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Virtual Communities: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Virtual Communities: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Publicado porEmereo Publishing
A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific media, potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals. One of the most pervasive types of virtual community include social networking services, which consist of various online communities.

The term virtual community is attributed to the book of the same title by Howard Rheingold, published in 1993. The book, which could be considered a social enquiry, putting the research in the social sciences, discussed his adventures on The WELL and onward into a range of computer-mediated communication and social groups, broadening it to information science. The technologies included Usenet, MUDs (Multi-User Dungeon) and their derivatives MUSHes and MOOs, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), chat rooms and electronic mailing lists; the World Wide Web as we know it today was not yet used by many people. Rheingold pointed out the potential benefits for personal psychological well-being, as well as for society at large, of belonging to such a group.

These virtual communities all encourage interaction, sometimes focusing around a particular interest, or sometimes just to communicate. Quality virtual communities do both. They allow users to interact over a shared passion, whether it be through message boards, chat rooms, social networking sites, or virtual worlds.

This book is your ultimate resource for Virtual Communities. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Virtual Communities right away, covering: Virtual community, List of virtual communities, 360voice, Ability Online, Alexander Street Press, Alt.binaries.boneless, Ameba (website), American Marriage Ministries, Amie Street, Amina – Chechen Republic Online, Any Good To You, APBRmetrics, Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network, Ashley Madison, AsianAve, Atheist and Agnostic Group, Athlinks, Audimated, Badoo, Batanga.com, BeautifulPeople.com, Bibliophile mailing list, BIGADDA, Biip.no, Bilddagboken, BIOSCI, BIRDZ, BlackPlanet, Blogger (service), Blogster, BlogTV, Bongotones.com, Bookarmy, Bookglutton, BuzzFeed, Buzznet, Caedes, Cambrian House, Canal Contemporâneo, Cellufun, Cemetech, Cheek'd, Chinwag, Classical Lounge, Classmates.com, Club Caribe, CONFER (software), Connected Education, Conservapedia, CozyCot, Craigslist, Crazy Blind Date, Cruise Critic, Crypto-society, CrystEngCommunity, DailyStrength, DaruDar, Dead Runners Society, Decayenne, Delhii, Desimartini, DeviantArt, Diabetes Hands Foundation, Diabetic Rockstar Inc, Digital Classicist, Digital public square, Dogster, Dol2day, DontStayIn, DragonRealms, Drama 2.0, Dreamwidth, E-society, EBay, Elftown, Elfwood, Etsy, EverQuest, Experience Project, Ezmo, Faceparty, Faces.com, John Fanning, Shawn Fanning, Fark, Faves.com, FidoNet, FiledBy, Flirtomatic, FlyLady, Fotolog, FreakingNews, The Freecycle Network, Freegle, Friendster, Futaba Channel, Gaia Online, GamerDNA, GemStone IV, GEnie, GeoCities, Gingerbeer (web community), Glee.com, Global village (term), GlobalCampus, Goodreads, Goodwizz, Habitat (video game), HealthBoards, HeiaHeia, Helium.com, Helping Angels, Here Comes Everybody, Hi5, HornFans, Horseland, Hotline Communications, Identity tourism, Idolblog, Ill Bethisad, IMedix, Imeem, Infinite Summer, Inkd, Intel Open Port, Interartcenter, Internet church, Internet Relay Chat, Ipernity, IRC-Galleria, Islamica, Itsmy, IWiW, JediMUD, Jeeran, Jewel of Indra, Jog.fm, Jubii.com, JuiceCaster, Kazaa, Kiwibox, Kloop, Koinup...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Virtual Communities. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Virtual Communities with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific media, potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals. One of the most pervasive types of virtual community include social networking services, which consist of various online communities.

The term virtual community is attributed to the book of the same title by Howard Rheingold, published in 1993. The book, which could be considered a social enquiry, putting the research in the social sciences, discussed his adventures on The WELL and onward into a range of computer-mediated communication and social groups, broadening it to information science. The technologies included Usenet, MUDs (Multi-User Dungeon) and their derivatives MUSHes and MOOs, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), chat rooms and electronic mailing lists; the World Wide Web as we know it today was not yet used by many people. Rheingold pointed out the potential benefits for personal psychological well-being, as well as for society at large, of belonging to such a group.

These virtual communities all encourage interaction, sometimes focusing around a particular interest, or sometimes just to communicate. Quality virtual communities do both. They allow users to interact over a shared passion, whether it be through message boards, chat rooms, social networking sites, or virtual worlds.

This book is your ultimate resource for Virtual Communities. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Virtual Communities right away, covering: Virtual community, List of virtual communities, 360voice, Ability Online, Alexander Street Press, Alt.binaries.boneless, Ameba (website), American Marriage Ministries, Amie Street, Amina – Chechen Republic Online, Any Good To You, APBRmetrics, Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network, Ashley Madison, AsianAve, Atheist and Agnostic Group, Athlinks, Audimated, Badoo, Batanga.com, BeautifulPeople.com, Bibliophile mailing list, BIGADDA, Biip.no, Bilddagboken, BIOSCI, BIRDZ, BlackPlanet, Blogger (service), Blogster, BlogTV, Bongotones.com, Bookarmy, Bookglutton, BuzzFeed, Buzznet, Caedes, Cambrian House, Canal Contemporâneo, Cellufun, Cemetech, Cheek'd, Chinwag, Classical Lounge, Classmates.com, Club Caribe, CONFER (software), Connected Education, Conservapedia, CozyCot, Craigslist, Crazy Blind Date, Cruise Critic, Crypto-society, CrystEngCommunity, DailyStrength, DaruDar, Dead Runners Society, Decayenne, Delhii, Desimartini, DeviantArt, Diabetes Hands Foundation, Diabetic Rockstar Inc, Digital Classicist, Digital public square, Dogster, Dol2day, DontStayIn, DragonRealms, Drama 2.0, Dreamwidth, E-society, EBay, Elftown, Elfwood, Etsy, EverQuest, Experience Project, Ezmo, Faceparty, Faces.com, John Fanning, Shawn Fanning, Fark, Faves.com, FidoNet, FiledBy, Flirtomatic, FlyLady, Fotolog, FreakingNews, The Freecycle Network, Freegle, Friendster, Futaba Channel, Gaia Online, GamerDNA, GemStone IV, GEnie, GeoCities, Gingerbeer (web community), Glee.com, Global village (term), GlobalCampus, Goodreads, Goodwizz, Habitat (video game), HealthBoards, HeiaHeia, Helium.com, Helping Angels, Here Comes Everybody, Hi5, HornFans, Horseland, Hotline Communications, Identity tourism, Idolblog, Ill Bethisad, IMedix, Imeem, Infinite Summer, Inkd, Intel Open Port, Interartcenter, Internet church, Internet Relay Chat, Ipernity, IRC-Galleria, Islamica, Itsmy, IWiW, JediMUD, Jeeran, Jewel of Indra, Jog.fm, Jubii.com, JuiceCaster, Kazaa, Kiwibox, Kloop, Koinup...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Virtual Communities. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Virtual Communities with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

More info:

Published by: Emereo Publishing on Jul 25, 2011
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved
Precio de venta:$39.95


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  • Virtual community
  • List of virtual communities
  • 360voice
  • Ability Online
  • Alexander Street Press
  • Alexander Street Press, LLC
  • alt.binaries.boneless
  • Ameba (website)
  • American Marriage Ministries
  • Amie Street
  • Amina – Chechen Republic Online
  • Amina - Chechen Republic Online
  • Any Good To You
  • APBRmetrics
  • Wikipedia talk:Articles for creation/Wish Upon A Hero
  • Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network
  • ALISN Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network
  • Ashley Madison
  • AsianAve
  • Atheist and Agnostic Group
  • Athlinks
  • Audimated
  • Badoo
  • Batanga.com
  • BeautifulPeople.com
  • Bibliophile mailing list
  • Bibliophile Mailing List
  • Biip.no
  • Bilddagboken
  • BlackPlanet
  • Blogger (service)
  • Blogster
  • BlogTV
  • Bongotones.com
  • Bookarmy
  • Bookglutton
  • BuzzFeed
  • Buzznet
  • Caedes
  • Cambrian House
  • Canal Contemporâneo
  • Cellufun
  • Cemetech
  • Cheek'd
  • Chinwag
  • Classical Lounge
  • Classmates.com
  • Club Caribe
  • CONFER (software)
  • Connected Education
  • Conservapedia
  • CozyCot
  • Craigslist
  • Crazy Blind Date
  • Cruise Critic
  • Crypto-society
  • CrystEngCommunity
  • DailyStrength
  • DaruDar
  • Dead Runners Society
  • Decayenne
  • delhii
  • Desimartini
  • DesiMartini
  • deviantArt
  • Diabetes Hands Foundation
  • Diabetic Rockstar Inc
  • Digital Classicist
  • Digital public square
  • Dogster
  • Dol2day
  • dol2day
  • DontStayIn
  • DragonRealms
  • Drama 2.0
  • Dreamwidth
  • E-society
  • eBay
  • Elftown
  • Elfwood
  • Etsy
  • EverQuest
  • Experience Project
  • Ezmo
  • Faceparty
  • Faces.com
  • John Fanning
  • Shawn Fanning
  • Fark
  • Faves.com
  • FidoNet
  • FiledBy
  • Flirtomatic
  • FlyLady
  • Fotolog
  • FreakingNews
  • The Freecycle Network
  • Freegle
  • Friendster
  • Futaba Channel
  • Gaia Online
  • GamerDNA
  • GemStone IV
  • Gemstone IV
  • GEnie
  • GeoCities
  • Gingerbeer (web community)
  • Glee.com
  • Global village (term)
  • GlobalCampus
  • Goodreads
  • Goodwizz
  • Habitat (video game)
  • HealthBoards
  • HeiaHeia
  • Helium.com
  • Helping Angels
  • Here Comes Everybody
  • HornFans
  • Horseland
  • Hotline Communications
  • Identity tourism
  • Idolblog
  • Ill Bethisad
  • iMedix
  • imeem
  • Infinite Summer
  • Inkd
  • Intel Open Port
  • Interartcenter
  • InterArtCenter
  • Internet church
  • Internet Relay Chat
  • Ipernity
  • ipernity
  • IRC-Galleria
  • Islamica
  • Itsmy
  • itsmy
  • iWiW
  • JediMUD
  • Jeeran
  • Jewel of Indra
  • jog.fm
  • Jubii.com
  • JuiceCaster
  • Kazaa
  • Kiwibox
  • Kloop
  • Koinup
  • Kreislauf
  • Krwetatnt
  • LambdaMOO
  • Last.fm
  • Lavalife
  • Michael Lawrie
  • Learner generated context
  • LibraryThing
  • Libre.fm
  • Lifeknot
  • LifeKnot
  • LifeLogger
  • Linux.org.ru
  • List of games on Omgpop
  • List of virtual communities with more than 100 million users
  • LiveJournal
  • Loquo
  • LunarStorm
  • Rebecca MacKinnon
  • Match.com
  • Match.com International
  • MedHelp
  • Meetic
  • Meetro
  • The Meta Network
  • MiGente.com
  • mixi
  • MocoSpace
  • Mohawk Valley India Association
  • •Mohawk Valley India Association [1]
  • Monato Esprit
  • Moofaces
  • Morpheus (computer program)
  • Mr. Cranky
  • Münchausen by Internet
  • Music Mogul
  • MyAnimeList
  • Myartspace
  • MyBlogLog
  • Myfreeimplants
  • Myspace
  • myYearbook
  • Napster
  • Napster
  • Netlog
  • Newgrounds
  • Nirvino
  • Odeo
  • OkCupid
  • Omgpop
  • Online deliberation
  • Online identity
  • Online participation
  • Online research community
  • Onverse
  • Open Diary
  • OpenNet (website)
  • Ourproject.org
  • OurProject.org
  • OverClocked ReMix
  • Paint chat
  • The Palace (computer program)
  • Palaceplanet
  • Passportstamp
  • PatientsLikeMe
  • Perpetuelle
  • Persistent environment
  • Philgifts.com
  • Phillyblog
  • PhoneZoo
  • Phonezoo
  • PinoyCentric
  • Pixiv
  • Platinnetz
  • Playahead
  • Playlist.com
  • Plurn
  • Pmhub
  • Poupée Girl
  • Pranknet
  • Quechup
  • Ravelry
  • Red Light Center
  • RocknRollDating
  • The Royal Forums
  • The Rugby Forum
  • SAP Developer Network
  • Science.tv
  • ScuttlePad
  • Second Life
  • Sellaband
  • Shelfari
  • Shpoonkle
  • SkillSlate
  • Skyrock
  • Slashdot
  • SLB Fans
  • Smeet
  • SMS.ac, Inc
  • Snooth
  • social Life (website)
  • Frühstückstreff
  • Songza
  • SoundCloud
  • Stickam
  • The Student Bar
  • StudiVZ
  • The Survivors Club
  • The Survivors Club [1]
  • Swap.com
  • Sweat365
  • SwoonXO
  • Tagged
  • Talkcyprus
  • TeachersPayTeachers
  • Tech Support Comedy
  • Telecom Grid Pakistan
  • Timeline of Internet conflicts
  • TinyMUD
  • Tokyo Dawn Records
  • tribe.net
  • TrueAchievements
  • Trusera
  • Sherry Turkle
  • Twinity
  • Uloop
  • Ultima Online
  • Underlight
  • Urtak
  • Usenet
  • User-generated content
  • Utherverse Inc
  • UtterAccess Forums
  • Vampirefreaks.com
  • Varjojenkirja
  • VGBoxArt
  • Vidoosh
  • The VIGIL Network
  • ViOS
  • Virtual airline
  • The Virtual Community
  • Virtual law firm
  • Virtual Magic Kingdom
  • Virtual military
  • Virtual scientific community
  • Vokle
  • Wallop
  • Jing Wang
  • WAYN (website)
  • WBEW
  • Web community
  • WebChat Broadcasting System
  • Webcoherence
  • The WELL
  • Wer-kennt-wen
  • weRead
  • WhiteLabelDating
  • WikiLosRios
  • Wikilusa
  • WikiLusa
  • Wikipedia
  • WikiWikiWeb
  • WinCustomize
  • Wirtland (micronation)
  • The Witches' Voice
  • Woophy
  • WorldMadeChannel
  • Worlds chat
  • WorldsAway
  • Worth1000
  • Wreckamovie
  • Wrong Planet
  • Yahoo! Mash
  • Yakaz
  • Yardsellr
  • Zino
  • Zoosk
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Virtual Communities


Kevin Roebuck



High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Virtual community List of virtual communities 360voice Ability Online Alexander Street Press alt.binaries.boneless Ameba (website) American Marriage Ministries Amie Street Amina – Chechen Republic Online Any Good To You APBRmetrics Wikipedia talk:Articles for creation/Wish Upon A Hero Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network Ashley Madison AsianAve Atheist and Agnostic Group Athlinks Audimated Badoo Batanga.com BeautifulPeople.com Bibliophile mailing list BIGADDA Biip.no Bilddagboken BIOSCI BIRDZ BlackPlanet Blogger (service) Blogster BlogTV Bongotones.com Bookarmy 1 9 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 25 28 29 34 36 39 41 42 44 45 47 50 52 54 56 57 58 59 60 62 68 72 74 77 79

Bookglutton BuzzFeed Buzznet Caedes Cambrian House Canal Contemporâneo Cellufun Cemetech Cheek'd Chinwag Classical Lounge Classmates.com Club Caribe CONFER (software) Connected Education Conservapedia CozyCot Craigslist Crazy Blind Date Cruise Critic Crypto-society CrystEngCommunity DailyStrength DaruDar Dead Runners Society Decayenne delhii Desimartini deviantArt Diabetes Hands Foundation Diabetic Rockstar Inc Digital Classicist Digital public square Dogster Dol2day DontStayIn DragonRealms Drama 2.0

80 81 82 85 86 87 89 92 94 95 97 98 102 103 111 112 123 127 138 139 140 140 141 143 146 149 149 150 152 156 159 160 162 164 166 168 171 173

Dreamwidth E-society eBay Elftown Elfwood Etsy EverQuest Experience Project Ezmo Faceparty Faces.com John Fanning Shawn Fanning Fark Faves.com FidoNet FiledBy Flirtomatic FlyLady Fotolog FreakingNews The Freecycle Network Freegle Friendster Futaba Channel Gaia Online GamerDNA GemStone IV GEnie GeoCities Gingerbeer (web community) Glee.com Global village (term) GlobalCampus Goodreads Goodwizz Habitat (video game) HealthBoards

174 177 183 198 200 205 209 224 226 229 231 233 234 237 246 247 254 256 259 262 264 267 270 271 277 279 289 291 293 298 304 306 307 309 310 312 314 317

HeiaHeia Helium.com Helping Angels Here Comes Everybody hi5 HornFans Horseland Hotline Communications Identity tourism Idolblog Ill Bethisad iMedix imeem Infinite Summer Inkd Intel Open Port Interartcenter Internet church Internet Relay Chat Ipernity IRC-Galleria Islamica Itsmy iWiW JediMUD Jeeran Jewel of Indra jog.fm Jubii.com JuiceCaster Kazaa Kiwibox Kloop Koinup Kreislauf Krwetatnt LambdaMOO Last.fm

