitum est cantoris morte Tigelli quippe benignus erat. mimae. hunc perconteris.II. ne prodigus esse fi dicatur metuens. sumptum facit hic. * facit.

He is praised by some. buffoons. fears the repute of a worthless prodigal ." and the nearer a man is to ruin. beggars. " Great Jove " who does not cry as soon as he hears it ? " but surely he spends on himself in proportion to his gains ? " You would hardly beheve . 19 . rich in moneys laid out at usury. blamed by others. the drug-quacks. here's one who. On the other hand. he answers that it is because he would not like to be thought mean and of poor spirit. so generous. in grief and actresses. ! cent a year. fearing to be called a prodigal. buying up every dainty ^\^th borrowed money. but Fufidius charged five times that rate. five times the interest he shces away from the principal. the harder he presses him he aims to get notes-of-hand from youths who have just donned the toga of manhood. and took it in advance as in discounting. rich in lands. and have stern fathers. are mourning at the death of the singer Tigelhus. Fufidius. so that the sum actually received by the borrower was only forty per cent of the amount borrowed. in his thankless gluttony. and all that breed. He was.Satire II The flute-girls' guilds. he recklessly strips the noble estate of his sire and grandsire. Should you ask another why. they sav. would grudge a poor friend the where\\-ithal to banish cold and hunger's pangs.

pastillos Rufillus olet. 20 . in contraria currunt.. ita ut pater ille. dedit hie pro corpore nummos. Terenti 20 fabula quern miserum gnato vixisse fugato inducit. . punishes himself with hard labour." mirator cunni Cupiennius albi.HORACE quam sibi non sit amicus." " nolim laudarier. Audire est operae pretium. • ^ Punctuation after usque. 40 hie se praecipitem tecto dedit ille flagellis ad mortem caesus fugiens hie decidit acrem praedonum in turbam. * rata E. utque illis multo corrupta dolore voluptas atque haec rara'* cadat dura inter saepe pericla. i. seized with remorse for his harshness to his son CHnias. married women who dress as such. Vollmer.e. : huc^ iuvenes aequum est descendere. ' hac. Si quis nunc quaerat " quo res haec pertinet ? " illue dum vitant stulti vitia. "In * the Heauton Timorumenos. or Self-Tormentor. nolunt aD. II. procedere recte qui moechis non voltis. Gargonius hircum. 30 quidam notus homo cum exiret fornice. ut omni parte laborent. Maltinus tunicis demissis ambulat 25 est qui inguen ad obscenum subductis usque^ facetus. . non alienas permolere uxores. nil medium est. the father. sunt qui nolint^ tetigisse nisi illas quarum subsuta talos tegat instita veste contra alius nullam nisi olenti in fornice stantem. hunc perminxerunt calones quin etiam illud . " macte : virtute esto " inquit sententia dia Catonis " nam simul ac venas inflavit taetra libido. . non se peius cruciaverit atque hie. Menedemus." inquit 35 " sic me.

. and. 21 . nay. wears them tucked up indecently as far as his waist.*' ^ It is worth your while ye who would have disaster wait on adulterers. Some men would deal onlv with women whose ankles are hidden by a robe * another is found only x^ith low-hanging flounce with such as Uve in a foul brothel.SATIRES. once it . One man has thro^mi himself headlong from the roof another has been flogged to death a third. never tortured himself whom worse than he." says Cupiennius. 'tis well that young men come down hither. another has paid a price to save his hfe another been abused by stable-boys . has fallen into a savage gang of robbers . Gargonius Hke a goat. " for when shameful passion has swelled : . in his flight. . There is no middle course. rare as it is. * Roman matrons Ennius : dressed usually in white. another. so that the fathei Terence's play pictures as having lived in misery after banishing his son. fools run into this ? " 'tis this Maltinus walks 'with his garments its opposite. 20-44 friend he is to himself." ^ Should one now ask. comes oft amid cruel perils. " A blessing on thy well-doing " runs Cato's revered utterance . an admirer of white-robed lechery." " I should not care to be praised on that count. how poor a I. * Cf. audire est operae pretium procedere recte qui rem Romanam Latiumque augescere voltis. to hear how on every side they fare ill.'* . When from such a place a man he knew was coming forth. a man of fashion. rather than tamper with other men's wives. 11. : the veins. and how for them pleasure is marred by much pain. Rufillus smells hke a scent-box. trailing low . " What is the point of all in avoiding a vice.

qua ratio suaderet. ' The reputation of adulterer would association with matronae." verum est cum mimis. est cum meretricibus. The ancilla is a slavegirl who had become a meretrix. Porph. pugnis caesus ferroque petitus. quaque modeste 50 munifico^ esse licet. cum Longarenus foret intus. ancilla peccesne^ togata ? Villius in Fausta Syllae gener. 55 qui patrium mimae donat fundumque laremque. v. " Galba was at once an adulterer scholiasts) a iu7-is consultus. testis demeteret " iure " caudamque salacem 43 omnes Galba negabat. amator Originis ille. non illud quicquid ubique 60 officit evitare ? bonam deperdere famam. hoc amat et laudat " matronam nullam ego tango.HORACE accidit.' ut quondam Marsaeus. verum hoc se amplectitur uno. malum estubicumque. nee sibi damno dedecorique foret. but not with mere- Meretrices wore the toga {cf. ' -ve uss. in contrast with the worn by matrons. v. unde fama malum gravius quam res trahit.. daret quantum satis esset. 71. * and (according to the i. slola. huic si mutonis verbis mala tanta videnti ^ at ^ : * munificum K*. : Tutior at quanto merx est in classe secunda. at hie^ si. 82). quid interest in matrona. an tibi abunde personam satis est. rempatris oblimare.e. 22 . vellet bonus atque benignus esse. poenas dedit usque superque 65 quam satis est. of adulterer. Sallustius in quas non minus insanit quam qui moechatur. libertinarum dico. qua res. exclusus fore. hoc miser uno nomine deceptus. " nil fuerit mi " inquit " cum uxoribus umquam : alienis. come from trices. ut quidam ferro. cf. ut most Mss.

the role.'' but not the thing. assailed with the sword. but had other lovers. But no because of this one thing he hugs himself. Origo's well-known lover. : ! <* — — * The reference is to a scandal of earlier days. with the sword the and lustful member." cry all. would give a sum sufficient. so far as his means and reason would direct. admires and plumes himself. . among them Longarenus and Villius. says he. so befell that a testicles I.SATIRES. because. Fausta's name indicates her noble birth. not such as would mean for him shame and ruin. or with long-gowned maid " ? ^ Vilhus. 22 . whether with all times ruinous. through whom vour name loses more than does your estate. was the wife of Milo. and shut out If while of doors while Longarenus was within. " I meddle -with no matron. is at What matters it. Fausta. and so far as one might be liberal in moderation." *' But how much safer is trafficking in the second after whom with freedwomen. I mean class Yet he. " That's the law. dausrhter of Sulla. who is called Sullae gener in derision. which in any case works harm ? To throw away a good name. 45-68 man mowed dovm. who gave his paternal home and farm to an actress " Never may I have dealings with other men's wives " But you have with actresses and with courtesans. he wished to be good and generous." Just as was once said by Marsaeus. n. if Sallustius runs just as wild as an adulterer. matron you offend. facing such evils a man's mind were thus to plead on — . Galba dissenting. to squander a father's estate. Or is it enough for you to avoid. son-in-law of Sulla. was punished richly and more than enough because of Fausta by this name alone was the ^\Tetch misled being smitten with the fist.

mea cum conferbuit ira ? " quid responderet ? " magno patre nata puella at quanto meliora monet pugnantiaque dives opis natura suae. o bracchia " ! verum ^ * sectari matronas aBD. {J.^ adde hue quod mercem sine fucis gestat. nil referre putas ? quare. ne paeniteat te.) conjectures aesque. ne corporis optima Lyncei^ hoc illi recte 90 inspiciunt. For regibus Kiessling conjectured Threcibus. " o crus. nee. quod pulchrae clunes. tuum-) tenerum est femur aut crus atque etiam melius persaepe togatae est. Hypsaea caecior ilia quae mala sunt spectes. si facies. desine matronas sectarier. : ut saepe. vol. most uss." a te magno prognatum deposco consule cunnum velatumque stola. quaerit quo turpia celet. 85 regibus hie mos est. ' est omitted. * Housman lynceis EK. * P. : contemplere oculis. nee naagis huic inter niveos viridisque lapillos 80 (sit licet hoc.^ unde laboris plus haurire mali est quam ex re decerpere fructus. ardua cervix. si quid honesti est. aperte quod venale habet ostendit. tuo vitio rerumne labores. emptorem inducat hiantem. xxxv. This verse begins a neic serino in some usa. tuum. decora molli fulta pede est. ubi equos mercantur opertos* rectius. breve quod caput.HORACE diceret haec animus : " quid vis tibi ? numquid ego 70 est. Corintlie. 24 . tu si modo recte istis dispensare velis ac non fugienda petendis 75 immiscere. iactat habetque palam. ne. Cerinthe.

SATIRES. when my rage is at its worst. rich in her own resources. cease to court matrons. is supported by a tender hoof. The keen-sighted Argonaut. 69-92 behalf . the small head. that you fault or to circumstances ? mav have no reason to repent. " What wouldst thou ? Do I ever. presents her wares tlie strumpet. yet not softer or finer are a woman's limbs amidst snowy pearls and green emeralds nay. as he gapes at the comely haunches. '* What a leg what arms " you crj^. as often. if you would only manage wisely. 35 . Cerinthus. Nothing is known at the of the blind Hypsaea. the In this they act wisely. prompts." the offspring of a great consul ? What would he answer ? " The girl is a noble father's But how much better how utterly at child. so that if a beautiful shape. his passion's I. while carefully concealing all unsightUness. — — ! — . moreover. rather than reap enjoyment in the reality. often the advantage is with She. ask you for a dame " clad in a stola." variance ^^^th this is the course that nature. . it may not take in the buyer. when you gaze upon deformities. ! ! " waist * The stola was a long over-garment. survey bodily perfections with the eyes of a Lynceus * and be blinder than Hypsaea. II. for thence one may derive pain and misery. she does not displays boastfully show it off. So do not stately neck. This is the way with the rich when they buy horses they inspect them covered. Though this may not be your opinion. what she has for sale she openly >vithout disguise and if she has some charm. . whether your trouble is due to your own Wherefore. and not confound what is to be avoided with Do you think it makes no what is to be desired difference. caught in by a girdle.

lectica. ni Gatia est. parasitae. ciniflones. multae tibi tum^ efficient^ res. positum tangere nolit. si 95 interdicta petes. The Greek runs thus * : uypevTTis. nam medio posita et fugientia captat. cetera. custodes. xii. 1 dum. 102). nil obstat . quid latura sibi. insidias fieri pede turpi mavis an tibi pretiumque ostendi ? avellier ante quam mercem " leporem venator ut alta 105 sic in nive sectetur.HORACE depugis. 3 ? tolli VBK. iv oOpiffi iravTa \ay<abp Kal nd<T7]s fxj'ta SopKaXldos." hiscine versiculis speras tibi posse dolores atque aestus curasque gravis e pectore pelli^ ? 110 Nonne. vallo circumdata facit (nam te hoc insanum). matronae praeter faciem nil cernere possis. quid sit dolitura negatum. quaerere plus prodest et inane abscindere* soldo 2 officiunt <pyp\l. in which the lover is compared to a hunter who will go to great trouble to catch game. ne crure malo. Horace makes use of an epigram of the poet Callimacluis (Anthologia Palatina. 'EiriKides. but scorns it when it is caught and lies outstretched upon the ground (so Orelli). demissa veste tegentis. brevi latere ac pede longo est. 5i(pq. silk * abscedere B. in the island of ' A kind of transparent was made Cos. nasuta." cantat et apponit " transvolat in meus est amor huic similis . 11. ne metiri possis oculo latus. altera. 26 . plurima quae invideant pure apparere tibi rem. ad talos stola demissa et circumdata palla. cupidinibus statuat natura modum quem. 100 Cois tibi paene videre est sit ut nudam.

i dijpiov. SiwKew (V /iUffO'ifi Keifieva xapTrireTai. the robe dropping to the ankles. and. In her Coan silk " vou may see her. for it passes over what is served to all. rdde Xciifibs oT5e. ' reference to Epicurean physics. an unsightly foot you may measure her whole form with your eye.SATIRES. The positum while in medio posita translates eV ixeaat^ Keifjieva. 8' ovk fKa^ey. a long foot. according to which the universe is composed of "void" {inane) and "solid" atoms. invested with a rampart for this it is that drives you crazy many obstacles will then be in your way attendants. 93-113 but there are thin hips." such as these. what satisfaction she will give herself. but declines to touch it when " My love is like unto thus outstretched. hairdressers. TO. parasites. so that she may not have a poor leg. sorrow and passion and the burden of care can be lifted from your breast ? Would it not be more profitable to ask what limit nature assigns to desires. : m ffTl/Sj (Cat Vl<p€Tl^ K€XpyiH^VOi' i)V §eji\i)Ta." 84 TtS fllTTI. the sedan. 11. Or would you rather have a trick played upon you and your money extorted before the wares are shown ? The gallant sings how ^ " the huntsman pursues the hare mid the deep snow. I. for unless she be a Catia. " TTJ.. covered with a wTap. Ipws Toioade' ra fuv tpevyovra. what privation will cause her pain." and adds this. almost as if naked. a thousand things which hinder you from a clear view. a long nose. do you ask for cups of — — — . and so to part the "void" from what is "solid" P"^ Or. her long robe conceals all But if you seek forbidden charms that are else. a short waist and In a matron one can see only her face. In the other no obstacle. when thirst parches your jaws. sic represents roSe /S^/SXt/tcu dtiplov. and chases Do you suppose that ^vith verses flying game. A 27 .

illam " post paulo. discincta tunica fugiendum est et pede nudo. pocula cum fauces urit sitis. ^ : metuo. doti deprensa. vir rure recurrat." " Gallis. ." " sed pluris. egomet mi." hanc Philodemus ait sibi. impetus in malis tentigine rumpi ? quem continuo fiat. liaec ubi supposuit dextro corpus mihi laevum. who mutilated themselves. quae neque magno neque cunctetur cum est iussa venire. Horace is here quoting and summarizing an epigram by Philodemus. ut neque longa nee magis alba velit quam dat^ natura videri. 130 ne nummi pereant aut puga aut denique fama. 119 exierit vir. deprendi miserum est : 1 • det D. cf. Fabio vel iudice vincam.HORACE num. These were priests of Cybele. vae pallida mss. //. : //. undique magno stet pretio . ianua frangatur. vepallida known to Acron * ne pallida Bentley. strepitu resonet. Ilia et Egeria est nee vereor^ ne. the Attis of Catullus. ancilla aut si verna est praesto puer. aurea quaeris num esuriens fastidis omnia praeter 115 pavonem rhombumque ? tument tibi cum inguina. cruribus haec metuat. Candida rectaque sit munda hactenus. 125 do nomen quodlibet illi. dum futuo. vepallida^ lecto miseram se conscia clamet. latret canis. : non ego namque parabilem amo Venerem si facilem- que. tibi ? num. a Greek philosopher. Calpurnius PIso who was assailed bv 28 . pulsa domus desiliat^ mulier. and a client of the L. « dissiliat.

the house ring through and through with the din and clatter of his knocking that the woman. 27 ff. I must run off. 169. her guilty mistress for her dowry. Wright. and Egeria.P. * This writer on Stoicism is said to Cf. With clothes dishevelled and bare of foot. 114-134 gold ? When hungry. I love are those easy husband goes out " a for the Galli. do you disdain everything save peacock and turbot ? When your passions prove unruly. Hendrickson in A.. she fearing for her limbs. — Nay more. ^^^ll leap away. here represent women of highest rank. the door burst open. and I for myself. have been detected in adultery. that a husband may rush back fi-om the country. white as a sheet. the maid in league with her cry out in terror. L. dreading disaster in purse or person or at least repute. mother of Romulus. she is to me an Iha or an Egeria I give her any name. A. would you rather be torn with desire ? I to should not. 29 . Sat. She must be fair and straight. 14.J. * Ilia. When she and I embrace. (1918) pp. : Cicero in his In Pisonem. To be caught is an unhappy fate this I could prove. I. and bv F. i. No fears have I in her company." " attain. (1921) pp.SATIRES. 1. '' : . where Philodemus is characterized in 68 ff. II." " If my woman who speaks thus is only so far arranged that she will not wish to seem taller or fairer than nature allows. the nymph who inspired Numa. The epigram is discussed bv G. 168. and ." says Philodemus for himself he asks for one who is neither high-priced nor slow to come when bidden. even with Fabius ' as umpire. xlii. the dog bark. xxxix. for the pleasures " By and by.

" paradox that all offences are omnia peccata paria esse " (Cicero. In fact the Stoic equal. Think how blind is the lover to the defects of his beloved. for a mere impropriety is not as serious as a heinous crime The connexion between this is one We (38-95).m ON MUTUAL FORBEARANCE satire and the preceding indicated at the outset. and also discriminate between failings. who laid bare the faults of Self-satisfaction of others. and simphcity must exercise mutual forbearance boorishness. says Horace. " Have you yourself no faults ? " Yes. Dejinibus. calling for example modest behaviour stupidity. to the weaknesses of our friends. though they may not be as bad as his. some one may class of people. ask me. On the contrary. for the musician Tigellius is again introduced as a person who well illustrates the foibles and inconsistencies of a large But. SO . I trust I am not like Maenius. we often look upon real virtues as faults. or how tenderly a fond father treats his Even so we should be indulgent child's deformities. A man should this sort well deserves to be satirized. but overlooked his own. examine liimself and search out his own faults before criticizing others (l-37j. I have.

In striking contrast with Satire II. as we learn from 11." " Well. and it would seem that the author was disarming criticism by his assurance that he was not disposed to be over-censorious." did I say ? \VTiy. and this improvement in his worldly prospects may to some extent account for the change of tone." repUes Horace. 63 fF. even as he is rich and handsome and everything " Yes. I. and live on terms of mutual forbearance with others " (124^142).. though he does not open his Hps.SATIRES. SI . even as Hermogenes is a singer. Horace has now become acquainted with Maecenas. unsound. 55). For myself. our social ethics being the result of a process of evolution. " I am else that is good. this one is kindly and genial in tone. is historically besides being repugnant to common sense. I will remain a private citizen. the Stoic is already a king. III. " I cannot see that your crown wins you esteem or saves you from ill-treatment." he would explain. iv. Yet your Stoic would punish all offences alike. 19. not being a philosopher. according to another of his paradoxes. " If he were a king. and the doffing of the severity of Lucihan invective. if he were a king (96-124). a king potentially.

A L . " dinner opened with the gustatio or promulsis. persaepe velut qui^ 10 lunonis sacra ferret . resonat. inter amicos numquam inducant animum cantare rogati." and the latter " highest. qui cogere posset. mane. ^ nil fuit umquam * resonet \p\l. Omnibus hoc vitium ut est cantoribus. 5 quicquam proficeret si collibuisset. saepe decem servos modo reges atque tetrarchas. p. peteret per amicitiam patris atque suam. 15." But see Clement Spiith in C. xxx. ' Editors commonly take summa and ima as defining the position of strings on the lyre. sic impar sibi. noctes vigilabat ad ipsum : . modo hac. modo " sit mihi mensa tripes et concha salis puri et toga. Bacchae BE. ab ovo usque ad mala citaret " io Bacche^ " modo summa voce. diem totum stertebat. see C. supposed In this eggs played a part. ! nil aequale homini fuit illi saepe velut qui currebat fugiens hostem. xx. iniussi numquam desistant. non . habebat saepe ducentos. Caesar. omnia magna loquens. ' B omits I. Sardus habebat ille si Tigellius hoc. paucis contento." deciens centena dedisses 15 huic parco. * The refrain of a drinking-song.B.m.R. 10. was served as a dessert just as with us. summa = vTrdrrj and ima = vrirrj. the former therefore being "lowest. (1906) pp. 397 ff. quinque diebus nil erat in loculis. Fruit to whet the appetite." and voce being " the note. quae defendere frigus quamvis crassa queat.quae chordis quattuor ima.

Never was a creature so inconsistent. That son of Sardinia. a shell of clean salt. All night. Often he would run as if fleeing from a foe very often he would stalk as slowly as some bearer of Juno's holy offerings. often only ten. Now he would talk of kings and tetrarchs. roughly speaking. •* A reference to the Kavr]<pbpoi. if unasked. If Caesar.Satire III All singers have this fault : if asked to sing among their friends they are never so inclined .. . The sum in question would amount. D 33 . then from the egg-course to the fruit" he would keep chanting " lo Bacche "* now with highest voice and now with one responding in lowest pitch to the tetrachord. till da^vn. Tigellius.e. ! .'' Often he would keep two hundred slaves. If the man took the fancy. they never leave off.000.000 or $50. contented with so httle in a week there was nothing in his pockets. all day would snore. to £10. he would stay awake . everything grand. should beg him by his father's friendship and his own. " Give me a three-legged table." Suppose you had given a milhon * to this thrifty gentleman. who in religious processions walked with slow and stately stride. sesterces. however coarse. and now he'd say. was of this sort. or basket-bearers. he could make no headway. and a coat that. ' i." There was nothing consistent in the fellow. who might have forced him to comply. can keep out the cold.

quod naribus horum hominum rusticius tonso toga defluit et male laxus at est bonus. " Epidaurus was famous for the worship of Aesculapius. an ut ignotum dai-e nobis " " egomet mi ignosco " Maenius ? improbus hie amor est dignusque notari. in * amici. * ac Mss. • victus Housman. " to see. S4. at ingenium ingens inculto latet hoc sub corpore. * 2 praevideas Bentley. aut etiam ipsa haec 40 delectant. neglectis urenda filix innascitur agris. II. P.HORACE nullane habes vitia 19 aliquis dicat mihi : " quid tu ? " inimo alia et fortasse minora. pectore. 20. xviii. a word supposed to come from SdpKOfun. minus aptus acutis^ 30 rideri possit eo. 3. //. insederit. at tibi amicus. J. whose symbol was a serpent or Spd/cw.oculis mala^ lippus inunctis. IT. num qua tibi vitiorum inseverit' olim namque natura aut etiam consuetudo mala Cum . • male Bentley. : . p. * aduncis Bentley. 25 cur in amicorum vitiis tarn cernis acutuni quam aut aquila aut serpens Epidaurius ? at* tibi contra evenit. tua pervideas.^ denique te ipsum 35 concute.^ ? " absentem Novium cum carperet. vellem in amicitia sic erraremus. 1 B ' omits I. . verba putas stultus et " ignoras te. veluti Balbinum polypus Hagnae. et isti errori nomen virtus^ posuisset honestum. ut melior vir in pede calceus haeret non alius quisquam. " heus tu Nunc Maenius quidam ait.'. lUuc praevertamur. inquirant vitia ut tua rursus et illi. Iracundior est paulo. amatorem quod amicae* turpia decipiunt caecum vitia. inquit.

may be a description S5 . 19-42 " What about 1* Now someone may say to me : yourself ? Have you no faults ? " Why yes." said Maenius. and perhaps lesser ones. as one we do not know ? " "I take no note of myself. on the other hand. for in neglected fields there springs up bracken. are you as keen of sight as an eagle or as a serpent of Epidaurus * ? But. fails to see his lady's unsightly blemishes. and his loose shoe will hardly stay on his foot. I could wish that we made the like mistake in friendship and that to such an error our ethics had given an honourable name. ^ Let us turn first to this fact. his toga sits ill. the result for you is that they. " Look out. nay is even charmed with them. none better . has not at some time so^vn in you the seeds of folly . and deserves to be censured. or haply some bad habit. sir. as was Balbinus with Hagna's wen. give yourself a shaking and see whether nature. At any . Such self-love is foohsh and shameless. ^ When you look over your own sins. III. which you must burn. ^ " He is a httle too hasty in temper. that the lover. When Maenius once was carping at Novius behind his back. your eyes why. In a word. He might awake . but not the same." * But he's a good man. ill-suited to the keen noses of folk nowadays." said someone. too. but he's your friend but under that uncouth frame are hidden great gifts. " The scholiasts sugrgest that this either of Virgil or of Horace himself. in his blindness. in turn peer into your faults. when are rheumy and daubed ^\'ith ointment you view the failings of yoiu: friends. a smile because his hair is cut in country style. " do you not know yourself? Or do you think you impose on us.SATIRES. I.

male parvus si cui filius est. ' impediat Bentley. Maecenas. simplicior quis et est qualem me saepe libenter obtulerim tibi. ut' forte legentem 65 aut tacitum impellat^ quovis sermone molestus^ : : " communi sensu plane caret " inquimus. et pullum. are all adjectives denoting a less objectionable form of the defect referred to. : : 60 : opinor. pullus. and " Scaurus " with the " The pet names S6 . " Paetus " is associated with the Aelii and Papirii. * incurtare BDE. but they were also cognomina in wellknown family names. at nos virtutes ipsas invertimus atque sincerum cupimus^ vas incrustare. fugrimus B * versemur V Bentley ' ille V. varus. 1 at] ac Vollmer. furimus Goth. //. Vollmer. strabonem appellat paetum pater. caldior est : acris inter numeretur. : : BDEM * modestus. *' Varus " with the Quintilii. iunctos et servat amicos. plus aequo liber at^ pater ut gnati. ' ut] aut or haut.^ ubi acris pro bene sano invidia atque vigent ubi crimina ac non incauto fictum astutumque vocamus. ilium Sisyphus balbutit scaurum pravis fultum male talis. ut abortivus fuit olim hunc varum distortis cruribus. scaurus. paetus. eheu.* probus quis : 55 nobiscum vivit. versetur mss. • ^ amicis B. viz. damus.HORACE nos debemus amici^ vitium non fastidire. haec res et iungit. at est truculentior atque simplex fortisque habeatur. multum demissus homo illi^ tardo cognomen. 60 cum genus hoc inter vitae versemur. pingui. Some editors punctuate after sermone. parcius hie vivit ineptus concinnus amicis et iactantior hie paulo est postulat ut videatur. used. " Pullus " with the Fabii and the lunii. frugi dicatur.. hie fugit omnis insidias nullique malo latus obdit apertum. //. sic si quod sit 45 .

I. his father calls boy squints. Act ii. Sc. and want to soil a clean vessel. Does another fail in tact and show off a bit too much ? He wants his friends to think him agreeable." One with crooked legs he fondly calls " Cruikshank. interrupting you perhaps while reading " He is or thinking with some annoying chatter ? quite devoid of social tact. another shun every snare and offer no exposed side to malice. Moliere. or what the French call savoir fair*.ff. Ars Am. Rep. son is sadly puny. e. Ovid. I take it. Or is he somewhat bluff and too outspoken ? Let him pass for frank and fearless. III." and one that can hardly stand on twisted ankles. 1160 fF." " The expression communis sensus does not mean precisely the same as the phrase we have derived from it. 37 . how Aemilii and Aurelii. seeing that we live in that kind of a world where keen envy and slanders are so rife ? Instead of his good sense and prudence we speak of his craftiness and insincerity." Is a friend somewhat close ? him thrifty. 657 and among modern writers. and not be disgusted at some blemish. and to keep them when made. This.SATIRES. v. Is one somewhat simple and such as often I have freely sho^wTi myself to you. a sense of propriety in dealing with our fellows. Ah. "common sense. ii. he styles him " Chickabiddy. viz.. Maecenas. 474 d. is how to make friends. But we turn virtues themselves upside down. " CurlyLet us call legs. Lucretius. iv. Does there hve among us an honest soul. pour des perfections. " lis comptent les defauts <* . 5. rate. a truly modest Does fellow ? We nickname him slow and stupid." ^ we say. For the passage as a whole we may compare Plato." It is rather social sense. Hotheaded is he ? Let him be counted a man of spirit. like misbegotten Sisyphus of former days. Misanthrope. 43-66 we should deal with a friend as a father with If a if his his child. him " Blinky " .

the sapiens. quanto hoc^ furiosius atque maius peccatum est paulum deliquit amicus. cum mea compenset vitiis bona. ac res ut quaeque est. cum tristes misero venere Kalendae. The fate of the debtor. ignoscet^ verrucis illius aequum est peccatis veniam poscentem reddere rursus. habeare insuavis acerbus^ semesos piscis : : 85 odisti et fugis ut Rusonem debitor aeris. ^ hoc omitted deleted in V. Labeone insanior inter sanos dicatur. According to the Stoics only the ideal sage. qui ne tuberibus propriis ofFendat amicum postulat. who is in Ruso's power. 70 si modo plura mihi bona sunt. pluribus hisce. mensave catillum * B omits 76-80. ut aequum est. extricat. « Ruso. has literary aspirations and writes histories. the usurer. quod nisi concedas. Labeo was a crazy jurisconsult. patinam qui tollere iussus si : : 75 80 tepidumque ligurrierit ius. mercedem aut nummos unde unde amaras 90 porrecto iugulo historias captivus ut audit. quatenus excidi penitus vitiumirae. amicus dulcis. Cf. qui minimis urgetur. in the majority. who went to the galleys rather than read the history of Guicciardini. is humorously regarded as most horrible. ("Burleigh " '' 38 . inclinet. Denique. and must therefore listen while Ruso reads to him from his works. 1 EM * . comminxit lectum potus. ignoscat B. : Some punctuate afte r acerbus so Orelli and Ritter. Macaulay's story of the criminal.HORACE quam temere in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam nam vitiis nemo sine nascitur optimus ille est.^ cetera item nequeunt stultis haerentia. cur non ponderibus modulisque suis ratio utitur. ita suppliciis delicta coercet ? si quis eum servum. qui nisi. amari ! : volet hac lege in trutina ponetur eadem. in cruce suffigat. Horace places himself is excepted from the class of stulti.

lightly I. why does not Reason use her own weights and measures. if he wishes to gain my love. but fair that one who craves indulgence for faihngs should grant it in return. you hate him bitterly and shun him. 39 .* How much madder and grosser a sin is this a friend has committed a slight offence. III.SATIRES. "^ In fine. who. and visit offences with punishment suited to each ? If one were to crucify a slave who. On that conOne dition he shall be weighed in the same scale. if at the coming of the sad Kalends he cannot scrape up from some quarter : — : either interest or principal. now cold. sane men would call him more insane than Labeo. has greedily licked up the half-eaten fish and its sauce. who expects his friend not to be offended by his It is o\\Ti warts will pardon the other's pimples. must offer his throat like a prisoner of war and hsten to his captor's dreary histories * What if in his cups my friend has wet the couch or knocked off the table a bowl once ! and his Times" in Critical and Historical Essays. which you would be thought ungracious not to pardon . as Ruso is shunned by his debtor. as is fair. My kindly friend must. since the fault of anger. when bidden to take away a dish. Juvenal's Tirbis et Augusto mille pericula saevae recitantes mense poetas {Sat. and must turn the scales if only in their favour as being the more numerous my virtues are the more numerous. 67-90 ! do we set up an unjust law to our own harm the best is he For no living wight is without faults who is burdened with the least. ilL 8). weigh my \irtues against my faults.) Cf. poor vvTctch. and all the other faults that cleave to fools " cannot be wholly cut away.

laborant cum ventum ad verum est : sensus moresque repug- nant atque ipsa Utilitas. 1041 ° i. neu quis adulter." * Appeal is here made to the Epicureans.HORACE Euandri manibus tritum deiecit^ ob hanc rem. tantundem ut peccet idemque . aut si prodiderit commissa fide sponsumve negarit ? : 95 quis paria esse fere placuit peccata.' nominaque invenere dehinc absistere bello. dein fustibus. omnia peccata paria esse. nee vincet Ratio hoc. {cf. vocesque. cf. oppida coeperunt munire et ponere leges.) B quibus sensus. ^ proiecit B. Cicero. tempora si fastosque veils evolvere mundi. notarent Housman omits 92. * ' me. dividit ut bona diversis. atque ita porro 101 pugnabant armis. sed ignotis perierunt mortibus illi. quibus voces sensusque notarent. minus hoc iucundus amicus sit mihi ? quid faciam si furtum fecerit. iv. neu latro. //: /•. quos venerem incertam rapientis more ferarum 110 viribus editior caedebat ut in grege taurus. Cum prorepserunt primis animalia terris. mutum et turpe pecus. quae post fabricaverat usus. fugienda petendis .e. Lucr. This was a doctrine of the Stoics . donee verba. 55. nam fuit ante Helenam cunnus taeterrima belli causa. " recte facta omnia aequaiia. and 111-124. as well as 95-100. iusti prope mater et aequl. whose moral philosophy rested on a distinctly utilitarian basis. 19. 105 ne quis fur esset. iura inventa metu iniusti fateare necesse est. 40 . V.. glandem atque cubilia propter unguibus et pugnis. Be fin. aut positum ante mea^ quia puUum in parte catini sustulit esuriens. ^ of great antiquity and consequently very valuable. nee Natura potest iusto secernere iniquum.

fingered I. that the sin is one and the * The doctrine of the evolution of society. For before Helen's day a wench was the most dreadful cause of war. and to frame laws that none should thieve or rob or commit adultery. or because when hungry he snatched up first a pullet served on my side of the dish. According to the utilitarian theory of is ethics. * Cf. is based on Lucretius. to build towns. like the bull in a herd. the mother. you must needs confess that justice was born of the fear of injustice. but deaths unknown to fame were theirs whom. dumb. as here set forth.SATIRES. 91-116 by Evander. to be less pleasing in my eyes ? What shall I do if he commits a theft. customs rebel. the sense of right and wrong not innate in us. P. * Or " verbs and nouns. a man stronger in might struck down. nor yriW Reason ever prove this. III. we may say. 41 ." is he for such offence. snatching fickle love in wild-beast fashion." ^ When living creatures crawled forth upon primeval earth. of justice and right. or disowns his bond ? Those whose creed is that all sins are much on a par * are at a loss Feelings and when they come to face facts." the two main divisions of human speech. v. and so does Expedience herself. what is to be sought and what is to be shunned .-^ Between right and \\Tong Nature can draw no such distinction as between things gainful and harmful. or betrays a trust. then with clubs. and so on step by step with the weapons which need had later forged. until they found words ** and names ' wherewith to give meaning to their cries and feehngs. shapeless beasts. they fought for their acorns and lairs vnth nails and fists. Thenceforth they began to cease from war. A. De rerum natura. 780 ff. 2^-5. If you will but turn over the annals and records of the world.

" The Stoics held that the truly he was therefore wise man or philosopher was perfect rich. of the Epistles. Tucker in C. and a king among men. B quo other mss. p. nam ut ferula caedas meritum maiora subire verbera non vereor. adsit regula. aK. : " solum 12 . cur optas quod habes ? " non nosti quid pater " inquit " Chrysippus dicat sapiens crepidas sibi numquam nee soleas fecit . Porph. cum dicas esse pare* res furta latrociniis et magnis parva mineris 116 120 recisurum simili permittant homines." qui^ ? " ut quamvis tacet Hermogenes cantor tamen atque optimus est modulator . accomplished. Horace ridicules these claims here and elsewhere. as well as beautiful. * II. 1920. is sapientem esse divitem.HORACE qui teneros caules alieni fregerit horti et qui nocturnus sacra divum^ legerit. peccatis quae poenas inroget aequas. qui B tonsor V: sutor mss. sapiens operis sic optimus omnis est opifex solus. magnorum maxime regum.. si tibi regnum Si dives. falce te. Beginning with 135." vellunt tibi barbam lascivi pueri . '^ » * divum sacra ustrina V. ut Alfenus vafer omni 130 abiecto instrumento artis clausaque taberna"* tonsor'* erat. quos tu nisi fuste coerces. sic rex. " The sixth Stoic Paradox according to Cicero.R. 135 urgeris turba circum te stante miserque^ : rumperis et * latras. qui sapiens est. G. is lacking up to the end of Book : " For another interpretation see T. 156. 125 et sutor bonus et solus formosus et est rex. sutor tamen est sapiens. ne scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello.

HI. p. poor wretch. I. e. * The Stoic has just admitted that he is not a king. " what our father Chrysippus gods." How so ? " As Hermogenes. while you. is still the best of singers and musicians .g. offences. 1. ^^ If the wise man is rich. 106. and alone handsome and a king. ** 43 . however silent. 116-136 same to cut young cabbages in a neighbour's garden and to steal by night the sacred emblems of the Let us have a rule to assign just penalties to you flay ^\ith the terrible scourge what calls for the strap. 1057." Mischievous boys pluck at your beard. after tossing aside every tool of his art and closing his shop. as shrewd Alfenus. he naturally turns elsewhere for illustrations. the account of the wise man of the Stoics given in Plutarch. 4-10. Cf. • The reading tonsor is preferred to sutor. great and small. so the wise man he alone is the best workman of every craft. Chrysippus was regarded as the second founder of Stoicism. and when you threaten to prune away all crimes. I am not afraid of that. the first being Zeno. so is he king. was a barber * . As the Stoic tries to prove that the wise man is a cobbler. with the same hook. yet the wise man is a cobbler. when you say that theft is on a par with highway robbery. 6. to Hermogenes the musician. For " as to your striking with the rod one who deserves sterner measures. if men would but give you royal power. you are jostled by the crowd that surrounds you.SATIRES. and for St.* and a good cobbler." he means. and to Alfenus the barber. answers. i. and unless you keep them off with your staff. snarl and burst with rage. Mor. Paul's application of the principle see 2 Cor. lest ** The wise man has never made himself shoes or sandals . why crave what you abeady have ? * " You do not know. O mightiest of mighty — as in Epist.

1. C/. amici. i. » ^affiXein ^aaCKitav. si quid peccaro stultus.HORACE ne longum faciam dum tu quadrante lavatum rex ibis neque te quisquam stipator ineptum praeter Crispinum sectabitur. inque vicem illorum patiar delicta libenter. Sat. 140 " Like a Persian king. privatusque magis vivam te rege beatus. 120. et mihi dulces : ignoscent. 44 .

the opposite of sapiens. and in my private station shall live more happily than Your Majesty.SATIRES. and in turn I shall gladly put up with their shortcomings. while you.*^ commit some offence. and no escort attends you except crazy Crispinus. ' i^. yovur foolish man.'' my kindly friends will pardon me if I. as the Stoics used it. ! I. III. go to your pennj bath. a king. . stultus. 137-142 kings " In short.

we are really dealing with pure conversation. change the wordorder. as rendered on the stage. In Roman literature. " Listen to my defence.IV A DEFENCE OF SATIRE The writers of Old Attic Comedy assailed the vicioug with the utmost freedom. more interested in the quantity than in the quality of his work (1-13). " Give such like to have their weaknesses exposed. The true poet has imaginative power and lofty utterance. but Horace decUnes to compete with such poetasters. and you have plain prose. for even in its most spirited passages. even as he refuses to emulate the self-satisfied Fannius by reading his verses in public. verses that are really more like conversation. But the question At satire is poetry must be postponed. " So it is with the verses of Lucilius and my own. Similar in this last respect is Crispinus. should not be called a poet. This is why the question has been raised whether comedy is poetry. " In the first place. who challenges the poet to a scribbling contest." says Horace. but his metrical forms are different. and his verse is un- couth. because Men do not this kind of writing is not popular. whether 46 . a poet a wide berth. present let us consider the question of its unpopularity " (56-65). Take away the metrical element. such as would be suitable to similar scenes in daily life " (38-56). Lucilius shows the same spirit and boldness. He was careless and verbose." they cry (14-38). a man who composes verses as I do.

92 is to be associated closely with the Second. will take to ^vriting yourself " (65-143). which he himself would carefully avoid.c. IV. He does not indulge in the invective of Old Comedy. " You look upon me as an informer. and have always continued the practice. for I was trained to do so by my father. In his reply. 71 does not preclude their publication). I. 1. who in his open warfare used the weapons of Old Comedy. and had the pen of a ready writer. Horace maintains that his own satire is not personal. As there is no reference to Maecenas. but what of that ? Nowadays everybody writes. my critic. but rather social and general in its apphcation. that was his predecessor's chief fault.SATIRES. and in \iew of the citation in 1. him unfavourably with Lucilius. was a representative of the fine. My friends will acquit me of such a charge. I jot down my thoughts. the poet's critics had accused Horace of being a They also contrasted malevolent scandal-monger. and you. 4. willy-nilly. and to profit thereby. His teacher in morals. was famihar with the Greek moralists and philosophers. 115). if not a great philosopher {cf.7 . sapiens. I am not writing for the general public. On the appearance of his first Satires (and it is to be noticed that the carefully chosen subjunctive habeat in 1. oldfashioned Roman virtues. and my object is not to give pain. As for the copiousness of Lucihus. but rather follows the New in spirit as well as in style. To be sure. but even if you are a rogue I am no informer. Yet it is my habit to observe the conduct of others. This is one of the early Satires. it was probably composed before the poet's introduction to the statesman in 38 b. even his own father.

7. hosce secutus facetus. but not in harmony with hora. 1. at tu conclusas hircinis follibus auras 20 usque laborantis. mutatis tantum pedibus numerisque emunctae naris. quod malus ac fur. 1. cum : : : ." For Crispinus see Sat. " ' 18 . : flueret lutulentus. 10 ut magnum. 120. nam ut multum. 247. nil moror. Eupolis atque Cratinus Aristophanesque poetae alii. quod moechus foret aut sicarius aut alioqui 5 famosus. multa cum libertate notabant. hinc omnis pendet Lucilius. " For the emphasis on poetae (denied by Uliman. p. scribendi recte " accipe. A. He offers to bet a xlviii. A. II. accipiam^ tabulas videamus uter plus scribere possit. raro et perpauca loquentis. hora. inopis me quodque pusilh finxerunt animi. dum ferrum molliat ignis. ut mavis. garrulus atque piger scribendi ferre laborem. quorum comoedia prisca virorum est. ecce. erat quod tollere velles . nam fuit hoc vitiosus in hora saepe ducentos. P. imitare. " dentur. i. si vis. 115) see Epist. ii. atque . Proverbial for " doing without effort. si quis erat dignus describi.IV." custodes di bene fecerunt. Crispinus minimo me provocat 15 detur^ nobis locus. versus dictabat stans pede in uno . durus componere versus. ^ accipe iam.

It is on these that Lucilius wholly iiangs these he has followed. let us see which can write the most. if there was anyone deserving to be dra\vn as a rogue and thief.e. set their mark upon him with _reat freedom. "bets being all his poverty would allow. his fault often in an hour.* In his muddy stream there was much that you would like to remove. Witty he was.* and the other good men to whom Old Comedy belongs. changing only metre and rhythm. of rare and scanty speech I>ut do you. as though a great exploit. He was wordy. or as scandalous in any other way. : — md ! large sum against a small one on jectured nummo for minimo. I let that pass. on one foot. my part. for as to quantity. and ever puffing away until the fire softens the iron. me Bentley cona sesterce. Crispinus challenges " Take your tablets. be Uke the air -hut up in goat-skin bellows.Satire IV *^ Eupolis and Cratinus and Aristophanes. See. as a rake or cut-throat. please ine at long odds " . : if \\Titing of writing correctly. I mean . as they say. 111 take mine. for such is your taste." Ihe gods be praised for fashioning me of meagre wit and lowly spirit. Let a place be fixed for us. but harsh in framing his verse. and too lazy to put up with the trouble . i. he would dictate two hundred lines while standing. and time judges . true poets. and of keen-scented Herein lay nostrils." that E 49 .

//. 35 gestiet a furno redeuntis scire lacuque et pueros et anus. non non. " faenum habet in cornu longe fuge dummodo : : ! risum excutiat et sibi.HORACE Beatus Fannius ultro delatis capsis et imagine. cum mea nemo ob hanc rem. si qui scribat uti nos sermoni propiora. see lialfe. hie puerorum hunc capit argenti splendor stupet Albius aere hie mutat merces surgente a sole ad eum quo quin per mala praeceps 30 vespertina tepet* regio scripta legat volgo recitare timentis : . dederim quibus esse poetas. quemvis media elige^ turba 25 aut ob avaritiam^ aut miisera^ ambitione laborat. fertur uti pulvis collectus turbine. primum ego me illorum. 246. dixeris esse satis . 25 so Vollmer. 50 4 ." Agedum. putes hunc esse poetam. but in what way he did so is now unknown. together with his portrait. a petty poet. : arripe Bentley.® excerpam numero neque enim concludere versum 40 : neque. poetis and scholia on Sat. Vollmer 2 : eripe 3 Bland. non hic^ cuiquam parcet amico quodcumque semel chartis illeverit. . i. 6. ^ erue K. ne quid summa deperdat metuens aut ampliet ut rem omnes hi metuunt versus. p. miser K. adopted by Vollmer and Garrod. ab =* avaritia. into prominence. hie nuptarum insanit amoribus. //. C P. quod sunt quos genus hoc minime iuvat. R : Fannius. pauca accipe contra. utpote pluris culpari dignos. odere poetas. omnis . brought his writings (kept in capsae or cylindrical boxes). . . * • " * patet. II. vii.

his son (1. 21-42 ^ Happy fellow. listen to a few words in answer. who has delivered his books and bust unasked " My writings no one reads. Albius " another trades his wares from dotes on bronzes the rising sun to regions warmed by his evening rays . inasmuch Choose anyone from as most people merit censure. all the slaves and old dames as they come home from bakehouse and pond. the fact being that this style * is abhorrent to some. * The extravagance of Albius impoverishes Dangerous cattle 51 . Agrippa set up seven hundred locus or reservoirs in Ptome. another for boys. like dust gathered up by a whirlwind.e. the common people. IV. • i.** give him a wide berth.c. Provided he can raise a laugh for himself. : Probably he presented them to private libraries.e. At this time the only public library in Rome was the one founded by Asinius Pollio in 38 b. I. were thus distinguished. as I do. Unes more ! : .109). fearful lest he lose aught of his total. All " He of these dread verses and detest the poet carries hay on his horns. Fannius.f Satire.\Tetched ambition. olKaitSo add to his wealth. nor would you count anyone poet who WTites. One is mad with love Here is for somebody's wife. ' * i. For you would not call it enough to round off a verse." * ^ Come now. nay.SATIRES. Another view is that Tannius's admirers presented the poet with book-cases and bust. as they went to get bread from the public bakery and water from the public tanks. one whose fancy the sheen of silver catches . through perils he rushes headlong. he is suffering either from avarice amid a crowd or some A. First I will take my owti name from the list of such as I would allow to be poets. he will >pare not a single friend^^nd whatever he has once scribbled on his sheets he will rejoice to have all know. and I fear to recite them in pubhc. and the only living writer whose works were admitted to it was Varro.

It is imitated in Virgil. magnus uterque timor latronibus at bene si quis et vivat puris manibus. 52 . " The passage cited is from Ennius and refers to the temple of Janus. ambulet ante noctem cum facibus. posterius facias. saevit. des nominis huius honorem. //. : : 66 ' insanit.HORACE ingenium cui sit. eripias si tempora certa modosque. 622. ego quae nunc. Sulcius acer ambulat et Caprius. quivis stomachetur eodem quo personatus pacto pater. * grandem. rauci male cumque libellis. " Who Pomponius was is unknown. praeponens ultima primis. contemnat utrumque. quod acer spiritus ac vis nee verbis nee rebus inest. vii. pater si viveret ? ergo non versum perscribere verbis. but in real life he corresponds to the prodigal in the play. ' pueris. 50 audiret leviora. nunc illud tantum quaeram. which was opened in time of war. magnum quod dedecus. and the language used by his father under the circumstances would be similar to that in the scene from Comedy. //. * versum. II. Hactenus haec alias iustum sit necne poema. quod meretrice nepos insanus^ arnica filius 43 uxorem grandi^ cum dote recuset. his." numquid Pomponius istis ebrius et. et quod prius ordine verbum* est. 56 quern si dissolvas." invenias etiam disiecti membra poetao. idcirco quidam Comoedia necne poema esset quaesivere. //. cui mens divinior atque os magna sonaturum. olim quae scripsit Lucilius. Aen. 60 non. sermo merus. ut si solvas " postquam Discordia taetra satis est puris^ Belli ferratos postis portasque refregit. nisi quod pede certo " at pater ardens differt sermoni. meritone tibi sit suspectum genus hoc scribendi.

" there is the father storming in passion because his spendthrift son. should you break it up.SATIRES. you would find the limbs of a poet.'' ^ Of this enough. To-day the only question I'll ask is this. both a great terror to robbers. if one has a and tongue of noble utterance. any father whatever would rage in the same fashion as the father in the play." Would Pomponius hear a lecture less stern than this. rejects a wife with large dower. save that it differs from prose-talk in its regular beat. it is mere prose. but if a man is honest of life and his hands 58 . Take from the verses which I am >vriting now. and. War's posts and gates of bronze had broken where. were his father ahve ? " And so 'tis not enough to write out a line of simple words such that. transposing the and it would not be hke breaking first and the last — — — — up: When foul Discord's din in. their regular beat and rhythm change the order of the words." you say. to such give the honour of that name. for neither in diction nor in matter has it the fire and force of inspiration. and in drunken fit reels abroad sad scandal with torches in broad dayhght. p. Hence some have questioned whether Comedy is or is not poetry to prose. >oul divine . madly in love with a wanton mistress. horribly hoarse and armed with wTits. whether you are right in vie-vWng it with distrust. Keenscented Sulcius and Caprius stalk about. Some other time we'll see whether this kind of \VTiting is true poetry or not. or which Lucilius wrote in former days. " But. even when he is dismembered.kin I. IV. 43-68 If one has gifts inborn.

II. Bland. avet mss. 85 saepe tribus lectis videas cenare quaternos. " Sulcius and Caprius are commonly supposed to have been professional informers. x. pp. i. idque coactus. in medio qui scripta foro recitent. 4. . num sine sensu.). ^ sum Porph. : 75 tempore inquit. quique lavantes suave locus voci resonat conclusus. hunc tu. i. : non ego sim^ Capri neque Sulci cur metuas me ? 70 nulla taberna meos habeat neque pila libellos. 117) takes them to be contemporary satirists.' num faciant alieno. inquis M. 90. 2. xlviii. and i. 270 fF. 10. A. P.P. a subjunctive is necessary here. Book-stalls 54 . but Horace treats him as the poet of the volgus. inanis hoc iuvat.. Bentley ' : * imus. who recite their long-winded poems and carry about copies for free distribution. commissa tacere qui nequit hie niger est. "et hoc studio pravus iacis ? hoc vixi in me quibus ? qui non defendit alio culpante. and Ullman convincingly upholds this view {C. i. //. He was now dead. e quibus unus* amet^ quavis aspergere cunctos praeter eum qui praebet aquam . The scholiasts identify him with the Tigellius of Sat. sunt multi." Unde petitum est auctor quis denique eorum 80 absentem qui rodit amicura. hoarse from bawling in the courts. condita cum verax aperit praecordia Liber. 3. p. solutos qui captat risus hominum famamque dicacis. caveto. post hunc quoque potus.HORACE ut sis tu similis Caeli Birrique latronum. non ubivis coramve quibuslibet. : cum Laedere gaudes facis. Romane. 129. 3. See note on Sat. but Ullman {A. 3. quis manus insudet volgi Hermogenisque Tigelli nec^ recito cuiquam nisi amicis. haud illud quaerentis. " For Tigellius see Sat. amet 1 * * non. 11. " " fingere qui non visa potest.

55 . Cicero speaks of five as a great crush : Graeci stipati. who cannot of him keep a secret that man is black of heart beware. or in the baths.SATIRES. Many there are who recite their writings in the middle of need not be should you fear me ? to have my httle works. and in vino Veritas. * The god Liber was identified with Bacchus. the robbers. who never ask themselves this. Cf." among whom one loves to bespatter in any way everyone present except the host who provides the water. and later him as well." \Miere have you found Does anyone whatever this missile to hurl at me ? with whom I have lived vouch for it ? The man who backbites an absent friend who fails to defend him when another finds fault the man who courts the loud laughter of others. whether what they do is in bad taste or out of season." says one. he like I. good Roman. the proverbs oTvos koX dXddta (Alcaeus). " and you do so with spiteful intent. when he has well drunk and the truth unlocks the heart's secrets ful god of free speech were usually in arcades." Though you be like Caelius and Birrius. IV. How pleasantly the That delights the vaulted space echoes the voice frivolous. and then only when pressed not anywhere or before any hearers. 67). — . so that this was a large party. I Caprius or Sulcius why I want no stall or pillar and Hermogenes so that the hands of the crowd may sweat over them. 69-89 may scorn them : both. — — — the Forum. quini in lectulis {In Pis. ** the Parisian kiosques. the pillars of which were doubtless used for advertising the books within. '* " You hke to give pain. and the reputation of a wit . . clean. * Three was the usual number. Often on each of the three couches you may see four at dinner. One may compare ! . Nor do I recite Tigellius * them to any save my friends. who can invent what he never saw . 27.

HORACE hie tibi comis et urbanus liberque videtur. quod mi ipse parasset " nonne vides. ne patriam rem perdere quis veht." a* turpi meretricis am ore 111 cum deterreret " Scetani dissimilis sis. 86-89) in the first person. prius = ut prius) Housman. hoc mihi iuris cum venia dabis. Hie in 1. haec est 100 aerugo mera. ( ^ capitolinis * DE. promitto. ' animo. parce frugaliter atque viverem uti contentus eo. II: at M. insuevit pater optimus hoc me. Liberius si dixero quid." hie nigrae sucus lolliginis. II. mordax videor tibi ? mentio si quac^ 95 de Capitolini^ furtis iniecta Petilli te coram fuerit. was a proverbial one. defendas ut tuus est mos : " me Capitolinus convictore usus amicoque a puero est. concessa cum venere uti possem : " deprensi non bella est fama Treboni. 90 is Lucilius. 27. Albi ut male vivat filius. II." ne sequerer moechas. utque Baius inops ? magnum documentum. 105 ut fugerem exemplis vitiorum quaeque notando. See Sat. 10. who must have described such a banqueting-scene (11. that of stealing the gold crown of Jupiter on the Capitol. quod ineptus pastillos 90 lividus et RufiUus olet. ut^ si quid promittei'e de me possum aliud vere." : * qua KM. infesto nigris. ut. quod vitium procul afore cliartis atque animo prius. " Cited from Sat. Gargonius hircum. aut E. i. 2. cum me hortaretur. sed tamen admiror quo pacto iudicium illud fugerit. i. and note. et incolumis laetor quod vivit in urbe . * The crime of which Petillius is said to have been accused. (55. ego si risi. si forte iocosius. as is seen from the allusions 56 . causaque mea permulta rogatus fecit.

" how badly fares young Albius. 1. " Don't be like Scetanus. Trinummus 83. Menaechmi 941." ink of the cuttlefish here is venom unadulterate. 28 above. and I rejoice that he is ahve and out of danger here in Rome but still I do wonder Here is the very how he got out of that trial. The cognomen Capitolinus gave a handle to his assailants.SATIRES. if there is aught that I can pledge with truth." he would say. 105 refers to Horace's freedom of speech (liberius si dixero). frugally. by his examples. I. he would brand them.** and how poor is Baius ? A striking lesson not to waste one's patrimony " When he would deter me from a vulgar amour. " Do you not see. and content with what he had saved for me. 57 . snappish cur ? If in your — presence somebody hinted at the thefts of Petillius Capitolinus. to enable me to steer clear of follies. one by one. That such malice shall be far from my pages. ^^^ If in my words I am too free. ' The hoc of 1. Gargonius like a goat. IV. 90-114 Such a man you think genial and witty and frank you who hate the black of heart. perchance too hght. and first of all from my heart. As for me. — '' . this bit of liberty you ^\^ll indulgently grant me 'Tis a habit the best of fathers taught me. " Cf." he would say. " Not pretty.g." " do you think I am a spiteful. : ." Whenever he would encourage me to live thriftily. if I have had my laugh because silly " RufiUus smells like a scent-box. ! to it in Plautus. I pledge myself. e. for. while the clause tU fugerem expresses the father's purpose with notando. you would defend him after ^o«r fashion " Capitohnus has been a comrade and friend of mine from boyhood much has he done to serve me when asked. when I might enjoy a love not forbidden." And to prevent me from courting another's wife.

et sive iubebat.HORACE aiebat. electis M. sic teneros animos aliena opprobria saepe . " A reference to the list of jurors. 58 . annually empanelled by the praetor to serve in the trial of criminal cases. aDEM. nabis sine cortice. ubi quid datur ^ oti. factum * abstulerint aDEM. 121 ut facerem quid. men of high character." unum ex iudicibus selectis^ obiciebat sive vetabat. ' vides. mediocribus et quis 130 ignoscas^ vitiis teneor. * ignoscat. perniciem quaecumque ferunt. vitatu quidque petitu : 115 melius. absterrent vitiis. vitam . si traditum ab antiquis morem servare tuamque. . IT. fortassis et istinc largiter abstulerit^ longa aetas. liber amicus. neque enim. //. flagret rumore malo cum 125 avidos' vicinum funus ut aegros hie atque ille ? " exanimat mortisque metu sibi parcere cogit. cum lectulus aut me : desum mihi : " rectius hoc est 135 hoc faciens vivam melius sic dulcis amicis hoc quidam non belle numquid ego illi occurram imprudens olim faciam simile ? " haec ego mecum : : compressis agito labris > . II : electi E. " an hoc inhonestum et inutile factu^ necne sit addubites. famamque incolumem possum simul ac duraverit aetas membra animumque tuum." sic me formabat puerum dictis. consilium proprium porticus excepit. Ex hoc ego sanus ab illis. sit " sapiens. " habes auctorem quo facias hoc. tueri dum custodis eges. causas reddet tibi mi satis est.

careful of themselves. and much used for promenading in. and when I find a bit of leism-e. or porticoes. " You have an example for so doing. through fear of death. I. " Can you doubt whether this is dishonourable and disadvantageous or not. ^29 Thanks to this training I am free from vices which bring disaster. I shall fare to ." With words like these would he mould my boyhood and whether he were advising me : ." he would say. and makes them. so long as you need a guardian. candid finends. if I can uphold the rule our fathers have handed down.* I do not fail myself: " This is the better course if I do that. were a striking architectural feature of ancient Rome. when so and so stands in the blaze of ill repute ? " As a neighbour's funeral scares gluttons when sick. : J \^\^ more happily delight the friends I meet that was ugly conduct of so and so : is it possible that some day I may thoughtlessly do anything hke that?" : thus I shall Thus. caught in the act. 59 . you will swim without the cork. corresponding to our comfortable arm-chairs. with lips shut tight. Perhaps even from these much will be withdrawn by time's advance. WTien years have brought strength to body and mind. though subject to lesser frailties such as you would excuse. . philosopher \v\\\ give you theories for shunning or seeking this or that enough for me. and point to one of the special judges " or were forbidding me. and if. I can keep your health and name from harm. so the tender mind is oft deterred from vice by another's shame. do something. self-counsel for when my couch welcomes me or I stroll in the colonnade. 115-138 Your is the repute of Trebonius. I debate with myself. I trifle with my * The colonnades. The lectulus was an easy couch for reclining upon while reading.SATIRES. IV.

Bentley. auxilio quae sit mihi (nam multo plures sumus). veniet Acron. the numerous articles that contain a discussion of this Satire. St.HORACE hoc est mediocribus illis ex vitiis unum cui si concedere nolis. Matthew « xxiii. // * : Rohl conjectures includo. multa poetarum*veniat^ manus. illudo^ chartis. reference may be made to the following : Among 60 . " Horace toys with his papers by jotting down his random thoughts. * For the eagerness of the Jews to proselytize cf. ac veluti te ludaei cogemus in hanc concedere turbam. 15. : 140 ^ incumbo.

I. A Protest and a Programme. 1 ff.J." of. Charles Knapp. P.P." A. 129 If. papers. "Satura the Genesis of a Literary Form. 139-143 This is one of those lesser frailties I spoke and if you should make no allowance for it. 121 if.SATIRES. H. Ullman." C. Sermones i. " Horace. R. pp. L. xxxiii. " Horace's View of the Relations — between Satire and Comedy. then would a big band of poets come to my aid for we are the big majority and we. xxxiv. vi. 125 flF.'' will compel you to make one of our throng." A. J.J. xxi. 4. "The Sceptical Assault on the Roman Tradition concerning the Dramatic Satura." CJ*.. like the Jews. Hendrickson. pp. IV. "Horace on the Nature of Satire." — — G. 183 flf. pp.P.." A. pp. 61 . Fairclough." A. ix.P. "Dramatic Satura.P.A. xlviiL pp. pp. L. B. Ill ff.

to make terms with Marcus Antonius. who in book had described a journey from Rome to Capua and thence to the Sicilian straits. for if necessary it might have been covered in less than half that time. was again somewhat estranged. The travellers left Rome by the Appian Way. 62 .c. who. by Octavian. whence they passed on to Italy's eastern coast. Although the mission of Maecenas was a political one.A JOURNEY TO BRUNDISIUM is modelled upon one by Lueilius. The journey had been pursued in a leisurely fashion. and yet leaves a delightful impression about This Satire his third the personal relations of men distinguished in hteraSome of the characterture and statesmanship. Horace's journey was associated with an embassy on which Maecenas and others were sent in 38 b. made between the rivals of two years earlier. Horace steers clear of political gossip. From Capua their road took them over the Apennines into the Apulian hill-country of Horace's birth. notwithstanding the so-called treaty of Brundisium. The account reads like a compilation of scanty notes from a diary. reaching Brundisium in fifteen days. and made a night-journey from Appii Forum to Anxur by canal-boat through the Pomptine marshes.

Marx.) while the four disfiguring lines (82-85) are parallel to a similar incident recorded by LuciUus. in his introduction to this Satire. where the comparison made between Sarmentus and a unicorfa recalls the Lucilian description of a rhinoceros with a projecting tooth. pp. Thus the encounter of the two buffoons (51-69) is a dramatic scene. This scholar would have been a not unworthy member of the distinguished literary group who accom- panied Maecenas to Brundisium.SATIRES. Graecorum longe doctissimus. (1920) p. and Hehos would be an easy substitution for Apollo. in Classical Philology. XV. and who is called by Wilamowitz " the founder of the classical scliool of Augustan poetry. 68 . is really Apollodorus. istics I. This close dependence of Horace upon Lucihus throughout is clearly sho^vn both by Lejay. Professor Tenney Frank. the rhetor. who was chosen by Julius Caesar to be the teacher of Octa\ian. dente adverse eminulo hie est rinoceros (117f. 2 and 3. V. ed. treated in a mock-heroic fashion. 306 ff. and by Fiske in his LuciUus and Horace. of the sketch are doubtless due to Horace's adherence to the satiric type." The name Apollodorus cannot be used in hexameters. has made the plausible suggestion that Heliodorus. of 11. 393.

hoc iter ignavi divisimus." 64 ." " The " Market of Appius. quod erat deterrima. dum mula hgatur. The phrase altius praecinctis means literally "higher girt.V. : differtum nautis. pueris convicia nautae " hue appelle " " trecentos inseris.IL for ' ut omitted by CDK. tandem fessus dormire viator incipit ac missae pastum retinacula mulae : : ! ^ excepitZ). the Biblical " gird up your loins. was at the head of the canal which ran through the Pomptine marshes to Feronia. cauponibus atque malignis." dum aes exigitur. cenantis haud animo aequo expectans comites. 15. * linguae K. 10 tum pueri nautis. hie ego propter aquam. which see Acts xxviii. ventri indico bellum. tota abit hora. mah culices ranaeque palustres avertunt somnos. * i. absentem ut^ cantat amicam 16 multa prolutus vappa nauta atque viator certatim." ingerere " ohe. hospitio . altius ac nos fi praecinctis unum minus est gravis Appia tardis. Graecorum longe^ doctissimus inde Forum Appi. Egressum magna me accepit^ Aricia Roma modico rhetor comes Heliodorus. iam satis est." of.e. from Rome to Appii Forum. lam nox inducere terris umbras et caelo difFundere signa parabat. 11. nearly forty miles.

I declare war against my stomach. . in two. Cursed gnats and frogs of the fens drive off sleep. and the lazy boatman : ! ! ! <* The mule was to pull the boat through the canal. 18. and wait impatiently while my companions dine. Then slaves loudly rail at boatmen. that's enough " What with collecting fares and harnessing the mule " a whole hour shps away. soaked in sour wine. I found shelter in a modest inn at Aricia. it would seem to be the boatman who drives the mule and who drops his work to take a nap on the bank. the boatman. The passenger at last tires and falls asleep. singing the while of the girl he left behind.Satire V >^ Leaving mighty Rome. Some take viator to mean a driver of the mule along the tow-path. for it was \-illainous. Here owing to the water. • "* jr 65 . according to 11. and a passenger taking up the refrain. ' Already night was beginning to draw her curtain over the earth and to sprinkle the sky with stars. but. 19. Next came Appii Forum. boatmen at " Bring to here " " You're packing in slaves hundreds " " Stay." crammed with boatmen and stingy tavern-keepers. having for companion Heliodorus the rhetorician. far most learned of all Greeks. if taken slowly. This stretch '' we lazily cut though smarter travellers make it in a single day the Appian Way is less tiring.

in Mamurrarum lassi deinde urbe manemus. Murena praebente domum. missi magnis de rebus uterqu& legati. to test the smoothness of its joints. * varus K. ad unguem factus homo. Capitone culinam. ^ 40 proxima a. donee cerebrosus prosilit unus ac mulae nautaeque caput lumbosque saligno fuste dolat. Antoni non ut magis alter amicus. praetextam et latum clavum prunaeque vatillum. namque postera^ lux oritur multo gratissima : Plotius et Varius^ Sinuessae Vergiliusque occurrunt.C. 40 * expression involves a metaphor from sculpture. manusque tua lavimus. <» The word B. interea Maecenas advenit atque Cocceius Capitoque simul Fonteius. Feronia. II. lympha. animae qualis neque candidiores terra tulit. « The chief official at Fundi was doubtless an aedile for the artist The Latin 66 . soliti implies at least of this sort and probably would pass refers to the treaty of one previous experience Brundisium. milia turn pransi tria repimus atque subimus 25 impositum saxis late candentibus Anxur. aversos soliti componere amicosf hie oculis ego nigra meis collyria lippus 30 illinere. neque quis me sit devinctior alter. his finger-nail over the marble.HORACE nauta piger saxo religat stertitque supinus. 20 Quarta vix ora demum exponimur hora. nil cum procedere lintrem sentimus. Fundos Aufidio Lusco praetore libenter 35 linquimus. hue venturus erat Maecenas optimus atque Cocceius. insani ridentes praemia scribae. iamque dies aderat.

and a tunic with a broad purple Burning charcoal is carried before him. da\vning reins to a stone. came from Formiae. Day was now was not under way." Uke Horace himself. perched on her far-gleaming Here Maecenas was to meet us. envoys both on business of import. and pan of Next. Then we breakfast." Here I put black ointment on my sore eyes. probably stripe. ties the and drops a-snoring on his back. and crawhng on three miles chmb up to Anxur. Most joyful was the morrow's rising. "* 67 . in case some ceremonial sacrifice is seen to be appropriate on the occasion of this visit of Maecenas. and wash face and hands in thy stream. tcriba at I. wearied out we stop in the city charcoal. 19-42 mule out to graze. Meanwhile Maecenas arrives and Cocceius. a man without flaw. 23 At last. In his present exalted position he wears a toga with a purple border. until one hot-headed fellow jumps out. a notorious favourite of Julius Caesar. and noble rocks. laughing at the crazy clerk's gewgaws. turns his I. for at Sinuessa there meet us Plotius. we quit with delight. and old hands at setthng feuds between friends. his bordered robe. Varius. V. O the airs. and with them Fonteius Capito.SATIRES. ^ Fundi. broad stripe. \nth its "praetor"" Aufidius Luscus. to whom none can be more deeply attached than but as he gave himself Aufidius. whitest souls earth ever bore. Horace dubs him " praetor. by ten o'clock we are barely landed. Cocceius. of the Mamurrae. Mamurra. had once been a humble Rome."* Murena proxiding shelter and Capito the larder. Feronia.* so that Antony has no closer friend. and Virgil. and >vith willow cudgel bangs mule and boatman on back and find that our craft when we head.

Musa." inquit. Nunc mihi paucis Sarmenti scurrae pugnam Messique Cicirri. Proxima Campano ponti quae villula. : claudi most * itss. where officers were stationed whose duty it was to provide ordinary For these officers Horace uses a Greek word necessaries. in faciem permulta iocatus. the regular Latin word. praetulerim C. saetosam Campanum in morbum. 68 . lusum it Maecenas. while the other. 55 Sarmenti domina exstat ab his maioribus orti ad pugnam venere. hinc muli Capuae clitellas tempore ponunt." Messius " accipio. quae super est Caudi^ cauponas. one of whom. " quid faceres. et ipse esse feri similem dico. according to Porphyrio. (paroehi from irap^x^tv). * In mock-heroic style Horace describes a battle of wit between two buffoons. tectum 45 praebuit. et paroehi quae debent ligna salemque. et quo patre natus uterque Messi clarum genus Osci contulerit litis." is of the native Oscan stock of Samnium. is a freedman of Maecenas. DEM. prior Sarmentus " equi te ridemus. being copiarii." caput et movet. miniteris barba DR. or " game-cock. pastorem saltaret uti Cyclopa rogabat nil illi larva* aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis : : ' : ^ • • caudi BK Porph. dormitum ego Vergiliusque : namque pila lippis inimicum et ludere crudis. velim memores. " o tua cornu ni foret exsecto frons.HORACE o qui complexus et gaudia quanta fuerunt nil ego contulerim^ iucundo sanus amico. Cicirrus. cum " at illi foeda cicatrix 60 sic mutilus minitaris^ ? laevi frontem turpaverat oris. Sarmentus. 50 hinc nos Coccei recipit plenissima villa. « The villula was probably a small house built for the convenience of persons travelling on public business.

which left scars when removed. so long as \\ith the joy little house close to the Campanian bridge put a roof above our heads. and the state-purveyors. thus dehorned ? " Now an unsightly scar had disfigured the left side of his bristly brow. " if only the horn had not been cut out of your forehead. says Sarmentus. at Capua. furnished fuel and salt.* they entered the lists. 3. and the lineage of the two who engaged in the fray. when you can threaten.* Messius was of famous stock. V'irgil and I to sleep." We laugh. v. I say. v. the domina is the widow of Favonius. an Oscan . Another stage. Next. would I match Nothing. for such play is hard on the sore-eyed and the dyspeptic. ^^ Now. " I grant you. 43-64 O the rejoicing ! am •* in my may a friend senses. O Muse. bring. and Messius " Oh himself. what would you do. who on the proscription and death of his master Favonius had been bought by Maecenas and set free. recount in brief the contest of Sarmentus the jester and Messius Cicirrus.Satires. tells us that a certain Sarmentus had been a slave. Maecenas goes off to ball-playing. G9 . and we are t^en in at the well-stocked villa of Cocceius. And first Sarmentus " You. With many a joke on his Campanian disease and on his face." and tosses his head. Sat. lying above the inns of Caudium. he begged him to dance the Cyclops shepherd-dance : he would need neither mask nor : : ! The •* • The scholiast on Juvenal. The scholiast in Cruquius explains this of warts. the mistress of Sarmentus is still hving from such ancestry sprung. are Uke a wild horse. If the Sarmentus of this scene is the same man." as in duty bound. embracing I ! i. our mules lay aside their saddle-bags at an early hour.

quos torret* Atabulus et quos numquam erepsemus. mansuri oppidulo.HORACE multa Gicirrus ad haec donasset iamne catenam ex voto Laribus. II. cui satis una : ." The name is not recorded. ultra hie : . lacrimoso non sine fumo. at least correctly. quod versu dicere non est. 80 udos cum foliis ramos urente camino. viz. but Horace has in mind a passage in Lucilius. Incipit ex illo montis Apulia notos ostentare mihi. cur umquam fugisset. convivas avidos cenam servosque timentis 76 tum rapere atque omnis restinguere velle videres. CE. : . quaerebat scriba quod esset. ^ 90 domini C. ego mendacem stultissimus usque puellam ad mediam noctem exspecto somnus tamen aufert intentum veneri tum immundo somnia visu nocturnam vestem maculant ventremque supinom. 70 Tendimus hinc recta^ Beneventum ubi sedulus . . //. nisi nos vicina Trivici villa recepisset. gracili sic tamque pusillo. * recte terret D. » ^ delapso CK. farris libra foret. ' Altino is scirocco. '' which Horace : I . nilo deterius dominae^ ius esse rogabat denique. 85 Quattuor hinc rapimur viginti et milia raedis. hospes paene macros arsit dum turdos versat in igni nam vaga per veterem dilapso^ flamma culinam Volcano summum properabat lambere tectum. prorsus iucunde cenam producimus illam. 65 . callidus ut soleat umeris portare viator. signis perfacile est venit vilissima rerum hie aqua sed panis longe pulcherrimus. to-day the local Apulian term for the hot calls the " Atabulus.

228.* Here water. and all trying to quench the blaze.SATIRES. and evil dreams assail me. I. where our bustling host was nearly burned out while turning lean thrushes over the fire. " From this point Apulia begins to show to my eyes her familiar hills. utter fool that I am. ed." is 71 . he inquired. '^ for one so lean and so Right merrily did we prolong that supper. For as Vulcan slipped out through the old kitchen the vagrant flame hastened to hck the roof. sleep carries me off still thinking upon ®* love. 65-90 tragic buskin. yet his mistress's claim was not less strong. V. await a faithless girl right up to midnight. and over which we had never crawled had not a \'illa near Trivicum taken us in. Thence we travel straight to Beneventum. as green wood. the slaves' festal day. is sold. are whirled in carriages four and twenty miles. leaves and all. which one cannot freely in hexameter verse. to spend the night in a little to-WTi I cannot name in verse. Then. was burning in the stove. but the bread is far the best to be had. Then you might have seen the hungry guests and frightened slaves snatching up the dinner. made a votive offering of his chain to the Lares ? Clerk though he was. since a pound of meal was enough puny. but not without smoke that brought tears. though 'tis quite easy to define it by tokens. At the last he asked why he had ever run away. which the Altino " scorches. Here I. so that the kno^^ing traveller is wont to shoulder servorum est festus dies hie From here we quern plane hexametro versu non dicere possis "This name (vi. Had he yet. Much had Cicirrus to say to this. nature's cheapest product. Marx). after all.

* The Jews. The stone would seem to have been at the entrance of a temple. via peior ad usque Bari moenia piscosi. » credet CK Goth. nee. * Line 92 was deleted by Bentley. //. Inde Rubos fessi pervenimus. Ill) mentions the miracle of wood. postera tempestas melior. 95 dum flamma : sine tura liquescere limine sacro 100 persuadere cupit. dein^ Gnatia lymphis iratis exstructa dedit risusque iocosque. si quid miri faciat natura. dimittere BE. Pliny (N. " This implies that Gnatia had no springs.HORACE nam Canusi lapidosus (aquae non ditior urna). Brundisium longae finis chartaeque viaeque est. placed on a sacred stone. taking fire spontaneously. « * dehinc. ii.H. deos id tristis ex alto caeli demittere* tecto.^ flentibus hinc Varius discedit maestus amicis. non ego namque deos didici securum agere aevum. credat^ ludaeus Apella. qui locus a forti Diomede est conditus olim. who were very numerous in Rome under 7« . utpote longum carpentes iter et factum corruptius imbri.

Next day's weather was better. right up to the walls of Barium. built under the wrath of the waternymphs. 82. but the road worse. Aen." * and if Nature works any marvel. \\. for I " have learned that the gods lead a care-free life. the Jew. Horace uses tristis of the gods as Virgil speaks of Charon as tristis. V. 91-104 for at Caniisium. Then Gnatia. ** ! Augustus.^ may beheve it. I. * Romans as peculiarly Horace is quoting from Lucretius. ^* Thence we come to Rubi." brought us laughter and mirth in its effort to convince us that frankincense melts v\"ithout fire at the temple's threshold. not I . off by a Here Varius leaves us. Apella. were regarded by the superstitious. . gritty. to the grief of his weeping friends. 315. the town is no better jugful. a fishing town. De rerum not. it and as to water. a load for stages beyond . the gods do not send it dovvn from their heavenly home aloft when in surly mood Brundisium is the end of a long story and of a long joiurney. * 78 .SATIRES. a place is founded long ago by brave Diomede. very weary after covering a long stage much marred by the rain.


is mainly autobiographical. who is not ashamed of his hiunble origin. Himself the son of a freedman. For the influence of LuciUus upon this Satire see Introduction C. the year when Maecenas presented him with the estate. both in character and education.. 75 . and of the poet himself. It is at once a defence of Maecenas. and tenth Satires. addressed to the poet's patron.VT ON SOCIAL AND POLITICAL AMBITION This Satire. has become an object of suspicion and envy to many people whose social and pohtical He therefore disclaims aspirations were unsatisfied. fourth. As it is. he lives a simple and care-free life.C. Horace. he has no wish to change places with a man of patrician birth. In its subject and treatment it is to be grouped with the third. sets forth the principles upon which Maecenas chooses his friends. such ambition for himself. and is far more happy than if he had the burden of noble ancestry on his shoulders. As this interesting Satire contains no allusion to the Sabine farm. and pays a noble tribute to his o^ti father. it was probably composed before 33 B. who had given him the intellectual and moral training which won for him a place in the circle of his patron. who did not look down upon men of lowly birth. now an intimate friend of Maecenas. but is proud of his freedman father. to whom he is indebted for all that he is.

2 ut^ me libertino patre natum. naso suspendis adunco 6 ignotos. Non quia. i. olim qui magnis legionibus imperitarent. quid oportet nos facere a volgo longe longeque® remotos ? Namque esto.^ ut plerique solent. populus Laevino mallet honorem . ante potestatem Tulli atque ignobile regnum multos saepe viros nullis maioribus ortos 10 et vixisse probos. qui stultus honores 15 saepe dat indignis et famae servit ineptus. however. * imperitarint. 1. natus or natos pulsus regno CK. 1. nemo generosior est te. 5. * ut D: aut aM. the sixth king of Rome. " '' 76 . said to have been the son of a female slave. Odes. ^ * ignoto Palmer. tradition commonly accepted in antiquity.* Cum referre negas quali sit quisque parente natus. accepted by Vollmer. persuades hoc tibi vere. The Etruscans. aut ut * C: at ut E. See. unius assis non umquam pretio pluris licuisse. I. 39. The reference is to Servius Tuliius. i. according to the Cf. Lydorum quidquid Etruscos incoluit finis. Valeri genus. qui stupet in titulis et imaginibus. * lateque Goth. Maecenas. aCDE. amplis et honoribus auctos contra Laevinum. came from Lydia. II. dum ingenuus. nee quod avus tibi maternus fuit atque paternus. unde Superbus Tarquinius regno pulsus^ fugit.VT. Livy. notante iudice quo nosti populo.

should we •* do. we who are set far. if he be himself free-born. far above the \Tilgar ? ^ For let us grant that the people would rather . was never valued higher by the price of a the single penny. is stupidly enslaved to fame.Satire VI "-^ Though of all the Lydians that are settled in Tuscan lands none is of nobler birth than you. that before the reign of Tulhus and his lowly kingship. sprung from ancestors of no account. a freedman's son. often hved upright hves and that Lae\inus. hke most of the world. family. even when rated by the people judge you know so well. on your mother's and father's side alike. ' meaning intelligent and educated people.'' numbers of men. do not. curl up your nose at men of unknown birth. conunanded mighty legions in days of old. on were honoured with high office the other hand. you rightly satisfy yourself of this." What. ' ^\^len you say it matters not who a man's parent is. 77 . men hke myself. and dazzled by titles of honour and waxen masks. descendant of that Valerius through whom Tarquin the Proud was driven from his throne to exile. then. yet you." and though grandsires of yours. — * Waxen masks The plural is scriptions of ancestors ^^-ith accompanying inwould imply the antiquity and nobility of one's generic. Maecenas. who in folly often gives office to the unworthy.