318 319 323 326 330 333 335 340 343 343 345 347 349 357 358 361 363 366 369 381 384 385 386 389 391 393 394 395 396 397 399 404 406 408 411 414 416 419

Lavalife Michael Lawrie Learner generated context LibraryThing Libre.fm Lifeknot LifeLogger Linux.org.ru List of games on Omgpop List of virtual communities with more than 100 million users LiveJournal Loquo LunarStorm Rebecca MacKinnon Match.com Match.com International MedHelp Meetic Meetro The Meta Network MiGente.com mixi MocoSpace Mohawk Valley India Association Monato Esprit Moofaces Morpheus (computer program) Mr. Cranky Münchausen by Internet Music Mogul MyAnimeList Myartspace MyBlogLog Myfreeimplants Myspace myYearbook Napster Netlog

435 436 438 440 442 444 446 448 449 451 453 464 465 467 469 472 475 477 478 480 482 483 486 488 489 493 495 497 498 504 505 508 509 510 511 532 534 541

Newgrounds Nirvino Odeo OkCupid Omgpop Online deliberation Online identity Online participation Online research community Onverse Open Diary OpenNet (website) Ourproject.org OverClocked ReMix Paint chat The Palace (computer program) Palaceplanet Passportstamp PatientsLikeMe Perpetuelle Persistent environment Philgifts.com Phillyblog PhoneZoo PinoyCentric Pixiv Platinnetz Playahead Playlist.com Plurn Pmhub Poupée Girl Pranknet PUBLIB Quechup Ravelry Red Light Center RocknRollDating

544 556 557 559 562 564 565 572 576 577 581 585 586 590 597 599 602 602 603 605 606 608 610 612 614 615 622 624 625 626 627 629 632 637 638 641 643 646

The Royal Forums The Rugby Forum SAP Developer Network Science.tv ScuttlePad Second Life Sellaband Shelfari Shpoonkle SkillSlate Skyrock Slashdot SLB Fans Smeet SMS.ac, Inc. Snooth social Life (website) Frühstückstreff Songza SoundCloud Stickam The Student Bar StudiVZ The Survivors Club Swap.com Sweat365 SwoonXO Tagged Talkcyprus TeachersPayTeachers Tech Support Comedy Telecom Grid Pakistan Timeline of Internet conflicts TinyMUD Tokyo Dawn Records tribe.net TrueAchievements Trusera

648 653 655 655 656 658 674 680 682 684 686 687 696 697 701 703 705 707 709 711 713 718 732 735 736 738 739 740 746 746 747 749 750 755 757 758 761 763

com Varjojenkirja VGBoxArt Vidoosh The VIGIL Network ViOS Virtual airline The Virtual Community Virtual law firm Virtual Magic Kingdom Virtual military Virtual scientific community Vokle Wallop Jing Wang WAYN (website) WBEW Web community WebChat Broadcasting System Webcoherence The WELL Wer-kennt-wen weRead WhiteLabelDating WikiLosRios Wikilusa Wikipedia WikiWikiWeb 764 767 771 772 781 783 784 798 804 805 808 810 812 815 817 818 821 825 825 827 836 838 839 841 843 844 847 848 848 854 856 860 861 862 864 865 866 895 .Sherry Turkle Twinity Uloop Ultima Online Underlight Urtak Usenet User-generated content Utherverse Inc. UtterAccess Forums Vampirefreaks.

WinCustomize Wirtland (micronation) The Witches' Voice Woophy WorldMadeChannel Worlds chat WorldsAway Worth1000 Wreckamovie Wrong Planet Yahoo! Mash Yakaz Yardsellr Zino Zoosk 898 900 903 905 906 907 908 911 913 915 917 918 920 921 924 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources. Licenses and Contributors 926 954 Article Licenses License 960 .

mentions that virtual communities form "when people carry on public discussions long enough. villages. then a virtual community is certainly a community. broadening it to information science. One of the most pervasive types of virtual community include social networking services. coined by urban planner Melvin Webber in 1963 and "community liberated. friendship and acceptance between strangers. Rheingold pointed out the potential benefits for personal psychological well-being. putting the research in the social sciences. Virtual communities. In the seventeenth century." analyzed by Barry Wellman in 1979 began the modern era of thinking about non-local community. or virtual worlds. The book. of course. This is in line with the liberal use of the term community. Quality virtual communities do both. and are known as community websites. social networking sites.[4] "Community without propinquity". etc.). of belonging to such a group. chat rooms. although Howard Rheingold.[3] Early research into the existence of media-based communities was concerned with the nature of reality. whether communities actually could exist through the media. It does not necessarily mean that there is a strong bond among the members. The technologies included Usenet. MUDs (Multi-User Dungeon) and their derivatives MUSHes and MOOs. to form webs of personal relationships".Virtual community 1 Virtual community A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific media. author of the book of the same name. contributed to the development of national and regional consciousness among early nation-states. Some offline communities are linked geographically. These virtual communities all encourage interaction. discussed his adventures on The WELL and onward into a range of computer-mediated communication and social groups. as well as for society at large. which consist of various online communities. described how different technologies. chat rooms and electronic mailing lists. which could be considered a social enquiry. and therefore are not communities under the original definition. They allow users to interact over a shared passion. the World Wide Web as we know it today was not yet used by many people. with sufficient human feeling. published in 1993.[6] Purpose of virtual communities Virtual communities are used for a variety of social and professional groups. whether it be through message boards.[5] As well. which could place virtual community research into the social sciences definition of ontology. if one considers communities to simply possess boundaries of some sort between their members and non-members. However. The term virtual community is attributed to the book of the same title by Howard Rheingold.[7] An email distribution list may have hundreds of members and the communication which takes place may be merely informational (questions and answers are posted). information. Internet Relay Chat (IRC). Benedict Anderson's Imagined Communities in 1983.[1] Introduction The traditional definition of a community is of a geographically circumscribed entity (neighborhoods. potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals.[2] Virtual communities resemble real life communities in the sense that they both provide support. sometimes focusing around a particular interest. . but members may remain relative strangers and the membership turnover rate could be high. scholars associated with the Royal Society of London formed a community through the exchange of letters. such as national newspapers. are usually dispersed geographically. or sometimes just to communicate.

but the extent to which these practices have on health as a result of use are still being studied. HIV patients. Virtual communities may synthesize Web 2. so much so that now many health care providers are forming groups for their patients. Involvement in social communities of similar health interests has created a means for patients to further develop a better understanding and behavior towards treatment and health practices. their behavior and mood not only changed.0 technologies with the community. but that doesn't mean that there is no harm done. yet online communities have caused individuals to become more involved and want to learn more about their prognosis from others. Online communities depend upon social interaction and exchange between users online. It's argued that online relations are not as valuable as offline ones because there is less socialization. In a study conducted by Haven B. Wiener on the effects of networks on children suffering from incurable diseases. Individuals who suffer from severe illnesses are unable to do in a public sense. At the same time. by many. and therefore have been described as Community 2. These forms of social networks allow for open conversation between individuals who are going through similar experiences. on those who are ill by creating communities for ill individuals to develop and flourish. It is general [13] knowledge that one participates in online communities to interact with society and develop relationships.[11] [12] This has patients using such outlets on more occurrences. and the benefits that Rheingold envisioned are not necessarily realized.[9] Rather. The embedding of virtual community in the experiences of everyday life and its reflection of and influence on the communication practices and patterns of identity formation make online community a colossal research enterprise which requires continuous investigation and theorizing. it would appear they are having a positive impact.[8] Impacts of virtual communities On health The impacts of such communities in causing health issues are extremely under studied for a verdict to be passed on its side effects. thus they have turned to the internet. There was a high drop out rate of participants in the study that if continued could have led to a negative net effect. even providing areas where questions may be directed to doctors. or pursued.Virtual community 2 Internet-based virtual communities The explosive diffusion of the Internet since the mid-1990s has also fostered the proliferation of virtual communities taking the form of social networking services and online communities. although strong community bonds have been forged online since the early 1970s on timeshare systems like PLATO and later on USENET. Battles and Lori S. The health related effects are not clear because of the lack of thoroughness and the variation in studies done on the subject.0. Studies on health networks have mostly been conducted on groups which typically suffer the most from extreme forms of diseases.[16] So while there is limited amount of material being presented about how online communities affect the health of the healthy. it is rather commonplace to see anecdotes of someone in need of special help or in search of a community benefiting from the use of the Internet. The nature of those communities is diverse. This emphasizes the reciprocity element of the unwritten social contract between community members. promotion of suicide and issues with privacy. whether themselves or in their family. or other life threatening diseases.[10] Such sites have in fact grown in popularity. Concerns with this kind of interaction also include verbal aggression and inhibitions.[14] Usually individuals suffering withdraw from social interactions. . recent studies have looked into development of health related communities and their impact on those already suffering health issues. Studies regarding the health effects of these communities did not show any negative effects. for example cancer patients. did discover a positive correlation in enhancing children’s behaviors and overall moods.[15] As for the children who participated in the study. it could be a risk to their health to leave a secure environment. but they were more willing to go to treatment after having these interactions.

The development of online chat rooms allowed people to talk to whoever was online at the same time they were. with people all around the world in different time frames. The downside to message boards was that people would have to wait until another user replied to their posting. 65% of members have started involvement in civic causes since they connected to the Internet. even if they choose not to contribute their thoughts and ideas. ethnicity or lifestyle associated with yourself [18] Online chat rooms Shortly after the rise of interest in message boards and forums. chat rooms can be found on all sorts of topics. or start a new "room" if they found nothing to their liking. message boards do not have an instantaneous response and require that users actively go to the site to check for responses. Anyone can register to participate in an online message board.Virtual community 3 On civic participation Online communities seem to have a direct impact on civic participation. and AOL. a message window. where people could play against one another and also talk to one another through text. Other users who choose to respond can follow the discussion by adding their own post to that thread. whereas they would have to find a physical exit and deal with the repercussions of trying to leave a situation in real life. users would like to read or contribute to. 20. The idea of forty different channels led to the idea of chat rooms that were specific to different topics. something a chat room is limited to. Chat rooms are now provided by Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and other individual websites such as Yahoo. people started to want a way of communicating with their "communities" in real time. there is no label of gender. With Internet message boards. Most chat room providers are similar and include an input box.7% are more involved with social activism since connecting with their online communities. This way. Another possible reason for this is that people can withdraw from a situation much easier online. Unlike a conversation. Real time chatting was also brought into virtual games. The input box is where users can type their text based message . age. The lack of status that is presented with an online identity also might encourage people because if you choose to keep it private.3% of members do something in real life at least once a year to support a cause related to their online community. could take awhile. MSN. Message boards can also accommodate an almost infinite number of users. a user sitting at his or her computer is the only one present in their online experience. Studies have shown that people are more likely to intervene if they are the only one in the situation. Registered users can simply view the various threads or contribute if they choose to. or board of discussion. Chat room users communicate through text based messaging. so that people can talk with others who share similar interests. Over half of virtual community members sign into their respective communities every day and 70% interact with other members daily. Users could choose to join an already existent chat room they found interesting. Internet users' urges to talk to and reach out to strangers online opposes real-life encounters where people are hesitant and often unwilling to step in to help strangers. A user will start a discussion by making a post on a thread. 43. Message boards are not conversation based because user responses do not have to take place right away. The original development by CompuServe CB hosted forty channels in which users could talk to one another in real time. Now. which. and a participant list. Whenever the user revisits the message board. Online message centers allow users to choose which thread.[17] Types of virtual communities Internet message boards An online message board is a forum where people can discuss thoughts or ideas on various topics. which might have to do with why they are more willing to reach out. he/she can make a response. They can simply click exit or log off. A message board is unique because people can choose to participate and be apart of the virtual community. messages were sent and online users could immediately respond back.

A virtual world simply gives users the opportunity to build and operate a fantasy life in the virtual realm. For example. even if the users who are operating the characters are not. The avatars that users create are like humans. chat. It is close to reality. These business based worlds have stricter controls and allow functionality such as muting individual participants.[22] On Facebook. or Content Encryption. and adds friends or follow friends. When characters interact with other characters. The individual "room" feature also makes it more likely that the people within a chat room share a similar interest. It is similar to a computer game. Another use for virtual worlds has been in business communications. and Myspace are all virtual communities. one often creates a profile or account. Business based virtual worlds also may provide various enterprise features such as Single Sign on with third party providers. Social network services Social networking services are the most prominent type of virtual community. for example. so that people can see who is in their virtual community. they can get to know one another not only through text based talking. one can upload photos and videos. or who can move about allow the host to control the meeting environment. but also to engage and interact with others. on the Internet. This "like reality" attribute makes it easy for users to form a virtual community. except that the characters are digital. Enterprise controls that allow the meeting host to dictate the permissions of the attendees such as who can speak. These websites often allow for people to keep up to date with their friends and acquaintances’ activities without making much of an effort. reconnect with old ones. Users can communicate as if they are speaking to one another in real life. make friends. an interest that allows them to bond with one another and be willing to form a friendship.[23] All of these functions encourage people to form a community. however there is no objective for the players. Benefits from virtual world technology such as photo realistic avatars and positional sound create an atmosphere for participants that provides a less fatiguing sense of presence. characters can do activities together. In a virtual world. just like friends could do in reality.[19] [20] 4 Virtual worlds Virtual worlds are the most interactive of all virtual community forms. and join groups or causes. Twitter. Communities in virtual worlds are most similar to real life communities because the characters are physically in the same place. but also by virtual experience(such as having avatars go on a date in the virtual world). This allows people to connect and look for support using the social networking service as a gathering place. They are either a website or software platform that focuses on creating and maintaining relationships. people are connected by living as an avatar in a computer-based world.[21] Second Life is one of the most popular virtual worlds on the Internet. Users can choose to make avatars like themselves. but people can only talk to one another. There is usually a list of the users who are currently in the room. desktop sharing.Virtual community to be sent to the providing server. This type of virtual community allows for people to not only hold conversations with others in real time. characters can socialize with one another and hold intimate relationships online. In this type of virtual community. or take on an entirely different personality than them. and/or access lists to provide a highly interactive and controlled virtual world to a specific business or group. . because chat rooms allow users to get to know one another as if they were meeting in real life. A chat room form of a virtual community may give real time conversations. large or small. Characters within the world can talk to one another and have almost the same interactions people would have in reality. The server will then transmit the message to the computers of anyone in the chat room so that it can be displayed in the message window. Facebook. The message window allows the conversation to be tracked and usually places a time stamp once the message is posted. With these sites. Users create their own avatar character (from choosing the avatar's outfits to designing the avatar's house)and control their character's life and interactions with other characters in the 3-D virtual world. Several companies are creating business based virtual worlds including Second Life.

g. time and organizational boundaries.[24] Advantages of Internet communities Internet communities offer the advantage of instant information exchange that is not possible in a real-life community. Lipnack & Stamps (1997) mention a common purpose. Virtual communities also provide the advantage of disintermediation in commercial transactions. and recreational pleasures. which eliminates vendors and connects buyers directly to suppliers. subscriptions. asserting the impersonality of virtual networks. e. particularly those that leverage Web 2. increased prejudices and enabling sick individuals to deliberately indulge in their diseases. in his revised version of Virtual Community. and Lee. Another benefit is that these types of communities can give users a feeling of membership and belonging. such as: shopping. usage fees. This allows people to engage in many activities from their home. Jung and Kim (2004) introduce "desocialization" which means that there is less frequent interaction with humans in traditional settings.[25] Economically. paying bills. Mitch Parsell (2008) has suggested that virtual communities. Rheingold translated. Recently. Sometimes he talks to them. Virtual communities provide an ideal medium for these types of relationships because information can easily be posted and response times can be very fast. Rheingold's definition contains the terms "social aggregation and personal relationships" (pp3). His comment on the first page even illustrates the social networks in the virtual society: "My seven year old daughter knows that her father congregates with a family of invisible friends who seem to gather in his computer. Rheingold goes so far to say that had he read Barry Wellman's work earlier. social activities. Consumers generally feel very comfortable making transactions online as long as the seller has a good reputation throughout the community. virtual communities can be commercially successful. .Virtual community 5 Howard Rheingold's study Howard Rheingold's Virtual Community could be compared with Mark Granovetter’s ground-breaking "strength of weak ties" article published twenty years earlier in the American Journal of Sociology. Eom. Indeed. an increase in virtual socialization. making money through membership fees. He argues that IT has a negative influence on offline interaction between individuals because virtual life takes over our lives. materializing from the next block or the other side of the world. Users can give and receive support. This eliminates pricey mark-ups and allows for a more direct line of contact between the [26] consumer and the manufacturer. can be pernicious by leading to attitude polarization. technical assistance. Users of online communities also have access to thousands of specific discussion groups where they can form specialized relationships and access information in such categories as: politics. (Wellman & Haythornthwaite. and it is simple and cheap to use. and searching for specific information. Lipnack & Stamps (1997) and Mowshowitz (1997) point out how virtual communities can work across space. even if nobody else can see them. practiced and published Granovetter’s conjectures about strong and weak ties in the online world. and advertising commission." (page 1). And she knows that these invisible friends sometimes show up in the flesh. Calhoun (1991) presents a dystopia argument. 2002). he would have called his book "online social networks". He believes that it also creates different personalities in people which can cause frictions in offline and online communities and groups and in personal contacts.0 resources.