Damae. : audit continuo " natus ? ut* si homo " " quo patre 30 qui aegrotet quo et cupiat formosus. sacrificed himself in the Latin war (Livj'. et CK: aut Bentley. capillo sic qui promittit urbem sibi curae. Af5S. Decius Mus. : sed fulgente trahit constrictos Gloria curru non minus ignotos generosis. * cogit^: cogat " A reference to the well-known fable of the Ass in the Lion's P. Syri. according to the scholiasts. Tilli. sumere depositum clavum fierique tribuno invidia accrevit. ingenuo vel si novo. censorque moveret 20 non essem patre natus merito. privato quae minor esset. quo tibi. impediet uss. 78 . puellis singula. quo patre sit natus. : ^ dimisit * DEK. sit facie. 9 ). quali : curam quaerendi civis. first of a plebeian family to become a consul. 35 imperium fore et Italiam.HORACE quam Decio mandare Appius. quali pede. haberi quacumque. delubra deorum.^ " tune. viii. quoniam in propria non pelle quiessem. eat iniciat^ morbo Barrus. 5. Sat. 3 ' est inliciat aDE : CK Goth. num ignota matre inhonestus. dente. aut Dionysi filius. audes 40 " deicere de saxo civis aut tradere Cadmo ? " at Novius collega gradu post me sedet uno 1 : impediit Porph. was removed from the senate Skin. et 0. i. Tillius. * The laticlave or broad stripe (c/. sura. 36) of purple on the tunic was a mark of the senatorian order. ? 25 nam ut quisque insanus nigris " quis medium hie est^ ? impediit^ crus pellibus et latum demisit^ pectore clavum. omnis mortalis curare et quaerere cogit.

if one should suffer from the same malady as Barrus. VT. his ankle. and that an Appius as censor would strike out my name if I were not the son of a free-born father and quite rightly. These are common slave-names. his teeth. 79 .* and to drop the broad stripe dowTi his " What fellow is this ? breast. the Tarpeian rock from which criminals were i. and long to : be thought handsome." you say. his foot. the son of a S}tus.SATIRES. What good was it to you. 20-40 give office to a Laevinus than to an unknown Decius. my colleague. compels aU the world to take an interest. sits one row : by Julius Caesar. fastened by four black thongs bound about the leg. and to ask who was his father. were you in a private station. to assume the stripe once doffed and become a tribune ? ' Envy fastened on you afresh. at once he hears What was his father ? " Just as. I. For as soon as any man is so crazy as to bind the black thongs half way up his leg. but after the Dictator's death resumed this dignity and also became a military tribune. and whether he is dishonoured through an unknown mother. TilUus. Cadmus was a * ' public executioner. for not having stayed quiet in my own skin. " Novius. but would be less. Vanity drags all." The truth is. " Do you.'* dare to fling from the rock* " or to hand over to Cadmus citizens of Rome ? " But. sometimes thrown by order of a tribune. a Dionysius. * Senators wore a peculiar shoe. the unkno^^'n no less than the well known. bound to her gUttering car.e. so he who takes it upon himself to look his hair after his fellow-citizens and the city. the empire and Italy and the temples of the gods. a Dama. then wherever he went he would make the girls eager to ask about details what his face was like.

post hunc Varius. ut tuus est mos. sonabit^ cornua quod vincatque tubas saltern tenet hoc nos. quia sim^ tibi. convictor. dixere quid essem. pater quod erat meus. optimus olim Vergilius. et revocas nono post mense iubesque esse in amicorum numero. * Horace was a tribune in the legion had six tribunes. knights occupying the first fourteen rows. quod mihi pareret legio Romana tribuno. sed vita et pectore puro. qui turpi secernis honestum non patre praeclaro." Paulus et Messalla videris ? at hie. 55 ut veni coram. Wickham. dissimile hoc ihi est. magnum hoc ego duco. natus aD. * aut mea. 45 quem rodunt onines hbertino patre natum. singultim pauca locutus.^ nunc. fehcem dicere non hoc me possim. so Palmer. Bentley.* casu quod te sortitus amicum nulla etenim mihi te fors obtulit . non ego circum me Satureiano vectari rura caballo. at ohm. Atqui si vitiis mediocribus ac mea^ paucis * 65 funera. but each 80 . Vollmer. non ego me claro natum patre. possunt com. 60 pauca abeo. : : : namque quod placui tibi. prava ambitione procul." Nunc ad me redeo hbertino patre natum. si plostra ducenta concurrantque foro tria funera magna. infans namque pudor prohibebat plura profari. //. sed quod eram narro. quia non. « Seats in the theatre were assigned according to rank. Maecenas.. " sum D. and the senators the orchestral space. Cruq. ita te quoque amicum. * * magna sonabit . army of Brutus. respondes. 50 praesertim cautum dignos adsumere.HORACE " hoc tibi est ille. ut forsit honorem iure mihi invideat quivis.

for speechless shame stopped me from saying more. then. you sent for me again and bade me join your friends. who discern between fair and foul." \*^ Now to return to myself. 41-65 is only what my father was. because as tribune I had a Roman legion under my command. My : much to rura as to caballo. told you what manner of man I was.SATIRES. not that I rode about my estate on a Saturian " steed I told you what I was. some time ago." therefore fancy yourself a Paulus or a Messala ? Why. On coming into your presence I said a few faltering words. this Novius. as you are cautious to choose as friends only the worthy. you answered little and I withdrew . for though perchance anyone may rightly grudge me the office. * i. VI. . if two hundred carts and three big funerals come clashing in the Forum. Tarentine. tale was not that I was a famous father's son. and after him V'arius. yet he should not grudge me your friendship as well the less so. behind me. but by blamelessness of life and heart. Fortunate I could not call myself as having won your friendship by some chance for 'twas no case of luck throwing you in my way that best of men.'' This case and that are different.e." whom all carp at as " son of a freedman father" now. Do you will shout loud enough to drown horns and trumpets : that at least takes with us. who stand aloof from base self-seeking. Maecenas but in other days. if the flaws that mar my otherwise sound nature are but trifling and few in number. Saturium being the district in which Tarentum was founded. I count it a great honour that I pleased you. because I consort with you. Q 81 ." for he " I. *^ And yet. " son of a freedman father. not by a father's fame. The adjective belongs quite as — — . nine months later. Virgil. As is your way.

* octonis aera M.. eoque non. ipse mihi custos incorruptissimus omnis circum doctores aderat. qui macro pauper agello noluit in Flavi ludum me mittere. qui primus virtutis honos. si et vivo carus amieis causa fuit pater his. mendosa 70 75 80 85 at : : hoc'' nunc laus illi debetur et a me gratia maior^ Nil me paeniteat sanum patris huitis. : mea cf.HORACE est natura. Goth. discrepat Sat. Bentley. istis alioquin. docendum artis. magni quo pueri magnis e' centurionibus orti. nee (mala) V: ac mss. ut fuit ipse. .* sed puerum est ausus Romam portare. II. 82 . vestem servosque sequentis. pupils paid their small school fee on the Ides of The reading octonis would imply that the school-year lasted eight months. ut me collaudem. " The each month. in magno ut populo. . servavit^ ab omni non solum facto. sic • 90 me defendam. . quas doceat quivis eques atque senator semet prognatos. quod non ingenuos habeat clarosque parentis. si quis K. si neque avaritiam heque sordes nec^ mala lustra obiciet vere quisquam mihi. aut Porph. verum opprobrio quoque turpi nee timuit. coactor mercedes sequerer neque ego essem questus . hut 4. alioqui^ recta. ut magna dolo factum negat esse suo pars.^ quid multa ? pudicum. laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. ibant octonos referentes Idibus aeris. II. si qui^ vidisset. olim si praeco parvas aut. ^ ad hoc n^s. i. sibi ne vitio quTs^ verteret. * servabat. ^ ' et a. velut si egregio inspersos reprehendas corpore naevos. avita ex re praeberi sumptus mihi crederet illos. 4. purus et insons. retained by Wickham. ^ longe /.

VT. to w^hich grand boys used to go." — 83 . Anyone who saw my clothes and attendant would have slaves as is the way in a great city * thought that such expense was met from ancestral wealth. I am loved by my friends who. howwords in magno ut populo with vidisset. i. as would a goodly nmnber. 66-92 even as you might find fault with moles spotted over a comely person if no one "will justly lay to my charge avarice or meanness or lewdness if. At Venusia Horace would ever. with slate and satchel slung over the left arm. He himself.who say it is no fault of theirs that they have not free-born and famous parents. as it is. would not send me to the school of Fla\-ius. went with me among all my teachers. but. he boldly took his boy off to Rome. each carrying his eightpence on the Ides" nay. if I should follow a small trade as crier or like himself as taxcollector. Some. Nor should I have made complaint. a guardian true and tried.e. " had anyone noticed so far «s one could notice such things in a great throng. my hfe is free from stain and guilt and I owe this to my father. T. Far different from this is what I say and what I think — . to be taught those studies that any knight or senator would have his own offspring taught. He had no fear that some day. carrying liis own books.SATIRES. though poor with a starvehng farm. — — — — — * I take this to mean that on going to Rome Horace's father did as the Romans did. but from all scandal. for this I owe him praise and thanks the mo re. and so I will not defend myself. | ^ Never while in my senses could I be ashamed of such a father. sons of grand centurions. take the have gone unattended. somebody would count this to his discredit. to venture on self-praise. Need I say more ? He kept me chaste and that is virtue's first grace free not only from every deed of shame.

incedo solus percontor quanti bolus ac far fallacem Circum vespertinumque* pererro saepe Forum adsisto divinis inde domum me 115 ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum. libido est. et lapis albus adstat echinus pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet vilis. plures calones atque caballi pascendi. * si quisque. ducenda petorrita. cum Tiburte via praetorem quinque sequuntur te pueri.HORACE nam si natura iuberet a certis annis aevum remeare peractum atque alios legere ad fastum quoscumque parentis 95 optaret sibi quisque. Tilli. hoc ego commodius quam tu. quod nollem onus baud umquam solitus portare molestum. deinde eo dormitum. nam mihi continuo maior quaerenda foret res 100 atque salutandi plures. praeclare senator. cum patera gutus. . " The fasces were insignia of the consuls and praetors the curule sellae were a privilege of the aediles and censors as well. Campana supellex. nunc mihi curto ire licet mulo vel si libet usque Tarentum. Quacumque . . 105 mantica cui lumbos onere ulceret atque eques armos : obiciet nemo sordes mihi. non sollicitus mihi quod eras . sanus fortasse tuo. uti ne solus rusve peregreve' exirem. demens iudicio volgi. II. 110 milibus atque aliis vivo. * vespertinusque. 84 .: Housman * (h)onustos. ducendus et unus et comes alter. cena ministratur pueris tribus.^ meis contentus honestos^ et vox et ratio : fascibus et sellis nollem mihi sumere. quas tibi. lasanum portantes oenophorumque. . conjectures ne rus solusve peregre. peregre aut M8S.

. the saddle-bag's weight galhng his loins." though the world would deem me mad.^ when on the Tibur road five slaves follow you. I ask the price of greens and flour often toward evening I stroll round the cheating Circus * and the Forum. supper is served by three boys. I hope. For at once I should have to enlarge my means. and the rider his withers. To-day. illustrious senator. would think me sane for dechning to shoulder a burden of trouble to which I have never been accustomed.SATIRES. I may go on a bob-tailed mule even to Tarentum. if I will. I. Then I go off to sleep. then homeward betake me to my dish of leeks and peas and fritters. and a white stone-slab supports two cups with a ladle. confidence-men. 93-119 for if after a given age Nature should call upon us to traverse our past lives again. and the like. a jug and saucer of Campanian ware. I should dechne to take those And adorned with the rods and chairs of state. * The stalls in the outer wall of the Circus Maximus were used by fortune-tellers. My Apparently the man mentioned in 1. I saunter forth alone. 24 above. I listen to the fortune-tellers . ^^ Wherever the fancy leads. to welcome more callers. By them stand a cheap salt-cellar. carrying a commode and case of wine. untroubled with the thought that I must rise early on the morrow . VI. praetor Tillius. to take one or two in my company so as not to go abroad or into the country alone I should have to keep more pages and ponies. and to choose in keeping with our pride any other parents each might crave content >\ith my own. In this and a thousand other ways I live in more comfort than you. No one will taunt me with meanness as he does you. ' 85 . you. and take a train of wagons.

. ^ fugio campum lusumque trigonem V^. neue Folge.^ pransus non avide. quantum interpellet inani ventre diem durare. Ixxiii. 125 ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum admonuit. 65 ff. unguor olivo. est 130 me consolor victurum^ suavius ac si quaestor avus pater atque meus patruusque^ fuissent. Porph. ad quartam iaceo post banc vagor aut ego. The usurer Novius had his table A 86 . non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lucernis. (lusitque): fugio rabiosi tempora signi ass. pp. lecto aut scripto quod me taciturn iuvet. M. Haec vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique his . qui se voltum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoris. . * victurus Goth. fugio Campum lusumque trigonem. domesticus otior. the original passage having been such as the following : admonuit fugio campum lusumque trigonem providus et fugio rabiosi tempora signi. Goth. obeundus Marsya.) makes the interesting claim that both readings are correct.HORACE surgendum 120 sit mane. Bannier {in Rh. ' For patruus Biicheler conjectured praetor. " statue of the Satyr Marsyas stood in the Forum near the praetor's tribunal.

59 . 3. xciL 87 . who says he cannot stand I he a-bed till ten the face of No\aus Junior then I take a stroll. VI. Extant copies of Myron's Mars5'as show him with right hand uplifted and a face expressive of pain. 7. I idle away time at home. also Sat. was flayed alive. A. 120-131 and pass before Marsyas. (ef.P. See Jefferson Elmore. I shun the Campus and the game of ball. 248).<» . or after reading or writing something . I. * The trigo was a game of ball in which three players The phrase lusum trigonem means properly took part. "the playing of ball. tliat will — near by and so gives the poet an opportunity to put his own interpretation on the attitude or facial expression of Marsyas.SATIRES. i." Ep. after defeat in a musical contest with Apollo. please me in quiet moments I anoint myself with oil not such as filthy Natta steals from the lamps.* After a slight luncheon. and my father and uncle Ukewise.But when I am weary and the fiercer sun has w^'irned me to go to the baths." and implies a transitive use of lud^re " post decisa negotia. just enough to save me from an all-day fast. ii. who. xxxv. ^^ Such is the life of men set free from the burden of unhappy ambition. p. Thus I comfort myself with the thought that I shall hve more happily than if my grandfather had been a quaestor.A.


and the tragic death of Brutus. The poem gives us a single scene. and Persius. to the farcical and dramatic scenes of early Satura. is probably the first of Horace's Sermones. and must have been composed before the battle of Philippi (42 b. a battle of ^^it between two litigants. which he cleverly hnks up with the propraetor and the propraetor's most famous ancestor.VII HO FOR A REGICIDE! incident recorded here occurred. of Praeneste.. as propraetor of the Pro\'ince. probably in at Clazomenae in Asia Minor. when Brutus. 89 . a man proscribed by Antony and Octa\'ius. was holding court. This little poem. The main point of the story is found in Persius' pun on the name Rex (king).C. The latter had driven out of Rome the ancient Tarquin kings. a half-Greek. similar. and Brutus himself had slain Caesar. RupiUus Rex. perhaps.c ). half-Roman merchant of Clazomenae. The 43 B. and Horace was ser\ing as tribune in his army.

' pigrior VKi pulchrior « He was half-Greek and half-Roman. ut ultima divideret mors. Rupili et Persi par pugnat. etiam litis cum Rege molestas. nisi quod virtus in utroque summa fuit duo si discordia vexet inertis. permagna negotia dives habebat Clazomenis. quibus adversum bellum incidit inter Hectora Priamiden. animosum atque inter Achillem ira fuit capitalis. durus homo atque odio qui posset vincere Regem. Barros ut equis praecurreret albis. discedat pigrior. if 55. Ad Regem redeo. 6 confidens. Bruto praetore tenente ditem Asiam. II.^ ultro muneribus missis). aut si disparibus bellum incidat.-"^ adeo sermonis amari. Sisennas. tumidus. Proscripti Regis Rupili pus atque venenum hybrida quo pacto sit Persius ultus. postquam nihil inter utrumque 10 : convenit (hoc etenim sunt omnes iure molesti. quo fortes. uti non ^ tumidusque. opinor omnibus et Persius hie lippis notum et tonsoribus esse. ut Diomedi : cum Lycio Glauco. 90 . 15 non aliam ob causam.VII.

The reference is to scene in the sixth Iliad. Cf. son of Priam. an outlawed man. Persius : — * The shops of apothecaries and barbers were places of gossip. a famous 91 ." ^ To return to Rex. When he and Persius could come to no terms (for quarrelsome folk all claim the same right as heroes who meet front to front in between Hector. had a very large business at Clazomenae. as Diomede and Lycian Glaucus. and for this sole reason that the valour of each was supreme if two cowards chance to quarrel. also a troublesome lawsuit with Rex. the sort that in ofFensiveness could outdo Rex. xii.'* the less valiant man gives way and sends gifts to boot) well. favourite A •* regarded 83 ff. methinks. Virgil.'' This Persius. a rich man. is a tale well known. Aen. or an ill-matched pair meet in war. that death alone could part them. and the battle — : wrathful Achilles. bold and blustering and so bitter of speech as to outstrip a Sisenna or a Barrus with the speed of white coiu-sers. white horses being as the swiftest of their kind. the anger was so deadly. when Brutus was praetor in charge of rich Asia. See Index under Glaucus. to every blear-eyed man and barber. A rough man he foul How the mongrel " was. * proverbial expression.Satire VII Persius took vengeance on the and venomous Rupilius Rex (" king ").

* procurrunt VK. aDEM. cui saepe viator 30 cessisset magna compellans voce cuculum. which wood-choppers cannot enter. At Graecus. qui reges consueris tollere. fertur quo rara securis. Brute. appellat comites. deos te Persius exclamat oro. ruebat flumen ut hibernum. excepto Rege Canem ilium. venisse. mihi crede. II * concurrunt //. to gladiators. stellasque salubris .^ magnum spectaculum uterque. multumque. some mountain gorge.e. . postquam est Italo perfusus aceto.HORACE compositum^ melius cum Bitho Bacchius. . to '' in and compositum Horace uses terms appropriate which class Bacchius and Bithus belonged. compositus DK. : tuorum ^ est. " In par i." ^ : 35 in ius] intus V. 92 . " per magnos. invisum agricolis sidus. Persius exponit causam ridetur ab omni conventu laudat Brutum laudatque cohortem solem Asiae Brutum appellat. in ius^ 20 acres procurrunt. 25 tum Praenestinus salso multoque* fluenti expressa arbusto regerit convicia. . cur non hunc Regem iugulas ? operum hoc. durus vindemiator et invictus.

which should be finished before the cuckoo arrives in the spring. O Brutus. to whom the wayfarer has often had to yield.SATIRES. in answer to his full flood of wit. a pair « not less well matched than Bacchius and Bithus. 93 . I." tlie ! : " the passer-by implies that • In calling out " Cuckoo the vine-dresser is late in his pruning." why not behead this Rex ? <* This. he praises his staff. each wondrous to behold. He praises Brutus. Keenly they rush into court. since it is in your line to take off " kings. tough and invincible. 20-35 and Rupilius clashed. ! it * It was a Brutus who had driven out the Tarquins. I implore vinegar. ^2 Persius sets forth his case all the assembly laugh. whither the axe is seldom borne. the very essence of the vineyard. believe me. and was a Brutus who had slain Caesar. VII. now soused with Italian " By the great gods. The " sun of Asia " he calls Brutus. and " healthful stars " his suite all except Rex. hated of husbandmen.* Then. like some vine-dresser. who had come like : — Dog-star. cries out you. when loudly hooting at him " Cuckoo " * ^2 But the Greek Persius. is a task meet for you. the man of Praeneste flings back abuse. On he rushed like some winter torrent.


In this district there had long been a burial-place. in which he later built himself a palace with a conspicuous tower. or Mound of Servius. and the noise of the explosion drove the hags away in terror. however. however. where. the god of gardens. 10. as well as the three Priapea to be found among the minor poems attributed to Virgil.VIII HOW PRIAPUS PUT WITCHES TO ROUT Horace lays the scene of this incident in that part of the Esquihne which lay outside the famous Agger. be compared. on the north-east side of Rome." Odes ill. The gruesome story of the witches' incantations comes to a ridiculous end when the wood of the statue cracked. co-operating with Augustus in the work of city improvement. witches practised their weird and infernal rites." The incident must be supposed to have occurred before the transformation from a squalid and repulwooden statue. had laid out beautiful gardens. "molem propinquam nubibus arduis. sive site had been completed. 29. of Priapus. 95 . among the tombs. Here. used especially for criminals and paupers. Maecenas. " Cf. The Satire is closely connected in subject with A Epodes Virgil's eighth Eclogue may also 5 and 17. had abeady been set up.

1. faceretne Priapum. Pantolabo scurrae Nomentanoque nepoti. 1. furum aviumque maxima formido nam fures dextra coercet 5 obscenoque ruber porrectus ab inguine palus . * vilis K. hue prius angustis eiecta cadavera cellis conservus vili^ portanda locabat in area 10 hoc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum. Isaiah xliv. A <* 96 . incertus cum scamnum . mille pedes in fronte. however. This verse may come from Lucilius. inutile Olim truncus eram faber. just outside the Servian Wall. trecentos cippus in agrum hie dabat. ii. or gardens. which became one of the beauty-spots of Imperial Rome. Maecenas laid out his Horti. quo^ modo tristes albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum ficulnus. 102. was used as a scarecrow..VIII. i. « On the Esquiline Hill.^ nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus atque 15 Aggere in aprico spatiari. lignum. Here. was a cemetery largely used for the pauper and criminal classes. ' sequerentur K. It is repeated in Sat. « Cf. . 10 ff. deus inde ego. 22 and Nomentanus is mentioned in Sat. IL ' qua Bentley. ." * wooden statue of Priapus. ast importunas volucres in vertice harundo terret fixa vetatque novis considere in hortis. the garden-god. maluit esse deum. heredes monumentum ne sequeretur. especially 17 " and the residue thereof he maketh a god. II.

' This is the famous Agger. then. while for the mischievous birds. cast out from their narrow cells. an embankment and fosse of nearly a mile in length. I became. which on the Esquiline level was a part of the Servian Wall system. for Pantolabus the parasite.Satire VIII Once I was a fig. and spendthrift Nomentanus." A god. For myself.^ where of late one sadly looked out on ground ghastly vnth bleaching bones. Here was the common burial-place fixed for pauper folk. and stroll on the sunny Rampart. a reed set on my head affrights them and keeps them from hghting in the new park.wood stem. {Hoc monument urn heredes non tequttur).'' Here a pillar assigned a thousand feet frontage and three hundred of depth. and this red stake. a worthless log.* To-day one may live on a wholesome Esquihne. chose that I be a god. and provided that the graveyard should pass to no heirs. protruding from unsightly groin . doubtful whether to make a stool or a Priapus. which defined the dimensions of a plot of ground assigned for burial purposes and often closed with the abbreviated formula H. of thieves and birds the special terror* . • Horace puts into verse form the common inscription." Hither in other days a slave would pay to have carried on a cheap bier the carcasses of his fellows. H. M. for thieves my right hand keeps in check. H 97 . when the carpenter. N. S.

servilibus ut quae iam peritura modis. quin ossa legant herbasque nocentis. sint ^ D. mentior at si quid. scalpere terram unguibus et pullam divellere mordicus agnara coeperunt cruor in fossam confusus. et ut ^ non : testis inultus * pellere Heinsiua. : : largior arserit ignis. lanea et effigies erat. ut inde manis elicerent. altera cerea maior 30 lanea. cum Sagana maiore ululantem pallor utrasque 25 fecerat horrendas aspectu. Lunamque rubentem. singula quid memorem. cerea suppliciter stabat. atque in me veniat mictum atque cacatum lulius et fragilis Pediatia furque Voranus. Hecaten vocat altera. simul ac vaga Luna decorum : 20 protulit OS. et imagine cerea : . quae poenis compesceret inferiorem . resonarent uss. resonarint Bentley The passage is mock-heroic and based upon the famous scene in the eleventh book of the Odyssey (36 ff. Vidi egomet nigra succinctam vadere palla Canidiam. saevam altera Tisiphonen serpentes atque videres infernas errare canes. quo pacto alterna loquentes 40 umbrae cum Sagana resonarint^ triste et acutum. pedibus nudis passoque capillo.HORACE cum mihi non tantum furesque feraeque suetae hunc vexare locum curae sunt^ atque labori. animas responsa daturas. quantum carminibus quae versant atque venenis humanos animos has nullo perdere^ possum nee prohibere modo. merdis caput inquiner albis corvorum. *• 98 . 35 ne foret his testis. where the blood poured into a trench brought the spirits up from Erebus. utque lupi barbam variae cum dente colubrae abdiderint furtim terris.). post magna latere sepulcra.

" One image there was of wool. One witch calls on Hecate. You might see serpents and hell-hounds roaming about. as soon as the roving Moon has uplifted her beauteous not so infest the place that cause : much face. the blood was all poured into a trench. to curb and punish the smaller . the other on fell Tisiphone. 17-44 the tliieves and beasts wont to me care and trouble. the woollen one the larger. the famous witch scene in Macbeth IT. and the blushing Moon. if I lie in aught. as the witches who with spells and drugs vex human these in no >vise can I bring to naught or souls stop from gathering bones and harmful herbs. hiding behind the tall tombs. that therefrom they might draw the sprites. how the two stealthily buried in the ground a wolf's beard and the tooth of a spotted snake. 99 . souls that would give them answers. and how as witness I shuddered at the words and deeds ! — * With i. as if awaiting death in sla\ish fashion.SATIRES. her hair dishevelled. and to tear a black lamb to pieces with their teeth . and may Julius and the weakhng Pediatia and the thief Voranus come to water and befoul me Why tell each detail how in converse with Sagana the shades made echoes sad and shrill. Nay. her feet bare. Then they began to dig up the earth with their nails. viii. the waxen stood in suppliant guise. Their sallow hue had made the two hideous to behold. this passage cf. and one of wax. 'tis I. that she might not \%itness such deeds. may my head be defiled by ravens' white ordure. ^ My own eyes have seen Canidia walk with black robe tucked up. shrieking ^vith the elder Sagana.* how the fire blazed higher from the image of wax.

50 100 .HORACE horruerim voces Furiarum et facta duarum ? nam displosa sonat quantum vesica pepedi at illae currere in urbem. altum Saganae caliendrum : 45 excidere atque herbas atque incantata lacertis vincula cum magno risuque iocoque videres. diffissa nate ficus Canidiae dentes.

Away they ran into town. and from their arms the herbs — and enchanted love-knots.SATIRES. VIII. Then amid great laughter and mirth you might see Canidia's teeth and Sagana's high wig come tumbhng down. 45-60 of the two Furies though not unavenged ? For as loud as the noise of a bursting bladder was the crack when my fig-wood buttock split. I. 101 .


hoping through closer intimacy to secure an introduction to Maecenas. The poet vainly endeavoiu-s to shake him off. in point of composition. For the connexion of this Satire with Lucilius see Introduction C.IX AN UlSm^LCOME COMPANION While taking a morning stroll. indicate that this is one of the latest Satires. Horace is joined by a mere acquaintance. in the first book. and the poet's well-estabhshed position in Maecenas's circle which is assiuned. 103 . The delightful humour. who insists on accompanying iiim. the skilful dramatic treatment of the theme. It may be compared with the sixth Satire. in which Horace gives an account of his introduction to Maecenas. and it is only when the man's adversary in a lawsuit appears on the scene a genuine deus ex machina that Horace is rescued — from his unhappy position.

* cum . cum quidlibet ille garriret. . Bolane. Cum ire modo ocius.^ urbem laudaret. running into the Forum see Via Sacra in Index. sicut meus est mos nescio quid meditans nugarum. //. " et cupio omnia quae vis. " num quid vis ? " occupo. *' arreptaque manu. cum sudor ad imos^ manaret talos." inquit . " noris nos." mihi eris. 104 . totus in illis. at ille. illi . est te ^ occurrit. " docti sumus. II. " misere cupis. ' ficos. in aurem 10 dicere nescio quid puero." 5 adsectaretur." inquam. " o te.IX. cerebri felicem " aiebam tacitus. interdum consistere. " pluris hoc. Ibam forte Via Sacra." inquit." " nil opus ." hie ego. " abire 15 iamdudum video sed nil agis usque tenebo persequar* hinc quo nunc iter est tibi. in " The Sacra Via was the oldest and most famous street Rome. dulcissime rerum ? " suaviter. . Bentley. vicos. Charisius. . manaret with prosequar D. ! Ut nil . ut nunc est. ." miserediscedere quaerens. to take * Bentley punctuated so as aiebam. respondebam. accurrit^ quidam notus mihi nomine tantum." inquam. " quid agis.

down to my very ankles." musing after my fashion ^ on some trifle or other. at times stop short. "Nothing you want. I break in with. " O Bolanus." To this I say." I kept saying to myself. quid vis? is a polite formula of dismissal. " I hope you get " How * you want. • The question num rightly associates sicut ." said he. " You're dreadfully anxious to be off. So too Lejay." I answer. . Wickham mos with meditans." As he kept dogging me. when up there runs a man I knew only by name and seizes my hand " Pretty d'ye do. " Then I'll esteem you the more. I'll stay with you to your joiu-ney's end." " There's no need of your being dragged about trickled ! . I'll stick to you . " I have long seen that but it's no use. and wholly intent thereon. as times are now." Dreadfully eager to get away I now walk fast. praising the streets and the city. is there ? "' But he " You must know me I'm a scholar. then whisper a word in my slave's ear. my dearest fellow ? " well. ^ In view oi forte. not with Ham.Satire IX y : I was strolling by chance along the Sacred Way. . ^^ As I was making him no answer. wliile the sweat all : . " how lucky to have your temper " while the fellow rattled on about everything. 105 .

mota^ anus urna 30 hunc neque dira venena nee hosticus auferet ensis nee laterum dolor aut tussis nee tarda podagra garrulus hunc quando consumet cumque loquaces. . i. non Viscum pluris amicum. amas. non Varium facies nam quis me scribere pluris aut citius possit versus ? quis membra movere mollius ? invideat quod et Hermogenes." nunc ego resto. Sabella quod puero cecinit divina. .' " Ventum debebat " si . 12 fF. 4. quis te salvo est opus ? 26 " Haud mihi quisquam : omnis composui." : Interpellandi locus hie erat : " est tibi mater. 4. 72. et casu tunc respondere vadato me quod ni fecisset. on the right bank of the Tiber.HORACE circnmagi quendam volo visere non tibi notum . erat ad Vestae. 106 . ! " Felices instat confice ' . Sat. Qualifications despised by Horace cf. namque : . fatum mihi triste. quarta iam parte diei 36 praeterita." ^ mota divina Bentley." Demitto cum " si auriculas. " paulum hie ades.. perdere litem. vitet. i. trans Tiberim longe cubat is. <» left ^ These gardens." inquit. ego^antQ. si sapiat. Incipit ille : bene me novi. prope Gaesaris hortos. See Sat. simul atque adoleverit aetas. were by Juhus Caesar to the people of Rome. gravius dorso subiit onus. " cognati. ut iniquae mentis asellus." : " Nil habeo quod agam et non sum piger : usque 20 sequar te.

which a Sabine dame. sang for me in my now draws near boyhood me A chatterbox shall talk him And No wicked drug shall prove his end." ? Even Hermogenes " might envy : my ^ Here was my chance to break in " Have you a mother or kindred who are dependent upon your welfare " " ? . a long way off across the Tiber." " " I've nothing to do. a fourth of the day being now past. shaking her divining urn. on pain of losing his suit. ^ fWe had come to Vesta's temple. I. you will not think more of Viscus or of Varius as a friend than of me for who can WTite more verses or write more quickly than I ? * Who can dance : : more daintily singing. " As you love me. No cough or pleurisy or gout out if he's wise. and by chance at that hour he was due to give answer to a plaintiff. 17-38 I want to visit a man you do not know. He'll steer quite clear of talkers bold." Down drop my poor ears hke a sulky donkey's. No foeman's sword shall death him send. when he has come under a load too heavy for his back. should he fail to appear. ^ Then he begins " If I do not deceive myself. to rest. as he grows old. " do help me here a " while ! 107 . He's ill abed. near Caesar's gardens. for that sad fate. IX. and I'm not a poor walker I'll keep on with you to the end.SATIRES." Finish me . ~^^-Net-one I have laid them ! all O happy they to now I am left." he says.

50 . desistam . vix credibile ! " " atqui^ sic habet. ni : .HORACE " Inteream. est locus uni cuique suus." expugnabis difficilis . hodie si tempora quaeram. exclusus fuero. haberes 45 magnum adiutorem. posset qui ferre secundas. ut contendere durum^ cum victore. 40 " tene relinquam an rem. ego. ditior hie aut est quia doctior " . " " Maecenas quomodo tecum ? " paucorum hominum et mentis bene hinc repetit sanae." inquit. //. aut valeo stare^ aut novi et propero quo scis. sequor." " non faciam." Magnum narras. summosses omnis. " Velis tantummodo quae tua virtus. et praecedere coepit. eoque " . quare cupiam magis : illi proximus esse." " . atque. * ista re Verrall. 65 et est qui vinci possit. inquam. aditus primos habet. durum est. Non isto vivimus^ illic" quo tu rere modo domus hac nee purior ulla est nee magis his aliena malis nil mi* officit. si " Dubius sum quid faciam. hunc hominem velles si tradere dispeream. nemo dexterius fortuna est usus." " me. * * mi omitted by VK Qoth. 108 . sodes." Haud mihi deero : muneribus servos corrumpam non. ' ' vivitur." ille." civilia iura ." " Accendis.

won't." You add flame to my desire to get closer to him. I'll bribe his slaves. in law. That this is the sense of stare seems to follow from valeo. I'll not give up. I'll look for the " As he would have to do in court. if you wouldn't find that you servant. you know where. " " " difficult." or I. If shut out to-day. that one Each has his own is richer or more learned than I.SATIRES. I say. You might have a strong backer. if you would introduce your humble Hang me. " Confound up. It never hurts me." said he. and that is why he makes the first approaches so . 109 . I what " to leave my suit or you. however. you will carry the fort.e. " and besides I ought to do. " a man of few friends and right good sense ? No one ever made wiser use of his luck. who could be your understudy. No house is cleaner or more free from such intrigues than that. 38-58 me if I either have strength to st-and ! know the laws of the land must hurry." i." or take stare as a synonym of adesse." " I'll not fail myself." " I wonder. IX." " That's a strange tale." since 'tis hard to fight with one's master. and started to go ahead. He's a man who can be won. I can scarce believe it." And yet 'tis so." he thus begins afresh. said he. I follow. whether " No. as meaning " to be successful." You have only to wish it such is your valour. Some." Me. *3 " How stands Maecenas with you. I I pray " As for me. " to appear in court. " had cleared the field " We don't live there on such terms as you think. ! ! place.

." inquam. deducam. Porph. 287. vellere coepi et pressare^ manu lentissima braechia. et " licet antestari ? " ego vero oppono auriculam. " unde venis ? " et " quo tendis ? " rogat tt respondet. sum paulo infirmior. Perhaps. " quo tu turpissime ? " magna inclamat voce." . ! fugit Huncine solem improbus ac me Casu venit obviu's illi 76 adversarius. et. : " At mi .^ ridens dissimulare " certe nescio'quid secreto velle loqui te aiebas mecum. ut me eriperet. Probably a quotation from some poet. ^ pressare BK. ecce 60 vita labore dedit morta'ibus. The sentiment found as early as Hesiod. //. ignosces . sed meliore . no particular Sabbath being intended. rap^t in ius . male salsus 65 meum iecur urere bilis. mihi carus et ilium qui pulchre nosset. <» is « A bystander. * bellis. 70 " religio est. nil sine magno agit. consistimus. the Sabbath fell on the thirtieth of the month. sic me servavit Apollo. nutans. : prensare V. undique concursus. unus multorum. clamor utrimque." " Memini bene. Bentley.HORACE occurram in triviis. Works and Days. allowed the 110 . * This is probably pure nonsense. consenting to act as witness." tam nigrum surrexe mihi sub cultro linquit. distorquens oculos. however." Haec dum Fuscus Aristius occurrit. tempore dicam hodie trieesima sabbata vin tu " Curtis ludaeis oppedere ? " Nulla mihi. alias loquar.

59-78 I'll time . ! : htigant to touch the tip of his ear. I begin to is ^ While he twitch his cloak and squeeze his arms they were quite unfeeling nodding and winking hard for him to save me. 111 meet him boon to in the streets without ! .* He hurries the man to court' There is shouting here and there. however. who knew the " Whence come you ? fellow right well. Whither go you ? " he asks and answers. 443). escort him home.* Would you affront " the circumcised Jews ? " I have no scruples. pretending not to understand. one of the many. the thirtieth Sabbath." " thus running on. " But I have. "Surely you said there was something you wanted to tell me — — in private." To think so black a sun as this has shone for me The rascal runs away and leaves me under the knife." it well. '* It now chanced that the plaintiff came face to face ^\ith his opponent. I'm a somewhat weaker brother. You will pardon me I'll talk another day. a dear friend of mine. xx. I grew hot with anger. The expression comes. and on all sides a running to and fro.'* " I mind is To-day . but I'll tell you at a better time. The cruel joker laughed. fitting I. Life grants no man much toil. We halt. from Homer {Iliad." say I. IX. Thus was I saved by Apollo.SATIRES.. Tov 5" iirjpira^ev 'AjroXXuv. Apollo was the god who befriended poets. " Where go you. "* Ill . words which Lucilius had also used. you scoundrel ? " he loudly shouts. and to me " May I call you as witness ? " I off"er my ear to touch. lo there comes up Aristius Fuscus. The custom was an old one and is referred to in Plautus.

and to these he now makes reply. whom Hermogenes and his school never read. which had brought down considerable censure upon him from the critics. " such a mixture is a serious blemish. But LuciUus is admired for his skill in blending Greek and Latin. for satiric power. but realized in time that this would be like carrying faggots to the forest (31-35). while he had found fault with Lucilius's verse. ! The poet here confesses that at one time he had thought of writing in Greek instead of Latin. one may admire good mimes without holding them to be good poems. who upheld the excellence of early Latin poetry. Polho has won 112 . So while Bibaculus essays something grand and lofty. but you must also have a terse style and a proper mixture of the grave and the gay. such as is seen in the robust writers of Old Attic Comedy. Horace is less ambitious and turns to a more modest field. and no more acceptable in poetry than in oratory " (1-30). If we survey contemporary literature. " Nonsense " cries Horace. comedy is pre-empted by Fundanius .X ON SATIRE Horace resumes a discussion of the main subject of his fourth Satire. You may make people laugh. He reminds them that. he had also credited it with great In this he was quite consistent.

If he wins their approval. 336 ff. he wrote too freely. >\Titer should aim at pleasing. or genus tenue. while Horace has met ^nth success. If we were to compare him with a writer who is carving out a new species of verse quite untouched by the Greeks. I. In this satire Horace is a spokesman for the chief ^vriters of the Augustan era. not the multitude. the art to blot " (50-71). Virgil is simple and charming in his pastorals. Horace puts the finishing touch to his First Book (92). of poetry as of orator)'. Lucilius and Horace.his stream is muddy. he would have filed away his roughnesses. Among the requisites of good satire Horace speaks of the appropriate use of humour. His verse is faulty. he may bid the cheap teachers of the lecture-room go hang (72-91). all of which are characteristic of the so-called plain style. together Avith the qualities of bre\-ity. fame in tragedy and Varius in the epic . however short he may come of the first in the field (36-4-9). we might attribute to him some pohsh. as represented by men like Tigellius. but the fact remains that had he lived in the Augustan age. setting forth some of their ideals in contrast ^vith the ignorance and \'ulgarity of popular scribblers. and learned " the last and greatest art. Satire alone was open to Horace. purity of diction and smoothness of composition. With this statement of his conviction. (For a full discussion see papers by Hendrickson and UUman . X. also Fiske. he lacks finish. It is true that Horace had criticized Lucihus.) — A ! I 113 . but a small circle of good critics.SATIRES. just as Lucihus had pointed out defects in Accius and Ennius. clearness. pp. for Varro Atacinus and others had tried it and failed.




mendosus, teste Catone

defensore tuo pervineam, qui male factos emendare parat versus ; hoc lenius ille, quo melior vir est, longe subtilior illo, qui multum puer et loris at funibus udis exoratus, ut esset opem qui ferre poetis antiquis posset contra fastidia nostra,


grammaticorum equitum doctissimus.




ut non

incomposito dixi pede currere versus quis tarn Lucili fautor inepte est, hoc fateatur ? at idem, quod sale multo

urbem defricuit, charta laudatur eadem. Nee tamen hoc tribuens dederim quoque cetera 5 nam^ sic et Laberi mimos ut pulchra poemata mirer.
ergo non satis est risu diducere^ rictum
^ LI. 1-8. These awkward verses are found in uss. of class II only, but are not commented on by the scholiasts. Persius, an imitator of Horace, begins his third satire with nempe. In I. 4, vir, used by the writer as a long syllable, appears as vir et in a few later uss. * num aM, II. * dcducere K, II.

" The first eight lines are regarded as spurious, and the only reason for reproducing them is that they are given in many mss., though not in the best. The Cato referred to is Valerius Cato, a poet and critic of the late Republic, but who the grammaticorum equitum doctissimus was is not known.



X i^^



you are I

prove clearly by

the witness of Cato, your

own advocate, who is

work to remove faults from your ill-wrought verses. This task is done so much more gently by him, as he is a better man, of much finer taste than the other, who as a boy was ofttimes gently entreated by the lash and moist ropes, so that later he might give aid
to the poets of old against oxir present daintiness, when he had become the most learned of pedagogic knights. But to return :]

^ To be sure I did say * that the verses of Lucilius run on with halting foot. Who is a partisan of LuciUus so in-and-out of season as not to confess this ? And yet on the self-same page the self-same poet is praised because he rubbed the city down with much salt. * Yet, while granting this virtue, I would not also allow Mm every other for on those terms I should also have to admire the mimes of Laberius as pretty poems.* Hence it is not enough to make your It is surely impossible " by reaching back over the relative

clause intervening" to refer these words to Cato, as does Hendrickson, who upholds the genuineness of these verses. * In Sat. i. 4, which may be compared with this Satire throughout. ' Mimes were dramatic scenes from low life, largely farcical and grotesque in character. Laberius, a Pioman knight, who was compelled by Julius Caesar to act in his own mimes, was no longer living when Horace wrote.



et est quaedam tamen hie quoque virtus ; est brevitate opus, ut currat sententia neu se
vei-bis lassas



onerantibus auris



modo tristi, saepe iocoso, defendente vieem modo rhetoris atque poetae,
et sermone opus est

interdum urbani/ parcentis

viribus, atque extenuantis eas consulto. ridicullim acri fortius et melius magnas plerumque secat res. 15 illi soripta quibu s comoedia prisca viris est hoc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi quos neque pulcher

Hermogenes umquam legit neque simius iste nil praeter Calvum et doctus cantare Catullum. " At magnum fecit, quod verbis Graeca Latinis




studiorum, quine putetis


mirum, Rhodio quod Pitholeonti


lingua concinnus utraque si commixta Falerni est." Cum versus facias, te ipsum percontor, an et cum 25 dura tibi peragenda rei sit causa Petilli ? scilicet oblitus^ patriaeque patrisque, Latine* cum Pedius causas exsudet Publicola atque
suavior, ut^ Chio nota
^ '

At sermo




et, //.

oblitos Bentley

so Holder, Vollmer.


Latine comm. Cruq.

Latini V,






This, according to Porphyrio, is the Demetrius mentioned 90 below. Hendrickson thinks it is Bibaculus (CP.

xii. p. 87).
* For cantare " to satirize " These words cf. Sat. ii. 1. 46. are not, as commonly believed, said in depreciation of Calvus and Catullus, for there was no opposition toward thera on the part of the Augustan poets. See Rand, " Catullus and the Augustans," Harv. St. xvii. p. 28, and Ullraan, " Horace, Catullus, and Tigellius," C.P. x. pp. 270 ff.






hearer grin with laughter—though even in that there You need terseness, that the thought is some merit. may run on, and not become entangled in verbiage that weighs upon wearied ears. You also need a style now grave, often gay, in keeping with the role, now of orator or poet, at times of the wit, who holds his strength in check and husbands it with wisdom. Jesting oft cuts hard knots more forcefully and Thereby those great men effectively than gravity. who wrote Old Comedy won success ; therein we should imitate them vsTiters whom the fop Hermogenes has never read, nor that ape," whose skill lies solely in droning Calvus and Catullus.* ^ But that was a great feat," you say, " his mixing of Greek and Latin words." O ye late learners " ye who really think that a hard and wondrous knack, which Pitholeon of Rhodes achieved " But a style, where both tongues make a happy blend, has more charm, as when the Falernian wine is mixed with Chian."^ In your verse-making only (I put it to yourself), or does the rule also hold good when you have to plead the long, hard case of the defendant Petillius ? Would you forsooth forget fatherland and father, and, while Pedius Publicola and Corvinus si^at over their causes in Latin, would



' Seri studiorum is a translation of ofifiaSeh, used of those who make a show of their newly acquired knowledge. In the words following, -ne should not be regarded as interrogative. It is an affirmative particle, as Priscian held Nothing is known about Pitholeon, but Bentley it to be. plausibly supposed he was the same as Pitholaus, who assailed Julius Caesar in verse (Suet. Jul. 75).


Corvinus, patriis intermiscere petita verba foris malis, Canusini more bilinguis ? ^^30 Atque^ ego cum Graecos facerem, natus mare citra, versiculos, vetuit me tali voce Quirinus, post mediam noctem visus, cum somnia vera " In silvam non ligna feras insanitis ac si magnas Graecorum malis implere catervas." 35

Turgidus Alpinus iugillat dum Memnona dumque Rheni luteum caput, haec ego ludo, quae neque in aede sonent certantia iudice Tarpa, nee redeant iterum atque iterum spectanda^ theatris.

Arguta meretrice potes Davoque Chremeta 40 eludente senem comis garrire libellos unus vivorum, Fun^ani Pollio regum facta canit pede ter percusso forte epos aQcr, ut nemo, Varius ducit molle atque facetum Vergilio adnuerunt^ gaudentes rure Camenae. 45 hoc erat, experto frustra Varrone Atacino atque quibusdam aliis, melius quod scribere possem,^ inventore minor neque ego illi detrahere ausim haerentem capiti cum multa laude coronam.




^ ^

atqui Bentley.





K, II, Porph. K, II.


adnuerant a

adnuerint D.
in Apulia, both

possim, //.


At Canusium,

Greek and Oscan were


A sarcastic reference to M. Furius BibacvRs, who wrote an epic on Caesar's Gallic Wars, and also an Aethiopis, in which Memnon is slain by Achilles. The references would be more intelligible if the poems of Bibaculus were extant, but his bombastic style is clearly parodied. See further.


5. 41.


be read.


Temple of the Muses, where new poetry could For Tarpa see Index, under Maecius. reference to New Comedy, as handled by Terence.






you prefer to jumble with your native speech words imported from abroad, like the Canusian's jargon ? 31 I, too, though born this side of the sea, once took to writing verses in Greek; but after midnight, when dreams are true, Quirinus appeared and forbade me

with words like these " 'Tis just as foolish to carry timber to a wood as to ^vish to swell the crowded ranks of the Greeks." ^ So while the pompous poet of the Alps miu-ders* Memnon and botches with mud the head of the Rhine,* I am toying 'vnth these trifles, which are neither to be heard in the Temple" as competing for Tarpa's verdict, nor are to come back again and again to be witnessed on the, stage. *^ You alone of living poets, Fundanius, can charm us ^v^th the chit-chat of comedies, where the artful

mistress and Davus fool old Chremes."* In measure of triple beat Polho sings of kings' exploits .« Surpassing all in spirit, Varius moulds the valorous epic' To Virgil the Muses rejoicing in rural life have granted simplicity and charm." This satire, which Varro of the Atax and some others had vainly tried, was what I could vncite with more success, though nor would I dare to falhng short of the inventor " wTcst from him the crown that clings to his brow with so much glory.


Pollio us^^he iambic trimeter in his tragedies. This was written before Virgil had composed his Aeneid.

' A reference to the Eclogues. Professor C. N. Jackson has won wide acceptance for his view that in moUe atqu4 " tenderness and grace," facetum, commonly rendered as Horace refers to distinctive features of the genus tenu4, or plain style of writing {Hare. St. xxv. pp. 117 ff.).

* Lucilius.




At^ dixi fluere hunc lutulentum, saepe ferentem 50

quidem tollenda relinquendis. age, quaeso,^ tu nihil in magncf doctus reprehendis Homero ? nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius Acci ? non ridet versus Enni gravitate minores,'' cum de se loquitur non ut maiore reprensis ? 65 quid vetat et nosmet Lucili scripta legentis quaerere, num illius, num rerum dnrfi negarit versiculos natura magis factes^t euntis mollius, ac^ si quis, pedibus quid claudere senis, hoc tantum contentus, amet scripsisse ducentos 60 ante cibum versus, totidem cenatus ? Etrusci quale fuit Cassi rapido ferventius amni ingenium, capsis quem fama eft esse librisque



Fuerit Lucilius, inquam,

comis et urbanus,^ fuerit limatior idem 65 quam rudis et Graecis intacti carminis auctor quamque poetarum seniorum turba sed ille, si foret hoc nostrum fato delapsus' in aevum, detereret sibi multa, recideret omne quod ultra 70 ^p^fectum traheretur, et in versu faciendo saepe caput scaberet, vivos et roderet unguis. Saepe stilum vertas, iterum quae digna legi sint scripturus, neque te ut miretur turba labores,

^ minoris Ooth. urbanis, //. ' delapsus V, adopted by Vollmer and Lejay : dilatus one Bland., Bentley and generally accepted dilapsus mss.


at or adj et \l^. * altos Goth.


et a.





" i.e.




Cassius see p. 277, note


Cf. Sat.

4. 90.

hie is LuciHus. <• Cf. Quintihan, x. 1. 93 "satura tota nostra est." p. 72. • The phrase stilum verier e means to erase what has been written on the wax tablet, because the blunt end of the

The coincidence implies that there the So Tenney Frank in A.J.P. xlvi. (1925)







I did say his stream runs muddy, and often more that you would rather remove than leave beliind. Come, pray, do you, a scholar, critiDoes your genial cize nothing in the great Homer ? Lucihus find nothing to change in the tragedies of Accius ? Does he not laugh at the verses of Ennius



though he speaks of himself as no greater than those he has blamed B' And as we read the writings of Lucihus, what forbids us, too, to raise the question whether it was his own genius, or whether it was the harsh nature of his themes that denied him verses more finished and easier in their flow than if one were to put his thoughts into six feet and, content with thds alone, were proud of having written two hundred hnes before and two hundred after supping ? Such was the gift of Tuscan Cassius,*" more headstrong than a rushing river, whose own books and cases, so 'tis told us, made his funeral
as lacking in dignity,



^ Grant, say I, that Lucilius was genial and witty " grant that he was also more polished than you would expect one to be who was creating a new style quite untouched by the Greeks,** and more yet, had polished than the crowd of older poets he fallen by fate upon this our day, he would smooth away much of his work, would prune oflP all that trailed beyond the proper limit, and as he wrought his verse he would oft scratch his head and gnaw his nails to the quick. ^ Often must you turn your pencil to erase/ if you hope to write something worth a second reading, and you must not strive to catch the wonder of the crowd,



was used to smooth out the surface traced by the

sharp end.



contentus paucis lectoribus.
vilibus^ in ludis dictari

non ego




an tua demens 75 carmina malis ? est equitem mihi plaudere, ut

audax, contemptis

explosa Arbuscula dixit.

moveat cimex Pantilius, aut cruciet quod vellicet absentem Demetrius, aut quod ineptus Fannius Hermogenis laedat conviva Tigelli ? O^'*^*^ Plotius et Varius, Maecenas Vergiliusque,
Valgius et probet haec Octavius optimus atque Fuscus et haec utinam Viscorum laudet uterque ambitione relegata te dicere possum, 86 Pollio, te, Messalla, tuo cum fratre, simulque 'vos, Bibule et Servi, simul his te, candide Furni, compluris alios, doctos ego quos et amicos prudens praetereo quibus haec, sint quaHacumque, adridere vehm, doUturus, si placeant spe 90 Demetri, teque, Tigelli, deterius nostra. discipularum^ inter iubeo plorare cathedras. I, puer, atque meo citus haec subscribe libello.
! ;






discipularum uss. Porph.
is is



" i.e. Aristius


Octavius Musa, poet



iubeo plorare valere ("I bid farewell to"). in Plut. 257.

The phrase

a satiric substitute for iubeo Cf. otVcofe in Aristophanes, as

* In this paragraph Horace contrasts writers of low literary standards, represented by Tiarellius, with members of the three circles of Maecenas, Pollio and Messalla. He himself, like Virgil, belongs to the circle of Maecenas. TibuUus, a member of Messalla's circle, is perhaps at this

time too young to be named.
pp. 270

(See Ullman, C.P. x. (1910)

* The last verse, addressed to the slave who acts as " The secretary, serves as an epilogue to the whole book. farewell (or rather * fare-ill ') to Tigellius is the last shot in the war, and Tigellius is never mentioned again. The last





74-92 WTiat,

but be content with the few as your readers. would you be so foolish as to want your dictated in common schools ? Not so I. enough if the knights applaud me " to quote

" 'Tis


Arbuscula's scornful remark, when the rest of the house hissed her. "* I to be troubled by that louse Pantilius? Or tortured because Demetrius carps at me behind my back, or because silly Fannius, who sponges on Hermogenes TigelUus, girds at me ? Let but Plotius and Varius approve of these verses let Maecenas, Virgil, and Valgius let Octa\-ius and Fuscus," best of men and let but the Viscus brothers give their praise With no desire to flatter, I may name you, PoUio ; you, Messalla, and your brother ; also you, Bibulus and Ser\ius ; also you, honest






Fumius, and many another scholar and



piu^osely pass over. In their eyes I should hke these verses, such as they are, to find favour, and I should be grieved if their pleasure were to fall short of my hopes. But you, Demetrius, and you, TigeUius, I bid you go whine * amidst the easy chairs of your
pupils in petticoats

Go,"* lad,

and quickly add these Unes to

my Uttle

line of the first

book represents the triumph of an

ideal " (Ulhnan, loc. cit. p. 279). * In connexion with this Satire reference may be made to articles mentioned on p. 61, as well as to the following: Hendrickson, G. L., " Horace and Lucilius. Study of Horace, Serm. i. 10," in Gildersleeve Studies, pp. 151 ff. " Horace and Valerius Flaccus " (three articles), C.P. xi. and xii. ; B. L. Ullman, " Horace, Catullus and Tigellius,"


C.P. X. pp. 270 ff.; E. K. Rand, "Catullus and the Aagustans," Hare. St. xvii. pp. 15 ff.; C. F. Jackson, " MoUe atque Facetum." Harv. St. xxiv. pp. 117 ff.




This Satire continues the subject of the fourth and tenth Satires of the First Book. That book had aroused much criticism, which the poet meets in this prologue to his Second Book. The Satire assumes the form of an imaginary dialogue between Horace and C, Trebatius Testa, a famous lawyer of Cicero's time, whose legal advice on the subject of satiric writing Horace is professedly
anxious to secure. Trebatius advises him to give up writing altogether, or if that is impossible, to take up epic poetry (1-12). " I have no gift for the epic," says Horace, " and
I must write, and must write satire, even as Lucilius used to do. I belong to a frontier stock but am armed for defence, not offence, using the " pen when attacked as naturally as the bull its horns



TREBATIUS. Then you will come to grief. Some of your great friends will freeze you to death. HORACE. Did those of Lucilius desert him, when he attacked great and small ? Nay, he lived on intimate terms with Scipio and Laehus, and though


. — — 125 . But what if they are good. Horace is now thirtyfive years of age and has won recognition and an assured position in Roman hteratiire. have illustrious friends (60-79)TRE. 370). of him in social rank and ability. " the legal conditions under which satire could be produced in the Augustan age formed a very real restriction upon the freedom of speech traditional in satire. . as Lejay. too.SATIRES. You are forbidden to write bad that is. and therefore shortly before the pubhcation of this Second Book in 30 b. But let me remind you of the law. but. p. In view of Caesaris invicti of 1. and win Caesar's approval ? TRE. hke mine. Ubellous verses against anyone. There is a touch of serious anxiety beneath the jest upon the inala and bona carmina with which the Satire closes " (Fiske. has clearly sho^^Ti. I. Of course not. Then such a charge will be laughed out of court (79-86). I fall short II. 11. . He no longer finds it necessary to defend his satire very seriously. yet I. in his introduction to this Satire. HOR. it would seem that this Satire was wTitten after the Battle of Actiimi.c. Lucilius and Horace.

inquis. pars esse putat similisque meorum mi lie die versus deduci^ posse. vii. vires deficiunt neque enim quivis horrentia pilis agmina nee fracta pereuntis cuspide Gallos aut labentis equo describat^ volnera Parthi. Trebati." Cupidum. " Quiescas. composui.LIBER SEGUNDUS Sunt quibus in satura videar^ nimis acer et ultra legem tendere opus sine nervis altera. aEM: -it D. somno quibus e^ opus alto. si non verum nequeo dormirey^ j^i • Ter uncti transnanto Tiberim." optimum erat . pater optime. 5 " Aio. II. multa laborum praemia laturus. irriguumque mero sub noctem corpus habento. praescribe. II: -et K. : 10 15 1 videor 0i/'. quidquid ." Ne omnino versus ? faciam. « We may infer from one letter of Cicero's {Ad/am. Peream male. 22) 126 . quid faciam. » describat * diduci. aut si tantus amor scribendi te rapit. aude Caesaris invicti res dicere.

Give me advice. TRE." and that verses as good as mine could be turned out a thousand a day. Yes. What am I to do? TREBATius. Would that I could. you mean ? TRE. There are some critics who think that I too savage in my satire and strain the work beyond la^\•ful bounds. let them steep themselves in wine. Take a rest. Not everyone can paint ranks bristling with lances.BOOK Satire II I HORACE. Trebatius. bravely tell of the feats of Caesar. Many a reward for your pains will you gain." Or if such a passion for wTiting carries you away. if that would not be best But I cannot sleep. vii. the unvanquished. HOR. that Trebatius was a hard drinker. or wounded Parthian slipping from am .s<wdio»m»miM homo natandi. as night comes on. The other half of them hold that all I have composed is " nerveless. 10) that he was fond of swimming. Let those who need sound sleep oil themselves and swim across the Tiber thrice then. good father. HOR. but my strength fails me. his horse. and we learn from another (»6. Not write verses at all. Confound me. or Gauls falling with spearheads shattered. HOR. 127 .

vetus est ut fama.HORACE " Altamen et iustum poteras et scribere fortem. quo ne per vacuum Romano incurreret hostis. et odit. from Sat." Haud mihi dero. " " A line quoted. ut omnis . ' cesserat K : * . Sequor hunc. Sabellis. 1 sed hie stilus haud petet ultro recalcitret.^ usquam decurrens alio. //. anceps : arat finem sub utrumque colonus. ovo prognatus eodem pugnis quot capitum vivunt. as he doe^ of frontier stock. : 30 . Porph." Quid faciam saltat Milonius. cui male si palpere. nostrum melioris utroque. with Coming change of case. gesserat mss. ut semel icto . Scipiadam ut sapiens Lucilius. neque si bene quo fit. 35 missus ad hoc. i. neque si male cesserat. cum res ipsa feret nisi dextro tempore. Lucanus an Apulus. 20 : " Quanto rectius hoc. ille velut fidis arcana sodalibus olim credebat libris. quam tristi laedere versu Pantolabum scurram Nomentanumque^ nepotem.que] -ve. Flacci verba per attentam non ibunt Caesaris aurem. totidem studiorum milia me pedibus delectat claudere verba Lucili ritu. votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella vita senis. sive quod Apula gens seu quod Lucania bellum nam Venusinus incuteret violenta. recalcitrate undique tutus. Horace humorously 128 . 11. 8. cum sibi quisque timet. ? quamquam est intactus. accessit fervor capiti numerusque lucernis 25 Castor gaudet equis. pulsis.

What am I to do ? Milonius starts a-dancing once the heat has mounted to his wine-smitten brain and the lamps twinkle double. and hates you. For every thousand hving soiils. as the old story goes. wlien the Samnites were driven out. that no foe might ever assail the Romans through an open frontier. at every point on his guard. whether the Apuhan race or whether Lucania lawlessly threatened any war. at once just valiant. as -wise Lucihus did of Scipio. Stroke the steed climisily and back he kicks. ^ HOR. and spendthrift Nomentanus. a Lucanian or Apulian. born from the same egg. the parasite. HOR. as if to faithful friends.* I know not which. ** He it is I follow — I. Castor finds joy in horses . in boxing. whether things went well with him or ill. the words of a Flaccus find with Caesar entrance to an attentive ear. his brother. and II. as did Lucilius.SATIRES. when the occasion Only at an auspicious moment will itself prompts. How much Aviser tliis than with bitter verse to wound " Pantolabus. But this. Thither they were sent. I ^Wll not fail myself. ^ THE. though untouched. and to this end. there are as many thousand tastes. never turning elsewhere for recourse. both my dagger for the settlers in claims that this satire. is why he is so pugnacious and takes to 129 . So it comes that the old poet's whole life is open to view. Venusia plough close to the borders of both lands. He in olden days would trust his secrets to his books. as if painted on a votive tablet. I. a better man than either of us. But you might write of himself. My own delight is to shut up words in feet. 16-39 THE. M." " whereupon everybody is afraid for himself.

II. elamo). grande malum Turius. qui me commorit (melius non tangere." primus in hunc operis componere carmina morem. nitidus qua quisque per ora ! : . et maiorum ne quis amicus quid ? cum est Lucilius ausus frigore te feriat. 130 . ne longum faciam seu me tranquilla senectus exspectat seu mors atris circumvolat alis. seu fors ita iusserit. sic collige mecum dente lupus. a pointed instrument. : telum Mss.HORACE quemquam animantem et me veluti custodiet ensis vagina tectus . 40 quern cur destringere^ coner tutus ab infestis latronibus ? o pater et rex luppiter. ut sis 60 vitalis metuo. Cervius iratus leges minitatur et urnam. certet * BK. " The stilus. exsul. quisquis erit vitae scribam color. " O puer. male E3I. ut pereat positum robigine telum. stiletto. //. ut neque calce lupus quemquam neque dente petit^ bos 55 sed mala^ toilet anum vitiato melle eicuta. could be used either For the latter sense cf. . cornu taurus petit unde. : ' quis . si quid se iudice certes. mala mss. * petat D(f>ipl.' ut quo quisque valet suspectos terreat. inops. as a pen or as a weapon. Romae. utque 50 imperet hoc natura potens. detrahere et pellem. . ferrum Priscian. : : ^ * distringere. 45 » flebit et insignis tota cantabitur urbe. nisi intus monstratum ? Scaevae vivacem crede nepoti matrem . Canidia Albuci quibus est inimica venenum. dives.^ nee quisquam noceat cupido mihi pacis at ille. nil faciet sceleris pia dextera mirura.

* i-e. poems first dared to compose and to strip off the skin Avith which each strutted all bedecked before the eyes of HOR. Sire and safe from robbers' assaults ? King. ®* TRE. How everyone. \\'hat ! when Lucihus after this kind. and how this is at Dame Nature's own command. threatens his foes with laws and the judge's urn . To be brief whether peaceful age awaits me. Canidia \vith the poison of Albucius . lad. How marvellous no more so than that a wolf assails none with his heels.* alive shall II.SATIRES. bright or dark. and pen. in Rome. let perish with rust the discarded weapon. but deadly hemlock in drugged honey will carry the old crone off. if not by instinct ? Suppose you entrust to the spendthrift Scaeva a long-lived mother his filial hand will commit no crime. 40-64 never of my but shall protect me. Turius with a big fine. One of your great friends will strike you with a My killing frost. whatever the colour * of my hfe. *' Cer\'ius. I. nor an ox with his teeth . tries to frighten those whom he fears. if you go to court when he is judge. write I must. rich or — — — : ! — poor. Why O and one he let stir no man me up injure (" it me. a lover of peace But if Better not touch me " I shout). 131 . I fear your life will be brief. you must infer as I do thus the wolf attacks with fangs. the bull with horns how was each taught. in exile. using the weapon in which he is strong. sheath. while I am Jupiter. ! ! shall smart for and have his name sung up and do^^n the town. with good or bad fortune. like free will assail a sword laid any man up in its should I try to draw it. when angry. or Death hovers round with sable wings. or. if chance so bid.

70 quin ubi se a volgo et scaena in secreta remorant virtus Scipiadae et mitis sapientia Laeli. et fragili offendet solido. introrsum tiirpis. " Equidem nihil hinc diffindere^ possum. Nat. integer ipse ? " Solventur risu tabulae. 18). num Laelius et^ qui duxit ab oppressa meritum Karthagine nomen ingenio ofFensi aut laeso doluere Metello famosisque Lupo cooperto versibus ? atqui primores populi arripuit populumque tributim. quicquid sum ego. donee decoqueretur holus. " qui malum carmen incantassit" {Hist. 82 Horace uses the very phraseology of the XII. 80 sed tamen ut monitus caveas." Esto. "sive carmen condi" * The younger In 1. ne forte negoti incutiat tibi quid sanctarum inscitia legum si mala condiderit in quem quis carmina. II. diffingereo: diffundere : JB? diffidere." etD/T: aut aE. quamvis infra Lucili censum ingeniumque. soliti. Tables as cited by Pliny. Scipio Africanus. si quis mala . ius est iudiciumque.^ scilicet uni aequus Virtuti atque eius amicis. Porph. 132 . tamen vixisse invita fatebitur nisi me 75 cum magnis usque invidia. sed bona si quis iudice condiderit laudatus Caesare ? si quis : opprobriis dignum latraverit. docte Trebati.HORACE 65 cederet. tributim 8fi » * ' aK : diffindere VDM. tu missus abibis. and Cicero. nugari cum illo et discincti ludere. xxviii. dissentis. tributum DE. quaerens inlidere dentem quid tu. 4.

102. I. punning on the use of malum. learned Trebatius. To be sure. will ever admit that I have lived with the great. lest haply ignorance of our sacred laws bring you into trouble. yet Envj". But maybe you." * Literally.SATIRES. 12). was Laelius offended at he who took his well-earned name from conquered Carthage ? " Or were they hurt because Metellus was smitten. But what if a man compose good verses. and Caesar's judgement approve ? If he has barked at someone who deserves abuse. they would turn to folly. though his wit." See Jefferson Elmore." You will get off scot-free. and upon the people in their tribes. p. will dash upon what is solid. 65-86 foul within. in case of ill verses. let me warn you to beware. Indeed. of course. in spite of herself. men. which can mean both " libellous " and " of bad quality. "the ofScial rei'ords will be cancelled. 10. kindly in fact only to Virtue and her friends. himself all blameless ? TRE. and flinging off restraint would indulge with him in sport while their dish of herbs was on the boil. iv. But for all that. however far beneath Lucilius in rank and native gifts. If a man write ill verses against another. Nay.'' there is a right of action and redress by law. while trying to strike her tooth on something soft. when virtuous Scipio and the wise and gentle Laelius withdrew into privacy from the throng and theatre of life. '^ TRE. C. xxxiii. HOR. . I can take no exception to this. disset" {De republica. and Lupus buried under a shower of lampooning verses ? Yet he laid hold upon the leaders of the people. Such as I am.R. disagree. Horace is. The case will be dismissed with a laugh. or II. and.

the Satire mainly a collection of commonplaces taken from the teachings of the various philosophic schools. Ofellus a plain but shrewd countryman the value of simple living. It is probably the first one of this book in the order of composition. So. As a whole. or as follows authority. midway between dialogue and monologue. Learn from me. though the theme and even the mode of handling it It stands were probably suggested by Lucilius. simply because it has a fine tail and costs inore money. man never despises frugal fare after heavy exercise. The former is : The argument from rather my — — A 134 . however. People foolishly prefer a peacock to a pullet. The most tempting dainties lose their flavour for the man who has no appetite. while a big pike is scorned. because the pleasure of eating lies. but in oneself. an old neighbour of the poet's.II A DISCOURSE ON PLAIN LIVING Horace puts the discourse in the mouth of Ofellus. a three-pound mullet is admired. not in costly food. and perhaps indicates that the author is still experimenting in regard to the form. too. Let us learn the lesson before we break our fast. and a representative of the simphcity and other sturdy quahties of the Apuhan is farmers.

and when misfortunes came. reserved for hospitality (70-93). allows one to indulge himself occasionally. " That may be true of others. or in times of ill-health. as when the hohdays come. x. 131). " Ciceron. mental vigour. but Lejay has also called attention to striking parallels in Cicero's philosophical writings. Ciceronian (cf. or when In the good old days dainties were old age arrives. Laert." says one. simple fare means healtli of body. luxurious life leads to disgrace and ruin." Then why not use your money for better ends ? And what about the changes and chances of life ? Which of the two will meet them best.). an unnatural rarity. 380).9. Plain living is not the same as mean living. Tusc. that he does now. 53) is 5 ." 135 (1. the latter is common. and the well-fed stomach scorns things common. Some day we shall find roast gulls in fashion (1-52). iii. is II. and you must not avoid one fault merely to fall into another. sound and refreshing sleep. when he was the well-to-do owner of the land on which he now pays In those days he lived the same simple life rent." says Lejay (p. 26.SATIRES. a good digesIt tion. the man accustomed to every comfort. he faced them bravely and in true philosophic fashion A A (113-136). 11. or the one who is content with little (94'-lll) ? I knew Ofellus in my boyhood. Even the phrase tenuis victus 4. Kiessling has pointed out how closely this Satire reproduces some ideas found in the well-known letter of Epicurus to Menoecus (Diog. There is a happy mean between stinginess and extravagance (53-69). " but I can well afford to be extravagant. 89. V. Disp. . etc. " est peut-etre encore plus completement I'inspiration des grandes hgnes de la satire.

the besi " For Romana cf. " cur hoc dicam. nat.n. unde putas aut : qui ^ partum ? non in caro nidore voluptas . Quae virtus et quanta. si potero. * According to Macrobius. si Romana fatigat 10 militia adsuetum graecari. acclinis falsis 6 " ? Male verum examinat omnis corruptus iudex. De 136 . verum hie impransi mecum disquirite. militia. discite. seu pila velox moUiter austerum studio fallente laborem. siccus. sed quae praecepit Ofellus (nee rusticus. Saturn. ii. seu te discus agit (pete cedentem aera disco) cum labor extuderit fastidia. sit \avere parvo meus hie sermo est. vii. foris est promus et atrum defendens piscis hiemat mare cum sale panis latrantem stomachum bene leniet. or training for the Roman army. iii. leporem sectatus equove lassus ab indomito vel. boni. deor. ne biberis diluta. 24. 54 if." and for the contrast with Greek games see Odes. ab normis Vollmer and Lejay. 12. inanis sperne cibum vilem nisi Hymettia mella Falerno 15 . non inter lances mensasque nitentis. abnormi aEK Acr. abnormis^ sapiens crassaque Minerva). " ut exerceamur in venando ad similitudinem bellicae disciplinae. 64. Cicero. cum stupet insanis acies fulgoribus et cum animus meliora recusat.

when you are thirsty and hungry. plain food .Satire II What and how frugal living no talk of mine. refuse to drink any mead. bread and salt will suffice to appease your growling belly. unless the honey is from Hymettus. when the eye is dazed by senseless splendour. turning to vanities. before is — now this great. and the mind. old Falernian 137 . dark and stormy. a peasant. I say.'' The butler is out . or else. the sea. we dine. not in the costly savour. if you can. or it may be the discus (by all means hurl the discus through the yielding air) well. but in — mead was made of new Hymettian honey and wine. not amid the tables' shining dishes. it may be the swift ball takes your fancy. " Why * Every judge who has been bribed weighs truth badly. and the wine from Falernum. so ? " I will tell you. but is the teaching of Ofellus. let us discuss the point together. if I can. protects its fish . After hunting the hare or wearily dismounting from an unbroken horse. a philosopher unschooled and of rough mother'-wit learn. is the virtue of — . despise. rejects the better part but here. where the excitement pleasantly beguiles the hard toil. Whence or how do you think this comes about ? The chiefest pleasure lies. when toil has knocked the daintiness out of you . my friends. if Roman armyexercises " are fatiguing to one used to Greek ways.

trilibrem muUum. ducit te species. Porrectum magno magnum spectare catino vellem. insane. at vos. : patet D^M." ait Ilarpyiis gula digna rapacibus. ieiunus raro stomachus volgaria temnit. tamquam ad rem attineat quicquam. pontisne inter iactatus an amnis ostia sub Tusci ? laudas. num vesceris ista quam laudas pluma ? came tamen quamvis cocto num adest honor^ idem ? distat nil. Orelli. Porph. 20. 2) implies that a peacock was regarded as an essential feature of a banquet. II. mala copia quando ^ * * haec. Goth.. ix. //. color Goth. : ilia aD. video. tu pulmentaria quaere sudando pinguem vitiis albumque neque ostrea : 20 nee scarus aut poterit peregrina iuvare lagois. corruptus vanis rerum. his breve pondus. quo pertinet ergo proceros odisse lupos ? quia scilicet illis 35 maiorem natura modum " dedit. posito pavone velis quin hoc potius quam gallina tergere palatum. sed in te ipso est.HORACE summa. in singula quern minuas pulmenta necesse : est. quam- quam^ putet aper rhombusque recens. petere » E aDEK * quamvis. illam Porph. Vix tamen eripiam. 40 praesentes Austri. 138 . hac^ magis illam^ ! imparibus formis deceptum te petere^ 30 esto unde datum sentis. » Cicero {Ad fam. lupus hie Tiberinus an alto captus hiet. coquite horum obsonia. quia veneat auro 25 rara avis et picta pandat spectacula cauda .

which you must needs cut up into single portions. of course. ye southern gales.* I shall hardly root out your longing to tickle your palate with it rather than \\ith a pullet. that takes you. though in their meat they are on a par. you praise a three-pound mullet. I see. to think that you crave the one rather than the other. So earn your sauce with hard exercise. But what sense tells you whether this pike gasping here was caught in the Tiber or in the sea. duped by the difference in appearance Very well.e. and the mullet hght of weight. whether in the eddies between the bridges ^ or just at the mouth of the Tuscan" river ? You foolish fellow. Only a stomach that seldom — ! ! hunger scorns things common. yon boar and fresh feels ^ "But ! * i. Why then detest a very long pike ? It is. will II. • The Tiber rises in Etruria. if a peacock be served.SATIRES. 139 . You are led astray by the vain appearance. because nature has made the pike large. Nay. 11. oS the Ins^ula Tiberina. connected the island with the right and left banks of the Tiber. a big fish on a big dish outstretched! That's what I'd hke to see " cries a gullet worthy of the greedy Harpies. is bloated and pale from excess find no comfort in oysters or trout or foreign ^ Yet. 'Tis the look. because the rare bird costs gold and makes a brave show with the picture of its outspread tail as though that had aught to do >vith the case Do you eat the feathers you so admire ? Does the bird look as fine when cooked ? Yet. yourself. and taint these gluttons' dainties And yet they are already rank. come in your might. 20-42 The man who grouse. Pons Cestius and Pons Fabricius. The two bridges.

licebit 60 ille repotia.^ Ofello iudice nam frustra vitium vitaveris illud. According to Porphyrion. cui Canis ex vero ductum* cognomen adhaeret. et horum utrum imitabitur? hac urget lupus. dedit DEAL ' Lucilius had satirized Gallonius for serving a huge sturgeon at dinner. II. » angit D». hac canis. ' distabit early editors : distabat mss. Sordidus a tenui victu distabit. ac nisi mutatum parcit defundere^ vinum. 50 donee vos auctor docuit praetorius. parebit pravi docilis Romana iuventus. ductum V: « dictum mss. quinquennis oleas est et silvestria corna. ' 5 fundere. veteris non parcus aceti. who set the fashion of eating storks. cornu ipse bilibri caulibus instillat. qua^ non offendat sordibus. //. 8 olet. 55 Avidienus. ergo si quis nunc mergos suavis edixerit assos. the reference is to one Rufus. Albuci senis exemplo. and who was defeated '' 140 .' 65 mundus erit. //. cum rapula plenus atque acidas mavolt inulas.HORACE sollicitat stomachum. ^ dum munia ' didit.® aequora alebant turn. baud ita pridem aegrum : infamis. atque hie neque servis. natalis alios ve dierum festos albatus celebret. //. Galloni praeconis erat acipensere mensa quid? tunc^ rhombos minus aequor alebat^? tutus erat rhombus tutoque cieonia nido. in neutram partem cultus miser. quali igitur victu sapiens utetur. et cuius odorem olei^ nequeas perferre. si te alio pravum detorseris. * EM. . qui. aiunt. necdum omnis abacta 45 pauperies epulis regum nam vilibus ovis nigrisque est oleis hodie locus.

for cheap eggs and black olives still have a place. The word praetorius is therefore used in irony. and is chary of dra\\ing his wine till it has soured . He will neither. will obey. . He will be neat. and which of these two will he copy ? On the one side. our Roman youth. a wolf attacks. to shun one fault. and wearing a freshly cleaned toga. as he assigns for the praetorship. from a simple one . so far as not to shock us by meanness. n. which. like old Albucius. though his old vinegar he does not stint. he drops it on the salad from a two- pound horn with his own hands.SATIRES. in holiday attire. 'Tis not so long ago that by reason of a sturgeon the table of What ? Gallonius the auctioneer won ill repute. 141 . sated as it is."* . Nor is the poor man's fare yet wholly banished from the feasts of kings. ' i^. should someone decree that roasted gulls are delicacies. II. and safe was the nest of the stork. so Ofellus for it ^\^ll be idle for you you turn aside into another Avidienus. as to his oil. style of living will differ. 43-67 since cloying plenty worries the jaded stomach. quick to learn ill ways. eats his olives five years old with cornels from the wood." Was the sea less a home for turbots in those days The turbot was safe. and in his mode of living will be unhappy in neither direction. as the saying is. till a praetor's sanction taught you the lesson So now. you couldn't bear its smell. on the other a dog. be cruel to his slaves. What style then will the wise man adopt. turbot. yet even if in his whitened garb " he keeps a wedding or birthday feast or some other holiday.'' ^ A mean crooked path. if " Dog " quite rightly clings. prefers radishes and tart pickles the while. to whom the nickname thinks.

* vitiaret VaEM. memor illius escae. * Horace is usin}? the language of high philosophy. simul conchylia turdis. nee sic convivis praebebit aquam ut simplex Naevius unctam vitium hoc quoque mag: num. alter. "ex universa mente delibatos animos. 342) had become proverbial. Phormio. 21. quae simplex olim tibi sederit at simul assis : miscueris elixa. The animus is a part of the universal divine spirit imprisoned in the body. credo. sive diem festum rediens advexerit annus. victus tenuis quae quantaque secum imprimis valeas bene. 69 Accipe nunc. nam variae res adferat. seu dura valetudo incident seu tarda senectus ? Rancidum api'um antiqui laudabant. who. It means a dinner so varied that you don't know what to take. in Phaedo 83 d.HORACE saevus erit . 78. ut noceant homini credas. " The phrase cena dubia (used by Terence. vegetus praescripta ad munia surgit." In adfigit humo Horace echoes Plato. says that every pleasure and 142 . vides ut pallidus omnis cena desurgat dubia ? quin corpus onustum hesternis vitiis animum quoque praegravat una atque adfigit humo divinae particulam aurae. ubique accedent anni. sed. Cicero. non quia nasus illis nullus erat. cf.^ tractari mollius aetas 85 tibi quidnam accedet ad istam imbecilla volet quani puer et validus praesumis mollitiem. quod hospes 91 tardius adveniens vitiatum^ commodius quam : 1 anni et Bentley. De senectute. ubi dicto citius curata sopori 80 membra dedit. seu recreare volet tenuatum corpus. dulcia se in bilem vertent stomachoque tumultum 76 lenta feret pituita. hie tamen ad melius poterit transcurrere quondam. hac mente.

the body drags down with itself the mind as well. For how harmful to a man a variety of dishes is. But as soon as you mix boiled and roast. I suppose. * The proverbial expression dicto citius. the frailty of age looks for more indulgent treatment. good health.SATIRES. and when. and fastens to earth a fragment of the di\'ine spirit. the sweet wll turn to bile. 11. or enfeebling age. as time advances. their tasks. 68-91 greasy water to his guests: blunder." The phrase curare membra or curare corpus is often used of taking refreshment." is hke the English " before you can say Jack Robinson. 143 . which nails (t/xxtt/XoI) the soul to the body. you thus forestall ? ^ Our fathers used to praise a boar when high not that they had no noses. like careless Naevins. whether the revohing year brings some holiday. First of all. will he offer this too is a great ™ Now learn what and how great are the blessings that simple hving brings in its train. But as for you. when after refreshment he has surrendered his limbs to sleep sooner than you can speak. what will you bring to add to that indulgence wliich. while young and hale. nor. II. "quicker than a word. clogged with yesterday's excess. Yet at times he will be able to pass over to better cheer. you may realize. or he wants to renew a shrunken frame.* rises up in vigour for his appointed tasks.' The other. sheU-fish and thrushes. and the thick phlegm will cause intestine feud. if ill-health come. if you recall that plain fare which agreed with you in other days. Do you see how pale rises each guest from his " puzzle feast " * ? Nay more. but with this thought. that a guest arriving behind time could more conveniently eat it when tainted than the every pain is a sort of nail.

iui-gatur verbis uterne o magnus posthac inimicis risus ad casus dubios fidet sibi certius ? hie qui pluribus adsuerit mentem corpusque superbum. found in Plautus. or desire to have something in store should a guest arrive. Horace says that their ancestors kept the boar till it was " high." i. e. II. te divite ? quare templa ruunt antiqua deum ? cur. 144 . as. vicinos.HORACE integrum edax dominus consumeret. quae carmine gratior aurem occupet^ humanam grandes rliombi patinaeque 95 grande ferunt una cum damno dedecus adde iratum patruum. II.e. videas metato* in agello cum pecore et gnatis fortem mercede colonum. cum derit egenti ! : . Pseud." quod superat non est melius quo insumere possis ? cur eget indignus quisquam. <• '' In Latin literature the uncle is the regular type of the stern " and severe This relative. doubtless conies from Attic comedy. 110 an qui contentus parvo metuensque futuri in pace. jest. * ^ puer X Goth. : * rectae V. hos utinam inter heroas natum tellus me prima tulisset Das aliquid famae. * The word means "measured off. : " iure. 88. carae 105 non aliquid patriae tanto emetiris acervo ? uni nimirum recte^ tibi semper erunt res. " Trausius istis ego vectigalia magna 100 ergo divitiasque habeo tribus amplas regibus." a practice which he attributes to their hospitality. te tibi iniquum et frustra mortis cupidum.g. ut sapiens." inquit. for confiscation. aptarit idonea bello ? Quo magis hiscredaSjpuer"* huncego parvus Ofellum integris opibus novi non latius usum quam nunc accisis. laquei pretium. puerum. 115 ! ^ occupat. metatum. improbe. /.

lost his own property. 92-115 greedy master. is there no better object on which you can spend your surplus ? Why is any worthy man in want. which. or he who. content \Wth httle and fearful of the future. while still fresh. I will tell you how. but I have large revenues. charms the human ear. will have more self-confidence he who has accustomed a pampered mind and body to superfluities.** with his cattle and his sons. L 145 . will always find things go well. provided for the needs of war ? ^^2 That you may give more credit to such words. like Virgil. when I was a little boy. this Ofellus. do you not measure out sometliing from that great heap for your dear country ? You alone. II.'' the angry neighbours. of course. has in peace. shameless man. Add the angry uncle. in face of changes and chances. when in your need you lack a penny to buy a halter ^\ith.'' " 'Tis all right. Big turbots and dishes bring a big scandal and loss. when they are cut down. 133). while you are rich ? Why are the ancient temples of the gods in ruin ? Why.SATIRES. " for Trausius to be scolded in such language. a ! You — It Ofellus was assigned to the veteran Umbrenus (ii. now assigned to others. as I well know. sweeter than song. n.c. your vain longing for death. your hatred of self." Well. what a laughing-stock you will be some day for your enemies Which of the two. used his full means on no larger scale than he does now. Oh. like a wise man. You may see him on his little farm. in -tl b. Oh." he answers. that the early world had given me birth among heroes such as those ^* <» ! set some store by good repute. and riches ample for three kings. Probably was dispossessed of his farm when Horace.