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A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 53.T.thinkingprojects. Ethics and Information Technology. Alan. (2002). 600 [32] http:/ / www3. com/ smpp/ content~db=all~content=a785829167~frm=titlelink [38] http:/ / www. Retrieved from http:/ / jom.. google. ac. B. sagepub. html [37] http:/ / www. "How Chat Rooms Work. 356/ full. [14] Battles. G. K. psu. New York: Routledge. [21] Turkle. pdf). A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. & Meier. polarisation and the Web 2. Children’s Health Care. STARBRIGHT World: Effects of an Electronic Network on the Social Environment of Children With Life-Threatening Illnesses. htm [34] http:/ / socialarchitect.pdf. . com/ musings/ 2004/ 01/ emergent_purpos. J. Retrieved from http:/ / services.Virtual community [10] Eysenbach. & Young. Facebook. Sherry (11 July 2010). A. com/ internet/ social-networking/ information/ chat-room. 550-557. & Wiener. & Sugiyama. ist. haifa. 356-371. 1.org/bhc_paper. The American Prospect. (2006). newscientist. 31(1). . Retrieved from: http:/ / onlinelibrary. wiley. (2008). L. com/ link. 47–68. [25] Blanchard . com/ article/ mg19125691. & Kollock. & Wiener. and Networked Argumentation. com/ search/ allsearch?mode=viewselected& product=journal& ID=122535413& view_selected. [13] Cocciolo. & Meier.A. "?" (http:/ / www. Virtual internet communities and commercial success: individual and community-level theory grounded in the atypical case of timezone. Community and identity in the electronic village. 6. html [39] http:/ / opensource. ac. . 3322/ canjclin. P. 1-10. com/ smpp/ content~db=all~content=a783765378~frm=titlelink. B. htm). A. informaworld.. 356/ full. [16] Battles. edu/ viewdoc/ summary?doi=10. Uses and Gratifications of Social Media: A Comparison of Facebook and Instant Messaging. Mineo. (18 December 2000). & Collier. D. pdf [40] http:/ / www.

RuneScape. Sluggy Freelance. Napster. PBWiki WWW: eBay. Yahoo! Messenger. MeatballWiki. distributed discussion group architectures. BBS: The WELL. Second Life. ca/ ~wellman 9 External links • International Journal of Web Based Communities (http://www.org/index.com • Software that enable online communities: Ning Additional virtual community listings Discussion boards • • • • • • • • • • Dead Runners Society 4chan GameFAQs Something Awful Fark 2channel The Talk Forumosa Zombie Squad IGN . Virtual world/city: LucasFilm's Habitat. utoronto. Morpheus. Wetpaint. Facebook. USENET Blog: LiveJournal. Amazon.php/Main_Page) List of virtual communities This is a list of Wikipedia articles about virtual communities. Final Fantasy XI.com/browse/index.inderscience.Virtual community [45] http:/ / www. Digg Consumers: eBay. php?journalID=50) • Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) Regular Minitrack Virtual Communities (http://www. one of the original decentralized. Limewire Wiki: Wikipedia. Tagged Webcomic: UserFriendly. com/ ?p=30 [46] http:/ / chass. Xanga. Blogger TheStudentRoom. Neopets IM: ICQ. Meetro MUD/MUSH: TinyMUD P2P: Kazaa. MySpace. Millsberry. Windows Live Messenger. virtual-community. World of Warcraft MOO: LambdaMOO Mososo: Dodgeball. IMVU. WikiWikiWeb. Penny Arcade. GEnie. Benchmark virtual communities • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Usenet. The Meta Network Academic: EIES. GeoCities. vandercrabben. AIM Internet Relay Chat (IRC): IRC networks MMORPG: EverQuest. Slashdot. Wordpress. Red Light Center.

MOO • • • • GemStone ifMUD Category:MU* servers Category:MU* games Ethnicity-based communities • Fillos de Galicia • MIT BBS Online Teaching Covens • Coven of the Far Flung Net Other types • • • • • • • • • • • • bianca.us (social bookmarking) GameTZ. Sound.icio. movie.com Del. and book trading community) CouchSurfing (free accommodation world wide through hospitality exchange) Hospitality Club (free accommodation world wide through hospitality exchange) Meetup (an online service designed to facilitate real-world meetings of people involved in various virtual communities) Meetro (local focused communities) Stumbleupon (web surfing) YTMND (Picture. music.com (an online game.social networking for social good) CrossFit (a fitness program where users post their scores and comments on daily workouts) . Text) Group blogs TakingITGlobal (Youth .List of virtual communities • TOTSE • Kaskus 10 Social networking See article: List of social networking websites Art communities • • • • • Albino Blacksheep DeviantArt Dulwich OnView Elfwood Newgrounds MUD. MUSH.

Washington Post. com/ boston/ stories/ 2008/ 04/ 28/ daily5. "Old Spice Seeks Gaming Experience" (http:/ / www.[3] It has been recognized as part of a new trend in technology where inanimate objects acquire the ability to blog about their owners' activities. html). Brian Crecente (April 27. and has been recognized as part of a trend within advertising to depart from standard media buys and focus on associating brands with online activities that an audience are participating in. com/ stories/ 2008/ 04/ 28/ daily8-GamerDNA-buys-360voice. . including tracking gameplay and issuing gamerscore challenges. Boston Business Journal. . "Kotaku" (http:/ / kotaku. "Major Nelson's Xbox Blog" (http:/ / 360voice.[5] Acquisition by GamerDNA In April 2008.com URL Slogan Commercial? Type of site Registration http:/ / 360voice.gamerdna. 2008.[10] Any links pointing to the old domain (www. April 28. com/ aw/ search/ article_display. com/ Give your Xbox its own blog No Blog host Optional (free) to view blogs / required (free) to obtain a blog Available language(s) English Owner Created by Launched Alexa rank Current status GamerDNA Inc. 2006).com) still work and will redirect to 360voice.gamerdna. html). 2006 18. one may view all the games played by Xbox Live director Larry Hryb (better known as "Major Nelson") on his 360voice blog.503 active 360voice is a website where gamers can read or subscribe via RSS to a blog about what their friends are doing every day on Xbox Live. Retrieved 14 September 2010.[6] [7] [8] In December 2008. . bizjournals. adweek. Mike Musgrove (August 31. . Adweek. jsp?vnu_content_id=1003683965). a company founded by Trapper Markelz and Steve Sopp in 2006. com/ 2006/ 05/ 25/ 360voicecom-interview/ ). [7] "GamerDNA makes acquisition" (http:/ / www. Trapper Markelz and Steve Sopp April 17.com. 2007).. 2006). com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 08/ 30/ AR2006083003009.360voice.360voice 11 360voice 360voice. html). 2008.[1] [2] For example. com/ tag/ Major Nelson). masshightech. the company was acquired by GamerDNA under undisclosed terms.com[9] was moved to 360voice. gamerdna. php). They Talk About You" (http:/ / www. April 28. com/ gaming/ xbox-360/ give-your-xbox-360-its-own-blog-170510. . com-parent. gamerdna. [6] "Mass High Tech" (http:/ / www. .[4] Experience Challenge 360voice has been the home to advertising programs such as the Old Spice Experience Challenge. the domain name of 360voice.[11] References [1] [2] [3] [4] "Xbox Domain Interview" (http:/ / thexboxdomain. [5] Brian Morrissey (December 11. washingtonpost. . . "When the Machines Talk. May 2006.com. It is the major product of It Can Talk Systems Inc.

com (http://360voice. 360voice. Xconomy. [9] "The latest from the Dev Blog" (http:/ / www. or other social challenge. The site was founded in 1991 by Dr. org/ . xconomy. Froggie") from the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.gamerdna. . com/ ). Retrieved 14 September 2010. html). Arlette Lefebvre (aka "Dr. com/ ).gamerdna.360voice. .360voice [8] Wade Roush. The site offers a protected and nurturing environment where these children can overcome the social isolation often associated with having such challenges. [10] "The latest from the Dev Blog" (http:/ / 360voice. Retrieved 14 September 2010.gamerdna. External links • Ability Online [1] References [1] http:/ / www.com" (http:/ / blog. . homework tutors and job search coaches. and to provide the social networks and skills required to help them integrate more fully into their communities. chronic illness. and connect with friends. [11] Markelz. com/ 2008/ 04/ 28/ gamerdna-targets-xbox-community/ ). 360voice. Members are manually screened and verified prior to being given access to the site. Membership is open to kids of all ages and their families and caregivers. gamerdna. to understand that there are others who have faced (and overcome) similar challenges.com/) • Development blog (http://blog. ablelink. com/ 2008/ 12/ domain-name-change-360voicegamerdnacom.com/) Ability Online Ability Online is a Canadian online community for children and young adults facing any sort of disability (intellectual or physical). Trapper (2008-12-03). mentors. and all public messages on the site are monitored by police-screened volunteers. "Domain name change: 360voice. and Brian Hillis with the goal of helping to inspire children to feel good about themselves. Ontario. Retrieved 2008-12-11. . 12 External links • 360voice. "GamerDNA Targets Xbox Community" (http:/ / www. and is free of charge.

The company's first product was North American Women's Letters and Diaries. China. with sales staff and agents around the world. birth and death place. As of August 2010.[3] Alexander Street Press. Virginia. . Gale Cengage. University of Notre Dame. Charter customers included Boston College. and Christina Keller were the earliest employees. U. Tim Lloyd. and Eileen Lawrence (Vice President. Brazil. Virginia. as well as where and when an item was written. LLC Type Industry Founded Private Database publishing. the company had grown to more than 80 employees and offices in the US. Proquest. Employees 80 (2010) Alexander Street Press was founded in May 2000 in Alexandria. Janice Cronin (CFO). Johns Hopkins University. These elements were then combined with full-text search to allow material to be analyzed in new ways[5] [6] [7] . Will Whalen and Pat Carlson completed the management team. it's engaged in 'born native' digital publishing.S.000 pages of letters and diaries by women from colonial times through the 1950s. Vassar College. George Chinnery. Columbia University. In 2003 the company began a major partnership with The Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender at the State University of New York to publish Women and Social Movements. Harvard University. John O'Keefe. It created metadata elements for gender. audio and video streaming 2000 Headquarters Alexandria. Graham Dimmock. Laura Gosling. Kelly Connor. Daryl Baker. Don McCrae and Ron Rietdyk were also founders in non-executive roles. a London and New York-based publisher of streaming music for libraries. University of Wisconsin–Madison. Like Ebsco. This led to a new range of music publications. Sales and Marketing). and Yale University. University of Chicago. Michigan State University. Emory University. author nationality. and sexual orientation of characters within plays. Alexander Street acquired the principal assets of Classical International[10] . age. including a partnership with the Smithsonian Institution to provide Smithsonian Global Sound for Libraries and African American Song. Penn State University. Ohio State University. and the Cambridge Information Group. One of the founders of Classical International. Jennifer Hewitt. the California Digital Library (for all campuses of the University of California System). This has subsequently become a leading site for the study of women's history[8] [9] In November 2004. is currently COO at Alexander Street. a collection of 150. In 2000 and in collaboration with the ARTFL project at the University of Chicago[4] the company began using semantic indexing techniques in its Humanities databases.Alexander Street Press 13 Alexander Street Press Alexander Street Press LLC is a premier database publisher in the humanities and social sciences [1] [2] . New York University. by Stephen Rhind-Tutt (President). and the UK. handling development and production respectively.

Lois. Stephen. scrolling transcripts that allow the watcher to read ahead. In October 2006 the company acquired the assets of University Music Editions. and Nationality in Black Drama. com/ article/ CA601032. 05/10/2010. October 2008. The Charleston Advisor. Film. "Different Direction for Electronic Publishers: How Indexing Can Increase Functionality. com/ article/ CA6728271. At the 2010 Midsummer American Library Association the company advertised 9 streaming video collections spanning more than 9. May/June. In 2007 it began an office in Shanghai. libraryjournal. 2010. Pages 795 – 797 [10] Database Marketplace 2005: Shopping for Information. albany. [4] http:/ / artfl-project. Inc. In September 2010 Alexander Street acquired Microtraining Associates. and a large number of university presses. pp. initially developed for textual databases.. Volume 3. Using techniques such as semantic indexing. UK. Alexander Street acquired the principal products of HarpWeek. http:/ / www. html. com/ lj/ ljinprintcurrentissue/ 851585-403/ alexander_street_press_gets_personal. setting up an office in Stevenage. a distributor of issue based documentaries. University of Maryland—College Park. Carol Tenopir. Number 4. Volume 19. html [9] Women and Social Movements in the United States. Library Journal.13-15. Latin American Literature. Mark Olsen and Sterling Stein. Alexander Street Press had estimated revenues in excess of $12m per annum. The company claims more than 1. Late in 2006 the company began development of online collections of video. edu/ jmmh/ vol2no1/ women-socialmovs. com/ SemanticTagging. html . csp [2] Alexander Street Press: Kuyper-Rushing. EContent Magazine. Women's History Review. uchicago. estates. [6] How Semantic Tagging Increases Findability. Music. Issue 5.Alexander Street Press In November 2005 Alexander Street acquired the range of religious products produced by Ad Fontes. 12-12(1) [3] Literary Market Place: The Directory of the American Book Publishing Industry. LLC publisher of Harper's Weekly and Lincoln and the Civil War. 9/15/2007 http:/ / www. Education. In April 2007. libraryjournal. including The Digital Library of Classic Protestant Texts and The Digital Library of the Catholic Reformation. it was an early provider of synchronized. 1850-2000: Mining Differences in Language Use in Authors and their Characters". Diversity Studies. Heather Hadden.Library Journal. html [11] Webcast Report: Video in the Library: Trends and Best Practices. 1747-583X. Its catalog lists more than 70 products in Anthropology. Charles Cooney. The Journal for MultiMedia History". Australia and New Zealand. China under the leadership of Jia Jun Zhu and Ning Zhu. LLC. EMI.500 agreements with authors. Digital Humanities Quarterly. including Warner Bros. libraryjournal.LLC. Volume 3 Number 2. Anderson. Counseling and Therapy. journals and other musically oriented publications. These offices are complemented by individuals working in Brazil. " Gender. a specialist producer and distributor of therapy and counseling video. Women's History and Literature. hedden-information.000 individual video titles[11] . a small microfilm publisher specializing in the publication of scores. and History. Russell Horton. 14 References [1] Alexander Street Press Gets Personal. Dodie Ownes -. http:/ / www. Spring 2009. In December 2010 the company acquired Filmakers Library. As of January 2010. 1999. edu/ content/ artfl-collaborations [5] Shlomo Argamon. In 2005 the company expanded into Europe." Technicalities 21(3):1. 1600–2000 Bonnie S. 2005. These collections were subsequently released as part of Classical Scores Library. April 2002 . Volume 2. pdf [7] Rhind-Tutt. Race. 2001 [8] Robyn Muncy.Library Journal. Theatre in Video was published in April 2007 and has been followed by a succession of online streaming video collections. Drama. 05/15/2005 http:/ / www. & William Robinson -. publishers. Gayle Baker. film studios and music labels. http:/ / www.

entirely ripped CDs or individual music files. as well as software and documents of every content type imaginable. However.com/alexander_street_press_ne/) Microtraining Associates website (http://www. which can include fully ripped DVDs. Typically.967. having over 4.296 posts.294.boneless alt.boneless is a Usenet discussion forum primarily used to transfer binary data content. and is NZB files obtained from forums or Usenet an example of the massive retention capabilities of a commercial usenet server.typepad.binaries.filmakers. newsgroup names are functional in that the name is meant to serve as a guideline as to what type of content can be found in the newsgroup. indexing services. 2009.com) Filmakers Library website (http://www.binaries.org) Alexander Street blog (http://alexanderstreet. The group's content is likely to be accessed predominantly using This is a list of the 30 biggest groups on Giganews on March 3rd.smithsonianglobalsound.[1] . boneless is completely irrelevant. and this appears to hold true as a description of the content.Alexander Street Press 15 External links • • • • • Official company website (http://www.com) Globalsound website (http://www. yet almost nothing is known of its origins or why it is so popular. NewsBin sent out an alert to its users that the alt. typically receiving tens of gigabytes of new data and over a million new postings each day. as downloading group headers would be a highly inefficient process due to the sheer volume of posts made to the group. 2008. Until then. all newsgroups' post totals could be stored as a 32-bit number.emicrotraining. This occurrence might cause compatibility issues with binary news readers that cannot address post counts stored as a 64-bit number.boneless post count is the first to break the 32-bit threshold.com) alt. images and image sets.binaries.alexanderstreet. rather than being used for textual communications. On March 31. It has the unusual distinction of currently being one of the largest and most active binary newsgroups on all of Usenet.

ameba. [www.co.alt. ameba.jp www.jp/ir_e/) (English) . jp [2] Twitter Faces a Battle for Tweets (http:/ / www.com/apps/application. ft. CEO & President CyberAgent Inc. Its main competitor is Mixi. php?id=223102214157 [4] http:/ / pigg. In March 2009 Ameba launched Ameba Pico [3]. a Facebook app for the English market based on the virtual community Ameba Pigg [4]. a micro-blogging platform competing with Twitter[2] . com/ apps/ application. March 12. html) Financial Times.jp/) Ameba Pico Official Site (http://pico. ameba. [3] http:/ / www. facebook.ameba. [1] References [1] http:/ / now.net/) Ameba Pico Facebook App (http://www. newsbin.boneless 16 References [1] http:/ / www. In December 2009 Ameba launched Ameba Now Ameba (ア メ ー バ ブ ロ グ ) is a popular Japanese blogging and social networking website. 2010. com/ cms/ s/ 2/ 8a0009f2-2df2-11df-b85c-00144feabdc0. Japan Susumu Fujita. com/ motd/ motdarchive.cyberagent. jp/ External links • • • • (Japanese) Ameba website (http://ameba. htm Ameba (website) Ameba Type Headquarters Key people Parent Website Alexa rank Type of site Available in Private Tokyo.facebook.jp] 200 Social network service Japanese Current status Active .php?id=223102214157) CyberAgent Investor Relations and Corporate Info (http://ir.binaries.ameba.dwp_uuid=4dce8136-4a24-11da-b8b1-0000779e2340.

10 October 2010.dmoz.org/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/ American_Marriage_Ministries//) at the Open Directory Project .theamm. 4 February 2011. . and community members to perform marriage.org) • American Marriage Ministries (http://www. nytimes. ljworld. com/ photos/ galleries/ 2010/ oct/ 10/ day-photos-october-10-2010/ 76001/ ). October 10. 2010" (http:/ / www2.[1] [2] References [1] "The day in photos. New York Times. family. html?_r=1). External links • American Marriage Ministries Official Website (http://www. . com/ 2011/ 02/ 06/ fashion/ weddings/ 06ROSEN. Daniel Stellar" (http:/ / www.American Marriage Ministries 17 American Marriage Ministries American Marriage Ministries is an internet church that offers free ordination for friends. LJ World. [2] "Erica Rosen.

2006  Japan: December 11.[14] . DRM-free. ability for users to earn money through RECs Customer support Help [9] / Feedback [10] Website AmieStreet.000+ artists. Rhode Island. New York.Amie Street 18 Amie Street Amie Street "music lives here" Opened  United States: July 4.000+ songs [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Pricing model Platforms Format Restrictions Catalogue Preview Streaming Burning/copying Trial Protocol Availability Features Streaming song clips (85 seconds) Previews and purchased songs Unlimited Free credit and REC(s) with initial signup. Mac OS/X. many songs are free HTTP. and Joshua Boltuch.000. platform-independent (Microsoft Windows. Flash. keep music social. and support the artists. 2007 [1] [2] [3] Variable (demand-based). in Providence. 1.mp3) None 10. RSS Worldwide for most tracks. or GNU/Linux) MPEG Layer 3 (. Elias Roman.[13] Their vision for Amie Street was to become "the most fun way to discover and buy music online".[12] They have since graduated and moved the company to Long Island City in Queens. some tracks are only available in the United States or Japan Demand-based pricing. à la carte Web-based.com [11] Amie Street was an indie online music store and social network service created in 2006 by Brown University seniors Elliott Breece.

The maximum price any song will rise to is 98¢. 2006. they strive to achieve an average bit rate of 256 kbit/s using a variable bitrate. and Ogg are "on the way.[5] A ringtone service was announced on September 17.[22] (Other formats such as AAC. As of August 5.[5] The Orchard.[18] On December 11. Amie Street opened to the public with a pre-alpha version on July 4. FLAC. Selling music Artists can upload their music directly to the site in MP3 format at whatever quality bit rate they choose.[13] They began negotiations for the round in January 2007.99.com[18] and David Hirsch. but when a record label or music distributor requires Amie Street to encode the music.[5] Investors As reported by TechCrunch on August 5. 2007.com.[26] or checks are used to make payments to artists. former president of MP3. capped at US$8. It then rises according to the increased demand and purchase of the song. Amie Street Japan launched in partnership with Turbolinux. and 84 buys yielded 98¢.")[23] [24] As users buy songs.98 in song. most cases. Pricing for ringtones is also variable. 2007 15 buys yielded a price of 1¢. led by Amazon. 50 buys yielded 50¢. adding nine members to the team[13] and creating partnerships with various record labels including CD Baby.[2] PayPal. 25 buys yielded 15¢. the artist is credited quarterly.[13] Payoneer prepaid MasterCards. If the REC was for a good song and leads to users purchasing it.[20] Website features Artists upload tracks onto the site.[19] Notable angel investors include Robin Richards.[28] This service "doesn't appear to be available yet. The price curve changes based on the overall volume of songs purchased on the site.[13] BitCash is used for payments in Japan. 2007. and Daptone Records. Amie Street announced a site redesign and. starting out free and climbing to US$1. They announced that they will experiment with applying the variable pricing system to other digital media products including anime videos and manga comics. the price of the song will increase. Website users earn credits by recommending ("REC"ing) songs to their friends.[17] A few weeks after the initial crush of traffic an alpha version was completed and a beta version was launched on October 4."[29] .Amie Street 19 History Founded in early 2006.[25] There is some speculation that Amazon's new web service Amazon FPS would be a good match for the site as well.[15] Amie Street's catalog and stability have grown steadily since then. which allows users to purchase them at a price that varies according to demand. closed their Series A round of venture capital funding. The price for a track starts at zero when a song is uploaded onto the site. The user earns credit based on the increase in the price of the song after making the REC.[1] A pricing calculator [21] showed the simple model used to determine pricing.[16] Nettwerk Music Group. director of Google's B2B vertical markets group. but it is no longer available. 2007[27] through a partnership with Myxer. Demand-based pricing Amie Street uses an algorithm to determine song prices based on demand. Artists keep 70% of the proceeds after US$5 in sales for each [25] Albums are priced at the current total cost for each individual song on the album. 2006 and was quickly scooped by Michael Arrington of TechCrunch.

[37] The tracks are "Rushian" and "Waitress" from the album Us Against the Crown by State Radio and "Awakening" and "From Now On" by Sonny Fortune. they can REC it. You & Me by NYC indie rock band.Amie Street 20 RECs Non-artist users can earn credit as well.[44] During its first week of sales. "Friends" on Amie Street are intended to be based around musical interests. Users get approximately 1 REC for every US$1 of Amie Street credit they purchase.[34] Labels were also ranked and users were able to compete against each other for bragging rights. 2006.[42] [43] On July 29. For example. Amie Street expanded their benefit media program with the exclusive pre-release of a new album. All of this information is neatly organized on each user's dashboard[31] and available as separate RSS web feeds. if one RECs a song currently at 5¢ and it rises to 95¢. just for RECing the song. With each free download of Peter Buffett and Akon's single "Anything". Presently Facebook Beacon is used to link purchases on Amie Street to users' Facebook accounts. If the song price increases from the moment they REC it. and post the label on their Facebook profile page. When a user finds a song they believe will be a hit.[13] Users can message each other and post comments on freely customizable (including Meebo integration) user profiles. the user will cash out half the spread: 45¢ .[32] [33] This application allowed Facebook users to create a "record label" with a collection of songs that were linked with an Amie Street account. Amie Street expanded their benefit media program with six more tracks to boost donations for Boomer Esiason's Foundation and the Blubrry Jam campaign to fight cystic fibrosis. However. they are compensated with the full spread. These points could be converted into Amie Street credit and could be used to purchase music. the Fantasy Record Label application has since been suspended and is no longer available. Third party integration Amie Street launched a Facebook Application in October 2007 called Fantasy Record Label. the album charted at #29 on Billboard's Top Digital Albums.[35] Benefit media: Download To Make A Difference campaign On November 6. Amie Street will donate US$2 to the Creative Visions Foundation. sold for US$5.[45] [46] [40] [41] .[38] [39] Also priced at 50¢. The Walkmen. Facebook Connect and other integration tools to import data from The Hype Machine. as songs that are believed to be good will be RECed more often. they will receive compensation based on the price increase. are being donated to Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. iTunes. Last. 2008. a new benefit media campaign. and Songza are used to generate automated music recommendations. On July 16.fm. Amie Street introduced four benefit media tracks to the site. RECs are sent out to friends to make it easier to find new music in a music "news feed".[30] Social networking Users can connect with other users through the "friend" feature. Brother Love and HER and Kings County each contributed three tracks to the cause. Amie Street launched "Download To Make A Difference". Pandora. On March 28.[36] These songs are priced at 50¢ and all proceeds from sales go to the charity Free The Children. If a user RECs a song when it is free. 2008. They do this by RECing a song. each user's label would gain or lose points. Songs were ranked and as their score changed. 100% of proceeds from the album. There is also a "fan" feature so users can easily connect with bands on the site. 2007. RECing also differentiates more popular music from less.

TechCrunch article that first broke the company back in July 2006 after being open to the public for less than 20 days.[66] Official sales numbers have not been released.720. downloadable files from Amie Street will all be available on Amazon. 2010 and to make sure all purchases were downloaded by that time and to use up all credits (which would not be transferable to Amazon).[62] Ashley Alexandra Dupré In March 2008. demand-based pricing will cease and buyers will have to pay typical Amazon.[52] [53] These include Rolling Stone. her single "Move Ya Body" set a record[63] for how fast it commanded the top price on the site following Dupré's identity as the call girl "Kristen" being revealed by The New York Times on March 12. as it will not transfer to Amazon.com. 2010.[57] Los Angeles Times.4 million from download sales of her singles on Amie Street. the call girl at the center of the prostitution scandal with Eliot Spitzer.[60] Boing Boing.[47] [48] [49] Takeover by Amazon In an email to Amie Street members on September 8.Amie Street 21 lonelygirl15 partnership On May 15. 2010 and ceasing to operate as amiestreet.[65] others estimated her earnings to be as low as US$13. Further reading • Amie Street: Awesome New Music Model [67] .[59] TechCrunch.US$1. Amazon reportedly shut down Amie Street on the morning of September 9.[56] The Washington Post. 2010.[64] While some speculated that she may have earned as much as US$300. just with an "important Message From Amie Street" informing users that the website would be redirected to Amazon on September 22. While the digital. An unsigned singer. Current members were instead given a small credit of $5 for Amazon mp3s as appreciation for their support of Amie Street over the years. [51] Press Amie Street has been mentioned in several notable media organizations. the site received additional attention because of the availability of two singles by Ashley Alexandra Dupré.[55] BusinessWeek.ExtremeTech review of Amie Street.[61] Ars Technica. Amie Street members have until September 22 to spend any credit they currently have with Amie Street. 2007.[12] NPR. • New Ways to Get Music [68] .com starting on September 22. the website announced it would be redirecting all customers to Amazon. 2008. [50] but as of the afternoon of September 9 the website was still active.[8] and Wired.[54] The Wall Street Journal.000 . [69] • Interview with Amie Street Founder Joshua Boltuch • The Well-Rounded Radio audio interview with Amie Street co-founder Joshua Boltuch [70] . lonelygirl15 teamed up with Amie Street to sell music featured in episodes of the show.[58] Entertainment Weekly. which in most cases is higher (sometimes significantly so) than the prices for the same music on Amie Street currently.com prices for their digital music.

"Amie Street Closes Series A Financing Led By Amazon.com(TM) and Myxer(TM) Partner to Bring Demand-Based Pricing to the Mobile Ringtone Marketplace (http:/ / www. [14] Amie Street . com/ 2007/ 08/ 05/ amiestreetcom-closes-series-a-financing-led-by-amazoncom/ ). TechCrunch. TechCrunch. techcrunch. "Amie Street: Awesome New Music Model" (http:/ / www.0. com/ blog/ post/ freethechildren). techcrunch. Amie Street Blog. com/ 2007/ 01/ 26/ amie-street-begins-data-mining-and-artist-promotion/ ). . Retrieved 2007-05-26. Retrieved 2007-03-28. com/ dashboard/ ) [32] Fantasy Record Label | Facebook (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www.Help » FAQ (http:/ / amiestreet. Michael (2007-01-26). John (2007-09-06). 2007" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ google/ 20070917005453/ en) [28] AmieStreet adds ringtones « LI Biz Blog (http:/ / libizblog. . html). . Retrieved 2007-02-02. Wired. php?id=17895489176) [33] Fantasy Record Label | Facebook (http:/ / apps. com/ music/ 2007/ 02/ more_amie_stree.Amie Street 22 References [1] Amie Street . Retrieved 2007-10-03. html) [30] Amiestreet. ars/ post/ 20070307-amie-street-signs-major-artists-to-sell-drm-free-music. com/ page/ for-artists). [6] Arrington. | The Social Web | ZDNet. com/ recommendations) [36] Roman. wordpress. .com (http:/ / amiestreet. com/ ss/ 06/ 10/ bestunder25/ source/ 3. [27] AmieStreet. Now. alleyinsider. com/ letter/ nov2006/ spotlight. crunchbase. "Amie Street Expands into Anime and Manga with Japanese Store" (http:/ / blog. wired. Voices International Newsletter. Blake (2006-10-04). Retrieved 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2007-01-27. Peter (2007-08-06). Michael (2007-12-19). facebook. com/ social/ ?p=326) [35] Amiestreet. Eliot (2007-12-11). com/ help [10] http:/ / amiestreet. com/ 2007/ 08/ amie-street-has. com/ 2006/ 07/ 23/ amie-street-awesome-new-music-model/ ).com (http:/ / blog. . David (2008-06-25).com (http:/ / amiestreet. "Amie Street Has Amazon Money. TechCrunch. [17] "AmieStreet's CrunchBase entry" (http:/ / www. "Free The Children" (http:/ / amiestreet. itmedia. "Barenaked Ladies: New Album. Retrieved 2007-01-31. Ars Technica. com/ blog/ amie2_release) [8] Cheng.com" (http:/ / www. [25] "For Artists" (http:/ / amiestreet. com/ music/ 2007/ 09/ amie-street-to-. Elias (2006-11-06). wired. Retrieved 2007-08-05. Michael (2007-03-05). Jeffrey. Retrieved 2007-03-28. TechCrunch. php [22] Amie Street . co. com/ 2007/ 09/ 06/ the-week-in-geek-sept-6-2007/ ). com/ page/ about) [15] Arrington. .com (http:/ / blogs. . CrunchBase (TechCrunch). Retrieved 2007-08-06. ars/ post/ 20080625-amie-street-inks-deal-with-indies-will-add-1-million-songs. "Amie Street Takes Innovative Music Model Into Beta" (http:/ / www. Free The Children. gallaugher.Sept. "Amie Street Begins Data Mining and Artist Promotion" (http:/ / www. com/ apps/ application. . jp/ news/ articles/ 0712/ 21/ news050. com/ amiestreet/ ) [34] Facebook app: Fantasy Record Label from Amie St. No DRM. htm). Retrieved 2007-12-26. com/ feedback [11] http:/ / amiestreet. com/ dashboard/ bank/ ) [31] Your Dashboard (http:/ / amiestreet. "Amie Street inks deal with indies. techcrunch.Help » FAQ (http:/ / amiestreet. com/ music/ 2007/ 12/ amie-street-exp. Jacqui (2007-03-07). . Michael (2006-07-23).Help » FAQ (http:/ / amiestreet. Best Entrepreneurs Under 25. [4] Gallaugher. . What's The Plan?" (http:/ / www. . com/ 2007/ 03/ 26/ greylock-partners-leads-4-million-series-a-investment-in-payoneer/ ). TechCrunch. techcrunch. ITmedia. November 2006. Retrieved 2007-10-03. will add 1 million songs" (http:/ / arstechnica. . wired. Silicon Alley Insider.Featured Music (http:/ / amiestreet.com (http:/ / amiestreet. html) (in Japanese). . . com/ 2007/ 03/ 05/ barenaked-ladies-new-album-free-no-drm-now/ #comment-1156487). [13] Gonzalez. Retrieved 2007-12-26. . [18] Robinson. [5] Van Buskirk. Free. 6. Retrieved 2007-12-26. . [21] http:/ / amiestreet. html). com/ members/ pricingCalculator. zdnet. [19] Arrington. Retrieved 2007-10-03. com/ company/ amiestreet). Amie Street. techcrunch. com/ 2007/ 09/ 17/ amiestreet-adds-ringtones/ ) [29] Amie Street To Sell Ringtones with Demand-Based Pricing | Listening Post from Wired. Retrieved 2007-02-03. businesswire. Retrieved 2007-02-03. "Greylock Partners Leads $4 Million Series A Investment In Payoneer" (http:/ / pulse2. Douglas MacMillan (2006-10-30). Listening Post. TechCrunch. businessweek. "Fan interest is the price of popular songs and determine "Amie Street"" (http:/ / www. . [9] http:/ / amiestreet. "America's Best Young Entrepreneurs" (http:/ / images. . [20] Kafka. com/ help/ 47) [2] Amie Street . html). techcrunch. BusinessWeek. . [37] "Amie Street cranks out cool tunes to benefit Free The Children" (http:/ / freethechildren. "Amazon Helping To Change The Business Of Music" (http:/ / www. Amit (2007-03-27). com/ [12] Gangemi. html) [24] Arrington. Nick (2007-08-05). com/ news.com (http:/ / blog. com/ help/ 95) [3] Maki Miyamoto (2007-12-21). Pulse 2. "The Week in Geek . com/ news. html). ArsTechnica. [16] Chartier. Retrieved 2007-09-06. "Amie Street signs major artists to sell DRM-free music" (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ help/ 82) [23] More Amie Street News | Listening Post from Wired. facebook. html). The Week in Geek. com/ 2006/ 10/ 04/ amie-street-takes-innovative-music-model-into-beta/ ). [26] Chowdhry. [7] Amiestreet. com/ 2007/ 12/ 19/ amazon-helping-to-change-the-business-of-music/ ).