. 125 explicuit vino contractae seria frontis. magistro Housman. any shirking would be punished by a ' forfeit. postremum expellet certe vivacior heres. erit nulli proprius. . fortiaque adversis opponite pectora rebus. sed cedet in usum 135 nunc mihi. : cupa Bentley. where a magister bibendi prescribed the rules. ac venerata Ceres. sed pullo atque haedo turn^ pensilis uva secundas et nux ornabat mensas cum duplice ficu. is Usus probably put for usus/ructus.f Porph. 75.HORACE " non ego. ita culmo surgeret alto. / turn." * : tunc. " temere edi luce profesta quiequam praeter holus fumosae cum pede pemae. * From here D is wanting up to ii. nuper dictus. post hoc ludus erat culpa^ potare magistra.^ Ofelli nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine." narrantem. who also suggeated nulla captu . * : * instituistis D^cpXl. II: Peerlkamp conjectured quando. ^ quantum DM. which was the right 146 . ac mihi seu longum post tempus venerat hospes. nituistis. * aliis X. . vicinus. o pueri.® quocirca vivite fortes. " Instead of the formalities of a banquet. saeviat atque novos moveat Fortuna tumultus quantum' hinc imminuet ? quanto aut ego parcius aut vos. sive operum vacuo gratus conviva per imbrem 120 bene erat non piscibus urbe petitis. culpa MSS. //. 3. : : . nunc alii. Priscian.'* ut hue novus incola venit ? nam propriae telluris erum natura neque ilium 130 nee me nee quemquam statuit nos expulit ille ilium aut nequities aut vafri inscitia iuris.

to all on lease. He drove us out." vitaque mancipio nulli datur. \sithout good reason. 116-136 sturdy tenant-farmer. and tliis is his stor}'. or by ignorance of the quirks of the law. 147 . and with brave hearts confront the strokes of — — — ! — . to no one will it belong for good. omnibus usu. how much -v^ill she take off from this ? How much less sleek have I been.* Live. by and by raisins and nuts and split figs set off otir dessert. since this new landlord came ? Nature. To-day the land bears the name of Umbrenus of late it had that of Ofellus . For the thought cf. my lads. The was called dominium. then. and if after long absence a friend came to see me. when I could not work. anything more than greens and the shank of a smoked ham.SATIRES. but with a pullet or a kid. but for use it will pass. or you. or in the last resort by an heir of longer life. Let Fortune storm and stir fresh turmoils . or if in rainy weather. the famous verse in Lucretius (iii. II. not \^-ith fish sent for from town." of using latter and enjoying property. to whom we made our prayer " so might she rise on lofty stalk " smoothed out with >\ine the worries of a >vrinkled brow. but not of owning it. a neighbour paid me a \isit a welcome guest we fared well. makes neither him nor me nor anyone else lord of the soil as his ovm.: " I was not the man to eat on a working day. 11. with a forfeit to rule the feast. as brave men. now to me and now to another. in truth. 971). " Life is granted to none in feesimple." and Ceres. and he will be driven out by villainy. fate. Then we had a game of drinking.


iroii paradox his everyone save the wise Horace makes text and assails the folhes of the Stoics. discourse of Stertinius upon the text. The avaricious are the largest class of madmen. are mad " (1-81). all of which are phases of madness. was converted by him to philosophy. The Satire takes the form of a dialogue between the poet and Damasippus. who. world. self-indulgence (225-280). dealing with avarice (82-157). " all men. to be the greatest possible and suppose that wealth can confer every blessing (91-97).. 149 . Avarice. and superstition (281-295). had been rescued by the Stoic sage Stertinius. a</>/>wv fiaire-ai. and so made into the He reports a long M-ise man he has now become. having fallen into the depths of despair. They beheve poverty disgrace. The sermon of Stertinius may be divided into four parts. to which he has retired to avoid the excitement of the Saturnaha in Rome. is a bankrupt speculator and dealer in works of art. save only the wise. ambition (158223). Damasippus. of whom we hear in Cicero's Epistles. as well as its opposite. Horace is at his newly acquired Sabine THE FOLLIES OF MANKIND According to the man this is mad .

who swallows the precious pearl of his mistress which he has dissolved in vinegar (239-241) by the sons of Arrius." DAMASIPPUS. 150 . you have a bad temper. Well.HORACE prodigality. HORACE. (243-246) who are often as crazy as would be a grown-up man if he indulged in the sports of children (247-254). You write verses. was just as mad as Ajax. who breakfast on costly nightingales and especially by the follies of lovers. slaying his daughter for the sake of power and position. are illustrated by the story of the two sons of Servius Oppidius (168-178). like the frog in the fable. Agamemnon. " is my madness ? I think I am sane. Better for them to follow the example of Polemon. The madness of self-indulgence is illustrated by the spendthrift Nomentanus. as Damasippus brings tliis long sermon of Stertinius to a close. So Agave thought. and by the mother whose sick son recovers only to be killed through her foolish vow (281-295). when she was carrying in her hands the head of her unfortunate . The madness of superstition is illustrated by the old freedman who prayed for immortality. " And what. . son. who slew sheep under the delusion that they were his enemies (193-213). The love passion may even lead to bloodshed. as we saw the other day when Marius murdered his mistress and took his own hfe (275-280). what is my madness ? DAM. . You are aping the great." asks Horace. who wastes the fortune he has inherited (224-238) by the son of Aesopus. The ambitious are mad. who listened to the voice of reason and cast away the tokens of his malady (254-257).

SATIRES. where he turns the laugh against himself. Tliis is not only the longest.C. because in 1. but also the best constructed of Horace's Satires. m. you are always in love. Note that while the ^Titer's main aim throughout is to portray striking forms of human folly. a second one is to ridicule the airs and manners of the Stoic preachers of the day. humorous vein in both beginning and end. held in that year and distinguished by magnificence of display. falling beyond your means. The Satire was probably written in 33 B. 185 there is a reference to the curule aedileship of Agrippa. Notwithstanding the long discourse which makes up the main body of the poem. HOR.. you live II. spare the lesser (296-326). and allows the poet to employ a light. You greater madman. the dialogue-form serves as a framework for the whole. 151 .

deaeque sic ^ ' scribis : M: ah. after the poet had written and corrected his notes " on the tablets. nil est die aliquid dignum promissis eulpantur frustra ealami. immeritusque laborat iratis natus paries dis atque poetis. miser. * at V. quorsum pertinuit stipare Platona Menandro. Archilochum. sobrius ergo* ineipe. scribes aE. Parchment would be needed for the final form of his words. ipsis quod vini somnique benignus dignum sermone canas quid fiet ? at^ . Damasippe. vitanda est improba Siren desidia.^ membranam iratus tibi. Bentley punctuated after sohrms. " Sic* raro scribis. : Dentley read si scribes." ^ di te. II si E. eomites educere tantos ? invidiam placare paras virtute relicta ? contemnere. * Thougli Orelli supposed that Plato the philosopher is here meant. si vaeuum tepido eepisset villula teeto. : Saturnalibus hue fugisti. leader of the so-called Middle Attic Comedy. I. Eupolin. 152 . it seems certain that Horace is speaking of Plato the poet. * Horace is probably thinking of Penelope's web. atqui voltus erat multa et praeclara minantis. " The wall suffers because the poet pounds it in his vain efforts at composition. nil ut toto non quater anno poscas.III. aut quidquid vita meliore parasti 5 10 15 ponendum aequo animo. scriptorum quaeque retexens.

or be content to drop whatever honour you have gained in nobler . HORACE. poor wretch. as well as the great iambic poet. begotten when gods and poets were angry. if once you were care-free and your country cottage welcomed you under its warm roof. Nothing tiling worthy of your promises. even in the SaturnaUa you fled here for refuge. such weighty comrades ? Think you to lay Envy low by deserting Virtue ? You will earn contempt.'^ while you unweave the web of all you have written. Middle. must suffer. in your sober mood. Thus he would take with him to the country representatives of Old (Eupolis). and of taking out of town Eupolis and Archilochus. You must shun the ^^^cked Siren.*" and are angry ^^•ith yourself because. In vain you blame the pen and the innocent wall. Well then. Sloth." Yet you had the look of one who tlireatened great and glorious things.Satire III DAMASiPPUS. So seldom do you write. What will be the end ? \Miy. you turn out no poetry worth talking about. 153 . that not four times in all the year do you call for the parchment. tell someBegin. Archilochus. What was the use of packing Plato with Menander. May the gods and goddesses give you. and New (Menander) Comedy. you say. while so generous of wine and of sleep. <* hours. comes.

emovit veterem mire novus." dum ne quid simile huic. " See * Being a philosopher. 1. me 35 Porph." novi. Forum. i. aliena olim nam negotia euro. ' verum. ut lethargicus hie cum fit pugil et medicum urget. " atqui et miror morbi purgatum te illius. banking business of Rome. The temple of Janus stood on the north side of the at street. II. quid sculptum infabre. in cor fcraiecto lateris miseri capitisve^ dolore. : faber. * He was a connoisseur in antiques and objets d'art. quaerere amabam. frustrere. tempore quo solatus iussit sapientem pascere barbam atque a Fabricio non tristem ponte reverti. 7. ut solet. -ve] -que a. centre of the the entrance to the street called Argiletum. 20 quo vafer^ pedes lavisset Sisyphus aere. .54). insanis et tu stultique si 30 " o bone. Damasippus grows a long beard. ne te prope omnes. //. unde ego mira descripsi docilis praecepta haec. sed unde tam bene me nosti ? " Postquam omnis res mea lanum ad medium fracta excussus propriis. is here called " Janus " after the temple. 35 below.HORACE verum ob consilium donent tonsore. ponebam milia centum domos mercarier unus 23 cum lucro norani unde frequentia Mercuriale imposuere mihi cognomen compita. and was probably lined with a colonnade or arcade. est. II. esto ut libet. This 154 . Horace elsewhere uses the expression lanus summus ab irno {Epist. 1. quid Stertinius veri^ crepat. • ^ vafer. quid fusum durius esset ille callidus huic signo hortos egregiasque .

For after my it as DAM. still stands. in. DAM. I know it. Fabricius. The inscription on it says that it was built by L. 17-36 ! Damasippus. curator viarum. don't deceive yourself. what is surprising is that a new disorder drove out the old. I valued this or that statue at a hundred thousand. and am surprised to find you own. my cured of that disorder."<* HOR. II. between the island in the Tiber. are all fools. As long as you do nothing of that sort. HOR. and the old Campus Martius. My good sir. I have looked after other '' people's business. * • 155 . for your sound advice — a barber " But how come you to know me so well ? DAM. or when the lethargic patient here turns boxer and pimimels the doctor. Mercury was the god of gain . cf. to look out for the bronze in . be you please. 1. I may say. As an expert. if there is any truth in the preaching of Stertinius.* no longer sad. 68. Nay.SATIRES. and so. and go home from the Fabrician bridge. are mad. you. Ever since the ^^Teck of all my fortunes at the Central Arcade. too. the very day that he consoled me. and to see what work of art was crude in the carving. and bade me grow a wise man's beard. I was the one man that knew hoAV to buy them at a bargain hence the crowded streets gave me the nickname of " Mercury's pet. As to gardens and fine houses. as is the way when the pain of aching side or head passes into the stomach. This bridge. after being flung overboard from There was a time when my hobby ' was which shrewd old Sisyphus had washed his feet. from whom I took down these wondrous lessons that I learned. what was too rough in the casting.

ut ignis.^ : pudor. Nunc accipe. qui te deridet.HORACE nam male me capite te re gesta cum vellem mittere operto in flumen. stultitiae caudam trahat. haec magnos formula reges. : * * si erit] siet. excepto sapiente.hic dextrorsum abit. II. ille sinistrorsum. sed variis illudit partibus hoc te crede modo insanum. a not legible. 1. 38. ' . te malus 40 si insanos qui inter vereare insanus haberi.' inquit. amica mater joined by Porph. tenet. primum nam inquiram. trahit. nil verbi. clamet amica mater. uxor : " " hie fossa est ingens. quid sit furere hoc : erit^ in te pereas quin fortiter. pater. velut silvis. unus utrique^ 50 error. to 295. urget. ubi passim palantis error certo de tramite pellit. ut rupes fluviosque in campo obstare queratur : 56 alterum et huic varum et nihilo sapientius ignis per medios fluviosque mentis. ' Quem autumat. hie rupes maxima serva : ! * ' * angit 4 Bland. ' 1.^ honesta soror cum cognatis. insanum Chrysippi porticus et grex 44 solo. The discourse of Stertinius extends from here. nihilo ut sapientior ille. Titrisque EM. 156 . Some editors separate them. mala stultitia et quemcumque inscitia veri caecum agit. dexter stetit et ' Cave * faxis quicquam indignum angit. quare desipiant omnes aeque ac tu. //. qui tibi nomen insano posuere. haec populos. addam.* ' Est genus unum nihilum metuenda timentis.

This definition takes in whole nations. diverging from this. " Every man whom perverse folly. where Zeno and his successors taught. What is madness ? If this is found in you alone. no whit the wiser man. Just as in a forest. father. that rocks and rivers stop their course over an open plain." ^ " One class of fools fear where there is nothing at all to fear. would rush through the midst of fire and flood. crying out that fires. cry out Here's a broad ditch. but are led astray in different ways so believe yourself to be insane only so far that he who laughs at you drags a tail behind him. this takes in mighty : '' kings. III. are quite as crazy as yourself. and this one goes off to the left and that one to the right both are under the same error. For first of all I will ask. 37-59 business failed. the Porch of Chrysippus and his flock pronounce insane. he stood at my right hand and said " " Beware of doing anytliing unworthy of yourself. but no whit more wisely. a noble sister. wife and kindred. Another class. *^ " save only the sage. Though a fond mother. for among madmen you fear to be thought mad. 157 . Tis a false shame that tortures you. " A reference to the trick played by children of tying a tail to people without their knowing it. here's a huge rock. I will not add another word to save you from dying bravely.SATIRES. learn why all. who have given you the name of madman. II. all Now : : ' : * Tfie term Stoic is derived from the <rrod ( = porticus) in Athens. and I wanted to cover up my head and fling myself into the river. where some error drives men to wander to and fro from the proper path. whom ignorance of the truth drives on in blindness.

they prove to be worthless in the end. who is shown to be more foolish than the borrower. in iura a. II. but when the ghost of her murdered son (a part taken by Catienus) called upon her. 65 " accipe quod numquam reddas mihi. reiecta praeda. Anerio knoicn * hie E. cum volet. adde Cicutae nodosi tabulas centum. joined in the appeal. Many 158 . Catienis mille ducentis " mater. modo avis. he was so sound asleep that he did not hear. contra bene sani." si tibi dicam. taking up the actor's words. Audire atque togam iubeo componere. arbor. like Cicuta and Perellius. huic ego volgus^ errori similem cunctum insanire docebo. to scholiasts. a money-lender. aper. though the audience. " These words are addressed to the creditor. 60 Ilionam edormit. for whatever notes or bonds are involved in the transaction. Perelli dictantis. quisquis ambitione mala aut argenti pallet amore. "With decem understand tabulas. tune insanus eris si acceperis quam : : cum fiet si rapies in ius* malis ridentem alienis. Nerius being. male rem gerere insani est. modo saxum et. ' cum Insanit veteres statuas Damasippus emendo : integer est mentis Damasippi creditor ? esto. They are all supposed to be uncommonly shrewd. quod tu numquam rescribere possis. te appello " clamantibus. ? an magis excors praesens Mercurius fert ? scribe decem a Nerio^ non est satis .HORACE non magis audierit quam ! Fufius ebrius olim. mihi crede. Fufius played the part of the sleeping heroine in the Ilione of Pacuvius. mille adde catenas 70 efFugiet tamen haec^ sceleratus vincula Proteus. 75 putidius multo cerebrum est. ' quisquis luxuria tristive superstitione ^ vulgum a • " : vultum * <p\l/.

60-79 drunken they would no more give ear than once did he over-slept the part of Ilione. if he likes. unnatural laughter.' will you be a madman if you take it ? Or will you be more senseless if you spurn the booty which propitious Mercury offers ? Write out ten bonds drawn up by Nerius." as ' ' ! the world. however. look out ! ' II. ! . ^ " Now give heed. while twelve hundred Catieni shouted. Stertinius now assumes that he is addressing a class. he ^vill laugh at your expense " he will ' ! ' " . " laugh with alien jaws. then much more addled. such as Stoic teachers frequently delivered.' * That's not enough add a hundred of the cunning Cicuta add a thousand fetters yet your scoundrelly Proteus When you drag him will shp out from all these ties. Mother. which. XX. whoever is feverish with extravagance or prefer to supply sestertia with decern. to court. Take this sum which you need never return to me. referred to forced. a tree. is he sound of mind ? Be it so But if I sav to you. as *^* I shall prove.SATIRES. ** 159 . believe me. who dictates the bond. on thee I call Like such folly is the madness of all Fufius. HI." is an echo of Homer's yvadfioiai yeXoiiiji' dWoTpioicriv (Od. be a banker creditor.'* and whoever of you is pale with sordid ambition or avarice. I bid you. arrange your robes. turn into a boar. which you can never pay. then into a bird. Damasippus is mad in buying old statues the creditor of Damasippus. and therefore bids his hearers prepare for a formal discourse. but of a sane man to manage well. or. then into a stone. If it be the mark of a madman to manage an estate badly. . 347). who pays out money on an order from taking Nerius to the " Horace's phrase malls ridentem alienis. is the brain of a Perellius.

veluti virtute paratum. divina humanaque pulchris quas qui construxerit. adite. Sat. nescio an Anticyram ratio illis destinet omnem. "sapiensne^?" etiam. cf. specific for insanity . frumenti quantum metit Africa. decus. ut. 3 Bland. fama.iustus. ne sis patruus mihi " credo. qui servos proicere aurum Libya.HORACE aut alio mentis morbo calet hue propius me. //. not to criticize him for what may seem to them an idiotic will. ii. Q. 2. * velut in. II. * adopted by Palmer.'* hoc. " This unusual number would be exhibited at the funeral feast. fortis. " sive ego prave seu recte hoc volui. speravit magnae laudi fore. Danda est ellebori multo pars maxima avaris : 80 ' . cum summam patrimoni insculpere saxo 90 heredes voluit ? " quoad vixit. /. 85 gladiatorum dare centum damnati populo paria atque epulum arbitrio Arri. « Staberius means that his heirs are Cf. credidit ingens pauperiem vitium et cavit nihil acrius. . si forte minus locuples uno quadrante perisset. hoc Staberi prudentem animum vidisse. " quid ergo ni sic fecissent. : sensit.etrex et quidquid volet.^ omnis enim res. 300. 97. heredes Staberi summam incidere sepulcro.^ ille divitiis parent claruserit. ' Quid simile isti Graecus Aristippus. -ne] -que DEM. For Anticyra see Index. ipse videretur sibi nequior 95 virtus. quia tardius irent propter onus segnes ? uter est insanior in iussit ^ 100 ? media horum periret. Arrius entertained many thousands of people at the extravagant funeral feast which he gave in honour " The ancient of his father. dum doceo insanire omnis vos ordine. Ars Poetica. » contraxerit. 160 .

gloomy 11. 3. while I prove that you are mad.. and shunned nothing more earnestly.' he vvTote.' this. would bring him. said he. as Keightley. and he who has made his ' pile ' will be famous. who in mid Libya bade his slaves throw away his gold. Wickham and Lejay hold. The heirs of Staberius had to engrave upon his tomb the sum of his estate : should they fail to do so. ^ What is the Ukeness between such a man and the Greek Aristippus. That. willed tliat his heirs should carve on stone the sum of All his life long he thought poverty a his estate ? monstrous e\il. Sat. M l6l . I take it. Hither. honour. i.SATIRES. 89 refers to this censorious attitude. or some other mental disorder. would assign to them all Anticyra. because.** His riches. and as much corn as Africa reaps. a king and anytliing else he pleases. they journeyed too slowly ? Which of the two is the madder ? Useless is an instance which ' ' Hoc in 1. they were bound to provide for the people a hundred pairs of gladiators with such a feast as Arrius would direct. he hoped. things divine and human are slaves to the beauty of wealth. III. 80-102 superstition. And Mise too ? Yes. not to the substance of II. is what Staberius inhisvvisdom foresaw. all of you from first to last. if haply he had died less rich by a single penny. and brave and just. 82 " To tiie covetous must we give far the largest : " wisdom. * Cf. ' what was his intent when he Well. wise. I rather think. great renown. come nearer to me. 124 and note. so far would he have thought himself the worse man. For all things worth. 94 f. Whether I am right or -wTong in wilhng don't play the uncle * with me. so that.' you ask. as dose of hellebore j** ' ' * ' — ' — ' though won by worth. repute. freighted vWth the burden.

neque illinc audeat esuriens dominus contingere granum. eo quod 120 maxima pars hominum morbo iactatur eodem. aufers undique ? tun^ sanus nil agit si — — . 105 si scalpra et formas non sutor. surripis.* quos aere pararis. si quidvis satis est. si positis intus Chii veterisque Falerni 115 nihil est. nee studio citharae nee Musae deditus ulli. ! ' Populum si caedere saxis * incipias servosve tuos. tuo Goth. nautica vela aversus mercaturis. nescius uti compositis metuensque velut contingere sacrum ? 110 ' Si quis ad ingentem frumenti semper acervum porrectus^ vigilet cum longo fuste. Od. custodis ? quantulum enim summae curtabit quisque dierum. ac potius foliis parcus vescatur* amaris . emptas comportet in unum. 122 cf. * * iste. II.* qui nummos aurumque recondit. M. * * ' tunc « D : vexatur aE pascatur tu insanus M.HORACE exemplum. putrescat in area . For 1. cui stragula vestis. quis emat citharas. ne tibi desit ? dis inimice senex. 14. undepotet acetum octoginta annos natus. 162 . //. : proiectus. si et stramentis incubet. litem quod lite resolvit. delirus et amens undique dicatur merito. nimirum insanus paucis videatur. unguere si caulis oleo meliore caputque 125 coeperis impexa foedum porrigine ? quare. periuras. ii. tercentum milibus mille cadis acre age. qui^ discrepat istis. etc. blattarum ac tinearum epulae. * quid DE. 25 absumet heres Caecuba dignior servata centum clavibus. filius aut etiam haec libertus ut ebibat heres.

all. to touch one grain thereof. as well as your head. do you perjure. with a thousand that's nothing. how tiny a smn will each day dock off. because the mass of men toss about in the same kind of fever. yet never dare. you god-forsaken dotard. when but a year short of eighty. How differs from these the man who hoards up silver and gold. or at your own slaves. keeping ceaseless watch with a big cudgel. are guarding it ? " Is it that you fear want ? Why. though rich coverlets. steal. — . III. ! 163 . he should lie on bed of straw. hungry though he be and the harps. though feeling no interest in the harp or any Muse if. few. doubtless. plunder on every side ? You sane 128 " If you were to take to pelting stones at the crowd. would think him mad. he were to drink sharp \inegar nay if. if anything is enough for you. for whom you've paid o^vner of it — . but rather feed like a miser on bitter herbs if. 103-129 by puzzle. and fears to touch it as though hallowed ? ^^ " If beside a huge corn-heap a man were to lie outstretched. solves puzzle II. say three hundred thousand K)f jars Chian and old Falernian stored in his cellars.SATIRES. Is it that a son or even a freedman heir may drink it up that you. though no cobbler. lay mouldering in his chest . though set against a ti-ader's hfe everyone would call him crazy and mad. — . and rightly too. if you begin with better oil to dress your salad. prey of moths and worms. If a man were to buy and soon as bought were to pile them together. he did the same with shoeknives and lasts with ships' sails. though he knows not how to use his store. foul with uncombed scurf ? WTiy.

an tu reris eum occisa insanisse parente. tantum maledicit utrique vocando 140 hanc Furiam. ac non ante malis dementem actum Furiis quam 135 in matris iugulo ferrum tepefecit acutum ? quin ex quo est habitus male tutae mentis Orestes nil sane fecit. solitus trulla vappamque profestis. avidus iam haec auferet heres. but. ut heres 145 loculos et clavis laetus lam circum ovansque celer atque fidelis hunc medicus multum : mensam poni iubet atque excitat hoc pacto effundi saccos nummorum. accedere pluris ad numerandum. incolumi capite es ? quid enim ? neque tu hoc facis insanum te : cum laqueo uxorem Argis. Such an incident as this matricide might savour of high tragedy. ^ Opimius Porph. hoc age." " men vivo ? " " ut vivas igitur. « deficiant E. * accedat DX. vigila. : ' qui Veientanum festis potare diebus Campana quondam curreret.HORACE omnes pueri clamentque puellae 130 interemis matremque veneno. lethargo grandi est oppressus. ni cibus atque ingens accedit* stomacho fultura ruenti. nee ferro ut demens genetricem oecidis Orestes. iussit quod splendida bilis. 164 . quod tu reprehendere possis non Pyladen ferro violare aususve sororem Electran. these differences killing were different. opimus. hunc aliud. in the tragedy of Orestes both the place and the manner of As a matter of fact. 2 quod B. addit illud : et 150 " ni tua custodis. are quite unessential. of course. II." " quid^ vis ? " " deficient^ inopem venae te. hominem sic erigit. //. : " The argument is ironical. Pauper Opimius^ ai-genti positi intus et auri.

from ladle of Campanian ware. are you sound in head ? Why not ? You're not doing this at Argos. and adds. madness Cf. He has a table brought in and bags of coin poured out. a man of very quick vrit and a loyal friend. would on holidays. Black « which the ancients supposed to be a cause of Mf^a7xo^"i)» has a glittering appearance. II. revives him by this de\ice. 118). to medical language. and him by some other name which his gleaming choler prompted. as mad Orestes did.* "* " Opimius. He did not dare to attack with the sword Pylades or his sister Electra. a poor man for all his gold and silver hoarded up within. and on working days soured wine. all alike. He merely threw ill words at both. and bids many draw near to count it.' WTiat. Now once he fell into a lethargy so deep that already his heir was running in joy and triumph round about his keys and coffers. Come now What would you have me do ? You are weak. if you mean to live. lads and lasses strangle your -wife and poison your mother. But his physician. 130-154 would hoot at you as mad. in cash. L 6. supellex {Sat. from the moment that Orestes was held to be of unsafe mind. Unless you guard your wealth. calling her a Fmy. wake up. your greedy heir will be off >\ith it forthwith. Do When you ' ' ' ' ' ' ' * ! * The expression here used belongs bile. unless food and strong support be given yoiu" sinking stomach.SATIRES. he did nothing whatever that you can condemn. Campana 165 . Thus he brings the man to. while I'm alive ? Well." drink wine of Veii. and was not spurned to frenzy by the wicked Furies before he warmed his sharp steel in his mother's throat ? Nay. III. nor killing a mother with a sword. {cf." Or do you suppose he went mad after killing his parent. and your veins ^^^ll fail you.

quid enim difFert. /. tu ne maius facias id quod satis esse putat pater et natura coercet. quod latus aut renes morbo temptentur^ acuto. non est periurus neque sordidus immolet aequis hie porcum Laribus verum ambitiosus et audax 165 naviget Anticyram. cavis abscondere tristem. 83. 160 non est cardiacus (Craterum dixisse putato) hie aeger recte est igitur surgetque ? negabit. barathrone dones quidquid habes an numquam utare paratis ? Servius Oppidius Canusi duo praedia. 2 insania. ne vos titillet gloria. numerare." 155 " " quanti emptae^ ? " " parvo. tu ne sequerere Cicutam." " eheu furtis ! quid refert. 175 tu Nomentanum. si quis non sit avarus. 82. donare et ludere vidi. gnatis divisse duobus 170 fertur et hoc^ moriens pueris dixisse vocatis ad lectum " postquam te talos. above. Stoice?" dicam. iure 180 iurando obstringam ambo uter aedilis fueritve : : ? : : ' : : * empti. continue sanus " minime. extimui ne vos ageret vesania* discors. dives antiquo censu. adopted by Orelli and Palmer. 166 . • Of. temptantur Priscian. tu cave ne minuas. 11. te. nucesque ferre sinu laxo. sumehoctisanariumoryzae. * II. stultus et insanus. " quid avarus ? " " quid. "cur. ^ haec. quare per divos oratus uterque Penatis." " quanti ergo ? " octussibus. Tiberi. morbo an pereamque " rapinis " ? Quisnam igitur sanus ? qui non stultus. Aule.HORACE tucessas? agedum. praeterea.

: 167 ." For what is the difference.' matters it. for his lungs or his kidneys are afflicted -vdth acute disease. and what : — — nature sets as a limit. that ambition may not tickle your fancy.' what Alack much.' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ! ' ' ' * ' * ' ' ' will tell you. is no dyspeptic' get up ? No. and you after Cicuta. as incomes once were. WTiat of the covetous ? He is fool and madman. I say ? Eight pence. divided his two farms at Canusium between his tAvo sons. and on his death' ' ' suppose Craterus to He is well then and bed called them to liim and said Ever since I saw you. giving and gambling them away and you. II. take this drop of riceHow What's the cost ? Oh. * ' Tliis patient. gruel.' have may said.SATIRES.' he will say. is sane ? He who is no fool. might follow after Nomentanus. if a man is not covetous. Let him take ship for Anticyra. by our household gods. my son. good Stoic ? By no means. anxiously counting them and hiding them in holes. 111. I have greatly feared that madness of different kinds might plague you that you. whether I die by sickness. 155-180 you hold back ? Come now. a trifle. the other not to increase. a rich man. I therefore adjure you both. I shall bind you both by an oath whichever of you becomes aedile or praetor. carrying your taws and nuts in a loose toga. the one not to reduce. Aulus. what your father thinks enough. or by theft and robbery ? 158 " Who. whether you throw all you have into a pit. is he then and there I sane ? ^^^ly.' Here's one who is no perjurer or miser. Well. Let him slay a hog to the kind Lares. Tiberius. or never make use of your sa\ings ? 168 " There's a story that Ser\ius Oppidius. But he is ambitious and headstrong. then. Further.

* quaere V. Bentley.HORACE vestrum praetor. per et 195 quem tot iuvenes patrio caruere sepulcro " ? " Mille ovium insanus morti dedit." " Tu cum pro vitula statuis dulcem Aulide gnatam ante aras spargisque mola caput. at^ si cui videor non iustus." " Cur Aiax. salsa. feras tu. 185 astuta ingenuum volpes imitata leonem. nudus nummis. Kiessling. * : : These would be given to the people by way of largess by aediles and praetors. * dcducere. Wickham. Such an expense might be serious enough for people of small fortunes. ' cursum Bothe quorsum mss. Porph. quorum Goth. * The dialogue which begins here and continues to 1. 190 dent capta classem^ reducere^ Troia. totiens servatis clarus Achivis ? gaudeat ut populus Priami Priamusque inhumato. quae D. inulto dicere quod* sentit permitto. in cicere atque faba bona tu pcrdasque lupinis. insane. inclitum Ulixen Menelaum una mecum se occidere damans. Atrida. quos fert Agrippa. vetas ' cur " ? "Rex sum. heros ab Achille secundus. " ergo consulere et mox respondere licebit ? " Consule. //.." "Et aequam rem imperito . improbe." " Ne quis humasse velit Aiacem. 200 rectum animi servas cursum' ? insanus quid enini Aiax ^ at V: ac uss. * classem capta E. putescit. paternis ? scilicet ut plausus. latus ut in circo spatiere aut^ aeneus ut stes. nudus agris. ^ et." " di tibi Maxime regum. Morris. and retainfd by Orelli. 207 168 <• . is intestabilis et sacer esto." "Nil ultra quaero^ plebeius. etc.

' " And you. did you keep your mind in its sound course ? Why. and lupines. let II. ask no more.' " Mightiest of kings. And my conunand is fair.'' you forbid us to think of this ? burying Ajax. though stripped of the lands. but if anyone deems me unjust. madman. beans. crying that he was slaying famed Ulysses.' I. in." that you may play the swell and strut in the Circus. is 169 . or be set up in bronze. he rotting. that you may win the applause which Agrippa wins a cunning fox mimicking the — noble Hon ^*^ * ? " Son of Atreus. oh yes. where Menelaus forbids Teucer to bury his brother Ajax. stripped. O shameless one. and sprinkled her head with salt meal. what did the madman Ajax do.SATIRES. Would you waste your wealth on vetches. do. and myself.' does Ajax. ' a common man. through whom so many of their sons were bereft of burial in their native land ? The madman slew a thousand sheep. when at Aulis you brought your sweet child to the altar in a heifer's stead. 181-201 him be outlawed and accursed. of the money your father left : to the end. Menelaus. a hero second only to Achilles. and is suggested by the scene at the end of the Ajax of Sophocles. may the gods grant you to take Troy and bring your fleet safe home May I then ask questions and answer in turn ? ! Pray. when he slew the flock " Why between the Stoic Stertinius and Agamemnon. " " " ' Why is I am king. though so often he won glory by sa\ing the Greeks ? Is it that Priam and Priam's people may exult in that man's lacking burial. I permit him to say freely what he thinks.

luxuriam etNomentanumarripemecum si ' ^ Mss. paret aurum. ' cum et F. Like Ajax. interdicto huic omne adimat ius praetor et ad sanos abeat tutela propinquos. paret aneillas. which may be true or false. prudens placavi sanguine divos. quid ? si quis gnatam pro muta devovet agna. sed non furiosus." fecit : " Nempe tuo. ' Qui species alias veris scelerisque'- : cor ? quis lectica nitidam gestare amet agnam. atque stultitiane erret. et furiosus erit . have veri sceleris or veris celeris " ( V) : (veris sceleris Goth. nihilum distabit. litore : '' " Adverse •* 170 ." " Meo. 214 huic vestem. the shore refused to let the ships depart. qui sceleratus. ut haerentis adverse litore navis 205 eriperem. Nunc age. hie summa est insania . integer est animi ? ne dixeris. but gradually slides into a continuation of his lecture. * posillam V : immeritos D. pusillam uss. hunc circumtonuit gaudens Bellona cruentis. stas animo et purum est vitio tibi. cum tumidum est. * Like Agamemnon.HORACE cum stravit ferro pecus ? abstinuit vim uxore et gnato mala multa precatus Atridis non ille aut Teucrum aut ipsum violavit Ulixen. quem cepit vitrea fama. an ira. 208 Stertinius still addresses Agamemnon. The species ( = (j>avTa<TLas) are ideas or mental concepts. ut gnatae. ergo ubi prava 220 stultitia.). Rufam aut^ Posillam^ appellet fortique marito destinet uxorem. furiose. commotus habebitur." tumultu permixtas capiet. and become confused when some guilty impulse causes disturbance. 210 Aiax immeritos cuni^ occidit desipit agnos cum prudens scelus ob titulos admittis inanis. At 1." " Verum ego. //.

blood but no maniac I.SATIRES. who gashed their 171 .' and planned to have it wed a gallant husband the praetor by injunction would take from him all control. 202-224 with the sword ? He withheld violence from wife child. shed. with My own . but no harm did he do either to Teucer or even to Ulysses. if a man offers up his daughter. when he slays harmless lambs. come. is insane. His curses on the Atridae were copious. and the care of him would pass to his sane relations. free from fault ? Suppose one chose to carry about in a litter a pretty lamb. will also be a maniac he who is caught by the glitter of fame has about his head the thunder of Bellona. when swollen with pride.** it will not matter. arraign with me extravagance and Nomentanus for Reason will prove that spend. • were fanatics. provided it with clothes.** will be held distraught and. ** in order to free the ships that clung to shore. ' ' ' : . who delights in blood- blood.* ^^ " Now. where there is perverse folly. and. treating it as a daughter. whether he go astray from folly " or from rage. called it Goldie or Teenie. ni. Bellona's votaries bodies with knives. are vou sound of mind. as if she were a dumb lamb. and is your heart. gold. purposely appeased the gods with your own. maniac. Ajax. Well.' " Yes.' ^'^ " He who conceives ideas that are other than true. there is the height of madness. Thus. But a hostile I. The man who is criminal. and II. is he sound of mind ? Say not so. When you purposely conmnit a crime for empty glory. maids. and confused by the turmoil due to sin.

vellis. piscator uti. Cf. ' dclectat. 51. pravorum et amore gemellum. quidquid et horum cuique domi est. nequitia et nugis. ut aprum cenem ego ..HORACE vincet^ enim stultos ratio insanire nepotes. equitare in harundine longa. puerilius his ratio esse evincet amare. Sat. 240 scilicet ut deciens solidum absorberet. an carbone notati ? Aedificare casas. * sic E. //.^ aceto : diluit insignem bacam : qui sanior ac si illud idem in rapidum flumen iaceretve cloacam ? Quinti progenies Arri. 225 hie simul accepit patrimoni mille talenta. « also vocata. plostello adiungere mures. unguentarius ac Tusci turba impia vici. id crede tuum et vel nunc pete vel edicit. tibi triplex. quorsum abeant ? sani ut® creta. amentia verset. //. cum Velabro omne macellum quid tum ? venere fremane domum veniant. //. pomarius. par nobile fratrum. cum scurris fartor. * who knows : * obsorberet a sani ut] sani or sanii. /. ii. ' si quem * si^ delectet^ barbatum. tibi tantundem . tu piscis hiberno ex aequore verris.^ 235 aufer ! segnis ego. 172 . ^ 250 * tu Bentley for in of mss. verba facit leno " quidquid mihi. ludere par impar. Acron. indignus qui tantum possideam sume tibi deciens . 230 quentes. " unde uxor media currit de nocte vocata. vincit. : eras. 245 luscinias soliti impenso prandere coemptas." accipe quid contra haec iuvenis respondent aequus : " tu^ nive Lucana dermis ocreatus. * citata Porph. 2. auceps.^ ' Filius Aesopi detractam ex aure Metellae. exsorberet. //.

black with ill- A ' ' : — — — luck. What next ? They came in crowds.U. 173 . should come to him next morning.SATIRES. is at your service. 225-250 and madmen. the Tuscan Street's vile throng. riding a long stick if these things delighted a bearded man. This man. cooks and parasites.' Hear the honest youth's reply Amid Lucanian snows you sleep wellbooted. ix. fowler. or with charcoal ? " 2"*^ " Building toy-houses. harnessing mice to a wee cart. the same and you. 58.** How was he more sane than if he had flung that same thing into a running river or a sewer ? The sons of Quintus Arrius. whatever any of these man. Away with it. forsooth. steeped it in vinegar. fruitseller. III. folly. Send for it to-day or to-morrow. a famous pair of brothers. the whole market and Velabrum.' 239 a 'j'f^g gQjj Qf Aesopus took from Metella's ear a wondrous pearl. to swallow a million at a gulp. thrifts are fools II. 117. that I may have a boar for dinner. beUeve me. from whose house your wife comes running when called at midnight. twins in wickedness. lunacy would plague him. « White was associated with good fortune. pimp was spokesWhatever I have. If reason prove that being in love is ^ The same absurd story is told of Cleopatra. Into which hst are they to go ? Marked with chalk as sane. You take a milhon you. I am lazy and unworthy to possess so much. playing odd and even. have at home. thrice that srnn. used to breakfast on nightingales. soon as tiilents. You sweep the stormy seas for fish. in praetor-fashion. See Pliny. perfumer. bought up at vast cost. and perverted fancies. N. he received his patrimony of a thousand decreed. and meaning." that fishmonger.

where Phaedria debates with Parmeno. ratione modoque in amore haec sunt mala." quid ? cum Picenis excerpens semina poinis gaudes. amator exclusus qui distat. pax rursum haec si quis tempestatis prope ritu nee : modum mobilia et caeca fluitantia sorte laboret reddere certa sibi." ecce '' o ere. agit ubi secum. * 270 ? primus V. eat an non. cum me^ vocet* ultro. almost literally. * Horace here reproduces. optet. potus ut ille 255 dicitur ex collo furtim carpsisse coronas. " * Only eflPeminate men would wear these things. his slave. so that he afterwards succeeded his master as head of the Academy. cubital. 174 . * ne Goth. ludas opus. 260 quo rediturus erat non arcessitus. tractari non volt. philosophic life. si obsecret. utrumne in pulvere. an meretricis amore sollicitus plores quaero.HORACE nee quiequam differre. recusat : : " sume. si cameram percusti forte. fasciolas. penes te es quid ? cum balba feris annoso verba palato. V: cubitale ifS5. quae res 265 servus non paulo sapientior ? . faciasne quod olim mutatus Polemon ? ponas insignia morbi. nihilo plus explicet ac si insanire paret certa ratione modoque. : : habet neque consilium. whose lecture on temperance converted the young profligate to a sober. catelle " negat . invisis foribus ? ! accedam exclusit an potius mediter finire dolores ? revocat redeam ? non. whether he is to go back to Thais. postquam est impransi correptus voce magistri ? porrigis irato puero cum poma. 2 ^ cubital PorpA. bellum. vocat. si non des. This was Xenocrates. et haeret " nee nunc.^ focalia. trimus^ quale prius. a scene from the Eicnnchus (46-63) of Terence.

garters. though not invited. he supposed his love was returned. shot from between his thumb and finger." even as he. he meant to return. when she inxates me of her own accord ? Or rather. shifting about by blind chance. he would crave them. How^ differs the lover who.' Why. in. 251-274 it childish than such ways. are you master of yourself } Why. will you do as once Polemon did. stealthily plucked the chaplets from his neck after a carouse. 'tis said.** and are glad if by chance you have hit the vaulted roof. I ask you. or whine in anxiety for love of a mistress. he refuses Take them. as you did when three years old. the moment he was arrested by the voice of his fasting master ? ^ When you offer apples to a sulky child. debates with himself whether to go or not to where. pet. She calls me back. you not to offer them. he would no more set them right than if he aimed at going mad by fixed rule and method. In love inhere these evils first war. that makes no difference whether you play at building in the sand. then peace things almost as fickle as the weather. shall I think of putting an end to my affliction ? She shut me out. No. 175 . when you pick the pips from Picenian apples. when on your old palate * If a lover could hit the ceiling with an apple-seed. a thing that admits of neither method nor sense cannot be handled by rule and method.' He says. and if one were to ' : My — : try to reduce them to fixed rule for himself. and hangs about the hated doors ? * Shall I not go even now. Shall I return ? No not if she ' ' ' — implores me.' Were them. more II.SATIRES. wiser by far of the two master. when converted ? Will you lay aside the tokens of your malady.' Now hsten to the slave. when shut out. neck-wrap. elbow-cushion.

cum venderet. and pray at the shrines of the Lares of the crossways. //. the Lares Compitales. sapientum octavus. modo. quo tu indicis ieiunia. quone malo mentem concussa ? timore deorum. turn to the Pythagorean rule. nudus casus medicusve^ levarit in Tiberi stabit." aegrum ex praecipiti. Hellade percussa Marius cum praecipitat se cerritus fuit an commotae crimine mentis . " magne aD magno E.HORACE stultitiae. amico * -que. ^ vulgo. mater delira necabit in gelida fixum ripa febremque reducet. illo 290 mane^ die." (" quid tam magnum ? " addens) " unum me surpite absolves ' hominem morti. nisi litigiosus. " unum. hoc quoque volgus'^ Chrysippus ponit fecunda in gente Meneni. 221).g. 285 exciperet dominus.' 295 Haec mihi Stertinius. //. which probably means. <* 176 . qui eircum compita siccus lautis mane senex manibus cun-ebat et. ex more imponens cognata vocabula rebus ? 280 Libertinus erat. et seeleris damnabis eundem. identical (see {e. in- quam. ingentis qui das adimisque dolores. : : " Horace gives fir] his own irvp /Maxaipt} (TKaXeveiv. He would follow the ritual of fasting and ceremonial washing. etenim facile est " orabat sanus utrisque auribus atque oculis mentem. aedificante casas qui sanior ? adde cruorem 276 atque ignem gladio scrutare. crime and madness were The different names given to them 1. According to the Stoics. insania and scelus) were thus synonyms." mater ait pueri mensis iam quinque cubantis." See Index under Hellas. " frigida si puerum quartana reliquerit. " excite not an angry * " man to violence. dis ! . " luppiter.

' cries the mother of a child that for five long months has been ill abed. who givest and takest away sore afflictions. III. would no^ have '' ' : vouched for that. corresponding to our Thursday (Thor's day). II. like Menenius. but as to his mind. eighth of the wise men. save me alone from death. would in early hours run to all Save me. that ' ' • of i. O Jupiter. nothing is known. ' This would be dies lovis. fasted on this day. put in my hands.e. unless bent on a lawsuit. for instance. The Jews.' The man was sound in both ears and eyes . his master. 275-296 you strike out baby-talk. names of kindred meaning ? * ^^ " A freedman there was who in old age. and stir the fire with a sword. me alone street-shrines and pray <* (" Is it not a httle boon ? " he would add). 'Tis an easy matter for the gods. N 177 . when Marius killed Hellas and then flung himself headlong. whom. his crazy mother will kill him by planting him on the cold bank and bringing back his fever.SATIRES. was he crazy ? Or will you acquit the man of a disordered mind and condann him for crime. as we often do.' he shall stand naked in the Tiber. the superstitious who are also insane. if selling him. What is the malady " that has stricken her mind ? Fear of the gods.* *•* Such were the weapons which my friend Stertinius. whose practices are here referred to. how are you wiser than the child that builds toy-houses ? Add blood to folly. fasting and with washed hands. however." The other day. then on the morning of the day on which thou appointest a fast. All this crowd * also Chrysippus will place in the prohfic family of Menenius. if the quartan chills leave my child.' Should chance or the doctor raise the sick lad up from his peril. giving to things.

dixerit arma 300 qua me stultitia. tantum VE Porph. magna fuisset ? aedificas. ut ingens belua cognatos eliserit ilia rogare. II. post damnum sic vendas omnia pluris. quantane ? num tantum. manibus portavit V: demens cum portat Mss. 53 above.HORACE dedit. insanum qui me. 315 unus ubi efFugit.* sufflans se. -. totidem audiet atque respicere ignoto discet pendentia tergo. We see only the one in front which holds our neighbours' faults. : : ^ abscissum manibus cum portat Goth. ab imo ad summum totus moduli bipedahs." Stoice. quoniam non est genus unum. * In the Bacchae of Euripides. caput abscisum manibus cum portat^ Agave infelicis. ' : tantum V tanto MSS. 1. te quoque veruni est tantum^ dissimilem et tanto certare minoi'era ? Absentis ranae pullis vituli pede pressis. matri denarrat. primum longos imitaris. quo me aegrotare putes animi vitio. Bentley restored manibus to : text. " Accipe. insanire putas " Quid gnati ? ? ego nam videor mihi sanus. " A reference to the fable of the two wallets. But cf. et idem corpore maiorem rides Turbonis in armis 310 spiritum et incessum qui ridiculus minus illo ? an quodcumque facit Maecenas. whom she and the other frenzied Maenads have torn to pieces. sibi tunc^ furiosa videtur : " ? Stultum me fateor (liceat concedere veris) 305 atque etiam insanum tantum hoc edissere. 178 . omitted in D'. ^ * tum. tandem aD'^31. posthac ne compellarer inultus. Agave appears with the head of her son Pentheus. hoc est.

DAMASiPPUs. you are building. First. 297-317 call me names \\ith impunity. hear as mucli in reply. the well-known Aesopian fable of the Ox and the Frogs. " as big as this ? " puffing " Half as big again." " Was it big herself out. How are you less foolish than he ? Is it right that whatever Maecenas does. that is never noticed. " How big was it " she asks . For Horace's short stature see Epist. how a huge beast had dashed liis brothers to death. corporis exigtd. Listen. is hanging I Whoso dubs me madman Good shall and shall learn to look behind on what from his back. do you think — — — : ** . you try to ape big men.-^ « ' Probably on his Sabine farm. with variations. One only escaped to tell the tale to his mother. since in what at a profit kinds. I confess my folly let me yield to the truth and my madness too. you also should do. 20. * Horace reproduces. HI. i. does she even then tliink herself mad ? HOR.* which means. This only unfold from what mental failing do you think I suffer ? DAM. no one thereafter might II. though from top to toe your full height is but two feet and yet you laugh at the strut and spirit of Turbo in his armour. .* which she has cut off.SATIRES. What ? When Agave is carrying in her hands the head of her luckless son. 179 . so unlike him as you are and such a poor match for him ? ^^* A mother frog * was away from home when her young brood were crushed under the foot of a calf." ^'^ HORACE. folly. like this ? " as she swelled herself out more and more. Stoic —as pray that after your ! losses you may sell all you have there are so many my madness appears ? For to myself I seem sane. as though they were too much for his body. 24.

insane." lam maiorem censu.' par eris.' inquit. D. haec a te non multum abludit imago. 320 ' ' num non. ISO . si adde poemata nunc." desine ! " Cultum ! Teneas. oleum adde camino quae si quis sanus fecit. 2 facis et] facies tantum. 3 Bland. sanus facis et^ tu. puerorum mille furores.HORACE ' maior dimidio. Damasippe. tuis te " Mille puellarum. hoc est." maior tandem parcas. : * dicam D. minori 325 O ^ tanto Mss. non dico^ horrendam rabiem. ' tanto^ ? ' cum magis atque te ruperis.' se magis inrlaret.

on the fire. " you'll never be as large. I pray. I say nothing of your awful temper HOR. spare. — ! HOR. Your style beyond your means HOR. 318-326 " Though you burst yourself. II. If any man ever wrote verses when sane. O I greater one. the lesser madman 181 . then you are sane in writing yours. III." said he.SATIRES. Mind your own business." Not badly does this picture hit you Now throw in your verses that is. Stop now DAM. Your thousand passions for lads and lasses. throw oil off. Damasippus. DAM.


as Mahaffy says. p. the fountain-head of wisdom in regard to right hving." " it was no mere trade. and of which Horace induces him to repeat the main Horace professes profound admiration for so points. and begs his friend to take him to hear the lecturer himself. which he has just heard." the subject is gently satirized by Horace. both as to who Catius was or represents and as to the main purport of this Satire. just as the latter is hurrying home to arrange his notes upon a wonderful lecture on gastronomy. when. who must be what Epicurus was to Lucretius. Among the Saturae of Ennius there was one with the formidable title Heduphagetica. much learning. who represents himself as meeting one Catius.IV THE ART OF GOOD LIVING the man that can live without dining?" of the Augustan Age cookery seems to have held the place it had occupied in Greece in the degenerate days of the Middle and New Attic GDraedy. It is clear is " Where In the Rome « Social Life in Greece. which dealt with gastronomical matters and was based on the 'H8inra^€ia of Archestratus of Gela. 183 . a school of This false importance given to liigher philosophy. a special art. There has been much speculation. 299. but a natural gift.

what was there to prevent his satirizing those of the school whose idea of the vita beaia was to have good things Even Metrodorus. intimate friend to eat and drink ? of Epicurus. (47). i. 47 they also refer to another Catius who had written a book on the baker's art. because Horace was himself an Epicurean. Col. " but to enjoy ourselves in good eating and drinking (Plutarch. 45. free lance. probable therefore that Horace is simply trying his hand upon a traditional satiric theme. and we . But it is possible that the Satire has a greater significance than this. is reported to have said that " it is our business. 64). such as 7iatura his topic. 14). ratio (36). In the concluding verses the reference to Lucretius is unmistakable. while scattered through the Satire are philosophical terms. Palmer can see no reference to Epicureanism here. nullius addictus iurare in verba magistri {Epist. As to Catius. In the preceding Satire Horace deals in his own humorous fashion with the Stoics in this he seems to be playing Avith the Epicureans. 1125 d). but in commenting on 1. 1. and even if he was an orthodox Epicurean. the scholiasts tell us that he was an Epicurean and (like Lucretius) the author of a De rerum natura. Adv. an Insubrian and an 184 . He was a (7. but Horace was never firmly wedded to any school.HORACE from fragments that LuciHus handled the same find among the titles of Vario's It is Menippean Satires that of Uepl eSecr/xaTotv. 21. not to seek crowns by saving the Greeks. and ingenitim which are conspicuous in Lucretius's great poem. There is a Catius. praecepta (11).

SATIRES. 16. II. spoken of by Cicero as fnm. cf. 185 . XV. x. IV. and Damasippus in the third. Quintilian. 1. dead (Ad and it is highly probable that for this dramatic purpose Horace here introduces a person of an earher generation in much the same way in which he uses Trebatius in the first. Satires of lately 124). Epicurean. this book.

tenui sermone peractas. Si vespertinus subito te oppresserit hospes. irriguo nihil est elutius horto. ilia memento. II vincunt. oro. ponere namque marem cohibent callosa vitellum. : : * vincant. I * ipse 2). quod si interciderit tibi nunc aliquid." Edehominisnomen. mirus utroque. Longa quibus facies ovis erit. to (6) The word canam suggests that the rules that follow are be treated like an oracle. or gustatio (12-34) . " Quin id erat curae. qualia vincent^ Pythagoran Anytique reum doctiimque Platona. caule suburbano qui siccis crevit in agris 15 . or mensa prima (35-69) (c) the dessert. * ^ Vincent V. the main dinner.IV. atpote res tenuis. 5 mox. celebrabitur. Roman us anhospes. ut suci melioris et ut magis alba rotundis." Peccatum fateor. II. celabitur* auctor. cum te sic tempore laevo interpellarim^ sed des veniam bonus. quo pacto cuncta tenerem. . 186 . mensa secunda (70-75) (d) details of service (76-87). repetes . " * Socrates. dulcior . They may be grouped roughly : under four heads or (a) the antepast.simulet. interpellarem. sive est naturae hoc sive artis. Unde et quo Catius ? " Non est mihi tempus aventi ponere signa novis praeceptis. 10 " Ipsa^ memor praecepta canam.

The rules themselves I will recite * from memory the professor's name must be withheld. and the sage " whom Anytus accused. Give good heed to serve eggs of an oblong shape. Catius ? have no time to stop. for they have a better flavour and are whiter than the round they are firm and enclose a male yoke. If a friend suddenly drops in upon you of an Roman . confess my fault in thus breaking in on you at an awkward moment. so keen am I to make a record of some new rules. you will soon recover it . but kindly pardon me. Nay. Whence and I whither. If aught has shpped from you now. such as will surpass Pythagoras. nothing is more tasteless than a watered garden's produce. in either case you are a marvel. Cabbage grown on dry lands is sweeter than from farms * near the city . I style. ° These would be irrigated artificially. CAT. ^^ CAT. HOR. Plato. CATius. whether your memory is due to nature or to art. I was just thinking how to keep all in mind. Tell me the man's name. whether he is a or a stranger.Satire IV HORACE. . I pray. 187 . for it was a subtle theme handled in subtle and the learned HOR.

" 168 .HORACE ne gallina malum responset^ dura palato. Lubrica nascentes implent conehylia lunae . sed albo non sine Coo. II. hoc teneram faciet.. Pratensibus optima fungis natura est aliis male creditur. nam Laurens malus est. Aufidius forti miscebat mella Falerno. : : DEM peragit. ulvis et harundine pinguis. vitiantis. quoniam vacuis committere venis nil nisi lene decet . Miseno oriuntur echini. to continue eating. /. lUe salubris . shall at length replace himself on his elbow. 35 non prius exacta tenui ratione saporum. Nee sibi cenarum qui vis temere arroget artem. sed non omne mare est generosae fertile testae 25 30 : murice Baiano melior Lucrina peloris. leni praecordia mulso prolueris melius. widely adopted. ante gravem quae legerit arbore solem. as taken by Palmer. " i. mixto Mss. ostrea Circeiis. niusto Bentley. 20 aestates peraget. pectinibus patulis iactat se molle Tarentum. nee satis est cara piscis averrere* mensa ignarum quibus est ius aptius et quibus assis languidus in cubitum iam se conviva reponet. the guest. * ' ^ respondet responsat a. " which ones being broiled. si dura morabitur alvus. after eating his fill of them.e.^ qui nigris prandia moris finiet. mitulus et viles pellent obstantia conchae et lapathi brevis herba.^ Umber et iligna nutritus glande rotundas 40 curvat aper lances carnem vitantis^ inertem . doctus eris vivam mixto^ mersare Falerno . * avertere * DM. mendose . This is more probable than. * rcponit.

* * Cf. limpet and common shell-fish will dispel the trouble. or lowgrowing sorrel but not without white Coan wine. — upon his elbow. not knowing which are better with sauce.** From Umbria. will tempt the tired guest to raise himself once more : . IV. ^ It is not everyone that may lightly claim skill in the dining art. 18-42 evening. into diluted Falernian Mushrooms from the meadows are best others are not to be trusted. being fattened on sedge and reeds. but it is not every sea that yields the choicest kind. With mild mead you will do better to flood the stomach. fed on holm-oak acorns. II. New moons swell the shppery shell-fish. Nor is it enough to sweep up fish from the expensive stall. luxurious Tarentum plumes herself on her broad scallops. " Battle of Lake Regillus " : From the I-aurentian jungle. comes the boar that makes the round dish bend. who will finish his luncheon with black mulberries which he has picked from the tree before the sun is trying. if broiled. for when the veins are empty one should admit nothing to them that is not mild. without first mastering the subtle theory of flavours. The wild hog's reedy home. If the bowels be costive. Macaulay. 189 . The Lucrine mussel is better than the Baian cockle.SATIRES. sea-urchins from Misenum. and which. and you fear that a tough fowl may answer ill to his taste. when the host would shun tasteless meat for the Laurentian is a . Oysters come from Circeii. poor beast. Aufidius used to mix his honey with strong Falernian— unwisely . A man » will pass his summers in health. you will be wise to plunge it ahve this will make it tender.

190 . consists of (1) the simplex. nocturna. quatenus ima petit volvens aliena vitellus. one of which. the simplex. nequaquam ut si satis in re quis solum hoc. * profundat. * 1 fecundae V: feciindi Mss. however. . Some prefer to take ius duplex as meaning two kinds of sauce. * vinum. fecundae^ leporis sapiens sectabitur armos. quali perfundat^ piscis securus olivo.HORACE Vinea submittit capreas non semper edulis. ac EM. quod pingui miscere mero muriaque decebit non alia quam qua' Byzantia putuit orca.^ lino vitiata saporem. 65 "^ " The ius duplex. laboret. . viz. 65 if. si quid crassi est. quin omnia malit . 45 ante meum nulli patuit quaesita palatum. //. at ilia Massica integrum perdunt vina. si una consumere curam mala ne sint vina. sweet olive oil. or compound sauce. Sunt quorum ingenium nova tantum^ crustula promit. 64-66. quaecumque immundis fervent allata popinis. described in 11. et decedet odor nervis inimicus . ' tamen. simplex e dulci constat olivo. The passage. ' quae oD. Est operae pretium duplicis pernoscere iuris naturam. Surrentina vafer qui miscet faece Falerna 65 columbino limum bene colligit ovo. tenuabitur aura. piscibus atque avibus^ quae natura et foret aetas. is not clear. II. and (2) the other ingredients named in 11. atque pavis. 60 caelo suppones vina sereno. Tostis marcentem squillis recreabis et Afra potorem coclea nam lactuca innatat acri post vinum stomacho perna magis et^ magis hillis 60 flagitat immorsus refici.

will pass off. such as that of which your Byzantine jar . and \'enafran oil of 11. and carefully it all the sediment -with pigeons' eggs. It is worth while to study well the nature of the compound sauce. 4. 67-69. Some there are whose talent lies only in finding new sweets 'tis by no means enough to spend all one's care on a single point ^just as if someone were ." The simple consists of sweet olive oil. is spoiled. it would prefer any viands brought smoking hot from untidy cookshops. A consists of oil. and the scent. carrying with foreign matter. all its coarseness will be toned do^^•n by the night air. rather does it crave to be pricked and freshened. what their qualities and age should be is a question never made clear to any palate before mine. 191 . saffron. wine. but cared not he poured upon his fish. which should be mixed with thick wine and with brine. set Massic wine beneath a cloudless sky. and brine. for the yolk sinks to the bottom. unfriendly to the nerves. — anxious only that his wines be good. Nay. II. but the same wine.SATIRES. vrine a Surrentine knowing man mixes collects ^^'ith lees of Falernian. As to fish and fowl. when strained through what If oil you linen. IV.3-66 Roes bred in a vineyard are not always eatable The connoisseur will crave the ^\^ngs of a hare when in young. jaded drinker you will rouse afresh by fried for after wine lettuce prawns and African snails By ham and by sausages rises on the acid stomach. losing its full flavour. while the compound adds to these the chopped herbs.

memento. . and the brine in which the fish were sent was held in high esteem. dum furta ligurrit. vilibus in scopis. 192 . //. tan to reprehendi iustius illis. 90 non tamen interpres tantundem iuveris. ^ nequeant Bentley. ego faecem primus et allec. ^ ^ /. aM * Byzantium was an important centre for the fishing industry of the Black Sea. banc ego cum malis. Venucula convenit ollis . sive gravis veteri craterae* limus adhaesit. Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia suco nam facie praestant. " quae nisi divitibus nequeunt^ contingere mensis Docte Cati. flagitium ingens. : inveni * creterrae V(p\l/. 70 Albanam fumo duraveris uvam. fastidia. in scobe quantus angustoque vagos magna movet^ stomacho 80 sumptus ? neglectis. oblitum. rectius 75 immane est vitium dare milia terna macello piscis urgere catino. insuper addes^ pressa Venafranae quod baca remisit olivae. ducere me auditum. quem tu vidisse beatus ^ addens. per amicitiam divosque rogatus. ten lapides varios lutulenta^ radere palma et Tyrias dare circum illuta toralia vestis.HORACE hoc ubi confusum sectis inferbuit herbis Corycioque croco sparsum stetit. perges quocumque. quanto curam sumptumque minorem consistit ! 85 haec habeant. (l)\j/l. • movent. primus et invenior^ piper album cum sale nigro incretum puris circumposuisse catillis. luculenta. inventor E. nam quamvis memori referas mihi pectore cuncta. seu puer unctis tractavit calicem manibus. in mappis. adde voltum habitumque hominis.

11. or putting unwashed coverlets over TjTian tapestries. the more just is blame for their neglect than for things which only the tables of the rich can afford HOR. For however faithful the memory Asith which you tell me all. and. O learned Catius. mixed with chopped herbs. first to ser\"e round the board vriih apples.* brooms. The Venuculan grape suits the preserving jar . stomach. and then to cramp those ro\ing It strongly turns the fishes in a narrow dish. napkins. how httle do they But if neglected. but in look are finer. by our friendship and by the gods I beg you. remember to take me to a lecture. and sawdust. as I was the first to serve up wine-lees and caviare. or if Common vile mould clings to your ancient bowl. o 193 . has been left to stand. if a slave has handled the drinking cup with hands greasy from licking stolen snacks . you are to add besides some of the juice yielded by the pressed berry of the Venafran olive. forgetting that the less care and cost these things involve.SATIRES." When this. there more reason for its being kept clean. It is a monstrous sin to spend three thousand on the fish market. the Alban you had better dry This last you will find that I was the in the smoke. how shocking is the cost To think of your sweeping mosaic pavescandal ments with a dirty palm-broom. after being sprinkled with Corj'cian saffron. yet as merely reporting you cannot give me the same pleasure. Apples from Tibur yield to the Picenian in flavour. And there is the man's look and bearing I ! ! ! * If the all was the bowl was an antique and therefore valuable. has been boiled. wherever you go to one. white pepper and black salt sifted on to dainty Uttle dishes. 67-92 smells so strong. IV.

quia contigit at mihi cura non mediocris inest. fontis ut adire remotos : atque haurire " queam vitae praecepta beatae. i.) 194 . 927-8. [De rerum nat. in Lucretius : 95 Horace here parodies a famous passage iuvat integros accedere fontes atque haurire.HORACE non magni pendis.

II. and to drink in the rules for living happily . 93-95 think little of having seen him. but I have no shght longing to be able to draw near to the sequestered fountains. lucky fellow. IV.SATIRES.<J You 195 . because you have had that good fortune.

seems to have been common in Rome at the beginning of the Imperial period. especially from who had no family connexions. is a good example. and the seer instructs him in the lucrative ways of fortune-hunting.where Odysseus (Ulysses). The hero. but only when reduced to poverty. and is a burlesque continuation of a fjimous scene in the Eleventh Odyssey (90-149).c. The Amphitryo of Plautus. and it is The those 196 I . 63) we infer that the Satire was not composed before 30 b. Both Lucilius and Varro made use of parody. in the lower world. learns from the Theban seer Tiresias that he will return to his home in Ithaca. and it is well to recall the fact that the travestying of heroic themes is traditional in both satire and comedy. therefore.THE ART OF LEGACY-HUNTING practice of seeking legacies. From the obvious reference to Actium in tellure marique magjius (1. Horace. undertakes to lay down rules for the guidance of those who may need advice in playing the game. based on some play of the New Attic Comedy. in true satiric fashion. The skilful parody of epic style shows Horace's satiric power at its best. desires to ascertain how he may again enrich himself. The Satire takes the form of a dialogue. therefore.

are due to a direct knowledge of the Roman poet on the part of Lucian. p. No analysis is necessary. V. 401). Lucilius and Horace. who doubtless conceived the utmost contempt for the fortune-hunters of his day. upon which many modern satires have been modelled. a prominent feature of the prose satire of Lucian. may really be the result of their common indebtedness to Menippus of Gadara {cf. which.SATIRES. Sellar describes the poem before us as " the most trenchant of all the Satires " of Horace. Lucian's resemblances to Horace. and Bangs's Houseboat on the Styx. II. 197 . Fiske. according to Lejay. such as Disraeli's Ixion in Heaven and The Infernal Marriage.

ToiKi\6fxr]Tis. " By several 198 . neque illic aut apotheca procis intacta est aut pecus . ante Larem gustet venerabilior Lare dives qui quamvis periurus erit. dulcia poma res ubi magna nitet domino sene et quoscumque feret cultus tibi fundus honores. " Turdus sive aliud privum dabitur tibi.^ praeter narrata petenti responde. Teresia. nisi cum re. 10 . " Quando pauperiem missis ambagibus horres. ire recuses. Hoc quoque. * aut qui. accipe qua ratione queas ditescere. or one of the Homeric epithets such as iroMfj. ita * Troiae Tiresia M.r)xo-voi. visne. atqui^ et genus et virtus. vides ut 5 nudus inopsque domum redeam^ te vate. 15 Utne* tegam spurco Damae latus * ? haud II. ^ redeat. applied to Odysseus. quid rides ? " lamne doloso non satis est Ithacam revehi patriosque Penates " adspieere ? O nulli quicquam mentite. fugitivus. quibus amissas reparare queam res artibus atque modis. doloso Horace translates iroXvTpoiros. si postulet. ne tamen illi tu comes exterior. To\vii. vilior alga est.rjTis.V. cruentus sanguine fraterno. de volet illuc." . sine gente.

do not dechne to take the outer side. What ! not enough for the man of wiles " to back to Ithaca and gaze upon his household gods ? ULY. Suppose a thrush or other dainty be given you for your o\vn. are more paltry than seaweed. TiR. V told One more I question Tiresias. reigns and the owner is old. VhY. yet. let the rich man taste before your Lar more to be reverenced than the Lar is he. 199 . or whatever glories your trim farm bears you. O you who have never spoken falsely to any man. Your choice apples . 'tis poverty you dread. though low of birth.Satire ULYSSES. a runaway slave. What ! give the wall to were some dirty Dama ? * First-fruits oflfered to the Lares. me. without substance. And yet birth and worth. if he ask you to walk with him. you see how I am returning home. in plain terms. besides what you have recover pray answer me.'' However perjured he may be. let it wing its way to where grandeur . as you foretold and there neither cellar nor herd is unrifled by the suitors. Since. hear by what means you can grow rich. By what ? ways and means can laugh sail ? my lost fortune Why TIRESIAS. naked and in need. stained \vith a brother's blood.

satiric i. " Ergo pauper et tolerare iubebo . use of some verses from Furius In Bibaculus. Bibaculus Sat. seu rubra Canicula findet 40 infantis statuas. augur. " Dixi equidem et dico captes astutus ubique testamenta senum. acervos. 18 : rdrXadi • 87] Kpadirj' Kal Kvvrepov SXKo wot ^tXt. . Cf." ire domum atque fi cognitor ipse .^ si vafer unus et alter insidiatorem praeroso fugerit hamo.?. aut (gaudent praenomine molles auriculae). Kpticraoffiv l(pi fidxecrdai {Iliad. ' ' ' ius anceps novi." aliquis cubito stantem prope tangens . quondam maiora : . 35 contemptum cassa^ nuce pauperet haec mea cura est. * So Odysseus speaks in Od. unde divitias aerisque ruam^ die. ne quid tu perdas neu sis iocus. illius esto defensor fama civem causaque priorem 30 sperne. Dama is a common slave name. 486). 36." semper melioribus. Horace makes {cf.HORACE me gessi. as 10. : quassa mss. vivet uter locuples sine gnatis. 20 tu protinus. " * seu. 25 aut spem deponas aut artem illusus omittas. xx.' puta. domi si gnatus erit fecundave coniunx. causas defender e possum eripiet quivis oculos citius mihi quam te . 1 eruam E. with note). 200 . certans eris. improbus. one of the Homeric echoes in the Satire. ^ cassa Acr. ultro qui meliorem audax vocet in ius. seu pingui tentus omaso Furius hibernas cana nive conspuet Alpis. xxi. " nonne vides. Publi Quinte. neu. pelliculam curare iube persta atque obdura. Fortem hoc animum tuli. " tibi me virtus tua fecit amicum . magna minorve foro si res eertabitur olim.

the second citation opened with luppiter as subject.^ Go on. I ^v^ll let anyone pluck out my eyes sooner than have him scorn you or rob you of a nutshell. " With hoary snow bespew the wintry Alps. villain though he be." • or Fm-ius. ULY. do not give up hope. Well. Fish craftily in all waters for old men's ^^•ills. : . 19-42 Not so at Troy did I bear myself. we know from 6. and become not a jest. 201 . do you become his advocate spurn the citizen of the better name and cause. or drop the art. and though one or two shrewd ones escape your ^\iles after nibbling off the bait. nudging a neighbour Quintilian." Bid him go home and nurse his precious self become yourself his counsel. great or small. Then you will be a poor man. viii. Ere now worse things have I bome. Carry on. though baffled. TIR. whichever of the parties is rich and childless. whether . V. and I tell you now. but ever was matched with my betters. O prophet." says someone." " Do you not see. This is my concern. who ^Wth wanton impudence calls the better man into court. that you lose nothing. " your worth has made me your friend. and stick at it. 17. I have told you. I know the mazes of the law I can defend a case. if he have " a son at home or a fruitful wife. be contested in the Forum.SATIRES. . If some day a case. stuffed with rich tripe. II. " the Dog-star red Dumb statues split. or " Pubhus " (sensitive ears delight in the personal name). I'll bid my valiant soul endure this. Say " Quintus it may be. and tell me how I am to rake up wealth and heaps of money." TiR.

e. plerumque recoctus scriba ex quinqueviro corvum deludet hiantem. in vacuum venias perraro haec alea fallit. * The will. leniter in spem adrepe^ officiosus. Sublatus. followed in the second line by the name of the heir. " Si cui praeterea validus male filius in re * ? 45 praeclara sublatus aletur. quid prima secundo cera velit versu . captes 1. • Cf. 57. ut amicis aptus. si licet." Num furis ? an prudens ludis me obscura canendo ? " O Laertiade. i. would be written on wax tablets and sealed. On the inside of the first tablet would appear the name of the testator. quo iuvenis Parthis horrendus. 1.^ ede." The ceCaria were artificial preserves. 23. aut erit aut non 60 divinare etenim magnus mihi donat Apollo.HORACE inquiet. 202 . * ut patiens. therefore. si licet] scilicet aD. 79. ut limis rapias. solus multisne coheres. as substitute heir. The tunnies represent the rich fools who may be caught when needed. Epist. sic tamen. " Tempore. to be called to the inheritance in case the heir first named dies. it is supposed. might be rendered as " recognized. ab demissum genus Aenea. ne manifestum caelibis obsequium nudet te. : uti Heindorf. tellure marique ^ alto arripe a. and captator in 1. ' * ut et] ut Goth. 50 " Qui testamentum tradet tibi cumque legendum. " excipiantque senes quos in vivaria mittant. captatorque dabit risus Nasica Corano. cf." ' i. * It was an old Roman custom for fathers to take up in their arms such new-born children as they wished to rear. si quis casus puerum egerit Oreo. 55 veloci percurre oculo. ut et^ scribare secundus heres et. quidquid dicam. abnuere et tabulas a te removere memento." : : Quid tamen ista velit sibi fabula. ut acer plures adnabunt thynni et cetaria crescent. //.

how helpful to his how keen ? " More tunnies will s^^^m up.* and if some chance send the child to his grave. whatever I say will or Mill not be f .* ULY. shall is a reference to the legend of Medea. II.SATIRES. O son of Laertes. TIR. ' A burlesque on oracular utterances.'' then for fear lest open devotion to a childless man betray you. 43-63 how steady he is. a reference to the fable of the raven which the fox flattered for its singing. V. ' In recocfus there his who restored like there {Sat. the young Octavius. and so caused it to drop the cheese. sole heir or share with others. and your fish-ponds swell. scion of high Aeneas 's hneage. will dupe the gaping raven. youth to Aeson by boiling him in a caldron. But what means that story ? Tell me. if one with a fine fortune rears a sickly son whom he has taken up. be sure to decline and push the tablets from you yet in such a way that with a side glance you may catch the substance of the second line on the first page. 36).e. 6.** Swiftly run your eye across to see whether you are . Seldom does this game fail. you may pass into his place. Coranus had been one of these." *^ Again. Quite often a constable. In corvum hiantem. The quinqueviri were very humble police officials. " friends. ULY. In the days when a youthful hero. and Nasica the fortune-hunter will make sport for Coranus. but later had become a public clerk. Horace himself is 203 . ' i. new-boiled into a clerk." the Parthian's dread. ii. by your attentions worm your way to the hope that you may be named as second heir. *' Suppose someone gives you his \n\\ to read. if you may. with his elbow. for prophecy is great Apollo's gift to me. Are you mad ? or do you purposely make fun of me wth your dim oracle ? TiR. born 63 B.C.

" Putasne. 80 ut canis a corio numquam absterrebitur uncto. hoping that the son-in-law would by will free him from his debt. metuentis reddere soldura. quam nequiere^ proci recto depellere cursu ? " Venit enim magnum donandi parca iuventus. perduci poterit tarn frugi tamque pudica. nee tantum Veneris quantum studiosa culinae. illis . 65 turn gener hoc faciet tabulas socero dabit atque ut legat orabit multum Nasica negatas : . * * scribit.HORACE magnus filia erit. Nasica probably owed money to Coranus. which was doubtless familiar to the readers day. This would seem to imply that the son-in-law was older than the father-in-law. accedas socius laudes. sene quod dicam factum est. invenietque legatum praeter plorare suisque. scortator erit Penelopam facilis potiori trade. quae si semel uno sic tibi Penelope frugi est de sene gustarit tecum partita lucellum. sed vincit^ longe prius ipsum expugnare caput. . forti nubet procera Corano Nasicae. accipiet nil sibi tandem et tacitus leget. . of Horace's own 204 . scribet^ mala carmina vecors ultro 75 cave te roget laudato. nequivere MSS. " Illud ad haec iubeo mulier si forte dolosa : 70 libertusve senem delirum temperet. is now obscure. : : . lauderis ut absens adiuvat hoc quoque. and gave him his daughter in marriage. " The story. anus improba "Me Thebis ex testamento unctum sic est elata : cadaver oleo largo nudis umeris tulit heres. 1 85 vincet a Goth.

which can never be frightened away from the greasy hide. and shall find that nothing is left to him and ''<' his but to whine. shall wed gallant Coranus. . yourself obligingly hand over but far better Penelope to your better.'' ^* I will tell you something that happened when I was old. Yes. Is he a libertine ? See that he has not to ask you . the tall daughter of Nasica. is a shade in the lower world. ULV. V. dame or freedman sways an old make common cause \\ith them. and pray him to read them. Praise them.SATIRES. for the young suitors who came were sparing of their gifts their thoughts were not so much on loving as on eating. so pure. — she so good. and read them to himself. who dreads paying up in full. : * i. that they This too helps citadel itself." Here's another hint I give you. She . II. her heir carried on his bare shoulders. now long dead. a hide to which pieces of fat still cling. well oiled. is it to storm the Will the idiot write poor verses ? Praise them. . was buried thus her corpse. 205 . After many a refusal at length Nasica shall take them. 64-86 be mighty by land and sea. : Then shall the son-in-law thus proceed to his father-in-law he shall give the tablets of his will. • The speaker.e. So it is your Penelope but if just once she gets from one old is virtuous man a taste of gain in partnership with you. then she will be like the hound. You think so ! Can she be tempted. whom the suitors could not turn from the straight course ? TiR.'' A M-icked old crone at Thebes. may praise you behind your back. — If it so chance that some crafty dot-ard. by the terms of her will.

est* sepulcrum permissum arbitrio sine sordibus exstrue funus egregie factum laudet vicinia.* audieris. desis operae sileas. . " Cautus adito neve immoderatus abundes. 40. (pxj^l. ex parte tua seu fundi sive domus sit emptor. multum similis metuenti. * importunus amat laudari donee ohe iam . ' : 95 ! ad caelum manibus sublatis dixerit. : 105 " Sed me 110 <p\pl. * * extiterat. ultro. 100 et certum vigilans. difficilem et non etiam stes capite morosum offendet^ garrulus ultra* Davus sis comicus atque obstipo. ' ' prudentem. crescentem tumidis infla sermonibus utrem. credo. " Cum te servitio longo curaque levarit. imperiosa trahit Proserpina 1 : vive valeque.HORACE scilicet elabi si^ posset mortua . . " Davoque Chreraeta eludente. si increbruit aura. huic tu die. cautus uti velet carum caput extrahe turba oppositis umeris aurem substringe loquaci. gaudia prodentem^ voltum' celare." * si] ut sic V. 90 obsequio grassare mone. « offendit est deleted in a. . illacrimare . « Cf. urge. quod nimium neu institerat^ viventi. quartae sit partis Ulixes. multum Sat." i. si quis forte coheredum senior male tussiet. heres ergo nunc Dama sodalis nusquam est ? unde mihi tam fortem tamque ' ' ' : fidelem ? sparge subinde et. ' si paulum potes. 10. gaudentem nummo te addicere. 206 .

drop in some tears. build it in style let the neighbours praise the handsome funeral. carefully to cover up shoulder a way and draw him out his precious pate of a crowd make a trumpet of your ear when he Does he bore you with his love of is chattering. when she was Uving. if the breeze stiffens. you can hide it. of course. J I. yet you must not also be silent beyond bounds. A chatterbox will offend the peevish and morose . scatter about such words as these." and stand with head bowed.SATIRES. If the tomb is left to your discretion. and wide awake you hear the words. ! : trifle. But Proserpine. so faithful ? " and if you can do a bit of it. . If your face betray joy. now and again. nor show zeal beyond measure. 87-110 wanted. "Ah! is my old friend Dama now no more ? VV^here shall I find one so firm." then. V. Live 207 . praise ? Then ply him with it till with hands uplifted to heaven he cry " enough " and blow up the swelling bladder with turgid phrases. warn him. say to him that if he would hke to buy land or a house that is in your share. and has a bad cough. ^ And when from your long care and ser\'itude he sets you free. . he had borne too hard upon her. and fare well 1 calls me back. If one of your co-heirs happens to be older than you. our queen. " To one-fourth let Ulysses be heir. to see whether she could give him I suppose. much hke one overawed. ^ Be cautious in your approach neither fail in zeal. Act the Davus of the comedy. you would gladly knock it down to him for a the . With flattery make your advances . slip when dead.

suggest the two side-pictures of a triptych. the fable of the Town and the Country Mouse. contrasts the annoyances and discomforts of hfe in Rome with the peace and happiness enjoyed by the poet on his beloved Sabine farm. which has been so happily imitated by Pope. Thus 1. It is probably owing to its peculiarly personal tone that for this Satire Horace does not set up a dialogue framework. as spent in the country. although a large portion of the poem. Nothing could be more artistic than such an arrangement.VI TOWN AND COUNTRY LIFE This famous Satire. is put into the mouth of another speaker. this Satire is important for settling some of the chronology of Horace's life. Kiessling has pointed out how the hours of morning (1-23) and of evening (60-76). that of a day passed in Rome (23-59). Besides being one of the most charming of Horace's compositions. which enclose the central and larger picture. but reverts to the monologue form of the First Book. 38 208 . viz. The contrast thus presented between the peacefulness of rural life and the restlessness of city life is then summed up in the delightful allegory with which the Satire concludes (79-117).

in the absence of Octa\-ian. The Satire therefore was composed late in 31 B. vT. The mention of the Dacians in 1.c.SATIRES. had full control in Rome and Italy.C. or early in 30 b. when Maecenas. In this connexion some of the soldiers mutinied in the winter of 31 B. II.C. 209 . 53 reminds us that these people wavered between Octa\ian and Antony and that Crassus was sent against them in 30 b. The Sabine farm was given to the poet some six years later.c. 55. Again. that Horace entered the circle of Maecenas in 39 or 38 b. seems to refer to the time which included the Battle of Actium and succeeding events. 40 ff.c. referred to in 1. is doubtless the reward promised for ser\-ices at Actium. the assignment of lands to the veterans. and it follows from 11.