. wired. Silicon Alley Insider. . com/ popwatch/ 2007/ 06/ the_game_amie_s. Will She Ever Be?" (http:/ / www. 2007-06-03. [48] Asbill. Joshua (2007-03-30). album. [62] Van Buskirk. html). php/ 2007/ 07/ 03/ master-ps-latest-so-this-is-what-profanity-free-hip-hop-sounds-like/ ). Retrieved 2007-08-05. Fight Cystic Fibrosis" (http:/ / amiestreet. 2008-07-28. [60] Arrington. Peter (treetops) (2007-05-22). html).0. . techcrunch. php?storyId=6728986). Retrieved 2007-05-26. Fight Cystic Fibrosis" (http:/ / blog. techcrunch. Cory (2007-01-05). com/ blog/ tag/ Buzz) [53] Amie Street Buzz (http:/ / amiestreet. Sean Michaels (2006-11-02). rollingstone. . . many songs sell for a few cents" (http:/ / online. html?KEYWORDS=amie+ street& COLLECTION=wsjie/ 6month). Blake Robinson.com Launches 'Download To Make A Difference' With Creative Visions Foundation. 2007-03-05. "`Kristen. Wall Street Journal. . . washingtonpost. "Buy Good Music. org/ templates/ story/ story. billboard. "CD or not CD?" (http:/ / www. [57] Pegoraro. Reuters." (http:/ / www. Daily News. bloomberg. Listening Post (Wired). wired. [63] Lemire. Jonathan (2008-03-15). TechCrunch. centernetworks. Sean (2008-07-30). guardian. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 2008-07-29. ew. . html).to tune of $200G" (http:/ / www. creativevisions. zibb. Retrieved 2007-08-05. asp [69] http:/ / www.. "Web Sites Making Music for Your Ears" (http:/ / www. and 2007-08-05). London: The Guardian. com/ apps/ news?pid=20601088& sid=a1YDz7KwnW0Q& refer=home). huffingtonpost. Gillian (2008-03-15). com/ blog/ post/ an-important-message-from-amie-street) [52] Amie Street Press (http:/ / amiestreet. Bloomberg. com/ blog/ post/ lonelygirl15-featuring-chase-emery-4). . "Amie Street articles on TechCrunch" (http:/ / www. Jon (2007-05-14).com (http:/ / amiestreet. 2007-01-02. com/ 2006/ 07/ 23/ amie-street-awesome-new-music-model/ [68] http:/ / www. com/ 2008/ 3/ ashley_alexandra_dupre_not_rich_yet_will_she_ever_be_).. com/ page/ Walkmen_Release). "Master P’s Latest: So This Is What Profanity-Free Hip-Hop Sounds Like" (http:/ / www. html). internetretailer. html). [43] Michaels. [49] "LonelyGirl15 Soundtrack Will Use Amie Street Artists" (http:/ / lg15today. fights. . html). com/ page/ buzz) [54] Futterman. 2007-05-16. NPR. 2008-08-06. Retrieved 2007-05-26. Listening Post (Wired). "Millionaire Call Girl? Spitzer's Hooker Rakes In A Fortune Online From Her Music" (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 05/ lonelygirl15-soundtrack-will-use-amie. "Hooker's an online hit . Peter (2008-03-17). Eliot (2007-05-15). [66] Kafka. Retrieved 2008-09-01. Melody Joy (2007-01-11). Billboard. [55] Warren. [64] Wee. Wha?" (http:/ / blog. "Goodbye. Retrieved 2008-03-16.1697. Nick Gonzalez (Various: 2006-07-23. [46] "Top Digital Albums" (http:/ / www. reuters. Becomes Pop Star on Web (Update1)" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2007-02-02. com/ 2007/ 03/ 28/ buy-brother-love-fight-cystic-fibrosis/ ). Rock & Roll Daily (Rolling Stone). [47] Van Buskirk. wsj. . Help Charity On Amie Street" (http:/ / www. [58] Healey. "Ashley Alexandra Dupre: Not Rich Yet. .). Retrieved 2008-03-17. com/ blog/ post/ buy-good-music-fight-cystic-fibrosis). Jamin (2006-10-14).2070636. html). boingboing.com. Opinion Daily (Los Angeles Times). com/ news/ opinion/ la-oew-healey14may14. [41] Zibb. com/ 2008/ 03/ 14/ millionaire-call-girl-sp_n_91659. com/ article/ SB116077466937892327-search. Retrieved 2007-08-05. com/ news/ 2008/ 03/ 15/ 2008-03-15_hookers_an_online_hit__to_tune_of_200g. html). Retrieved 2007-05-26. [50] Internetretailer. html). Faster Forward (The Washington Post). Retrieved 2007-05-26. TechCrunch. com/ tag/ Amie-Street/ ). 2007-01-26. [65] Sklar. Retrieved 2007-08-05. [67] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-08-05. "LonelyGirl15 featuring Chase Emery" (http:/ / amiestreet.1024533. .' Linked to Spitzer. [44] "Amie Street . [59] Schonberger.com (Bloomberg L. The Huffington Post. com/ 2008/ 07/ 28/ get-the-walkmen-album-early-help-charity-on-amiestreet/ ). Rob (2007-07-06). LG15 Today. Michael. . "Amie Street & Include Allow Outlook Access to RSS Feeds of Music Promos. . com/ music/ 2007/ 05/ lonelygirl15_to. Creative Visions Foundation.Amie Street [38] "Buy Brother Love. Amie Street Blog. uk/ music/ 2008/ jul/ 30/ walkmen. Boing Boing. Retrieved 2008-03-16. jsp?g=Albums& f=Top+ Digital+ Albums/ ). Retrieved 2007-02-02. com/ rockdaily/ index. [40] "AmieStreet. "Online label only charges once songs are popular" (http:/ / www. techcrunch. Chris (2007-06-06). Retrieved 2008-08-08. .com (http:/ / www. org/ news/ amiestreet. "How much is the Game worth to you?" (http:/ / popwatch. Retrieved 2007-02-02. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS121251+ 16-Jul-2008+ PRN20080716). "Online: Music At new Web store. biz/ bbbiz/ charts/ chart_display. [39] Boltuch. Amie Street. latimes. . . blubrry. story?coll=la-opinion-center). Eliot. Retrieved 2007-05-26. co. Retrieved 2008-09-01. net/ 2007/ 01/ 05/ onlne_label_only_cha. Rachel (2008-03-14). 2008-07-16. alleyinsider. . com/ article/ 3606145/ AmieStreet+ com+ Launches+ Download+ To+ Make+ A+ Difference+ With+ Creative+ Visions+ Foundation+ Peter+ Buffett+ and+ Akon) [42] "Creative Visions : AmieStreet" (http:/ / www. 2006-10-04. Blubrry Blog. Retrieved 2007-08-05. "Walkmen album to fight cancer" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-03-16.. 2007-03-28. com/ 2010/ 09/ 08/ amazon-tunes-deal-aimestreetcom) [51] Amiestreet.Featured Music" (http:/ / amiestreet.00. Amie Street Blog. npr. com/ music/ 2006/ 11/ amie_street_inc. Retrieved 2008-08-08. . "LonelyGirl15 Soundtrack Will Use Amie Street Artists" (http:/ / blog.com (http:/ / www. [56] Kramer. . com/ fasterforward/ 2007/ 07/ goodbye_allofmp3com. ." (http:/ / blog. . [45] "Get The Walkmen Album Early. PopWatch Blog (Entertainment Weekly). com/ article2/ 0. com/ interview-with-amiestreet 23 . AllofMP3..P. [61] Doctorow. nydailynews. cancer). Erica (2007-07-03). extremetech.

com) • Newsletter (http://amiestreet.com/) Amie Street Japan (http://amiestreet.com/amiestreet) on Twitter.com/AmieStreet) on Facebook Amie Street (http://www.com/newsletter) • Music Blog (http://amiestreet.com/amiestreet) on Myspace. Amie Street (http://www. wellroundedradio.myspace.myspace. net/ amiestreet 24 External links • Amie Street (http://amiestreet. Amie Street (http://twitter.fm • • • • • .facebook.com/amie_street) on Twitter Amie Street (http://www.Amie Street [70] http:/ / www.fm/group/AmieStreet.blogspot.com/blog/post) • Development Blog (http://amiest-devblog.com) at Last.last.com/ wheremusiclives) on Myspace Amie Street (http://www.jp) Amie Street (http://twitter.

people. 2007. the site has expanded to include online discussion boards. which allows users to write in Chechen. is a social networking website that includes information on the Chechen language and culture and photos of the First and Second Chechen Wars. links and images about and from Chechnya. Chechen Chat. 1997) Headquarters Palo Alto. as a means of communication for the disparate global Chechen diaspora community. popularly known as Amina. receive email notifications of replies to posts. Features of the website include Chechen Forum. Albert Digaev added English language registration to the Chechen Forum.Chechen Republic Online [1] Website Amina – Chechen Republic Online. chatroom. and send and receive private messages. California Key people Albert Digaev. After numerous website layout updates. to allow English speakers access and an English language thread to allow English speakers to communicate with Chechens. and Chechen Mail.500 members and more than 300.Chechen Republic Online Type Industry Founded Private Internet Berkeley. Taking its name after a well-liked Chechen girl's name.com. and English.[5] Although all forum visitors may browse among the various threads. is free to users and generates revenue from advertising including banner ads. California (March 13. and private email service. At its inception.000 posts. It was founded on March 13.[2] Amina – Chechen Republic Online now ranks in the top 25. it was the first website about Chechnya on the Internet. culture and the conflict. a Chechen refugee living in the United States. 1997 by Albert Digaev.[4] Features The site. only visitors who have created a free subscription account may be able to make forum posts. and for a while the only one. the website initially provided information. Founder and Webmaster Amina . Chechen Photo Gallery. Russian.[6] In late April 2007.000 sites based on web traffic on the Internet according to the website Alexa. Articles related to Chechnya. photo gallery. . Chechen Forum As of May 17. the Chechen Forum hosted more than 3.Amina – Chechen Republic Online 25 Amina – Chechen Republic Online Amina .[3] The website's popularity grew to such an extent that it was once closely monitored by the pro-Russian Chechen government. its history.

NET web application framework.S. Nicholas Burns. Chechen Photo Gallery The Chechen Photo Gallery enables users with a free subscription account to upload photos of themselves and their friends. Sections of the gallery include Individuals.com Under Attack .a controversy" article by Chechnya Advocacy Network [2] "Amina. Chechen Mail Chechen Mail is a Gmail-powered service which enables users to gain access to a private email account with an amina. and New Photos. Chechen Mail logo. The Chechen Photo Gallery became the course of major controversy in October 2005 when Islamic fundamentalist offshoots of the Chechen independence movement alleged that Amina. Currently.Rift Opens Between Chechen Leadership and its Diaspora" article by The Jamestown Foundation [9] . Girls. This feature was recently reinstated in 2007 after going offline for several months. My Chechnya. as well as rate or comment on others' photos. and they called on Digaev to be "taken care of" by members of the Chechen diaspora living in the West. Boys. Children.com had led efforts to corrupt Chechen society. Chechen Photo Gallery logo. External links • • • • Amina . Although individuals are primarily Chechens.Chechen Republic Online [1] "Russia's media war over Chechnya" . and appeals to end the war in Chechnya.Amina – Chechen Republic Online 26 Articles related to Chechnya The articles section includes various essays on the Chechen conflict. Under Secretary for Political Affairs R. Russians and Caucasians are well-represented in the gallery as well. People of the Arts. email signup requires permission from the Amina – Chechen Republic Online domain administrator.[7] Chechen Chat Chechen Chat is a free IRC service powered by the ASP. resources on the Chechen language. Our Neighbors. and U.com domain name.com users.BBC News article [8] "Amina. When Google Apps enabled Gmail users to check their email accounts using the BlackBerry wireless handheld device. Some of the articles' authors include famed Russian journalist Andrei Babitsky. The list of articles has not been updated since February 2005. Users can private message directly with other Amina.com . Chechen Ambassador to the United States Lyoma Usmanov. Chechen Mail users by extension gained access to this new feature. Historical Photos. Chechen Television.

php?faq=vb_user_maintain#faq_vb_why_register http:/ / www. co. amina. chechenpress. amina. amina. org/ wnet/ wideangle/ printable/ resources_chechnya_print. com/ kamina/ faq. uk/ 2/ hi/ world/ monitoring/ 528620. org/ indexamina. pbs. com http:/ / www. shtml http:/ / news. com/ kamina/ http:/ / www. bbc. stm http:/ / www. alexa. chechnyaadvocacy. info/ events/ 2005/ 07/ 26/ 09.Amina – Chechen Republic Online 27 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. php?volume_id=409& issue_id=3500& article_id=2370374 . jamestown. com/ data/ details?url=amina. org/ publications_details. html http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / www. html http:/ / www.

AnyGoodToYou.anygoodtoyou. Retrieved 8 Feb 2011. com Any Good to You often shortened to AGTY. php). External links • Official Any Good To You website (http://www. "UK Freecycle moderators break away from US network" (http:/ / www. this was at a similar time many of the UK Freecycle groups decided to break away from its US roots following disagreements and dismissal of long standing UK moderators.com/anygoodtoyou) . com/ site_about. . anygoodtoyou.About Us" (http:/ / www. is an organisation founded in the UK that aims to reduce landfill by encouraging people to give away items they no longer need but which are too good to throw away. [2] Glaskin.com) • Official AnyGoodToYou Twitter Feed (http://twitter. Max (10 September 2009). uk/ environment/ green-living-blog/ 2009/ sep/ 10/ uk-freecycle-us-network). co. [2] References [1] "AGTY . guardian. AGTY was formed in September 2009 after the lead developers became frustrated with limitations of their local [1] Freecycle group . 1 September 2009 Purpose/focus Recycling Region served United Kingdom/International Website http:/ / www.com. The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group).Any Good To You 28 Any Good To You Any Good To You AGTY logo Abbreviation Motto Formation AGTY Finding new homes for things too good to throw away. . anygoodtoyou.

because they alternate possession. (A team can have slightly more if it begins and ends a quarter or half with possession. A second core tenet is that per-minute statistics are more useful for evaluating players than per-game statistics. over the course of the season. especially basketball statistics. A key tenet for many modern basketball analysts is that basketball is best evaluated at the level of possessions.[1] History While the use of possession stats dates back at least as far as former North Carolina Coach Frank McGuire. these analysts favor use of points scored per 100 possessions (Offensive Rating) and points allowed per 100 possessions (Defensive Rating). usually on a per-minute basis and various brands of this were created and often became the basis for books. while Hollinger began writing the Pro Basketball Forecast series in 2002. previously Senior Vice President of Operations and Information for the Boston Celtics. Several dozen other serious basketball fans/analysts also make regular and helpful contributions to fine-tuning the methods and their usage and advancing new approaches to research questions through the active APBRmetrics [2] forum . which assign a value to each key statistic and add and subtract to find a player's total efficiency. Oliver was hired as a full-time consultant by the Seattle SuperSonics. sonicscentral. making him the first APBRmetrician to be employed by an NBA team full-time. Among these people were Dave Heeren. both teams have approximately the same number of possessions. Beginning in the 1990s. APBRmetrics is a cousin to the study of baseball statistics. yet remain the most common metric of player performance. and similarly takes its name from the acronym APBR. In 2004. From John Hollinger's Pro Basketball Forecast: "It's a pretty simple concept. Oliver published his book Basketball On Paper in 2003. During a single game. had provided statistical analysis for the Celtics front office and wrote about advanced statistics for the Celtics Web site but had no . html} The goal was to find a more objective method of analyzing player performance and to find the most productive mix of players within the salary cap or budget.APBRmetrics 29 APBRmetrics APBRmetrics is a term sometimes used to refer to the analysis of basketball through objective evidence. Bob Bellotti." A more complete explanation of possession-based analysis is available in "A Starting Point for Analyzing Basketball Statistics" in the Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports. APBRmetric approaches began to receive some attention from the media and NBA teams. modern APBRmetrics came into existence when Bill James gained popularity for his Baseball Abstracts and basketball enthusiasts borrowed some of the ideas and the overall philosophy of the importance of statistical analysis for finetuning achievement. Therefore. com/ statsite. and Martin Manley. Early APBRmetricians focused on "linear weights" statistics. which can dramatically color their points scored and points allowed per game. which stands for the Association for Professional Basketball Research. Oliver and John Hollinger are credited with moving this use of basketball statistics into the view of more basketball fans through their websites in the late 1990s. The latter tend to be influenced more by playing time than by quality of play. The Houston Rockets took the movement one step further in April 2006 by hiring Daryl Morey as their assistant general manager and announcing that he would replace Carroll Dawson as general manager after the 2006-07 season. but one that has largely escaped most NBA front offices: The idea that what a player does on a per-minute basis is far more important than his per-game stats. teams play at very different paces.) However. Dean Oliver popularized the use of possession statistics. known as Sabermetrics. Morey. In the wake of the best-selling book Moneyball. which glamorized Sabermetrics.{see list of media articles near bottom of this page http:/ / www.

These statistics allow APBRmetricians to measure contributions not accounted for by traditional statistics. basketball. Total Basketball. There is also more detail on shooting effectiveness by location on the court and time on clock. Efficiencies (A/TO.APBRmetrics traditional basketball experience as a player. being the ball handler on the pick and roll. Broom's work includes creation of the Salary Formula. an area underdeveloped in the first wave of new stats including PER and the initial player points allowed defensive rating (which was not based on play by play tracking of one on one defense because it was not yet available and also gave heavy weight to points allowed by the rest of the team as well as the player himself. Scoring. which debuted in 2003. Bob Chaikin used APBRmetric principles to create a computer simulation for NBA basketball called B-BALL. Dr. David Berri is a professor of economics at Southern Utah University who teamed with peers Martin Schmidt and Stacey Brook to write The Wages of Wins. etc.[4] . His NBA Analyst 1999 (Taylor) uses such concepts as Adjusted Field Goal Percentage.com and SI. brought the analysis of plus-minus ratings—how well a team fares with a certain player or lineup on the floor as opposed to on the bench—and counterpart production into the mainstream for basketball (it was a common measurement in ice hockey). John Ezekowitz writes for the Harvard Sports Analysis Collective.com. and his research has been cited by ESPN The Magazine.com and other basketball related websites. including annual editions of "The NBA Analyst". He is currently a consultant for the Oklahoma City Thunder. It has been used by several NBA teams. Public access has been discontinued indefinitely. and Pace Adjustment. Bellotti wrote several books in the late 1980s and early 1990s.com and has contributed his analysis to ESPN. He claims to be one of the first implementers of Sabermetrics as applied to basketball. David Claerbaut is president of Salesdisruption. Total). Impact Factors (Non-Scoring. and contributed to the NBA's official encyclopedia. 30 Prominent APBRmetricians The growing field of quantitative analysts includes the following: Dr. Broom is also a leader in evaluating defense through collecting and analyzing new statistics not captured in box scores. Synergy Sports Technology provided a free trial of a site that combined video of every NBA game with statistical breakdowns of player tendencies similar to those long in use amongst NBA teams—going left vs right. Chaikin's simulation can simulate hundreds. football.bballsports. This combination of video and statistics is currently being used by a number of NBA teams. Published in 2006. having invented "Points Created.) During the 2006 NBA Playoffs. which can help identify players underrated by their per game stats. Kevin Broom has been a columnist at RealGM. as well as the Diamond Rating. the book brought the work of sports economists to a wider group of readers and focused largely on the NBA. He offers it and a comprehensive historical sports statistics database for pro baseball. Ben Alamar is an Assistant Professor of Management at Menlo College and the founding editor of the Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports. particularly at the defensive end of the court." a player rating system that attempted to boil all of a player's contributions into one number (similar to Bill James' Runs created). Roland Beech is the proprietor of 82games. and Total Impact Factor).com and author of a number of sports books.com [3]. Floor. coach or scout. and hockey (a free download) at his website www. even thousands of games in minutes to assess the impact of various lineup and rotation changes or the value of a player signed via trade or free agency. He is currently a consultant for the Phoenix Suns as a statistician. He is a consultant for the Dallas Mavericks. which translates individual statistics to NBA cap dollars.com. The Web site 82games. and the Wall Street Journal. Some now prefer the counterpart and team measures of defense at 82games which are based on written play by play records but aren't perfect either. Bob Bellotti was one of the first APBRmetricians. Sports Illustrated.

who has consulted with the Seattle Supersonics and also served in the front office of the Denver Nuggets. John Hollinger authored four books in the Pro Basketball Forecast/Prospectus series and is a regular columnist for ESPN Insider. He currently works for ESPN. He is a consultant for the Houston Rockets. how teamwork affects individual statistics. making him instrumental in introducing the system to regular NBA fans. He has worked to acquaint mainstream basketball fans with statistical analysis. he has [8] "adopted" the Portland Trail Blazers in his coverage.Net doubles as an APBRmetric-friendly NBA blog and stat page.com. He is now in the front office of the San Antonio Spurs. He also adapted Bill James' Win Shares to basketball to estimate player contribution to a team's wins. Robert "Bobbo" Fritos professional poker player and coach who revolutionized the game with claims like. Journal of Basketball Studies [7]. Robert has recently said he'd rather have Carmelo Anthony over Kevin Durant. Dean Oliver is a former player and assistant coach at Cal Tech and a scout." Ed Kupfer is a self-taught statistical wizard who has made numerous.com and SI. Dan Rosenbaum is a consultant for the Cleveland Cavaliers. turnovers and getting to the free-throw line) also help provide a simple framework for evaluation of players and teams. His efforts to bring focus on the Four Factors of Basketball Success (field-goal shooting.com. offensive rebounds. and subsequent 2003 book. He is also a consultant for the Indiana Pacers. working alongside Sam Hinkie and GM Daryl Morey. It makes use of its own custom weights & unique adjustments and presents player value in terms of wins added (per season or playoff series). defensive statistics. brought him recognition as a principal leader in the field. TENDEX. Dwight=LeBron. The stat page is updated daily with advanced statistics for teams and individuals for the current NBA season. Hoopsworld. His research dealt with the importance of pace and possessions. Kevin Love is the second best player in the NBA. Mike Goodman is the creator of the EWins method for evaluating the importance of player contributions to team winning. Dr. based on individual offensive performance and team defense while the player is on the court. Rosenbaum's work has focused on adjusted plus-minus ratings. Landry Fields should easily go #2 in a 2010 re-draft. [6] 31 . Mike Kurylo is the creator of KnickerBlogger. Basketball on Paper. Pelton also covers the Seattle Storm for the team's Web site.com has called the site "[T]he world's best hoops history site. His old website. However. Hollinger's work is read by many mainstream fans who are not familiar with APBRmetrics in general. and formerly covered the Seattle SuperSonics. Hollinger posts on twoplustwo forums under the handle "JumanjiBoard". He gets massively trolled on twoplustwo forums where his nemesis is the affable Victor.com [5]. and statistician by training.Net. notable high-technique and graphical contributions at the APBRmetrics board. Jeff Sagarin and Wayne Winston pioneered adjusted plus-minus statistics with their WINVAL system. much of the data not available anywhere else on the net for before the most recent seasons.com and has written for 82games. KnickerBlogger. ESPN. and the importance of a player's ability to create their own shot. Justin Kubatko developed and administers Basketball-Reference. and he moderates the APBRmetrics forum.APBRmetrics Gabe Farkas is a former contributor to Mike Kurylo's CourtsideTimes.Net and the former CourtsideTimes. which has been used extensively by the Dallas Mavericks. He has claimed to have a positive APM in his rec league games. stormbasketball. Kevin "Al" Pelton is a sportswriter who writes for BasketballProspectus. which takes into account the quality of the players playing with and against a player and adjusts his plus-minus accordingly. Dave Heeren wrote a series of Basketball Abstract books in the early 1990s and invented the most prominent early rating system. and Derrick Rose actively hurts his team.Net. a site that provides much relied upon and easy access to regular and many of the advanced basketball statistics. after the SuperSonics' departure from the NBA.com.

475 as the free-throw multiplier. opposing teams would not necessarily have the same number of possessions in a game. Dean Oliver adapted them to players in his book Basketball on Paper. APBRmetricians have used . and makes 3 of them. and the second player's FG% is only 33 percent.96 multiplier adjusts for team rebounds. If offensive rebounds were not subtracted in this manner. Possessions are usually estimated by the following formula: The . The .44*FTA))) Rebound Rate is the estimated percentage of available rebounds a player or team grabs. team ratings are simply calculated as: and In addition to pioneering team offensive and defensive ratings. are calculated as points scored and points allowed per 100 possessions. they shoot a free throw. while three free throws make up one possession when a player is fouled shooting a 3-pointer. The formula is: True Shooting Percentage takes this a step further by factoring in free throws. Both players have scored 6 points on 6 shots. while another player shoots 6 three point shots and makes 2 of them. This is also true of flagrant fouls and technical fouls. which is not a possession. The second player looks like a terrible shooter even though he has scored just as many points on just as many shots. Effective field-goal percentage corrects for this by accounting for the extra point that 3-pointers are worth. Effective Field-Goal Percentage (eFG%) accounts for the fact that 3-pointers are worth an extra point. other general and skill specific defensive ratings and many other statistics and analytic ratios to aid understanding of player and team performance. Offensive rebounds are subtracted because grabbing an offensive rebound simply extends the original possession. on a team level. Pythagorean Record is what a team's expected record is based on points scored or allowed. Because these are not considered offensive rebounds. It should also be noted that when analyzing College Basketball. Therefore. yet the first player's FG% is 50 percent. since the NCAA's rules about the team foul limit differ from those in the NBA. Player Efficiency Rating is John Hollinger's linear-weights rating for a player's per-minute performance which reduces a player's total performance into a single number.APBRmetrics 32 Common statistics Among the growing list of APBRmetric basketball statistics here are some of the most important ones gaining increased usage: Offensive Rating/Offensive Efficiency and Defensive Rating/Defensive Efficiency. something ignored by traditional field-goal percentage. . but divided by two to look like field-goal percentage—PTS/(2*(FGA + (. It is essentially points scored per shooting possession. the formula slightly overestimates the number of possessions per team without the multiplier. a usage rating that measures how well a player does with the possession he uses.44 accounts for the fact that when a player scores a basket and is fouled. This can be found by PF^14/(PF^14 + PA^14) There are also several versions of passing ratings. rather than creating a new possession. Why is this important? Imagine a situation where one player shoots 6 layups.

Dean.bballsports. com/ jqas/ vol3/ iss3/ 1).com/statsite.bellottibasketball. historical stats with an APBRmetrics influence • BasketballValue.hoopsanalyst.com (http://www. raw statistical data that can be copied into Excel for manipulation. allows viewing of league leaders by specific advanced stats not always found at mainstream sport sites.com A wide range of player and team statistics and many often unique splits. .BasketballProspectus. Bob Chaikin's site for computer basketball simulation and historical sports statistics database • CountTheBasket. research columns and a strong set of information regarding trades • Hoopsstats .alleyoop. com/ article/ 2010/ 12/ 3/ hsacstudents-frontoffice-120310/ ). analysis and shot locations. daily advanced box scores.com (http://www. Oliver.org (http://www.hoopdata.com (http://www.html) Another list of resources • BasketballProspectus.com).countthebasket. Also conducts in-depth studies of specialized questions often asked before but not rigorously analyzed.com).com).com) A wealth of player and team data. html [8] (http:/ / www. • APBRmetrics Central (http://www. Kevin. Pelton.com/keyword/ search?searchString=John_Hollinger&source=l_navbar) • HoopsAnalyst. com/ 2010/ 2/ 10/ 1303802/ media-row-report-blazers-77#comments) External links • APBRmetrics Message Board (http://sonicscentral.kenpom. com [4] "Pair of Students Get Jobs In Pros" (http:/ / www.1070.com/~deano). which tracks stats for College Basketball including advanced NCAA stats • KnickerBlogger.com (http://www. +/-. Dan T (2007).com) A new online basketball analysis site from the publishers of the Baseball Prospectus.com (http://www.com). "A Starting Point for Analyzing Basketball Statistics" (http:/ / www. Net [7] http:/ / www. blazersedge.com).rawbw. doi:10. time on clock. [5] http:/ / www.com (http://www.org) Home of the Association for Professional Basketball Research.com (http://www. thecrimson.com). book buying and archives) • apbr. Justin.APBRmetrics 33 References [1] Kubatko. bepress. 82games. by position. rawbw.com).apbr.dougstats.Net Stats Page (http://www. • AlleyOop. • Journal of Basketball Statistics (http://www. statistical consulting service for professional basketball teams • BBALLsports. com/ ~deano/ index. • Basketball-Reference.com). advanced statistics.82games.espn. team offense and defensive efficiency ratings and the Four Factor ratings . • Hollinger's ESPN Insider Archive (http://search.htm) the most comprehensive index of available stats by type and date on various sites around the web. com/ apbrmetrics [3] http:/ / www. and Rosenbaum. • Hoopdata. counterpart. [2] http:/ / sonicscentral.basketballvalue. Hollinger's Web site (mainly good for links to articles.com).com (http://www.sonicscentral.com/statlinks.com/apbrmetrics) The central discussion source for APBRmetrics • 82games. .basketball-reference. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports 3 (3 (Article 1)).com (http://www.2202/1559-0410. • DougStats. raw plus-minus and lineup data • BellottiBasketball. it lists current player PER ratings. Oliver's Web site (primarily useful to understand definitions if you do not have his newer book and to archive his early work) • Ken Pomeroy's site (http://www. com [6] http:/ / KnickerBlogger. Retrieved 2010-12-06.net/stats) Another important hub for advanced statistical data.com (http://www.knickerblogger. basketball-reference.com (http://www.go.

Troy Yocum. links. Between 2005 and 2007. In addition. "Using Box Scores to Analyze a Position's Value to WInning Games. the Wish Upon a Hero Foundation sponsored Iraq War veteran.com (http://www. • "Rocket Science" (http://www. Established in June 2008 as a mechanism to raise money for larger wishes that were not being granted on the Wish Upon a Hero website.[3] To date. where victims needed immediate shelter. Wishes can be big or small.apbrmetrics. was a further impetus for Girgenti to create a vehicle to help people in need.APBRmetrics • PopcornMachine.S.bepress. more than 70. more organized manner. APBRmetric website with projections.com/jqas/vol3/iss4/1/). to raise money for military families in need. Sports picks based on APBRmetrics • apbrmetrics.[1] History and Organization Background Wish Upon A Hero was founded by Dave Girgenti. which launched in September 2007.com/2007-11-01/news/rocket-science/). and is designed to help anyone in need. In 2011.[4] Wish Upon a Hero Foundation The Wish Upon A Hero Foundation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that supports the wish granting efforts of individuals and organizations. • (http://www. articles 34 Wikipedia talk:Articles for creation/Wish Upon A Hero __NONEWSECTIONLINK__ __NONEWSECTIONLINK__ __NONEWSECTIONLINK__ Wish Upon a Hero is a social helping network in the United States.popcornmachine. shortly after the September 11th attacks on New York City. Girgenti worked to develop an online community that offered a platform for people to help people.net/GameFlows.net (http://www.puresabermetrics.[2] The social networking website is free.000 wishes have been granted through the site. food and water. • puresabermetrics. in the "Hike for our Heroes" as he hikes across the U. as a means to connect people in need in a faster.com)." A recent academic research paper looking at impact of player contributions by position and by statistical category.com).houstonpress. the Foundation accepts corporate donations and is eligible to receive government grants. the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans.html).com (http://www. [5] . Girgenti created Wish Upon A Hero. game flows (charts player movement in and out of the game aiding but not totally settling the question of who guarded whom). which connects those in need with people who are willing to help. based on financial need or just the need to do something kind for another person. healthcare services. Houston Press article on Daryl Morey using statistical analysis to manage the Houston Rockets.

southjerseymagazine. External Links • Wish Upon A Hero (http://www. com/ WN/ PersonOfWeek/ Story?id=7077296& page=1)/ (http:/ / www.Wikipedia talk:Articles for creation/Wish Upon A Hero Foundation Programs Divine 9 Golf Fundraiser An annual celebrity pro-am golf championship benefiting people and families with blood cancer. com/ articles/ ?articleid=278)/ (http:/ / dacula. youtube. Divine 9 granted a 'wedding' wish to a leukemia patient who posted her wish for a dream wedding on the Wish Upon A Hero website.wishuponahero. com/ news/ sharing/ 2009-04-23-wishonhero_N. At the 2010 event. Since 2004. go. myfoxphilly. htm)/ (http:/ / www. patch.[6] 35 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] (http:/ / abcnews. usatoday. com/ dpp/ video/ local-woman's-wish-comes-true). Divine 9 has raised more than $1 million toward leukemia and lymphoma research.com/) • Wish Upon A Hero Foundation (http://wishuponaherofoundation. com/ watch?v=Z6uqlVAzY1U)/ (http:/ / site. com/ articles/ hike-through-dacula-honors-local-soldier)/ (http:/ / www.org/) .

UK Area served Worldwide Method Volunteers Members Website Collaboration 5 500+ alisn. creative facilitation and artist-to-artist exchange. east London. ALISN's next project was facilitating the Goldsmiths/BAA Expo Award 08. and was officially re-branded as ALISN in August 2009. Arc was by London-based art-collective Lobby. strategic support.[4] This project was done in collaboration with BAA and Goldsmiths students. At the time Lubomirov had recently left his art degree at University of East London and Dalladay-Simpson was an undergraduate studying design at Goldsmiths. History Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network began when Iavor Lubomirov and Jordan Dalladay-Simpson met in 2006 while organising a pop-up exhibition for art students and recent art graduates in a disused office building in London. ALISN was founded in 2007 by designer Jordan Dalladay-Simpson (Goldsmiths Alumnus) and artist Iavor Lubomirov (Oxford University Alumnus).Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network 36 Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network ALISN Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network Founders Type Founded Location Jordan Dalladay-Simpson & Iavor Lubomirov Artist Network November 2007 London. ALISN was officially launched under the name of Artists for 2012 (AF2012) and held a pilot show of 5 emerging artists at the 491 Gallery. is a non-profit international support network for artists which provides exhibition spaces. education.[5] . Both founders were looking for ways of showing work and collaborating with other struggling artists to organise and promote art events. which would see two large-scale sculptures installed in the departures lounge of the newly opened Heathrow Terminal 5.org [1] Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network. and Taking Place by Sally Hogarth and Emma Johnson. abbreviated ALISN. The two winning teams built and installed Arc and Taking Place. with mentor-ship from Cathy de Monchaux and Andrew Shoben and oversight from the global communications company Imagination. The show attracted over 300 visitors and laid the ground for future working relationships between the artists involved. ALISN was previously known as AFMMXII (Artists for 2012).[2] [3] In November 2007.