Hoc erat in votis : modus agri non ita magnus. nisi ut propria haec mihi munera faxis. " In the opening words Horace gives utterance to a feeling of deep satisfaction as he contemplates the scene before him in the morning sunshine. Hercules the god of treasure-trove (see 11. 10 thesauro invento qui mercennarius agrum : ! ilium ipsum mercatus aravit. qui nunc denormat agellum o^ si urnam argenti fors quae mihi monstret.VI. 12. dives amico Hercule " si quod adest gratum iuvat. His former prayer has been realized. Libitinae quaestus acerbae. custos mihi maximus adsis 15 ! : ! Ergo ubi me in montes et in arcem ex urbe removi. Hence the past tense of erat. nil amplius ore. bene est. 210 . di melius fecere. hac prece te oro pingue pecus domino facias et cetera praeter ingenium. quid prius illustrem saturis Musaque pedestri ? nee mala me ambitio perdit nee plumbeus Auster autumnusque gravis. 13 below). * heu 0i/'. hortus ubi et tecto vicinus iugis aquae fons auctius atque et paulum silvae super his foret. utque soles. ^ -ve] -que a Goth. " o si angulus ille si veneror stultus nihil horum proximus accedat. Maia nate. 6 si neque maiorem feci ratione mala rem nee sum facturus vitio culpave^ minorem. * Mercury was god of luck and gain . ut illi.

sometimes identified with Persephone. I am content. presided over funerals. which now spoils the shape of my httle farm O that some lucky strike would disclose to me a pot of money. Nothing more do I ask. piece of land not where there would be a garden.** save that what ! thou make these blessings last my hfe long. that brings gain to hateful Libitina. having found a treasure-trove. as thou art wont. to what should I sooner . nor mean to make it smaller by excesses or neglect " O if if I offer up no such foolish prayers as these there could be added that near comer. like the man who. 21] . O son of Maia. nor sickly autumn. nor the leaden scirocco. enriched by favour of Hercules " I— if what I have gives me comfort and content. and all else save my wit. bought and ploughed the self-same ground he used to work on hire.* * The old Italian goddess Libitina. now that from the city I have taken myself off to my castle in the hills. More and better than this have the gods done for me. I prayed for " a. then thus I pray to thee make fat the flocks I own. If I have neither made my substance larger by evil ways. : ! : I give renown in the Satires of my prosaic Muse ? Here no wTctched place-hunting worries me to death. still be my chief guardian " So. and near the house a spring of ever-floving water.Satire VI This is '-^ so very large. and. and up above these a bit of woodland.

or of beginnings. unde homines operum primes vitaeque labores : 20 instituunt (sic dis placitum). potes. at simul atras ventum est Esquilias. " ante secundam iratis : urget precibus " tu pulses si ad Maecenatem memori 36 Roscius orabat sibi adesses ad Puteal eras. seu " lane " libentius audis. Maecenas signa tabellis. iii. and the apostrophe of the god of the morn. et quam rem^ agis ? " improbus 30 omne quod obstat. '' Rome. " The circles apparently traced by the sun get smaller up to the winter solstice. postmodo. Probably the sponsor was directed by the court to speak •* thus. Romae sponsoi'em me rapis ne prior officio quisquam respondeat. Horace gives an illustration of early morning duties in Cf. prineipium." addit et instat dixeris. " is deleted. cura. 6). urge. ire necesse est. aliena negotia centum per caput et circa saliunt latus. show quas res." " de re communi scribae magna atque nova te orabant hodie meminisses.HORACE Matutine pater. quod mi obsit. mss. The language is mock heroic. : E Milton's " Or hear'st thou rather pure ethereal stream " {Par. II. insane. Wickham. Quinte. ' i. ' propior proprior o. 212 . " quid tibi vis. reverti. " experiar " 40 Septimus octavo propior^ iam fugerit annus. indicates the time of day when Horace was writing. which can be Thus Orelli." Hoc iuvat et melli^ est. tu carminis esto " heia." " imprimat liis. Lejay. mente recurras. : ^ quam rem Bentley : kept if tibi or agis ^ mel." " si vis. Lost. clare certumque locuto luctandum in turba et facienda iniuria tardis. this recognition of his intimacy with Maecenas.e. non mentiar." 25 sive Aquilo radit terras seu bruma nivalem interiore diem gyro trahit.

20-40 ^ Father of the dawn. a hundred concerns of others dance " Roscius through my head and all about me begs you to meet him to-morrow at Libo's Wall" before seven o'clock. to be sure to return to-day on some fresh and important business of common interest. * Horace.SATIRES. having been struck by lightning. thinking only of him. or Janus. VI." 32 That" gives pleasure and is like honey. was enclosed by a wall." " The clerks beg you." The seventh year —nay. note c. which. when I have said in clear and certain tones what may work me harm." from whom men take the beginnings of the work and toil of hfe such is Heaven's >nll be thou the prelude of my song At Rome thou " Come hurriest me off to be surety bestir yourself. " What do you mean.* " " Have Maecenas put his seal to these papers." because of the old associations of the place. if so thou hearest rather. " Gloomy. » The praetor's tribunal was near the Puteal Lihonis. He had been a member of the quaestor's staff. Quintus." go I must. or ^vinter drags on the snowy day in narrower circle. being himself a member of the guild of scribae. II. if you will. Later." O — ! '' : ! ** : : " You *° ' can. I'll not deny. madman ? What are you driving at ? " So some ruffian assails me with angry " You would jostle everything in your curses way. lest someone answer duty's call before vou. 14. is addressed on familiar terms. i. a place in the Forum. and regarded as sacred. should you be posting back to Maecenas. See Satire 213 ." If you say. 8. nearer the eighth—wiU he adds insistently." Whether the North-A^nd sweeps the earth. I must battle in the crowd and do damage to the slow of pace. " I'll try. But as soon as I come to the gloomy/ Esquihne.

enables the writer to avoid a tone of egoism. . 717) . After the battle of Actium the soldiers who had served with Octavius had lands allotted to them. The men mentioned were gladiators. numquid de Dacis audisti ?" '^nil equidem. some sporting event of the day. luserat^ in Campo ludos spectaverat^ una. : ad Mss. " Sicily. * ^ spectaverit. . is miratur hortis (p\f/.HORACE ex quo Maecenas me coepit habere suorum in numero. invidiae noster. . ^ This colloquial use of noster ="I ". * ^ luserit. The expression used for Sicily is probably an echo of Lucretius " insula in oris. nam te scire. ^proprius^^X. et cui concredere nugas " hora quota est ? " " Thraex est hoc genus " GalHna Syro par ? " matutina parum cautos iam frigora mordent " 45 et quae rimosa bene deponuntur^ in aure. ." triquetris terrarum (i. " Fortunae filius " omnes. Cf. : ! : frigidus a rostris manat per compita rumor : 60 quicumque obvius est me consuht " o bone. dumtaxat ad hoc. Perditur haec inter misero lux non sine votis o rus. "quid? militibus promissa Triquetra si quicquam. per totum hoc tempus subiectior in diem et horam : . quern tollere raeda vellet iter faciens. dvijp oSe." praedia Caesar an est Itala tellure daturus ? " 56 ! iurantem me scire nihil mirantur^ ut unum : scilicet egregii mortalem altique ! silenti. 214 . deos quoniam propius* contingis. one being armed like " The reference to a Thracian.' ! iucunda oblivia vitae o quando faba Pythagorae cognata simulque sollicitae disponunturiJ." "ut tu semper eris derisor " " at^ omnes di exagitent me. ' at Goth. nunc somno et inertibus horis. quando ego te aspiciam quandoque licebit 60 nunc veterum ducere ^ libris. for which we have examples in Plautus. oportet. . 4>->j/.

" and such chat as is safely dropped into a leaky ear.SATIRES. ^ Amid such trifling. every day and hour." or on Italian soil. iv. is it in the me. since Maecenas began to count me merely thus far. and " What's the confide to liis ears trifles hke this time ? " "Is the Tlrracian Chicken a match for " The morning frosts are nipping now. have you ? " " None whatever. they marvel at me the man of all men remarkably and profoundly reticent. or played ball in the Campus ^^'ith Maecenas ? " For- among — : ** tune's favourite " all cry. Syrus ? " if people are careless. For all these years. forsooth. now ^vith sleep and idle hours. brethren of Pythagoras. and ! O Pv'thasroras forbade the eating of beans as well as of the flesh of animals.. Horace humorously applies this doctrine to beans as welL C/. 11. Does a chilly rumour run from the Rostra through the streets ? Whoever ! my way asks my opinion " My good sir. you must know you come so much closer to the gods you haven't heard any news about the Dacians. in the latter case because of his doctrine of transmigration of souls. alas I waste my day. our friend * has been more and more the butt of en\y. that Caesar " means to give the soldiers their promised lands ? coiaaes : — : ! ! swear I know nothing. Has he viewed the games. VI. <* 215 . as one he would his friends hke to take in his carriage when on a journey. II. 41-63 soon have sped. if I have heard a word three-cornered isle. ! : : ! ancients. to quaff" when shall sweet forgetfulness of hfe's cares beans." " How you will always mock at us " But heaven confound " Well. now with books of the you When I as. praying the while O rural home when shall I behold When shall I be able. Gellius.** be serv'ed me.

pater ipse domus palea porrectus in horna esset ador loliumque. non de villis domibusve alienis. : . ' * frustra E<f>\ Goth. : E " Another plausible interpretation of libatis dapibus is " after due offering. 216 . vicino : vicinos V.HORACE uncta satis pingui ponentur holuscula lardo o noctes cenaeque deum quibus ipse meique ante Larem proprium vescor vernasque procaces pasco libatis dapibus." inquit. dapis meliora relinquens." i. " amice. sic incipit : " olim rusticus urbanum murem mus paupere fertur accepisse cavo. nee male necne Lepos saltet sed quod magis ad nos pertinet et nescire malum est. . trahat nos et quae sit natura boni summumque quid eius. Cervius haec inter vicinus^ garrit anilis ex re fabellas. si quis nam laudat ArelU sollicitas ignarus opes. furta Peerlkamp. to the Lares. seu modicis uveseit^ laetius. tandem urbanus ad hunc. seu quis capit acria fortis poeula. asper et attentus quaesitis. " quid te iuvat. ergo 70 sermo oritur. before the mensa secunda with its wine-drinking began. ! ! 65 siccat inaequalis calices conviva. cupiens varia fastidia cena 85 vincere tangentis male singula dente superbo . solutus legibus insanis. quid multa ? neque sepositi ciceris nee longae invidit avenae. usus rectumne.e. . ut tamen artum solveret hospitiis animum. agitamus utrumne divitiis homines an sint virtute beati 75 quidve ad amicitias. 90 cum 1 humescit E. veterem vetus hospes amicum. prout cuique libido est. 80 ille aridum et ore ferens acinum semesaque lardi frusta^ dedit.

or with mild cups mellows more to his Uking. VI. — : — : " <^ Cf. to him ! . outstretched on fresh straw.SATIRES. what is the nature of the good and what is its highest form. In short. drains cups big or small. but bringing in his mouth a dried raisin and nibbled bits of bacon he served them. Thus. 2. not about other men's homes and estates. II. 64-90 ! — with them greens well larded with fat bacon O nights and feasts divine When before my own Lar we dine. the master of the house himself ate spelt and darnel. And so begins a chat. Fundamental questions of 123 and note. my friends and I. host and guest old friends both. who. would barely touch each morsel. " Now and then oiu* neighbour Cervius rattles oflF old wives' tales that fit the case. whether self-interest or uprightness " leads us to friendship. " Once on a time such is the tale he thus begins a country mouse welcomed a city mouse in his poor hole. and feed the saucy slaves from the barely tasted dishes. yet could open his thrifty soul in acts of hospitahty. ^ whether one can stand strong bumpers in gallant style. Sat. my friend. Roughly he fared. Meanwhile. 217 . blind to its anxieties. praises the wealth of Arellius. lea%'ing the titbits to his friend." Each guest. frugal of his store. nor whether Lepos dances well or ill but we discuss matters which concern us more. as is his fancy. not bound by crazy laws. and of which it is harmful to be in ignorance whether wealth or virtue makes men happy. ii. \vith squeamish tooth. if anyone. being eager by varying the fare to overcome the daintiness of a guest. ethical philosophy. he grudged not his hoard of vetch or long oats. At last the city mouse cries " What pleasure can you have.

inde ambo propositum peragunt iter. tum rusticus. * vernaliter. mihi crede. 95 dum licet. in rebus iucundis vive beatus vive memor. Lambinue." ait " et valeas tutus ab insidiis tenui solabitur ervo. veluti succinctus cursitat hospes continuatque dapes. urbis aventes moenia nocturni subrepere. quo. bone. 100 ponit uterque in locuplete domo vestigia. 105 ergo ubi purpurea porrectum in veste locavit agrestem. quam sis aevi brevis. terrestria quando mortalis animas vivunt sortita." : ^ 3 ipse bene E. rubro ubi cocco tincta super lectos canderet vestis eburnos. . neque ulla est aut magno aut parvo leti fuga. comes. simul domus alta Molossis personuit canibus. lamque tenebat nox medium caeli spatium. * afflat ^^X.^ circa. praelambens omne quod adfert." haec ubi dicta agrestem pepulere. nee non verniliter^ ipsis' fungitur officiis. domo levis exsilit .HORACE praerupti nemoris patientem vivere dorso ? vis tu homines urbemque feris praeponere silvis ? carpe viam. multaque de magna superessent fercula cena. 218 . " baud mihi vita 115 me silva cavusque est opus hac. cum subito ingens cum 110 valvarum strepitus lectis excussit utrumque.^ ille Cubans gaudet mutata sorte bonisque rebus agit laetum convivam. magisque exanimes trepidare. currere per totum pavidi conclave. quae procul exstructis inerant hesterna canistris.

he himself bustles about in waiter-style. So when the town mouse has the rustic stretched out on purple covers. Then both pursue the journey as planned. and for neither great nor small is there escape from death. 91-117 in living so hard a life on the ridge of a steep wood ? Wouldn't you put people and the city above these wild woods ? Take my ad\ice set out -with me. when of a sudden a terrible banging of the doors tumbled them both from their couches. The other. and many courses remained over from a great dinner of the evening before. will solace me with : . II. and still more terror-stricken were they. and so farewell my wood and hole. ^^ And now night was holding the mid space of heaven. eager to creep under the city walls by night. and doing all the duties of the home-bred slave. where covers dyed in scarlet glittered on ivory couches. secure from alarms. when the two set foot in a wealthy palace.SATIRES. and amid the good cheer is playing the happy guest. VI. ! : : homely vetch. who hghtly leaped forth from his house. as the lofty palace rang with the barking of " No use Molossian hounds. first tasting everj'thing he serves. good sir." 219 . Inasmuch as all creatures that hve on earth have mortal souls. serWng course after course. enjoys his changed lot. In panic they run the length of the hall. while you may. lying at ease. Then says the rustic have I for such a hfe. in baskets piled up hard by. therefore. live happy amid joys live mindful ever of how brief yom* time is " These words struck home with the rustic.


in the country he longs for the town. be " found to be a greater fool than I. to so-called master. If not in\ited out. In town he pines for the country. but if an in%atation from Maecenas comes at a late hour. he pretends to be glad. stoops to mean devices to gain his him The (42-45). when were treated ^\ith great indulgence (1. 221 . but would not go back to them if he could." asks Davus. your slave ? Such an audacious remark provokes Horace's wTath. and had passed on slaves Sat. ii. is therefore permitted to speak his mind freely to his master (1-5). He praises the good old times. He remarks that some men are consistent in their Horace vices. 5). which a servant of Crispinus had overheard at the door of his master's lectiure-room. the master. pursues intrigues.VII ONLY THE WISE ARE FREE The scene is laid in Rome during the Saturnalia. 4 and 3. " WTiat. lea\ing his expectant parasites in the lurch. off he runs in great excitement. others waver between vice and \irtue. but Davus is allowed to report the lessons of wsdom. is an inconsistent man. Davus. the slave of Horace. and proving that he is no better than they (6-42). " if you. victim of his passions.

who discovered that he was no more mad than other men. He is a mere puppet. to baffle care (95-115). Again. takes the place of the social outcast Damasippus. The slave Davus. This Satire is a close companion of the third. He who is subject to passion is never that (83-94). the former is crazy over some great artist's paintings. who threatens to send his slave out to liis Sabine farm (116-118). Who. and handling the theme in a very similar dramatic fashion. who is complete master of himself. the master loves grand suppers and suffers from indigestion. though in vain. he is free. Why. — Both both dealing with the follies of mankind. who finds that. runs all sorts of risks. the master sells off his estates to fill his belly. and are much alike in substance. Here the Stoic teacher Crispinus corresponds to Stertinius. viz. whom no manumission can free. is free ? Only the wise man. and his Davus is but his fellow-slave. This is too much for the angered master. worked by wires that others pull (46-82). The latter wastes time gazing on crude posters. and sacrifices character and everything else that he has. this master cannot bear his own company. The slave swaps the brush he has stolen for a bunch of grapes.HORACE ends. He is a real slave. and deals with another Stoic paradox. on (lovos 6 aocfih'i kXevdepo<. that only the philosopher is free. Satires have the Saturnalia a time of free speech as their setting. In both Satires Horace is the auditor of the 222 . then. He is a runaway and vagabond. The slave likes pasties and gets a thrashing. the so-called master is not above his slave in other faults.. being -wise. ever seeking.

whereas we know that he was very abstemious (cf. 102. 2as . he introduces. ff. but so far as the main features of the master's portrait are concerned. 7-9)The seeming self-accusation as to serious offences. It is true that. the lessons of which he must apply to himself. Though Horace thus allows his own name to be used. 5. 22-35 111-115). the preacher of \visdom.SATIRES. . vn. Sat. In both he feigns an outburst of anger. though during the delivery of Crispinus's lecture it is held in suspense. where he is accused of gluttony. as the Horace of real life. therefore. we may put down to dramatic necessity or to comic exaggeration. That the poet is not describing himself with any consistency is clear from 11.. i. sermon. at the beginning and perhaps at the end of the criticism of the master (so 11. to heighten the humour of the scene. it would be more correct to regard the slave Da\Tis. the dialogue is really between any slave and any master. II. some of the atmosphere of reality. The dialogue form is maintained throughout.

and now would like to have his turn at fault-finding. ut vitale putes. cum tribus anellis. so too Bentley : not so aE\ or Porph." age. " Pars hominum vitiis gaudet constanter et urget propositum pars multa natat. Vertumnis. as eques. make no division between this and the previous Satire .i " lamdudum ausculto et cupiens tibi dicere servus ita. which came in December.VII. interdum pravis obnoxia. . unde mundior exiret vix libertinus honeste iam moechus Romae. * pyrgum Goth. saepe notatus pauca reformido. * Alluding to the familiar saying that the good die young. As senator. . libertate Decembri. * During the Saturnalia. postquam illi iusta cheragra vixit inaequalis. iam mallet doctus^ Athenis vivere. ** 224 . slaves were allowed great freedom. II. mercede diurna ^ The Bland. 10 clavum ut mutaret in horas. * doctor V. all men were equal. 6 quando ita maiores voluerunt. sit satis. " The Satire begins like a scene in comedy." Davusne ? " mancipium domino et frugi quod . . natus iniquis. The slave has had to listen to his master's preaching. quotquot sunt. amicum hoc est. utere narra. in the age of Saturn. because. no doubt a gloss. modo laeva Priscus inani. aedibus ex magnis subito se conderet. modo recta capessens. Davus. uss. scurra Volanerius. so Lejay. Priscus would wear a broad stripe . qui pro se tolleret atque mitteret in phimum^ talos. 15 contudit articulos.

*" HOR. Davus. i. so that you need not think fairly honest him too good to live. hired at a daily wage. 97. 5. when the gout he had earned crippled his fingerjoints. was so fickle in his Ufe. but as a slave I dare not. only a fop would wear more than one. god of the changing year. now as a sage in Athens a man born when every single V'ertumnus was out of sorts. Some mtn persist in their love of vice and the greater number waver. Yes. Is that Da\^s ? DAV." Sat. Thus Priscus. that he would change his Passing from a stately mansion.Satire Vll DAvus. since our fathers willed it so. I've been listening some time. stripe every hour.*' Have your say. — a narrow one. the jester. but once in a while by wearing none. who often attracted notice by wearing three rings. and ^^ishing word to you. "lymphis iratis. Rings were worn on the left hand {laeva) . kept a man. and that is. stick to their purpose now aiming at the right. Q 225 .** he would bury himself in a den. For the form of expression ef. at times giving way to evil. to pick to say a — . use the licence December allows.* Volanerius. • Vertumnus. a slave loyal to his master. could assume any shape he pleased. Now he would choose to hve in Rome as a rake. from which a decent freedman could scarcely emerge without shame." HORACE. Come. DAV.

usque recuses. .. . etenim fateor me. : ' ' ' * duci ventre levem. tibi non referenda precati. " supino. ita te felicem dicis amasque. ' The source a rope. quanto constantior isdem^ illo.* in vitiis. quod nusquam tibi sit potandum. pessime ? Laudas fortunam et mores antiquae plebis. as We 226 . * ac prior] acrior aE Goth. discedunt. ille best ass. E . aut quia non sentis quod clamas rectius esse. quorsum haec tarn putida tendant.' 20 Non dices hodie. iusserit ad se Maecenas serum sub lumina prima venire nemon oleum feret^ ocius ? ecquis' convivam audit ? cum magno blateras clamore fugisque. him through the streets.^ 35 Mulvius et scurrae. 26 aut quia non firmus rectum defendis. inquam. gets a late invitation from Maecenas to fill a vacant The oil he calls for is needed for the lantern to light place. who is already dining at home. .HORACE conductum pavit .^ idem E\. quam (p^p second iam omitted iam becomes quam a. //. si quis ad ilia deus subito te agat. Romae rus optas absentem rusticus urbem tollis ad astra levis. : * furisque V. . iam^ laxo fune laborat. laudas securum holus ac. : levius] est melius. ' et quis E. ^ * * * nasum nidore * supinor." quo pacto. si nusquam es forte vocatus ad cenam. fert El Vollmer. iam] tarn . et idem. et haeres nequiquam caeno cupiens evellere plantam. velut usquam 30 vinctus eas. . yet an error. . illo <t>^ one Bland. tanto levius^ miser ac prior^ qui iam contento. are to suppose that Horace. //. of the figure is probably an animal tied by it tries to get free. furcifer ? " ad te. '' and pulled up with a jerk.' dixerit ille.

You praise the fortune and manners of the men of old and yet. and hug yourself. you extol to the stars the distant town. 18-38 up the dice for him and put them in the box. you would refuse either because you don't really think every time that what you are ranting is sounder. with rope now taut. His quoted remarks show that Davus looked upon Horace himself as a parasite at the table of Maecenas. and. if on a sudden some god were for taking you back to those days. . As he was the more persistent in his \-ices. viT. HOR. villain ? DAV. or because you are wobbly in defending the right. Muhius and his fellow-jesters sneak off with curses for you that I cannot repeat. who had come to share Horace's is now disappointed. " 'tis true that I'm a fickle creature. 'Tis you. II. and. is in distress. though vainly longing to pull your foot from the filth. you scape-gallows." HOR. than the one who. ! : tear off. . so he was the less unhappy and the better man. How so. just at lamp-lighting time " Won't someone bring me oil this instant ? * Does nobody hear me ? " So you scream and bawl. now loose. dinner and Mulvius was a parasite. in telling me the point of such rot ? DAV. as though you were in chains when you do go anywhere. then . I curl up my nose for a savoury led by my stomach. you call yourself lucky.SATIRES. Are you to take all day. because you have not to go out for some carousal. yet stick fast in it." " Yes. Let but Maecenas bid you at a late hour come to him as a guest. you praise your quiet dish of herbs." he would say. * 227 . I say. If so it be that you are asked out you fickle one nowhere to supper. At Rome you long for the country in the country.

mieretricula Davum. " Te coniunx aliena capit. clunibus aut agitavit equum lasciva supinum. anulo equestri Romanoque habitu. dum quae Grispini docuit me ianitor edo. quid refert. ilia tamen se ^ * 45 50 55 60 ipse E. alternante Goth. a low price for a slave. or $100. //. ' te. peccat uter nostrum cruce dignius ? acris ubi me natura intendit. " The term index implies a citizen of good standing. Davus is a (nrep/xoKoyoi. iners. uri virgis ferroque necari auctoratus eas. * dimisit.HORACE imbecillus. prodis ex iudice Dama turpis. si quid vis. popino. quo te demisit^ peccati conscia erilis. but at second-hand from his door-keeper. tu^ cum proiectis insignibus. 40 tu cum sis quod ego ' et fortassis nequior. 2 incendit Goth. si me stultior ipso^ quingentis empto drachmis deprenderis ? aufer me voltu terrere ." and he has picked them up. dimittit neque famosum neque sollicitum ne ditior aut formae melioris meiat eodem.^ non es quod simulas ? metuens induceris atque altercante^ libidinibus tremis ossa pavore. ultro insectere velut melior verbisque decoris obvolvas vitium ? quid. II. adde. contractum genibus tangas caput ? estne marito matronae peccantis in ambo'^ iusta potestas ? in corruptorem vel iustior. who would be in a position to catch some scraps of the lectures delivered in the school-room. " Roughly equivalent to £20. * ' lucerna E. " a picker up of learning's crumbs. ambos. odoratum caput obscurante lacerna. not from the Stoic Crispinus himself.^ sub clara nuda lucerna quaecumque excepit turgentis verbera caudae. manum stomachumque teneto. an turpi clausus in area. * 228 I .

who cost you five hundred drachmas ? <* " to scare me by your looks. xlvi. where the maid. 39-63 am weak." is maintained by Lilv Ross Tavlor in an article on " Horace's Equestrian Career'" in A. 161 ff. You. p. since you are just the same and maybe worse. while I set forth the lessons taught me by the porter of Crispinus. 4. lazy. toper. and. if you like to add. 38. What matters whether you go off in bondage. would you presume to assail me. shut up in a shameful chest. I II. '' 229 . a But you. too. The word aitctoratus is technical. as though you were a better man. has stowed you away. Hold back your hand and temper. and was even a " potential senator. i. no longer a judge. smell. So. disgraced nor anxious lest some richer or naore handsome man possess her.** to be scourged and slain with the sword." but a low Dama. conscious of her mistress's sin. or whether. Horace. See note on Sat. vTi. and would you throw over your own vices a cloak of seemly words ? What if you are found to be a greater fool than even Don't try I. (1925) pp.SATIRES. she who satisfies mypassion sends me awayneither . are you not what you pretend to be ? Full of fear. Which of us commits a sin more deserving of the cross ? When vehement nature drives me.J. when you have cast aside your badges. being applicable to one who sold himself as a gladiator.'P. and step forth. and you tremble with a terror that clashes with your passions. etc. with a cape hiding your perfumed head.^ ^ You are the slave of another man's wife Davus of a poor harlot. 123. you are let into the house. That Horace could claim equestrian rank. Haight. you touch your crouching head with your knees ? Has not the husband of the erring matron a just power over both ? Over the seducer a still juster ? Yet she it. the ring of knighthood and your Roman dress.

* ' Bentley first punctuated after totus.HORACE non habitu mutatve loco peccatve^ superne. done. sub furcam prudens. 53. rerum imperiis hominumque tot tantisque minor." ais neque ego. ' aliis. • ^ quaeres El : quaeris. " Evasti credo. ' an unbridled horse.^ teres atque rotundas. quern ter vindicta quaterque imposita baud umquam misera formidine privet ? adde super* dictis quod non levius valeat nam prosiliet frenis : iam vaga sive vicarius est. visa V. II. « The vindicta is the rod used in the formal manumission of a slave in the presence of the praetor. : quod MSS. et in se ipso totus. qui servo paret. " uti] ut est.e. the like man had 11. alii'^ servis miser atque duceris ut nervis alienis mobile lignum. supra. o totiens servus 70 quae belua ruptis. tolle periclum : Natura remotis. mos sum ego terrent. 230 . dominoque furenti te formidet mulier : committesrem omnemetvitam at cum corpora famam. Bentley : sibiqne V. //. : fur. mss. 54. quem neque pauperies neque mors neque vincula vester tu. hercule. metues doctusque cavebis quaeres. 75 tune mihi dominus. responsare cupidinibus. <* As i.^ quando iterum paveas iterumque perire possis. " Quisnam igitur liber? sapiens. contemnere honores fortis. ! cum semel efFugit. tibi quid* 81 mihi qui imperitas. . //. //. sibiqui* imperiosus. ^ 85 peccatque. seu conservus. 68 cum ibis neque credat amanti. ubi vasa^ praetereo sapiens argentea. //. quid Goth. uti^ nempe ? ait. reddit se prava catenis ? " non sum moechus. * sibi qui I.

add something of no less weight who obeys a slave is an underslave." never frees from base terror ? And over and above what I have whether one said. who in himself is a whole. over himself. you will seek occasion so as again to be in terror. am either. you. to roam at \vill. Take away the risk.'' as the custom of your class names him. I take it. who is lord ? neither poverty nor death nor bonds affright. set aside restraint. perversely returns to them again in faith. And. so that nothing from outside can rest ®3 Who then is free whom * The vicar ius was a slave bought by another out of his peculium to help him in his work. I ? "I am no thief no adulterer. and Nature will spring forward. are the MTCtched slave of another master. and you are moved like a wooden puppet by wires that — : others pull. and hand over to a furious master your fortune. vn. since she is in dread of you and does not trust her lover.SATIRES." and she not the chief sinner. whom the praetor's rod. again to face ruin. will be afraid and cautious after your lesson. 231 . a slave to the dominion of so many men and things you. 64-86 does not change either garb or position. who bravely defies his passions. II. you No. and scorns ambition. your person is and repute. when I wisely pass by your silver plate.'' Are you my master. having once burst its bonds and : ! escaped. smoothed and rounded. The wise man. You with eyes open will pass under the yoke. what am Why." you say. O you slave many times over But what beast. though placed on your head three or four times over. your Ufe. who lord it over I in respect of you ? me. or a fellow-slave. you. ^ Suppose you have escaped then.

insane. Tim. iii. * qui dum (t>\pl. sub noctem qui puer uvam 110 furtiva mutat strigili ? qui praedia vendit. and 232 . velut si re vera pugnent. quae parvo sumi nequeunt. morientes. at ipse 100 subtilis veterum index et callidus audis. avrapKrii. So too Aristotle. illusique pedes vitiosum ferre recusant corpus.HORACE externi ne quid valeat per leve morari. Vel cum Pausiaca torpes. in quem manca his ut ruit semper Fortuna. rursus vocat eripe turpi colla iugi. tabella. Protagoras 339 d. who calls the truly good man a square. liber sum. virtus atque ducor libo fumante tibi ingens animus cenis responsat opimis ? est cur ? 105 qui tu* impunitior ilia. self-contained or inis like the perfect In the sphere of the k6<tij. 95 qui peccas minus atque ego. obsonia captas ? nempe inamarescunt epulae sine fine petitae. 11. * These are names of gladiators. feriant vitentque moventes^ : ' ! arma viri ? nequam si et^ cessator Davus : . //. Plato.os itself (c/. 33). liber. II. cum Fulvi Rutubaeque aut Pacideiani contento poplite miror proelia rubrica picta aut carbone. ' potestne. II. The last named is " The wise man of the Stoics is dependent of externals. Plato also makes use of a figure of Simonides. " Nil ego. rerpdyuvos. Ehet. vexat foribusque repulsum 90 perfundit gelida. ^ 3 et omitted.' die age non quis : urget enim dominus mentem non lenis et acris subiectat lasso stimulos versatque negantem. Potesne^ ex proprium quid noscere ? quinque talenta poscit te mulier. obsequium ventris mihi perniciosius tergo plector enim. an hie peccat.

" ^ Of these traits can you recognize any one as your own ? A woman asks of you five talents. pays for it. plaguing your soul. " I am free." 102 jf j'jjj tempted by a smoking pasty. who at fall of night swaps for grapes the flesh-brush he has stolen ? Is there : My borrowed from Lucilius . the other two may be contemporary 233 with Horace. am free. madman.SATIRES. and no gentle one. just as lifehke as if the heroes were really waving their weapons. ^^ Or when. then—calls you back. to be sure. in her onset . and against whom Fortune is ever maimed. endlessly indulged. and the feet you've duped refuse to bear up your sickly body.* ^\ith their straining legs. pricking your weary side with the sharp spur." You cannot for you have a master. 87-110 on the polished surface. and driving you on against your will. vn. worries you. Pictures of gladiators were drawn on walls. I'm a goodfor-naught but ^ow—does your heroic virtue and spirit defy rich suppers ? Why is it more ruinous for me to obey the stomach's call ? back. Is the slave guilty. turns to gall. shuts her door in your face. . and served the purpose of modern posters. you stand dazed before a picture of Pausias. drawn in red chalk or charcoal. when I marvel at the contests of Fuhdus. Rutuba. . how do you offend less than I. or Pacideianus." but you are called a " fine and expert critic of antiques. and fighting. that feasting. But how do you escape punishment more than I. striking. when you hanker for those dainties which cannot be bought at small cost ? Why. drenches you in cold water. and parrying ? Davus is a " rascal and dawdler. Rescue your neck from the yoke of shame come. II. say.

1 ut. quod idem non horam tecum esse potes. non otia recte ponere. " Quorsum est opus " ? Unde " Aut insanit ni rapis.HORACE gulae parens habet ? adde. teque ipsum vitas fugitivus et^ erro." Unde mihi lapidem ? nil servile . iam somno fallere Curam frustra: namcomesatrapremitsequiturquefugacem. 114 iam vino quaerens. 234 ." Ocius hinc te accedes opera agro nona Sabino. sagittas ? homo aut versus facit.

" In vain that black consort dogs and follows your flight. Where can I find a stone ? : DAVus. • Cy.SATIRES. you cannot yourself bear to be in your own company. The man's ra\ing. to baffle Care. you shun yourself. HOR. 40. 111-118 nothing of the slave about one who sells his estates at his belly's bidding ? And again. seeking now ^\-ith wine. you cannot employ your leisure aright. 1. and now ^\•ith sleep. VII. 235 . What's it for ? HOR. or else verse-making. II. OcUt iii. Or where arrows ? DAVUS. you'll make the ninth labourer on my Sabine farm. a runaway and vagabond. HOR. If you don't take yourself off in a jiff)'.

Moreover. Nasidienus Rufus. for instance. eats like a pig. Porcius. — 236 . which is illustrated in the previous Satire. the host. and partly against the curious and affected erudition of pronounced epicures. Three men of letters were also in the company Fundanius. These facts warrant us in acquitting Fundanius (and therefore the author who introduced him) on the charge of extremely bad taste in heaping ridicule on a host whose hospitality had been accepted.VIII A FIASCO OF A DINNER-PARTY The poet describes a dinner at which Maecenas was the guest of honour. in fact. adopts a principle. and are probably imaginary characters who could not be identified. and of drawing on his imagination for the rest of his material. In this latter respect it resembles the fourth Satire of this book. The rest of the guests are undistinguished. partly against the ostentation and vulgarity sometimes displayed by wealth. is otherwise quite unknown. and Varius. of securing a certain amount of verisimilitude through the use of known facts. Horace. true to his name. and Nomentanus is one of the traditional characters of satire. The Satire is directed. Balatro is a buffoon. Viscus.

Balatro . 580) regards his fifth book as the chief model followed here by Horace.SATIRES. pp.). Fundanius . Vibidius. it is not surprising to find that Lejay (p. 237 . 7. Varius . 2. plan II. as Lucihus ^\Tote at least five satires on banquets. Porcius. Nasidienus 9." and that in this Eighth Satire Horace keeps in fairly close touch with the twentieth book of LuciUus. VIII. Maecenas. The party was arranged according Medius Lectus to the following 1. 5. where a banquet given by the praeco Granius was reported to the satirist by L. 4. Fiske has sho^^•n that Lucilius was "the first to estabhsh the traditions of the Sd-n-vov in Latin Satire. 408 ff. Licinius Crassus (Lucilius and Horace. 6. Viscus . 3. 8. Nomentanus . But.

his ut^ sublatis puer alte cinctus acernam gausape purpureo mensam pertersit. habemus utrumque. allec.^ si grave non est. Ut Nasidieni iuvit te cena beati ? nam mihi quaerenti convivam dictiis de medio potare die.VIII. Alcon Chium maris expers. lactucae. 6 acria circum captus. " The boar with relishes here formed the gustatio. 10 15 hie erus te Albanum. . pacaverit C : peccaverit ' ut C Priscian ubi E.M. ut aiebat cenae pater rapula. procedit fuscus Hydaspes Caecuba vina ferens. 238 . siser. . placaverit ^\f/." numquam Da. Maecenas. " In primis Lucanus aper leni fuit Austro . " A 3 P. ii. 11. 4. radices.). and is another sign of extravagant luxury cf. ut mihi in vita fuerit melius. here illic " Sic. et alter sublegit quodcumque iaceret inutile quodque ut Attica virgo posset cenantis ofFendere cum sacris Cereris. Pliny viii. faecula Coa. (da is the more unusual). quae prima iratum ventrem pacaverit^ esca. sive Falernum " magis appositis delectat. See note on Sat. " in More principio (cenae) bini ternique mandantur apri.' : ' 1 * dsi (l>^: die Bland. . 210. quaha lassum pervellunt stomachum. E : : dinner-party usually began at the ninth hour (about but an ultra-extravagant one might begin even earlier." commonly it would appear as the piece de resistance.

* It was caught when a gentle south \vind was blowing. p. 239 . there came forward dusky Hydaspes with Caecuban wine. and Coan lees." — — : the rites of Demeter .. as the father of the feast kept telling us." FUNDANius. fish-pickle. The phrase maris expers cor* i. 9. wines. what was the first dish to appease an angry appetite ? FUN. or Falernian. we have both. So much so that never in my hfe did I have a better time. Tell me. First there was a ^^^ld boar. unmixed with brine. ef. Around it were pungent turnips. i. when I tried to get o\\"n guest. 37) gives directions as to the proportions to be used. 3. How rich Nasidienus you as my did you like your dinner vnih the Yesterday. 21. When these were removed. Maecenas. lettuces.<* Then said our host " If Alban is more to your taste. Then. and Alcon with Chian. he did not do what was often done add sea-water to give it a tang. Sat. like a Kavt)4>6po% in •* The Caecuban was one of — responds to ov Te6a\aTTUfjL^voy in Athenaeus i. hke an Attic maid* bearing Ceres' sacred emblems. if you don't mind. 32. HOR. Columella (xii.Satire VIII HORACE. as Chian was one of the best Greek. the finest Italian. a high-girt slave with purple napkin wiped well the maple-wood table.e. while a second swept up the scraps and anything that could ofifend the guests. radishes such things as whet a jaded appetite skirret. I was told you had been ? dining there since midday. The host's Chian being very good.

nos. " Summus ego et prope^ me Viscus Thurinus et ! infra. but Nomentanus. * The cetera turba are the uninitiated guests as contrasted with the knowing Nomentanus. Palmer takes ingustata to mean " untasted. post hoc me docuit meUmela rubere minorera ad lunam delecta. secutis omnibus imi^ convivae lecti nihilum nocuere lagoenis. si 20 . qui. longe dissimilem noto celantia sucum . pulchre fuerit tibi. * quas Goth. Nomentanus ad hoc. The subject of porrexerat is not the host. conchylia. 35 tum . ridiculus totas semeP absorbere placentas . memini. piscis. indice monstraret digito nam cetera turba. " The umbrae were uninvited guests who came with a man of high station. * simul E. cenamus avis. Porcius infra. 40 ^ pro V. quos^ Maecenas adduxerat umbras. quid hoc intersit ab ipso audieris melius. vel quod maledicunt liberius vel fervida quod subtile exsurdant vina palatum.HORACE Divitias miseras sed quis cenantibus una." implying that the odour was enough 210 . inquam. who is doing the work assigned him. ut vel continuo patuit. si quid forte lateret. * imis C. Varius cum Servilio Balatrone Vibidius. " Tum Vibidius Balatroni : : ' Nomentanus 26 30 nos nisi damnose bibimus. Fundani. as commonly supposed. nosse laboro. cum passeris atque ingustata mihi porrexerat ilia rhombi. erat super ipsum. et calices poscit maiores. moriemur inulti. invertunt Allifanis vinaria tota Vibidius Balatroque.* vertere pallor parochi faciem nil sic metuentis ut acris potores. II.

" R 241 . * i. it out ^\ith his forefinger I mean — eat fowl. Nomentanus was there to see that if anything perchance escaped our notice. who made us laugh by swallo%\'ing whole cheese-cakes at a mouthful. Porcius." and he calls for larger cups. VIII. ' Porcius and Nomentanus would. —we. who did no harm to the flagons. After this he informed me that the honey-apples were red because picked in the light of a waning moon. HOR. and . point folk ^ fish.e. which had a flavour far different from any we knew. large cups made at Allifae in Samnium. They therefore " spared the bottle. if I remember. Vibidius and Balatro tilt whole decanters of wine into Allifan goblets. FU\. with whom you had so fine a time ? I am eager to know. What difference that makes you would learn better from himself. then next to me Viscus of Thurii." All followed suit. but the point lies. but in the novelty. Above our host was Nomentanus below him. II. Then Vibidius and Ser\ilius Balatro. as. was made clear at once. of the dishes. we shall die unavenged. after he had handed me the hvers of a plaice and a turbot.'* to betray the nature of the food. for the rest of the ^ Then said Vibidius to Balatro " Unless we drink him bankrupt. Fun- danius. Varius. were those at dinner. for instance. he might . do nothing to offend their host. 18-^1 O the misery of wealth ! But who. not in the badness. a dish I had never tasted before. Then did paleness overspread the face of the host. either because they chaff one too freely or because fiery wines dull the dehcate palate. and below.SATIRES. Myself at the top. of course. who dreaded nothing so : much as hard drinkers. the " shades " " that Maecenas had brought -with him. save the guests on the lowest couch. oysters.

ut quis esset si immaturus : ' obisset. ut melius muria quod^ testa marina remittat.' ^ " Interea suspensa gravis aulaea ruinas his ius est . inulas ego primus amaras monstravi incoquere illutos Curtillus echinos. ne panis adustus. nos maius veriti.' ' inquit. Italian. remittas E : remittit C. trahentia pulveris atri 55 quantum non Aquilo Campanis excitat agris. I. flere. * capta est. Fortuna. haec gravida. : mixtum quod prima Venafri pressit cell a . came futura. quod Methymnaeam vitio mutaverit^ uvam. not Greek.e.' aiebat. ' eoque 65 responsura tuo numquam est par fama labori. ^ quod mss. non sine aceto. deterior post partum oleo. ne male conditum 1 ius ^ apponatur. suspendens omnia naso. torquerier omni sollicitudine districtum. Balatro. ni sapiens sic Nomentanus amicum 60 heu. dum coquitur (cocto Chium sic convenit. in patinam fecere. ut omnes motaverit. tene. S42 . ut non hoc magis ullum aliud) pipere albo. .HORACE in patina porrecta. verum citra mare nato. 50 erucas viridis. filius Rufus posito capite. postquam nihil esse pericli sensimus. " Adfertur squillas inter murena natantis sub hoc erus. ut ego accipiar laute. " i. quis est crudelior in nos te deus ? ut semper gaudes illudere rebus humanis Varius mappa compescere risum vix poterat. 46 garo de sucis piscis Hiberi vino quinquenni. : quo V: quani Bentley. tolleret ' ! * haec est condicio vivendi. finis. erigimur.

viii. the philosopher. To think that. lest the bread be burned. outstretched on a platter. The ingredients of the sauce are these oil from Venafrum of the first pressing. what god is more cruel toward us than thou How thou dost ever delight to make sport of the Ufe of man " Varius could scarce smother a laugh with his napkin. wine five years old. thus rallied his friend " Ah. unwashed. inasmuch as the yield of the sea-shellfish itself is better than a briny pickle. We feared a worse disaster. but finding there was no danger recover ourselves. lest sauce be served ill-seasoned. but produced this side of the sea. and vinegar made from the fermenting of Lesbian vintage. and therefore the meed of fame y\i\\ never equal your labour. What would have been the end. said of life. trailing more black dust than the North-wind raises on Campanian plains. in order that I may have la\-ish entertainment. Fortune." poured in while it is on the boil after boiling. : — — ." ^ Meantime the canopy ^ spread above came down in mighty ruin upon the platter. had not Nomentanus. 243 . 42-69 ** Then is brought in a lamprey. Upon " This. I was the first to point out that one should boil in the sauce green rockets and bitter elecampane Curtillus would use sea-urchins. that all : . Rufus drooped his head and wept as if his son had fallen by an untimely fate. II. its flesh would have been poorer.SATIRES. Chian suits better than anything else white pepper. with shrimps s^\imming all round it. who " These are the terms sneers at everything. Balatro. roe from the juices of the Spanish mackerel. " was caught thds the master before spawning if taken later. : ! ! : * The aulaea were hangings used to decorate the walls. you are to be racked and tortured with every anxiety." said he.

sed ilia redde.' Nasidienus ad haec tibi di quaecumque precerls^ 76 commoda dent ita vir bonus es convivaque comis . 244 . quae deinceps risisti. Nasidiene. si non causas narraret earum et naturas dominus quem nos sic fugimus ulti. : 95 ^ pueri recte * C Goth. quod sibi poscenti non dentur^ pocula. armos. pinguibus et et ficis pastum iecur anseris albae. 70 ut modo si patinam pede lapsus frangat agaso. velut illis " Canidia adflasset peior serpentibus Afris. ut multo suavius. quamsicumlumbis quis edit. to call for were removed when the guests took them was to indicate a wish to leave the dining-room. cum. ' : ! et soleas poscit. turn in lecto quoque videres stridere secreta divisos aure susurros. dumque ridetur fictis rerum Balatrone secundo." Nullos his mallem ludos spectasse . ut nihil omnino gustaremus. ^ : precaris E Goth. age. * edat Priscian. /.^ tum^pectoreadusto 90 leporum vidimus et merulas poni et sine clune palumbes. uti ducis. Afris E Goth. ut arte emendaturus fortunam. ingenium res adversae nudare solent. deinde secuti 85 mazonomo pueri magno diseerpta ferentes membra gruis sparsi sale multo non sine farre.' suavis res.: atris C. redis mutatae frontis. sed convivatoris.HORACE praecincti recte pueri^ comptique ministrent <adde hos praeterea casus. . //. Bentley. " Their light slippers their places . celare secundae.'* avolsos. aulaea ruant si. ' dentur * albae V ' C^ : albi mss. Bentley dantur Ef. " Vibidius dum 80 quaerit de pueris num sit quoque fracta lagoena.

8." the buzz of whispers in secret ears exchanged." To this rephes Nasidienus " Heaven grant you every blessing you crave. and the Uver of a white goose fattened on rich figs. * The remarkable accumulation of sibilants in 1. Nasidienus. so civil a guest " and calls for Then on each couch you might note his shppers. 70-93 your slaves may be properly attired and neat for Then. since cups were not brought him when called for. too. or a numskull stumbling and breaking a dish But one who entertains is like mishaps oft reveal his genius.SATIRES. Balatro egging us on. Then follow servants. as being more dainty than if eaten with the loins. as though the things were blasted with Canidia's** breath. * For Canidia see Sat. 24. * Nasidienus discourses upon the dishes with all seriousness of a philosopher lecturing de rerum natura. bearing on a huge charger the hmbs of a crane sprinkled with much salt and meal. more deadly than African serpents. and pigeons without the rumps real dainties. i. what did you find to laugh at next ? FUN. While Vibidius is asking the servants whether the flagon also was broken. and while we were laughing at pretended jests. back you come. VIII. II. Then we saw blackbirds served with the breast burnt. and hares' limbs torn off.'' but pray HOR. did not our host unfold their laws and properties. 78 the imitates the whispering. ! — ! : : ! . these risks besides the canopy waiting falUng. as it did just now. No play would I have rather seen tell me. mth altered brow. smooth a general going hides it. as if bent on mending misfortune by art." But off we ran. £45 . taking our revenge on him by tasting nothing at all. so kind a man are you.



who has earned his discharge. following no special school but letting myself be borne along as the breeze may set. now behaving as a true Stoic. if the patient will but submit to treatment little A (20-40)." he asks. Maecenas. and now relapsing into the passiveness of a Cyrenaic (1-19).TO MAECENAS which serves as an introduction to is addressed to the poet's patron. knowledge I possess. and his mind has turned to another First Epistle. " The first step in virtue and wisdom is to eschew 248 . " With impatience do I await the day when I may A devote myself to the serious problems of life meanwhile I must guide and comfort myself with what . being all for action. to return to his former training-school ? warning voice within bids me loose the old steed before he stumble at the end of his course. " Why. " should you wish the gladiator. professes to explain why Horace has given up the writing of lyric poetry. And so I give up my verses with other toys. The the First Book. He is now too old for such folly. and turn all my thoughts to philosophy. cure for all diseases of the soul may be found in the charms and spells of philosophy. and field.

Cutting off one head does no good.EPISTLES. because the footprints point in only one direcThe man who once gives in to popular opinion tion. I. Men are capricious. and even the same man changes his views from hour to hour (70-93). " I am as bad as others. the world takes a different view. you fail to observe my graver inconsistencies of life and thought (94-105). if you do right should teach us how much better than riches is the power to stand erect and free and to fling defiance at Fortune (52-69). " If I were asked why I do not go along with the world and share its opinions. I. " In short. Men are anxious to avoid poverty vice and folly. I should recall the fable of the fox declining the lion's invitation to enter his den. and even he may suffer from a cold " ' ' : ! 249 . especially as the prize offered is so much greater (41-51). " True. and ought to be quite as eager to escape from evil desires. becomes the victim of a hydra. the Stoics are right only the sage can be perfect. but though you are quick to notice some carelessness in my dress or appearance. but the children who sing You'll be king.

quo me duce. who has often won approval. " The first Satire. spectatum satis et donatum iam rude quaeris. Maecenas. condo et compono quae mox depromere possim. Veianius. all '> 250 . 5 ne populum extrema totiens exo'ret^ harena. yielded to no inducements to return to the arena. " The defeated combatant would beg for his life. non eadem est aetas. ac ne forte roges. Horace compares himself to an old gladiator.EPISTULARUM LIBER PRIMUS 1. sum . est mihi purgatam crebro qui personet aurem " solve senescentem mature sanus equum. summa dicende Camena." Nunc itaque et versus et cetera ludicra pono 10 quid verum atque decens euro et rogo et omnis in hoc : . after his discharge. Veianius armis Herculis ad postem fixis latet aTbditus agro. and received the wooden foil which was a symbol of discharge from the school of gladiators. Prima dicte mihi. ne peccet ad extremum ridendus et ilia ducat. and the first Ode are addressed to Maecenas. non mens. iterum antique me includere ludo. quo lare tuter : ^ exornet first (p\pS. the Epode.

lest at the last he stumble amid jeers and burst his wind." Some one there is who is always dinning in my well-rinsed " Be wise in time. seek to shut me again in my old school.-'^ . of whom my earliest Muse has told. in what home I take shelter ? I am not bound over : ** my who took an using terms applicable to a gladiator.:r. and turn loose the ageing ear horse. 2. though well tested in the last shall tell fray.i?." of whom my up —you Maecenas. Do you ask. and to that am I wholly given. What is right and seemly is my study and pursuit. still 251 . perchance. is speaking of the acceptance of the formula of some school of philosophy. •* Horace. . who is my chief. Veianius hangs up his arms at Hercules' door. are hot the same.4. and already presented with the foil. mind. I am putting by and setting in order the stores on which I may some day draw. then lies hidden in the country.* My years. -^ ' S ik- EPISTLES BOOK Epistle I I You. that he may not have to plead with the crowd again and again from the arena's edge. oath to the master of his training-school." ^*^ So now I lay aside my verses and all other toys.

non me rebus. in Aristippi furtim . ^ - quodam. I. nunc praecepta relabor et^ mihi res. quae te laudis amore tumes ter pure lecto poterunt recreare lihello. ToXiTi/coij translates irpaKriKds. oculos. non tamen idcirco contemnas hppus inungui . * As he has not yet been able 252 to take up philosophy ^» ^ . //. * Aristippus founded the Cyrenaic school. locupletibus aeque. 15 quo me cumque rapit tempestas. P'ervet avaritia miserfoque cupidine pectus : sunt verba et voces. subiungere conor. Ut nox longa quibus mentitur arnica. ' yet addictus is surely correct. not be controlled by them.'' nodosa corpiis nohs prohibere cheragra. quos dura premit custodia matrum sic mihi tarda fluunt ingrataque tempora. si non datur ultra. and civilibus — the Stoics approved of an active participation Horace in public life. quibus hunc lenire dolorem 35 possis et magnam morbi deponere partem. . " By agilis . //: adductus aEM. which taught that a man should control circumstances. > addictus. deferor hospes. * Milonis knojpn to Acron.HORACE nullius addictus^ iurare in verba magistri. virtutis verae custos rigidusque satelles . est quadam^ prodire tenus. aeque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit. nunc agilis fio et mersor civilibus undis. quae spem consiliumque morantur agendi naviter id quod 25 aeque pauperibus prodest. non prfssis oculo^ quantum contendere Lynceus. diesque 20 longa videtur opus debentibus. restat ut his ego me ipse regam~§blerque dementis. 2 ac. sunt certa piacula. 30 nee quia desperes invicti membra Glyconis. ut piger annus pupillis.

with your eyes. because you may not hope for unconquered Glycon's strength of limb. and would bend the world to myself. I turn in for comfort. but. Nor. 253 . I. and the day long for those who work as the year lags for wards held in check by for hire their mother's strict guardianship so slow and thankless flow for me the hours which defer my hope and piu^ose of setting myself vigorously to that task which profits alike the poor. would you decline to keep your body free from the gnarls of gout. 14^37 to swear as any master dictates . stern champion and follower of true Virtue . will be harmful ahke to young and to old. Are you swelling with ambition ? There are fixed charms which can fashion you anew. now I slip back stealthily into the rules of Aristippus.EPISTLES. The . to see as far as Lynceus. wherever the storm drives me. alike the rich. if neglected.'' ^^ As the night seems long for one whose mistress proves false. if with cleansing rites you read the booklet thrice." and plunge into the tide of civil life. : vigorously. not myself to the world. his only comfort is to make the most of the little knowledge of it that he had. I." You may not be able. if sore. Now I become all action. It is worth while to take some steps forward. What remains is for me to guide and solace myself with these poor rudiments. * The lessons of philosophy are compared to the magic formulas which were used in the medical art of ancient days. yet you would not on that account scorn to anoint them. ^ Is your bosom fevered with avarice and sordid covetousness ? There are spells and sajrings"* whereby you may soothe the pain and cast much of the malady aside. though we may not go still further.

modo culturae patientem commodet aurem. " o cives. est si. iners. 45 impiger extremes curris mercator ad Indog. 29 £f. i. The order of Housman would ~ * 57. discere^ et audire et meliori credere non vis ? quis circum pagos et eircum compita pugnax 50 magna coronari contemnat Olympia." hie murus aeneus esto. virtutibus aurum. est animus tibi. • * • lingua E : " dicere. per mare pauperiem fugiens. ut non mitescere possit. 59. The arch of Janus represents the banking world of Rome. For the thought Cf. laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. 1.000 sesterces. Virtus est vitium fugere et sapientia prima 40 vides. vinosus. sunt mores. exiguum censum turpemque repulsam. . sed* quadringentis sex septem milia desunt^ ^ plebs eris. place I. 4. amator. 18. cui spes. iracundus. nil conscire sibi. * Enrolment in the equites implied a fortune of 400. quaerenda pecunia primum est virtus post nummos " haec lanus summus ab imo Vilius ! prodocet. //. ' desint (pxj/'Kl. est lingua^ fidesque.HORACE invidus. nulla pallescere culpa. reversed in other uss. per ignis : ne cure&ea. II. 58 thus in E. Sat. per saxa. quae maxima credis esse mala. i. cui sit condicio dulcis sine pulvere palmae ? argentum est auro. cf. 74. quae stulte miraris et optas. 3. cives. si nemo adeo ferus est.' quanto devites animi capitisque labore . " rex eris. 30 . 254 . Sat. haec recinunt iuvenes dictata senesque. i. 6. 56 after I. 55 60 ^ laborem Rdir." aiunt. In this respect the old still behave as school-boys. et lingua other mss. at pueri ludentes. " si recte facies. ii. stultitia caruisse. • Repeated from Sat.

M-ho had the surety of victory's palm without : — the dust '^ ? Of " less worth than gold is silver. There is a pun in rex and recte. a slender fortune and the shame of failure at the polls. which children sang in their game. but there are six or seven thousands short of the four hundred ." " You have sense. • The Scholiast gives the verse. \sill you not learn and listen and trust one wiser than yourself? What wTcstler in the village games and at the cross-ways would scorn being crowned at the great Olympic games. to have no guilt at heart. You see -with what anxious thought and peril of life you strive to avoid those ills you deem the greatest. must seek." This rule the Janus arcade proclaims from top to bottom * this is the lesson the old as well as the young are singing. Yet boys at play crj' . anger. no wrongdoing to turn us pale. you have morals. 255 . through flame " but that you may cease to care for the things which you foolishly admire and crave. Ardent-trader that you are. than virtue first gold. " You'll be king. " ^^ith slate and satchel slung over the left arm. money you . through rocks. and to ha\e got rid of folly is the beginning of >nsdom. *^ To flee \'ice is the beginning of \'irtue. you rush to the furthest Indies. who had the hope. wine. qui non faciei. fleeing poverty through sea." * Be this our wall of bronze. citizens. I. if you do right.EPISTLES. lewdness no one is so savage that he cannot be tamed. thus •* r^x erit qui r^cte faciei . you will be in the crowd. O citizens. 38-61 slave to envy. if only he lend to treatment a patient ear. I. non erit. sloth. eloquence and honour. \-irtue after pelf.

40 and note. 12. an qui Fortunae te responsare superbae liberum et erectum praesens hortatur et aptat^ ? Quod si me populus Romanus forte roget. Cf. melior lex an puerorum est nenia. 65 quocumque modo. . lacus et . 5. ii." esto aliis alios : 80 si dixit dives. et maribus Curiis et decantata Camillis ? isne tibi melius suadet. For excipiant cf. referam omnia te adversum spectantia. quae regnum recte facientibus ofFert. 211). See the subject of Sat. Sat. Odes iil. Verum rebus studiisque teneri idem eadem possunt horam durare probantes ? " nullus in orbe' sinus Bais praelucet amoenis. si non. 44. ii. ' quem Rtt. Cf. recte. crustis. urbe cfi^f/h. quem ? hominum multis occulto crescit res faenore. quos in vivaria mittant . die sodes. rem. olim quod volpes aegroto cauta leoni " quia me vestigia terrent. i. 12. 134. 4. * et idem ERw. See Sat." 75 belua multorum es capitum. 6.HORA©E Roscia. respondit. Wild animals were sometimes caught and turned into preserves « * " •* (Pliny <256 viii. //. qui '^fem facias." ut propius spectes lacrimosa poemata Pupi. Sat. 52. nulla retrorsum. 3. ' * ne E. where see note. mare sentit amorem 85 festinantis eri ^ cui si vitiosa libido ^ optat Goth. i.^ nec^ sequar aut* fugiam quae^ diligit ipse vel odit. si possis. excipere aprum. nam quid sequar aut : pars frustis^ et sunt qui gestit conducere publica pomis viduas venentur avaras excipiantque senes. rem. * or ac. cur 70 non ut porticibus sic iudiciis fruar isdem.

I should reply as once upon a lime the prudent fox made answer to the sick Hon :sJ" Because those footthey all lead toward your den. if not. an ever present help." If so the rich man has said. 62-85 '* Tell me. I. 6 '257 . the Roscian law " or the children's jingle which oifers a kingdom to a jingle once trolled by those who "do right" the manly Curii and Camilli ? Does he ad\'ise you better. but if a morbid whim has given him the Money grows by the "unobserved" accumulation of a tree grows by the unobserved lapse of time. The idea that occulto here means " secret. perchance. \2. some with titbits and fruits hunt miserly widows. which is better. prints frighten me and none lead back. why I do not use the same judgements even as I walk in the same colonnades * as they." Odes i. ^ with many their money grows with interest unobserved.EPISTLES." and all that you may have a nearer view of the doleful plays of Pupius . pray. just as is absurd. world outshines lovely Baiae. by any means money. in the sense of" unlawful." You are a many-headed monster-thing. why I do not follow or eschew whkt they love or hate. "crescit occulto velut arbor aero. For what am I to follow or whom ? Some men rejoice to farm state-revenues ." • interest. 45.* and net old men to stock their preserves . money by fair — means if you can. or he who. and defy scornful Fortune ? ™ But if the people of Rome should ask me. urges and fits you to stand free and erect. lake and sea suffer from the eager ^^ner's fancy . ." But let it be that men are swayed by different aims and hobbies can the same persons persist for one hour in Uking the same things ? " No bay in the . I. who bids you " make money.

vel si toga dissidet impar. nisi cum pituita molesta est. //. / Porph. but the rich is nan's own caprice cuique deus fit dira cupido ? " -vtas an inland town. nee medici credis nee curatoris egere a praetore dati. te respicientis amici. a sufficient guide for him. pulcher. si melius nil caelibe vita non est. rex denique regum. Ad summam sapiens uno minor est love. : ^ meouiTi Rbtr Ooth. honoratus.^ rides trita 95 : quod petiit spernit. ix. mutat quadrata rotundis insanire putas^ soUemnia ? 100 me neque rides. balnea. mea cum pugnat sententia secum. Teanum 258 . conducto navigio aeque : SO nauseat ac locuples. liber. aedificat. subest tunicae. diruit. praecipue sanus. quid. lectos.HORACE fecerit auspicium. 185). tonsores. fabri ! ferramenta Teanum . rerum tutela mearum cum sis et prave sectum stomacheris ob unguem 105 de te pendentis. < the flight of birds The usual way to consult the auspices would be to observe and other means of augurj-.^ rides ocourri. Cf. " eras tolletis. quern ducit priva triremis. dives. repetit quod nuper omisit. " an sua (\'irgil. iurat bene solis esse maritis. Si curatus inaequali tonsore capillos si forte subucula pexae . Aen. " lectus genialis in aula est nil ait esse prius. aestuat et vitae disconvenit ordine toto. putat. : ^ occurrit or occurro. ^ putas. quo teneam voltus mutantem Protea nodo ? quid pauper ? ride mutat cenacula.

« Horace plays upon the double sense of sarms. sound * save when : the \\-ise — flu " I * The marriage-bed was dedicated to the Genius of the family. \\1iat. 3. his bed. his barber. 217. 124 and ff. " is finer or better his hall ? than a single hfe. scorns what it craved." Is the bed of his Genius * in " Nothing. pulhng down." 259 . 86-108 omen. " to-morrow you'll carry your tools to Teanum." though you are keeper of my fortimes." If it is not. With what knot can I hold this face-changing Proteus ? What of the poor man ? Have your laugh He changes his garret.* " My lads. 3. or if my go^vn sits badly and askew. . I. and in the whole system of Ufa is out of joint. " Cf. ^* If. Sat. his baths. He hires a boat and I gets just as sick as the rich private yacht. Sat. He is rich. he swears that only the married are well off. man who sails in his when some uneven barber has cropped my come your way. I. is at strife ^\ith itself." he cries. i. u. building up. judgement ^'^ To sum up<* alone. ^ Cf. asks again for what it lately cast aside when it shifts like a tide. king of kings troubled by the " man is less than Jove honoured. and neither laugh at me nor deem that I need a physician or a guardian assigned by the court. I .EPISTLES. free." he says. you laugh. and changing square to round ? You think my madness is the usual thing. nay a above all. you laugh if haply I have a tattered shirt beneath a new tunic. when my hair. . beautiful. and flare up at an ill-pared nail of the friend who hangs upon you and looks to you in all. " sound " and " sane.

Ulysses is the truly wise man. To put off the day of reform is to be hke the clown who waits for the stream to run dry (32-4-3). and who." The poet has been reading Homer afresh while in Praeneste. and pronounces him a wiser teacher than all the philosophers. Horace seeks to interest him in moral philosophy through Homer. had already served in the Cantabrian war of 25-24 b.n TO LOLLIUS MAXIMUS is addressed to a young man who is studying rhetoric in Rome. Men are eager to become rich. mere consumers of earth's products (1-31). Surely it is time for us to wake up to the importance of right living and devote ourselves to study and virtue. The Odyssey shows us the value of courage and selfcontrol. And such cipiiers are we. as we are told to read the Apocrypha. in contrast with whom the worthless suitors of Penelope or the idle youth at the court of Alcinous are but ciphers. but riches will not The poem 360 . whom the ancients perused.c. if he is the same Lollius as is addressed in Epistle i. The Iliad pictures for us the follies of princes and the sufferings of the people. 18. " for examples of hfe and instruction of manners. the undistinguished mass of mankind.

n. In this quest of wisdom. We must clean the inside of the platter and make our hearts sound (il-oi). Horace gives a variety of moral maxims. the middle-aged poet must pursue his own quiet way.EPISTLES. either of body or of mind. I. so. in a And Polonius strain. 961 . and the youthful Lolhus must not expect him to be either too indifferent or too enthusiastic (55-71). bring health.

qua Paridis propter narratur amorem Graecia barbariae lento collisa duello. 2 distinct.^ Antenor censet belli* praeeidere causam quid^ Paris ? ut salvus regnet vivatque beatus 10 cogi posse negat. utile proposuit nobis exemplar Ulixen. hunc'' ^ plenius. or professor who his pupils prepare speeches on the themes given them often taken from history or literature . planius^ ac melius Chrysippo et Crantore dicit.e. study rhetoric under a rhetor. 15 seditione. amor. ef. 262 . quod. quidquid delirant reges. stultorum regum et populorum continet aestus. tu declamas Romae. //. dolis. X.II. quid turpe. Nestor componere litis inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden dum : .^ audi. Rursus. Juvenal vii. 166. 5 Fabula. nisi quid te distinct. qui quid sit pulchrum. IJ. 77: hence Bentley quod Paris. cur ita erediderim. Praeneste relegi . made and 150 . Maxime Lolli. * belli censet E. ira quidem communiter urit utrumque. Troiani belli scriptorem. quid non. quid utile. scelere atque libidine et ira Iliacos intra muros peccatur et extra. ut. " i. plectuntur Achivi. : : * 77 E^ destinet a detinet E^M. quid virtus et quid sapientia possit. ^ aestum V. * nunc.

have been reading afresh at Praeneste the writer who tells us what is fair. so that. without any irony. let else to take me tell you. Iliad. ^ The story in which it is told how. something to think so. within and without the walls of Troy all goes wrong. where Antenor urges that the Trojans restore Helen to the Atridae. giving up Helen. crime. can force him. declaim " at Rome. more plainly and better than Chrysippus or Grantor. Whatever folly the kings commit. Why I have I . come your attention. ironical. what not.* Nestor is eager to settle the strife between the sons of Peleus and of Atreus. viz. lust and WTath. If we read quod Paris. 263 .Epistlb II While you. Antenor moves to cut away the cause of the war. craft. of course. unless there is — * Cf. Paris would say that he could not be forced into doing that. but anger both in common. * This is. what is helpful. because of Paris's love Greece clashed in tedious war with a foreign land. vii. embraces the passions of foolish kings and peoples. LoBius Maximus. 350. what of the Trojan War is foul.* WTiat of Paris ? To reign in safety and to live in happiness nothing. the Achaeans pay the penalty. it would go with cogi. Love fires one. ut with Bentley. he says. of the power of worth and wisdom he has set before us an instructive pattern in Ulysses. in order to reign in safety. ^' Again. With faction.

nam cur quae laedunt oculum^ festinas demere si quid^ est animum. p. diflPers curandi tempus in annum ? dimidium facti qui coepit habet sapere aude . nos numerus sumus et fruges consumere nati. II oculos ' qui recte vivendi Goth. so Bentley. . Goth. ! . sponsi Penelopae nebulones. latumque per aequor. et ni posces ante diem librum cum lumine. 20 quae si cum soeiis stultus cupidusque bibisset. * si quod (l)\p\l. 40 incipe qui recte vivendi' prorogat horam. si non 35 intendes animum studiis et rebus honestis. curres* hydropicus . adversis rerum immersabilis undis. : * cures. et incultae pacantur vomere silvae 1 curam. R. aspera multa pertulit. 1921. rusticus exspectat dum defluat amnis at ille labitur et labetur in omne volubilis aevum Quaeritur argentum puerisque beata creandis 46 uxor. Bentley read cessantem ducere somnum. oculum E. IF. atque. Sirenum voces et Circae pocula nosti . si . ' nolisX?. 25 vixisset canis immundus vel amica luto sus. V. : vivendi qui recte other MSS. * • : aM E 264.HORACE qui domitor Troiae multorum providus urbes et mores hominum inspexit. Inge suggests cessantem ducere noctem {C. non expergisceris ? atqui^ noles^ sanus. Alcinoique in cute curanda plus aequo operata iuventus.R.^ Ut iugulent hominem. surgunt de nocte latrones . sub domina meretrice fuisset turpis et excors. dum soeiis reditum parat. i/. . invidia vel amore vigil torquebere. Porph. /: somnum Eir Goth. ut te ipsum serves. cui piilchrum fuit in medios dormire dies et 30 ad strepitum citliarae cessatum ducere curam. 77. 103). dum sibi..

robbers rise up by night Nay. begin He who puts off the hour of right living is like the bumpkin waiting for the river to run out yet on it glides. but could never be o'erwhelmed in the waves of adver- the Sirens' songs and Circe's cups . 965 . too. are tamed by our This sentence gives a free rendering of the opening lines of the Odyssey. I. ^^'hy indeed are you in a hui-ry to remove things which hurt the eye.EPISTLES. you'll have to do it when dropsical so. You know A\-ith along his — . and on it will glide. many hardships he endured. to save your o'v^ti life." if. ! : forever. you put off the time for cure till next year ? Well begun is half done . rolling its flood sity. ia-45 that tamer of Troy. bom to consume earth's fruits. ^2 To cut men's throats. he had drunk of these in folly and greed. II. unduly busy in keeping their skins sleek. whose pride it was to sleep till midday and to lull care to rest to the sound of the cithern. and while for self and comrades he strove for a return across the broad seas. who looked with discerning eyes upon the cities and manners of many men. if you won't take up running in health. *^ We . won't you wake up ? just as. comrades. children " seek money and a rich yrife to bear us the wild woods. he would have become the shapewould less and witless vassal of a harlot mistress have lived as an unclean dog or a sow that loves the mire. while if aught is eating into your soul. if you don't call for a book and a light before daybreak. if you don't devote your mind to honourable studies and pursuits. young courtiers of Alcinous. dare to be ^^^se . We are but ciphers. envy or passion will keep you awake in torment. Penelope's good-for-naught suitors.

quod satis est cui contingit,^ nihil amplius optet. non domus et fundus, non aeris acervus et auri
aegroto domini deduxit corpore febris,

non animo curas


valeat possessor oportet,

comportatis rebus bene cogitat uti. 60 qui eupit aut metuit, iuvat ilium sic domus et res, ut lippum pictae tabulae, fomenta^ podagram, auriculas citharae coUecta sorde dolentis. sincerum est nisi vas, quodcumque infundis acescit. Sperne voluptates nocet empta dolore voluptas. 56 semper avarus eget certum voto pete finem. invidus alterius macrescit rebus opimis ; invidia Siculi non invenere tyranni maius tormentum. qui non moderabitur irae,^ infectum volet esse, dolor quod suaserit et mens,* 60 dum poenas odio per vim festinat inulto. animum rege qui nisi paret ira furor brevis est imperat hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce catena.^ Fingit equum tenera docilem cervice magister venaticus, ex quo 65 ire viam qua^ monstret eques tempore cervinam pellem latravit in aula, nunc adbibe puro militat in silvis catulus. peetore verba puer, nunc te melioribus offer, quo semel est imbuta recens, servabit odorem 70 testa diu. quod si cessas aut strenuus anteis, nee tardum opperior nee praecedentibus insto.
; ;







* et

* tomenta Bouhier. mens] exmens or amens.


irani, //.





E quam


Such as the
Cf. " sapor,

cruel Dionysius or Phalaris.

quo nova imbuas, durat " (Quintilian, i. 1. 5). Un^lazed ware, which Horace doubtless has in mind, is more absorbent than glazed.






plough but he, to whose lot sufficient falls, should covet nothing more. No house or land, no pile of bronze or gold, has ever freed the o^\ne^'s sick body of fevers, or his sick mind of cares. The possessor must be sound in health, if he thinks of enjoying the stores he has gathered. To one with fears or cravings, house and fortune give as much pleasure as painted panels to sore eyes, warm vsTaps to the gout, or citherns to ears that suffer from secreted matter. Unless the vessel is clean, whatever you pour in turns sour. ^ Scorn pleasures pleasure bought with pain is harmful. The covetous is ever in want aim at a fixed limit for your desires. The envious man grows lean when his neighbour waxes fat ; than envy Sicihan tyrants * invented no worse torture. He who curbs not his anger will wish that undone which vexation and WTath prompted, as he made haste with violence to gratify his unsated hatred. Anger is
; :

Rule your passion, for unless it short-lived madness. obeys, it gives commands. Check it with bridle check it, I pray you, with chains. " WTiile the colt has a tender neck and is able to
learn, the

groom trains him The hound that is

to go the way his rider to hunt does service in

the woods from the time that it first barked at a deer-skin in the yard. Now, while still a bov, drink in my words with clean heart, now trust yourself to your betters. The jar will long keep the fragrance of what it was once steeped in when new.'* But if you lag behind, or with vigour push on ahead, I neither wait for the slow nor press after those who hurry on




Julius Florus, to whom Epistle


this Epistle is addressed,



later dedicated,

was one

of a number of young literary men who accompanied Tiberius to the East in 20 B.C., when the prince was sent by Augustus to place Tigranes on the throne of Armenia after the murder of Artaxias. Horace, now forty-five years old, makes kindly inquiries about his younger literary friends, and urges Florus, whatever field of letters he is cultivating, not to neglect philosophy.


lull Flore, quibus terrarum militet oris Claudius Augusti privignus, scire laboro.

Thracane^ vos Hebrusque nivali compede vinctus, an freta vicinas inter currentia turris,^ an pingues Asiae campi collesque morantur ? 6 Quid studiosa cohors operum struit ? hoc quoque
euro, quis sibi res gestas Augusti scribere sumit ? bella quis et paces longum difTundit in acvum ? quid Titius, Romana brevi venturus in era ? Pindarici fontis «flii non expalluit haustus, 10 fastidire lacus et rivos ausus apertos. ut valet ? ut meminit nostri ? fidibusne Latinis Thebanos aptare modos studet auspice Musa, an tragica desaevit et ampuUatur in arte ? quid mihi Celsus agit ? monitus multumque monen15 dus, privatas ut quaerat opes et tangere vitet
^ ^



Threcane E. V: terres 5^ : terris R^.

Tiberius Claudius Nero, later the Emperor Tiberius. of Hero and Leander, at Sestos and Abydos, on either side of the Hellespont. * In lacos et rivos apertos Horace refers to the artificial pools and tanks from which anyone could draw water, as contrasted with the natural springs in far distant hills, which
" i.e.

The towers


Epistlb III
I long to know, Julius Florus, in what regions of the earth Claudius,*' step-son of Augustus, is now campaigning. Does Thrace stay your steps, and Hebrus, bound in snowy fetters, or the straits that run between neighbouring towers,* or Asia's fertile



hills ?

This, too,

is the learned staff composing ? want to know. WTio takes upon him to record the exploits of Augustus ? Who ddown distant ages makes known his deeds in war and peace ? What of Titius, soon to be on the hps of Romans, who

Wliat works

quailed not at draughts of the Pindaric spring, but dared to scorn the open " pools and streams ? How How mindful is he of me ? Does he essay, fares he ? under favour of the Muse, to fit Theban measures to the Latin lyre ? Or does he storm and swell in the What, pray, is Celsus doing ? He was tragic art ? warned, and must often be warned to search for home treasures, and to shrink from touching the

one could reach only with difficulty. Apart from the metaphor, the contrast is between those Greek writers who could easily be reproduced, and the inimitable Pindar. For the latter idea cf. Odes, iv. 2, " Pindarum quisquis studet aemulari," etc The word ampullatur, translating XriKvdil^u, is from ampulla, a flask, the swelling body of which led to the use

of the


for bombait.



Poet. 97.


scripta Palatinus quaecumque receptt Apollo, ne, si forte su^s repetitum venerit olim

grex avium plumas, moveat cornicula^ risum 20 furtivis nudata coloribus. ipse quid audes ? quae circumvolitas agilis thy ma ? non tibi parvum ingenium, non incultum est et^ turpiter hirtum, seu linguam causis acuis seu civica iura respondere^ paras seu condis amabile carmen, 25 prima feres hederae victricis praemia. quod si

curarum fomenta relinquere posses,
caelestis sapientia dueeret, ires.^

quo te

hoc opus, hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli, patriae volumus, si nobis vivere cari. 30 Debes hoc etiam rescribere, sit^ tibi curae quantae conveniat Munatius ; an male sarta

at^ vos gratia nequiquam coit et rescinditur ? seu calidus sanguis seu" rerum inscitia vexat indomita cervice feros, ubicumque locorum vivitis, indigni fraternum rumpere foedus, pascitur in vestrum reditum votiva iuvenca.



vulpecula Servius on Aen. xi. 522. * responsare E. nee <}>\pd. Hitziff would transpose II. 26, 27 with each other, perhaps

correctly. * si 5 hence si tibi

ac Mss.


curae est Bentley, seu seu Acron










" Celsus is urged to depend more upon himself, instead of drawing so freely upon earlier writers, whose works he consulted in the library of the temple of Apollo on the Palatine. * Strictly speaking, the ivy applies only to the poet. For this c/ Odes, i. 1, 29.


writings which Apollo
lest, if


HI. 17-36

on the Palatine has admitted " some day perchance the flock of birds come
plumage, the poor crow, stripped of

to reclaim their

awake laughter. And yourself what do you venture on ? About what beds of thyme not are you busily flitting ? No small gift is yours untilled is the field, or rough-grown and unsightly. WTiether you sharpen your tongue for pleading, or essay to give advice on civil law, or build charming verse, you \A'ill win the first prize of the victor's ivy.** But could you but lay aside your cares those cold compresses" you would rise to where heavenly wisdom would lead. This task, this pursuit let us speed, small and great alike, if we would hve dear to our country, and dear to ourselves. ^ This, too, when you reply, you must tell me whether you esteem Munatius as much as you should. Or does your friendship, hke a wound ill-stitched, close vainly and tear open once more ? Yet, whether hot blood or ignorance of the world drives you both, \vild steeds with untamed necks, wherever on earth you are living you who are too good to break the bond of brotherhood a votive heifer is fattening
his stolen colours,

against your return.
' Horace seems to mean that the cares which weigh upon Florus are like the cold bandages which physicians in his day were prescribing for certain bodily ailments, cf. Suet. Aug. 81. The curae chilled the fire of inspiration, and were therefore far from beneficial, because Florus was continually wrapping himself up in his troubles. Some, however, prefer to take curariim as an objective genitive, so that curarum /omenta means " remedies against cares."



AxBFUS TiBuixus, the elegiac poet, who died the same year as Virgil, 19 b.c, when still quite young, had returned from a campaign in Aquitania in 27 b.c, and then perhaps read for the first time the Satires of Horace. As the first verse of this Epistle refers only to the Satires and not to the Odes, this short letter seems to have been written before 23 b.c, when the Odes (Books i.-iii.) were published. TibuUus seems to have been of a sensitive and somewhat melancholy disposition, like the English poet, Thomas Gray. Horace here tries to divert him, and concludes \vith an in\-itation to visit him, a prosperous Epicurean, at his Sabine farm. The commonly accepted view that the Albius liere addressed by Horace is the poet Tibullus has been rejected bv Cruquius, Baehrens and, more recently, by Professor J. P. Postgate (Selections from Tibullus, The identity of Albius and Tibullus 1903, p. 179). is upheld by Professor B. L, Ullman in an article on " Horace and Tibullus " in the American Journal


Philology, xxxiii. (1912) pp. 14-9 ff., to which Professor Postgate replies briefly in the same volume, Ullman also holds that Tibullus is the pp. 450 fF. Albifilius of Sat. i. 4. 109, ^NTitten when Tibullus was about sixteen years of age.


Albi, nostrorum sermonum candide iudex, quid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana ? scribere quod Cassi Parmensis opuscula vincat,


an taciturn silvas inter reptare salubris, curantem quidquid dignum sapiente bonoque^ est ? 5 non tu corpus eras sine pectore di tibi formam, di tibi divitias dederunt^ artemque fruendi. quid voveat dulci nutricula maius alumno, qui^ sapere et fari possit quae sentiat, et cui gratia, fama, valetudo contingat abunde, 10 et mundus^ victus non deficiente crumina ? Inter spem curamque, timores inter et iras^ omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum. grata superveniet, quae non sperabitur hora. me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute vises, 15 cum ridere voles, Epicuri de^ grege porcum.





. .

EV Porph.





* *

mundus, /: modus
iram E.


qun M. domus et Bentley.



" i.e.

the Satires.

The word Sermonen means

" talks,"


10. a hog from Epicurus's herd. See Introduction B. As for me. p. loc. For what more wealth. So too Ullnian. 277 .Epistle IV Albius. would a fond nurse pray for her sweet ward. amid fears and passions. « i. the gods gave you soul. If Ullman's view is correct. fat and sleek. * The scholiasts identifv him with Cassius Etruscus of Sat. 61. " conversations. and the art of enjoyment. impartial critic of my " chats." " what shall sav vou now are doing in your country at Pedum ? Writing something to outshine the pieces of Cassius of Parma * ? Or strolhng peacefully amid the healthful woods. is believe that every day that has dawned your last. 164. and health fall to him richly. fame. with a seemly living and a never failing purse ? I <= — Amid hopes and cares." and was adopted by Horace for his Satires. you will find me in fine fettle. note a. Welcome will come to you another hour unhoped for. Horace is here contrasting the son Albius with the father of the same name. cit. and musing on all that is worthy of one wise and good ? Never were you a body without The gods gave you beauty. if he could think aright and utter his thoughts if favour. when you want a laugh.


guests. this would be another reason why Horace would not expect his friend to come before evening. 8. 3). xxix. dined sub lumina prima {Sat. If so.^- ^ ^ Horace here invites to a simple dinner. Bell favours this interpretation {Classical Review. and Professor A. 200. midday. SS). which began de medio die {Sat. As to the hour set for the dinner Porphyrio explains supremo sole (1. also a busy man. a member of the wealthy family of the Manlii Torquati. 7. probably the same as the one to whom the seventh ode of the Fourth Book Torquatus is asked to bring some is later addressed. ii. But Horace's simple dinner is quite unlike the extravagant one given by Nasidienus. 3) as meaning hora sexta. on the eve of the birthday of Augustus.a/r •j^ V TO TORQUATtrS . i. 279 .e.r. sumably a busy la-wyer. and some of his clients might have to wait tiU late in the day in order to consult him. J. (1915) p. ii. and people who have spent a hot September in Rome will not think it hkely that the sensitive poet would have invited his guests to come at high noon in that unpleasant As to the last two lines Torquatus is premonth. Maecenas.

was accused of poisoning. manebo. a rhetorician from Pergamum. ^ festivam. " * fortuna R : fortunas. 6 splendet focus et tibi munda supellex. " According to the Scholiasts. vel imperium fer. At that time the wine had been poured from the large dolium into the smaller amphorae. : iamdudum . and defended by Torquatus as well as by Asinius Pollio. Torquate.V. Si potes Archiacis conviva recumbere lectis nee modiea eenare times holus omne patella. in Rome. Archias was According to See note on 1. September 23. Porphyrio his couches were small ones. ' In dissignare the original idea of sealing seems to be 280 .C. 29. si melius quid habes. 15 quid non ebrietas dissignat^ ? operta recludit. arcesse. Moschus. potare et spargere flores incipiam. September is one of the warmest months '' a maker of unpretentious furniture. vina bibes iterum Tauro diffusa palustris inter Minturnas Sinuessanumque Petrinum. mitte levis spes et certamina divitiarum eras nato Gaesare festus et Moschi causam dat veniam somnumque dies impune licebit 10 aestivam^ sermione benigno tendere noctem. * 26 B. supremo te sole domi. * designat a(p Goth. patiarque vel inconsultus haberi. Quo mihi fortunam.^ si non conceditur uti ? parcus ob heredis curam nimiumque severus adsidet insano.

at my house at sunset. and the furniture made neat for you.* To-morrow.Epistle V If you can recline at my table on couches made by Archias.** gives excuse for sleeping late without penalty shall we be free to prolong the summer night in genial . and to " unseal " (a verb appropriately used in the present connexion) signifies (according to Porphyrio) to "open. Cf. "modo quid dissignavit ? " "What out-of" For the general thought the-way thing has he now done ? cf. and shall sutfer you. WTiat a miracle cannot the wine-cup work * It unlocks ! negatived by the prefix dis-. reveal something. 13 ff. Terence. If you have aught better. You will drink wine that was bottled in Taurus 's second consulate ^ between marshy Minturnae and Petrinum near Sinuessa. from a modest dish. Adelphoe." i. or submit to orders. Torquatus. if you will. converse. bid it be sent. iii. from regard to his heir. I shall expect you." and are not afraid of " a dinner of herbs " only. the festal day of Caesar's birth. 21. and Moschus's cause. Od.e. 87. to think me reckless. ^ Why is fortune mine. pinches and spares overmuch is next door to a madman. I shall begin the drinking and the scattering of flowers. Hence it is used of any strange effect. Dismiss airy hopes and the struggle for wealth. Long has my hearth been bright. 281 . if I may not use it ? He who.

ne sordida mappa corruget naris. See note on Sat.HORACE spes iubet esse ratas. tu quotus esse velis rescribe et rebus omissis atria 2 30 servantem postico falle clientem. ut* coeat par iungaturque pari. ^ inermem aM. Tliis unsavoury detail is meant to be jocular. fecundi^ calices quem non fecere disertum ? contracta quem non in paupertate solutum ? Haec ego procurare et idoneus imperor et non in Vitus. ad proelia trudit inertem. " " ad summam a. ii. but as it / 282 .^ sollicitis animis onus eximit.^ locus est et pluribus umbris sed nimis arta premunt olidae convivia caprae. 23. II. Butram tibi Septiciumque. docet E. * ^ et facundi E5ir Vollmer. : et nisi cena prior potiorque puella Sabinum detinet. ne turpe tox-al. * et (pfXl. ne non et cantharus et lanx 20 ostendat sit tibi te. ne fidos inter amicos 25 qui dicta foras eliminet. addocet^ artes. 8. adsumam.

and by the back-door give the slip to the client waiting in your hall. . and Sabinus. for several girl detain him.'' Write back. " shades " " but the reek of goats makes too crowded feasts unpleasant. . pray. . teaches new arts. was the warm season Horace does not want his small couches to be too crowded. too. — : . friends ^ Butra and Septicius I shall have to meet you. unless a better supper and a goodlier There is room. V. takes the load from anxious hearts. secrets. no able and willing I am that tankard soiled napkin ^vrinkle up your nose that there be and plate become for you a mirror none to carry abroad what is said among faithful that hke may meet and mate with like. how many you would hke us to be then drop your business. S8S .EPISTLES. The flowing bowl whom has it not made eloquent ? WTiom has it not made free — even amid pinching poverty ? ^ Here is what I charge myself to pro^^de and that no untidy coverlet. 17-31 hopes be fulfilled. bids I. . thrusts the coward into the field.

Who fail to find thee. O This " wise indifference. or of rj ddavjMaa-Tia of philosophers in general (Strabo. The key-note is struck in the opening phrase. De Jin./3ia of Democritus (Cic. identical with the d6afj. they can surely look calmly upon things of less moment. the drapa^ia of the Epicureans. a rendering of the to fj. 3. v.r]8h' davfxd(eiv of Pythagoras. 21). and the dirddeLa of the Stoics. a composure of mind and feeling. If men can gaze unmoved on the wonders of the firmament. i. is a philosophic calm. This ddavjxaa-TLa. is perhaps the only clue to happiness. which ancient philosophy often regarded as the summum honum and which Tennyson defines so well in his Lucretius : thou. 29. divine Tranquillity. Yearn'd after by the wisest of the wise. Passionless bride. nil admirari. such 2b4 .VI TO NUMICIUS known about the person to whom this addressed. being as thou art Without one pleasure and without one pain. a freedom from exciting emotions. but the ideas expressed in it have made it one of the most famous of Horace's Nothing is is letter epistles. 87)." says Horace.

Have you anything better to he was (28-48). 68). you take medicine . Be not like the Cappadocian king. if you want to " live well. VI.EPISTLES. neither craving their rewards nor fearing their loss. stoop to all the tricks of the pohticians (49-55). you think \'irtue a mere name. If. then make haste to get rich. Such are my views. then think of nothing else. And bear in mind that. who didn't know how wealthy office and honours. I. 985 . If you have set your heart on offer ? (07. If " li\ang well " means for you good eating (56-64) or love and pleasure (65. for fame and wealth. as wealth and honovirs. follow her at all costs. on the contrary. however much you may long for treasures of art. death must be the end of all (1-27). " Nothing in excess " should be one's rule even in the pursuit of Virtue." and know that Virtue alone can give you that boon. but rather be hke Lucullus. who was so poor. You think I am wrong ? If you are ill. 66).

ultra quam satis est Virtutem si petat^ ipsam.VI. Nil admirari prope res est una. 286 . quid maris extremes Arabas ditantis et Indos.^ gaudeat an doleat. aequus iniqui. 10 improvisa simul species exterret utrumque. defixis oculis animoque et corpore torpet ? 15 insani sapiens nomen ferat. plausus et amici dona Quiritis. solaque quae possit facere et servare beatum. I nunc. quicquid vidit melius peiusve^ sua spe. quid ad rem. ^ petet aM. spectent E. ludicra quid. argentum et marmor vetus aeraque et artcs suspice. ne plus frumenti dotalibus emetat agris Mutus et (indignum. . * exterret (-it R) utrumque.* cum gemmis Tyrios mirare colores gaude quod spectant^ oculi te mille loquentem 20 navus mane forum et vespertinus pete tectum. quo sensu credis et ore ? Qui timet his adversa. quod sit peioribus ortus) : : . quo spectanda modo. cupiat metuatne. * * pciusne Rd. * //: most editors exterruit utrum aE. fere miratur eodem quo cupiens pacto pavor est utrobique molestus. si. hunc solem et stellas et decedentia certis tempora momentis sunt qui formidin^ nulla 6 imbuti spectent quid censes munera terrae. Numici. suscipe EXItt.

when he has seen aught better or worse than he expected. the plaudits and the favours of the friendly Roman in what \nse. gaze with rapture on silver plate. which makes rich far distant Arabs and Indians what of the shows.Epistle VI " Marvel at nothing " that is perhaps the one and only thing. . Numicius. the moment some : unexpected appearance startles either. and (oh the shame. that can make a man happy and keep him so. ^' Go now. bronzes and works of art . the stars and seasons that pass in fixed courses some can gaze upon these with no strain of fear what think you of the gifts of earth. with what feelings and eyes think you they should be viewed ? — — : — — ® And he who fears much the same way as case a 'tis their opposites " marv^els " in the man who desires in either the excitement that annoys. Yon sun. and mind and body are benumbed ? Let the wise man bear the name of madman. his eyes are fast riveted. should he pursue Virtue herself beyond due bounds. antique marble. the just of unjust. 287 . or what of the sea's. desire or fear. lest Mutus reap more grain from the lands of his wife's dower. to your home late. Whether joy or grief. for he sprang from meaner at . what matters it if. " marvel feel man gems and Tyrian dyes rejoice that a thousand eyes survey you as you speak in your diligence get you to the Forum early.

Bentley. " Both were frequented by the fashionable world. chlamydes Lucullus. 40 si posset centum scaenae praebere rogatus. * This is a proverbial expression. ire tamen restat Numa quo devenit et Ancus. cum bene notum 25 porticus Agrippae. 45 exilis domus est. " ergo * proferat aM. totidem altera. ubi non et multa supersunt : et dominum fallunt et prosunt furibus. quaere fugam morbi. in apricum proferet^ aetas. ut aiunt. • nee E. 6. II. Epode iv. AH * et • quadrat aM. For the Appian Way cf. near the Pantheon. Virtutem verba putas^ et lucum ligna cave ne portus occupet alter. The portico of Agrippa. 14 and Sat. 5. vis recte vivere quis non ? 30 si Virtus hoc una potest dare. was opened in 25 b.HORACE hie tibi sit potius quam tu mirabilis illi. via te^ conspexerit Appi. partem vel toUeret omnis. " qui possum tot ? " ait . porro et* 35 tertia succedant et quae pars quadret^ acervum. mancupiis locuples eget aeris Cappadocum rex : ne* fueris hie tu. putes et via. fortis omissis hoc age deliciis. applicable to the material- 288 . ne Cibyratica. i. omitted aMS. scilicet uxorem cum dote fidemque et amicos et genus et formam regina Pecunia donat.c. " tamen et quaeram et quot : : habebo mittam " post paulo scribit sibi milia quinque esse domi chlamydum . ac bene nummatum decorat Suadela Venusque. mille talenta rotundentur. quidquid sub terra est. defodiet condetque nitentia. ne Bithyna negotia pei'das . Si latus aut renes morbo temptantur acuto.

much that escapes the master and profits his as marly in a '^ : : . 39. 3). ^ set to '^ work ? ! Do you think Virtue but words. Numa and disease. then add a third thousand. Time " at him rather than he at into the light whatever is under the earth it will bury deep and hide what now shines bright." spare. 'tis said. For Lucullus "see Plutarch's Lives. of the day. of whom Cicero says." A httle later he writes " I have five thousand cloaks at home take some or Poor is the house where there's not much to all. birth and beauty. VI. The Cappadocian king is rich in slaves. You wish if then Virtue to hve aright (and who does not ?) alone can confer this boon. when Appius's way " has looked upon your well-kno\vn form. ists U 289 .^ When Agrippa's colonnade. 23-46 lest you " marvel will bring . are the gift of Quee^ Cash.EPISTLES. vi. Horace expands the story somewhat. was asked if he could lend a hundred cloaks for the stage. Of course a wife and dowTy. " How can I so many ? " he answers. and the goddesses Persuasion and Venus grace the man who is well-to-do. who were ready to cut down even sacred groves. ch. but lacks coin be not hke him. * Viz. credit and friends. lest you lose your ventures from Cibyra and Bithynia. "erat rex perpauper" {Ad Att. and a forest * but Take care lest your rival make harbour first. stiU it remains for you to go where Ancus have gone down before. second lot . Suppose you round off a thousand talents firewood . Litcullus. !) I. Ariobarzanes. Lucullus. stock you. boldly drop trifles and If . " yet I'll look and send as many as I have. seek a your chest or reins are assailed by a sharp remedy for the disease. and enough to square the heap.

ifcis. primum. hoc postremus omittas. remigium vitiosum Ithacensis Ulixei. servos difFertum transire** forum populumque' iubebat. qui mane plagas. obliti. ut olim Gargilius." " pater "adde : ut cuique est aetas. mercemur servum.HORACE si res sola potest facere et servare beatum. crudi tumidique lavemur. Vive.e.^ ^ candidus imperti " his utere 11. qui dictet nomina. venemur. ita quemque facetus adopta. Caerite cera digni. * non. quid novisti rectius si nil. is picturing the ambitious politicians as hurrying over these to greet a voter on the other side of the street. quid non. 4>4'^l' scaevum) aM. cui potior patria^ fuit interdicta voluptas^ si. hoc primus^ repetas opus. * pondere." " frater. had the duty of informing master of the names of people he did not know. adapta ' campum Bentley. vale si . called nomenclator. laevum^ 50 qui fodicet latus et cogat trans pondera^ dextram porrigere " hie* multum in Fabia valet. Si fortunatum species et gratia praestat. quid deceat. patriae. mecum. : cui libet hie fasces dabit eripietque curule cui volet importunus ebur. The scholiasts explain pondera as the term applied to the high stepping-stones used for crossing the streets as may be seen in Pompeii. vivas ! 65 nil est in amore iocisqy. eamus quo ducit gula . piscemur. therefore. " his '' 290 . Mimnermus uti censet. * liis or is Mdir. laevum * * E : saevum II. {i. * A slave.* 55 Si bene qui cenat bene vivit. Other interpretations. 60 unus ut e multis populo spectante referret emptum mulus aprum. venabula. 11% so Pithoeus. //. sine amore iocwque iucundum. 11. lucet. ille Velina . transferre Goth. Horace.

deserving to have our place in the Caere class. 291 . « As deserving to be disfranchised. 13). if churlish. live ^" ^ — amid love and jests. let us bathe." to nudge our left side.'' . xvi. without love and jests there is no joy. whither the palate guides us." Throw in " Brother " " Father " politely adopt ! ! — each one according to his age. join me it on. VI. " This Fabian tribe man has much influence in the that in the Veline. and popularity make the fortunate man. let's be off. This man will give the fasces to whom he will. If he who dines well. pass fellow. then 'tis daybreak. my good such as that pondera means the weights on a shop-counter. the last to leave *^ it off. or. and make us stretch out the hand across If pomp the streets. Uves well. Live long. farewell. 47-68 So if wealth alone can make you happy and keep you so. know something If not. The word cera refers to the wax-covered tablets on which the lists of citizens were entered. Wliile gorged with undigested food. forgetful of what is or is not seemly. The people of Caere were munteipes sine suffragii iure (Gellius. let us buy a slave to call off names. that in the sight of that same throng one mule of all the train might bring home a boar he had purchased. I. in follo^ving these. like Gargilius in the story. be the first to go back to this task. knaves. will snatch the curule ivory from whom he pleases. let us hunt. If you better than these precepts. as Mimnermus holds. Let us fish.EPISTLES. At dawn of day he would bid his slaves with huntingnets and spears pass through the throng in the crowded Forum. to whom forbidden pleasure was dearer than fatherland.'' hke the wicked crew of Ulysses of Ithaca. If. are pure conjectures.


and he refuses to surrender his personal independence. If that is demanded. when he himself had to remain in Rome. The poet's attitude is illustrated by several stories." 293 . but he must consider his health. Of this Swift has made a very humorous use in his " Address — — to the Earl of Oxford. the last of which the tale of Philippus and his client. Horace makes a manly and dignified reply. He assures his patron that he is not ungrateful for past benefits. Volteius Mena takes up half of the poem. he is willing to give up everything that Maecenas has conferred upon him.VII TO MAECENAS Maecenas has apparently reproached Horace for staying in the country longer than he had said he would. and perhaps he had reminded the poet of his obligations to his patron.

g. reviset cum Zephyris. decern dies . Sextilem totum mendax desideror." " ut libet haec porcis hodie comedenda relinques. si concedes. cf. quam si dimittar onustus." " benigne. dabis aegrotare timenti. 10 quod si bruma nives Albanis illinet agris. concedis E. ' adducet RSir. be used of " a long w eek. officiosaque sedulitas et opella forensis 5 adducit^ febris et testamenta resignat. Maecenas. atque^ si me vivere vis sanum recteque valentem." " tarn teneor dono.VII. dulcis amice. Non quo more piris vesci Calaber iubet hospes." " iam satis est.* et hirundine prima. veniam. dum ficus prima calorque^ dissignatorem decorat lictoribus atris. Andria "225. 15 tu me fecisti locupletem." Similarly. quam mihi das aegro. sodes. * relinquis (p^j/Xl. but colorque Va." " non invisa feres pueris munuscula parvis. Quinque dies tibi pollicitus me rure futurum. {e. ^ * * atqui E.) Terence. " Quinque may 294 is a round number here. dum pueris omnis pater et matercula pallet. ad mare descendet vates tuus et sibi parcet contractusque leget te." " at tu quantum vis tolle.^ " . " vescere. .

^* 'Twas not in the way a Calabrian host invites you to eat his pears that you have made me rich. if you would have me hve sound and in good health. '' refers to social duties." " Your tiny tots \\-ill love the little gifts you take them. such as attendance 295 ." " I've had enough. I am missed the whole of Augast. will be careful of himself and. huddled up. while the first figs and the heat — — adorn the undertaker \^-ith his black attendants." " Well. your poet \^ill go down to the sea." — — : The phrase upon the great. you'll be leaving them for the swine to gobble up to-day. take away all you please." " I'm as much obhged for your offer as if you sent me away loaded dowTi. But if %\'inter shall strew the Alban fields with snow. he vriW if you permit revisit along with the zephyrs and the first swallow. And yet." " No.Epistle VII Only a week " was I to stay in the country such was my promise but. dear friend. while every father and fond mother turns pale with fear for the cliildren." " As you please . will take to his reading you. thanks. false to my word. " Eat some. the indulgence which you grant me when ill you will grant me when I fear to become ill. pray. and while diligence in courtesies ^ and the Forum's petty business bring on fevers and unseal wills.

1. " shrew-mouse.e. by Lachmann." ait. " effugere istinc. Forte per angustam tenuis volpecula^ rimam repserat in cumeram^ frumenti. * For the beauty of a narrow brow cf. : baud* male Telemachus. Bentley's conjecture nitedula. at (pfSXl : aut Rir. ' Kiessling. 20 haec seges ingratosi tulit et feret omnibus annis." Horace is becoming bald. " si vis. 20. '* insignem tenui fronte Lycorida. ir." has been 29() . vir bonus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratus. . proles patientis^ Ulixei : 40 " non est aptus equis Ithace locus. pastaque rursus 30 ire foras pleno tendebat corpore frustra cui mustela procul. ut neque planis ^ * ingrato E'^b'^ : ingratis (p\l/\l. Holder and * cameram ' sapientis E. * i. . 5. reddes ridere decorum et inter vina fugam Cinarae maerere protervae. cuncta resigno nee somnum plebis laudo satur altilium nee 36 otia divitiis Arabum liber rima muto. quem macra subisti. 33. nee tamen ignorat quid distent aera lupinis. reddes 25 forte latus. reddes dulee loqui. macra cavum repetes artum. rexque paterque audisti coram nee verbo parcius absens inspice si possum donata reponere laetus. Od. saepe verecundum laudasti. nitedula Bentley : accepted others. dignum praestabo me etiam pro laude merentis. nigros angusta fronte capillos.HORACE prodigus et stultus donat quae spernit et odit . and * is praecanus {Epist. used for counters in playing games. quod si me noles usquam diseedere. real money and the imitation lupine seeds. i." hac ego si compellor imagine. 24).

you hard by must go back lean to the narrow gap which you entered when lean. and have been called " king " and " father " to your face. because in real grain. Your good and wise man claims to be ready to help the worthy and yet he knows well how coins and counters" Worthy I. • IntheOdy««t. son of Odysseus. 43. whether stint my words behind your back. . 20-41 foolish prodigal gives away what he despises and dislikes the field thus sown has always yielded. a crop of ingratitude. and cheerfully too. nor do I Try me. no poor answer of Telemachus. never suffer me to leave you. life the fox does not eat traditional text must be retained. "* The term rex was used of a patron . as the glory diifer. But if you will of your good deed demands. nor would I barter my ease and my freedom for all the wealth of Araby." Epist. for Ulysses * : ** : widely accepted. ^ Once it chanced that a pinched little fox " had crept througli a narrow chink into a bin of corn.2/('v. Often have you praised my modesty. too. 601ff.EPISTLES. give back graceful laughter and laments amid our cups : . i. declines the horses and chariot oflFered him in friendship by But the Menelaus. VII. and when well fed was trying with stuffed stomach to get out again. The I. and always will yield. but in vain. vn\\ show myself. son of enduring " Ithaca is no land meet for steeds. you must give me back strength of lung. when I am fed full on capons. To him quoth a weasel "If you >^'ish to escape from there. c/" coram rege suo. I neither praise the poor man's sleep. and black locks on a narrow brow ^ you must give back a pleasant prattle. 'Twas I can restore your gifts." If challenged by this fable. 17.). o'er saucy Cinara's flight. 897 . I give up all. Telemachus.

//. ab officiis dum redit atque gaudentem parvisque sodalibus et lare certo^ et ludis et post decisa negotia Campa. » et." parvum parva decent mihi iam non regia Roma. 45 Strenuus et fortis causisque Philippus agendis : octavam circiter horam Foro nimium distare Carinas iam grandis natu queritur. quid multa ? " benigne. adrasum quendam vacua tonsoris in umbra 60 cultello proprios^ purgantem^ leniter unguis." : 60 respondet. Volteium nomine Menam. magis apta tibi tua dona relinquam. * ^ curto. rcspondit 5 resecantem E Goth. * locum. conspexit.^ " neget'' et te neglegit aut horret. ^ proprio. ^ ^>^ 298 .e. clarus. ut aiunt. quaere et refer. ille Philippe excusare laborem et mercennaria vincla.^ redit et narrat. tenui censu. sine crimine. JI. ' negat a Goth. unde domo." vilia ille mihi ? " " negat improbus Volteium mane Philippus vendentem tunicato scruta popello 06 occupat et salvere iubet prior." 66 it. praeconem." (puer hie non laeve iussa Philippi accipiebat) " abi. quo sit patre quove patrono. cuius fortunae." non sane credere Mena. Goth. notum et properare loco* et cessare et quaerere et uti.HORACE porrectus spatiis nee multae prodigus herbae : Atride. * « i. sed vacuum Tibur placet aut imbelle Tarentum. quis. mirari secum tacitus. " scitari libet ex ipso quodcumque refers die ad cenam veniat. contests in the such games as those of the Circus and the athletic Campus Martins. " Demetri.

42-67 much has no level courses outspread. was returning home from work about . or who his patron. " No. thank you. and either shghts or dreads you. ask. when (so the story goes) he caught sight of a man close-shaven. he marvels in thoughtful silence." Mena cannot really believe it . To be brief." He goes. and what's his standing. of his a home own and. the famous pleader. Son of Atreus. who he is. slow to catch his master's orders). two o'clock. it I. sitting in a barber's empty booth." he answers. to make money and spend it. VII. ** Philippus." selling morning Phihppus comes on Volteius cheap odds and ends to the common folk in tunics ^ and is first to give a greeting." the rascal. " Would he refuse me ? " " He does.EPISTLES. of modest fortime and blameless record. when games and in the field of Mars. who is his father. where that man's from. Bid him come to supper. a crier at auctions. but qmet Tibur or peaceful Tarentvun. " go." befit small folk my o\vn dehght to-day is not queenly Rome. a man of \igour and courage. in the " I'd hke to hear from his own hps all you tell me. he was grumbhng at the Carinae being too far from the Forum. kno^vn to work hard and idle in season. and comes back \nih the tale that his name is Volteius Mena. and with pocket-knife quietly cleaning his " Demetrius " (this lad was not nails for himself. 299 . The other makes work and the ties of his trade an excuse to * ^ Next The common people did not wear the toga in daily life. Being now somewhat on in years. I will leave you your Small things gifts. as being more meet for you. taking pleasure in his humble friends and business is over. nor is it la\ish of herbage. and bring me word.

si cenas hodie mecum. All legal business was suspended for the time. * — 300 . 85 immoritur studiis et amore senescit habendi. nee RItt. The^feriae Latinae were held annually on a day appointed and announced usually at the end of April or the beginning of May. spem mentita seges. praevidisset." ait. mutua septem 80 promittit. to pay his respects. velles. iubetur rura suburbana indictis comes ire Latinis." inquit. denique quod non " sic ignovisse putato providisseti eum. 69 me tibi. " Voltei. et sibi dum requiem. " durus. dum septem donat sestertia. ^ ponere VaE : dicere B. patrone. impositus mannis arvum caelumque Sabinum non cessat laudare. mercatur. : occultum visus decurrere piscis Hie ubi saepe ad hamum. nimis attentusque videris si esse mihi. ofFensus damnis media de nocte caballum 89 arripit iratusque Philippi tendit ad aedis. vocares. " ^ ^ me miserum. II. rem strenuus auge. ne^ te longis ambagibus* ultra quam satis est moi*er. praeparat ulmos.e." " ut libet. * * verum mihi ponere^ nomen. Rir. persuadet uti mercetur agellum. quem simul aspexit scabrum intonsumque Philippus. dum risus undique quaerit. ambiguus est otnitted w. 75 mane cliens et iam certus conviva. bos est enectus arando. ex nitido fit rusticus atque sulcos et vineta crepat mera." ut ventum ad cenam est. in view of the invitation sent him." " pol.^ dicenda tacenda locutus tandem dormitum dimittitur. videt ridetque Philippus. verum ubi oves furto.HORACE quod non mane domum venisset. ' i." " ergo post nonam venies nunc i. morbo periere capellae.

he persuades him to buy a little farm. I. in the morning a client and now a constant guest. he is ever praising the Sabine soil and climate. He does so." said he. and what vrith looking for his own rehef and amusement from any source. our spruce cit becomes a rustic and chatters about nothing but furrows and \ineyards." my patron. rough and unshorn. soon as he saw him. 68-93 Philippus for not having come to his house that morning. if you could give me my true name. Now go. " You're to take it that I've pardoned you only if you sup with me to-day.EPISTLES. But ! 301 . and what with gi\ing him seven thousand sesterces. " Volteius. fretting over his losses. and grows old with his passion for getting." cries he. VII. Philippus notes and smiles. Not to hold you too long with a rambhng tale." " You wiU come then after three o'clock. he was invited to come as companion. in the middle of the night he seizes his nag and in a rage makes straight for the house of Phihppus. when his crops have fooled his hopes and his ox is worn to death A\-ith ploughing. makes ready his elms. " you would call me miserable wretch. he chatted about anything and everything. nearly kills himself over his hobbies." in fine for not seeing him first. when the Latin games were proclaimed. But when he has lost his sheep by theft and his goats by disease. and then at last was sent off to bed. to a country estate near Rome. He. set to and add to your wealth " On coming to supper." " As you please. '^ When he had often been seen to run like a fish to the hidden hook. " you seem to me ! ** " Egad too hard-worked and over-strained. Mounted behind the ponies. and offering him a loan of seven thousand more.

est. taken from 302 . quantum dimissa metiri se » petitis praestent. quemque suo modulo : ac pede . verum 1.HORACE quod te per Genium dextramque deosque obsecro et obtestor. 90. vitae me redde priori Penatis " ! 95 Qui semel^ aspexit. mature redeat repetatque relieta. semel early editions simul mss.

go back in 'Tis time and seek again the things he has left." ^ Let him. 94-98 gods. right that each should measure himself by his own rule and standard. who once has seen how far what he has given up excels what he has sought. by your genius. by your right hand and household I implore and entreat you.EPISTLES. 303 . I. put me back in my former hfe. vn.


VIII TO CELSUS ALBINOVANUS This brief letter is addressed to the Celsus mentioned in the third epistle of this book as a member of the staff of Tiberius Claudius Nero. but the main point of his letter hes in the admonition to his friend not to be unduly elated by liis good fortune. The poet confesses that he himself is out of sorts and discontented. 305 .

ut valeat. . 7. ut placeat iuveni percontare utque cohorti. irascar amicis. subinde Musa . . nee quia longinquis armentum aegrotet in agris sed quia mente minus validus quam corpore toto nil audire velim. quo pacto rem gerat et se. Post haec. * aut ir'. * S06 . quod levet aegrum fidis ofFendar medicis. 10 cur me* funesto properent arcere^ veterno .® Tibure Romam. si quaeret^ quid agam." primum gaudere. die multa et pulchra minantem vivere nee recte nee suaviter haud^ quia grando 5 contuderit vitis oleamque^ momorderit aestus. * urguere ir. venturus V. Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere Albinovano rogata refer. praeceptum * auriculis hoc instillare memento : " ut tu fortunam. quae nocuere sequar. 15 si dicet. nil discere.y VIII. . mihi E. 11. ^ ' oleamve E. 28). " recte. sic nos te." quaerit a. feremus. ii. Porph. Celse. {on Serm. comiti scribaeque Neronis. fugiam quae profore credam Romae Tibur amem ventosus.

tell him that despite many fine promises I live a hfe neither wise nor pleasant not because hail has beaten down my vines and heat blighted my olives. how he stands in favour viiih prince and staff. so we shall bear with you. nor because my herds are sickening on distant pastures but because. less sound in mind than in all my body. and angrily ask my friends why they are eager to rescue me from fatal lethargy because I follow after what has hurt me. quarrel with my faithful physicians. avoid what I believe vill help me. how in estate and person he is faring. to the comrade and secretary of Nero. will learn nothing.Epistle VIII To Celsus Albinovanus greetings and good wishes ! This message bear. O Muse. . Celsus. Then ask him how his own health is. . at Tibur Rome. to relieve my sickness . If he ask you how I fare. at Rome loxing Tibur. . and am fickle as the wind. If he says " Well. I will listen to nothing. : 307 ." first wish him joy then by and by remember to drop this warning in the dear fellow's ears "As you bear your fortune. at my request." .


Septimi. selfish if The the East.. who would seem he did not heed his friend's request. Gadis aditure mecum et Cantabrum indoctum iuga ferre nostra et barbaras Syrtis. The letter was probably written in 20 B. when Tiberius was preparing to set out for delicate tact of the writer. ii. and might be guilty of effrontery if he did. 309 . probably the friend of Carm. has often been admired.IX TO TIBERIUS This charming letter of introduction is addressed to the young prince Tiberius on behalf of one Septiniius. 6.C.

dissimilator opis propriae. . 5 quid possim videt ac novit^ me valdius ipso. frontis ^ ac novit aE Ooth * : agnovit A\ II. ego. multa quidem dixi cur excusatus abirem sed timui mea ne^ finxisse minora putarer. Claudi. quod si depositum laudas ob amici iussa pudorem. scribe tui gregis hunc et fortem crede bonumque. nam cum rogat et pi-ece cogit scilicet ut tibi se laudare et tradere coner. dignum mente domoque legentis honesta Neronis. munere cum fungi propioris censet amici. nimirum intellegit unus. Septimius. 10 ad urbanae descendi praemia. milii sic commodus uni. quanti me facias.IX. 310 . maioris fugiens opprobria culpae. non <f>\p.

Claudius.! he sees and knows what I can do more fully than myself. For when he begs and by prayer forces me mark you to an endeavour to commend and present him to you. falsely hiding my real power and seeking favour for myself alone So to avoid the reproach of a graver fault. make of me. as one worthy of the mind and household of Nero. I have stooped to win the reward of town-bred impudence.Epistle IX Only Septimius of course understands how much. To be sure I gave him many reasons for letting me go excused but I feared that I might be thought to have made out my influence too small. . you — ! — — . enrol him in vour circle and believe him brave and good. the lover of virtue when he deems that I fill the place of a closer friend. But if you approve of my thus doffing modesty at the bidding of a friend. SU .


i. The Epistle is a rhapsody upon the simplicity and charm of country life addressed to a cultivated man of the town. i. figures in an amusing role in Sat. Aristius Fuscus. In the country Horace is perfectly content. save for the fact that his friend is elsewhere. SIS . to whom this letter is addressed. was a dramatic writer and a scholar. and is best known as the man to whom the famous Integer viiae ode {Carm. i. He appears in the list of Horace's literary friends given in Sat.. 9.TO ARISTIUS FUSCUS According to the scholiasts. S3.61 ff. 22) is dedicated. 10.

columbis being governed by * effertis ^ sic fertis Mss. : pariter. et alter) adnuimus pariter vetuli notique columbi. ^ VE : ' V V * ponendaque one Bland. novistine locum potiorem rure beato ? est ubi plus tepeant hiemes. at Lavibinus had (corrected). utque sacerdotis fugitivus liba recuso . cum semel accepit Solem furibundus acutum ? ruris 5 10 15 est ubi divellat' somnos minus invida Cura ? ^^^'deterius Libycis olet aut nitet herba lapillis ? ^ si quid E. ponendaeque^ domo quaerenda est area primum. ad a. 11. much on 314 .Urbis amatorem Fuscum salvere iubemus amatores. ego laudo ruris amoeni rivos et musco circumlita saxa nemusque. <f>\p. ubi gratior aura leniat et rabiem Canis et momenta Leonis. quid quaeris ? vivo et regno. Vivere Naturae si^ convenienter oportet. pane egeo iam mellitis potiore placentis.^ Tu nidum servas . " depellat a. " The sacrificial slave in a priest's household was fed so cakes that he ran away to get plain fare. at^ cetera paene gemelli fraternis animis (quidquid^ negat alter. simul ista reliqui quae vos ad caelum efFertis* rumore secundo. vetulis notisque columbis conjectured the same reading. hac in re scilicet una multum dissimiles.

lover of the city. where a more grateful breeze tempers the Dog-star's fury and the Lion's onset.Epistle X To Fuscus. In short — — . to be sure. we differ much. becoming visible on July 26. " The Dog-star rises July 20. and now prefer to honeyed cakes. The constellation is compared to a lion roused to fury when wounded with arrows. a lover of the country. sweet wafers 'tis bread I want. I live and reign. . The sun enters Leo July 23. but being in all else much like twins with the hearts of brothers if one says " no. ^ You keep the nest I praise the lovely country's brooks." the other says " no " too we nod a common assent hke a couple of old familiar doves." ^2 If " to hve agreeably to Nature "^ is our duty. 315 . do you know any place to be preferred to the blissful country ? Is there any where winters are milder. In this one point. its grove and moss-grown rocks. I loathe skies. when once in frenzy he Is there any has caught the sun's piercing shafts ? where envious Care less distracts our slumber ? Is the grass poorer in fragrance or beauty than Libyan. send greetings. '^ * ofjioXoyovfUyus tj <f>v(rei ^qv : one of the Stoic rules of life. as soon as I have left behind what you townsmen with shouts of applause extol to the Like the priest's runaway slave. I. and first we must choose a site for building our house.

non frenum depulit ore. 40 cui si non conveniet sua res.e. tamen usque recurret. * i. laudaturque domus longos quae prosplcit agros. si quid mirabere. qui Sidonio contendere callidus ostro nescit Aquinatem potantia vellera fucum. sic qui pauperiem veritus potiore metallis libertate caret. dominum veliet^ improbus atque serviet aeternum. quam qui non poterit vero distinguere falsum. quia parvo nesciet uti. - E 8 vehit E. et mala perrumpet furtim fastidia^ victrix. ^ expellas early editions. 30 mutatae quatient.e. expelles^ furca. « et <p^\l. ^ propiusque a. si minor. * violens victor : victo ridens Haupf. donee minor in certamine longo 35 imploravit opes hominis frenumque recepit sed postquam victor violins* discesisit ab hoste. 316 . uret. ut^ calceus olim. Naturam : non equitem dorso. quem res plus nimio delectavere secundae.HORACE purior in vicis aqua tendit rumpere plumbum. pede maior erit. certius accipiet damnum propiusve^ medullis. subvertet. the costly pavements of the great Roman houses. II : vestigia V. the marble columns of diiferent colours wliich formed the colonnade surrounding the peristyle or inner court of a " i. pones invitus. Cervus equum pugna melior communibus herbis pellebat. 25 Non. 20 quam quae per pronum trepidat cum murmure rivum? nempe inter varias nutritur silva columnas. fastigia a. fuge magna licet sub paupere tecto reges et regum vita praecurrere amicos.

will in his avarice carry a master. and you praise the mansion which looks out on distant fields. 20-43 Is the water purer which in city-streets struggles to burst its leaden pipes than that fWhich dances and purls adown the sloping brook ? ^^Why. You may drive out Nature with a pitchfork.EPISTLES. not kno\ving how to live on little. and. it will trip him if too small. Roman grown. were like the * A lichen found at Aquinum produced a colour famous Sidonian purple. ere you know it. amid your varied columns * you are nursing trees. in overweening triumph. which is better than mines of wealth. he parted from his foe. mosaics " ? I. But after that. 2*' The man who has not the skill to match \vith Sidonian purple the fleeces that drink up Aquinum's dye. One whom Fortune's smiles have dehghted overmuch. 'tis as ofttimes with a shoe if too big for the foot. Flee grandeur though humble be your home. When a man's fortune will not fit liim. If you set your heart on aught. he did not dislodge the rider from his back or the bit from his mouthy So he who through fear of poverty forfeits liberty. and be a slave for ever. sn . will burst through your foolish contempt in triumph. ^ The stag could best the horse in fighting and used to drive him from their common pasture. will chafe. until the loser in the long contest begged the help of man and took the bit." will not suffer surer loss or one closer to his heart than he who shall fail to distinguish false from true. X. — . trees as well as shrubs. house. will reel under the shock of change. yet she M-ill ever hurry back. In this court. you will be loth to lay it down. yet in hfe's race you may outstrip kings and : the friends of kings.

ubi plura 45 cogere quam satis est ac non cessare videbor. tortum digna sequi potius quam ducere funem. me dimittes^ incastigatum. Haec tibi dictabam post fanum putre Vacunae.HORACE Laetus sorte tua vives sapienter. cetera laetus. 50 excepto quod non simul esses. imperat aut servit collecta pecunia cuique. * dimittis i2ir. nee Aristi. 318 .

Money stored up is for each his lord or his slave. X. if cheerful in your and you will not let me off unrebuked. lot. 44-50 You will live wisely.EPISTLES. Aristius. but ought to follow. ** r. when I seem to be gathering more than enough and never to rest."* These lines I am dictating to you behind Vacuna's crumbling shrine. happy on all counts save that you are not with me. " led Probably a reference to some story of an animal being by a rope and running away with its keeper. S19 . the twisted rope. not lead.


a man's happiness depends.XI TO BULLATIUS BuiXATius. appealed strongly to the poet. a friend of the poet's. has been travelling in the Pro\-inee of Asia. That lonely spot. who would love to live there. asks him whether. and Horace. who seems to have had httle of the Wanderlust himself. The world forgetting. not on his place of abode. with its outlook on the raging sea. tired of journeying by land and sea. But after all S21 . by the world forgot. he would Uke to settle down at even so deserted a place as Lebedus. but on his state of mind.

Apollonia. ^ According to some editors. perhaps as a quotation from a letter. . but \yhy may we not suppose that this lonely sea-sido place. furnos et balnea laudat ut* fortunatam plene praestantia vitam . imbre hitoque nee qui aspersus. cunctane^ prae Campo et Tiberino flumine sordent ? an venit in votum AttaUcis ex urbibus una. which Horace had probably visited when he served with 322 . and Thyatira. (-que E) minorane Bentley. notaque Lesbos. cunctaque aRv. quid concinna Samos. : II. per brumam Tiberis. Quid tibi visa Chios. * et. 7-10 are supposed to be spoken by Bullatius. 6 an Lebedum laudas odio maris atque viarum ? Gabiis desertior atque scis Lebedus quid sit : tamen illic vivere vellem. 11. campestre nivalibus auris. ideirco navem trans Aegaeum mare vendas. Sed neque qui Capua Romam petit. Incolumi Rhodos et Mytilene pulchra faeit quod . ^ ex <lR : et E. paenula solstitio.J XI. 16 nee si te validus iactaverit Auster in alto. Bullati. volet in caupona vivere frigus collegit. " The most important were Pergamum. 10 Neptunum procul e^ terra spectare furentem. Sextili mense caminus. quid Croesi regia Sardis. Fidenis vicus oblitusque meorum. Zmyrna quid et Colophon ? maiora minorave^ fama. ^ 1 minorave uss. obhviscendus et illis.

: suave. royal home of Croesus ? What of Smyrna and Colophon ? Whether above or below their fame. S2S . tossed vou on the deep. the Tiber in winter. an athlete's garb when snowy winds are blowing. gaze from the land on Neptune's distant rage. do they all seem poor beside the Campus and Tiber's stream ? Or is your heart set upon one of the cities of Attalus ? " Or do you extol Lebedus. a While one may. ^' To a sound man Rhodes or fair Mitylene is what a heavy cloak is in summer. and stove in the month of August. e terra magnum alterius spectare laborem. appealed strongly to the poet? With 1. and forgetting my friends and by them forgotten.* Yet he who travels from Capua to Rome. — : Brutus. nor does he who has caught a chill cry up stoves and baths as fully furnishing a happy And so you. though bespattered Avith rain and mud. ef. will not on that account sell your ship on the far side of the Aegean Sea. mari magno turbantibus aequora ventis. ii. A^ill not want to live on in an inn. though a stiff south ^^•ind has life. because sick of sea and roads ? You know what Lebedus is a town more desolate than Gabii and Fidenae yet there would I love to hve. and of famous Lesbos ? \\Tiat of charming Samos ? \Miat of Sardis. 10 Lucretius. If. my Bullatius.Epistle XI 'UTiat did vou think of Chios.

mutant. quod petis hie est. 16. ut^ quocumque loco fueris vixisse libenter si te dicas. II. 20 Romae laudetur Samos et Chios et Rhodes absens. 25 non locus efFusi late maris arbiter aufert. tu quamcumque deus tibi fortunaverit horam grata sume manu. animus si te 1 non deficit aequus. non animum. " Cf. nam ratio et prudentia curas. 19). caelum.HORACE dum licet ac voltum servat Fortuna benignum. est Ulubris. 30 tu V. 324 . qui trans mare currunt. strenua nos exercet inertia : navibus atque quadrigis petimus bene vivere. "patriae quis exsul se quoque fugit?" {fides ii. neu dulcia differ in annum .

who rush across the sea. vii.EPISTLES. at Rome let Samos be praised. and Chios and Rhodes though far away And you whatever hour God has given for your — — ! weal. x. * Ulubrae. 101). XI. . Ad Jam. was a decaying town in the Pomptine marshes. . What you are seeking is here it is at Ulubrae." *Tis a busy idleness that is our bane. you may say that you have lived happily. I. 825 . called vacuae by Juvenal (^Sat. where the frogs were very clamorous (Cicero. take it with grateful hand. with yachts and cars we seek to make life happy. in whatever place you have been. not their mind. For if 'tis reason and wisdom that take away cares. 20-30 Fortune keeps a smiling face. nor put off joys from year to year so that. 81). they change their clime.^ if there fail you not a mind well balanced. and not a site commanding a \\-ide expanse of sea.


whom in one of his Odes (i. 327 . has now. Apparently he had written to Horace. amid all his business cares.XII TO ICGIUS to Iccius. preceded by the request to show some courtesy to Pompeius Grosphus. to which Horace rephes that the agent of a large estate is able to hve on the produce very comfortably." who had charge of Agrippa's estates in Sicily. Then in a somewhat ironical vein (12-20). some five years later. though he is not the actual o\\Tier. The letter closes with some bits of news. whom we have also encountered in the Odes (ii. become the procurator or " agent. 29) Horace rallies for deserting philosophy to take part in a Horace introduces Grosphus military expedition to Arabia Fehx. where he is spoken of as a wealthy proprietor in Sicily. 16). grmnbling because he was not an independent landowner. and in doing so takes occasion to rally his friend on his discontent. to study the physics of Empedocles and the dialectic of the Stoics. Horace congratulates his friend on being able. Iccius. inasmuch as it is all at his disposal.

» A reference to the philosophy that the life S28 . cum nil tu inter scabiem tantam et contagia lucri : 15 parvum sapias et adhuc sublimia cures quae mare compescant causae. quid proferat orbem./ XII. cui rerum suppetit usus. quid velit et possit rerum concordia discors. vagentur et errent. non est ut copia maior ab Jove donari possit tibi. : . Miramur. Fructibus Agrippae Siculis. quid premat obscurum lunae. si ventri bene. •''' si forte in medio positorum abstemius h^fbis^ vivis et urtica. quos si colligis. Verum seu piscis seu porrum et caepe trucidas. II. main principle of Empedocles' of the world is due to a perpetual conflict of the two principles of Love and Strife. Icci. vel quia cuncta putas una virtute minora. dum peregre est animus sine corpore velox . si lateri est pedibusque tuis. nil 6 divitiae poterunt regales addere mains. 20 Empedocles an Stertinium deliret acumen. 10 vel quia naturam mutare pecunia nescit. recte frueris. tolle querellas pauper enim non est. quid temperet^ annum. si Democriti pecus edit agellos cultaque. stellae sponte sua iussaene 1 temperat. ut te confestim liquidus Fortunae rivus inauret. sic vives protinus.

though Fortune's stream suddenly flood you with gold : either because money cannot change your nature. or because you count all else below the one thing. Away with complaints for he is not poor. still set your thoughts on lofty themes what causes hold the sea in check. *" However. ^ We marvel that the herds of Democritus ate . in the very midst of the contagious itch of gain. while his swift mind wandered abroad without his body though you. If stomach. Sicilian . who has enough of things to use. Iccius. still have a taste far from mean. lungs. the wealth of kings can give you nothing more. and feet "are all in health. up his meadows and corn-fields. what is -within your reach.<» whether Empedocles is doting or subtle : Stertinius. or only leeks and 829 . what brings it into light. whether it is fish. what is the meaning and what the effects of Nature's jarring harmony . and live on nettles and other greens. what hides the moon's disk in darkness. you will go on living in the same way. If haply you hold aloof from If. what rules the year. virtue.Epistlb XII you are enjoying as you should the products which you collect for Agrippa. whether stars roam at large of their own \\ill or by law. Jupiter himself could not give you greater abundance.

Horace makes a humorous allusion to the Pythagoreans. si quid petet. cf. Cantaber Agrippae. however.—smrea fruges Italiae pleno defudit^Copia cornu. ultro defer nil Grosphus nisi varum orabit et aequum. might mean murder. fish are here mentioned as costly fare in contrast to a simple diet. bonis ubi quid deest. for he asserted that he himself had To once been a fish {eiv a\l ^Woiros Ixdi^'s. : defiindit VA^. 6. whom Empedocles followed in regard to the doctrine of transmigration of souls. 25 1 defudit uss. This ban on living things was extended even to vegetables. Sat. quo sit Romana loco res. ii. therefore.). " According to the scholiast. 63 above. vilis amicorum est annona. . Fr. Claudi virtute Neronis Armenius cecidit ius imperiumque Phraates Caesaris accepit genibus minor ^. Ne tamen ignores.HORACE utere Pompeio Grospho et. . eat a fish. In trucidas. 11 Miill. and Juvenal's well-known verse 330 .

Phraates. with et caepe nefas violare et frangere morsu Mayor's note. on humbled knees. ^ Yet. the Armenian before that of Claudius Nero. xii. the Cantabrian has fallen before the valour of Agrippa. I. porrum (15. SSI . In connexion with the latter event.* Golden Plenty from full horn has poured her fruits upon Italy.EPISTLES. The market-price of friends is low." receive Pompeius Grosphus as a friend. when good men are in need. restored the Roman standards taken long before from Crassus at Carrhae. that you may not be ignorant how the world wags in Rome. give it freely: Grosphus will sue for nothing but what is right and fair.c. and if he asks aught of you. 22-29 onions that you butcher. the Parthian king. shortly after Armenia had submitted to Tiberius. 9). Phraates. * The Cantabrians were conquered by Agrippa in 19 b. has accepted Caesar's imperial sway.


whose cognomen is presumably Asina (1.XIII TO VINIUS ASINA Horace is sending Augustus a copy of his poems.. iii. Books i. BUS . probably the Odes.C.. The volume is carried to court by a messenger. in which he humorously expresses his anxiety about the reception of the poems. Instead of writing a formal note to the Emperor to accompany the gift. which were pubhshed in 23 B. 8). ii. one Vinius. though the usual form of the name is Asellus.. Horace indulges in the fiction of sending a letter of instructions to the messenger.

10 victor propositi simul ac perveneris illuc. could not be heavy in themselves. of course. validus.^ si Augusto reddes signata volumina. Tliese. 15 ut cum pilleolo soleas conviva tribulis. though they might make " heavy reading. flumina. abicito potius. vade . sic positum servabis onus. {but inscriptions favour the ^ urit urat Priscian. ut vinosa glomus^ furtivae Pyrria lanae.e. cave ne titubes mandataque frangas. laetus erit. has S34r . quam quo perferre iuberis clitellas ferus impingas. * neu a : nee E : ne. 1 vinni or venni mss.XIIL Ut si proficiscentem docui te saepe diuque. the books. Vini. si denique poscet ne studio nostri pecces odiumque libellis sedulus importes opera vehemente minister. //. lamas. 5 si te forte meae gravis uret^ sarcina chartae. vale . oratus multa prece. ne forte sub ala fasciculum portes librorum ut rusticus agnum. nitere porro. : Vinius). Viribus uteris per clivos. quae possint oculos aurisque morari Caesaris. (f>\/y\l." " This is said to be an allusion to a scene in one of the plays of Titinius. " " The tribulis. a humble man whom for political purposes a richer member of the same tribe has invited to dinner. neu* volgo narres te sudavisse ferendo carmina. Asinaeque paternum cognomen vertas in risum et fabula fias. form E 3 glomes i.

and when once you have achieved your purpose fens and reached your journey's end. if he's well. even as a bumpkin carries a lamb. i.e. . by inquisitive people. streams. as tipsy Pyrria a ball of stolen wool. you are to keep vour burden so placed as not. fling it from you. rather than savagely dash down vour pack " where you are bidden to deliver it.'' as a poor tribesman his slippers and And mind you felt cap. and you become the talk of the town. which he would need coming and going. . If haply my book's burden gall you with its weight. •^ 835 . and turn your father's name of Asina into a jest. Be off .* don't tell all the world that you have sweated in carrying verses that may win a hold on the eyes and ears of Caesar. and by officious service and excessive zeal bring resentment on my poor works.Epistle XIII As I instructed you often and at length. when asked out to dinner. though not in the dining-room. Vinius. ij"— in fine lest you blunder in your he asks for them eagerness for me. Though besought by many a plea. to carry the Uttle packet of books under your armpit. Put forth your strength over hills. when you set out. take care you do not stiunble and smash your precious charge. for instance. — no slave to take his cap and sandals. you will deliver these close-sealed rolls to Augustus. fare well . if he's in good spirits."^ press on.


while the master. and x. while the setting of the letter is in marked contrast with Sat. The theme is essentially the same as in Epistles viii. The slave now hankers after city life. which he has always preferred. longs for the country. The The difference slave between the two still is clings to his follies due to their tastes. whom the poet had promoted from low rank in his town establishment to the position of bailiff or superintendent of his small country estate. detained in Rome by a friend's bereavement.XIV TO THE BAILIFF OF HIS FARM This epistle is professedly addressed to the slave. 7. the master has . 837 . where it is the slave who lectures the master. learned wisdom with advancing years. ii. of this book.

8 tamen istue mens animusque rumpere claustra. habitatum quinque focis et quinque bonos solitum Variam dimittere patres. They would go to Varia (now Vicovaro) to market and for local elections. fert et amat spatiis obstantia rure ego viventem. These were probably coloni. quern tu fastidis. " lease 338 . nam quae^ deserta et inhospita tesqua credis.XIV. tu dicis in urbe beatum. sua nimirum est odio sors. spinas animone ego fortius an tu evellas agro. amoena vocat mecum qui sentit. II : qua Va. Vilice silvarum et milii me reddentis agelli. Me quamvis Lamiae pietas et cura moratur. et odit 20 : . * quae E. ii. 16. Tu mediastinus tacita prece rura petebas. * Cf. 10 cui placet alterius. rapto de fratre dolentis insolabiliter. who held their land in under Horace. ^ res E. qui se non efFugit umquam. non eadem miramur eo disconvenit inter meque et te. et melior sit Horatius an res. 27 and Odes ii. certemus. fratrem maerentis. 19.^ stultus uterque locum immeritum causatur inique in culpa est animus. Epist. i. nunc urbem et ludos et balnea vilicus optas : 15 me constare mihi scis et discedere tristem quandocumque trahunt invisa negotia Romam.

^ For me. what is at fault is the mind. its games and baths as for me. grieving for his lost brother inconsolably. you know that I'm consistent with myself. One who likes another's lot. of course dislikes his o\\ti. he who shares my views calls tastes are not the : 339 .* ^* You. though kept here by the love and grief of Lamia. used to sigh in secret for the country . I call him happy who hves in the country . as a common drudge.Epistle XIV farm which you disdain it. and whether Horace or his farm is in a better — state. you him who dwells in the city. which never escapes from itself. yet thither thought and feehng bear me longing to burst the barriers that block the track. What you hold to be desert and inhospitable wilds. Each is foohsh and unfairly blames the undeserving place . now as a bailiff you long for the town. whenever hateful business drags me to Rome. who is sighing for his brother. households and wont to little Bailiff of my woods and of the makes me myself again while — though the home of five send to Varia their five honest heads " let us have a match to see whether I more stoutly root out thorns from the mind or you from the land. and depart in gloom. Our : same therein lies the difference between you and me.

posset aR. quem bibulum liquidi media de luce Falerni. The same expression. although you have no pleasures. addit opus pigro rivus. piger optat arare caballus. video. 13). quern tenues decuere togae nitidique capilli. . is used elsewhere by Horace of a place unique in his affections. non odio obscuro morsuque venenat rident vicini glaebas et saxa moventem. " In the mouth of the baihff. angulus is a term of contempt. From 1. ' cibaria R Goth. Nunc age.^40 . quid nostrum concentum^ dividat audi. II : * consensum E.HORACE quae tu pulchra putas. . 30 multa mole docendus aprico parcere prato. si decidit imber. cuius ad strepitum salias terrae gravis et tamen urges iampridem non tacta ligonibus arva bovemque disiunctum curas et strictis frondibus exples . sed non incidere ludum. * i. 6. 30 Horace repeats some of the grumbling remarks of the bailiff. . cena brevis iuvat et prope rivum somnus in herba . 35 nee lusisse pudet.e. nee vicina subest vinum praebere taberna 25 quae possit^ tibi. quam scit uterque libens censebo exerceat artem. non istic obliquo oculo mea commoda quisquam limat. 40 cum servis urbana diaria^ rodere mavis horum tu in numerum voto ruis invidet usum lignorum et pecoris tibi calo argutus et horti. fornix tibi et uncta popina incutiunt urbis desiderium. quern scis immunem Cinarae placuisse rapaci. " ille terrarum mihi praeter omnis angulus ridet " {Odes ii. nee meretrix tibicina. optat ephippia bos. ^ possit E. however. . 22 to 1. et quod angulus iste feret piper et tus oeius uva.




and hates what you believe so beautiful. Tis the brothel, I see, and greasy cookshop that stir in you a longing for the city, and the fact that that poky spot" will grow pepper and spice as soon as grapes, and that there is no tavern hard by that can supply you with wine and no flute-playing courthe ground.

you can dance and thump you toil over fields long untouched by the hoe, you care for the ox after he is unyoked, and you fill him up with fodder you have when you are dead tired, the brook brings stripped fresh work, for if rain has fallen, it must be taught by many a mounded dam to spare the sunny meadow. ^ Now come, hear what makes the discord in our common song. One whom fine-spun clothes became, and shining locks, one who, as you know, though empty-handed, found favour with greedy Cinara, and in midday hours would drink the clear Falernian, now takes pleasure in a simple meal, and a nap on nor is it shameful to the grass beside the stream have once been foohsh, but not to cut folly short. WTaere you hve, no one with eye askance detracts from " my comforts, or poisons them vriih the bite of secret hate. As I move sods and stones the neighbours laugh. You would rather be munching
tesan, to








rations with the slaves in to\^Ti ; it is their number sharp-witted groom envies you fain would join you the use of fuel, flock, and garden. The ox longs for the horse's trappings : the horse, when lazy, longs to plough. What I shall advise is that each contentedly practise the trade he understands.



The verb limat


oculo, involves a play

" files away "), as used with obliquo upon limU oculis {cf. Sat. ii. 5. 53).



Ordered by
his physician to take the cold-water

Horace writes to his friend Vala for information about two seaside places, Veha and Salernum,

especially as to the climate, people, drinking water, fish. As such an interest in personal luxuries may seem quite inconsistent with doctrines

game, and

he has often preached, Horace humorously admits that he is hke the well-kRo^vn Maenius, who would loudly proclaim the blessings of a simple life, but, if he had the chance, would indulge his appetite to the

The opening paragraph (1-25) is loosely framed, with lengthy parentheses, giving an air of careless freedom of style, after the fashion of conversation in real life. Numonius Vala, who had a country house in southern Italy, belonged to a family of some distinction in Lucania, as is evidenced by coins and inscriptions.


Quae sit hiems Veliae, quod caelum, Vala, Salemi, quorum hominum regio et qualis via (nam mihi Baias Musa supervacuas Antonius, et tamen illis


facit invisum, gelida cumi perluor unda per mediumi frigus. sane murteta relinqui 5 dictaque cessantem nervis elidere morbum sulfura contemni vicus gemit, invidus aegris, qui caput et stomachum supponere fontibus audent Clusinis^ Gabiosque petunt et frigida rura. mutandus locus est et deversoria^ nota 10 praeteragendus equus. "quo tendis ? non mihi Cumas est iter aut Baias," laeva stomachosus habena sed equi frenato* est auris in ore) dicet^ eques malor utrum populum frumenti copia pascat 16 collectosne bibant imbres puteosne perennis iugis^ aquae (nam vina nihil moror illius orae rure meo possum quidvis perferre patique ;

ad mare cum veni, generosum et lene requiro, quod curas abigat, quod cum spe divite manet in venas animumque meum, quod verba ministret, 20 quod me Lucanae iuvenem commendet^ amicae) ;

Clusinos VE. ' dicit E.


* diversoria EJR<pf. equis frenato w.




commendat aB.

hot sulphur baths, but Musa has prescribed the cold-water treatment, which is not to be

Baiae was famous for





'V^Tiat's the winter like, my Vala, at Velia, what's the climate at Salernum, what sort of people hve there, what kind of road is it for Antonius Musa makes Baiae useless to me, and yet " puts me in ill favour there, now that in midwinter I drench myself Of course the town murmurs at its in cold water. myrtle-groves being deserted, and its sulphur baths despised, so famous for dri\-ing a hngering disorder from the sinews, and takes offence at invahds who dare to plunge head and stomach under the showers from Clusium's springs, or who repair to Gabii and

cold country-side. I must change my resort, and " \Miere drive my horse past the familiar lodgings. not bound for Cumae or Baiae " ; I'm are rou going ? so will the rider say as he tugs in anger at the left but the horse's ear is in its bridled mouth* rein which town has the better supply of food, do they drink rain-water from tanks, or have they springwater, welhng forth all the year (for that region's

in my country home I put out of court can stand and suffer anything ; but when I go to the seaside I need something generous and mellow, to drive care awav, to flow with rich hope into veins and heart, to find me a flow of words, and to give me the grace of youth with the ladies of Lucania)



The rider might have spared his words, for the horse guided only by the bit. 345

tractus uter pluris lepores, uter educet apros utra magis piscis et echinos aequora celent, pinguis ut inde domum possim Phaeaxque reverti, scribere te nobis, tibi nos accredere par est. 25 ^Maenius, ut rebus maternis atque paternis fortiter absumptis urbanus coepit haberi scurra vagus, non qui certum praesepe teneret, impransus non qui civem dinosceret hoste, quaelibet in quemvis opprobria fingere saevus,^ 30
pernicies et tempestas barathrumque macelli, quidquid quaesierat, ventri donabat^ avaro. hie ubi nequitiae fautoribus et timidis nil aut paulum abstulerat, patinas cenabat omasi, vilis et agninae,* tribus ursis quod satis esset 35 scilicet ut ventres lamna candente nepotum diceret urendos correctus^ Bestius. idem, quidquid erat nactus praedae maioris, ubi onine verterat^ in fumum et cinerem, " non hercule miror," aiebat, " si qui comedunt bona, cum sit obeso 40 nil melius turdo, nil vulva pulchrius ampla." Nimirum hie ego sum. nam tuta et parvola laudo, cum res deficiunt, satis inter vilia fortis' : varum ubi quid melius contingit et unctius, idem vos sapere et solos aio^ bene vivere, quorum 45 conspicitur nitidis fundata pecunia villis.^

Here a new Epistle begins in
^ *


all important Mss. except a. certus two Bland. * agnini oX. donarat V, II : donaret Bentley. * verteret E. : corrector Lambimis. correptus ' In a 11. 43-4:4. follow 39 ; in w they follow 38.










he were one of the Alcinoi inventus of Epist,

2. 28.

The language is Plautine. Where food was concerned, he swept everything before him.




XV. 22-46

which country rears more hares, which, more boars, which one's seas give more hiding to fish and seaurchins, so that I may return home from there a fat Phaeacian " all this you must write us, and we must credit you in full. 2* Maenius gallantly used up all his mother and father had left him, then came into note as a city wit, a parasite at large, with no fixed fold, a man who when dinnerless knew not friend apart from foe, but would savagely trump up scandal against anybody, the market's ruin, a cyclone and abyss ''—and so, whatever he gained, he gave to his greedy maw. This fellow, whenever he got little or nothing from those who applauded or feared his wicked wit, would sup on plates of tripe and cheap lamb, enough to

satisfy three bears, so as actually to proclaim that prodigals should have their bellies branded with

white-hot iron

same man,

he, a Bestius reformed " Yet the he ever got hold of some larger booty, would turn it into smoke and ashes, and then, " In faith, I don't wonder," he would say, " if some devour their substance, since there is nothing better than a fat thrush, nothing finer than a large sow's paunch." *2 Such a man, in truth, am I. When means fail, I crv up a safe and lowly lot, resolute enough where but when something better and richer all is paltry comes my way I, the same man, say that only men Uke you are wise and b've welH whose invested





displayed in handsome


' Nothing is known about Be&tius, but he may well have been what Slaenius was, a figure in Lucilius. According to Acron, he was severely frugal. Presumably he had been a spendthrift in earlier life^ The corrector of Lambinus would give good sense, Bestius being an example of the rake in the For bene vivere cf. Epist. i. 6. 56; i. 11. 29. pulpit.


The Quinctius addressed may be
of Odes




Quinctius Hirpinus evidently a prominent man

(1. 18), who is perhaps in pubhc office (11. 33. 34), but nothing definite is known about him. The Epistle is the poet's commentary on the second Stoic paradox, on avrapKi^'i rj aper^ tt/jos evSaifiovLav (Cic.



save you the trouble of asking about the products of my estate, my dear Quinctius, let me describe it to you. It lies in a valley among the hills, gets plenty of sun, has a good climate, grows an abundance of wild fruit and foliage, and possesses a copious spring of fresh water. In this charming retreat I enjoy good health even in the worst season of the year (1-16). And now about yourself. Are you really the good and happy man that people think you are ? Remember that popular applause is fickle, and often insincere, and that those who give titles can also take them away (17-40). Well, who is the " good " man ? The world will answer that it is he who keeps the laws, whose word is a bond and whose testimony is trusted, but those who live near him may know better. Such a man,






eager to seem good, but not to be good, may be no better than the slave, wlio refrains from steahng merely from fear of being found out (40-62). The man who has set his heart on money is a creature of desires and fears. He is a deserter from the cause of Virtue, You might treat him as a prisoner or put him to death, yet he may make a
useful slave (63-72). No, the truly good

and independent

and M-ise man will be as fearless Dionysus in the play, for no not death itself can daunt him (7.S-79).




arvo pascat

perconteris, fundus meus, optime Quincti, erum an bacis opulentet olivae,

pomisne an

pratis^ an amicta^ vitibus ulmo, scribetur tibi forma loquaciter et situs agri. Continui montes, ni^ dissocientur opaca 5 valle, sed ut veniens dextrum latus aspiciat sol, laevum discedens^ curru^ fugiente vaporet. temperiem laudes. quid si'' rubicunda benigni' coma vepres et pruna ferant ? si* quercus et ilex multa fruge pecus, multa dominum iuvet umbra ? 10 dicas adductum propius frondere Tarentum. fons etiam rivo dare nomen idoneus, ut nee
frigidior Thracam nee purior ambiat Hebrus, infirmo capiti fluit utilis, utilis^ alvo. hae latebrae dulces, etiam, si credis, amoenae, incolumem tibi me praestant Septembribus horis.



an pratis arnica E.




et pratis

most usa.

si aE (sci A^). note supports ni.

The lemma of Porph. gives
decedens Bentley. ' benignae.
si) w.

but the




cursu V.

* ^


si a.

omitted by a; et {/or aptus et utilis A^Iiw^).


Ancient iiusbandry was chiefly concerned



products, viz. grain, oil, fruit, cattle, and wine. " i.e. the valley of the Digentia (see Epist.

18. 104),




Lest you, my good Quinctius, should have to ask about my farm, whether it supports its master with plough-land, or makes him rich with oUves, whether with apples or with meadows or vine-clad ehns,* I will describe for you in rambling style the nature and he of the land. * There are hills, quite unbroken, were they not cleft by one shady valley,* yet such that the rising sun looks on its right side, and when departing in his The climate would win flying car warms the left. your praise.. Wliat if you knew that the bushes beara rich crop of ruddy cornels and plums, that oak and ilex gladden the cattle with plenteous fruitage, and their lord with plenteous shade ? You would say that Tarentum ^\ith its verdure was brought nearer home. A spring, too, fit to give its name to a river, so that not cooler nor purer is Hebrus winding through Thrace, flows with heahng for sickly heads and sickly stomaclis. This retreat, so sweet yes, believe me, so bewitching keeps me, my friend, in sound health in September's heat.



Kiessling prefers the rival reading with temperiem lavdes the main clause in a meaning " if you picture a mass of conditional sentence, hills broken by a valley, you may imagine how pleasant the climate is."
called Licenza.
si dlssocientur,


: * pateris Porph. qui consulit et tibi et urbi. ut^ si detulerit fasces indigno.HORACE Tu recte vivis." Augusti laudes agnoseere possis : : cum emendatusque vocari. neve putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum. si curas esse quod audis. sed vereor ne cui de te plus quam tibi credas. die sodcs. contendat laqueo collum pressisse paternum." pateris^ sapiens 30 qui dedit hoc hodie. : ^ mendicandum mendacem Ma (corrected). idem si mordear opprobriis falsis mutemque colores ? falsus honor iuvat et mendax infamia terret quem nisi mendosum et medicandum^ ? ^ pectus aRir. According to the scholiasts the verses cited are from the " Panegyric on Augustus " by Varius. meum est " inquit pono tristisque recedo. stultorum ineurata pudor malus ulcera eclat. detrahati?. iactamus iam pridera omnis te Roma beatum . nomine ? " nempe vir bonus et prudens dici delector ego ac tu. 20 neu. " ^ The ancients ate with their fingers. Virgil's great friend. lir : poteris aR * cupias E. 352 . eras. si volet. respondesne tuo. servet in ambiguo. Si quis bella tibi terra pugnata marique 25 dicat et his verbis vacuas permulceat auris " tene magis salvum populus velit an populum tu. 35 : clamet furem. neget esse pudicum. occultam febrem sub tempus^ edendi dissimules. " pone. detrahet* idem. donee manibus tremor incidat unctis. auferet. luppiter. si te populus sanum recteque valentem dictitet. s aut.

I do so." they say. that you may give more credit to others than to your own judgement. or that. call me "Profligate. and change colour ? WTiom does false honour delight. If the same people were to cry after me "Thief!". if you take care to be what people call you. the doctor ? 2a 353 . in your own name ? " To be sure. I. which is the fuller truth. even as you do. or that you may think someone other than the wise and good man can be happy . . if they so please. trembling falls upon your greasy hands. if they bestow the hctor's rods on one unworthy." through false shame. hide the unhealed sore. they will hkewise vn-est them from him. XVI. or thine for her ! vou would see in them the praises of Augustus. whom does lying calumny affright. save the man who is full of flaws and needs . to whom both thou and Rome are dear. 25 Suppose a man were to speak of wars fought by you on land and sea. " Put that down.* Wlien you suffer yourself to be called wise and flawless. The love of Rome for thee. but I fear. and with words hke these flatter your attentive ears — : May He. take it away to-morrow even as. do you answer. Keep secret still. 17^0 " And you you live the true life. All we in Rome have long talked of you as happy . I hke to be called a good man and •^^•ise. you may. and sadly withdraw. toward the dinner-hour.EPISTLES. disguise the hidden fever. as touching yourself. 'tis ours." insist that I strangled my father. ought I to be stung by such lying charges. pray tell me. if over and over men say YOU are in sound and good health." But they who gave vou this title to-day will. until a Fools.

negitatque VE negat atque a.--'' nam de mille fabae modiis cum surripis unum. cautus enim metuit foveam lupus accipiterque 60 suspectos^ laqueos et opertum niiluus hamum. non facinus. quo. * demittit E : dimittit aM. mihi pacto lenius isto. speeiosum pelle decora. I quo ." Qui melior servo. " Apollo " " pulchra Laverna. ' qui . in triviis fixum cum se demittit^ ob assem. but the poet poet. 41-43 are the reply of the person addressed This ought to be Quinctius. " lane pater " clare. by the is " LI. qui' liberior sit avarus. tu nihil admittes in te formidine poenae sit spes fallendi. qui leges iuraque servat. miscebis sacra profanis. " habes pretium." " sum bonus et frugi " renuit negitatque^ Sabellus." si mihi dicat^ servus. * suspectus M. quo res sponsored et quo causae teste tenentur. : : oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore. 60 labra movet metuens audiri da mihi fallere. noctem peccatis et fraudibus obice nubem. II. : * dicit. . II. hunc prorsus. 55 damnum est. iustum sanctumque qui V. quandocumque deos vel porco vel bove placat. II." aio. " non hominem occidi " " non pasces in cruce corvos.HORACE Vir bonus est qiiis ? 40 " qui consulta patrum. : ^i^X. omne forum quern spectat et omne tribunal. : ! ! : * res sponsore tt" : * introrsiis * V: responsore mss. 45 " nee furtum feci nee fugi. da iusto sanctoque® videri. quo multae magnaeque secantur iudice lites. • . clare cum dixit. vir bonus. . ." sed videt hunc omnis domus et vicinia tota introrsum^ turpem. loris non ureris. now 354 .

40-64 ^ Who is the " good man " ? " He who observes whose the Senate's decrees. my to say to me. my loss in that case is less. * By Sabellus Horace means one of his honest Sabine No." " and all his neighbours see to be foul within. So " tu " in 1. shroud my sins in night. ^ The goddess of theft." for forum and tribunal the cynosure of every eye. the pike the covered hook. when he stoops at the cross-roads to pick up carrying on a dialogue with an imaginary interlocutor. the hawk the suspected snare. This " good man. The good hate vice because they love virtue ." with loud voice " Apollo. " I never stole or ran away " you are reply would be. no " For the wolf . 355 . " Our Sabine I friend^ shakes his head and is wary and dreads the pit. cries with loud voice " Father Janus. : ! neighbours." says. For when from a thousand bushels of beans you steal one.EPISTLES. the statutes and laws judgement settles many grave suits . under his comely skin." " I never killed anyone. whenever vrith swine or ox he makes atonement to the gods. or is more free. : ." then moves his hps.** grant me to fearing to be heard escape detection . my lies in clouds ^^ How the miser is better than a slave. Suppose there's a hope of you will make no difference escaping detection between sacred and profane. whose surety whose testimony wins means safety for property Yet this very man all his household suits at law. " Fair Lavema. I. you " will commit no crime because you dread punishment.e. though If a slave were fair without. honest. • i. " You have your reward not flogged." " You'll hang on no cross to feed crows. grant me to pass as just and " upright. the slave. XVI. 53. but not your sin." " I am good and . .

sine pascat durus aretque. annonae prosit. possis captivum. " are told that Roman boys would solder a coin to the pavement and then ridicule those who tried to pick it up (so scholiast on Persius.^ : : ^ est omitted by E. " As opposed to the man called bonus in 11. Vir bonus et sapiens audebit dicere rector Thebarum.HORACE non video nam qui cupiet. cum 70 naviget ac mediis hiemet mercator in undis. liber mihi non erit umquam." lectos." opinor. v. quid me perferre patique " indignum coges ? " Adiraam bona. 75 toUas licet." " Nempe pecus. rem. perdidit arma. * Such a man is really a slave. Bacchae. The dialogue following is paraphrased from Euripides. and should be treated as such. 65 qui metuens vivet." " Ipse deus. 492-8." mors ultima linea rerum est. a scene where the disguised Dionysus defies •* We 356 . qui . semper vendere in augenda festinat et obruitiu* re. portet frumenta penusque. occidere noli serviet utiliter . 111). argentum " In manieis ot compedibus saevo te sub custode tenebo. me solvet. . locum Virtutis deseruit. " Pentheu. 32 and 57. simul atque volam. hoc sentit " moriar. metuet quoque porro.

he who hves in fear. ^2 The truly good and wise man " will have courage to sav:"* " Pentheus. will never. intent on suppressing the Bacchic worship." * Death is the line that marks the end of all. be free. my substance. under a cruel jailer. has made a prisoner of the Lydian stranger." " I will keep you in handcuffs and fetters. 65-79 the copper fastened there. who. who is ever busied and lost in making money.EPISTLES. being really a god. to my mind. A S57 ." " God himself. lord of Thebes. • The moriar does not belong to the scene. plate ? You may take them. further. will set me " I will free. and winter as a or ploughman let him help the trader in the midst of the waves market let him carry food and fodder. king of Thebes.* don't kill him make a useful slave." This. has quitted his post with Virtue. I. XVI.' : : : : : Pentheus. The Stoics sanctioned suicide as an escape from life's evils. is his meaning die. If hardy." I do not see : for he who covets will also have fears . the moment I choose. sets the king's threats at nought. I take it. let him be shepherd let him go to sea. couches. The latter. A man has lost his weapons. ' chalk-line marked the goal in the race-course. When he will you can sell a captive." " You mean my cattle. what shame " will you compel me to stand and suffer ? " I will take away your goods.

who courted the common people and knew how to live only amid sordid surroundings (13-32). To 358 . he should retire from Rome altogether (6-10)." After disclaiming any peculiar right to give advice on such a subject (1-5). but that the name was chosen to fit an assumed character. comfortable life. Horace's own happy connexion with Maecenas. " awkward " or " gauche. with the less sensible behaviour of Diogenes. the boorish Cynic. and assuring Scaeva that if he really wants to live a quiet. which he sets forth so admirably in Epist. it being the same as o-kuios. Horace proceeds in reality to defend himself against the attacks made on him as a sycophant of the great.XVII TO SCAEVA The subject of this and the following Epistle is personal independence. 7. and it is quite possible that there was no such person in real life. He therefore contrasts the conduct of the Cyrenaic Aristippus. furnished him with an experience which possibly led others to seek his advice as As to their conduct toward men of high station. i. as illustrated in the relations of patron and protege. nothing is known about him. who had plenty of savoir faire and could adapt himself to any circumstances. however. to Scaeva.

359 . He who succeeds in doing so is a true man and plays a manly part (33-42). gain distinction in life oneself is the highest ambition. I. In this part the poet is far from serious. but it is also no mean achievement to win favour with the great.EPISTLES. after his fashion. XVII. but. and in the last twenty lines (43-62) Horace lays down rules which the young aspirant for favour is supposed to follow. Here the tone abruptly changes. is indulging in good-natured irony.

notat. si si te pulvis strepitusque rotarum. loquamur. 8.M'DanielM.B. 5 delectat. The Cynic was cleaning vegetables for dinner. 67 ff." utrius horum verba probes et facta doce. quiet country town in the Alban region of Latium. 68. inunctum V : adinunctum E. Said the former: " if you had learned to put up " *" A 360 .). ii. According to the Epicurean precept. quod cures proprium fecisse. according to Professor W. accedes siccus ad unctum. vel iunior audi cur sit Aristippi potior sententia. disee. The story referred to is found in Diogenes Laertius.^ " Si pranderet holus patienter. nee vlxit male. Quamvis. laedit^ caupona. Ferentinum ire iubebo. namque mordacem Cynicum sic eludebat. 10 nam neque divitibus contingunt gaudia solis. quo tandem pacto deceat maioribus iiti. ass. satis per te tibi consulis et scis.xliii.^. \6. ut si caecus iter monstrare velit tamen aspice si quid et nos. " This remark is made by Diogenes the Cynic. pp. 11. qui natus moriensque fefellit. Si te grata quies et primam somnus in horam .de ^nvaas. ad unctum Porph. Scaeva. regibus uti fastidiret holus qui sciret regibus uti.P. when Aristippus passed by.XVII. docendus adhuc quae censet amiculus." " si me 15 1 ^ laedet : aM. si prodesse tuis pauloque benignius ipsum te tractare voles. ut aiunt nollet Aristippus.

as the story goes. who still needs some teaching. though you know on what terms. you would not be courting princes. one should handle greater folk. he would not want to Hve with princes. if you knew how to consort witii men. or. he would sniff at greens." sages tell me whose words and deeds you approve . you in your hunger vvill make for a rich table. For this is the way." "If he who censures me knew how to hve with Of these two princes. It is as if a blind man sought to show the way ." 36 . hear why the \iew of Aristippus is the better. if dust and noise of wheels. since you are the younger. I shall order you off to Ferentinum.Epistle XVII after your Even though. or if tavern offend you. you look ovm interests quite -wisely by yourself. ^ If pleasant ease and sleep till sunrise be your delight. which you may care to make your own. ^3 "If Aristippus could be content to dine on " greens. in fine. "and you." To this gibe Aristippus replied." For jovs fall not to the rich alone. Scaeva.'' and to treat yourself a httle more generously. that he dodged the snapping cynic : " I with this. and he has not Uved amiss who from birth to death has passed But if you wish to help your friends unknovvTi. would not be cleaning greens. yet see whether even I have aught to say. yet learn the views of your humble friend.

morietur frigore. non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum." omnis Aristippum deeuit color et status et res. sedit qui timuit ne non succederet 36 " Esto. Hence it was called di-irXoU. verum or verum only inferior Mss. Res gerere et captos ostendere civibus hostis attingit solium lovis et caelestia temptat principibus placuisse viris non ultima laus est." In effect. alter purpureum non exspectabit amictum. Diogenes had taunted him with being a parasite. They wore no under-garment. tu poscis vilia. mirabor. fere praesentibus aequum.HORACE " scurror ego ipse mihi. 30 pannum. quid. 40 ut parvis animis et parvo corpore maius . rectius* hoc et splendidius multo est. way to the triumphal career 362 . ' * es. regibus (p^. " Scurror means " play the scurra. temptantem maiora. qui pervenit. si non rettuleris . personamque feret non inconcinnus utramque alter Mileti textam cane peius et angui vitabit^ chlamydem. hie onus horret. * II : rerum {to be ' taken with vilia) pervenerit. 21 officium facio . " The cloak worn by the Cynics is called pannus in contempt. quod quaerimus.^ fecitne viriliter ? " atqui hie est aut nusquam. //. contra. populo tu . equus ut me portet. vitae via conversa decebit. quamvis fers te nullius egentem. vitavit aM. ' ioca. quidlibet indutus celeberrima per loca^ vadet. alat rex. II. I. 25 quem duplici si panno patientia velat. but doubled the cloak instead. verum^ dante minor. refer et sine vivat ineptus. * The poet refers in a general of Augustus.