HTAP Seminar Series on Collaboration. maintaining the artist network through Facebook. UK.[12] In the summer of 2009. Calvert 22. Needle & Scalpel.[13] In 2009 ALISN started a working relationship with Goldsmiths Creative Enterprise Society. the workshop-based Pattern-making for Beginners as part of the annual HackneyWICKed Art Festival[6] and In/Flux exhibition on Kingsland Road. • The Last Babacus (Screening. The Magnificent Basement is in Farringdon. July 2009. London. Since its conception. Hackney Wicked Festival. [17] In/Flux (HTAP). BAA Expo.[9] The project was also featured on the British Community Channel. Room to Breathe. which is managed by the founders with the assistance of the organisations fellows. and was part of the Liverpool Independents Biennial. UK. UK. London. transfer of experience and networking. The organisation does this by maintaining a virtual community of artists and other individuals within the creative industries. August 2009. • Creative Enterprise Society Presents: In Conversation with ALISN. UK. as well as reflecting the models of creative facilitation it had developed. October 2008. London. London. At the start of 2010 the ALISN founders were gifted a stable home by a philanthropic London property developer.[11] The event featured a diverse range of artwork from 14 Artists. Pattern Making for Beginners (HTAP). ALISN aided the formation of the Hackney Transients Art Project (HTAP). Hackney.[7] They also produced an Oral History Archive [8] containing ethnographic recordings the opinions of various Hackney residents regarding the area's 'transient nature'. The screenings included David's Buchanan's feature-length musical The Last Babacus and Minou Norouzi's The Anatomy of Failure (HotDocs Selection 2008) with talks by the Film makers. in the CCP Cark Park. London. Twitter and CargoCollective. November 2009. they made use of online social networking platforms to support its network. Facilitating Collaboration in the Arts. UK. London. a decision was made by the founders to find a name more appropriate to the way the organisation had been working. November 2009. critical peer feedback. UK. under the name Art in the Carpark. UK.Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network At the start of 2009. Art in the Carpark. Hackney. Central London. HTAP went on to produce two collaborative events that year. ALISN has a network of more than 500 international artists. Goldsmiths. London.[10] In August 2008 ALISN embarked on a second independent collaborative arts exhibition. but on bringing the artists themselves into contact with each other to accomplish development through cross-pollination of ideas. Fresh Air Machine. Improvised Art Space. UK. AF2012 @ 491 Gallery. September 2009. Goldsmiths. with the help of an organisational administrator. London.[15] [16] 37 Network ALISN says its emphasis is not simply on showing art. September 2008. September 2009. London. and was in collaboration with the underground arts organisation The Arts Organisation (TAO). UK. Leytonstone. This event took place in October. November 2007. London. Events. ALISN also uses these channels to disseminate open calls for participation and promote events. September–December 2008. . Wandsworth. Wandsworth. UK. The support network is maintained by the founders Dalladay-Simpson and Lubomirov. March 2005. Liverpool. which is an east London arts organisation founded by Lucy Tomlins and Marnie Baumer. London. Talk and Q&A). July 2009. AF2012 was re-branded as ALISN in August 2009. Exhibitions & Projects • • • • • • • • • • PUSH. UK. UK. London. Heathrow Terminal 5. Wandsworth. Liverpool. Hackney. launching this indefinite partnership with a talk entitled In Conversation with ALISN [14] followed by a series of art-film screenings.

• Lubomirov & Batiste in The Magnificent Basement. uk/ Clear-Spot_ALISN. gold. • Sharon Gal's Venus Rising in The Magnificent Basement. June 2010.Winner of IdeasTap Fund 2009[21] Cathy de Monchaux .Bloomberg New Contemporaries 2007 [22] References [1] http:/ / www. co. [10] Arts Zone. Goldsmiths. .Hot Docs Selection 2008 Andrew Shoben . co. communitychannel. June 2010. . co. [13] Dalladay-Simpson. Abu Dhabi. . mp3).Designer of the Wheelie bin urinal [18] Lee Broughall . Community Channel. bbc. uk/ news/ ?ID=1367& StartRow=72). uk/ dna/ collective/ A25691600 . uk/ interviews. • artINTERACT.uk. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ england/ london/ 8440931.Jerwood Contemporary Painters Selection 2009 [19] Rebecca Court . uk/ Alisn(HTAP). "Arty car park tells Liverpool’s story" (http:/ / www. London. I. BBC News. . [20] http:/ / www. .Episode 2" (http:/ / www. html [9] Lucy Tomlins. htap.org. org/ #129669/ About-ALISN [3] ClearSpot (24 June 2010). co. • Art Idol 2010 . Retrieved 25 April 2010. co. BBC. thestage. co. jordandalladaysimpson. "ALISN talks to Sharon Gal" (http:/ / www. "ALISN talks about HTAP" (http:/ / www. php/ 25652/ ideastap-awards-50-000-to-six-new [22] http:/ / www.Shortlisted for Turner Prize Minou Norouzi . [15] http:/ / www. UK. "Art in the Carpark" (http:/ / www. wordpress. (11 November 2009). "HackneyWICKed Art Festival 31st July . UK. HTAP. junction49. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ london/ 7616294. Farringdon. ac.Arts Zone . [18] "Wheelie bin converted into toilet" (http:/ / news. hackneywicked. London. gold. htap. alisn. jordandalladaysimpson. . stm).Founding Member of Resonance FM Sy Hackney . UK. UK. .The Judo Series in The Magnificent Basement. . University of London. bbc. uk/ 4ns/ studentDetails/ rebecca%20+ court/ 83972 [21] http:/ / www. London. com/ galleries. html). ac. uk/ idea/ 1494/ celebrate_the_transient_residents_of_hackney/ ). saatchi-gallery. Talk and Q&A). [19] "JERWOOD CONTEMPORARY PAINTERS 2009: SHORTLIST ANNOUNCED" (http:/ / www. [6] Hackney Wicked Arts Festival. mp3). co. Farringdon. Goldsmiths. org/ ?lid=2093). junction49. alisn. "Students' art display at Heathrow" (http:/ / news.2nd August 2009" (http:/ / www. UAE. Farringdon.Founder of Greyworld Charlie Tweed . and Lubomirov. parkingreview. stm). . independentsbiennial. co. [12] independentsbiennial. org/ #164434/ The-Magnificent-Basement [16] http:/ / ceashby. "Idea . July 2010 38 Notable Collaborators • • • • • • • • • • Stephan Bischof . [8] http:/ / www. Retrieved 25 April 2010. . co. uk/ degree-shows/ expo-award/ ).Curated by Marsha Bradfield. Goldsmiths. [11] Parking Review. [7] htap. • Daryl Brown . org/ content/ view/ 2814/ 99/ ). bbc.Winner of the 4 New Sensations Channel 4 Prize 2009 [20] Sharon Gal . J. December 2009. [5] Goldsmiths. "Creative Enterprise Society Presents: In Conversation with ALISN". UK. [4] BBC News (15 September 2008). London. University of London.Founding Member of 491 Gallery Sally Hogarth . 5 January 2010.co. . London. independentsbiennial. HackneyWICKed. org/ [2] http:/ / www. . uk/ news/ newsstory.Celebrate the transient residents of Hackney" (http:/ / www. July 2010. co. July 2010. HTAP Aural Archive. Resonance FM. org/ 2008events/ 497-art-in-carpark). "BAA Expo Award" (http:/ / www. "Community Channel .Artist-Led Initiatives Support Network • The Anatomy of Failure & Hope For Pinok (Screening. jerwoodcharitablefoundation. uk/ calendar/ ?id=3279). "In Conversation with ALISN" (http:/ / www.org. com/ 2010/ 07/ 05/ alisn-a-resource-for-young-artists/ [17] ALISN Founders. [14] Goldsmiths. uk/ influx. php). . alisn. "In/Flux" (http:/ / www.

[8] .[6] The plan was rejected after five of the six committee members voted against it." The name of the site was created from the two most popular female baby names "Ashley" and "Madison".[1] The website was launched in 2001. that he himself had several times cheated on his long-time girlfriend. Noel Biderman. billboards.50.8 million members and Alexa. com/ Yes Online dating service Social network service Yes Available language(s) English Owner Launched Current status Avid Life Media 2001 Active Ashley Madison is an online dating service and Social network service marketed primarily to people who are already in a relationship. 10 streetcars would have been skinned with Ashley Madison's slogan "Life is short. This would have reduced the ticket rate to $2. Have an affair". Biderman considers the NFL demographic a core audience of the site and promises to "find a way to let them know about the existence of this service.[1] . Adam Giambrone. even though alcohol causes thousands of deaths every year.[5] Biderman described the banning as ridiculous. and radio ads. "When it’s a core fundamental value around cheating or lying. stating that the NFL allows advertisements for alcohol.[1] In 2009.[4] The site has been criticized by unsatisfied consumers for what many claim to be its largely fake female membership.[2] [3] Ashley Madison claims to have over 7. A common complaint from members of AshleyMadison." [5] In December 2009. If approved. ashleymadison. Ashley Madison attempted to purchase $200.org shows the site receiving roughly 700.000 worth of advertising on Toronto Transit Commission streetcars.com appears to be the sense that they have been cheated out of their money by "robots" and "fake female profiles.[6] The TTC commissioner showed displeasure in the ads stating.000 unique visitors per month. Biderman offered to subsidize ticket prices by 25 cents if the deal went through. we’re not going to let those kinds of ads go on". The admission caused Giambrone to cancel a planned campaign for mayor of Toronto but has not changed the TTC's policy on the ads.Ashley Madison 39 Ashley Madison Ashley Madison URL Commercial? Type of site Registration http:/ / www.[6] The TTC's refusal to take Ashley Madison advertising was made more controversial after the February 2010 admission by the Chair of the TTC. Advertisements Ashley Madison advertises with TV commercials.[7] After the deal was rejected. by the CEO. NBC banned an Ashley Madison ad from appearing in Super Bowl XLIII.

. com/ Primetime/ story?id=187204& page=1. "NoelBiderman. [4] "Ashleymadison. torontolife. Don (2009-12-11). abc15. Jim (2009-12-16).com. [14] "NFL Stadium Offered $25M to Promote Adultery" (http:/ / www. html). .com" (http:/ / www. "Risque website offers $10 million for Sky Harbor name change" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-01-21. Retrieved 2004-10-21. com/ time/ business/ article/ 0.[12] [13] On June 10.[14] See Also • • • • Comparison of online dating websites BeautifulPeople. . "The Two-Timers Club" (http:/ / www. 2010. .Ashley Madison 40 Controversy Since its launch. bnet. News. Retrieved 2010-03-03. torontolife. "Ashley Madison's secret success" (http:/ / www. . latimes. NoelBiderman. html). Retrieved 2010-01-06.7649415. . com/ Primetime/ story?id=187204& page=1). Biderman responded by stating that the site is "just a platform" and a website or a commercial will not convince anyone to commit infidelity. Time Magazine. column). Ashley Madison has drawn heavy criticism over the subject matter of the site. com/ news/ opinion/ commentary/ la-oe-daum10-2009jan10. . . [8] Yuen.[11] [3] On February 22. . [5] Hill. [7] Edwards. Jenny (2010-02-09). accused Ashley Madison of being a "business built on the back of broken hearts. html). Alexa. com). [13] Fisher. Toronto Sun.com Stadium. (http:/ / abcnews.com Adult FriendFinder Match. Retrieved 2009-01-21. com/ news/ torontoandgta/ 2010/ 02/ 09/ 12812461.com Site Info" (http:/ / www. Patricia. [11] Pearson.com References [1] Daum.8599. Retrieved 2010-01-06.com. torontosun. com/ advertising/ 10005030/ no-streetcars-named-desire-toronto-bans-adultery-ads-on-public-transit/ ). bnet. TMZ. [9] Caplan.1907542. torontosun. com/ news/ torontoandgta/ 2009/ 12/ 11/ 12122821. Patricia. Katie (2010-02-23). nydailynews. Noel. "Cheating 2. html). . Retrieved 2010-09-23. . go. .com. com/ features/ two-timers-club/ ?pageno=2). [3] ABC. "The Two-Timers Club" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-06-07. com/ 2010/ 06/ 09/ nfl-new-york-jets-new-york-giants-stadium-meadowlands-ashley-madison-cheaters-adultery-website/ ). ABC15. [12] Wong. com/ content/ news/ phoenixmetro/ central/ story/ Risque-website-offers-10-million-for-Sky-Harbor/ z4uPlkToaEy6HGHAl2IqOQ. 2001-11-13. Retrieved 2010-09-23. Trish McDermott. this appears to conflict with reports that the company was founded by Darren Morgenstern.com. The New York Daily News. 2010. [6] Peat. Arizona with an offer of $10 million to rename the Sky Harbor Airport to Ashley Madison International Airport over a five-year period. Retrieved 2010-03-03. "Banned! These ads are too racy for the Super Bowl" (http:/ / www. Jeremy (2008-06-28). azcentral. com/ money/ 2009/ 01/ 28/ 2009-01-28_banned_these_ads_are_too_racy_for_the_su-1. Los Angeles Times. . the company approached the city of Phoenix. com/ siteinfo/ ashleymadison. Alexa. com/ members/ Blog/ PHXBeat/ 74536).00. The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 2010-01-06. com). com/ features/ two-timers-club/ ?pageno=2). Retrieved 2010-03-03. tmz. cspx). [10] Biderman. . "Ashley Madison may take another go at TTC" (http:/ / www.[10] even describing his thought process on coming up with the concept for the company and naming it "Ashley Madison". Retrieved 2010-01-06. "No Streetcars Named Desire: Toronto Bans Adultery Ads on Public Transit" (http:/ / industry.com reported that Ashley Madison made an offer to rename New Meadowlands Stadium to AshleyMadison. Catey (2009-01-29). . Scott (2010-02-22). Even though the city was in financial trouble. ruined marriages and damaged families". com).[1] [9] While Biderman claims to be the founder of Ashley Madison. it rejected the offer. a consultant who helped found Match. "TTC dumps Ashley Madison" (http:/ / www. Toronto Sun. [2] Pearson. . . Meghan (2001-01-10).0. 2010-05-30. "Phoenix rejects $10M offer from infidelity Web site" (http:/ / www. "When Cheating On Your Spouse Is Business" (http:/ / abcnews. TMZ. time.0: New Mobile Apps Make Adultery Easier" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-01-06. go.

S.[9] .com. Far*East Movement. a Community Connect sister site.[2] In 1999. The New York Times described it as "unusually successful" despite being "run out of an apartment". USA Owner(s) Community Connect Inc AsianAve or Asian Avenue is a social networking website targeted to the Asian American community. One writer characterized it "mainly an Internet dating site"[7] In 2003. 1997[1] by co-founders Benjamin Sun. 6th Floor New York. Asian American International Film Festival).[3] which the protesters said perpetuated racial stereotypes. the company agreed to stop using the ad.000 users. such as Notorious MSG. there were 1. In October 2007. MiGente. which hurt the site's popularity.[5] At its peak.com and Glee. using the "unheard of" pairing of an Asian-American male performer with Asian-American woman. On October 31.Ashley Madison 41 External links • Ashley Madison (http://www. Cringely claimed in 2000 that Asian Avenue had more members than BlackPlanet.[3] The site received over 70. New York.com. and Calvin Wong. and Magnetic North have gained popularity from their exposure on AsianAve. U. presidential candidate Barack Obama created profiles on AsianAve as well as sister sites BlackPlanet. Grace Chang. Robert X.4 million registered users with fewer than 100 online at any given time. Partners include party promoters (Synergy). film festivals (Toronto Reel Asian International Film Festival.S.[6] Fine Line Features chose the site for an exclusive interview with Chinese NBA star Yao Ming to promote its documentary The Year of the Yao.com) AsianAve AsianAve Type Founded Social networking company 1997 Headquarters 205 Hudson Street.000 unique visitor hits in August 2000.[2] Members were politically active.ashley-madison. Peter Chen. the site was launched on July 21. there were over 2 million users with more than 5000 online at any time. Michael Montero. Darrell Hamamoto used an interview on the site to attract male talent for his adult film Skin to Skin. members protested an ad for SKYY vodka showing a partly dressed white woman being served by a woman in a Mandarin dress and chopsticks in her hair. History Originally named AsianAvenue (or Asian Avenue).[8] At one point the site made various previously free features available only to premium users. media (AngryAsianMan. AZN TV) and many more. Olympic teammates Tara Lipinski and Michelle Kwan. Music artists.com. referring to U. protesting an MSNBC headline for the 1998 Winter Olympics reading "American beats out Kwan". 2005 the website relaunched the social network features.[4] After some 300 postings on Asian Avenue were forwarded to SKYY. By 1998. having hit five million page views from 50. As of April 2007.