It is not every man's lot to get to Corinth.EPISTLES. and in no inelegant fashion will play either part. play the buffoon people's. Ov 1(76' -wavTbi dt-Spos ^s KSpivdof 6 ttXoOs.e.'' He who feared he might not win sat still. which originally referred to the great expense of a self-indulgent life at Corinth. achieve great deeds and to display captive foemen to one's fellow-citizens is to touch the throne of Jove and to scale the skies. 19-40 profit. take the man whom endurance clothes ^\^th its double rags * I shall marvel if a changed mode of hfe befit him. viz.* Be it so what of him who reached the goal ? Did he play the man ? Nay. every condition and circumstance he aimed at higher things. the application is very different. Yet to have won favour with the foremost men is not the lowest glory. The one ^vill not wait for a purple mantle he will put on anything and walk through the most crowded streets. : . The other ^^ill shun a cloak woven at Miletus as worse than a dog or a snake. that not everyone can gain the prize of virtue. ." To Aristippus every form of life was fitting. though you pose as needing no man. but as a rule was content with what he had. and will die of cold if you do not give him back his rags. " I. I do service that I may have a horse to ride and be fed by a prince you sue for paltry doles but you become inferior to the giver. One dreads the burden as too big for his small soul and small body another Ufts "^ ^ To — : * A rendering of the Greek proverb. Give them back for my own is My conduct : . you for the better and nobler by far. however. • i. x\ai. and let him live his uncouth life. 863 . but here or nowhere is what we look for. On the other hand. Here. never entered the race.

licet ilh plurima manet GO lacrima. per sanctum iuratus dicat Osirim " " credite. 774 ^ • As a Viz. aut cistam effractam et subducta viatica plorat. " In comedy the term rex is used by a parasite of his patron . Terence." vicinia rauca reclamat. 92 . Plautus. aut decus et pretium recte petit experiens vir. " et mihi " dividuo findetur munere quadra. 50 sed tacitus pasci si posset corvus. ! ^ sua Bentley : suo Mss. saepe periscelidem raptam sibi flentis. nee semel irrisus triviis attollere curat fracto crure planum. ^ ferunt E. p. Meineke. non ludo crudeles." qui dicit.HORACE aut virtus nomen inane est. tollite claudum " quaere peregrinum. Brundisium comes aut Surrentum ductus amoenum qui queritur salebras et acerbum frigus et imbres. " victum date " succinit alter. ! ! plus dapis et rixae multo minus invidiaeque. 45 " indotata mihi soror est. cf. So ^aaiXeds in Greek comedy . getting as much as possible. sumasne pudenter plus poscente ferent^ an rapias atqui rerum caput hoc erat. elamat. PJiormio 338. Capt. result of so much begging no one gets a whole loaf. Coram rege sua^ de paupertate tacentes distat. : . 364 . uti mox nulla fides damnis verisque doloribus adsit. et fundus nee vendibilis nee pascere firmus. paupercula mater. hie fons. haberet hie subit et perfert. : . cf. 55 nota refert meretricis acumina. saepe catellam. fragm.

crows to share in the The crow's cawing it calls other booty has found. oft a stolen anklet." ! the neighbours bawl back ^ till they are hoarse. it I.EPISTLES." But if the crow could feed in quiet. or moans over his box broken open and his stores pilfered. " My sister has no dower. cruel men. And yet this ^ was the head and front of all. mv poor mother is a beggar. once been fooled does not care to Hft up at the crossings a beggar with a broken leg. grumbles about bad roads and bitter cold and rain. Either manhood empty name."* less WTangling and =2 The man who. XVII. justly aims at *3 or the man who makes is an the attempt honour and reward. and much envy. so that by and by her real And he who has losses and griefs win no belief." the morsel split. It makes a difference whether you take modestly or snatch greedily. 41-62 and carries it to the end. though many a tear flow down his cheeks. 365 . I'm in earnest . when taken as companion to Brundisium or lovely Surrentum. salable nor able to support us. though he swear by holy Osiris and cry : " Believe me." His neighbour chimes cries aloud. recalls the familiar tricks of a mistress who oft bewails a pretty chain." So the gift will be divided and in with " me too. he would have more meat. " Give us food. lift up the lame " " Look for a stranger. Those who in the presence of their patron say nothing of their own need >vill get more than one who begs. my farm is neither ** He who so speaks.

even as Amphion gave up the lyre to humour Zethus. don't fail to acknowledge it. Lollius. for you will merely earn his contempt or hatred. As protege. so that. you must not try to emulate your patron in his ostentation or other weaknesses. those who really deserve your aid. if necessary. you may be able to defend . Be discreet in your criticism of others covet not be careful to introduce only your patron's slaves people who will not humiliate you later. never plays the parasite. The sport will whet your appetite it is a national pastime and you have always been a good athlete and soldier. If he wishes to go a-hunting. . Remember that some day you yourself may be bitten by the tooth of . though if he entrust any to you you must keep them faithfully (21-38).XVIII TO LOLLIUS A true friend. put your books aside. and crowds have witnessed your mimic reproduction of the Battle of Actium (39-66). but should you make a mistake. Neither should you pry into his secrets. Do not emphasize your own tastes in contrast with your patron's. . yet on the other hand never shows his independence by rudeness or by insistence upon trifles (1-20). You have been cheered on the Campus Martins.

'(c/. Yet the main theme of the letter is the same as that already treated in the seventeenth. This Epistle is addressed to the Lollius whom we have already met in the second Epistle of this book. and he was probably the son of the Lollius who was aeqiius Consul in 21 It is is b. He has an ancestral estate. 20. is not what Scaeva is conceived to have been. 28). the manner in which a person should conduct himself in his intercourse with the great. 11. must be ever watchful in w-ith his patron's of his conduct. however. poor and of lowly station. He must fall moods and at all times show a cheery face (67-95). you see. 72 ff. That is what / have found in my peaceful country home. It is a satire and the poet is in a playful mood (see e. I. 68 ff. which here may be taken to mean " How to get on in the world. The animus I will see to myself (96-112).c. Epist. So. Above all. with whom he would be on terms of confidential intimacy (11.). large enough to be the scene of an historical pageant." 367 . who has himself been so successful ^\ith a patron. i. he gives his young friend a lecture in Stoic fashion on his favourite theme bene vivere. commonly supposed that the young Lollius thinking of attaching himself to a man of great prominence in the state. for the means of living. and that he has consulted Horace. slander. A protege. where I pray the gods for the blessings of life. But most commentators take the letter too seriously. under the guise of a Professor of Social Philosophy. you must study the words of the wise and learn the secret of a tranquil life. viz. xvin. and for a goodly supply of books.EPISTLES. 37 f. Lollius.g. .).

Sat. where the scurrae were with the host on the lowest couch. 6). rixatus * rixatur uss. Sd8 ." acriter elatrem : ! 15 ^ utrumque aR. Epist. ut puerum saevo credas dictata magistro reddere vel partis mimum tractare secundas. scurrantis speciem praebere. Suo KaKidv (Arist. 8. asperitas agrestis et inconcinna gravisque.XVIII. 17.^ propugnat nugis armatus " scilicet. ii. et vere quod placet ut non pretium aetas altera sordet. alter rixatur^ de lana saepe caprina. ii. virtus est medium vitiorum et utrimque^ reductum. est huic diversum vitio vitium prope maius. caprina et Bentley. Eth. dum volt libertas dici mera veraque virtus. liberrime Ldlli. metues. dentibus atris. professus amicum ut matrona meretrici dispar erit atque discolor. 40 f.€<T6Tris i. Nicomach. fji. 19 and note. 10 alter in obsequium plus aequo pronus et imi derisor lecti sic nutum divitis horret. 5 quae se commendat tonsa cute.. ^ : V : fixator Muretus. ut non sit mihi prima fides. infido scurrae distabit amicus. Cf. Si bene te no^^. sic iterat voces et verba cadentia toUit. « * • Cf.

was proverbial for a matter of no importance.'' remote from both extremes. so echoes his speeches. and picks up his words as they fall.Epistle XVIII If I know you <* well. you will shrink from appearing in the guise when you have professed the friend." so reveres the rich man's nod. so ^\•ill the friend be distinct from the faithless parasite. while fain to pass for simple Virtue is a mean candour and pure virtue. between vices. that I should not find credence : first. my Lollius. most outspoken of men. The one man. awkward — and offensive. which commends itself by scraped skin and black teeth. a jester of the lowest couch. over-prone to servihty.* and donning his armour fights for trifles " To think. There is a \'ioe the opposite of this perhaps a greater one a clo^^^lish rudeness. of a parasite As matron and mistress will differ in temper and tone. that you would think a schoolboy was repeating his lessons to a stern master or a mime-player acting a second part."* The other man \\Tangles often about goat's wool. * The question whether the hair of goats could be called lana or wool. forsooth. or that I should not blurt out strongly what I really think second life were poor at such a ! A * In the mimes the actor playing second part commonly imitated the chief actor in word and gesture. 2 b S69 .

aut. quem paupertatis pudor et fuga. commissumque teges et vino tortus et ira." Arcanum neque tu scrutaberis illius* umquam. fraternis cessisse putatur moribus Amphion tu cede potentis amici : 1 * docilis Mss.® gratia sic fratrum geminorum. The story of how the brothers Zethus and Amphion quarrelled about the rival merits of music and hunting was set forth by Euripides in his Antlnpe. nummos alienos pascet. 26 saepe decem vitiis instructior. quern praeceps alea nudat. dives amicus. arta decet sanum comitem toga . ' aget E • : agit aM. ullius MSS. scorto postponet honestum 35 officium. 20 Quern damnosa Venus. nee tua laudabis studia aut aliena reprendes. cum venari volet ille. * sumit E. gloria quem supra vires et vestit et unguit. pangas E. regit ac veluti pia mater plus quam se sapere et virtutibus esse priorem volt et ait prope vera : " meae (contendere noli) stultitiam patiuntur opes tibi parvola res est. quern tenet argenti sitis importuna famesque. Amphionis atque Zethi. si non odit. dormiet in lucem. ad imum Thraex erit aut holitoris aget^ mercede caballum. desine mecum 30 certare. " * These were actors or gladiators. dissiluit.^ 40 nee. poemata panges. * rependes E. and was reproduced in a play oiP the same name by Pacuvius. 870 . vestimenta dabat pretiosa : " beatus enim iam cum pulchris tunicis sumet^ nova consilia et spes. cuicumque nocere volebat. odit et horret." Eutrapelus. . donee suspecta severo conticuit lyra.HORACE ambigitur quid enim ? Castor sciat an Dolichos^ plus Brundisium Minuci melius via ducat an Appi.

put on new plans and hopes. would give him costly clothes : : — : . yielded to his brother's mood do you yield to your great friend's gentle biddings . on Avhich the stem one looked askance. if he wished to injure someone." I. 19-44 WTiy. was hushed. that of Minucius or that of Appius ! -^ The man whom ruinous passion or desperate gambling strips bare.EPISTLES. A narrow toga befits a chent of sense cease to vie with me. hates and or if he does not hate him schools him and abhors like a fond mother would have him \^'iser and more \'irtuous than himself. who is possessed by an insatiate hunger and thirst for money. vnl\ postpone honest business for a wanton. till the lyre." said he. price. whom vanity dresses up and perfumes beyond his means. though wine or anger puts you on the rack. will. : together ^^^th his fine tunics. ^vill swell his debts. and at last ^\ill become a gladiator. He says to him what is pretty " My wealth nearly true don't try to rival me allows of foUv your means are but trifling.'' Amphion. or the hired driver of a greengrocer's nag. nor find fault with those of others. XVIII. 'Twas so that the brotherly bond between the twins Amphion and Zethus parted asunder. by the shame and dread of poverty." Eutrapelus. Again. will you be penning poems. : " the happy fellow 371 . 'tis thought. nor when your friend would go a-hunting. will sleep till dawn. what's the question in dispute ? \\Tiether Castor or Dolichos " has more skill . you will keep it. though often ten times as well equipped with \ices. " for now. his rich friend. which is the better road to Brundisium." ^ You \n\\ never pry into your patron's secrets. and if one is entrusted to you. you will neither praise your own tastes.

" Probably a literary epithet. consentire suis studiis qui crediderit te. quotiensque educet^ in agros Aetolis^ onerata plagis iumenta canesque. Italis^ adiudicat armis.* Ac ne te retrahas et inexcusabilis absis. N. interdum nugaris rure paterno : partitur lintres exercitus. donee alterutrum velox Victoria fronde coronet. adde virilia quod speciosius arma non est qui tractet . 2.. reminding the reader of the mythical boar-hunt of Meleager in Calydon. 20. which made strong nets (Pliny. 10). ' abest ' aliis ir. the sports of the B. ducit or ducet. quo clamore coronae proelia sustineas campestria . 2. quamvis nil extra numerum fecisse modumque curas. * arvis Bentley. Actia pugna te duce per pueros hostili more^ refertur . lacus Hadria. ii. denique saevam niilitiam puer et Cantabrica bella tulisti sub duce qui templis Parthorum signa refigit nunc et. .C. grew near Cumae. 10 f. surge et inhumanae senium depone Camenae. utile famae praesertim cum valeas et vitaeque et membris vel cursu superare canem vel viribus aprum possis. * Cf. 1 65 educit M : « Aeoliis van Vliet. mole E. <* i. where hunting is called Romana militia. ii. * In 20 Augustus recovered from the Parthians by 372 . The conjectural Aeoliis is explained as equivalent to Cumanis. 1. scis. //. a colony from Cyme in Aeolia. Sat. si quid abest. because flax. xix.H. « Cf.e. 45 50 65 60 adversarius est frater.HORACE lenibus imperiis. Campus Martius. fautor utroque tuum laudabit polHce ludum." Sat. " tu pulmentaria quaere sudando. cenes ut pariter pulmenta laboribus empta : Romanis sollemne viris opus.

that you may share his supper with a relish. whereof toil has been the price * 'tis the wonted pastime of the heroes of Rome. and can outdo either the hound in speed or the boar in strength. I. the lake is the Adriatic till winged Victory crowns with leafage one or the other chieftain.EPISTLES. is assigning it to the arms of Italy. up with you and cast aside the glumness of your unsocial Muse. Add that there is none who more gracefully handles manly weapons you know how loudly the ring cheers when you uphold the combats of the Campus. under a captain who even now is taking down our standards from the Parthian temples * and. while a mere youth. treaty the standards they i. had taken from Crassus . XVIII. ^ Further. that you may not draw back and stand aloof without excuse. however much you take care to do nothing out of time and tune. and his dogs. Lollius and his brother have represented the famous battle of Actium. Epist. you served in a hard campaign." is good for fame as well as for hfe and limb especially when you are in health. S78 . the Actian fight is presented by your slaves in true foemen's style opposing you is your brother. 28. » A reference to the way in which the audience in the amphitheatre expressed approval. 45-66 and when he takes out into the country his mules laden with Aetolian * nets. The precise form of the gesture referred to is doubtful. and in the Cantabrian wars."* In fine. if aught is still beyond our sway. 12. . cf. your sport. you do sometimes amuse yourself at your father's country-seat your troops divide the skiffs ^ . ^ In a sham fight on their father's estate. bear in mind that. He who believes that you fall in with his pursuits will with both thumbs " eagerly commend — — : : . with you as captain.

75 qualem commendes. : . metuet E. ne dominus pueri^ pulchri caraeve puellae munere te parvo beet aut incommodus angat. * Line 91 does not occur in any good ms.HORACE Protinus ut moneam (si quid monitoris eges tu) quid de quoque viro et cui dicas. sedatum celeres. retained potores. est. : : : Dulcis inexpertis cultura potentis amici expertus metuit. nee retinent patulae commissa fideliter aures. sinless inserted oderunt and by a late hand. II. S74 . non ancilla tuum iecur ulceret ulla puerve intra marmoreum venerandi limen amici. oderunt hilarem tristes tristemque iocosi. . lemma in Porph. deceptus omitte tueri. fallimur et quondam non dignum tradimus ergo quern sua culpa premet. 90 2 * fidens est 4>\p'\l : : fidenter. saepe videto. ^ pueri dominus E. etiam atque etiam aspice. ecquid^ ad te post paulo ventura pericula sentis ? nam tua res agitur.^ tu. ne mox incutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorem. dum tua navis in alto hoc age. paries cum proxinuis avdet. quamvis nocturnos iures te formidare tepores. 85 et neglecta solent incendia sumere vires. si temptent crimina. . serves qui tuterisque tuo fidentem'^ praesidio dente Theonino cum eircumroditur. 70 et semel emissum volat irrevocabile verbum. ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura. agilem navumque remissi potores [bibuli media de nocte Falerni^ oderunt] porrecta negantem pocula. Meineke deleted bibuli . though the origin of the expression is unknown. percontatorem fugito nam garrulus idem est. ^ et quid metuit aM A^ER. 80 ut penitus notum. " Proverbial for calumny.

and the word once let slip flies beyond recall. don't you feel that a httle later the peril will pass to yourself? 'Tis your own safety that's at stake. if charges assail one you know thoroughly. the breeze shift and bear you back. 3i.EPISTLES. At times we err and present sometherefore. Avoid a questioner. if you need advice in aught think often of what you say. however much you swear that you dread fevers at night. forbear to one unworthy defend him whose ovm fault drags him do^\Ti. the quick the ^^ court a friend in power . For when he is nibbled at with Theon's tooth " of slander. and fires neglected are wont to gather — : strength. see to it lest it. in order that. if taken in. I. XVIII. the stirring man of action drinkers Falernian in midnight hours] ^ hate the man who declines the proffered cups. The grave dislike the gay. when your neighbour's wall is in flames. What sort of a person you introduce. and to whom you say it. Take the staid. i. the lazy : [who quaff" * The words bracketed in the Latin were probably duced an a gloss from Epist. lest the owner of the pretty boy or dear girl make you happy with a present so trifling or torment you if disobliging. for he Open ears Nvill not keep secrets is also a tattler. lest by and by the other's failings strike you with shame. consider again and again. 14. and of whom. Those who have never tried think it pleasant to one who has tried dreads While your barque is on the deep. you may watch over and protect the man who relies on your championship. Let no maid or boy within your worshipful friend's marble threshold inflame your heart. intro- 875 . loyally. 67-93 " To continue my advice. the merry the grave.

ponit V. II. . honos an dulce lucellum. the summiim bonum. si quid superesse volunt di sit bona^ librorum et provisae frugis in annum copia. rugosus frigore pagus. qui^ ponit® et aufert. 876 . 100 quid minuat curas. quid pure tranquillet. . precari ? sit mihi quod nunc est.HORACE deme supercilio nubem : plerumque modestus occupat obscuri speciem. our possessions. qua ratione queas traducere leniter aevum. aequum mi animum ipse parabo. det vitam.. 11 aurae. : I. * philosophers. indifferent things. all 2 II : good ass. virtutem doctrina paret Naturane donet. cf.^ 110 Sed satis est orare lovem. num et V. ut aEM Porph. et^ mihi vivam quod superest aevi.e. num te semper inops agitet vexetque cupido.g. neu fluitem dubiae spe pendulus horae. " i." ^ num ' . These are things which may be contrasted with virtue. amice. etiam minus. * • spes bona E. ' Whether virtue can be taugnt {8i5aKTri. classed by the Stoics as a5id<popa. doctrina) is discussed in I'lato's Meno. num^ pavor et rerum medioeriter utilium spes. 105 quern Mandela bibit. det opes . 95 Inter cuncta leges et percontabere doctos. Me quotiens reficit gelidus Digentia rivus. taciturnus acerbi. quid sentire putas ? quid credis. quid te tibi reddat amicum. V: ne or non. * quae a. an secretum iter et fallentis semita vitae. e. donat.

• " Mandela. xviii. Epist.EPISTLES." how you may be able to pass your days in tranquillity." or Nature bring her as a gift ? What will lessen care ? What will make you a friend to yourself ? What gives you unruffled calm honour. Cf." 877 . is a lofty village. with its note Cantalupo Bardella. my friend. i. istence. or the sweets of dear gain. 94-112 cloud from your brow . : Cf. . to drive and harass you. as Henley says. 10. the gods may give me I life. now b. ever penniless. shyness oft gets the look of secrecy. " am and the means of exthe captain of my soul. or a secluded journey along the pathway of a life unnoticed ? ^^^ For me. and grant me means a mind well balanced I will myself provide. 17. Epist. 16. or even less may I live to myself for what remains of life.^ — ** . that village -wrinkled with cold. but. are my prayers ? May I have my present store. that he grant me life. ^ Amid all this you must read and question the wise. if the gods will that aught remain. 5. May I have a goodly supply of books and of food to last the year nor may I waver to and fro with the hopes of each uncertain hour. I. whose people came ' i. ^^ But 'tis enough to pray Jove. i. Is greed. the icy brook of which Mandela drinks. who gives and takes away. silence of sour temper. or fears and hopes about things that profit little ? ^ Does wisdom beget virtue. oft as Digentia * refreshes me. think you.e. what deem you to be my feeUngs ? What. down to the Digentia for their water.


Horace therefore contrasts the rude and servile imitation. These. But the real reason why Horace has been assailed hes in the fact that the poet has not tried to please the general public or his offended critics.).). it was claimed. in 20 B.XIX TO MAECENAS Writing shortly before the publication of this book. lacked originaUty and were mere imitations of Greek exemplars. Tliis is a charge which he dechnes to face (35-i9). and is therefore supposed to be arrogant. according to rules followed by the great Greek poets themselves (1-34..C. with his o^vn generous use of noble models. He refuses to resort to the usual methods of winning approval.-iii. S79 . Horace replies to the adverse criticism which had been levelled against his Epodes and Odes (Books i. to which he has himself been subjected.

"numquam poetor nisi si podager. quae scribuntur aquae potoribus. Ennius says of himself. rjSvwoTos. Cratino. • On Cratinus see Index.'* dum studet urbanus tenditque disertus haberi. ' cena aE. such as evTivujp. 261 av8pl 8i olvos a^^et. ex ore <p^ extore B. Porph. nulla placere diu nee vivere carmina possunt. * : edixit a. : 10 15 " edixi E.^ ut male sanos adscripsit Liber Satyris Faunisque poetas. and the use of epithets applied /xeXirjSris. 5 mandabo siccis. . Iliad.XIX. Frisco si credis. vi. virtutemne repraesentet moresque Catonis ? rupit larbitam Timagenis aemula lingua. 1 potioribus ERir. Cf. adimam cantare severis " : hoc simul edixi.4ya his * own intemperance. In his HvtIvt) he jested upon K€K/JL7]uyn ix^vos fj." 380 . " to wine. putere diurno. laudibus arguitur vini vinosus Homerus Ennius ipse pater numquam nisi potus ad arma " Forum Putealque Libonis prosiluit dicenda. ixe\i(ppuv. vina fere dulces oluerunt mane Camenae.^ non cessavere poetae nocturno certare mero. Maecenas docte. quid ? si quis voltu torvo ferus et pede nudo exiguaeque togae simulet textore^ Catonem.

Sat." Ever since I put forth this edict. ' The precise meaning of rupit is uncertain. as if the attempt to rival the eloquence of Timagenes (a rhetorician of the day) made larbitas " burst asunder. by his praises of wine. What. is convicted as a winebibber. nor live.Epistle XIX If you follow old Cratinus. to reek of it by day. so keen was his aim and effort to be deemed a man of Cf. with bare feet and the cut of a scanty gown.* poets have never ceased to vie in wine-drinking by night. DO poems can please long. the sweet Muses.* Even Father Ennius never sprang forth to tell of arms save after much drinking. would he thus set before us Cato's virtue and morals ? In coping with Tima^ genes. Porphyrio takes it literally. ii." my learned Maecenas." More probably the word has the general sense of " ruined. his tongue brought ruin to larbitas ' . From the moment Liber enlisted brain-sick poets among his Satyrs and Fauns. 51. which are written by water-drinkers. as a rule. ii." " To the sober I shall assign the Fonun and Libo's WelH ." "* 381 . The expression forum putealque Libon in denotes a life of business. 6. the stern I shall debar from song. Sat. • For the term used cf. if a man were to ape Cato with grim and savage look. 35. Homer. 2. have had a scent of wine about them in the morning.

Sappho was worthy •* S82 . xliij. o imitatores. was supposed to result from drinking cummin.^ dux reget^ examen.HORACE decipit exemplar vitiis imitabile : quod si pallerem^ casu. 13. obtinet II. 55 ff. iuvat immemorata ferentem ingenuis^ oculisque legi manibusque teneri. . quem versibus oblinat^ atris. * " in the Epodes. who were assailed by Archilochus . . qui sibi fidet.P. temperat Archilochi Musam pede mascula Sappho. argues (against Bentley) in fa%rour of construing Musam " with Archilochi^ and of interpreting temperat as " moderates (A. * « fidit ^/'Xi. 30 nee sponsae laqueum famoso carmine nectit. ® Latinis \l. Latinus^ volgavi fidicen. patrios. sed rebus et ordine dispar. numeros animosque secutus Archilochi. " A pale complexion i.). nee socerum quaerit. hunc ego.J. non aliena meo pressi pede. c/. biberent exsangue cuminum. * adiutor. nobilium scrip torum auditor* et ultor. //. Scire velis. A reference to Neobule and her father Lycambes. Parios^ ego primus iambos ostendi Latio.e. saepe iociim vestri movere tumultus ! 20 Libera per vacuum posui vestigia princeps. B. mea cur ingratus opuscula lector 35 laudet ametque domi. non res et agentia verba Lycamben. 26 ac ne me foliis ideo brevioribus ornes. vi. * ^ regit. temperat Alcaeus. ut mihi saepe bilem. ' ingeniis. M. quod timui mutare modos et carminis artem. Epod. premat extra limen iniquus non ego ventosae plebis sufFragia venor impensis cenarum et tritae munere vestis non ego. non alio dictum prius ore. servum pecus. (1922) pp. Ogle to rank with men. 1 pallerent R-k.

32) is Alcaeus. you slavish herd How often yotlr pother has stirred my spleen. not the themes or the words that hounded Lycambes. So if by chance I lost my colour. I. themes and arrangement he differs. himself will lead and rule the swarm. the lyrist of I^atium. not Arciiilochus."^O you mimics. I. and weaving no halter for his bride Him. 388 .EPISTLES. I was the first to show to Latium the iambics * of Paros. have made known. And lest you should crown me ^^ith a scantier wreath because I feared to change the measures and form of verse. It is lips. XIX. I walked not where others trod. these poets would drink the bloodless cummin. unjustly decries them abroad ? I am not one to hunt for the votes of a fickle public at the cost of suppers and gifts of worn-out clothes/ I am not one who. following the rhythms and spirit of Archilochus. though in his ** * The poet referred to in hunc (1. but of his Odes. and then by unworthy means seek to win their approval. and am read by the eyes and held in the hands of the gently born. looking for no father-in-law to besmear ^ith deadly with verses.* my joy that I bring things untold before. ^ Would you know why the ungrateful reader praises and loves my pieces at home. A pattern •with faults easy to copy leads astray. Pie does not invite people to come together to hear his poems. see how manlike * Sappho moulds her Muse by the rhythm of Archilochus how Alcaeus moulds ! ! . hstening to his. not of his Epodes. how often my mirth ^ I was the first to plant free footsteps on a virgin Who trusts soil. never before sung by other defaming rh}'me. 17-39 wit and eloquence. and Horace is now boasting. ' The poet here contrasts himself with the politician seeking votes.

after listening to those who called themselves nobiles scrlptores the poet takes his . " I hear such good poets that I neglect and so offend the professors of literature. are the professional teachers of literature." In this case." si dixi." clamo et diludia posco.. tibi pulcher.0 45 1 ille. revenge by reciting. " et lovis auribus ista servas fidis enim manare poetica mella te solum. : 4. " displicet iste^ locus. ." ad haec ego naribus uti formido et. * The grammatici. ira truces inimicitias et funebre bellum. for the opening words of Juvenal " Semper ego auditor tantum ? numquamne reponam ? " show what 1. not in seriousness. " rides." ait.HORACE grammaticas ambire tribus et pulpita dignor. ludus enim genuit trepidum certamen et iram. Varius. so that Horace says. Tribus is said in contempt. . luctantis acuto ne secer ungui. ultor is added by way of jest. 39 means as a whole. Ultor is also ironical . Virgil. who lecture upon the poets from their pulpita or platforms. Others take nohiles scriptores to mean PoUio. II. etc. " spissis indigna theatris scripta pudet recitare et nugis addere pondus. " I take nohiles as used in irony. hinc illae lacrimae. _ 384 .

" I cry. Cf. as here. ^ " Hence those tears. Pro Gael. XIX.^."* Fair in your o^vn eyes you are. * t. In this. and an adjustment of conditions. « This expression. and was used. Andria first used literally by Terence in his where Pamphilus shed tears of sympathy at the funeral of Chrysis. 25. might call for a pause in the struggle (diludia). if he wrestle with me. 1-25). Sat."* If I say." At this I am afraid to turn up a scornful nose. if he thought his opponent had an unfair advantage in position. I be torn by his sharp nails. and you alone. 1. " and keep your lines for the ears of Jove. 61. For such sport begets tumultuous strife and wrath.EPISTLES. 6. a combatant. Cic." " You are in merry mood. " I am ashamed to recite my worthless writings in your crowded halls. and ^vrath begets fierce quarrels. and war to the death." says one. became proverbial in Latin literature. and call for a truce in the sports. 2c 385 . and lest. (1.^ deign to court the tribes of lecturing professors. and give undue weight to trifles. " The place * you choose suits me not. 40-49 " noble writers " and taking my revenge. even when there were no actual tears cf. 52. and beUeve that you. * The battle of wits has become a gladiatorial contest. Augustus. distil the honey of poesy. ii.


387 . The poet addresses his Book. There are untold perils in the path. the book will be neglected or sent to the pro\inces. who is eager to escape from his master's house and to see something of the great world. as if it were a young and handsome slave. the poet would have it impart some information about his own life and characteristics. Yet. now ready for publication. After a brief vogue. and finally its doom ^nll be sealed when it becomes a school-book for lads to learn their letters from when the book finds an audience.XX TO HIS BOOK This is an Epilogue to the collection of Epistles.

the booksellers' quarters in Rome.XX. ? quid volui " dices. " nudus d\p\l. 345. For the Socii. * protrudit E. donee te deserat* aetas contrectatus ubi manibus sordescere volgi si . pumice mundus and in other expressions in 11. ut pueros elementa docentem occupet extremis in vicis balba^ senectus. odisti clavis Sosiorum pumice mundus. : " i. spectare videris. well-known as booksellers. / Vertumnum lanumque. ut ille qui male parentem in rupes protrusit^ asellum 15 quis enim invitum servare laboret ? iratus hoc quoque te manet.e. scilicet ut^ prostes liber. in breve cogi means " rolled up SS8 . * quid MSS. in which books were kept under lock or seal. et scis in breve te cogi. There is a double entendre in prostes. see Ars Poet. ubi quis^ te laeserit. * deseret. Quod coeperis. 5 ? non non ita nutritus. fuge quo descendere gestis. " quid miser egi erit emisso reditus tibi. " The pumice was used to smooth the ends of the roll. 10 non odio peccantis desipit augur. " Referring to the scrinia or cases. aut tineas pasces tacitm-nus inextis aut fugies Uticam aut vinctus mitteris Ilerdam. carus eris Romae. * As applied to the book. • bella E. paucis ostendi gecpis et communia laudas.^ et grata sigilla pudico . 1 ut omitted by E. ridebit monitor non exauditus. cum plenus languet amator. 1-8.

awaits you. neatly poUshed with the pumice * of the Sosii. You hate the keys and seals. and praise a life in pubhc. too." 389 . to be looking wistfully toward Vertumnus and Janus. it means " brought to ' i. dovm to where you itch to go.e.* Your monitor. will then have his laugh.Epistle XX You seem." With reference to the slave. and you find yomself packed into a comer." so dear to the modest you grieve at being shown to few. that you may go on sale."* whenever your sated lover grows languid. you will either in silence be food for vandal moths. " What. though I did not rear you thus." in order. small. my book. : outskirts. hke the man who in anger pushed his stubborn ass over the chff for who would care to save an ass against his will ? This fate. sent to the provinces. ^ But unless hatred of your error makes the prophet lose his cunning. there will be no coming back. that stammering age will come upon you as you teach boys their A B C in the city's . When you are once let out. when someone hurts you. you will be loved in Rome till your youth leave you when you've been well thumbed by vulgar hands and begin to grow soiled. alas have I done ? What did I want ? " you will say. or will run away to Utica. forsooth. poverty. Off wth you. from whom you turned away your ear. ! . or be sent in Ijonds to Ilerda.

* : dixit urged by Keller. irasci . annos. duxit Mss.^ 20 maiores pinnas nido extendisse loqueris.HORACE Cum tibi sol tepidus pluris admoverit me libertino natum patre et in tenui re auris. me ^ quater undenos sciat imple\isse Decembris. Wilkins. solibus aptum. corporis exigui. 25 celerem. Porph. ut quantum generi demas virtutibu? addas me primis urbis belli placuisse domique. praecanum. tamen ut placabilis essem. accepted by 890 . Rol/e. forte meum si quis te percontabitur aevum. collegam Lepidum quo duxit^ Lollius anno.

quick in temper. I. • Lollius first 391 . intended for Augustus himself. grey before my time. was later filled by the appointment of Lepidus.c. both in war and peace. fond of the sun. thus adding to my merits what you take from my birth that I found favour. was consul in 21 b." : . XX. let him know that I completed my forty-fourth December in the year when Lollius drew Lepidus for colleague. 19-28 ^^ When the milder sun brings you a larger audience. with the foremost in the State .EPISTLES. yet so as to be easily appeased. If one chance to inquire my age. you will tell them about me that I was a freedman's son. and amid slender means spread wings too wide for my nest. The other consulship. of small stature.

. after reading some of his Sermones and finding no mention therein Know that I am of himself. An vereris ne familiaris apud posteros infame se cuius nobis esse ? initium est cum tot sustineas. . tibi sit. had complained because none of them were addressed to " Augustus scripta quidem eius usque adeo him probavlt ut post sermones vero quosdam lectos nullam sul mentionem habitam ita sit questus irasci me tibi scito. published some '^ quod videaris Expressitque eclogam ad " Augustus appreciated his writings so highly that. beginning cum tot sustineas. Suetonius tells us that the poet composed this Epistle for Augustus after the emperor. because in your several writings of tliis type you do not address me me above all. he sent him this complaint angry with you. It is quite improbable that the sermones here referred to are either the Satires. . Is it your fear that posterity may deem it to your discredit. quod non in plerisque eiusmodi : . on reading certain of his Sermones. ." etc.B««K I II T© AUGUSTUS In his Life of Horace. or the First Book of Epistles. : ' scriptis mecum ' potissimum loquaris." <» : ' — ' 392 . which were published sixteen years earlier. that you seem to be And so he wrung from ttie poet the intimate with me ? selection addressed to him. .

for they admire only what is ancient. your great services to the world are acknowledged in your Hfetime (5-17). Plautus. and to the Pisones {Ars Poetica). They must be the Epistles addressed to Florus (ii. But how can a line be drawn strictly between ancient and modern (34-19) ? list of the older poets.EPISTLES. State. Afranius. six years before II." cares httle whether the promises of his Pythagorean dreams are fulfilled. and defend their attitude on the ground that the best works of the Unhke the demigods mankind were recognized only Greeks were their earliest (18-33). So with Pacuvius and Accius in tragedy . being the latest of the three in composition. but this principle is not elsewhere applied by the Romans to contemporary merit. and Terence in comedy (50-62). 2). for example. therefore. It is really envy of contemporary merit that accounts for this undue praise of the old writers and a for our indulgence rather depreciation of the new (63-89). 393 . discourse of story. and note how secure they are in the reputation assigned them by the critics. Ennius. This admiration should be more discriminating. Caecihus. their " second Homer. Burdened as you arc. whose benefits to after death. I. the present Epistie. with cares of you must not be approached by me in a long (l-'i). Take a for these early wTiters are far call from perfect and often than our approval. 9 Caesar. they turned like — athletics. Naevius is as familiar to us as if he were a recent writer. How different ! toward novelty children from one amusement to another was the attitude of the Greeks ©nee rid of war.

who applaud the actor before he utters a word. @ Caesar. turning to the writing of verses. which led to the almost complete elimination of the earlier For tragedy the Romans have a natural aptitude. in these late days. music. The masses call for bears and boxers. but for that very reason failure can not be so easily excused. the restless eye than for good drama. poetry. as I am doing myself (90-117). and even the educated care more for what delights rusticity (139-160). but for readers (214-218). This craze is not without its advantages. Plautus. is careless and slipshod.HORACE sculpture. not for spectators. for instance. Poets are free from many vices. for to me a great dramatic poet. being more anxious to fill his purse than to write good plays (161-176). But I pray you. he would laugh. is a wondrous magician (208-213). and tragedy. The dramatic writer depends for success upon his audience. not at the scene on the stage. Comedy is supposed to involve less labour. 394 ! . If ©emocritus were alive to-day. whose scurrility had to be checked by law. serious. simply because of his Yet don't suppose that I fine clothes (177-207) undervalue an art which I cannot handle. it came under the refining influence of Greek art. but at the audience. painting. They promote the education of the young and serve the cause of religion Let us look at the history of dramatic (118-138). to bestow a share of your patronage on those who write. but they lack the finishing touch. and therefore I renounce the stage. Beginning M'ith rude Fescennine verses. but in Rome we have been more practical affairs. devoting ourselves to and only now. who can move my soul with his airy creations.

on the contrary. But. no more hke to have a poor waxen portrait of myself offered for sale than to be sung in uncouth verses which sooner or later must come to an ignoble end. and I will not run "the risk of bringing I should discredit upon you as well as upon myself. but you are worthy of a greater poet. great merits Alexander call for great poets to celebrate them. prefer to sing your exploits. I know. We We have chosen Virgil and Varius to sing your exploits. for he paid the 'WTCtched Choerilus for his poor verses. but in poetry his taste was Boeotian. and expect too much consideration. You. II. I. was a good judge of painting and sculpture. after all. and provide wrapping material in a grocer's shop ''250-270) I 395 . are tactless. often behave foolishly. poets. and you know that no sculptor reproduces the features of heroes more faithfully than the poet does their If I could do so. over-sensitive to criticism.EPISTLES. I should much souls (219-250).

Hercules. nil oriturum alias. res Italas armis tuteris. : ^ totaque E. ' numen VE nomen aM. . 396 . an effort to . Romulus et Liber pater et cum Castore Pollux. in publica si commoda peccem. dum terras hominumque colunt genus. 5. legibus emendes. aspera bella componunt. diram qui contudit hydram notaque^ fatali portenta labore subegit. longo sermone morer tua tempora. nil ortum tale fatentes. infra se positas 15 praesenti tibi maturos largimur honores.LIBER SECUNDUS I. Caesar. ploravere suis non respondere favorem 10 speratum meritis. <• initiated many social reforms. 9. 35 iv. agros assignant. Odes ' iii. comperit invidiam supremo fine domari. 15. 5 post ingentia facta^ deorum in templa recepti. * fata Bentley. 22 . iv. * hoc Bentley. Cum tot sustineas et tanta negotia solus. oppida condunt. moribus ernes. 24. iurandasque tuum per numen^ ponimus aras. te Grais anteferendo. Augustus improve the morals of the people. urit enim fulgore suo. Sed tuus hie* populus sapiens et iustus in uno. te nostris ducibus. qui praegravat artis exstinctus amabitur idem. in cf.

too. For a man scorches with his brilHance who outweighs merits lowlier than his own. I should sin against the public weal if with long talk. set up altars " to swear by in your name. lamented that the goodwill hoped for matched not their deserts. however. yet he. gracing her with morals. He'' who crushed the fell Hydra and laid low with fated toil the monsters of story found that Envy is quelled only by death that comes at last. Pollux and Castor. and founding towns. among us. and confess that nought like you will hereafter arise or has arisen eie now. so wise and just in one respect. * Romulus. ^vill \sin affection when his Upon you. ^ Yet this people of yours. guarding our Itahan state vriih arms. after mighty deeds. were welcomed into the temples of the gods. an altar was first set up to Augustus at Lugdunum (Lyons) in 12 b.c. assigning lands. settling fierce wars. * According to Suetonius {Claud. father Liber. who. so long as they had care for earth and human kind." and reforming her \vith laws. wliile still light is quenched.BOOK II Epistle I Seeing that you alone carry the weight of so many great charges. I were to delay your busy hours. 397 . yet this Epistle must be a year or two earlier than that date. we bestow honours betimes. in ranking you above our own. 11. O Caesar.).

pontificum libros. the Augustan age (Dion. ut tabulas peccare vetantis. quia Graiorum^ sunt antiquissima quaeque scripta vel optima. fastidit et odit sic fautor veterum. : * scitius. poemata reddit. Hal. iv. 3 Graiorum VE: Graecorum aM. copy of a treaty made by Tarquinius Superbus with Gabii and written in archaic letters on bull's hide was still " The Twelve " A in existence in the time of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 30 extra est in nuce duri venimus ad summum fortunae. 35 scriptor abhinc annos centum qui decidit.^ nil 1 ^ dirat et 0/'Xi : dicit et Rtt. scire velim. inter perfectos veteresque^ referri debet an inter excludat iurgia finis. 20 25 Albano Musas in monte locutas. nisi quae terris semota suisque temporibus defuncta videt.e. annosa volumina vatum dictitet^ Si. . centum qui perficit annos. non est quod multa loquamur . chartis pretium quotus arroget annus. //. IIolea Bentley after some inferior mss. veteresne poetas. pingimus atque psallimus et luctamur Achivis doctius* unctis. Romani pensantur eadem scriptores trutina.HORACE cetera nequaquam simili ratione modoque aestimat et. foedera regum vel Gabiis vel cum rigidis aequata Sabinis. * * veteresne. 398 . qui deperiit minor uno mense vel anno. drawn up by the Decemvirs. ut vina. 58). ' Books of ritual and religious law. oleaiii uss. vilis atque novos ? " est vetus atque probus. inter quos referendus erit ? an quos et praesens et postera respuat® aetas ? nil intra est olea. respuat V: respuit M: respuet Tables. Si meliora dies. (t>\l/\l. i." 40 quid. quas bis quinque viri sanxerunt.

there is no need of many words. it tells us over and over. treaties in which our kings made equal terms %vith Gabii ^ or the sturdy Sabines.Testle with more skill than the well-oiled Greeks. or among the worthless and modern ? Let some limit banish disputes. of seers were spoken by the Muses on the Alban mount.EPISTLES. the nut has none we have come to fortune's summit we without * paint. •* S9. A wTiter who dropped off a hundred vears ago. though we have conquered the world. T. " and good. II." the mouldy these. the Pontiffs' records. who completes a hundred years. " He is ancient. we are to weigh Roman wTiters in the same balance. . judges all other things by a wholly different rule and method. So strong is its bias toward things ancient. or those whom to-day and to-morrow must treat with scorn ? " He scrolls <* . in what class is he to be reckoned ? The ancient poets. and scorns and detests all save what it sees has passed from earth and hved its davs. * The Greeks and Romans may differ in the development of their genius just as much as olives and nuts. 20-42 above Greek leaders. The olive has no hardness ^\ithin. that the Tables * forbidding transgression." vou say. both of which are fruits. ^ If. Moreover. ^ If poems are like wine which time improves. we play and sing. which the ten men enacted. may differ in character from each other." " What of one who passed away a month or a year short of that. in music.Q . and in wTiting. is he to be reckoned among the perfect and ancient. we v. it does not follow that we are superior to the Greeks in painting. because among Greek wTitings the oldest are quite the best. I should like to know what is the year that gives to wTitings fresh value. — Such as the Sibylline books.

Marx. a a heap or pile ? logical puzzle known as heap)." 45 utor permisso. 1189). Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicharmi. * Horace is giving a summary of the conventional literary opinions of his day as to the old writers. frag. 7: et item {or idem).HORACE " iste qui vel quidem veteres inter ponetur honeste. II. demo etiam^ unum. 50 dicunt. and fortis. this exaggerated phrase was used of him by Lucilius (ed. informed him that his soul now dwelt in Ennius's 400 . sorites {a-wpds. Porph. leviter curare videtur. appearing to him in a dream. How many grains of sand make The addition of no one grain will make that a heap which was not a heap before. quo promissa cadant et somnia Pythagorea. qui redit in^ fastos* et virtutem aestimat annis miraturque ut critici nihil nisi quod Libitina saeravit. Terentius arte. dum cadat^ elusus ratione ruentis acervi. caudaeque pilos ut equinae paulatim vello et demo unum. He also seems to have asked how many hairs make a tail. uter utro sit prior. Ennius is called sapiens because of his philosophical poems. Accius alti. etiam. See Plutarch's story of the two horses in his Sertorius. Ennius et sapiens et fortis et alter Homerus. * fastus aMRir. because in his Annales he recounted the fortia facta " Horace makes use of the patrum. As to alter Homerus. aufert Pacuvius docti famam senis. mense brevi vel toto est iunior anno. ambigitur quotiens. " ad E. dicitur Afrani toga convenisse 65 Menandro. Naevius in manibus non est et mentibus haeret paene recens ? adeo sanctum est vetus omne poema. " Ennius tells us that Homer. ^ * cadet M. vincere Gaecilius gravitate.

the great writer of Sicilian comedv. 'tis said. almost as of yesterday ? ** So holy a thing is every ancient poem. 2d 401 . of Greek Lit.of movement. Pacu\ius gains fame as the learned old writer. * Naevius died in 199 b. first one and then another Bttle. and like hairs in a horse's tail. because that writer's plays were called togatae. Accius as the lofty one. I. was of Menander's fit . body. the Bellum Ptinicum (this in Saturnian metre). who is short by a brief month or even a whole year. 43-59 surely will find a place of honour among the ancients. which is the better of the two.*' after the fashion of the falling baffled and thrown do\\Ti. Plautus hurries along ' hke his model. which were Greek throughout. 240). which we are to associate with Epicharmus.<* he is back upon the annals.EPISTLES. p. As often as the question is raised. Uist. I pluck and pull away little by heap." I take what you allow. The gown * of Afranius. ** Ennius. as well as an epic. being comedies based on Italic characters and customs. the second Homer seems to care but httle what becomes of his promises and Pythagorean dreams. II. till. the rest comic poets. For Livius see note a overleaf. who looks the v^ise and valiant. in contrj^ with the palliatae. Terence for art. Pacuvius and Accius were tragic poets . and admires nothing but what the goddess of funerals has hallowed." Is not Nae\'ius in our hands. and chnging to our minds.c. This doctrine of transmigration of souls was taught by Pythagoras. These authors (as the critics style him). and values worth by years. ^ The verb properare implies rapiditj. Caecilius wins the prize for dignity. Epicharmus of Sicilv. ' Horace mentions the toga of Afranius. This was " essentially burlesque (Jevons. He wrote both tragedies and comedies. Of the other writers named here.

® ^ ediscet JRtt. est ubi peccat. ea cum reprehendere coner. The name Atta is said by Festus to have been a nickname meaning " one with a light. sed honorem et^ praemia posci. nee veniam antiquis. quae gravis Aesopus. non quia crasse compositum illepideve putetur. a tragedy and a comedy. * -que. 7: omitted in aE. .c. * For recte perambulat cf. memini quae plagosum mihi parvo 70 Orbilium dictare sed emendata videri pulchraque et exactis minimum distantia miror. * necne] nee. nihil illis comparet. ducunt. sed quia nuper. He died in 204 b. ut nihil anteferat. et sapit et mecum facit et love iudicat aequo. et* si versus paulo concinnior unus et alter. recte necne^ crocum floresque perambulet' Attae fabula si dubitem. 75 Indignor quicquam reprehendi. recto stet fabula talo (1. ^ ac Goth. tripping step. Interdum volgus rectum videt. si veteres ita miratur laudatque poetas. nisi quod placuit sibi. iniuste totum ducit venditque poema. ' perambulat aMRir. errat. quae doctus Roscius egit vel quia nil rectum. brought out two plays. inter quae verbum emicuit si forte decorum. 176 below). non equidem insector delendave^ carmina Livi^ esse reor. Livii : lev! aE {hence Bentley read Laevi). earliest of Latin writers. ignave multa fatetur. . * dicunt Eir. * et ilf. clament periisse pudorem 80 cuncti paene patres. 65 si quaedam nimis antique. In /lores 402 . * M E " Livius Andronicus.HORACE hos ediscit^ et hos arto stipata theatre 60 spectat Roma potens habet hos numeratque poetas ad nostrum tempus Livi scriptoris ab aevo." * The stage was perfumed with saffron-water. in 240 b. si pleraque dure dicere credit eos.c. //.

therefore. a writer of togat<ie. Among them. if they admit that much of it is flat. amazes me. sometimes they make mistakes. these she views. and that what is .c. then they have taste. — : ! — claimed for the ancients should be. If they admire the ancient poets and cry them up so as to put nothing above them. and ofttimes too harsh. not very ancient. II. but honour and rewards. mighty Rome learns by heart these she when packed in her narrow theatre counts as her muster-roll of poets from the days of LiWus " the >vriter to our own. 403 ." nearly all our elders would cry out that modesty is dead. or '' Porphyrio finds a reference to a play of Atta's called Matertera. He was. 60-83 . and well-nigh perfect. Atta. nothing on their level. *^ At times the pubhc see straight . either because they think nothing can be right save what has pleased themselves. or one or two hnes are somewhat better turned then these unfairly carry off and sell the whole poem. though his fragments show many archaisms. and give a verdict vriih Jove's assent. in which a great number of flowers were enumerated. not becavise it is thought to be coarse or inelegant in style. If I were to question or not whether a play of Atta's keeps its legs amidst the saffron and flowers. died in 78 b. it may be a pleasing phrase shines forth. I.EPISTLES. they take my side. they are wrong. but because it is modern. not indulgence. If they hold that sometimes their diction is too quaint. Mark you I would I am not crying down the poems of Livius not doom to destruction verses which I remember but that Orbilius of the rod dictated to me as a boy they should be held faultless. and beautiful. when I attempt to blame what stately Aesopus and learned Roscius once acted . '* I am impatient that any work is censured.

sacerdotibus suis satis intellecta" (Quint. marmoris aut eboris fabros aut aeris amavit. 86 quod mecum ignorat. * tunc. II. which were 404 . * Probably a reference to the Persian wars. * 105 imberbes uss. a priesthood of Mars instituted by Numa. quid nunc esset vetus ? aut quid haberet ^ quod Icgeret tereretque viritim^ publicus usus ? Ut primum positis nugari Graecia bellis coepit et in vitium fortuna labier aequa. II. sub nutrice puella velut si 95 luderet infans. quod non mutabile credas ?^ hoc paces habuere bonae ventique secundi. cautos nominibus rectis expendere nummos. ingeniis non ille favet plauditque sepultis. 40). nunc arsit equorum. nostra sed impugnat. per quae crescere res posset. suspendit picta voltum mentemque tabella. iam Saliare Numae carmen qui laudat et illud. maiores audire. nos nostraque lividus edit. hotcever. : imberbi Cruquius. * Line 101 gives a fair sense here. were almost uninteUigible to the priests themselves in the days of Quintilian "Saliorum carmina vix . solus volt scire videri. transposed it so as to follow 107 and most editors accept his verdict. haberes. ' Quiritum Ur sinus. nunc athletarum studiis. minori dicere. minui damnosa libido. Romae dulce diu fuit et sollemne reclusa mane domo vigilare. petiit. nunc tibicinibus. et quae imberbes^ didicere senes perdenda fateri. i. 100 quid placet aut odio est. clienti promere iura. Quod si tarn Graecis novitas invisa fuisset 90 quam nobis. quod cupide mature plena reliquit. nunc^ est gavisa tragoedis . 6. Vollmer puts it after 102.HORACE vel quia turpe putant parere minoribus. * " The hymns of the Salii. Lachmann.

I. but assails ours to-day. he \vaj> at work (c/. that man does not favour and applaud the genius of the deaa. spitefully hating us and everything of ours. U. to pay out to sound debtors money under bonds. in beardless youth should be destroyed. and now in actors of tragedy. cast off.^ Greece took to trifling. 84-107 because they hold it a shame to yield to their juniors. whoever cries up Numa's Salian hymn. to set forth the laAV for clients. What hkes and dislikes are there that you would not think easily changed ? Such was the effect of happy times of peace and prosperous gales." and would alone seem to understand what he knows as little of as I do. what she wanted in impatience. When the Iloman was not at war. Like a baby-girl playing at its nurse s feet. *^ But if novelty had been as offensive to the Greeks as it is to us. and amid fairer fortunes drifted into folly she was all aglow with passion. In what follows Horace speaks of the various arts and pursuits of peace from the old Roman point of view. II. followed by a wonderful literary and artistic epocfi in Athens.). 103 ff. each according to his taste ? ^^ From the day she dropped her wars. now for horses marble or ivory or bronze . to give ear to one's elders and to tell one's juniors how an estate might be increased and ruinous : . ^^ At Rome it was long a pleasure and habit to be up at daw'n with open doors. . 405 . what in these days would be ancient ? What would the pubhc have to read and thumb.EPISTLES. when satisfied. with eyes and soul she hung enraptured on the painted panel her joy was now in flautists. now for she raved over workers in athletes. and to confess in their old age that what they learned Indeed. she soon.

invenior Parthis mendacior. castis cum pueris ignara puella mariti disceret unde preces. inopem solatur et aegrum. mutavit mentem populus . fugas servorum. Phillimore. . asperitatis et invidiae corrector et irae. modicorum. qui nuUos me adfirmo scribere versus. et prius orto sole vigil calamum et chartas et scrinia posco. 110 ipse ego. vivit siliquis et pane secundo militiae quamquam piger et malus. Bentley. S. navem agere ignarus navis timet habrotonum aegro non audet nisi qui didieit dare . * * : " Even while dining. melici Bentley * puero vel cogitat E. 125 OS tenerum pueri balbumque poeta figurat. vatis avarus non temere est animus. incendia ridet 121 non fraudem socio puerove incogitat^ ullam pupillo . puerique inferior mss. quod medicorum^ est promittunt medici^ .HORACE levis et calet uno pueri^ patresque severi fronde comas vincti cenant et carmina dictant. mox etiam pectus praeceptis format amicis. tractant fabrilia fabri : 116 scribimus indocti doctique poemata passim. 406 . versus amat. melicorum. orientia tempora notis 130 instruit exemplis. metuenda pericula pellit. scribendi studio . hocstudetunum. recte facta refert. sic collige. torquet ab obscenis iam nunc sermonibus aurem.^ 135 avertit morbos. they have an amanuensis ready and they wear the ivy sacred to poets instead of the usual garland of flowers. detrimenta.. caelestis implorat aquas docta prece blandus. Hie error tamen et levis haec insania quantas virtutes habeat. * blandos a. si das hoc. modici /. vatem ni Musa dedisset ? poscit opem chorus et praesentia numina sentit. parvis quoque rebus magna iuvari. utilis urbi.

. who declare that I write no verses. would the unwedded maid learn the suppliant hymn. I. its II. in age with famous examples. winning favotir \nth the prayer he has taught. gains peace 407 . indulgence curbed. fires he laughs at all. runaway slaves. if you grant that even by small things are great ends helped. correcting roughness and envy and — . and writing-case. His food is pulse and coarse bread." I myself. The poet fashions the tender. : The fickle public has changed and is fired throughout with a scribbling sons and grave sires sup crowned with leaves A . Seldom verses he loves . To cheat partner or youthful ward he never plans. lisping hps of childhood even then he turns the ear from unseemly presently. all ahke. one passion. handle carpenters' tools we scribble poetry. loS-136 taste craze . calls for showers from heaven. He tells of noble deeds. equips the rising ^^'hence. and call for pen. too. this mild madness. he serves the State. no one dares to give southernwood to the sick unless he has learnt its carpenters doctors undertake a doctor's work use but. company with chaste boys. its merits. of a ship fears to handle one . prove to be more of a liar than the Parthians before sunrise I wake. has are. and to the helpless and sick at heart brings comfort. drives away dreaded dangers. : ^^ is And yet this craze. man who knows nothing paper. anger. Though a poor soldier. this is How great these his now : the poet's heart set on gain consider. had the Muse not given them a bard ? Their chorus asks for aid and feels the presence of the gods.EPISTLES. and dictate their lines. . he moulds the heart by words kindly precepts. averts disease. Money losses. and slow in the field. skilled or unskilled.

poenaque describi : lata. carmine Manes. 134-137. Bentley.HORACE impetrat et pacem et locupletem frugibus annum. 2. he sets forth the function of the chorus..licentia morem 145 versibus alternis opprobria rustica fudit. These Fescennine verses.^ malo quae nollet carmine quemquam 155 vertere modum. floribus et vino Genium memorem brevis aevi Fescennina per hunc inventa. donee iam saevus apertam in rabiem coepit verti iocus et per honestas ire domos impune minax. libertasque recurrentis accepta per annos lusit amabiliter. formidine fustis ad bene dicendum delectandumque redacti. ' Each man's guardian spirit . 94. cf. . * This account of the development of a Latin drama from a rustic origin may be compared with Virgil's sketch of the rise of the drama in Georg. 7. Silvanum lacte piabant. ^ sic : horridus ille pueris (et omitted) invecta Poliziano. 385 ff. et pueris E aR ^ n i ata. the earliest form of Italian drama. Agricolae prisci. They were so "* 408 . doluere cruento 150 dente lacessiti . fuit intactis quoque cura quin etiam lex condicione super communi . cum sociis operum et pueris^ et coniuge fida. " In 11. Tellurem porco. carmine di superi placantur. and with the outline given by Livy in Book vii. especially in association with religious ceremonies. in 11. fortes parvoque beati. //. Epist. Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artis intulit agresti Latio. survived in later times in the abusive songs sung at weddings and in triumphal processions.c. 131-133. ii. i. Horace is thinking chiefly of the chorus of boys and girls who sang the Carmen Saecularc in 17 b. condita post frumenta levantes tempore festo 140 corpus et ipsum animum spe finis dura ferentem.

10. partners of their labours. the captive. the gods above. ii. turned to open frenzy. which in alternate verse poured forth rustic taunts and the freedom. De rep." Cf. welcomed each returning year. Sat. iv. 137-157 Song wins grace with rich in fruits. when. Stung to the quick were they who were bitten by a tooth that drew blood even those untouched felt concern for the common cause.. a sturdy folk >\'ith simple wealth. used to propitiate Earth with swine.EPISTLES. together >vith slaves and faithful \\ife. I. which bore its toils in hope of the end. 1. song wins it with the gods below . forbidding the portrayal of any in abusive strain. and at last a law * was carried with a penalty. was innocently gay.<* ^^ The farmers ^ of old. " si quis occentavisset sive carmen condidisset quod infamiam faceret flagitiumve alteri. 156 Greece. Silvanus with milk. they sought relief at holiday time for the body. as given by Cicero. named In the Twelve Tables. and \vith flowers and wine the Genius ' who is ever mindful of the shortness of life. after harvesting the grain. and it is a well-known fact that the germ of Greek comedy is to be found in the phallic songs sung in the Dionysiac festivities. as well as for the soul. and terror of the cudgel led them back to goodly and gracious forms of speech. 82. till jest. or fact that a symbol of life (fascinum) was often carried in procession in order to ward oif the evil eye. * 409 . viz. fearless in its threatening. and a season II. and stalked amid the homes of honest folk. Such a phallic symbol was in common use among the Greeks. made her savage victor captive. Through this custom came into use the Fescennine hcence. Men changed their tune. now growing cruel. from the either from the town of Fescennium in Etruria. and brought the arts into rustic Latium. •* . 12.

was one of the stock characters "* 410 . sed turpem putat inscite^ metuitque lituram. * peperere (t>^\l. quantus sit Dossennus edacibus in parasitis." i. ex medio quia res accersit. With the introduction of Greek literature into Rome. the art to blot. ^ dimittere aM. as Pope says of Dryden. gestit enim nummum in loculos demittere. : accessit VE. si digne vertere posset.e. it gave way to the hexameter and other Greek metrical forms. adspice. ^ numeris i2</>i/'. '' The word vertere but rather to " transfer.e. II: inscriptis VEi inscitiae FVJ/. the sly villain. * accersit o. from the Greek to the Roman i. quid Sophocles et Thespis et Aeschylus utile ferrent. II. Creditur.HORACE defluxit Humerus^ Saturnius.* habere sudoris minimum. '' means not merely to "translate. : ut patris attenti. now generally believed to be based on accent instead of quantity. Porph. et grave virus munditiae pepulere^ . quam non adstricto percurrat pulpita socco. Plautus quo pacto partis tutetur amantis ephebi. quanto veniae minus. and is illustrated by numerous inscriptions. et placuit sibi. temptavit quoque rem. lenonis ut insidiosi.^ post hoc securus cadat an recto stet fabula talo. 160 serus enim Graecis admovit acumina chartis et post Punica bella quietus quaerere coepit." stage. was used by Naevius " in his epic on the Punic War. he lacks " the last and greatest art. sed habet Comoedia tanto 169 plus oneris. 176 Quem tulit ad scaenam ventoso Gloria curru. sed in longum tamen aevum manserunt hodieque manent vestigia ruris. 3 inscit(a)e a." Dossennus. natura sublimis et acer 165 nam spirat tragicum satis et feliciter audet. This ancient Italian metre.

how he plays that of the close what a Dossennus <* father. and Thespis and Aeschylus. f Horace. i. and in the peaceful days after the Punic wars he began to ask what service Sophocles could render. ' The soccus. lator's edition of the Andria of Terence (Introduction. as the cothurnus. Thus he here imputes to him a sordid motive for characteristics which were probably due See the transto the influence of native forms of drama. He also made essay. is plausibly derived from another of these stock characters. he is eager to drop a coin into his pocket and. or low slipper worn by the actors. the buffoon. wedded to classical standards. but in truth it carries a hea\ier burden. calls for less labour . I. on. for he has some tragic inspiration. whether he could reproduce * in worthy style. represents Comedy. stands for Tragedy.EPISTLES. and is happy in his ventures. The nomen of Plautus. or of the tricky pander with what a loose he is among his greedy parasites sock * he scours the scene. 158-177 Thus the stream of that rude Satumian measure " ran dry and good taste banished the offensive poison yet for many a year hved on. drawing its themes from daily hfe.'' 168 "Tis thought that Comedy. . and took pride in his success. could not appreciate Plautus fairly. he cares not whether his play fall or stand square on its feet. Yes.' ^" The man whom Glory carries to the stage in . that done. deeming it disgraceful. or high buskin. hesitates to blot. and still live . II. See how Plautus plays the part of the youthful lover. Maccius. as the indulgence allowed is less. p. in the Atellan farce of the viz. Oscans. xxviiij. For not till late did the Roman turn his wit to Greek \^Ti tings. Maccus.e. traces of our rustic past. being gifted with spirit and vigour . 411 . but in ignorance.

Orelli. i. They occupied the first fourteen in the theatre. petorrita. nimio V. quattuor aut pluris aulaea premuntur in horas.e. 195 spectaret populum ludis attentius ipsis ut sibi praebentem nimio^ spectacula plura : scriptores autem narrare putaret asello 200 fabellam surdo.e. indocti stolidique et depugnare parati. si discordet eques. knights rows something fresh. always looking for cf.HORACE sic leve. quod numero plures. subruit aut valeat res ludicra. * plaudet. virtute et honore minores. 12. sedulus inflat parvum est. captivum portatur ebur. raised from it at the end * i. See Epist. For the Sat. 10. I: mimo. rideret Democritus. donata reducit opimum. the laughing philosopher. II Porph. si foret in terris. nam quae pervincere voces evaluere sonum. 191 : . Vollmer. the performance continues. Bentley. esseda festinant. in accordance with the law of Roscius. sic exanimat lentus spectator. dum fugiunt equitum turmae peditumque catervae mox trahitur manibus regum fortuna retortis. 12.. si me 180 palma negata macrum. seu diversum confusa genus panthera camelo sive elephans albus volgi converteret^ ora . '' The camelopard or giraffe. referunt quem nostra theatra ? Garganum mugire putes nemus aut mare Tuscum . so Bentley. animum quod laudis avarum reficit. 412 .e. Saepe etiam audacem fugat hoc terretque poetam. captiva Corinthus. 76. In the ancient theatre the curtain was lowered into the floor at the beginning and of a play. media inter carmina poscunt 185 aut ursum aut pugiles his nam plebecula gaudet. naves. * ' " i. pilenta. * i.^ verum equitis quoque iam migravit ab aura voluptas omnis ad incertos oculos et gaudia vana. converterit Priscian. i. II.

when those who are stronger in number. Horace varies the old proverbial for wasted labour. 6v<p tu * By . Stra iKivei.EPISTLES.Often even the bold poet is frightened and put to rout. Were Democritus still on earth.saying iXeye fivdov • b di to. unlearned and stupid and ready to fight it out if the knights dispute with them. and ships . call in the middle of a play for a bear or for boxers: But now'tis in such things the rabble delights. Farewell the conaic stage.* For what voices have ever prevailed to dro\\'n the din with which our theatres resound ? One might think it was the roaring of the Garganian forest or of the ! : : — — — . the ass only shook his ears. carriages. so light. once fortune's with favourites. but weaker in worth and rank. 222). spoils of Corinthian bronze. Terence. 413 . I. and borne in triumph are spoils of ivory. that drew the eyes of the crowd he would gaze more intently on the people than on the play itself. surdo fahellam narrare {cf. so small is what casts do^vn or upbuilds a soul that craves for praise. adays all the pleasure even of the knights has passed from the ear to the vain delights of the wandering " eye. the eager one exultant . For four hours or more the curtains are kept down. But for the authors he would suppose that they were telUng their tale to a deaf ass.** while troops of horse and files of foot sweep by anon are dragged in kings. as giving him more by far worth looking at. wains. Heaiit." "a man told a story to an ass. There was a Greek saying. their hands bound behind them hurry and scurry come chariots. its bestowal plump ^*. •* — introducing asello. the listless spectator leaves spiritless. if denial of the palm sends me home lean. he would laugh whether it were some hybrid monster a panther crossed with a camel or a white elephant. 178-202 her windy car. II.

mulcet. . 17. venturum cpypXl. //. modo ponit Athenis.^ 205 " dixit adhuc aliquid ? " "nil sane. 210 ille per extentum^ funem mihi posse videtur ire poeta." ac ne forte putes me. . unum si quis amicorum est ausus reprehendere versum . ut studio maiore petant Helicona virentem. qiiibus oblitus actor cum stetit in scaena. si 215 curam redde brevem. //. laudare maligne. * * eo rem] forem Rn* imitare. commodus ultro arcessas^ et egere vetes et scribere cogas. qui se lectori credere malunt quam spectatoris fastidia ferre superbi. ut magus. * the actor's dress.e. » i. ^ laeva. cum loca iara recitata revolvimus irrevocati . item fore : ' extensum M. accersas E. Epist. falsis terroribus implet. munus Apolline dignum vis complere libris et vatibus addere calcar. quae facere ipse recusem. cum speramus eo rem venturam* ut. 3. library founded by Augustus in Apollo's temple on the Palatine cf. meum qui pectus inaniter angit. Verum age et his." " quid placet " ergo ? " lana Tarentino \'iolas imitata^ veneno. concurrit dextera laevae. cum tibi librum sollicito damus aut fesso cum laedimur.HORACE tanto cum strepitu ludi spectantur et artes divitiaeque peregrinae. simul atque carmina rescieris nos fingere. Multa quidem nobis facimus mala saepe poetae 220 (ut vineta egomet caedam mea). cum recte tractent alii. et modo me Thebis. irritat. The 414 . cum lamentamur non apparere labores 225 nostros et tenui deducta poemata filo . i.

\ae\ved. ^^ Wc poets doubtless often do much mischief to our own cause let me hack at my own vines "— when you are anxious or weary and we offer you our book when we are hurt if a friend has dared when. that. soothes. bestow a moment's attention. Horace humorously include himself among the poetasters who are so annoying. inflames. banish our poverty. too. as soon as you hear we are composing verses. .* and to spur on our bards to seek with greater zeal HeUcon's verdant lawns. 415 . ' Proverbial of doing something to one's own injury. and sets me down now at Thebes. upon those. 1. unasked. if you wish to fill with volumes that gift so worthy of Apollo. methinks that poet is able to walk a tight rope. 203-228 is amid such clamour works of art. And lest. who ^vith airy nothings wrings m}' heart. Tuscan Sea : II. so finely spun . the actor steps upon the stage. and of our poems — . the entertain- ment finery. rather than brook the disdain of a scornful spectator. the right hand clashes with " Has he yet said anything ? " Not the left. the and the foreign and when. ^* But come. now at Athens. we turn to censure a single verse back to passages already read. when we hope it will come to this. who prefer to put themselves in a reader's hands. perchance. " Then what takes them so ? " woollen robe " that \ies with the violet in its Tarentine dye. when we complain that men lose sight of our labours. you may think that I begrudge praise when others are handhng well what I decline to try myself. None the less. and compel us to wTite. overlaid vriih this. "Tis the a word. you will go so far as kindly to send for us.EPISTLES. fills it with vain alarms hke a magician.

Philippos. aut alius Lysippo duceret aera quod si fortis Alexandri voltum simulantia. Choerilus was an epic poet of lasos in Caria. edicto vetuit. et arces montibus impositas et barbara regna. 255 claustraque custodem pacis cohibentia lanum. Virtus. tuisque auspiciis totum confecta duella per orbem.HORACE sed tamen est operae pretium cognoscere. quae multa dantis cum laude tulerunt dilecti tibi^ Vergilius 245 Variusque^ poetae. terrarumque situs et flumina dicere. qualis 230 aedituos habeat belli spectata domique Virtus. * The Philippi were gold Philip of 4. coins which bore the image of Macedon. and poets are spoken of as the priests in her " temple. nee magis expressi voltus per aenea signa. is here personified. fere scriptores carmine foedo splendida facta linunt. iudicium subtile videndis artibus illud ad libros et ad haec Musarum dona vocares. and circulated freely throughout the Greek world. regale Choerilus. nee sermones ego mallem repentis per humum quam res componere gestas.16 . the sum total of a great man's merits. 235 240 Boeotum in crasso iurares aere natum. mentioned again in Ars Poetica. incultis qui versibus et male natis nomisma. 1 tui E. quam per vatis opus mores animique virorum 250 clarorum apparent. ne quis se praeter Apellen pingeret. poema qui tam ridiculum tarn care prodigus emit. indigno non committenda poetae. sed veluti tractata notam labemque remittunt atramenta. 357. idem rex ille. At neque dedecorant tua de se iudicia atque munera. " Varusque V. gratus Alexandre regi magno fuit ille rettulit acceptos.

to books and to these gifts of the Muses.'* to the story of great exploits. so ofttimes with unseemly verse poets put a blot on bright exploits. 6. That same king who lavishly paid so dearly for a poem so foolish. I. the Athenians sharpn witted cf. But call that judgement. ii. 7. so the Boeotians were proverbially dull. 229-255 'tis worth inquiring what manner of minis trants attend on Merit." But Virgil and Varius. 2b 417 . . of barbaric realms. and never to be entrusted to an unworthy poet. the tale of distant lands and rivers. than are the — — . 17). who could thank his uncouth and misbegotten verses for the philips ^ good royal coin that he received but as ink when handled leaves mark and stain. to the giver's great renown.EPISTLES." that crawl along the ground. iv. or any other than Lysippus to model bronze in copying the features of brave Alexander. they have received . and you'd swear that he'd been born in Boeotia's heavy air. of forts on mountain tops.* tried at home and in the field. * Under sermones Horace includes both his Satires and Epistles. so nice for viewing works of art. De fato. « As the heavy air of the moist lowlands of Boeotia was contrasted with the clear atmosphere of Attica. of the ending of wars under your auspices throughout the world. which are inspired by a Musa pedestris {Sat. set forth And for myself. Cicero. those poets whom you love. manners and minds of famous heroes. and features are seen -with no more truth. II. Well-pleasing to the great king Alexander was that poor Choerilus. when moulded in statues of bronze. I should not prefer my " chats. when in the poet's work. by an edict forbade anyone save Apelles to paint him. of bars that close on Janus. discredit not your judgement of them nor the gifts which.

iv. ne rubeam pingui donatus munere.HORACE et formidatam Parthis te principe si Romam. 260 praecipue cum se numeris commendat et arte . and with 11. 14. * i. aperta. " For the closing of the temple of Janus in peace cf. 15. ^ * porreptus E. 253 cf.e. inemptis. quantum cuperem possem quoque sed neque parvum carmen maiestas recipit tua.* * 270 * discet V. 252. meminitque libentius illud quod quis deridet. Odes. et una cum scriptore meo. sedulitas autem stulte quem diligit urget. ac neque ficto discit^ enim citius in peius voltu proponi cereus usquam 206 nee prave factis decorari versibus opto. capsa porrectus^ operta. 89). 11. "arces Alpibus impositas tremendis. 9. . nee meus audet rem temptare pudor quam vires ferre recusent.' deferar in vicum vendentem tus et odores et piper et quidquid chartis amicitur ineptis. nil moror officium quod me gravat. ^ That Augustus was sensitive about being made the subject of poor eulogies is stated by Suetonius {Augustus. * Horace means that sooner or later the work of a poor 418 . quam quod probat et veneratur." in Odes iv. to have one's portrait in wax offered for sale.

ef. Thus. along with my poet. and I want neither to be displayed anywhere in wax. under the figure of a funeral the poet is borne to his last resting-place the grocer's shop " We constantly see the Cf. ii.<* poet is found to be worthless. 269 there is an amusing pun on Vicus Tuscus. along which were all kinds of shops . Sat. above all when it commends itself by numbers — . I." and of that Rome who under your sway has become a terror to Parthians if only I had power equal to my longing but neither does your majesty admit of a lowly strain.EPISTLES. gladly men more quickly learn and more what they deride than what they approve and esteem. outstretched in a closed chest. the name of a street leading out of the Forum. — ! : 419 ." with my features misshaped. Not for me attentions that are burdensome. for recall sheets of useless paper . II. nor to be praised in verses ill-^^Tought. and then. 228. zeal is foolish to worry those it loves. Euphues' Anatomy of Wit booke that at Christmas lieth bound on the stacioner's stall. be carried into the street where they sell frankincense and perfumes and pepper and everything else that is wrapped in and by art . 256-270 guardian of peace. 3. and his books can be used only for waste paper. lest I have to blush at the stupid gift.'' nor does my modesty dare to essay a task beyond my strength to bear. Nay. at Easter be broken in the haberdasher's shop." In 1.


Time is stealing from me my poetical power. Besides. and won thereby both glory and a rich reward. soldier of Lucullus. poems Let (1-25). But later. as it has already taken from me my youth. Florus.n TO FLORUS offer a slave for sale. how can 421 . and took to poetry to make a living. and advised the I officer to send somebody who had lost his purse. I lost everything at Philippi. others call for Epodes or Satires. over and above this. but now that I have a competence I should be mad if I did not prefer ease to writing (26-54). me am like that soldier. So you. tastes vary. too. you complain of my breaking my word. for I warned you before you started that I never answer letters. remind you of the story of a certain One night he had all his sa\ings stolen. when his general invited him to repeat the exploit. and declare the purchaser would have no right to complain of these later. he declined. But there are other reasons why I do not write. Upon this he rushed off furiously to storm a castle. And then. and while you are asking for Odes. must not grumble at my not writing to you. when you receive from me no If one were to his defects. After all.

you ought to devote yourself wholly to it.HORACE you expect a man to write amid all the distractions of Rome ? The poet must live in seclusion. beginning with the elements. Avarice. The man at Argos learned what a misfortune it is to be robbed of one's illusions (106-140). but that ease Perhaps it is better is the product of much labour. If wealth could make you wise. 422 . and when the course prescribed brings no relief. however much derided. The result will seem easy. and I can decline to listen to the recitations of others (87-105)." did I say ? Why. The truth is. the only way to win success here as a poet is to join some mutual admiration club. that of philosophy. you change the treatment or the doctor. So. how much more so is it of noisy Rome ? How then can I deign to write poetry here ? (55-86). Poor poets. to be one of those self-complacent writers than to be ever finding fault with oneself. " Deign. But the writing of good poetry is a very serious matter. and demands a fine taste and careful discrimination in the choice of language. I repeat to myself the wise precepts that I have picked up. For the latter you consult a doctor. and then he becomes quite unfit for active life. for example. Should not avarice be dealt with in — like manner ? (141-154). is as much a disease as dropsy. If this is true of Athens. it is time for a man of my years to throw aside mere toys like poetry and take up the serious business of life. are well satisfied with themselves. And yet what comes from all Ownership brings this struggle to make money ? no more satisfaction than the right to use and enjoy. and for my part I am no longer suing for favour I am no longer writing.

it can hardly have been written in the years when the Carmen Saeculare and the Fourth Book of Odes came into being (17-13 B. usucapio Death prevents that (155-179). Florus of this Epistle is the Julius Florus to i. In any case. When a man has had his share in the banquet of hfe. 3 is also addressed.). If one cannot hve well. WTiy this is so. At any rate. and as there is a great similarity of tone between this Epistle and the first of the First Book. he should give way to those who can. there is no such thing as out and out ownership. and the wise man will free himself from all disturbing passions and fears. But avarice is not the only e\il that may assail the heart.EPISTLES. it is time to \vithdraw (205-216). and even the law recognizes the fact that this is the same in the end as dominium or ownership. it is likely that it was \vritten shortly after the pubhcation of that book in 20 B. and some care nothing for what others value so highly.C. As a matter of fact.C. Let me but be free from squalor. in view of the writer's renunciation of lyric poetry in this Epistle. 11. and I shall be just as happv saihng on hfe's sea in a small as in a large for ship (180-204). II. 423 . but for my part I hold that Ufe's pleasures are to be enjoyed in moderation. The whom Epist. He is still in the suite of Tiberius. or o\vnership in perpetuity. wealth takes many forms. I cannot say.

iioine-born. 3. 2. but has expressly mentioned {excepta) a defect. : 10 me 15 ferat pretiium poenae securus. quin etiam canet indoctum sed dulce bibenti. in scalis latuit metuens pendentis habenae des nummos.II. si 6 litterulis Graecis imbutus. 3. Orelli.g. * est tibi lex. Epist. . Bentley laedat mss. Sat. * * imitabimur. Flore. II. idoneus arti argilla quidvis^ imitaberis^ cuilibet . verna ministeriis ad nutus aptus erilis. because he has not represented the slave as faultless. prudens emisti vitiosum dicta tibi est lex^ ille . ' Tiberius Claudius Nero. II. ^ excludere V. ut fit. 16) make 424 . semel hie cessavit et. Orelli) read laedat (1.e. multa fidem promissa levant. Editors who {e. the future Emperor Tiberius ^ i. the strap which was hanging up where all could it. res urget me nulla meo sum pauper in aere.e. ii. see ^ i. laedit V. not foreign. et tecum sic agat : " hie et candidus et talos a vertice pulcher ad imos fiet eritque tuus nummorum milibus octo. " c/. i.e. Cf. ubi plenius aequo laudat venalis qui volt extrudere^ merces. uda . quis forte velit puerum tibi vendere natura Tibure vel Gabiis. 286. opinor. ^ : /. excepta nihil te si fuga laedit* " : . i. quavis E. nemo hoc mangonum faceret tibi non temere a quivis ferret idem. bono claroque fidelis amice Neroni.

for eight thousand sesterces apt for ser\ice at his owner's beck. fearing the hanging strap. and ferat (1. . prefer to follow Bentley in including 1. . Once he played truant. . hold. comely with you thus you may take him. so that both des (1. I am under no constraint I have slender means. does not trouble you " take it." Give me the sum asked. We 425 . but am not in debt. when a seller who wants to shove off his wares praises them unduly. \vill . ." and should deal " Here's a handsome boy. as boys \sill do. the speech of the seller close with line 15. and can master any art : . 2). 17) provide the apodosis or conclusion to «i quis forte relit (1. under the stairs. 16). None of the slave-dealers would give you such a bargain not everyone would easily get the like from me. and hid himself. . to have and to from top to toe home-bred he is. loyal friend of great and good Nero. if his running off.Epistle II My Florus. born at Tibur or Gabii. the seller. knows a bit of the clay Greek learning.** You bought him with your eyes open fault and all the condition was told you do you still pursue fidence. I duly noted. would get his price without fear of penalty. 16 in the seller's speech. he soft if mould it to what you will morewill sing for you over your cups in a sweet Too many promises lessen conartless fashion. : — . is —you over.* suppose someone by chance should wish to sell you a slave.

^ He studied Homer's Iliad. from 74 b. " grandia laturus meritorum praemia.26 . forte sub hoc tempus castellum evertere praetor 35 nescio quod cupiens hortari coepit eundem verbis quae timido quoque possent addere mentem " i. post haec ille catus. ob id factum donis ornatur honestis. i pede fausto. ad assem perdiderat post hoc vehemens lupus. adiecere bonae paulo plus artis Athenae. ne mea saevus iurgares ad te quod epistula nulla rediret. quantumvis rusticus 40 ibit eo. quid stas ? " ibit. possim. Romae nutriri mihi contigit atque doceri : : quantum nocuisset Achilles. ' * opimis V. qui zonam perdidit. mecum facientia iura si tamen attemptas ? quereris super hoc etiam.^ accipit et bis dena super sestertia nummum.c. quo vis." inquit. ieiunis dentibus acer. ut aiunt. scilicet ut vellem^ curvo dinoscere rectum iratus Grais atque inter silvas Academi quaerere verum.^ quid turn profeci. to 67 b. quod exspectata tibi non mittam carmina mendax. bone. king of Pontus.HORACE insequeris dixi tamen hunc et lite moraris iniqua ? me pigrum proficiseenti tibi. quo virtus tua te vocat. lassus dum noctu stertit. dura sed emovere loco me tempora grato 1 45 veniret (pfXl. dixi 20 talibus officiis prope mancum. 30 praesidium regale loco deiecit. 4. : summe munito clarus et multarum divite rerum. * LucuUus commanded the Roman forces in the war with Mithridates.c. II: possem. et sibi et hosti iratus pariter. 25 Luculli miles collecta viatica multis aerumnis.

^ A soldier of Lucullus. I was eager to distinguish the straight from the crooked. so vou know. II. he will go go where you -wish he who has lost his calls ! — — — : wallet. twenty thousand sesterces Soon after this it chanced that the comin coin. But troublous times tore me from that pleasant spot. therebv. had laid by savings. Winning fame fortified site. they say. angry ^nth himself and his foe ahke. you complain that the verses you looked for I fail to send.' Kindly Athens added somewhat more training. but one night. mander. he dislodged. and to hunt for truth in the groves of Academe. he was decorated with gifts of honour. and received. if when right is on my side you still attack it ? And then. had lost all down to the last penny. false to my word." *• At Rome I had the luck to be bred. over and above. furious as a wolf. What good did I then do. After this. whither your valour even to a coward : to win big rewards you. rich in vast treasure. when weary and slumbering. shrewd fellow. began to urge the man with words that might have given spirit " Go. n. replied " Yes. wishing to storm some fort. and fiercely showing hungry teeth. sir.EPISTLES. Go. 19-46 the seller and annoy him with an unjust suit ? I I told you when you were lea\ing that I was lazy told you that for such duties I was well-nigh crippled. and taught how much Achilles' wrath had harmed the Greeks. lest you should angrily scold. a royal garrison from a strongly . good luck to you Why stand still ? " On this the for your merits.** by dint of many toils. and the tide of civil that. 427 . rustic though he was. over and above this. because no letter of mine reached you in reply.

. Mooney in Hermath. 1 . Venerem. * plures. xv. Such as Horace's Epodes.7. who kept up the struggle under Sextus Pom» peius. convivia. // {not so Vollmer. 161 c/. quod^ iubet alter . sane est invisum acidumque duobus. Sat. iv. hie auditum scripta. 428 . ii. quid dem ? quid non dem ? renuis tu. Tib. Cf. ille Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro. 1. II (plurae JR). Praeter cetera me Romaene poemata censes 65 scribere posse inter tot curas totque labores ? petis. hie delectatur iambis. . . hie extremo in Aventino. id quod hie sponsum vocat." ^ philippis (p\p\l. . 5) . visendus uterque " verum intervalla vides humane commoda.W.^ decisis humilem pennis inopemque paterni 50 et laris et fundi. unlike Pompeius Varus and other friends. nihil ut meditantibus obstet. ludum tendunt extorquere poemata quid faciam vis ? denique non omnes eadem mirantur amantque carmine tu gaudes. The " poet's estate at Venusia was doubtless confiscated. 15. 100. p. * defit O. : 55 : 60 poscentes vario multum diversa palato. Odes ii. 7. paupertas impulit audax ut versus facerem sed quod non desit^ habentem : quae poterunt umquam satis expurgare cicutae. relictis omnibus officiis cubat hie in colle Quirini. After the defeat of Brutus at Philippi Horace withdrew from the Republican cause. ni melius dormire putem quam scribere versus ? Singula de nobis anni praedantur euntes eripuere locos. 70 purae* sunt plateae. unde simul primum me dimisere Philippi.HORACE civilisque rudem belli tulit aestus in arma Caesaris August! non responsura lacertis. * quod tu. tres mihi convivae prope dissentire videntur. "" Cf. .

One hes sick on the another on the Aventine's far side . I ! must visit both. What would you have me do ? After all. ** was famous 429 . men have not all the same tastes and likes. do you think I can write verses . a novice in war. ^^ Besides all else. barefaced poverty drove me to writing verses. if I were not to think than to scribble verses ? it better to slumber ^ The years. His name represents Satire in general. *• . much like three guests who disagree their tastes vary.EPISTLES.c. II. plunder us of all joys. strife flung II. 47-71 me. so that nothing need hinder you in conning Bion.** 'Tis. including Horace's own Sermones or Satires. our neighbour here takes pleasure in iambics. play they are striving to wrest from me my poems. to leave all my duties listen and to his writings. : at calls Rome amid all my cares and all my toils ? One me to be surety. b. with their caustic wit. Soon as Philippi gave me discharge" therefrom. but the streets are fortably convenient clear. But now that I have sufficient store. what doses of hemlock could ever suffice to cleanse my blood. amid weapons that were to be no match for the strong arms of Caesar Athenian philosopher of the early third cent. What am I to put before them ? what not ? You refuse what your neighbour orders what you crave is.* the one yonder in Bion's satires. for his biting wit. Lyric song is your delight. and they call for widely different dishes. love. I fancy. which contain but a minimum of the sal niger referred to. one by one. feasting. another. They have stripped me of mirth. Quirinal hill. to be sure. are com" Yes. you see. sour and distasteful to the other two. brought low with wings clipped and beggared of paternal home and estate. The distances. as they pass.

.HORACE festinat calidus mulis gerulisque redemptor. hac lutulenta ruit sus 76 i nunc et versus tecum naeditare canoros. scriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus et fugit urbem. ' et. ut^ alter sermone meros audiret honores. foret huic ut Mucius ille. all editors : hie . tristia robustis luctantur funera plaustris.* qui minus argutos vexat furor iste poetas ? 90 carmina compono. II {not S). Porph. 422.^ rite cliens Bacchi somno gaudentis et umbra tu me inter strepitus nocturnes atque diurnos vis canere et contracta^ sequi vestigia vatum ? 80 ingenium. ^ : " Hie. paragraph.e. were orators. where it is even more difficult to devote oneself to study than in Athens. 2 contracta E. Tiberius and Gaius. Bentley. See p. hie elegos. ' Both the Gracchi. . . adopted by Orelli and others cantata Vi non tacta Bentley. : contacta mss. Bentley read pactus {for frater) and consulto. illi M8S. //. nunc ingens machina tignum. i. hac rabiosa fugit canis. There were three well-known jurists named Mucius Scaevola. in Rome. sibi quod vacuas desumpsit Athenas et studiis annos septem dedit insenuitque libris et curis. statua taciturnius exit : : plerumque et risu populum quatit : hie ego rerum 85 fluctibus in mediis et tempestatibus urbis verba lyrae motura sonum conectere digner ? Frater erat Romae consulti rhetor. * huic . . 430 .. . quanto cum fastu. Gracchus ut hie illi. torquet nunc lapidem. knoton to Porph. ille Lambinus. quanto molimine circumspectemus vacuam Romanis vatibus aedem alterius 1 ! urbes. * Under such conditions self-respect would prevent him This is further illustrated in the next from writing. mirabile visu caelatumque novem Musis opus adspice primum.

'' 431 .EPISTLES. mournful funerals jostle massive wagons this way runs a mad dog that way rushes a mud-bespattered sow. if haply : — : ! ! The temple of Apollo on the Palatine. EpUt. 72-94 verses. who finds joy in sleep and shade. were on such terms that nothing but compliments would each hear from the other's lips the one was Gracchus to the other.** And by and by. engraven by the Muses nine " Mark you first. 11. Now go. the other Mucins to him. 216. : sequestered Athens. am I to deign to weave together words which shall awake the music of the : '' lyre ®' ? Two brothers at Rome. Of. when he walks abroad is often more mute than a statue and makes the people shake with laughter and here^ amid the waves of Ufe. amid noises by night and noises by day. one for Greek. duly loyal to Bacchus.'' And our singer poets how does this madness trouble them any the less ? I compose lyrics. to sing and pursue the minstrels' narrow pathway ? A gifted man. a huge crane is lioisting now a stone and now a beam . Would you wish me. ii. with -which was associated a famous library in two sections. the other for Latin books. The whole chorus of poets loves the grove and flees the town. II. and thoughtfully con melodious verses. amid the tempests of the town. that has chosen for home . our contemplative gaze wanders o'er the temple. 1." In hot haste rushes a contractor with mules and porters . a lawyer and a pleader. now open to Roman bards. with what pride. my friend " 'Tis wondrous to behold elegiacs A work of art. On the walls were medallions of famous authors. that has given seven years to his studies and grown grey over his books and meditations. with what importance.

si forte vacas/ sequere et procul audi. placem genus irritabile vatum. mutual compliments. audebit.C. ^ feruntur. elegists. indulging in inflicting their For Mimnermus cf. Ridentur mala qui componunt carmina verum gaudent scribentes et se venerantur et ultro. si taceas. 100 . 1. ut multa et optivo cognomine crescit. 91) who called himself "the Roman Callimachus. vacat. cum scribo et supplex populi suffragia capto idem finitis studiis et mente recepta 105 obturem patulas impune legentibus auris. 6. Epist. an Alexandrian poet of the third cent.. was commonly held to be the greatest of Greek " The two poets. are humorously compared to a pair of those heavy-armed gladiators known as Samnites. ' inter Mss.HORACE mox etiam. fit Mimnermus fero. 432 . B.^ verba movere loco. B. quaecumque parum splendoris habebunt et sine pondere erunt et honore indigna ferentur. at qui legitimum cupiet fecisse poema.C. . /." Callimachus. laudant quidquid scripsere beati. discedo Alcaeus puncto illius ille meo quis ? quis nisi Callimachus ? si plus adposcere visus. till night put an end to the contest. quamvis invita recedant et versentur adhuc intra^ penetralia Vestae * . who would engage in a wearisome. i. He lived in the latter half of the seventh cent. 95 quid ferat et qua re sibi nectat uterque eoronam. 65. and compositions on each other. . and was the first to make elegy a vehicle for love-sentiment. the elegiac writer (c/. though harmless fight. 110 cum tabulis animum censoris sumet honesti .. 5. * It is commonly supposed that in this whole scene the second poet referred to by Horace is Propertius. caedimur et totidem plagis consumimus hostem lento Samnites ad lumina prima duello.

Vesta perhaps stands for the most sacred traditions of Rome. to soothe the fretful tribe of bards. in a long-drawn bout. stop up my open ears when they recite. and draw close to hear what each has to offer." By his vote I come off an Alcaeus. without fear of requital.** courage. albeit they are loth to ^vithdraw. and." 106 Xhose who vrrite poor verses are a jest yet they rejoice in the ^^Titing and revere themselves . he need not Others prefer to connect impune with legentibus.EPISTLES. and still hnger within Vesta's precincts. and with tit for tat use up our foe. when he takes his tablets. 2p 433 . he becomes a Mimnermus. you have time. — ! if he does not write. till the first lamps are lighted. Johnson as the motto for * Horace means that listen. and humbly suing for public favour . but ! now that my studies I are ended and my \nts recovered. would. or be deemed unworthy of rank. II.* Much do I endure. so that the words rejected by the poet still remain in common use. and is glorified with the title of his choice. ** his Dictionary. will take also He wll have the the spirit of an honest censor. to remove them from their place. 95-114 follow. hke Samnites. but a CalUmachus claim more. so long as I am scribbling. if words fall short in dignity. and with what he weaves for himself a chaplet. We belabour each other. lack weight. * The allusion is obscure. Keller thinks that Horace uses a quotation from Ennius or some other early poet. they themselves praise But whatever they have produced happy souls the man whose aim is to have WTOught a poem true to Art's rules. These lines were used by Dr.* Terms long . What is he by If he seems to mine ? What. The others recite vdthout fear of his retaliating. II. should you say nothing.

130 cetera qui vitae servaret munia recto more. comis in uxorem." ait. 50. . * • Argus. ut qui nunc Satyrum. * : et vehemens liquidus D. bonus sane vicinus. virtute carentia^ toilet. amabilis hospes. * Cf. result of hard ' move easiest who have learn 'd to dance. Poetica. posset qui ignoscere servis et signo laeso non insanire lagoenae. 71. posset qui rupem et puteum vitare patentem. ludentis speciem dabit et torquebitur. " cui sic extorta voluptas : et demptus per vim mentis gratissimus * error. me occidistis. quae genitor produxerit usus. vemens et liquidus^ puroque simillimus amni . quae priscis memorata Catonibus atque Cethegis nunc situs informis premit et deserta vetustas adsciscet nova. fuit baud ignobilis Argis. Ringi means literally " to show one's teeth like a snarling As those 434 . " pol. quam sapere et ringi. Pope easily do so as the Poetica.HORACE obscurata diu populo bonus eruet atque 118 proferet in lucem speciosa vocabula rerum. • * Cf. 125 Praetulerim scriptor delirus inersque videri. : parentem. 72. nimis aspera sano levabit cultu. amici. Ars . et redit ad sese non servastis. II. Ars Those who dance most training cf. : carentia D^lf calentia Va.' qui se credebat miros audire tragoedos in vacuo laetus sessor plausorque theatre . nunc agrestem Cyclopa movetur.* 135 hie ubi cognatorum opibus curisque refect us expulit elleboro morbum bilemque meraco. dum mea delectent mala me vel denique fallant. 120 fundet opes Latiumque beabit divite lingua luxuriantia compescet." 140 vehemens mss.

smooth with wholesome refinement what is rough. and had come to himself again. New ones he will adopt which Use has fathered and brought forth.** now lie low through unseemly neglect and dreary age. and now a clownish Cyclops." ^^ I should prefer to be thought a foolish and clumsy scribbler. while he sat happy and applauded darkness the good poet people's use and bring into the light — — . my friends. he will prune down rankness of growth. sweep away what lacks force wear the look of being at play. kind to his wife." and is used here of the unhappy." in the empty theatre all — perform : ! . but when with strong hellebore he had driven out the malady and its bile. if only my failings please. who used to fancy that he was listening to wonderful tragic actors. one that could excuse his slaves. and yet be on the rack. and not get frantic if the seal of a flask were broken. self-critical poet who is never content with what he produces. self-complacent writer. a most worthy neighbour. one that could avoid a precipice or an open well. though once spoken by a Cato and a Cethegus of old. dog. hke a dancer who plays now a Satyr. he will pour forth wealth and bless Latium with richness of speech .'' Strong and clear. he cried " Egad you have killed me. or at least escape me. and truly like a crystal river.EPISTLES.** a man who would correctly other duties of hfe. n. not saved me for thus you have robbed me of a pleasure and taken away perforce the dearest illusion of my heart. rather than be wise and unhappy Once at Argos there w^as a man of some rank. lost in II. in contrast with the contented. 435 . This man was cured by his kinsmen's help and care. an amiable host. 115-140 will unearth for the picturesque terms which.

qui te pascit ager tuus est. perhaps Horace jocularly refers to matrimony. . " A reference to the common mode of conveying ownership by a symboHc sale.^ proprium est. II. quod quis libra mercatus^ et acre quaedam. ac non verba sequi fidibus modulanda Latinis. II: daturus. held by a third party. si credis consultis. 155 cupidum timidumque minus te.^ te dominum sentit. in which a balance. tempestivum pueris concedere ludum. mercatur. I. was struck by the purchaser with a copper coin. resulted in ownership (dominium). cui rem di donarent. viz. et vilicus Orbi. fugeres radice vel herba proficiente nihil curarier : 150 audieras. w. '' But for a certain time. Usucapio. cum segetes occat tibi mox frumenta daturas. accipis uvam. illi decedere pravam stultitiam plenior es. vivas numerato nuper an olim ? : 160 165 ^ mercatus. narrares medicis quod. quocirca mecum loquor haec tacitusque recorder Si tibi nulla sitim finiret copia lymphae. sed verae numerosque modosque ediscere vitae. ova. quanto plura parasti. 2 7. das nummos. uninterrupted and continued in property. daturas V. II: est omitted. et sis nihilo si cum viveret in terris te si quis avarior uno. si sapientior ex quo tamen uteris monitoribus isdem ? At si divitiae prudentem reddere possent. fortasse trecentis aut etiam supra nummorum milibus emptum. nulline faterier audes ? si volnus tibi monstrata radice vel herba non fieret levius. where in 4'36 . pullos. : : 145 tan to plura cupis. est. nempe ruberes.HORACE Nimirum sapere et est abiectis utile nugis. quid refert. mancipat usus . cadum temeti nempe modo isto paulatim mercaris agrum. legal possession.

: ! sesterces. Therefore I talk thus to myself and silently recall these precepts If no amount of water could quench your thirst. or perhaps whether you certain cases live even more." there are some things. (1917). xxxi. you would give up being treated >vith the you had perhaps root or herb that did you no good been told that perverse folly flees from him to whom but though you are no the gods had given wealth wiser since you became richer. You give your you receive grapes. . but to master the rhythms and measures of a genuine life. ajar of wine coin you are buying bit by bit in that way. to leave to lads the sport that fits their age. which use ^ conveys you food is yours. II. If that is a man's own which he buys with bronze and balance. on what was paid out lately or result manus might from usus. and not to search out words that will fit the music of the Latin lyre.R. if less wedded to desires and fears. 437 . the more you want. you would blush if there hved upon earth a greater miser than you. you would tell your story to the doctor seeing that the more you get. poultry. eggs. What does it matter. when he harrows the corn-land which is shortly to give you grain. So PoUuck. 11. 141-166 ^*^ In truth it is profitable to cast aside toys and to learn wisdom . . do you still follow the same counsellors ? 1^ But surely if wealth could make you wise. if you trust the the farm which gives lawyers. C. do you not dare to make confession to any man ? If your wound were not relieved by the root or herb prescribed. feels you to be his master. mark you the farm once purchased for three hundred thousand : : . and the bailiff of Orbius.EPISTLES.

emptor Aricini quondam^ Veientis et arvi cenat holus, quamvis aliter putat emptis sub noctem gelidam lignis calefactat aenum sed vocat usque suum, qua^ populus adsita certis 170




limitibus vicina refugit^ iurgia



proprium quicquam, puncto quod mobilis horae nunc prece, nunc pretio, nunc vi, nunc morte suprema permutet dominos et cedat in altera iura. sic* quia perpetuus nulli datur usus, et heres 176
alterius^ velut unda supervenit undam, prosunt aut horrea ? quidve Calabris saltibus adiecti Lucani, si metit Orcus grandia cum parvis, non exorabilis auro ?


Gemmas, marmor, ebur, Tyrrhena sigilla, tabellas, argentum, vestes Gaetulo murice tinctas 181 sunt qui non habeant, est qui non curat habere, cur alter fratrum cessare et ludere et ungui praeferat Herodis palmetis pinguibus, alter 185 dives et importunus ad umbram lucis ab ortu silvestrem flammis et ferro mitiget agrum, scit Genius, natale comes qui temperat astrum, naturae deus humanae, mortalis in unum
quodque caput, voltu mutabilis, albus et ater. utar et ex modico, quantum res poscet, acervo
iudicet heres, quod non plura datis invenerit ; et tamen idem scire volam, quantum simplex hilarisque nepoti


tollam, nee

metuam quid de me




quoniam V, most uss.








• sic


uss., Porph.

alternis Bentley.

Ownership may be transferred by donation in response an appeal (prece), and by confiscation {vi), as well as by purchase and inheritance.



some time ago




The man who once bought a farm bought the greens for his dinner, he bought the logs though he thinks otherwise with which he boils the kettle in the chill of nightfall. Yet he calls it all his own, up to where the poplars,
at Aricia or Veii

planted beside fixed boundaries, prevent the wranghng of neighbours: just as though anything were one 'sown, which in a moment of flitting time, now by prayer,* now by purchase, now by force, now at the last by death, changes owners and passes under the power of another. Thus since to none is granted lasting use, and heir follows another's heir as wave follows wave, what avail estates or granaries what avail Lucanian forests joined to Calabrian, if Death reaps great and small Death who never can be won over with gold ? ^^° Gems, marble, ivory, Tuscan vases, paintings, there are plate, robes dyed in GaetuHan purple there is one who cares not to those who have not have. Of two brothers one prefers, above Herod's rich palm-groves,* idhng and playing and the anointing of himself the other, wealthy and untiring, from dawn to shady eve subdues his woodland farm with flames and iron plough. Why so, the Genius alone knows that companion who rules our star of birth, the god of human nature, though mortal for each single life, and changing in countenance, white or black." I shall use and from my modest heap take what need requires, nor shall I fear what my heii will think of me, because he does not find more than 1 have given him. And yet, withal, I shall wish to know how much the frank and cheerful giver is distinct from the spendthrift, how much the frugal




Herod the Great had famous groves of date-palms near


Cf. Epist.





discrepet et quantum discordet parcus avaro. 194 distat enim, spargas tua prodigus, an neque sumptum invitus facias neque plura parare labores,

ac potius, puer ut festis Quinquatribus olim, exiguo gratoque fruaris tempore raptim. pauperies immunda domus^ procul absit^ ego, utrum nave ferar magna an parva, ferar unus et idem. 200 non agimur tumidis velis Aquilone secundo non tamen adversis aetatem ducimus Austris,
: :

viribus, ingenio, specie, virtute, loco, re^

extremi primorum, extremis usque priores. 204 Non es avarus abi. quid ? cetera iam simul isto cum vitio fugere^ ? caret tibi pectus inani ambitione ? caret mortis formidine et ira ? somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, nocturnos lemures portentaque Thessala rides ? natalis grate numeras ? ignoscis amicis ? 210 lenior et melior fis* accedente senecta ? quid te exempta iuvat^ spinis de pluribus una ? vivere si recte nescis, decede peritis. lusisti satis, edisti satis atque bibisti 215 tempus abire tibi est, ne potum largius aequo

rideat et pulset lasciva decentius^ aetas.
^ domus and absit omitted, II {only absit omitted in R). Hence procul procul absit Bentley.

* »

loco re,



fugere sis E.


colore, II. : //: fuge rite aEM.








The Quinquatnis, or festival of Minerva, was a schoolvacation of five days, from March 19 to March 23. * ForThessalian witchcraft cf. Epod. v. 45 ; Odes, i. 27. 21.






whether you scatter your money

For it does differ at variance with the miserly. lavishly, or whether,

while neither reluctant to spend, nor eager to add to yoiu- store, you snatch enjoyment of the brief and pleasant hour, hke a schoolboy in the spring hohdays."

be squahd want at home yet, be my I, the passenger aboard, shall remain one and the same. Not with swelling sails are we borne before a favouring north wind, yet we drag not out our hfe struggling with southern gales
Far from



vessel large or small,


in strength, in wit, in person, in virtue, in station, in

fortune, behind the foremost, ever before the last. ^^ You are no miser. Good What then ? Have all the other \'ices taken to flight with that ? Is your heart free from vain ambition ? Is it free from alarm and anger at death ? Dreams, terrors of magic, marvels, witches, ghosts of night, Thessahan portents do you laugh at these ? Do you count your birthdays thankfully ? Do you forgive your friends ? Do you grow gentler and better, as old age draws near ? What good does it do you to pluck out a single one of many thorns ? If you know not how to hve aright, make way for those who do. You have played enough, have eaten and drunk enough. 'Tis time to quit the feast," lest,


when you have drunk too
jostle you, playing the


youth mock and


>\ith better grace.

* C/. Sat. i. 1. 118, where, as here, Horace has in mind the famous passage in Lucretius, De rerum nat. iii. 938,

cur non ut plenus vitae conviva recedis





Tins, the longest of Horace's poems, is found in nearly all mss. under the title Ars Poetica, which is also the name assigned to it by QuintiUan and used by the commentator Porphyrio. Yet the composition is a letter rather than a formal treatise, and it is hard to believe that Horace himself is responsible for the conventional title. It has the discursive and occasionally personal tone of an Epistle, whereas it lacks the completeness, precision, and logical order of a well-constructed treatise. It must therefore be judged by the same standards as the other Epistles and Sermones, and must be regarded as an expression of more or less random reflections, suggested by special circumstances, upon an art which peculiarly concerned one or more of the persons addressed. These are a father and two sons of the Piso family, but nobody knows with certainty what particular Pisos and there are many on record they are. Though the writer touches upon various kinds of poetry, yet as fully one-third of the whole poem is concerned with the drama, it is a plausible inference presumably the that one at least of the Pisos elder son (1. 366) was about to write a play, perhaps

one with an Homeric background


128, 129),




possibly one conforming to the rules of the Greek satyric drama (11. 220 fF.). Thus the special interests of the Pisos may have determined Horace's choice of topics.

The following is a brief outline of the main subjects handled in the letter (a) A poem demands unity, to be secured by harmony and proportion, as well as a wise choice of subject and good diction. Metre and style must be

appropriate to theme and to character. A good model will always be found in Homer (11. 1-152). (b) Dramatic poetry calls for special care as to

character drawing, propriety of representation, length of a play, number of actors, use of the chorus and its music, special features for the satyric type, verseforms, and employment of Greek models (11. 153294.).


poet's qualifications include



knowledge of character, adherence to high

combination of the dulce >vith the utile, intellectual superiority, appreciation of the noble history and lofty mission of poetry, and above all a wilHngness
to Usten to



by impartial



following is a more detailed analysis In poetry as in painting there must be unity and simplicity (1-23). We poets must guard against extremes, and while avoiding one error must not fall into its opposite (24-31). A good sculptor pays careful attention to details, but at the same time makes sure


that his work as a whole is successful (32-37). A writer should confine himself to subjects within




will follow a correct order,

then be at no loss for words and which will enable him to 442

say the right thing at the right moment (38-4<5). As to diction, he must be careful in his choice of language. He can, by means of a skilful combination, give a fresh tone to familiar terms, and he may even coin words in moderation as the old poets used Like all other mortal things, words change to do. and pass out of existence, for they are subject to the caprice of fashion (46-72). The metres most fitting for the several types of verse were established by the great Greek poets, and we must follow them (73-85). So with the tone and style of the various kinds. In the drama, for example, the tragic and the comic are distinct, though occasionally they will overlap (86-98), for above all things a play must appeal to the feehngs of an audience, and the language must be adapted Where there is to the characters impersonated. lack of such agreement, everybody will laugh in
scorn (99-118). Either follow tradition or invent a consistent story. Achilles, Medea, Orestes, and so on must be portrayed as tliey are known to us in Greek literature, while new characters must be handled with a consistency of their own (1 19-127). It is hard to deal with general notions, such as anger, greed, and cowardice, so as to individualize them for yourself and you, my friend Piso, are quite right to dramatize some Homeric theme, where the characters introduced have wellknown traits, rather than attempt something disAnd yet, even in such public tinctly original. property as the Homeric epics you may win private rights by handling your material in an original Make a simple beginning, like that of the fashion. Odyssey, where the sequel becomes clearer and


Homer indulges in no lengthy increases in brilliancy. introduction, but hurries on ^\^th his narrative, omits what he cannot adorn, and never loses the thread of his story (128-152). If you want your play to succeed, you must study the " strange, eventful history " of human life, and note the characteristics of the several ages of man,
so that the different periods may not be confused (153-178). Events may be set forth in action or, The latter method, less preferably, in narrative. however, must be used in the case of revolting and

incredible incidents (179-188). play should be in five acts. The deus ex machina should be employed only rarely, and there should never be more than three characters on the stage at one time (1 89-1 92). The Chorus should take a real


part in the action



should not sing anything

and should promote the cause of morality and religion (193-201). As to the music, the flute was once a simple instrument, which accompanied the chorus, and was not expected to fill large theatres as nowadays. With the growth of wealth and luxury in the state, and the consequent deterioration in the taste and character of the audience, the music became more florid and sensational, the diction more artificial, and the sentiments more obscure and
oracular (202-219). The satyric dramn, \\ith its chorus of goat-footed fauns, which was de\ised for spectators in their lighter moods, naturally assumed a gay and frolicsome tone as compared with the serious tragedy from which it sprang, but this does not warrant a writer in permitting his gods and heroes to use vulgar speech, or on the other hand in allowing them to


indulge in ranting. There should be a happy mean between the language of tragedy and that of comedy. I would aim at a familiar style, so that anyone might think it easy to write in that fashion, but on trying would find out his mistake. The rustic fauns must not talk like city wits, nor yet use such coarse language that they will give offence to the better part of an audience (220-250). As to metre, the iambic is strictly a rapid measure, so that a senarius is counted as a trimeter. But the older poets admitted the spondee so freely, that In fact, it obscured the rhythm and made it heavy. it is not every critic that can detect unmusical verses, and too much freedom has been allowed our
native poets. Shall I presume on this or shall I write with caution ? If I follow the latter course, I may avoid criticism, but I shall not win praise. The proper course is to study Greek models m'ght and day. He who is conversant with them will see that our fathers' admiration for the rhythms, as well as the wit, of Plautus, was uncalled for (251-274). Thespis, we are told, invented Tragedy, and Aeschylus perfected it. Old Attic Comedy, too, won no little renown until its licence had to be checked by law and its chorus was silenced (275-284). Our Roman poets, besides following the Greeks, were bold enough to invent forms of a national drama, and might have rivalled their masters, had they taken more pains. I beg you, my friends, to condemn every poem which has not been subjected to the
finishing touch (285-294).

The idea that genius is allied to madness is carried so far that many would-be poets are slovenly in appearance and neglect their health. It is not worth

while to compose poetry at the expense of your wits, refraining from MTiting myself, I will teach the art to others, even as a whetstone can sharpen knives, though it cannot cut (295-308). The first essential is wisdom. This you can cultivate by study of the philosophers, and when you have first learned from them valuable lessons of life, you should apply yourself to hfe itself, and then your personages will speak like real living beings. Sometimes striking passages and characters properly portrayed commend a mediocre play better than do verses which lack substance, mere trifles, however

melodious (309-322).

The Greeks had genius, eloquence, and ambition Romans are too practical, even in their elementary schooling. How can we expect a people thus trained


to develop poets ? Poetry aims at both instruction and pleasure. In your didactic passages, be not long-\vinded ; in your fiction, avoid extravagance.

Combine the utile with the dulce, for only thus will you produce a book that will sell, and enjoy a wide and lasting fame (323-346). Absolute perfection, however, is not to be expected, and we must allow for slight defects. When I come across a good hne in a poor poem, I am surprised and amused I am merely grieved if Homer now and then nods (347-360). The critic must bear in mind that poetry is hke painting. In each case the aim in view is to be considered. A miniature should bear close inspection a wall-painting is to be seen from a distance. One thing which may be tolerated in other fields, but which in the sphere of poetry, whose aim is to give pleasure, is never allowed, is


I^ike the athlete, therefore, the


a truth overlooked by many. But you are too sensible to make a mistake here. You will wi'ite only when Minerva is auspicious, and what you write you will submit to a good critic. Even then you mil be in no haste to publish (361-390). Remember the glorious history of poetry, which as the stories of Orpheus and Amphion show has from the very infancy of the race promoted the cause of civihzation. Then, from Homer on, it has inspired valour, has taught wisdom, has won the favour of princes, and has afforded relief after toil. Never need you be ashamed of the Muse (391-407). The question has been asked whether it is natural Both are ability or teaching that makes the poet.

needs training

gifts, ability

However much people may boast of their without training will accomplish no more

in writing than in running a race or in flute-playing

It is easy for a rich poet to buy applause. Flatterers are like hired mourners at a funeral, who feel no

however much they may weep. So be not deceived, but take a lesson from those kings, who, acting on the adage in vino Veritas, make men disclose the truth by plying them with wine (419-437). Quintilius Varus was a frank and sincere critic, and if you would not take his advice he would leave you to your self-conceit. No honest man, for fear of giving offence, will conceal his friend's faults from him, for those faults may lead to serious consequences



think of the danger of a crazy poet roaming

First, there is danger for himself, for if, at large. as he goes about with upturned gaze, he fall into a Indeed, he may ditch, nobody will pull him out.

for if he is so stark. is illustrated in many ways.THE ART OF POETRY have gone in on purpose. once leaped into burning Aetna. (So Roy Kenneth Hack. 1916. And secondly. and if he catches some poor wretch he will fasten on him like a leech. and may be said to give the Ars Poeiica an artistic unity. vol.. xxvii. there is danger for others.) SG 449 . which runs through the whole epistle. he will become a public scourge. " The Doctrine of Literary Forms " in Harvard Studies in ! Classical Philology. like Empedocles. This idea of hterary propriety. thinking himself divine. and make him listen to his recitations until he has bored him to death (i53-i76) The sketch of a crazy poet with which the poem closes corresponds to that of the crazy painter with which it opens. who. Both painter and poet are used to impress upon readers the lesson that in poetry as in other arts the main principle to be followed is propriety. staring mad as to be ever making verses.

• pectori B^. * audiendi B. //. spectatum admissi^ risum teneatis. cuius. Inceptis gravibus plcrumque et magna professis 15 purpureus. " pictoribiis atque poetis quidlibet" audendi® semper fuit aequa potestas. " expers. * aegris a^BIi. //. vanae fingentur^ species. unus et alter adsuitur pannus. si fractis enatat exspes^** 20 scis simulare : For the Ars Poetica class I of the uss. amici ? tabulae fore librum persimilem. • fungimtur B : fingentur or finguntur. ^ 450 . cum lucus et ara Dianae et properantis aquae per amoenos ambitus agros aut flumen Rlienum aut pluvius^ describitur arcus.* isti 10 et banc veniam petimusque daniusque vicissim sed non ut placidis coeant immitia. ' quodlibet tt. ut nee pes nee caput uni reddatur formae. while class II includes R<fi-^5\lir. undique et varias inducere plumas collatis membris. non ut serpentes avibus geminentur. scinius. • fluvius. et fortasse cupressum quid hoc. Pisones. * pisonis. velut aegri^ somnia. late qui splendeat. sed nunc non erat his locus. iit turpiter atrum 6 desinat in piscem miilier formosa superne. . includes aBCKM. ^ missi EC.DE ARTE POETICA* Humano iungere capiti^ cervicem pictor equinam si velit." credite. //. tigribus agni.

" you say. Perhaps. and The winding stream a-speeding 'mid fair fields the river Rhine." but not so far and in our turn we grant the hke that savage should mate with tame. you can draw a cypress." or For such things there is a place. private view. so that what at the top is a lovely woman ends below in a black and ugly fish.THE ART OF POETRY If a painter chose to join a human head to the neck of a horse. " have always had an equal right in hazarding anyknow it this licence we poets claim thing. 1* Works with noble beginnings and grand promises often have one or two purple patches so stitched on as to ghtter far and wide. if favoured with a Believe me. so that neither head nor foot can be assigned " Painters and poets. refrain from laughing ? dear Pisos. But what of that. or the rainbow is being described. and to spread feathers of many a hue over limbs picked up now here now there. my friends. or serpents We : . couple with birds. whose idle fancies shall be shaped like a sick man's dreams. when Diana's grove and altar. quite hke such pictures would be a book. to a single shape. could you. 451 . if you are paid to paint a sailor swim m ing from • in These examples are doubtless taken from poems current Horace's day. lambs ^^^th tigers. but not just now. too.

Bentley. ' haut or haud BCK^ II (except w). Aemilium circa ludum faber imus^ et unguis exprimet et mollis imitabitur aere capillos. ' One who has been saved from a shipwreck wants to put a picture of the scene as a votive offering in a temple. qui scribitis. pars vatum. brevis esse laboro. Sumite materiam vestris. * unus * 5^ egomet * 8(p\p. hunc ego me/ si quid componere curem. professus grandia turget : humi tutus nimium timidusque procellae qui variare cupit rem prodigialiter unam. parvo nigrove BCK. aut. quam naso vivere pravo. aut'' ego fallor. fluctibus aprum. pater et iuvenes patre digni. ut* res. ^ * lenia Bentley. sectantem levia^ nervi obscurus fio . aere dato qui pingitur institui : ? amphora coepit ? currente rota cur urceus exit sit denique Maxima simplex dumtaxat et unum. si caret arte. imus being local amd meaning 452 . quidvis K Bentley. //. iam nunc dicat iam nunc debentia * 3 dici. quid ferre recusent. quia ponere totum nesciet.^ quod decipimur specie recti. infelix operis summa. 30 in vitium ducit culpae fuga. vis. b\ir.HORACE navibus. quid valeant umeri. aequam viribus et versate diu. cui lecta potenter erit nee facundia deseret hunc nee lucidus ordo. 35 non magis esse velim. 40 ordinis haec virtus erit et venus. * So the schoUasts. delphinum silvis appingit.^ spectandum nigris oculis nigroque^ capillo. 25 deficiunt animique serpit .

if I mistake not. '. force become obsciure. deceive ourselves by the semblance of truth. I should no more wish to be Hke him. I fail in I Aiming at smoothness. because he cannot represent a whole figure. " the it last in the sense of " humblest. as the wheel runs round. and fire." closel}' Some.* there is a craftsman who in bronze will mould nails and imitate wa\ing locks. 458 . One another. ^ Near the Aemilian School. his jar. ** Most of us poets. shall choose a theme ^\ithin his range. though admired for my black eyes and black hair. a boar to the waves. "but is unhappy in the total result. if there be lack of art. ^ Take a subject. 21-43 That was a winewhy. Shunning a fault may lead to error. however. let it at least be simple and wrecked vessel in despair ? when the moulding began * : uniform. creeps along the ground. does it turn out a pitcher ? In short. will be the excellence and charm that the author of the long-promised poem shall say at the moment what at that moment should be said.THE ART OF POETRY. at the bottom of the row. equal to your strength and ponder long what your shoulders Whoever refuse. Of order. overis bombastic . be the work what you will. " of a number of shops. O father and ye sons worthy of the father. Now if I wanted to write something. neither speech will fail him. is like a painter adding a dolphin to the woods. nor clearness of order. ye writers. and what they are able to bear. The man who tries to vary a single subject in monstrous fashion. Stri\ing to be brief. this. take Bentley's unus is to be taken " mould better than any others. than to hve with my nose turned askew." with exprimet. cautious and fearful of the gale. promising grandeur.

prima cadunt ita verborum vetus interit aetas. hoc spernat^ promissi carminis auctor. si Graeco fonte cadent^ parce detorta. //. * rerum factaque. invideor. had 1. et iuvenum ritu florent modo nata vigentque. Bentley transposed most editors. 34. notum si calhda verbum reddiderit iunctura novum. 45 three times {on Aeneid. hoc refer to verbis. adquirere pauca si possum. Servius on Virg.* fingere cinctutis non exaudita Cethegis contingetj dabiturque hcentia sumpta pudenter et nova fictaque^ nuper habebunt verba fidem. hoc amet. though he cites I. it to * diction. * procudere Bentley. 45 and 46. ^ * ' ' II. cadant a. Servius. : 65 ^ * spernet BC. ii. quid autem CaeciHo Plautoque dabit Romanus ademptum Vergiho Varioque' ? ego cur. too. iv. " hoc . Aen. 413. Horace tional order is retained by Wickham and Rolfe. making The tradi. folia in silvis Diomedes. and has been followed by The scholiasts. Georgics. 45 preceding 1.HORACE pleraque difFerat et praesens in tempus omittat. dixerit B. 415. cum lingua Catonis et Enni sermonem patrium ditaverit et nova rerum nomina protulerit ? hcuit semperque hcebit signatum praesente nota producere^ nomen. 475) noichere applies et. deals first with the arrangement of argumentative material. si forte necesse est indiciis monstrare recentibus abdita rerum. ut silvae fohis^ pronos mutantur in annos. \'aroque (t>^5. In verbis etiam tenuis cautusque serendis^ dixeris^ egregie. 46. regis opus. vi. " sterilisque. sterilisve^" palus diu aptaque remis : 45 50 65 60 . / {except a). seems unnecessary. 454 . however. Bentley's transposition of lines 45 and 46. . debemur morti nos nostraque sive receptus terra Neptunus classes Aquilonibus arcet.

long a waste where oars ** : — . and refuse it to Virgil and Varius ? And why should I be grudged the right of adding. Lucilius and Horace. hke the young of human kind. Only the oldest {jprima) drop off each autumn. Fiske. If haply one must betoken abstruse things by novel terms. and licence will be granted. the old race dies. when the tongue of : Cato and of Ennius has enriched oiur mother-speech and brought to hght new terms for things ? It has ever been. As forests change their leaves with each year's decline. the new-born bloom and thrive. — — in 1. as in Californian. and the earhest drop off so with words. if they spring from a Greek fount and are drawn therefrom but sparingly. though new and of recent make.THE ART OF POETRY. " the sluices must be opened sparingly. We are doomed to death we and all things ours whether Neptune. 46 passes to diction (c/. and p. 44-65 reserving and omitting much for the present. if a skilful setting makes a familiar word new. * The cinctus was a loin-cloth worn instead of the tunica by the Romans in days of old. and. will win acceptance." *'^ Moreover. and ever ^\i\\ be. if used with modesty while words. protects our fleets from northern gales truly royal work or a marsh. loving this point and scorning that. you will express yoiuself most happily. the metaphor is taken from irrigation . 449 and note 50)." In Italian woods.*' Why indeed shall Romans grant this licence to Caecihus and Plautus. •^ {| '' ^^55 . « As Wickham has seen. permitted to issue words stamped with the mint-mark of the day. welcomed within the land. with a nice taste and care in weaving words together. leaves may stay on the trees two or even three years. you will have a chance to fashion words never heard of by the kilted* Cethegi. if I can. my httle fund.

si volet usus. multa renascentur quae iam cecidere. Res gestae regumque ducumque et tristia bella quo scribi possent numero. 2. descriptas servare vices operumque color es : quis tamen exiguos " Horace finds tliree illustrations of human achievement works planned by Julius Caesar or Augustus. planned by Julius Caesar and perhaps executed by Augustus (3) the straightening of the Tiber's course so as to protect Rome fnom floods. elegos emiserit auctor. where. ii. 161 fF. These were: (1) the building of the Julian Harbour on the Campanian coast. versibus impariter iunctis querimonia primum. was commonly used in inscriptions associated with votive offerings and expressed Cf. queni penes arbitrium est et ius et norma loquendi. 75 post etiam inclusa est voti sententia compos . monstravit Homerus. Virgil. in certain engineering . (2) the draining of the Pomptine marshes. Archilochum proprio rabies armavit iambo 80 hunc socci cepere pedem grandesque coturni alternis aptum sermonibus et popularis vincentem strepitus et natum rebus agendis. sen cursum mutavit iniquum frugibus aniiiis doctus iter melius mortalia facta peribunt. 456 . Epistles ii. " "^ up of a hexameter and a pentameter (hence impariter iunctis). under Agrippa. : nedum sermonum stet honos et gratia vivax. musa dedit fidibus divos puerosque deorum et pugilem victorem et equum certamine primum 85 et iuvenum curas et libera vina referre. . Georgics. Lakes Avernus and Lucrinus were connected by a deep channel. cadentque 70 quae nunc sunt in honore vocabula. grammatici certant et adhuc sub iudice lis est. 119. and the sandy strip between the Lucrine Lake and the sea was pierced so as to admit ships from the Tuscan Sea. made " The dactylic hexameter.HORACE vicinas urbes alit et grave sentit aratrum. c/. The elegiac couplet.

and those shall fall that are now in repute. later also the sentiment of granted prayer ^ yet who first put forth humble : : and the case is still before the court. 2. 457 . odes commemorating victories in the games. and by nature fit for action. . 19. both in comedies and tragedies. and of freedom over wine. the right and the rule of speech. of the horse first in the race.* '' In what measure the exploits of kings and captains and the sorrows of war may be written. as suited to alternate speech. : form of epigrams. in whose hands lies the judgement. From here on Horace deals especially with dramatic poetry. love poems. Odes. were probably laments. Rage armed Archilochus with his own iambus this foot comic sock and high buskins alike adopted. if Usage so \^ill it. scholars dispute. i.THE ART OF POETRY. however. in the iv. of the loves of swains. much a better path " less shall the glory and glamour of speech endure and live. feeds neighbouring towns and feels the weight of the plough or a river has changed the course which brought ruin to corn-fields and has learnt all mortal things shall perish. and drinking-songs. Many terms that have fallen out of use shall be born again. Homer has shown. diction and metre should all accord. For Archilochus see Epist.* Verses yoked unequally first embraced lamentation. ' Greek Ij-ric poetry embraced hymns to the gods and heroes.* To the l)Te the Muse granted tales of gods and children of gods. ' 10-24. • The iambic trimeter was the measure used in dialogue. 66-86 were plied.^ If I fail to keep and do not understand these well-marked shifts and shades of poetic forms. Tone and style. For Pindaric themes cf. such as those written by Archilochus on the loss of friends at sea. of the victor in boxing. The earliest elegiacs. 23 ff." elegiacs. able to drown the clamours of the pit.

Epist. intererit multum. « 6 turn BGK. Non satis est pulchra esse poemata . male si mandata loqueris. dolendum tunc^ tua me voltum verba decent. i. tristia maestum si vis : me flere. 116 maturusne senex an adhuc florente iuventa . singula quaeque locum teneant sortita decentem. severum seria dictu. cum pauper et exsul uterque proicit ampullas et sesquipedalia verba. 458 . . iratum plena minarum. Telephe vel Peleu . ita flentibus adsunt^ humani voltus primum ipsi tibi : est infortunia laedent. volunt. * adsunt MSS. ludentem lasciva. Davusne R. iratusque Chremes tumido delitigat ore 95 et tragicus plerumque dolet sermone pedestri Telephus et Peleus.HORACE cur ego si nequeo ignoroque poeta salutor ? cur nescire pudens prave quam discere malo ? versibus exponi tragicis res comica noii volt 90 indignatur item privatis ac prope socco dignis carminibus narrari cena Thyestae. format enim Natura prius nos intus ad omnem fortunarum habitum iuvat aut impellit ad iram. II. dulcia sunto 100 et quocumque volent^ animum auditoris agunto. si dicentis erunt fortunis absona dicta. ^ decentem • VBK: : decenter ' aCM. ut ridentibus arrident. si curat^ cor spectantis tetigisse querella. adflent Bentley.'^ interdum tamen et vocem Comoedia tollit. 14. . II. 110 aut ad humum maerore gravi deducit et angit post effert animi motus interprete lingua. divusne® loquatur an heros. 105 aut dormitabo aut ridebo. Romani tollent equites peditesque cachinmim. 3. • Cf. curas.

either hero throws aside his bombast* and Brobdingnagian * words. so. a ripe old man or one still in * Segfiuipedalia verba. Let each style keep the becoming place allotted it. in : who weep. As men's faces smile on those raises her voice. If weep. in boxes and pit aUke. I shall laugh or fall asleep. whether a god be speaking or a hero. : she brings joy or impels to anger. or bows us to the ground and tortures us under a load of grief then. she proclaims the emotions of the soul. with the tongue for interpreter. If the speaker's words sound discordant with his fortunes. ^ Not enough is it for poems to have beauty they must have charm. will raise a loud guffaw. of fortune . swelUng tones . when. " words a foot and a half in 459 ." lit. O Telephus or Peleus. should he want his lament to touch the spectator's heart. the Romans. likewise the feast of Thyestes scorns to be told in strains of daily life that well nigh befit the comic sock. Yet at times even Comedy do and an angry Chremes storms in Tragedy Telephus and Peleus often grieve in the language of prose. . For Nature first shapes us within to meet every change who smile. you must first feel grief yourself: then. Sad tones befit the face of sorrow blustering accents that of anger jests become the merry. so they respond to those you would have me : . and lead the hearer's soul where they >vill. Vast difference will it make. solemn words the grave. length. in poverty and exile.THE ART OF POETRY. too. why am I 87-115 Why through false shame I hailed as poet ? prefer to be ignorant rather than to learn ? A theme for Comedy refuses to be set forth in verses of Tragedy . will your misfortunes hurt me if the words you utter are ill suited.

unde pedem proferre pudor vetet aut operis lex. * * Homereum C. "' 4.60 . Colchus an Assyrius. " In the Iliad Achilles was first scorned by Agamemnon but in the sequel (Book IX.R. as compared with the Colchian. Thebis nutritus an Argis. but both would be barbarians. So Elmore in G. si non circa vilem patulumque moraberis orbem. flebilis Ino. ^ vigentis M. i. nee desilies imitator in artum. Difficile est proprie communia dicere tuque rectius Iliacum carmen deducis in actus. Bentley.HORACE matrona potens an sedula nutrix. 135 . Aut famam sequere aut sibi convenientia finge. 102 cf. servetur ad imum. iura neget sibi nata. (1919) p. whether communia (1. publica materies privati iuris erit. et sibi constet. 126. acer. Commentators are divided as to ity in the handling. while the Argive Agamemnon shows reserve and dignity. By publica materies Horace means Homer and the epic A poet may make this his own by originalfield in general. perfidus Ixion. 120 fervidus. tristis Orestes. nihil non arroget armis. verbum verbo " The Assyrian would be effeminate. 6. qualis ab incepto processerit. Sat. scriptor honoratum^ si forte reponis Achillem. iracundus. Bentley conjectured that honoratum was a corruption of Homereum. inexorabilis. the embassy) highly honoured. lo vaga. xxxiii. nee verbo verbum^ curabis reddere fidus interpres. et impiger. 130 quam si proferres ignota indictaque primus. si quid inexpertum scaenae committis et audes 125 personam formare novam. The Theban Creon is a headstrong tyrant. 128) is identical with publica materies ." but we are dealing with a not uncommon use of the participle. " the Achilles of Homer. sit Medea ferox invictaque. mercatorne vagus cultorne virentis^ agelli. II.

let him ever make appeal to the sword. ^^ It is hard to treat in your o^\^l way what is common and you are doing better in spinning into acts a song of Troy than if. ix. Ino tearful. when you write. so here communia covers a larger field than publico.). differ from res publicae. a roaming trader or the tiller of a verdant field. let him claim that laws are not for him. lo a wanderer. back to the stage the honouring of Achilles. however. £erce . and denotes characteristics which are common among mankind. If it is an untried theme you entrust to the stage. 4^} .task will keep you from stirring slavish translator. come under the publico tnateries of the poet. a dame of rank or a bustling nurse. if you do not seek to render word for word as a : and if in your copying you do not leap into the narrow well. you were giving the world a theme unknown and unsung. as its roads and theatres. and have it self-consistent." if you do not linger along the easy and open pathway.* let him be impatient. things common to all mankind. Ixion forsworn. things which belong to all citizens of a state. KadoXov) of Aristotle {Poet. These may be comor not. pared to the general truths {to. Orestes sorrowful. In Horace it is obvious that communia does not apply to Iliacum carmen. The language is in the domain of law and as res communes.THE ART OF POETRY. one bred at Thebes or at Argos. which does. a Colchian or an Assyrian. have it kept to the end even as it came forth at the first. In ground open to all you will win private rights. and if you boldly fashion a fresh character. passionate. out of which either shame or the laws of yoiu. ruthless. for the first time." ^^ Either follow tradition or invent what is selfIf haply. as distinguished from particular ones (ri Ka6' (KaoTov). as the air and sea. you bring consistent. Let Medea be fierce and unyielding. 116-135 the flower and fervour of youth.

sessori B. * * ^ quis B. Musa. quanto rectius hie. ut speciosa dehinc miracula promat.^ donee cantor " vos plaudite " dicat. Tu quid ego et populus mecum desideret audi. nee reditum Diomedis ah interitu Meleagri." non fumum ex fulgore. • The cantor was probably the young slave who stood "* 462 .HORACE nee sie ineipies ut scriptor cyclicus olim : " fortunam Priami cantabo et nobile^ helium. primo ne medium. The opening of the Odyssey. nascetur ridiculus mus. utilizes the fable of the goat that leapt into a but has nothing to say about the fox who persuaded him * ' do so. captae post tempora Troiae : qui^ mores hominum multorum vidit et urhes. plosoris V. * parturiunt. Meleager was an uncle of Diomede. quid dignum tanto feret hie promissor hiatu ? parturient^ montes. relinquit. from the birth of Helen. 150 atque ita mentitur. Antiphaten Scyllamque et cum Cyclope Charybdin.e. et iram ^ cantarat nobile B. aetatis cuiusque notandi sunt tibi mores. virum. " Horace to well. semper ad eventum festinat et in medias res non secus ac notas auditorem rapit. sed ex fumo dare lucem cogitat. • nobilibusque B. reddere qui voces iam scit puer et pede certo signat humum. qui nil molitur inepte 140 " die mihi. si plosoris* eges aulaea manentis et usque 155 sessuri. i. It plus oris. medio ne discrepet imum. sic veris falsa remiscet. mobilibusque^ decor naturis dandus et annis. et quae desperat tractata nitescere posse. and therefore of an older generation. II: plausoris B^. 146 nee gemino helium Troianum orditur ah ovo . gestit paribus colludere.

who by now can utter words and set firm step upon the ground. 463 . but after smoke the hght." you must note the manners of each age. expect. while the actor gesticulated. Scylla. and give a befitting tone to shifting natures and their years. What will this boaster produce in keeping with such ? mouthing Mountains labour. nor the end with the middle. and with me the pubhc." And you are not to begin as the Cyclic poet of old Of Priam's fate and famous war will I'll sing. If you want an approving hearer. as if already known. flies near the flute-player and sang the eantica of a play.*' or the war of Troy from the twin eggs. so closely does he blend facts and fiction. that then he may set forth Antiphates.THE ART OF POETRY. and hurries his hearer into the story's midst. its ways and cities all. that the middle is not discordant with the beginning. The child. one who waits for the curtain. and so skilfully does he invent. 1^ Now hear what I. striking and wondrous tales Charj'bdis. Muse. Nor does he begin — Diomede's return from the death of Meleager. All the comedies of Plautus and Terence close with plaudite or an equivalent phrase. for me the man who on Troy's fall Saw the wide world. and what he fears he cannot make attractive with his touch he abandons . dehghts to play with his mates. and will stay in his seat till the singer * cries " Give your applause. and the Cyclops. ! to birth will How much better come a laughter-rousing mouse he who makes no fooHsh effort Sing. : 136-159 a step." : Not smoke after flame does he plan to give.** Ever he hastens to the issue.

180 segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem quam quae sunt oculis subiecta fidelibus et quae non tamen intus ipse sibi tradit spectator : digna geri promes in scaenam. to be a translation of Aristotle's hence Bentley conjectured lentus for It is. 165 conversis studiis aetas animusque virilis quaerit opes et amicitias. * morabitur B. in view of Horace's spes longa longus. SiVeXTTis {Rhet. sublimis cupidusque et amata relinquere pernix. II. castigator censorque minorum. ii. cereus in vitium flecti. imberbis^ iuvenis. ne forte seniles mandentur iuveni partes pueroque viriles.e. Epist. i. queruius. 12). colligit ac multa senem circumveniunt incommoda. 1. utilium tardus provisor. Vollmer." the hope requiring a long time for fulfilment. * Campus Martius. II. {Odes. 15. 4. vel quod 170 quaerit et inventis miser abstinet ac timet uti. prodigus aeris. 4. 85. " i. mox mutare] permutare. tandem custode remote. 175 multa ferunt anni venientes commoda secum. vel quod res omnis timide gelideque ministrat. semper in adiunctis aevoque morabimur* aptis.HORACE 160 ponit temere et mutatur in horas. Wickham suggests " patient in hope. iners avidusque futuri. however. not one of its blessings.64 . inservit honori. difficilis. dilator^ spe longus. multa recedentes adimunt." but the quality is here one of the incommoda of age. laudator temporis acti se puero. commisisse cavet quod mox mutare^ laboret. gaudet equis eanibusque et aprici gramine Campi. 1 cf.^ Aut agitur res in scaenis aut acta refertur. * delator B. monitoribus asper. multaque * tolles imberbis aB: imberbus VCM. 6) taken by some as "far-reaching in hope. i. » apti B. The Spe longus seems ii. 11.

2h 465 . Less vividly is the mind stirred by what finds entrance through the ears than by what is brought before the trusty eyes. With altered aims. is dilatory and slow to form hopes. as they retire. surly. for unlike the youth. peevish. the age and spirit of the man seeks wealth and friends. Yet you will not bring upon the stage what should be performed beliind the scenes. lest haply we assign a youth the part of age. peevish with his counsellors. or because. however brief that is to be.'' is sluggish and greedy of a longer life. Many blessings do the advancing years bring -with them many. spirited. "^ Either an event is acted on the stage. given to praising the days he spent as a boy. into 160-183 a passion and as lightly puts it aside. slow make needful provision." soft as wax for moulding to evil. and you will keep much from our action phrase is explanatory of dilator. whether because he seeks gain. they take away. because his heart is in the future. and changes every hour. will old . lavish of money. becomes a slave to ambition. and what the spectator can see for himself. of strong desires. or the is narrated. or a boy that of manhood. and then miserably holds aloof from his store and fears to use it. freed at last from his tutor. but swift to change his fancies. who is absorbed in the present. we shall ever linger over traits that are joined and fitted to the age.THE ART OF POETRY. finds joy in horses and hounds and the grass of the sunny Campus. in all that he does. even as avidus futuri explains iners. and to repro\ing and condemning the young. the old man fails to act promptly. and is fearful of ha\ing done what soon it to be eager to change. he lacks fire and courage. Many ills encompass an man. The beardless youth. So.

Gadmus in anguem. The latter perhaps to Sat. accessit numerisque modisque licentia maior. sed tenuis simplexque foramine pauco^ adspirare et adesse choris erat utilis atque 205 nondum spissa nimis complere sedilia flatu quo sane populus numerabilis. incredulus.HORACE ex oculis. neu quid medios intercinat actus quod non proposito conducat et haereat apte. 185 aut humana palam coquat exta nefarius Atreus. i. ut nunc. et regat iratos et amet peccare timentis^ ille dapes laudet mensae brevis. . Actoris partis chorus officiumque virile defendat. aut in avem Procne vertatur.66 difficulties seemingly insoluble. quodcumque ostendis mihi sic. amici(s). //. As vindex. ^ 210 spectata to SXlir : spectanda (exsp-JS/L) other mss. an early * : iuncta C'K. abeat fortuna superbis. . ille salubi'em iustitiam legesque et apertis otia portis ille tegat commissa deosque precetur et oret 200 ut redeat miseris. 10. quae mox narret facundia praesens ne pueros coram populo Medea trucidet. ^t/-. placari Genius festis impune diebus. postquam coepit agros extendere victor et urbes latior amplecti murus. he is to deliver men from 4. // {except w). Both error. 190 nee deus intersit. • cautusque C parvo. Neve minor neu sit quinto productior actu fabula quae posci volt et spectata^ reponi. vinoque diurno . . * pacare tumentes. utpote parvus. catusque " The deus ex machina. odi. 195 ille bonis faveatque et consilietur amice. 39. Tibia non. nee quarta loqui persona laboret. orichalco vincta^ tubaeque aemula. nisi dignus vindice nodus incident. known due * * scholiasts. et frugi castusque^ verecundusque coibat.

and peace with her open gates keep secrets. with few stops was once of use to lead and aid the chorus and to fill with its breath benches not yet too crowded. ii. It should praise the fare of a modest board. 1. It should side with the good and give friendly counsel sway the angry and cherish the righteous. and pray and beseech the gods that fortune may return to the unhappy. boys before the people. nor let a fourth actor essay to speak. as now. appeasing the Genius" by daylight drinking brought no penalty. not more than three speaking characters are to be • Cf. to be sure. bound with brass and a rival of the trmnpet. easy to count. But when a conquering race began to widen its . too. on the stage at once. law. For what taste * i. on festal days. 144. Cadmus into a snake. and depart from the proud. unless a knot come worthy of such a dehverer.e. 2-2 The flute not.THE ART OF POETRY. if when once seen it hopes to be called for and brought back to the stage. nor Procne be turned into a bird. ^^' Let no play be either shorter or longer than five acts. 467 . Epistlet. and sing nothing between acts which does not advance and fitly blend into the plot. and an ampler wall embraced its cities. but shght and simple. — — — domain. and when. where. praise wholesome should justice. I discredit and abhor. nor impious Atreus cook human flesh upon the stage. in our presence 184-211 eyes. Whatever you thus show me. and chaste and modest. And let no god" intervene. because few sober folk.* 1^^ Let the Chorus sustain the part and strenuous duty of an actor. which an actor's ready tongue will narrate anon so that Medea is not to butcher her . then both time and tune won greater hcence. folk gathered.

is closely connected with tragedy. * Tragedy or " goat-song " was supposed to take its name from the prize of a goat. intererit Satyris paulum pudibunda protervis. Satyric drama. 468 . however. It was so called. It is probable. the latter oracular and ' in obscure. nubes et inania captet. utiliumque sagax rerum et divina futuri sortilegis non discrepuit sententia Delphis. Horace seems to speak flippantly of the style of choruses Greek tragedy. ita vertere seria ludo. ita commendare dicaces conveniet Satyros. 230 aut. regali conspectus in auro nuper et ostro. 220 mox etiam agrestis Satyros nudavit et asper incolumi gravitate iocum^ temptavit. both speech and thought also lost their simplicity. Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircum. migret in obscuras hximili sermone tabernas. ut festis matrona moveri iussa diebus. 225 verum ita risores. because the singers were satyrs. He assumes that as the music became more florid. et tulit eloquium insolitum facundia praeceps. and must not be handled as comedy.HORACE indoctus quid enim saperet liberque laborum rusticus urbano confusus. the former becoming dithyrambic. the subject of this passage. dum vitat humum. dressed in goat-skins. non ego inornata et dominantia nomina solum . however. ne quicumque deus. functusque sacris et potus et exlex. turpis honesto ? sic priscae motumque et luxuriem addidit arti 215 tibicen traxitque vagus per pulpita vestem sic etiam fidibus voces crevere severis. that he has in view the post-classical drama. efFutire levis indigna Tragoedia versus. quicumque adhibebitur heros. ^ locum BKSir. eo quod illecebris erat et grata novitate morandus spectator.

and with no loss of dignity roughly essayed jesting. rustic mixed up with city folk. Tragedy. The Greek Drama. strutting o'er the stage. little it. Not mine shall it be. bantering Satyrs. was attuned to the oracles of Delphi. or. who shall be brought upon the stage. wrote three Satyrica. Ariadne. Sisyphus. treats this form as if it had developed out of traged j-. that no god. Barnett. As for a Satjric drama in Latin. is known about Porphyrio on 469 . and an impetuous style and the thought. viz. but Pomponius. But it will be fitting so to seek favour for your laughing. after observance of the rites.THE ART OF POETRY. Atalanta. 11). ye Pisos. take her place in the saucy Satyrs' circle with some little shame." was well drunken and in lawless mood. So. so to pass from grave to gay." ^^ The poet who in tragic song first competed for a paltry goat ^ soon also brought on unclad the woodland Satyrs. of Bacchus at the Dionysia. p. if writing Satyric plays.e. 221. hke a matron bidden to dance on festal days. while shunning the ground. according to 1. for only the lure and charm of novelty could hold the spectator. to Horace It came as a fourth play after a tragic trilogy. when plays were performed. catch at clouds and emptiness. whereas in fact tragedy is an offshoot from it (see e. brought in an unwonted diction full of wise saws and prophetic of the future. who. to babble trivial verses. scorning . and whom we have just beheld in royal gold and purple. shall shift with vulgar speech into dingy hovels.g. to the sober lyre new tones were given. 212-234 could you expect of an unlettered throng just freed from toil. will. and. no hero. too. vulgar ^vith nobly-born ? So to the early art the flute-player added movement and display. trailed a robe in train. and * i.

For nomina verbaque cf. Silenus. 250 acquis accipiunt animis donantve^ corona. On the other hand. Davus. Plato {Cratylus. as some 4-70 . si quid fricti^ ciceris probat et nucis emptor.g. 10. not plot. e. Sat. nee sic enitar tragico difFerre colori. cum senos redderet ictus primus ad extremum similis sibi. tantum de medio sumptis accedit honoris. i. ^ et audax ' VBCKi : an audax 2 fricti aM(p^p strict! C : a. donantque tt. fracti BK5-rr. ordinary ones. 103. Davusne loquatur et audax^ Pythias. who was father of the Satyrs and guardian of the youthful Dionysus. ut sibi qui vis 240 speret idem. ne velut innati triviis ac paene forenses 245 aut nimium teneris iuvenentur versibus umquam. unde etiam trimetris accrescere iussit nomen iambeis. appeared in Satyric dramas. ' By carmen Horace means poetic style. sudet multum frustraque laboret ausus idem tantum series iuncturaque pollet. silvis deducti caveant me iudice Fauni. Syllaba longa brevi subiecta vocatur iambus. 235 ut nihil intersit. Satyrorum scriptor amabo. the jolly old philosopher. Such lanpfuage. pes citus . Sat. non ita pridem. i. ex noto fietum carmen sequar. which are contrasted » 431 b) with * all that are in any way uncommon. Pisones. Pythias and Simo are cited as names of typical characters in comedy {cf. aut immunda crepent ignominiosaque dicta ofFenduntur enim. words are the common. emuncto lucrata Simone talentum. the Cyclops of Euripides. 3.HORACE verbaque. : : nee. an custos famuhisque dei Silenus alumni. II. 40). uses prifiara and dvbfxara to cover the whole of The epithet dominantia translates Kvpia. quibus est equus et pater et res.

240-243 are in harmony with those precede and those that follow." so moulded from the familiar that anybody may hope for the same success. though it pelded six beats. For some take offence knights. or cracking their bawdy and shameless jokes. When the Fauns ^ are brought from the forest.Ts.^ poetry. ^^ A long syllable following a short is called an iambus a hght foot . who guards My aim shall be and serves his di\ine charge. methinks. or Silenus. This is to seem easy enough to tempt others to try it. plapng at times the young bloods with their mawkish verses. Thus 11.THE ART OF POETRY. beware of behaving as though born at the crossways and almost as dwelling in the Forum. that it use <* . hence it commanded that the name of trimeters should attach itself to iambic lines. i. The word Return suggests that this style will look like a new creation. These wild creatures of the woods must not speak as though they were natives of the city. they should. : — — — have taken it. free-bom. such the beauty that may crown the commonplace. Sati. affect 235-254 only the plain nouns and verbs of established nor shall I strive so to part company with tragic tone. who has won a talent by bamboozling Simo.^ But not so long ago. * These are still cheap and popular articles of food in that •* Italy.e. being from first to last the same throughout. and men of substance nor do they greet ^nth kindly feelings or reward with a crown everything which the buyers of roasted beans and chestnuts * approve. may sweat much and yet toil in vain when attempting the same such is the power of order and connexion. ' An iambic trimeter contains six feet. but it takes two feet to make one metrum. that it matters not whether Davus be speaking with shameless Pythias. 471 . whether vulgar and coarse or refined and sentimental.

ii. 19. quae eanerent agerentque peruncti faecibus ora. non ut de sede secunda cederet aut quarta socialiter. at vestri proavi Plautinos et numeros et 270 laudavere sales. versate diurna. in the processions which formed a feature of the vintage celebration. •* 472 . though mentioned by Horace as recent. hie et in Acci nobilibus trimetris apparet rarus. non quivis videt immodulata poemata iudex. very old. ef a/xd^rjs (TKun/jLara). " See notes on Epist. Jesting from wagons (to. spondeos stabilis in iiira paterna recepit commodus et patiens. in the " The admission of spondees to the odd places trimeter. II: atris BC. 1. 39. tutus et intra spem veniae cautus ? vitavi denique culpam. 170-176. is really Pure iambic trimeters are occasionally used by Catullus and by Horace {Epode xvi. Cf. non laudem merui. mirati. et data Romanis venia est indigna poetis. idcircone vager scribamque licenter ? an omnis 265 visuros peccata putem mea. * The epithet given by this poet's admirers.). ne dicam stulte. vos exemplaria Graeca nocturna versate manu. si modo ego et vos scimus inurbanum lepido seponere dicto legitimumque sonum digitis callemus et aure. EpisL i.^ post hunc personae pallaeque repertor honestae Aeschylus et modicis instravit pulpita tignis 280 et docuit magnumque loqui nitique cothurno. * ora aKM. 1 nimium celeris o. et Enni in scaenam missos cum magno pondere versus aut operae celeris nimium^ curaque carentis 255 260 aut ignoratae premit artis crimine turpi.HORACE tardior ut paulo graviorque veniret ad auris. Ignotum tragicae genus invenisse Camenae 275 dicitur et plaustris vexisse poemata Thespis. nimium patienter utrumque.

shall I seek safety and take care to keep within hope of pardon ? At the best I have escaped censure. Yet your forefathers. For yourselves. it admitted the steady spondees to its paternal rights being obhging and tolerant. and derived from t/w|. trimeters of and on the verses which Ennius hurled ponderously upon the stage it lays the shameful charge either of hasty and too careless work or of ignorance of the art. and taught a lofty speech and stately gait on the buskin. The words peruncti faecibus ora are an allusion to rpvyifioia. I have earned no praise. laid a stage of small planks. inventor of the mask and comely robe. 255-280 might reach the ears -sdth somewhat more slowness and weight. poets. Accius this iambus appears but seldom " ^ . handle Greek models by night. but not so much so as to give up the second and fourth places . and with fingers and ear can catch the lawful rhythm. but with Comedy. you say. 500). a term used of comedy {cf. a type unknown before. Achamians. praised both the measures and the wit of Plautus."* After him Aeschylus. was their admiration of both.<» In the " noble in its friendly ranks. seems to confuse the two. handle them by day. if you and I but know how to distinguish coai-seness from wit.'U Too tolerant.THE ART OF POETRY. and so undeserved indulgence has been granted our Roman Am I therefore to run loose and -WTite %\ithout restraint r Or^ supposing that all will see my faults.* 2"^ Thespis is said to have discovered the Tragic Muse. not with Tragedy. ** wine-lees. 499. Aristophanes. To these succeeded Horace is associated. Not every critic discerns unmusical verses. and to have carried his pieces in wagons to be sung and acted by players with faces smeared with M-ine-lees." 473 . not to sav foolish.

^ secreta petit loca. qui purgor bilem sub verni temporis horam ! non alius faceret meliora poemata verum ergo fungar vice cotis. * exsortita aBCMRir. nanciscetur enim pretium nomenque poetae. //. bona pars non unguis ponere curat. were called togatae. exsors ipsa* secandi laude . o ego laevus. o Pompilius sanguis. 474 . si non ofFenderet unum quemque poetarum limae labor et mora. Cf. Fahulae praetextae (or praetextatae) were tragedies with themes. 305 reddere quae ferrum valet. ^ * clarisque BCK. 57. acutum nil tanti est. non barbam. : praesectum VBC: perspectum tt perfectum a. so called because of the toga praetexta worn by the actors.HORACE successit vetus his comoedia. 295 Ingenium misera quia fortunatius arte credit et excludit sanos Helicone poetas Democritus. nee minimum meruere decus vestigia Graeca ausi deserere et celebrare domestica facta. : : . carmen reprehendite quod non multa dies et multa litura coercuit atque praesectum^ deciens non castigavit ad unguem. " Roman and note e. Epist. vel qui praetextas vel qui docuere togatas. balnea vitat. 1. 3 barbas B. 2S6 Nil intemptatum nostri liquere poetae. 300 si tribus Anticyris caput insanabile numquam tonsori Licino oommiserit. nee virtute foret clarisve^ potentius armis 290 quam lingua Latium. non sine multa sed in vitium libertas excidit et vim dignam lege regi lex est accepta chorusque turpiter obticuit sublato iure nocendi. ii. Similarly comedies. in which Roman citizens appeared. vos.

but of itself cannot cut. 281-305 Old Comedy. whether they have put native tragedies or native comedies upon the stage. 82. 5. Do you. fool that I am. cannot brook the toil and tedium of the file. 475 . ' A metaphor from sculpture . but its freedom sank into excess and a \aolence deserving to be checked by law." ^^ Because Democritus believes that native talent is a greater boon than wTctched art. 166." Nor would Latium be more supreme in valour and glory of arms than in letters. The law was obeyed. to write poetry and lose your wits. " ' Cf. and won no little credit. who purge me of my bile as the season of spring comes on Not another man would compose better poems. Yet it's not worth while. nor has least honour been earned when they have dared to leave the footsteps of the Greeks and sing of deeds at home. ii. 32. which makes steel sharp. ! Calpus.* condemn a poem which many a day and many a blot has not restrained and refined ten times over to the test of the close-cut nail. Though I write * The Calpurnii are said to have been descended froni — . Sat.THE ART OF POETRY. i. and the chorus to its shame became mute. Viz. Sat. one and all. and shuts out from Hehcon poets in their sober senses. its right to injure being withdrawn. ^^ Our own poets have left no style untried. were it not that her poets. cf. one of the sons of Numa Pompilius. 3. a goodly nxunber take no pains to pare their nails or to shave their beards they haunt lonely places and shun the baths for surely one will win the esteem and name of poet if he never entrusts to the barber Licinus a head that three Anticyras cannot cure. O sons of PompiUus.'* Ah.* So I'll play a whetstone's part.

" : eu rem poteris servare tuam. 312).^ haec animos aerugo et cura peculi 330 * iocis K. moral reflections or commonplaces. ' " Albini. sine pondere et arte. quae 315 partes in bellum missi ducis.HORACE munus et officium. quid fit ? "semis. " dicat filius Albani^ si de quincunce remota est " triens. quo virtus. Grais ingenium. Grais dedit ore rotundo Musa loqui. ille profecto reddere personae scit convenientia cuique. 1 doceat aRd." uncia. docebo. nil scribens ipse. 325 Romani pueri longis rationibus assem discunt in partis centum diducere. quod sit conseripti. which may be used anywhere. " I The drama who *" take doctum as a repetition of qui didicit (1. //. redit uncia. praeter laudem nullius avaris.^ quid non. * * poterat o. quo frater amandus et hospes. quid alat formetque poetam. quod iudicis officium. quid superat? poteras* dixisse. quid deceat. 476 . an FjS: &daCMK. tibi Socraticae poterunt ostendere chartae. interdum speciosa locis^ morataque recte 320 fabula nullius veneris. Some take Iocis as equivalent to sententiis. II. //. valdius oblectat populum meliusque moratur quam versus inopes rerum nugaeque canorae. unde parentur opes.II. 310 verbaque provisam rem non invita sequentur. is an imitation of life. quo ferat error. rem Scribendi recte sapere est et principium et fons. quo sit amore parens. qui didicit patriae quid debeat et quid amicis. and the would-be dramatist has first learned about life from his studies should next turn to real life and make his own observations." an. respicere exemplar vitae morumque iubebo doctum imitatorem et vivas bine ducere voces.

not utterance. . and draw from thence hving words. Our Romans. what remains " ? A * third. what love is due a parent. . follow. ^^ To the Greeks the Muse gave native wit. a brother. he surely knows how to give each character his fitting part." " You might have told me by now. what is the function of a general sent to war. and the children learn to reduce figures to decimals {in partes centum). to the Greeks she gave speech in well-rounded phrase * they craved naught but glory. and .THE ART OF POETRY. This is a school-lesson in arithmetic. " A half. though lacking in charm. The Romans used a duodecimal system (their as being divided into twelve ounces). Your matter the Socratic pages can set forth." •* what's the result ? \Mien once this canker. what is imposed on senator and judge. and sonorous '' trifles. when matter is in liand words will not be loath to He who has learned what he owes his country and his friends. this lust of petty .** If from five-twelfths one ounce be taken. 306-330 naught myself. and a guest. I will teach the poet's office and duty whence he draws his stores what nurtures and fashions him what befits him and what not whither the right course leads and whither the ^vrong." Good you %\-ill be able to look after ! your means. Ore rotundo in ." At times a play marked by attractive passages and characters fitly sketched. by many a long sum. An ounce is added " is here used of stjle. gives the people more delight and holds them better than verses void of thought. though without force and art. learn in childhood to divide the " Let the son of Albinus as into a hundred parts. . ^^ Of good writing the source and fount is \\isdom. answer. I would ad\ise one who has learned the imitative art to look to Ufe and manners for a model.

lectorem delectando pariterque monendo. quidquid praecipies. The former were between the ages of forty-six and sixty. Titles. ficta voluptatis causa sint proxima veris. speramus^ carmina fingi posse linenda cedro et levi servanda cupresso ? Aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetae aut simul et iucunda et idonea dicere vitae. : : cum semel meret aera* liber Sosiis. non ego paucis ofFendar maculis. celsi praetereunt austera poemata Ramnes omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utile dulci. quid ergo est ? ut scriptor si peccat idem librarius usque. quas aut incuria fudit aut humana parum cavit natura. The terms Ramnes. chorda qui semper oberrat* eadem ." ancient classification of the citizens into seniores and iuniores is here referred to. //. * ' ^ volet. quem volt manus hie et : et mens. oberret aM. // (but not 1 * ir). hie et mare transit 345 longum noto scriptori prorogat aevum. Sunt delicta tamen quibus ignovisse velimus nam neque chorda sonum reddit. 350 verum ubi plura nitent in carmine. 340 centuriae seniorum agitant expertia frugis. esto brevis. poscentique gravem persaepe remittit acutum nee semper feriet quodcumque minabitur arcus. II. ut. nee BC. quamvis est monitus. et^ citharoedus 355 ridetur. ne^ quodcumque velit^ poscat sibi fabula credi. aere C. neu pransae Lamiae vivum puerum extrahat alvo.HORACE imbuerit. and Luceres were applied to the three centuries of equites " * Lamia was An 478 . venia caret. ut cito dicta 335 percipiant animi dociles teneantque fideles omne supervacuum pleno de pectore raanat. : * speremiis. " a bugbear of the Greek nursery.

can 331-356 we hope for poems to be fashioned. few blots which a careless hand has let drop. 2. Epiat. or human frailty has failed to avert. the proud Ramnes disdain poems * devoid of charms. That is the book to make money for the Sosii" this the one to cross the sea and extend to a distant day its author's fame. however much warned. so that what is quickly said the mind may readily grasp and faithfully hold every word in excess flows away from the full mind. : . famous booksellers. nor will the bow always hit whatever mark it threatens. 479 . but when you call for a flat often returns you a sharp . gain has stained the soul. worthy to be smeared with cedar-oil. He has won every vote who has blended profit and pleasure. 20. then. is the truth ? As a copying clerk is without excuse if. at once dehghting and instructing the reader. Fictions meant to please should be close to the real. nor from the Ogress's " The belly. and kept in polished cypress ? ^^ Poets aim either to benefit. and a harper is laughed at who always blunders on the same string : formed by Romulus. But when the beauties I in a poem shall not take offence at a are more in number. Whenever you instruct. the Sosii. or to utter words at once both pleasing and helpful to hfe. draw forth a h\ing child. What. after dinner. so that your play must not ask for belief in anything it chooses. so that " Ramnes " the ' is here used for i. or to amuse. for the string does not always yield the sound which hand and heart intend.THE ART OF POETRY. cf. he always makes the same mistake. young For aristocrats. be brief. ^^ Yet faults there are which we can gladly pardon . centuries of the elders chase from the stage what is profitless .

indoctusque pilae discive trochive quiescit. were considered a delicacy. Cf. medium et tolerabile rebus recte concedi. * nee scit VB: nescit a C J/. si propius stes. * pergit £C. haec amat obscurum. nee scit^ quantum Cascellius Aulus. poterat duci quia cena sine istis sic animis natum inventumque poema iuvandis. : si paulum summo decessit. volet haec sub luce videri. quamvis et voce paterna fit sic mihi. non concessere column ae. : ^ ^ opere 5: opere in aM. iv eiriardK-Q yp6. te capiat magis. haec placuit semel. * Poppy-seeds. when roasted and served with honey. si longius abstes. verum operi^ longo fas est obrepere somnum. haec deciens repetita placebit. vergit* ad imum. campestribus abstinet armis. consultus iuris et actor 370 causavum mediocris abest virtute diserti Messallae. 360 Ut pictura poesis erit quae. ne spissae risum tollant impune coronae qui nescit versus tamen audet fingere. qui quern bis terve^ multum cessat. non di. bonum cum risu . iudicis argutum quae non formidat acumen . 365 O maior iuvenum. et quaedam. terque aCM. praesertim census equestrem summam nummorum vitioque remotus ab omni. . . 24). miror et idem indignor quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus. 48U . quidni ? liber et ingenuus. : fingeris tolle ad rectum et per te certis sapis. " Dormitat — aitrowdTa^ei. dnovva-Tci^eLv rbv At) /j-oa 9 ivrjv (Plutarch. but were spoilt if the honey had a bitter flavour. : sed tamen in pretio est mediocribus esse poetis non homines. Cicero.HORACE Choerilus ille.\}/as . 380 ludere qui nescit. hoc tibi dictum memor. ut gratas inter mensas symphonia discors 374 et crassum unguentum et Sardo cum melle papaver ofFendunt.

lest the crowded circle break out in righteous laughter. an unguent that is thick. becomes. though wise yourself and trained to right judgement by a father's voice. the farther away. though ten times called for. and knows not as much as Aulus Cascellius.81 . if in aught it falls short of the top. the nearer you stand another. whose one or two good lines cause laughter and surprise . methinks. As at pleasant banquets an orchestra out of tune. 357-384 so the poet who often defaults. Yet the man who knows not how dares to A : frame verses. insight of the judge. another Choerilus. yet he has a value. whose birth and creation are for the soul's deUght. take O to heart and remember this sa\ing. 4. lawyer and pleader of middling rank falls short of the merit of eloquent Messalla. even free- born. ^^ A poem is Uke a picture one strikes your fancy more. But that poets be of middling rank. and poppy-seeds served with Sardinian honey. that will wish to be seen in the Hght. and dreads not the critic is : . This pleased but once . neither men nor gods nor booksellers ever brooked. because the feast might have gone on without them so a poem.THE ART OF POETRY. WTiy not . and yet I also feel aggrieved.' give offence. and stands clear from every blemish. that. ^^ you elder youth. will always please. sinks to the bottom. a drowsy mood may well creep over it. This courts the shade.'' and. He who cannot play a game. remains aloof. " The Campus Martius 2 in Rome. nay. if unskilled in ball or quoit or hoop.'' He is free. whenever good Homer "nods."" but when a work long. is rated at the fortune of a knight. that only some things rightly brook the medium and the bearable. shuns the weapons of the Campus.

482 . dare iura maritis. Sat. Silvestris concubitu prohibere vago. composed marching-songs and martial elegies The phrase off. fuit haec sapientia quondam. versibus exacuit et vitae monstrata via est. 3. dictus ob hoc lenire tigris rabidosque^ leones. 31. 10. ii. et gratia regum Pieriis temptata modis. 6. natura x cf. ' Cf. « The first poets were inspired teachers. homines sacer interpresque deorum caedibus et victu foedo deterruit Orpheus. oppida moliri. i. De invita Minerva is explained by Cicero. ' arcis aM. f Tyrtaeus.c. 2. ludusque repertus ne forte pudori et longorum operum finis sit tibi Musa lyrae sollers et cantor Apollo.^ 395 saxa movere sono testudinis et prece blanda ducere quo vellet. 10. in Maeci descendat : quid tamen olim iudicis auris et patris et nostras. edideris ." Sat. dictus et Amphion. <* The laws of Solon were published thus. * rapidos aCM. i. . for the Spartans in the seventh century b. who according to tradition was a lame Attic schoolmaster. Epist.HORACE Tu nihil invita dices faciesve^ Minerva si . 20. II. ea scripseris. 385 id tibi indicium est. nonumque prematur in membranis intus positis delere licebit annum. Thebanae conditor urbis. sic honor et nomen divinis vatibus atque carminibus venit. : 400 405 1 faciesque " aM. post hos insignis Homerus Tyrtaeusque mares animos in Martia bella dictae per carmina sortes. mens. 38. sacra profanis. i. as meaning adversante et repugnante " crassa Minerva. leges incidere ligno. quod non 390 nescit vox missa reverti. pubhca privatis secernere. » Cf.

and gnomic poetry such as Solon's. the word once sent forth can never come back. Simonides. In days of yore. "» 385-407 2^ But you will say nothing and do nothing against Minerv'a's will . ii. to give rules for wedded life. the holy prophet of the gods.** ^^ While men still roamed the woods. made them shrink from bloodshed and brutal h\ ing hence the fable that he tamed tigers and ravening lions hence too the fable that Amphion. then put your parchment in the closet and keep it back till the ninth year. In song oracles were given. Yet if ever you do write anything.^ and mirth was found to close toil's long spell. * A reference to Pindar. and Tyrtaeus ^ with his verses fired manly hearts for battles of Mars. and Bacchylides. and my ovra . the favour of kings was sought in Pierian strains.* After these Homer won his renown.THE ART OF POETRY. Cf. to build towns.' So you need not blush for the Muse skilled in the lyre. 1.^ and your father's. builder ofThebes's citadel. . moved stones by the sound of his lyre. and led them whither he would by his supphcating spell. and for Apollo. 139 ff. between things sacred and things common. to draw a hne between public and private rights. Epist. and grave laws on tables of wood<* and so honour and fame fell to bards and their songs. . Orpheus. let it enter the ears of some critical Maecius. to check vagrant union. such your good sense. and the way of hfe was shown " . this was wisdom. ' \ » In didactic poetry such as Hesiod's. god of song. such is your judgement. What you have not pubHshed you can destroy . 483 . * The ludus is such festal mirth as was exhibited in the dramatic performances of the Dionysia. as divine.

59. adsentatoi-es iubet ad lucrum ire poeta 420 dives agris. occupet extremum scabies .* dives positis in faenore nummis. ^ possit. 425 tu seu donaris seu quid donare voles cui. etiam stillabit amicis ex oculis rorem. mihi turpe relinqui est et quod non didici sane nescire fateri. 484 . in which the children cried: habeat scabiem quisquis ad me venerit novi'ssimus. 1. i. tulit fecitque puer. " An allusion to a game of tag. 430 ut qui conducti plorant in funere dicunt et faciunt prope plura dolentibus ex animo. reges dicuntur multis urgere culullis ^ nee. sic derisor vero plus laudatore movetur. * artis : so Bentley. didicit prius extimuitque * sin Xtt. multa qui studet optatam cursu contingere metam. ' qui B : quoi V. magistrum. quaesitum est ego nee studium sine divite vena. : ! ! ! tibicen.HORACE Natura fieret laudabile carmen an arte. * agri BC. Ep. mirabor. sudavit et alsit. 415 nunc^ satis est^ dixisse: "ego mira poemata pango." Ut praeco.' nolito ad versus tibi factos ducere plenum clamabit enim " pulchre laetitiae bene recte " pallescet super his. unctum qui recte ponere possit et spondere levi pro paupere et eripere atris® litibus implicitum. ^ et BC. si^ vero est. Horace means that people play at poetry like children. si sciet internoscere mendacem verumque beatus amicum. nee rude quid prosit^ video ingenium alterius sic 410 : : altera poscit opem res et coniurat amice. qui Pythia cantat abstinuit Venere et vino . saliet. ad merces turbam qui cogit emendas. tundet pede terram. Cf.

we are told. when not enriched by Nature's vein. " I fashion wondrous poems the enough to say devil take the hindmost " 'Tis unseemly for me to be left behind. do not bring him. has sweated and shivered. in the fulness of his joy. if you have given or mean to give a present to anyone. and rich in moneys put out at interest. craves to reach the longed-for goal. The flautist who plays at the Pythian games. Kings. As hired mourners at a funeral say and do almost more than those who grieve at heart. has kept aloof from •nine and women. so the poet bids flatterers flock to the call of gain. And you. if he is rich in lands. if untrained . to hear verses you have wTitten. or native \sit. who gathers a crowd to the auction of his wares. so truly does each claim the other's aid.THE ART OF POETRY. he will dance and thump the ground with his foot. has first learned To-day 'tis his lessons and been in awe of a master. so the man who mocks is more moved than the true admirer. ply with many a bumper and test witli : : ! ! ! . and to confess that I really do not know what I have never learned. I shall wonder if the happy fellow will be able to distinguish between a false and a true friend. I do not see of what avail is either study. 485 . For my part. and make with He who in the race-course it a friendly league. has borne much and done much as a boy. But if he be one who can fitly serve a dainty dinner." *^^ Like the crier. 408-434 *** Often it is asked whether a praiseworthy poem be due to Nature or to art. and be surety for a poor man of httle credit. For he will call out " Fine good perfect " He will change colour over them he \\i\\ even distil the dew from his friendly eyes. or can rescue one entangled in gloomy suits-at-law.

mutanda notabit. « The name of Aristarchus. incomptis allinet atrum transverso calamo signum. famous as an Homeric scholar of Alexandria in the second century B.. // {not * fallant <t>). 24.^ an sit amicitia dignus si carmina condes. fiet Aristarchus nee* dicet: " cur ego amicum 450 ofFendam in nugis ? " hae nugae seria ducent . torquatos Ex ter natos Bentley. i. " corrige." melius te posse negares bis terque expertum frustra. dum sublimis versus ructatur et errat. scabies aut morbus regius urget aut fanaticus error et iracunda Diana. II. * fugientque a^ : fugentque M: fugiuntque K. <t>f8. tetigisse timent fugientque^ poetam 455 agitant pueri incautique sequuntur. hoc. si quid recitares. flatterj% In one of Aesop's fables. sodes. * non. 445 culpabit duros. Quintilius Varus. si defendere delictum quam vertere malles." aiebat. ambitiosa recidet ornamenta. quem perspexisse laborent.HORACE et torquere mero. parum claris lucem dare coget.C. . " et hoc. 486 . delere iubebat 440 et male tornatos^ incudi reddere versus. yielding to the fox's drops the cheese he has found. the crow. : 435 numquam Quintilio te fallent^ animi sub volpe latentes. had become proverbial as that of a keen critic. ^ 1 laborant. vir bonus et prudens versus reprehendet inertis. nullum ultra verbum aut operam insumebat inanem. qui sapiunt hie. quin sine rivali teque et tua solus amares. whose death is lamented in Odes. ' * i. arguet ambigue dictum. ^ | i in Ut mala quem vesanum mala derisum semel exceptumque sinistre.e.

or the disease of kings. 487 . never let the intent that lurks beneath the fox ensnare you.<* *^ If you ever read aught to Qiiintilius." He will . to be contagious. .' he would " Pray correct this and this. he would bid you blot it out. •* patient rich (reges) could afford. would spend no fruitless toil. you said you could not do better. prove an Aristarchus. whether he be worthy of their friendship. he will draw his pen across and smear them with a black stroke he will cut away pretentious ornament he wiU force you : . If vou preferred defending your mistake to amending it. ful phrase. said to be so called because the was treated with costly remedies. If you mean to fashion verses. " WTiy should I give offence to a friend about trifles ? " These trifles will bring that friend into serious trouble. *^^ As when the accursed itch plagues a man. he would waste not a word more. if once he has been laughed dowm and given an unlucky reception. . not say. and the moon-goddess was Diana. to flood the obscure with light. 435-457 wine the man they are anxious to see through. He." If. with head upraised.** or a fit of frenzy and Diana's wrath. will \vill convict the doubtwill mark what should be changed. An honest and sensible man will censure Ufeless lines. splutters verses and off he strays. which only the was our jaundice and was supposed « " Lunacy " was supposed to be caused by the moon. and return the illshaped verses to the anvil.THE ART OF POETRY. to prevent your lo\ing yourself and your work alone without a rival. after two or say three vain trials.' so men of sense fear to touch a crazy poet and run away children tease and pursue him rashly. he will find fault with harsh ones if they are graceless. The morbus regius.

nisi plena cruoris.HORACE si* veliiti merulis intentus decidit auceps licet " succurrite " sit in puteum foveamve. an triste bidental moverit incestus : certe furit. 488 . tenet occiditque legendo. dimittere most ms8. obiectos* caveae valuit si frangere clatros. indoctum doctumque fugat recitator acerbus . 4G0 curet quis opem ferre et demittere^ funem. cur versus factitet. Siculique poetae narrabo interitum. deus immortalis haberi dum insiluit. 470 nee satis apparet. cupit Empedocles. * obiectas E. nee semel hoc fecit. an prudens hue se deiecerit^ atque servari nolit ? " dicam. 174 a). idem facit occidenti. nee. 1 si K8 ' : sic aEM. ac velut ursus. Theaetetug. " qui scis. 475 quern vero arripuit. non missura cutem. utrum minxerit in patrios cineres. " So Thales is said to have fallen into a well while studying the stars (Plato. ardentem frigidus Aetnam 466 sit ius liceatque perire poetis : invitum qui servat. si retractus erit. io cives ! clamet " si " non longuin qui tollere curet. //. ^ proiecerit. iam fiet homo et ponet famosae mortis amorem. hirudo.

" but that he threw himself in on purpose. Not ** — * The hidental was a spot struck by lightning. Empedocles. fellow-citizens " not a soul will care to O ! one should care to lend aid and let do^^n a rope. Who saves a man same as miu-der him. coolly leapt into burning Aetna. Let poets have the right and power to destroy thempull if him out. nor if he is pulled out will he at once become a human being and lay aside his cra\ing for a notable death. Nor is it very clear how he comes Has he defiled ancestral ashes to be a verse-monger. selves. 489 . If he catches a man. like a fowler with his eyes upon blackbirds. till gorged with blood. And against his %\'ill does the for the first time has he done this. if he has had strength to break the confining bars of his cage. hke a bear. " How do you know. and. eager to be thought a god immortal. despite his far-reaching cry." I'll say. he puts learned and unlearned ahke to flight by the scourge of his recitals. and does not wish to be saved ? " and I'll tell the tale of the Sicilian poet's end. which was sacrifice of consecrated by a sheep {biderUet). he holds him fast and reads him to death a leech that will not let go the skin. or in sacrilege disturbed a hallowed plot ? At any rate he is mad.THE ART OF POETRY. then fall 458-476 if. he into a well <* or pit. " Help.


. B. S. son of Telamon.i. /em.\. M. 32 Aeneas. Greek hero. 239 E. L 2. 1. 1. 56 A. E. In a garden dedicated to him and called Academia. E. Augustus. 18. the famous Mt. E. rin^.P. 465 . 27 Albino%-anus. ii. 10 u. 63 Aeschylus. A. 61 Aegaeus. i. a writer of comedies with 491 ..«.P. Sophocles represents Menelaus as forbidding Teucer to burv the dead hero. had estates in Sicily. Etna in SicUy. associated with the Alban hills. S. = Epistles. (2) the poet. S. pJur. ii. ii.. 4.. 16 Aenulius. 327 Albins. E. 46 Afer. applied to the sea between Greece and Asia Minor. 14 .= a/. adj. In his tragedy. Celsus Albinovanus. 203 i. and brother of Teucer. 53 . daughter of Cadmus. ii. S.P.=Satires or Sermones. ii. ii. Aegean. i. to books and lines in the Latin text. 57 Africa Provincia. 3.. 6.. S. E. S. 42 . Albius TibuUus. Abbreviatious Poetica.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES The references are A.. L 7. 185 erected the Portico of Neptune in 27 b. promontory and town of Greece on the a Roman i. 26 . bom 170 ac. the Trojan hero. Ambracian Gulf. Roman tragic actor. also adj. S. 1. known as togatae. 279 Aesopus. adj. S. 3. 109. set up a gladiatorial school. Africa. 8. 193 . = alios.(td. ii. E. E. 45 Accius. 12. Roman tragic poet. L 7.ofAemilius(LepidusX who. = feminine . African. ii. adj. il 2. ii. A. 194. the Greeks. conquered the Cantabri in 20-19 B.. 48 . 11. who in the madness of Bacchic rites tore her son Pentheus to pieces. U. the Ajax. 28. 1. 95 Atenius.. See Pelides Achivi. 87 Agave. 1 ..P. E. 4. = plural . ii. 193. an old Athenian hero. wife of Echion. 211 Albanns. adj.e. of Aetolia. 67 . E. 1. of Actiiim. S. or the S'jn-in-law of Alban Mount (now Monte Cavo) near Rome. 187. S. 5. Agrippa.P.C. setting. £. son of Anchises and Venus. Greek tragic poet. 12 .=An adjectiTe. iL 2. L 12. ii. 72 . ii. S.e. H. 3. L 10. i. E. Vipsanius Agrippa. where Octavius defeated Antony in 31 &a. i. ACASEJTus. in central Greece. Roman 3. u. 33 Actius. 4. i.P. 2. L 18. the province of Africa. «iil»<. A. aedile in 33 B. = singular =sabst&ntiTe. 163 . adj. king of Thebes. B. ii 3. Aetolus. 26 Aiax. i. (1) a man of expensive tastes. iL 1. iL 3. 201. See Celsus Albinus. 82 Aetna. 1. 120. hero of the Iliad.i. 58 ii. E.C. S. 1. possibly son of (1) Albucius. Plato and his successors taught. 3. according to Porphyrio. E. P. . 258 Achilles. i. a name from Lucillns.c. S. A. S. E. Alban. probably a usurer. A.

Appius Claudius who i. 10. of Allifae. S. a town of Samnium. E. 16. an Arab. 2. 23 Aristius Fuscus. A. 8. E. 3.. 25. one of the accusers 492 . S. 118 Aricia. 300 Antiphates. 130 AUifanus. a famous Greek painter.P. 1. A. S. See Zethus Aiieus. Appian Way. A. son of Jupiter and Antiope. Greek iambic poet. 3. A. flourished at Alexandria about 180 B. ii. i. 1. 1 Archilochus. 28 Alcon.. built 18. i. 5. S3 E. A. 20. 1 S. the god. a town of Latium. S. 19. (1) Marcus Antonius. the north wind. S. 2. ii. adj. a barber. a nickname given to M. 239 Apollo. 5. i. ii. adj. i. 53. 36 Arbuscula. i. Caecus. 6. fourth king of Rome.e. a town sixteen miles south of Rome. 3(5. Armenian. i. ii. 41 Alpinus. a rich neighbour of Horace. in the Peloponnesus. the old name of Terracina. 7. S. was 6. 5. S. 61 Aristophanes. S. 10.P. 6 .. i. who wrote an Aethiopis and a poem on Gaul. ii. 56. who was censor in 50 b. 99 Alcinous. Way and Aqueduct. 18. a great Homeric critic. 407 i. 41. 241 Alfenus. 6. originally built at the top of a hill. S. 6. S. Alexander the Great. 79 Arellius. 216 . ^. 4. i. 15 Alexander. S. celebrated in Cicero's time (Ad Att. 100 f. also 21 is perhaps Appius Claudius Pulcher. 4. 27 Arrius.. 128. 1 Appia (Via). E. E. E. king of Macedon. ii. adj. who is said to have become eminent in the law. 3 60. named from him. S. Lesbian poet. the water-bearer. i. a Greek slave. i. E. 29 ii. Apulia. known for its pottery.e.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Alcaeus. 167 Aristarchus. ii. E. i. E. i. i. E. 64 Aquinas. 44 . ii. i.P. 5. who proposed to restore Helen to the Greeks. 9 Anticyra. 5. i. 6. i. i. 2. . E. mother of Zethus. 100 E.P. in 312 B. 394. S. of the Alps. A. i.. properly an adj. 18 . city of Argos. 3. 3 Apella. 10. 39 Alpes. i. S. 78 . S. i. E. who cured Augustus by cold-water treatment. A. but later rebuilt on the plain below. 27 Arabs. S. S. Anxur. i. 3. 17. ii. i. 1.C. 86 Aquilo. 2. ii. 1. 26 of Socrates. x. E. i. a maker of furniture. ii.P. the triumvir. ii. a town in Phocis on the Corinthian gulf. 2. a freedman and physician. 6 i. 8. ii. 5. The citadel of Thebes was built to the accompaniment of his music. 28. Appius... P. 38 Aquarius. i. a friend of Horace.P. 12.O. E. S. 3. S. E. and famous player on the lyre. the most famous of Attic writers of comedy. ii. i. (2) Antonius Musa. Furius Bibaculus. often representative of Greece in general. and who gave a great funeral . i. S. famous for its hellebore. 27 Antenor.o. 1 Aricinus. . 1. The Appius mentioned in S. i. 132 E. ii.). 450 Aristippus. 14. 26. 1. 77 Archiacus. 15. 78 Argi. 33. iv. 8. 59. ii. 77 Apulus. 6. 17. the Alps. of Aricia. a district of Italy. See also Furius Amphion. adj. flourished about 650 B. 5. adj. adj. i. founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. a sign of the Zodiac. 145 Antonius. 9. 232. Armenius. S. ii. 1. 19. S.C. Ancus Marcius. 106.. 8. 6. The Forum Appi. Anytus. of Archias. 10. 6. 11. Od. of Aquinum. 25. i. or the North. i. 100 Apelles. king of Pliaeacia and host of Ulysses. 83. 3. S. a Trojan chief. i. a Jewish freedman. 34. 10. an actress or mima. S. king of the Laestrygones (Homer. 12.P. 43 miles south of Rome. whose praenomen was Quintus. the Appian i. E. of Apulia. E. 15).

2. i. 6 1. 78 Atacinus. Calpumiua Bibulus. 8 Bellona. He Bacchius. 1. a writer of togatae. votaries of Bacchus . it 2. Qnintius . 8. i. i. E. ii. a step-scfh of Brutus .ibly C. ii. a god of wine and of poets. i. son of Pelops. mentioned Cicero (/n Vatinium. ii. . ii. i. 12.. son of Oppidius. now Brindisi. 2. and Dalmatia (1) a vain person. 5. See Cascellius Auster. E. 1 10 Balatro. a town of Campania. il. S. i. S. now Benevento. murdered the children of Thyestes. a person unknown.e. 19. the first to fatten peacocks for sale. 86. 4. 6 ii. . now Bari. the scirocco. Montenegro. 4. 55 S.. S. Barrus. 1. ii 3. 41 . S. adj. 7. U Bacchius. 69 a gladiator. X. adj. L 8. 24 Aufldius Luscus. north-west of Attica E. i. 78 Baiae. 3. 7. i. L i. S. 118 Atabulus. adj. prob. 79 Attalicus. 1. a favourite seaside resort of the Assyrius. now Ofanto. 40. 21. a town in Apulia. 11. of Attica or Athens. L 9. B. S. the south wind. 3.C. See Bithus 7. i. xii. 20 and many each Caesar. The last of these left his enormous wealth to the Roman people in 133 B. S. 15 Bithynus. 104 . 15. S. 97. 1S6 Atrides.S.\tt3.a<y. Menelaus. (2) a foul-mouthed person. town of Boeotia. S. a ii. sister of Mars.S. adj. 4.. 7 where some editors read Bacchae. . See Caesar for Troy. Brundisium. 187. 64 . 6. and was famous for his caustic Bithus. i. a Roman province in Asia Minor. according to PUny (N. a river of Apulia. 23. i.e. i. imperial title of Octaviiis Autidins. who died in 78 B. E. Romans. 18. a parasite of Maecenas. 5. 1. 8. S. famous Avidienus. iL S.P. 203 Atta. n famous gladiator. 1. ii. 5. 58 Augustus. See Varro Athenae. and goddess of war. ii. To-day steamers go from Bari to ports in Albania. S. Aufldius Lurco. and served them as a meal to their father. son of Atreus. i. 60 Birrius. of Bithynia. i. i. 34 Autidus. 40 Barbaria. i. S. i. Aulis. 6 . 24 . 13 . E. 2. 2. 4. 81 Atreus. 33. 3. S. 5. 18 . the province of Asia. ii. A. i. 7 .C. i. i. 171. finally killed other. S. S. i. Asina. E. ahot-headed acquaintance of Horace (the name was derived from Bola. 8 6\ i. Bacchus. 16. after slaying opponents. 43 plur. peculiar to Apulia. E. whence the Greeks sailed 199 Aulus. 20). E.. his brother. L 3. S. i. A. E. i. 3. 5 Atticus. 1. ii. ii. adj. S.). 6. 3. Agamemnon. P. 244 Bolanus. adj. 7. of Assyria. 32 Baius. a district in Greece. unknown. the name of several kings of Pergamos. 2. of Boeotia. 223 Beneveutum. E. 17. i. 6.. E.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES by entertainment.a. of both sons. 43. a miser. S. 2. a philosopher. £ 493 . T. 33 Boeotus. 13 perhaps M. in Asia Minor. wit. 30. 2. a general term for all countries not Greek. 52 . 213 . dry wind. a robber. 243 Asia. E. a hot. ii. iL 3. probably a character in Lucilins.. the "praefectns" at Fundi. a town of Samnium. 12 Baianus. S. i. 3. IS. i. E. 7 Barium. i. i. 83 . S. S. 29 48. 2. 71 Bestius. 2. a town of the Aequi) S. ii. cognomen of Vinius. 15. 2a port of Calabria.. 86 Bioneus. 10. 5. ii. E. 1. 83 (cf. ii. Athens. S. 7. of Baiae. 1.H. a certain poor man. . i. S. 2. £. 11. 7. ii. of Bion. bom in Scythia. 20 6. 37 Bibulus. S. who lived in Athens in the third century B. 2) Balbinus. S.. south of the Euxine. ii. of Attains.

10. Campania. is uncertain. S. 1. S.). S. 1. who left his gardens by his will to the Roman people. perhaps same as (2). a limited Whether thi% was given as a reward or was due to punisliment imposed. Roman comic poet. 32 E. iL 4. i. iv. the most eastern Asiatic province of the Romans. 3. (2) Parmeusis.. 2. 2. 100 Calvus.P. i. 6. Liciniua Cahnis. 13. 56 Cantaber. of Canusium. i.C. E. 187 Caecilius. A. pure Latin name of the Grefk MoOcra. he assumed the jurisdiction of that province as well. . 91 . but after the coalition of Octavian and M. son and heir. 4. 5. 10. 275 Caraillus. a poet. E. 3 Castor. 19 Catia. 19. one of the slayers of Caesar. 2. 390 B. E. 62 . 18. adj. (1) the Dog-star. 1. 371 Cassius. but living into the time of Augustus. 62 . S. 1. 39 Caprius. i. E. the famous statesman and dictator. 8. 7. S. L 10.e. a friend of Torquatus. a shameless woman. . contemporary of Cicero. i..18.<. 5 . adj. 144 ii. M. 4. 5. 48 . 56 Campus. . 4. grandnephew of the dictator. 1. 8. 90 E. who slew Caesar. 95 Canis. 48 ii. living in Cappadocia. 1 45 . 61 Catius. in Rome. . I. i. 1. 1. i. (2) a gladiator. 12. i. an eminent jurist. 6. i. a robber. ii. S. i.. orator and poet. ii. 95 Catienus. where they spoke both Greek and Latin. 11 Cascellius. ii. Cadmus. ii. 3. B. adj. 18. 1. who took Veil and freed Rome from the Gauls. ii. Antonius. 5. 6. 19 Camena. 48. E.. 494 . a Cappadocian. L b.P. 2. S. (1) Btruscus. . 54 Canidia. 3. i. Porcius Cato. i. E. Junius Brutus. S. 47 . Julius Caesar Octaviaiius. S. Harmonia were changed into serpents (so Ovid. ii. I. according to the scholiasts either an Epicurean philosopher. a town in Campania. 69 Caeres. 177 14 Calliniachus. 10 16 (2) a nickname. A. of Cantabria. C. i. 6. i. Cappadox. 3. 11. i. centre of the tunny fishery of the Black Sea. ii.. E. i. 5. 7. ii. Julius Caesar. in Spain. S. belonging to Caere. 1. i. Furius Camillus. of Byzantium. . a public prosecutor. £. (1) the famous censor. (1) brother of Pollux and Helen. E. an actor. He was properly propraetor of Macedonia. a family name in the Julian gens hence (1) C. 59 i. flourished about 270 B. 9. 9. S. 2. also called Augustus when emperor. E. A. friend of Catul. adj. i. S. 12. i. a sorceress.C. 55 Canusinus. 88 Cato.. Muse. 6. E. which had Roman franchise. E. 126 . 54 1. 26 . i. ii. 5. i. ii. i. adj.e. 28. a place in Apulia.e. i. 563 ff. i. . 8."iQ Caelius. 39 (2) founder of Thebes He and his wife in Boeotia. 33 BuUatius. i. 11. 6. 168 Capito.P. an elegiac poet. See Augustus Calaber. i. S. of i. proconsul of Asia. Capua. 18.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Bnitus. 24. S. 4. adj. 64 . 49 . i. 26 Byzantius. 4 . & lus. and the murder of C. i. Trebonius. 62 Caesar. 2. adj. i.. of Calabria. ii. 26 Caiitabricus. ii. i. M. S. 66 (1) a public executioner.. E. 84. . S. or a writer on the art of baking. 1. Campanus. E. 7. M. S. E. 47 . an old town of Etruiia. with praenomen Aulus. who adopted him as his . 11. 30 Canusium. See Fonteius' Capitolinus. 1. 45. 118 ii. older contemporary of Terence. L 19 5 .P. S. 10. a friend of Horace. A. the Campus Martins or Field of Mars. Butra. S. i. E. 18. See Petillius . ii. i. of Cantabria. 18 (2) C. 4 ii. . i. famous poet of Alexandria. i. Met. : . 66 . 18.

ii. 52. E. 193 Corvinus. L 17. S. See Messalla Corycius. who followed in the train of Alexander the Great and comhis posed epic verse upon ^. 3. ii. i. i.. 21 Choerilns. i. 5 Clusinus. a famous enchantress in Homer's Odyssey (x. 9 Cocceius. 10. 287 . (3) Valerius Cato. S. i. 6'.P. because called Uticensis. 10. i. 23 Circeii. i. L 5. 127 . oulj. consul 290 sua. 3. S. 2. 81 Cervius. E.e. 7. son of Livia. a favourite of Augustus. See PerelUua S. L 1. a wealthy king of Lydia. E. i. great-grandfather of the emperor Kerva.. 36 Curius. C!npiennius "hemlock-poison"). a physician named in Cicero's letters {Ad Att. 8. adj. 233 Chremes. a Stoic writer. a poet of the Old Attic Comedy. E. S. at Corycus in Cilicia. A. L 14. u. 14 . 66 Cicuta. 4 Cibyraticus. a profligate. i. 161 Cratinus. 230 ff.e.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES H. 1 Crispinus. i. killed himself at Utica. 357 victories. 6. £. S. a girl who figures in Horace's lyric poetry. an inhabitant of Colchis on the Black Sea. 47 . i. xii. 19.P. A. an island near Halicarnassus in Caria. (1) an informer. 1. 101 . M. ii. ii 5.P. is probably 175. Cerinthus. B. 139. S.). 118 Colophon.e. i. t. 6. i. a whirlpool in the straits of Messina (see Homer. 15 8. (2) another M. 33 Circe.. 94 Chrysippus. 56 . i. iL 3. a town 15. L 2. Od. M. 45 Croesus. 9 Crantor. 10. centre of a eonventus of twenty-five towns. on the coast of Lydia. . 3 Copia. B. 2. 2. 81 ff^. 124 .C. 28 . E. i. 120. of Cos. 4). E. 2. adj. the famous Roman poet. i. 2. i. 44. Caudiam. i. 1. i. 69. S. i.. L C. one of the staff of Tiberius and his secretary. 145 Chios. S. on the bay of Smyrna. Tiberius Claudius Xero. 57. a Stoic philosopher. i. i. of Cib3rra.e. I 7. consul in 204 B. ii. 14 . E. S. a city on the Isthmus of Corinth. S. A. S. ii. an orator of the old Republic. E. 117 . 2 Cumae.C. a moneylender (the name a nickname. 50 Colchns. 5. 1. i.e. goddess of agriculture. 7. 33 Messins. and later emperor. 3.P. 11. xiL 13. of Clusium. 4. S. meaning "a cock"X S. lu Etruria. Curius Dentatus. i. A. i. 5. 1. 4 Craterus. S. (2) one of Horace's country neighbours. 11. despised by Horace. an old man figuring in the Aniria and Heauton.P. i. ii. 2. a friend of Horace. 77 Cethegus. of Terence. a promontory in lAtium. bom at Soli in Cilicia in 280 rc. i. conqueror of the 495 . ii. S. S. and typical of his form of comedy. Porcius Cato. iL 3. 36 . E. 4.C. 87-54 B. 64 Coriiithus. L 19. 50 Charybdis.. 14 . Cupiennius. 1. an Academic philosopher and a voluminous writer. a town in Asia Minor. E. 19 Cinara. 4. 1* (interpolated) Catullus. 1 xii. a Samnite town at the head of the famous Caudine Forks. consul 36 B. ii. ii. a city of Ionia. 117 . 29 Coranus. 68 Cous. 17 Ceres. . 12. a poet of lasos in Caria. a town in southern Phrygia. Abundance (a personification). 40 A. an Oscan Cicirrhus ("Cicirrhus" is a nickname. 29. 4. 14. 11 in Campania. 12. i. S. adj. E. ii. S. 1 . an island in the Aegean. i. 8. S. 3. i. 28. 51 Celsus Albinovanns. S. E. 2. a quinqnerir who became a scriba. Libo of Cumae. 13. 26 Clazomenae. 33 Claudius. a grammarian of the late he Republic. L 11.. 2. E. i. E. Cocceius Nerva. S. ii. 15.X E.P.. 10. 3.

80 probably the simius of 1. E. 5. a man who figures in Cicero's Letters as an agent in the purchase of works of art and other kinds of property (Ad Att. 7. i. 7. 52 Democritus. E. i. S. a trainer of actresses i. especially the Cyclops Polyphemus. 1 . in Calabria. 12 Eutrapelus. ii. 1. 53 S. 1. of the Daci. built the bridge connecting the Insula Tiberina with the left bank of the Tiber. 6. 8. a Roman eqites. 3. the Eleatic laughing philosopher of Abdera in Thrace. S. i. 19 and other towns EoERiA. 16. i. or Diomedes. i. 38 . born at Rudiae. 92. ii. 79. 10. 101 ii. 465 Ennius. adj.P. 1 . 18. ii. E. 7. 33). who wrote on Stoic philosophy. adj. 21 L 10. 7. 16. I 19. 38 Dolichos (al. S. i. 1. 31 Evander. 52 Fabius. represents him as a convert to Stoicism. E. a bom at Daods. who wrote poem on Nature. 4.P. 7 . S. 4. who i. i. A. a philosopher. S. ii. sister to Apollo. xii.P. (1) a slave character in Comedy. i. 18. Junius Damas- ippus. to whom are addressed two of Cicero's letters (Ad fam. 1. . 54 Damasippus. 2. but lived most of 58 his life in Sicily. S. seat of the oracle of Apollo. of Fabricius. P. 18. S. a city of Argolis in Greece. 194.C. Etruscan. the Fabian tribe. a people on the north bank of the Agrigentum in Sicily. (2) a slave of Horace.P. adj. 20 Delphi. ii. and friend of Antonius. a slave-name. i. who was famous as a Greek hero at Troy and later was 496 . E. i. 10. 63 . 14 i. Dacian. a gladiator. S3.. a vain poet. ii.. S. 219 Demetrius. 18 (2) a Greek slave. born at Cos. S. author of the Annales. and Pyrrhus. 6. i. a slave-name. Senones. vii. E. i. . u. and Eupolis. A. 6. whose symbol was a serpent. the Decian gens being plebeian. i.e. 16 Epidaurius. A. i. 1.. 5. E. 10. 12. 5. one of the Cyclopes. 3. a knight. i. P. 5i. ii. Adfam. of Epidaurus. a poet of the Old Attic Comedy. a small river in the Sabine country. who in 62 B. 20. i. 1. when the Saturnalia were celebrated. i. 16. L 4. 125 . 824 Davus. 3. 27 Decius. 18 said to have founded Cannsium in Apulia. 36 Fannius. IL 1. unknown except from S. 61 I. writer of Doric comedy. the tenth month of the Roman year. 10. 240 B. . son of Tydeus. 6. 91 (sc. Diomede. E.. 90. 27 Btruscus. 145 Cynicus. 297 Diana. (mimae). A.P. A. 5. A. E. (1) S. i. S. 100 December. 12. who welcomed Aeneas to his home on the Palatine Hill. 5. ii. 46. i. adj. Docilis). 64 Curtillus. 65. a one-eyed race of giants.P. S.. 50 A. S. 91 A. E. 259 Epicharmus. i. was the first consul of his family. 6. a Cynic philosopher. ii. 2. i.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Samnites.P. devoted himself to death in the Latin War. 2. S. ii. 454 Digentia. adj. now the Licenza. i. 40 .C.e. S. 3. 7. Dama. 12. 6. E. Epicurus. 18. 56. 8. 126 Erapedocles. 146 Dionysius. E. of Roman citizens. 64. 52 Cyclops. founder of the Epicurean school of philosophy. a famous Roman epic poet. the king of Pallanteum. 104 Fabia. 17. E. i. S. tribus). ii.P. Horace 29. Volumnius Eutrapelus. 23). a nymph of Latium who became wife of Numa. S. Decius Mus. i. 134 Fabricius. dedicated to Aesculapius. 20 Danube. 2.e. and goddess of the Moon. 32. vii. S. 1. 4 E. 237.

E. 1 Fonteius Capito. 135 : the singular Furia. 20. S. 12 tifius. L 7. now Fondi. the followers of Bacchus. 19. L 18. 11. S. iL 3. with whom Cicero had dealings. L 15. i. u. a town on the Via Salaria. a Roman knight. a gladiator. 161 . instead of fighting with Diomedes. a monster with 2K 49- . identified with the Greek satyra. 4. 1. S. 27 . S. L 7. exchanged his golden armour for the other's brazen (Homer. L 5. a woman loved by Balbinua. iL 6. a man who wanted to be known as a huntsman. i. See Aristius . 53. i. a Harpy. E. S. i. 5. i. i. 44. 32. 93. L 12. ii. 1. S. ii. 89 Graecia. an old town of Latium. 2. ii. iL 2. iL 1. an unsavoury person. 2. (1) priests of Cybele. i. Fortune (personification). 5. E. on the Adriatic coast. Angelo. i. but a man of low morals. 100 E. Gaetulian. 3 . 35. E. 156 Graecus. 45 . ii. G. 2. L 2. a qniet hamlet in the Alban district.e. 3. 187 . aJuriscon. the reformers. African. S. 63 Hagne. 34 Furiae. 42 Fundi. 2. iL 2. A. i. i. 8. a town in Latium on the Appian Way. 11. 6. consul suffectus in 30 B. 210 Glaucns. 3. 3. 10. 90.P. Greek. 5. a friend of Horace and of Tiberius. E. S. an actor. See Thrax Gallonius. iL 1. ii. 28 . 126 . a firiend of Horace. E.<ult. perhaps Etrujscan. 145 Fidenae. u. i. Fescennine. now Monte di S. E. 86 Fuscus.. See also Alpinus. who had a shrine near Tarracina. a mountain in Apulia. Fiirius Bibacnlus. 141 Furius. 286 Grains. like the famous brothers Gaius and Tiberius Gracchus. Iliad vi. iL 1.C. JS. E. the Gaetuli bt-ing a people of north-west Africa. 38 Fortuna. 18. E. A.. 22 . £.e. ii.. gods of the forests. goddesses of vengeance. a student of oratory and a writer of satires. adj. u. 9. 24 Fescenninus. an Italian goddess. ii. 60 Fulvius. 92 Genius. S. L 1. L 17. Gabii. wliere the members of the Latin league once assembled. P. See Appins Fufidius. 8 Flaecus. adj. (2) the Gauls. L 8. 96). E. £. adj. 32 . a poet of Cremona. 1.. of doubtful origin. the Adriatic.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Fanni. ii 2. where he owned a large esUte. iL 2. iL 1. ii. 2. a writer of comedies. 2. the Lycian hero who. whom Quintilian classes with Catullus and Horace as a writer of iambics (x. S. ii. S. 3. Greece. L 5. S. 17 Glycon. 2. 68 Forum Appi. 202 Gargilius. a money-lender of Arpinum. an epicure figuring in Lucilius. consul 17 B. 7 . 5. 3 Gaetulus. Hadria. ISl Galba. guardian spirit. L 5.). u. 94 . 49 . i. L 5. 97 Gracchus. 1. S. i. 10. S. 58 Gargonius. S. E. 121 . S. 6i Ferentinuni.F. 25. Julius Floras. a schoolmaster at Yenusia. 1.4. 31. E. 8. 5. S. L 7. i. Greek. a famous athlete. S. a gladiator. iL 2. a town of Apulia. iL 1. i. 30 Gnatia. 72 Florus. 19 S. 66 . living in Sicily. 6'. daughter of the dictator Sulla. or Egnatia. 6. 42 . 96 Fundanius. 7. £. 7.. The Fescennina carmiiux were coarse verses sung at rustic festivals and at weddings. iL 2. ii. 5. adj. 14 GaUina. iL 7. L 10. five miles from Rome. 61 . 323 Grosphus. 2. 46 Galli. S. i.C. 1 . 40 Harpyia.P. an eloquent orator. 41 Fumius. i. 244 Faiista. 144 . i. M. 268. 47 Garganus.. 3. i. See Horatins Flavius. A. i. 19. between Rome and Praeneste. 4 . S Feronia.

. note Herodes. heads. 19. 91 . said to have been built originally by 3. Forum itself also went by the name of Ianus. ii. killed by Hercules. 12. i. 29 Italus. B. procurator of Agrippa's estates in Sicily. E. wifeof Polymnestor. i. ii. i. adj. king of Thrace. 1. 2.e. i. chief hero of Troy. god of beginnings. i. regarded as a god . loved by Jupiter and changed by Juno into a heifer. 1. S. S. i. i. S. Spanish. 3. the poet. a blind woman. 2. carried off by Paris to Troy." E. known only from S. Alcmena. . S. 29) Idus.. S. E. i. 2. ii. Hymettius. a two-faced Italian deity. 6 daughter of Cadmus and wife of Athamas. ii. 20. and tlierefore represented with three Numa. ii. 9. Trojan. 6. named river Hydaspes. 15 Hypsaea. atown in Spain. E. a Moor. 3. 16. i. Tigelliiis. Herod the Great. 18. wliose son Deiphilus was killed by his father. a girl murdered by her lover Marius. 296 Heliodonis. 75 Ilerda. and were the in the 7. 12 centre of the banking business of Helena. S. 12. 2. . eldest son of Priam.<?.e. . Ithaca. whose temple. an island off the west coast of Greece. 46 Homerus. ii. i. i. 1. iL 5. 63 Hellas. Rome. of Ilymettus. i. ii. a seven-headed snake. E. E. Iberian.S. 2. See Tigellius and p. 359. 5.P. 118 A. 13 Hecate. 7. 7. E. 45 Ino. 13 mother of Romulus Remus. 3. 72 . This furnished the subject of the tragedy Ilione by Pacuwus. 57 . 54. 1 (c/..INDEX OF PROPER NAMES a human . i. S. bird. S. renowned his for "Labours. i. adj. 1. Maritza. 1. ii. E. i. from tlie daughter of Inachus. 1. a friend of Horace. E. the Ides. 3. 6. ii. October the thirteenth in the other months. ii. 2. Odes i. 1. It was opened on the declaration of war.P. 33 Hector. i. 52. and undertakings. A. ii. . like Mercury. 1) Horatius. S. 1. a goddess of the lower and sister of Latona. abode of the Muses. i. S. adj. ii. 13 of gain. 1. 41 6. SO. 5 sometimes. the fifteenth day in March. 18. i. 10 1. Italian. E. See p. head. a mountain of Attica. 16. 20 E. A. i. 8. but kept closed in time of peace. 16. entrances. 8. 50. ii. 3 . E. E. *> of Ilion. Italy. 59 Certain arches . 124 Italia. 129 Iliona or Ilione. i. i. now Lerida. S. 6. i. 255. 10. See Flaccus and Quintus Hydaspes. who is said to have also had tlie name Plotia or Plautia. identified with Diana on earth and Luni in heaven. now Djelun. famous mountain in Boeotia. 14 Hydra. north of ths Roman Forum. Ilia. S. 40 Hebrus.. 2. stood in the Argiletum. E. 401 (c/. S. i. an Indian slave. 85. 82. E. 20. eldest daughter of Iliacus. 126 and Hermogenes 129 90. 4.P. E. P. thepiscis Hiberus was the scomber or mackerel. E. 5. slain by Achilles. after her husband went mad and toie one of to pieces. was her children changed into a sea-goddess. 277 Hercules. 8. 56 498 . 25 i. 1 ii. inhabitants of India. wife of Menelaus. especially about Jericho. May. who derived a large revenue from the palm-groves of Judaea. but the body of a 2. a singer and . who. ii. i. S. ii. 6. 6. i.. 4. 107 Helicon. P. 1. now Ianus. Hiberus. 19. 123 lo. poet despised by Horace. 74.S. 14. i. 1. i. 6. the Greek epic poet . adj. world. 18. son of Jupiter and . A. 10. July. 54 larbila. S. i. the middle of the Roman month. A. 3. 184 Priam. 15 Iccius. a rhetorician. S. 2 Ithaca. Quintus Horatius Fiaccus. 61 Indi. a river of Tlirace. i. S.

7. the same as 6acchn.. Ill . JB. king of the Lapithae and &ther of Pirithous.arinia became & of Jupiter.C. See Diespiter Ixion. ii. & Earthago. 68. iL 3. LiABEO. E. L 11. consul L 20l 28. the Latin games. a barber. i. 1 Liber.e. in the A^aaan.C. 70 lolios. B. S7 (reading Latini) .P.C. 5. Latins. capital of latium. i 1. iL 2. a Boman knight. a man of high birth but poor character.€. A. Aelins Lamia. and its literature. kingof Latinm. Lollios Maximos. 72 Lesbos. a Jniisconsult. 66 . 4 . L L 1. 340. Antistins Labeo. (2) L. 143 . Laelins Sapiens. E. 5. 66 Latinae(K. S. S.). a vampire. 25 B. S7 Latiom. 69 Lollios. L 20. of Ithaca. Carthage. L 5. ^. L 19. 5 Libitina. near the Arch of Fabins. 16. S. a Jew. 3 : i. L 3. A. L i 18 a. neax Colophon. and translated the Odgtteg into Satornian verse. feriae). Lar). 101 Libycns. L 10. a witch who preyed on children. (1) 17. probably a relative of the former. 14 . M. L 3. 124 KAI. 12. L 5. where a tribunal was first set up by one Libo. of Libya. 12. iL L 16. 1. i. 165 . used a« a noon. L 10. adj. «.. (1) i. L 17. a friend of Scipio and Terence.e. S. A. See Ulixes Laerinus. iL 1. 19 Lamia. 1. L la 6 Laelius. (1) Latinns. i. E. i. L 1. 1. a fionous mime actor. ii. 4. in Asia Minor. danghter of Satoin and wife whose danghter I. of Laurentum. L 19. 16 Lepidus. 106 . ii. 39 lolios Floms. 29 . famous tat its beauty. iL 5. Q.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Ithacensb. S.a.atin. 42 Larema.a. £. one of the consuls of 21 B." a well-head in the Forom. L & 18. who first brought ont a play in Ri>me in 240 B. 143. 18. its wine. «. 32 iL 2. because. adj. E. 35 Libya. after being kindlj treated by Jupiter. (2) in 21 B.i. 59. 100 . a friend of Horace. ]. i. L 4. Called perJidtu. IL Lollins. See Floras lano. 65. t. 11 lappiter. S. its climate. 19 Licinns. constellation of the Lion. the northern part of Africa. 20 . 1 499 . iL 3. L 10. who served £ - under Augnstos in tiie Cantabrian campaign. one of the regular days for the settling of debts. ii. ii. 5. L 16. i.. adj. 20 . 43 . 288 . " Libo's well. 76 Latin us. S. SOI Linns (Andronicus).. pi. P. the Jews. 14. 5. 72 Laertiades. 8 . tutelar d« ties of the hearth. E. 24.) Lares (also sing. Ulysses. 6 (see Odts iii. L 3. E. P. Uie island of Lesbos. S. 12 . iL 6. £. possibly a freedman of Julias Caesar. destroyed )>y Lysiroachus after the battle of Ipsus (301 B. S.KXOAJC. 63 [adaena. goddess of thieves. 60 Lebedu-s. £. goddess of death. Aemilius Lepidns. IL 4. ii. Valerias Laerinus. 290 Laurens. P.7 Leo. 62. 89 . 28 Lepos. L 19. iL L 49 Libo. 6. 1. as in jmUal LibofiU. iL L 157. 34 . 1 ff. L 10. L IL 6. the son of Laertes. 6. L 6.«. L 6. L 8.P.. i. first day of the month.. E. 5. son of Saturn and king of the gods. a town of Ionia. 82 Laberins. L 9. E. 5. 121. 43 . iL flw 19 . 5. its art.s. B. ef. 66 according to the scholiasts.e. C. iL 3.«. E. the plain between tlie lower Tiber and C^unpania. S L iO. 87 & the wife of Aeneas. (2) adj. of Judaea. who composed mimes in the time of Julius Caesar. 19. i. adv. S. L 19. the days for which wereappointed annu^y by the consuls. S. B. adj. he tried to dishonour Juno.. 3.

general against Mithridates. 1 ii. 6. See Lollius Medea. 2. 57 . S. 4. one of the Argonauts. 120 f. 312 8. springs. 5. 6. 67 Lacania. See p. 19. i. a famous Greek sculptor of the fourth century b. 64 . a the Aethiopis cyclic poet. ii.C. . . 21 . a term applied to lanus. 1. i. 41 3 i. 5.. a favourite of Caesar's. S. 10. a spendthrift. E. . an effeminate person.. 22 E. 2. 6. 17 Mamurra. challenged Apollo to a musical contest and. 1. E.. 6. who Maia. 9.. son of Apliareus and brotlier of Ida. and patron of Horace. L.e. S. 4.Malchinu8). C. of Mars. A."25. 68 LycAnibes. See vi.C. lover of Origo. 234 . i. adj. who lived about 180 to 103 B. ii. 123. extremely wealthy. .P. i. 2. 32 LucuUus. 8. 402 Matutinus. father He was cursed by or Diomedes. 5 Maltinus(f<i. 240 Maecenas. ii. god of the morning. i. S. who figured in Lucilius. 387 Maenius. the spirits of the departed. 29 . 38. 38 Lucanus. 185 Meleager. i. 3. i. E. ii. S. or Menas. 75 Lncrinus. i..P. 6 JS. S. i. and daughter of Atlas. 37 Manes. i. i. E. . friend of Augustus. 1. 146 Memnon.. i. 1* (interpolated lines) i. 28 Lysippus. a Roman knight. . adj. 90 . i. i. who was assailed by Lucilius. Epode 13 Lydi. i. 1 Lymphae.c. ii. i. 178 Lucilius. A. 8. E. Either the expression of pain or the uplifted arm is reflayed alive. a satyr. . i. a critic of the drama known to Cicero (Ad fam. 1. 16. 2. 97 Lynceus.P. of the Lucrine lake. S. the father of Neobule. i. 1. 10. Cornelius Lentuhig Lupus. was the half-brother of Tydeus (son of Periboea). consul 156 B. i. i. 48. by whom Etruria is said to have been settled. 21 ii. i. 6. 53. 2. wlio amassed great wealth. 10. friend of Scipio. 62. a man who murdered his mistress and then committed suicide. . 1. S. 20 Maximus. i. A. Marsyas. S. adj. the Lydians. E. who afterwards deserted her. . in Campania. who betrothed hertoArchilochus. ii. 1. ii. i. 19. 7. a Roman knight of Formiae. ii. whence she fled with Jason the Argonaut. 1 Maecius. mother of Mercury. i. ii. a name contracted from the Greek Menodorua. of Achilles was the subject of of Arctinus. 2. 277 Marsaeus. 43. possessed of very keen sight. ii. his mother for the death of his two brothers. ii.P. S. 33 5 . vii. 34 ii. son of Oeneus and Althaea. 3. i. 56. but later broke his word. i. 64 . S. ferred to in S. Spurius Maecius Tarpa. 3. i. 31. 29. E. Martins. of Lncania. 2. The poet's invectives caused Lycambes to hang himself. unknown except from S. . 138 Marius. 36 Mena. being defeated. the gods below. writer of satires. 15. a district of lower Italy. 26 Lupus. the god of war. This is the subject of the Med-ea of Euripides. S. S. 6. 2. 15. S. ii. 25. was A statue of Marsyas stood in the Forum near the Rostra. S. S. 31. the sorceress.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Iiongarenus. 6. son of Tithonus and Aurora and king of the EthiHis death at the hands opians. culj. 26 He 500 . i. or used as a noun. A. 1. 81 7. i. 27. 1). li. Licinius Lucullus. 6. belonging to the morning. daughter of Aeetes in Colchis. nymphs of the 5. h. 1.. S.e. 8. 10.e. 3. 6. Lucilius. 40 . 17. 1 .e. i. 56 Marsya. 1. 1. and her Erinnys pursued him to his death. ii. ii. She then slew their common children.

i. 65. 3. brother-in-law of Maecenas.a. the consul of 42 B. 2 . S. i>8 (perhaps not the a poet from Campania of the third century B. oldest of See Claudius son of Neleus. 4 . 64 Nero. 5 Minucius. ii. the BeUum Pvnicum. lived from 342 to 290 B. 2. i. i. 407. ii 3. and took the Roman genti le name Voltt ivs from his patron. 25 Mercurins. 3. 6. 5. 11. 1. B.C. north of the bay of Naples. 124 Xeptunus. 101 Minerva.i. Pylu-s. goddess of wisdom.. 3. of the sixth century B.P. ii. 53 . E. (he wrote dramas and also an epic. 24 Himnennus. ii. L 7. E. i. Caecilius Metellns Macedonicus. A. a rhetorician from Pergamum. a famous lawyer. 33 Mitylene. 7. L 6. 53 Nasica. . 9 god of gain.*. 84 Natta. 6. B. i. Tiberius Claudius Nero. E. a seurra or parasite. t. 10. 58. consul in 95 b. 22 (1) (2) Nakvius. L. 3. 54. god of gain and good luck.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES was a freednian. L 5. Licinins Mnrena. 3. Mucins Scaevola. 5) Uessalla. and triumphed over the Aqoitani in 27 b. orator and historian. S. a S. P. 3. 5.C. unknown elsewhere. ii. 1. E. 89 Mulvius. probably P. being in debt to Coranus. 17 Molossus. i. L 8. 19. political opponent of Scipio. P. i. or his son Q. an elegiac poet of Colophon. of Mercury. perhaps Caecilia Metella. 114 Moschus. L. Mucius Scaevola. 38 (1) . son of Atreus. 27. SeeCicirrhns Metella. a promontory of Cam pania. was consul in 31 B. S. 75. L 5. Mucins. 385 Mintumae. 1. a man who.c. 198. Neptune. ii. 8. 65. Valerius MessaUa Corvinus. S. U. ii. A. 5. 57 Menelaus. 5. consul 143 b. adj. S. 8. 11 . 36 Munatius. son of L. Gelliiis Pnblicola. i. famous writer of the New Attic Comedy. same) 2.. See Atrides Menenius.P.%n 501 2k2 . 5. Rufns (probably a fictitious nameX a wealthy upstart. £. who was tried for poisoning. 1.. 6. ii. Comehns Lentolns Spinther. ii. E. who was consul in 36 b. king of the Greeks before L18. 239 Metellus. ii. i. 3. a stingy person. a roadman. ii. 2. brother of Agamemnon. ii. a town on the borders of Latinm and Campania.c. 52. 67 Kasidienus. 141. which ran from Bmndisiom to Beneventum. 61. 101 . ii. 105 i. patroness of arts and science. a town in Lesbos. a city of Ionia in Asia Minor. 26 . 2. 7. Munatina Plancus. iiL 14.. See Volteins Menander. capital of Lesbos. S. a name associated with the aristocratic Valerian gens. 6. 83. S. S. who lived in Eastern Epims. adj. S. * spendthrift. who gave his name to the Via Minucia. Mosa. ii. M. 133. according to PorphjTio. 68 ((/. son of Jupiter and Maia. 8. i. 4. S. £. A. S. and husband of Helen. 17 . ii. (2) Musa Antonius. the Misenom. 85. E. 67 Methynmaens. ii. E. 55. . Cc. E. 6. i. 6. 30 Milonius. 5. S. i. 1.. ii. S. 2. L 11. this last in Satumian verse).C. 8.. 10. £. ii. 92. £. 19 . 9. ii. at the mouth of the Liris. S. 3 . ii. £. 287 MercuriaUs. a parasite. iL 2. god of the sea. L 1. L 12. t.e. 324. He had a brother. consul in 133 B. Q. 1. 42. of the Molossians. See Autonius Mutns. 371 Hessius. 57. 28) . adj. Nestor. of MethjTnna. ii.c. iL 1.. and messenger of the gods. A. Mercury. 17. 2. divorced wife of P.& (see Odes i. S. 5. ii. i. 31 Mnrena. 3. 13 . ii. 243 . 50 Miletus.a. E.20 Troy. S. gave him his daughter in marriage. 2S & a Muse.

. 62 . 86 E. S. 49 E. who figures in Lucilius. 1. 5. See Cassius Parthus. 18. E. Achilles. ii. a native of Benevenlum. 11 Paris. i. 19.. TheParthians lived north-east of the Caspian Sea. E. ii. 112. writer of of Eunius. 6. . Numicius. an orator. a cognomen of the Aemilian L. S. The name probably coined for satire is {ttolv +\a^eii'. nephew 3. who set up a school there. 28 an Egyptian deity. ii. S. a parasite. between Xibur and Praeneste. 6. ii. 171. Pedius. 6.P. 1. E. 2. Pompilms. OcTAViua. who was consul in contempt to 43 B. i. 7. 5. i. 25. 124 55 S.C. who carried off Helen. 40 i. a Parmensis. E.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Nomentanus. 23. S. and so led to the Trojan war. 21 . 23 . Orpheus. a primitive people of Italy. unknown. ii.c. ii. 224 where Augustus in 28 b. 7. the latter's son. 392 Oscus. of 133 friend of Horace. the Penates. 95 Pedanus. of 3. A. famous for its marble and as the birtliplace of Archilochus. 82 Ofellus. Novius. probably the son of Q. gods. of the Oscans. ii. i. 3. gens. 121 i. a country neighbour Horace's. 60 . a mythical bard of Thrace. second king of Rome. i. 71 Orbius.C. 12. a miser. Palatinus.. 2. a money-lender. dedicated a temple to Apollo. ii. ii. See Achilles i. Oscan. 17. i. ii. a mima. ii. of Pausias. a feminine Origo. of the Palathie.P. 2. the Olympic games. name given in one Pediatius. son of Priam and Hecuba. 2. 7.. or actress.. 2 Pediatia. 27 . 2. 3.. a rich landowner. Numa. i. adj. 178 Orestes. to which belonged Aemilius Paulus. of Paros. household 176 E. 1. 17 Pantilius. son of Aeacus. an island of the Cyclades in the Aegaean.. 104 Pelides. 56. ii. a Greek painter from Sicyon. S. 8. adj. a 1. S. S. i. 1. 66 . 10. S. (2) U . S. adj. the conqueror of B.C. i. ii. i. S. a knight who had lost both Roman fortune and repute. 1. wife of Menelaus. 3. mother and was driven mad by the Furies. of Pedum. 15 . and later in Rome. 8. 502 . 4." according to Lucilius. " the best that ever lived. Olympia. 6. i. a town . E. ii. i. one of two brothers. 50 Opimius. consul in 216 his son. with a public library. 10. 168. S. " all-receiver "). adj. contemporary of Apelles in the fourth century B. of Isis. a Parthian. 102 . i. 97 Pacuvius. 5. 1. in Elis. S. ii. 256 Paulus. 10. 6. E. A. S. 3. (l)a spendthrift. 22 S. S. E. A. 2. 18.. son of Agamemnon and He killed his Clytemnestra. Death. celebrated every four years at Olympia. i. 175. E. 1. and the younger Scipio Africanus. i. 78 Pantolabus. 3. 133. 22 i. agladiator. E. 60 Peleus (the subject of a tragedy by Sophocles).P. 94 faithful wife of . Penelope. i. Numa 1. I the ii. Servius Oppidius. E. Perseus. tragedies. ii. adj. 160 Orcus a god of the lower world. See Ilione famous Penates.e. ii. man Canusium who had two sons. S. E. 1 a poet and historian. 173 Orbilius. 10 Parius. 2. 39 Pedius. 96. S. Aulus and Tiberius. ii. whose song charmed wild beasts. i. 54 Osiris. S. was driven from Aegina for the murder of his half-brother Phocus. 53. 41 Pausiacus. E. S. Pacideianus. 6. i. ii. son of Peleus. 8. a parasite. 137. unknown. i.e. i. husband i. 112. 142 Oppidius.

L 10. 70 Pieriu-s. of Plautus. . 121 Phraates.. . greatest of the Greek lyric poets. the Macedonian stater. representative of Attic Middle Phaeax. S. and the crime of stealing the crown of Jupiter is proverbial in the plays of Plautus. 1. 254 PoUio. E.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Ulysses. 89. orator. E. who lived at Rome in the time of Cicero. 7. 5.C. Calpumius Piso. according to Bentley the same as Pitholaus. twin brother 5 (c/. 42. L 2. of Pindar. bom of a Greek father and a Roman mother. Cneius. a Athenian youth. 1. 1. 49 Philippus. 78. 73.e. i. was a cognomen of the Petillia gens. 10 Pisones or Pisos. a Phaeacian. See Agave Perellius. 81 the Academic school of philosophy. a town of Macedonia. praefedus urbi in A. Pierian. distinguished as statesman. S. 6. He and 1. Thessalian. adj. Others hold that he waa Cn. reformed by Xenocrates. who died in 184 b. A. which is said to have been given Petillius because of the charge..& restored to the Romans the standards taken from Crassos at Charrae. 2. i. and another Lucius. The story is an exaggeration. 26 Petrinus. P. See Pompilius Pitholeon.P. 170 A. Pentheus. ii 3. 234 Philodemus. ItUiiis. 3. S.c. 90 . 28 5.e. ii. Comedy. i. i. ii. Varius were Virgil's executors. haunted by the Muses. E. 22 Plato. Calpumius Piso. who in 20-19 B. Roman comic poet. V.C. 7. king of Thebes. ii.. celedis- now Filibi. 2. 4. S. 5. A. 24 Philippi. and living in luxury. of Picennm. i. subjects of Alcinous. like Horace. 66. 64 Plotius. 33 Petillius Capitolinns. 46. 5. According to Porphyrio. Castor. 3. 1. 75 Persius. 270 Plautus. of Virgil and Horace. 75). 58. 3. a town in the Falemian district. E.. £. P.c.P. a wealthy man of Clazomenae. See Orosphns 503 . ii. a father and two sons. 15. who was consul in 1 b. £. king of the Parthians. worth rather more than one guinea. 94 . Marcius Philippus. 64. ii. S. i. from Pieria in Thessaly. (1) L. 16. adj. who was consul 7 B. 4. S. L Pompeius Grosphns. (1) the comic poet. bearing the head of Philip the Great. £. the father was L. i. consul 91 B.. of Gadara. adj. C. E. i. where Brutus and Cassius were defeated by Octavius and Antony. who. said to have been accused of stealing the gold crown from the statue of Jupiter on the Capitol. 4. (2) a gold coin. E. Asinius PoUio. 81 . Pollux. 405 Pindaricus. perhaps the same as Cicuta. literary 10. a distingnished lawyer. who libelled Julius Caesar in his verses (Suetonius. friend ii. He had a son. 37 3 Plautinus. and tragic poet. 3. 11 (2) brated Greek philosopher. 10. i. adj. whom he succeeded as head of 40 luxurious S. ii. 5. 4. poet and Epicurean philosopher. 85 ii. because the name Capitolinus. E. The Phaeacians were mythic inhabitants of Corcyra. 235. 5. A. a di» trict of Italy on the Adriatic. 5. 272 . ciple of Socrates. 52. and to have been acquitted by Caesar. i.. to whom the Ars Poetica is addressed. 19. from Thebes in Boeotia. S. ii. 5 ' Picenns. 76. torn in pieces by his mother Agave because he had mocked at the rites of Bacchus. ii. 42 b. Plotius Tucca. of 26) S. . 10. U.c. i. fought under Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. historian.. or five dollars. IS. 14. i. E. Polemon. a banker. 2. i.

ii 1. i. 87 . 32 Pupius. of i. Pythia. 19. A. 23 ii. 5. 37. 11. meaning 23 (porcus. 22 Rhodos. 256. became Praetor under Julius Caesar. 52. 1.. i. of Praeneste. daughter of Ceres and wife of Pluto. ii. adj. S. 17 . 2. i. 504 . Priamides. 10. 11. 44 . a friend of Virgil and Horace (see Odes i. 1. 7. Rome. i. 1 .«!. Romanus. 110 Proteus. ii. c. . i. 1. E. 4. Praeneste. salla though some take it See Mes- They represent the equites of Horace's day. 24). there with Corvinus. ii. i. 52 Porcius. 12 . i. i. S. the river Rhine.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Pompilius. S. 3. 9 48. 1. Rhenus. 37. 3. 16. S. 17. 59 . 18. 1S7 Proserpina. a pig). S. E. Praeneste.P. cele brated every five years at Delphi in honour of Apollo. 195 A. 1. second king of Rome. 2 Quinquatrus.'. Pedius. ii. 6. 2 . 20. 8. ii. 414 Pythias. who believed in the transmigration of souls. i. 6. 2S 7. off the south . 35 10. ii. 67 Pusilla. i. and later joined the army of Brutus. own . adj. E.e. of i. a praenomen. claimed descent from Numa Pompilius. S. Tlie name is probably fictitious for ii. 52 3 . changed into a swallow.P. ii. A. 197 Quintilius. . 10. i. A. 7. 6. 1 and chosen its 8. ii. 3. 18 of Rhodes. Publius. 8. 10. 65. The Calpurnian gens. ii. 2. S. an ancient city of Latium. 6. ^. 18 . 28. A. ii.e. Pythagoreus. 6. 25. Praenestinus. i. 1. of the 32 Roman people. wife of Tereus and sister of Philomela. a maid figuring as a character in a play of Caecilius.e. 292 Pomponius. 1. S. i. adj. adj. of Pythagoras.. IL 1. 21 10. 7. S. i. 342 Rex. 61. 71 E. representative i.. i. Romulus. ii. Roman. 6 37 (2) an ordinary praenomen. 7. 76 E. 6. 70. 25 . 7. Pompilian. son of Priam. S. ii. a philosopher of Samos of the sixth century b.P. who served in Africa under Attius Verus. unknown except firom B. 137 Priapus. a changeable person. i. Rupilius Rex. 2. S. adj. 6. A. a tragic poet. during which school-boys had holidays. 7. i. ii. ii. i. king of Troy.P. 1. men. S. 5. 16. E. 103. 90 Publicola. 7 Ramnes. 21 S. i. 4. S. Priam. 85. 13. a parasite of Nasidienus. 1.servant who figured in a togata of Titinius. one of the three centuries of equites or knights established 10. A. ii. 2 Priscus. Horace's . 54. a Roman citizen. ii. who had the power of changing himself into all kinds of forms. 1. S. a dissolute youth. 9. 243 ii. beginning on March 19th. Roma. 13. 2. 2. S. 5. S. 14. 9 Procne. 3. 1. ii. i. Quintilius Varus. E. 1. meaning " tiny. i. now Palestrina. ." S. 3. i. 32 Quirinus. ii. P. 139 Pyrria. (1) i. a maid . S. a pet name for a girl. 28 12 . 1. 4. to which the Pisones belonged. 63 6. 49 . the Pythian games. by Romulus. 12. i. Hector. E.. Quiris. and stand for youngmen as contrasted with old. praeno- Priamus. cognomen of Q. a festival of five days in honour of Minerva. 41. 238 QuiNCTios. ii. 10. E.P. See Libo Pylades. Rhodius. 14 Pythagoras. faithful friend of Orestes. Cremona. . 8. i. 11. 216 Puteal. P. E. i. the island of Rhodes. 4. 438 Quintus. P. ii.west coast of Asia Minor.. S. a sea-god. god of gardens (his image served as a kind of scarecrow).

C. i. used in pi. 82 . ii. 112 Scipiadas. (1) a person unknown. 77 . 96 S. 27 Sagana. Roscian. of the sixth century B. 5.. 4 . 505 . 5. i. E. 55. i. See Nasidienus Ruso. i. 59 Saturnalia.P. {£ 2. S. A.e. a Scipio (the form was used by Lucilius). E. a verse form native to among the Italy. 1. E. the mythical founder of Rome. of the Sabines. E. 69 Sabellns. the seventh month of the Roman year. ii. 1. 145. (2) a friend of Torquatus. a companion of Bacchus. 25.P. 2 K been based on accent rather than on quantity. ii. of the Salii. 27 . It seems to have who 86 also wrote histories. 118. iL 7. i. 2. 17.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 29. 25 .. 86 Sallnstius. 3. was reduced to poverty. 325 M. from Sardinia. a gladiator. 11. 48 Scetanus. adj. 3. S.P. ^. 7. now Samo. a friend of Torquatus. i. of Etruscan birth. ii. 98 Samas. E. 235 Scaeva. 233. one of the family of the Scipios. a moneylender. 28 Sardis. ii. the Samnites. 56 Satureianos. adj.000 sesterces. 8 5. 9. 3. 54.." perhaps a proper name in S.s. E. 35 . a friend of Horace. and by Naevius in his epic on the Punic War. 52..nephew of the historian Sallust (see Odes ii. i. 1. "with ankles. adj. a festival beginning on the 17th December. 285. 2. ii. 19.. E. ii. the twelve dancing priests of Mars. E. i. i. now Salerno. S. 1. Octavius Ruso. 1 Saliaris. 48 Samnites. represented with the Also ears and tail of a goat. Favonius. a slave of M. became a »criba in the Romulus. during which the Romans granted much licenca to their slaves. L 17 is addressed swollen Scanrus. E. i. passed by L. E. S. 19. a town in Campania.e. gave the first fourteen rows in the theatre to the equites. adj. L 4. Rutuba. 2). 5. A. 2. i. 92 Rufus. 21 Sappho. Sabbata. 7. of the Sabelli or Sabini. 1. E. Sallustius Cri. S.. 125 . adj. i. 375 Sarraentu. 264. 1. 5. iii. whom the poet introdoces to Tiberius in £. who had to have a property minimum of 400. Roscius Otho in 67 ac. adj.s poetess of Lesbos. S. a town about thirty miles from Canusium. L 2. 48 Salemum. (1) adj. 53 . 5. t. 62 Rnbi. (3) adj. the district in which Tarentum in southern Italy was founded. S. 158 Satyrus. The Roscian Law. 1. freed by Ma» cenas. S. 3. ii. who poisoned his mother. a satyr. Sabine. 118 . 29 . i. of Saturium.C. 4. i... 5 Satnmius (numerus). 49 Sabinus. the Jewish Sabbath. 6. L 8. a pet name for a girl ( = " redhi^ded "). an island off the coast of Asia Minor. i6.. E. 358 E. in which Satyrs formed the chorus. u. 16. S. 5. 72 Scylla. of the Greek Satyric drama. S. a people of Central Italy. S. (1) a spendthrift.spus. 1.P. quaestor's department and sat When old he equiUs. 16 Septicius. an unknown fop. i. 26 Septimius. 2. 221. 5. S. L 5. i. ii. ii. (2) the great actor. capital of Lydia. i. 226. a witch. used by LiWus Audronicus in his translation of the Odyssey. ii. a friend of Cicero. S. belonging to September. A. E. See Charybdis September. Sard OS. (2) the unknown person to whom see p. now Ruvo. the Satumian measure. a sea-monster dwelling on one side of the Straits of Messene. L 16. See Quirinus Roscius. U. U. grand . E. 9. L 15. 36 . L e . 216 Rutillus. Sabellian or Sabine. 94 Rufa. living in Central Italy. E. i. a proftigate. the famou. 1. S.

C. 310 Sophocles. who were Horace's booksellers. (1) a philosopher. 1. i. 38. L 7. 96. 6. of or near Sinuessa. ii. (1) perhaps the son of Servius Sulpicius Rufus. S. E. 33. 84. 1. 1. (2) a gladiator. 10. 20. near . adj. E. 10. and king of Mysia. Sicilian. S. half maiden. 89 Stertinius. a freedman of Maecenas. 58. E. 403 Sidonius. 345 Staberius. 7. Tarentum. of Stertinius. adj. P. P. i. i. 44 the modern Mondragone. 2. 4. 16.e. 105 i. a town in Campania. ii. 65 Sulla. Phoenician.c. 160. i. 21 Spurius Maecius Tarpa. 1. E. i. allnourishing. a city at the south end of the Bay of Naples. See Balatro Servius. 5. 2 i. subject of a Satyric drama of Aeschylus. Ii. afterwards called August.2. (2) mythical founder of Corinth. the sixth month of the Roman year. 207 in S. S. famous for its bronze. 6. A. 2. i. 6. (1) a common slave-name. E. Odyssey. i. S. 7. 3. the dictator.e. 3. i. 239 Silvanus. See Homer. who wrote 220 volumes on Stoicism S.22 Sisenna.1. Teanum Sidicinum. 2 . 143 Terentius. E. (2) adj. 26 Silenus. ^. 52 Syrus. i. Tarquinius Superbus. E. S. 64 Surrentum. A. i. . 4 Teanum. 86 11. who offered his own child as food for the gods.. i. 1. Smyrna. S. 68 Tarentinus. 6 Siren. E. adj. Tanais. E. an old man.P.. a famous city of Ionia. i. S.e.. a miser. 47 . i. 296 . now Taranto. now Teano. See Maecius i. 238 Sinuessa. ii. S. S. E. E. 3. of Socrates. 104 Tellus. famous Greek tragic poet of the 5th century B. half bird. where a famous purple dye was produced.e. last king of Rome. 38. a Siren. figuring in a comedy of Caecilius.. 12. a personification ( = Tlei0a)).P. i. 14 £. Cornelius SuUa. a foul-mouthed person. A. a town of Latium.e.. A. Tarpa. adj. 6. 68. a lawyer and friend of Cicero. 11 i.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Servilius (Balatro). of Tarentum. who visited Menelaus in Sparta in quest of news of his father (Homer. 1. He was wounded by the spear of Achilles. 17. i. The Sirens were fabulous creatures. brothers. and was punished in Hades by a craving for food and drink that escaped his reach. E. 143 Simo. now Sorrento. who was consul for the second time in 26 b. 38 Sulcius. 4. an old Satyr. S. son of Hercules. i. a Phrygian king. but finally healed by its rust. 105 Tantalus. son of Ulysses and Penelope. adj. 86 (2) see Oppidius Sextilis. L. i. 1. i. I 12. u. S. i. 10. 300 Suadela. 40 Telephus. Antonius. a Stoic. ii. and with their songs enticing sailors to their destruction. A. 5. i. 1. 6. i. chief attendant of Bacchus. E. 11. 163 Sosii.xn. 7. the goddess of Persuasion. the famous Atlienian philosopher. S. ii. ii.P. This was the subject of a tragedy by Euripides. 3.).P. a eunuch. S.. E. 13 Taurus. Terentius Afer^ a 506 . a city of Phoenicia. i. 40 Sinuessanus.. Tarquinius. S. E. S. living on rocky islands near the Campanian coast. an Italian god of forests and the country. Odyssey iv.P. 34 . Stoicus. Ii. Statilius Taurus.3. 1. 19 Siculus. 3. 45 i. 6. (1) a dwarf in the house of M. i. a city of Calabria southern Italy. 3 Socraticus. 5. i. 1. E.e. the goddess Earth. 1. T. ii. of Sidon. i. a public prosecutor. ii. 20 Telemachus. 8 Sisyphus. E.

B. S. he taught rhetoric. 13 Thrax. adj. 2. also. i 11. adj. adj. of Troy. Trebatius Testa. ii 1. of the Tiber. 3. founded by Cadmus with the help of Aniphion. S. 15 Tiresias. first Augustus and then Asinius Pollio. adj. on the Tarentine Gulf. of Thebes. E. i. i 2.P. 18. with he lived at Tusculum. birth-place of Pindar. S. 5. (2) son of Oppidius. i. A. L 24. ii 2. K. 4 B. S. 4. E. son of Pelops. 3 Tiburs. Tiburtine. 276 Thessalus. 173 Tibur. S. See Hermogenes 6. adj. E. 108 ii 4.soldiers. See Claudius. 5. 191 . " three-cornered. ii 6. E. 3 . i 3. 118 Tbebanus. li. a country of northern Greece. of Tibur. famous blind soothsayer of Thebes. was taken prisoner by A. i. . i 3. and won as patrons. probably a brother of Tillhw Caesar's Cimber. one of the Furies. 6". ii 3. C. E. a well-known musician. 4. Gabinius and sold as a slave. L 16. a native of Alexandria. a land north of Greece. i 19. a city of Uoeotia. E. See Aiax Thebac. xi. wJj. E. 3 . S. adj. whom Titius. 36 Thuriiius. according to N'epos in his life of Acticus (c.9 Turbo. of Icaria. 107 Tiniagenes. ii 3. a favourite of Caesar and of Cleopatra. 394 Theoniuus. Servius TuUius. now Trevico. of Thessaly.. an adulterer. Transius. 5. where he received his freedom through Faustns. river of Rome. i. E. 12 . i. 9 Torquatus. & ii. 79 Troia. S. i a lioB. and brother of Ajax. 292 . adj. i 6. a name given to a gladiator who was anued with a Thi-acian buckler and short sword. . 8 ii. a freedman from Sardinia. of Theon. i. son of Telamon. Thracian. 1 A. 70 Tigellius. a praetor.. ii 1. S. 3. king of Salamis. 114 Triquetra.. 1.P. 7 and E. 209 Thraca. 5. 2. 18 E. 5. a friend of Horace. famous for magic and drugs. 19.. 7. 141 Troianus. Troy.P. 18 . i 3.. £. Thrace. 82 Thespis. He was removed from it 6.e. 4 . ii 6. 84 . In Rome.Sicily. 55 Trivlcum. 19 Tiberius. 31 . 20 Thyestes. 147 TuUius.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES oomio poet.P.). i. ii 5. S.e. but later resumed his dignities and became a tribune of the . or as subsL.P. 16. i. S. ancient city of Latium. E. who was among assa-^ins. A. ii 1. the senate by Caesar. ii 2. 310 507 .«. S. a friend of Cicero and of Caesar. a gladiator. i. adj. A. a lawyer of distinction. son of Sulla... probably the same as Hermogenes Tigel. the Tiber. ii. 5. who first exhibited tragedies in Athens. 3. 6-22) addressed to him. who placed before him for food his own son. 13 . 18. Tiberius Claudius Nero. Tillius. i 11. A. 78 Trebouius. vii. 4 Tiberis." applied to . a Thracian.. i. 8. a town of Apulia. 59 Teucer. From Cicero's Letters (Ad fam. who lived 185-159 B-c. ii 1. we learn that he was a good swimmer and a hard drinker. 34 S. 163 . on the Anio. now Tivoli. both poor and extravagant. ii.. 213 . 99 Trebatius.P. brother of Atreus. would seem. of small stature bat grntt courage. 20 . S. i. L 8. S. L 2. 74 . an unknown person. 3. i 8. 2. S. A. sixth king of Rome. 3 now Tevere . 204. 9. a town of Lucania. ii. 1 Tisiphone. an unknown person of a bitter tongue. 45 i 8. 91 Tiberinus. S. ii. born a slave. (1) i. was with Brutus and Cassiu-s at Philippi He is addressed in Odes iv. a young Roman who ventured to present the Greek poet Pindar in Latin dress. i. and Hesione. ii. per- haps the Aulus Torquatus who. of Thurii. S.

i. 13 Vacuna. . an old Samnite town in Apulia. now Vico Varo. addressed in E. tragic and epic poet. also called Elea. south and west of Italy. 3 Varius. The Veline tribe was one of the last of the thirtyfive tribes of Roman citizens to be formed. ii. 40 Umbrenus. 11. 10. 69 1. 228 to the sea. 7. ii. E. L 18. adj.. i. S. 4 Veiens. 6. ii. 15 daughter of Jupiter and Dione. friend of Virgil and Horace. i. i. 21 Venusinus. S. 1. 84 E. a retired gladiator. S. Terentius Varro. 1.C. 38 . Valerius PubUcola. adj. 40.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES Turius. ii. . i. 4. 15. 49 Tuscus. i. iL 1. a town of Lucania. applied to the Tiber. a small town of Latium.e. the hero Odysseus of the Odyssey. E.P. 23 i. P. i. 4. celebrated for its olives. . 6'. 180 Tyrtaeus. i. 55 . S. i. including Castor and Pollux. ii. of Etruria. 81 S.. . and. E. 1. E. adj. 9. S. . 9 is addressed. 18 Tyrrhenus. See Plotius Varro Atacinus. Veii was an old town in Etruria. E.. 93 . of Veil.. goddess of love and beauty. 2. Valerius. Etruscan.71 Venus. i. a town in Africa. i. C. 1. the last of whom slew her husband Agamemnon on his return from Troy. whicli rises in Etruria. P. 167 Velia. Varius. 8. Velabrum. 141 and see Laertiades Ulubrae. 63 E. i. children of Tyndarens and Leda.. 197. 247 . of the Umbri. L 6. S. 2. i. 12. called Atacinus from his birth-place on the river Atax (Aude) in Gallia Narbonensis. A. who were famous for their bronze. 45 Veiiucula. 30 Umber. 2. near the Pomptine marshes. S. according to Horace. i. adj. ii. A. said to be a native of Attica. 21.C. 49 Vala. or Tuscan. associated with the Eleatio School of philosophy. now Venafro. neai which Horace was born. name of a grape. Veientine. 4.. and perhaps named from the Etruscan workmen who once lived there.. of the Tyrrheni or Etruscans. L.. 10. 3. 5. Valgius Rufus. S. . ii. a veteran soldier.e. S. S. E. a rich and mean man. 100. an elegiac poet. ii. Ulixes. 20. i. S. 18. 85 508 . 6. ii.P. 95 Utica. a Sabine goddess. 204 IL 5. 1. a small town in the Sabine territory. a street leading from the Forum to the . who with his songs aided the Spartans in their Second Messenian War. E. collea^rue of Brutus after the expulsion of the kings. of Tyre. 100 Tyrius. E. A. He wrote Argonautica. 46 Veianius. i. E. 8. 2. praetor in 76 B. 133 Ummidius. 6". E. ii. S. 1 Velina. adj. ii. "idle. a^j.P. 63. Helen and Clytemnestra. 52 Venafranus. 8. Umbrian. i. i. 10. a tribe of Northern Italy. a ^vTiter of elegiac verse. a city of Phoenicia famous for its purple. i." E. 82 Varia. destroyed by Camillus. E. S. 202 Tyndaridae. consul 12 B. S. See Messalla Valgius. 6. Satires. i. with tribus "tribe" understood. 55. ii. 402 ii. north of Carthage. the most northern town of Campania. 4. a friend of Horace. 2. ii. i. 33 to the Vicus Tuscus. Cf. 10. 44. ailj. of Venusia. 6. 6. L 14.. . i.e. of Venafrum. to whom Od.e. ii. whose name popular etymology associated with vacuus. i. probably Numonius Vala. near Isola Farnese.S. eleven miles north of Rome. Ulysses. 40. ii.

E.. perhaps Sextus Villius.. A. 83 . probably called sacra because of the shrines See Mena Voranns. S. ii 7. a parasite of Maecenas. 45. 1 Vesta. i. 5. 10. i 1. L 13.«. a rich friend of Augustus. the with the Annian and Clandian gentes Nothing Viscus and pL Visci. i. 91- at the east end of the Forum. were brothers. A statue of the god stood at the end of the Vicus Tuscus. L 9. 15 Volcanus. or AseUns The fbruier is fouud a 7. The story of the two was told in the Antiopt of Euripides. 13 Zethus. 7) Zephyrcs. S. 5. go<i of fire. . 81 . satire. oldest and in Rome sons of Vibius Viscus. 105 Volanerius. From L 8 it is inferred that his cognomen was Asina. 22. 5. 7. Vulcan. L 18 4S. 5. X. Clakk. most famous street in Rome. S. brother of Amphion. whose lyre he despised. Limited. doubtless came from Thurii. 39 along its course. 14 . unknown. & R. Edinlmrgh. 80 VilUns. See AmphioD Printed in Great Britain by R. running from the Velia through the Forum along the foot of the Palatine . 64 Vinius. The scholiast says that the two mentioned in the tenth certain change (buying and selling). Vibidius. 20 Visellius. S. 2. E. ii.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES ». Uitter is known of these men. and the god of ex- Vergilius. 55. with the Cornelian gnu . emblem of family and life. 1 (qf. L & 55 . 9. a thief. The Temple of Vesta stood 114 Via Sacra. Epode iv. i. £>. 40. ii. L 10. i. 64. a parasite. 247 . where it entered the Forum. 9. being hioisflf a shepherd and huntsman. and the Aniiope of Pacuviug. i. the person addressed in B. i. iL 1. 40. goddess of the hearth household. L 8. S. 8. friend of Milo. 35. Vergiliiis Maro. 7. i. E. P. 20. 55 Vertumnus. except that one. 22 .P. i. E. the god of the changing seasons. Book I. 8. S. who remained an etfues even after his sons had become senators. the great poet Virgil. 74 Volteius Mena. 2. S. god of the west wind. i. S. 33. £. being called Thurinus. 48 . ii.


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