[5] "Group Think: Community Connect has created ethnic associations on the net. October 23. archive. html?article_id=dc2d8bfad3d34ac3c9286b004e9209c8& this_category_id=169) on 2007-08-15. . The New York Times.com. Community Connect. com/ gst/ fullpage. with the result that the group was renamed.000 members on the social networking site MySpace targeted toward atheists and agnostics. "Vodka maker clips ad after community criticism" (http:/ / www. the founder's account. com/ the-trail/ 2007/ 10/ 06/ barack_obama_social_networking. asianweek. Can it also make money?" (http:/ / www. asianweek.[1] . . the group was deleted. [3] Kim Girard (August 31. 2008. . [2] Anthony Ramirez (April 12. Retrieved 2007-10-05. com/ gst/ fullpage. Once again. including all threads that referred to the hack. The Washington Post. 2000). Retrieved 2007-10-05. The founder claims that this last action was made by Myspace itself responding to pressure from a coalition of Christians. 2004. html). [6] Robert X. various users were banned. Retrieved 2007-10-05. Cringely (August 17. org/ web/ 20070815104339/ http:/ / news. nytimes. com/ timeline.[2] [3] The growth rate of the group was about 10 000 per year. CNet. Retrieved 2007-09-26. com/ PressRoom/ wallstreet_102300. the founder believes this is a deliberate action by Myspace in response to [1] [4] pressure from Christians . is an internet forum with approximately 35. the group was (apparently inadvertently) scheduled for deletion and subsequently removed. html?res=950CEFD6173AF931A3575AC0A96F958260& n=Top/ Reference/ Times Topics/ Subjects/ A/ Asian-Americans). The group was subsequently undeleted. communityconnect. The New York Times. 1998). More than half of the regular group members were banned outright. com/ news/ view_article. communityconnect. . "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: NEW YORK ON LINE. "Lessons from Yanking ‘The Year of the Yao’" (http:/ / web. Mirrored on Community Connect website. pbs. html). html). and discussions. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. 2003). 2007). On January 1. the moderator received a message from Myspace stating that the group was scheduled to be removed. and many of the threads were deleted. The Wall Street Journal. and ultimately the entire group were deleted. Retrieved 2007-10-05. "Yellow porn" (http:/ / dir. The group has experienced several attacks on its infrastructure. PBS. "Vodka Ad Is Stopped After Racism Protest" (http:/ / query. founded on June 13. 1999). salon. Several minutes later. Retrieved 2007-10-05. html). html?article_id=dc2d8bfad3d34ac3c9286b004e9209c8& this_category_id=169). washingtonpost.asianave. Attacks The founder's Myspace account was accessed by phishing in 2007. and furthermore. "If You Build It. Many regulars of the group were banned from membership. the group leader's password was phished. 2007. This attack ended with the moderator deleting his Myspace profile. com/ news/ view_article. 14 Ethnic Groups" (http:/ / query. html). nytimes. org/ cringely/ pulpit/ 2000/ pulpit_20000817_000661. html). Retrieved 2007-10-06. Asian Week. html?res=9B05E5DD143DF931A25757C0A96E958260). [4] Courtney Kane (September 2. 2005). External links • AsianAve. They Will Come: What BlackPlanet Teaches Us About the True Nature of the Internet" (http:/ / www. . .AsianAve 42 References [1] "Company Timeline" (http:/ / www.com (http://www. "Barack Obama. . and the group taken over and renamed "Jesus is Love". .[1] Due to its growing size and prominence as the largest group on MySpace dedicated to the subject of non-theism. Salon. news.com) Atheist and Agnostic Group The Atheist and Agnostic Group. 1999). [7] Grace Niwa (May 6. On November 23. he claims that Myspace now refuses to undelete it. his profile destroyed. Retrieved 2008-07-10. com/ Vodka-maker-clips-ad-after-community-criticism/ 2100-1017_3-230488. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 2000. One Site. com/ story/ sex/ feature/ 2003/ 10/ 10/ asian/ index. 2007. [9] Jose Antonio Vargas (October 6. however in 2008 while the founder of the group was emailing Myspace customer services to have users unbanned. Social Networking King" (http:/ / blog. the creator of the group was invited as a representative to The New Humanism conference at Harvard University on April 20 to April 22. [8] Harry Mok (October 10. .

Harvard Humanist Chaplaincy. secularstudents. [2] "About the Conference" (http:/ / www. ssf?/ base/ living-0/ 1201772086310820. org/ node/ 1933). [6] Vunet: Christian hackers attack MySpace page (http:/ / www. all Myspace groups sections displayed the message "Myspace groups is getting an upgrade. com/ plaindealer/ stories/ index. however. Retrieved 2008-01-31. boston. David (2008-01-31). secularstudents. com/ vnunet/ news/ 2208897/ myspace-site-attacked-radical) External links • Atheist and Agnostic Group page (http://groups. org/ node/ 1942). The Plain Dealer. Secular Student Alliance. References [1] Briggs. The Boston Globe. . "MySpace deletes hacked Web site for atheists and agnostics" (http:/ / www. .myspace. 2008-02-02. 2007-09-16 [4] "MySpace: No place for Atheists?" (http:/ / www. org/ ?page_id=13). Retrieved 2008-01-31. com/ news/ globe/ magazine/ articles/ 2007/ 09/ 16/ the_nonbelievers/ ). Retrieved 2008-02-02. . 2008. [5] "MySpace Atheist and Agnostic Group Restored (sort of)" (http:/ / www. [5] Many of its members.com/atheistsagnostics) on MySpace .[6] 43 Death For a number of months at the end of 2010. Retrieved 2008-01-31. cleveland.Atheist and Agnostic Group Without any official comment on the part of MySpace. Secular Student Alliance. As of the beginning of January 2011. remain banned. xml& coll=2). 2008-01-31. It will be back better than ever". [3] The Nonbelievers (http:/ / www. vnunet. Myspace permanently retired Groups for good. thenewhumanism. . the group was restored on February 02.

.[2] Like other social network websites.[1] The website also has a "rivals" feature. and present a schedule of future events. triathlon. cycling. RockyMountainNews. html). a user maintains a group of "friends". swimming. "Social networking for endurance runners" (http:/ / blogs.982 races.athlinks. As of April 2011. Users can mark their own race results. Retrieved 2008-10-24. Bob (June 2.com) . foxnews. Retrieved 2008-10-24. list their gear items. In addition. "Enthusiasts find big is not always best with social networks" (http:/ / www. 2008).4670.com. com Social network service Registration Yes Owner Launched Alexa rank Busot Interactive 2001 69.Athlinks 44 Athlinks Athlinks URL Type of site http:/ / www.000 Athlinks is a free-of-charge social networking website which primarily presents race results for running. . com/ outdoor_colorado/ 2008/ 06/ im_not_much_into_social. About Athlinks claims to have the "most comprehensive database of endurance race results and events anywhere in the world". Foxnews. External links • Athlinks (http://www. 2008).BusinessofLife. and adventure racing. athlinks. [2] Jesdanun. mountain biking. the website claims to have results for over 192. html). rockymountainnews.00. com/ wires/ 2008Apr16/ 0. References [1] Findlay. where a user can compare themselves to athletes with similar results. and build a thorough list of their race history. users may keep a training log. upload photos. Anick (April 16.com.

[1] two alumni from the University of Miami School of Business Administration.com.Audimated 45 Audimated Audimated Type Founder Headquarters Area served Industry Products Services Slogan Website Alexa rank Type of site Advertising Registration Available in Launched Florida Corporation Lucas Sommer and Andrew Levine Miami. Online Music Retail Digital and physical music and merchandise Digital Distribution. Music downloading Love Music. offers a platform in which both artists and fans can sell music and related products to make a profit. Audimated. audimated.com are Lucas Sommer and Andrew Levine. . Florida World Wide Web Social Networking. they put their business plan into action in 2008 to make their website a reality.[1] The website name is a combination of the words audio and automated. History The idea for Audimated came to Lucas and Andrew during their senior year of college together at the University of Miami. com 982. which represents the website’s goal of combining music (audio) and automating the process of marketing through social networking (mated) for independent artists. Make Money http:/ / www.710 Social Network Online Music Portal No Free English July 1st 2010 Current status Beta Audimated is a social networking website for independent musicians and their fans. After receiving positive feedback on the idea from their business professors. which launched in June 2010. The founders of Audimated.

com is free of charge for artists and their fans. .casefoundation.com. Retrieved 2010-08-25. awarded to Lucas Sommer on behalf of Audimated. Audimated. listen to and upload songs on the Audimated. Audimated.com/article/ SB10001424052748704304504574610331674286094.wsj. "We Media PitchIt! competition nets $50. While artists upload their creative content onto the website. html). Audimated. Tech Tonic" (http:/ / blogs. Toddi (2009-12-22).com guarantees that they keep the rights to all creative content of their work. Audimated.com won the annual WeMedia Pitch It! Contest. makes money for both.palmbeachpost. WeMedia. 2010-07-08. Audimated.html) • Palm Beach Post Article (http://blogs. The Miami Herald and various blogs devoted to independent music. Retrieved 2010-08-25. com/ article/ SB10001424052748704304504574610331674286094. The website business model is to charge a 10% fee of all sale transactions by artists and fans while up-selling premium services to its members . Blogs. [2] "Social network connects musicians and fans.com is an online music community with a variety of unique features. In addition to the revenue generating component.) and also lets fans have “stores” where they can add their favorite bands’ products for sale.com/ another-social-networking-site-for-indie-musicians-and-fans/) . etc. Most notably. References [1] Gutner.com has also received press for its services in the Wall Street Journal.com also allows the fan user group to find top artists that match their taste. Audimated. [3] Suzanne McBride (2010-03-11).com/techtonic/social/ social-network-connects-musicians-and-fans-makes-money-for-both/) • Case Foundation Blog post on Audimated (http://www.com radio and search specific locations for new musicians of different genres. fans and artists alike can use the website as a tool for earning money.com for the best pitch. External links • Audimated in the Wall Street Journal (http://online. .com allows artists to sell their merchandise (songs.wsj. Signing up for Audimated. Online. concert tickets.[3] The grand prize. Retrieved 2010-08-25. com/ 2010/ 03/ 11/ we-media-pitchit-competition-nets-50000-for-news-and-music-start-ups/ ). palmbeachpost.000 for news and music start-ups" (http:/ / wemedia.[2] News In March 2010. "New Graduates Create Their Own Jobs" (http:/ / online. .org/blog/ conference-recap-wemedia-miami-10/) • Independentmusic-Greg Blog post on Audimated (http://independentmusic-greg. was $25.com.000 in start up funds for the website. wsj.com simply offers a platform to increase awareness and interest in independent music.[2] For example.com. com/ techtonic/ social/ social-network-connects-musicians-and-fans-makes-money-for-both/ ).Audimated 46 Concept Audimated.palmbeachpost.

Russian.[12] As of 2009.[10] History The site originated in Russia at the height of the social networking boom of 2006. London headquarters. managed out of its Soho. 128 (April 2011) Active [3] [2] Badoo is a multi-lingual social networking website.[4] In January 2008. Spain. it evolved from his earlier dating site. according to Alexa Internet.[11] In November 2010. 3035 Limassol.com [1] free. Polish.[17] . The funding will be used to build Badoo in Russia. where the social networking market is beginning to grow. the Russian investor Finam Capital paid US$30 million for a 10% stake in Badoo.[8] In a peer-reviewed study. Swedish. Mamba (ru:Mamba.[4] but owned by a company in Cyprus and ultimately by Russian entrepreneur Andrey Andreev. English.[9] it was given the lowest score for privacy among 45 social networking sites examined. Turkish Owner Alexa rank Current status 332 Agiou Andreou Street. Finnish. German. Forbes reported a rumour that the site may float in 2011. French. Czech.[11] Founded by Andrei Andreyev.[15] According to their website faq.[13] [14] As of April 2011 Badoo claims to have over 114 million registered users. Italian. "Patrician Chambers".[7] Badoo ranks as the 52nd most popular site in France and the 150th globally. Cyprus. Badoo claims to employ over 200 people internationally.[16] In April of 2011 Badoo was threatened by Facebook with an audit and potential removal if it didn't make its Facebook app less viral. Greek. Finam now has 20% ownership of Badoo.[2] [5] [6] Although available in most of the world. Italy and France. but with a charge for higher prominence Social network service yes Available language(s) Dutch.Badoo 47 Badoo Badoo URL Commercial? Type of site Registration badoo. Portuguese.ru). the site is most active in Latin America.[4] and was launched in London in November 2006. Spanish.

Internet Support delivered a start-to-finish article that praised Badoo's HA features such as Location Awareness.com .Badoo 48 Media reception In 2008. wired. on sex (http:/ / www. com). 2008). com/ terms) Accessed August 2009 "badoo. [1] [2] [3] [4] . Joseph. Accessed April 2011 [7] "Google. and Freemium escort services.[22] It also states that Badoo may use several Facebook applications to automatically gather Facebook users' personal information. co. google. WEIS '09: Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on the Economics of Information Security. 2010). Badoo was profiled in the PDA blog of The Guardian. .[24] References http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-02-10. [9] Bonneau. cam. Alexander (November 12. ahead of a home push" (http:/ / uk.[19] As of April 2011 it is censored in the United Arab Emirates and elsewhere.[22] The same article states there are images of women in hospital just after giving birth. [6] Later.[23] Revenue Badoo generates income through a "Rise Up" feature which allows users to pay to have their profile given more prominence on the site for a limited time. . the Pinba real time statistics server. "Billion for the introduction As one of the most mysterious businessmen in the West. html) The Daily Telegraph 21 Jul 2009 [11] "Project Portfolio – Badoo" (http:/ / www. html).. com Badoo . Mike (January 21. [10] Social networks ‘failing users’ (http:/ / www. [12] Butcher. Wired Magazine. uk/ magazine/ archive/ 2011/ 05/ features/ sexual-network?page=1) by David Rowan. Preibusch. dating site and picture rating site disguised as a social network. 06 April 11.. Geo-Location. . Inc. com/ privacy/ ) 28 Aug 2009 [6] How Badoo built a billion-pound social network. Techcrunch reports that as of January 2010. Sören (2009). alexa. Video SMS upload. . telegraph.[20] Web of trust. raising suspicions about whether one would willingly upload such images to a dating service. uk/ ~jcb82/ doc/ privacy_jungle_bonneau_preibusch.[21] Finnish newspaper Iltalehti reported that numerous Badoo profiles have been created without people's consent. Alexa Internet. Techcrunch. access to Badoo in Iran is blocked by the Iranian government. . finamcapital. "The Privacy Jungle: On the Market for Privacy in Social Networks" (http:/ / www. [13] Levinsky." It was noted Badoo did not offer any group or other type of community to facilitate users meeting similar people. uk/ technology/ news/ 5878857/ Social-networks-failing-users-says-study. Freemium induction. com/ siteinfo/ badoo. 2009.[22] In April 2011 Wired magazine carried a feature on the website and its founder. Retrieved 2010-11-18 [5] Badoo Privacy Policy (http:/ / badoo. cl. Retrieved 2010-05-17. Retrieved 2009-08-29. badoo. [8] "Alexa Internet report on Badoo" (http:/ / www. com#).org. com/ badoo. ac.Traffic Details from Alexa" (http:/ / www. com). it was reported that 20% of Badoo's then 22 million users accessed this function once a month. com/ 2008/ 01/ 21/ uks-badoo-pulls-30m-for-russian-launch-ahead-of-a-home-push/ ). alexa. Retrieved 2009-11-13. including various improvements to the PHP scripting language.[18] According to TopTenReviews Badoo is "like a chat room. paidContent. Russia has created a mega-project Badoo" (http:/ / www. co.Terms of Use (http:/ / badoo. org/ article/ 419-another-russian-ipo-social-net-badoo-rumoured-for-float). com/ websites?q=badoo. techcrunch. In the end of 2007. and that people have reported Badoo's actions to the police. Open source Badoo has released several pieces of software under an open source licence. com/ siteinfo/ badoo. forbes. pdf). Finam Capital. "Another Russian IPO?" (http:/ / paidcontent. "UK’s Badoo pulls $30m for Russian launch.com" (http:/ / trends. the community-based website reputation ratings tool rated the site as trustworthy but with a risk of spam and phishing. ru/ tehno/ internet-i-telekommunikatsii/ 59604-milliard-za-znakomstvo) (in Russian). and the Blitz template engine. Retrieved 2010-08-31.

Iltalehti. fi/ digi/ 2011012113041159_du.Badoo Forbes (Russia).com) .com" (http:/ / badoo. . Techcrunch. . mywot. com/ ). html). . uk/ media/ pda/ 2008/ mar/ 05/ elevatorpitchwhybadoowants). Financial Content. 2009. "Elevator Pitch: Why Badoo wants to be the next word in social networking!" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-31-08. [23] "Badoo Developer Zone" (http:/ / dev. . financialcontent. 49 External links Official website (http://http://badoo. The Guardian. [16] "Badoo" (http:/ / allsiteslike. Retrieved 2009-08-29. Jemima (March 05. TopTenREVIEWS. 21 January 2011. [19] "Social Networking Websites Review . . . "No flirting! Social network Badoo is banned in Iran" (http:/ / eu. guardian. [14] "Another Russian IPO? Social Net Badoo Rumoured For Float" (http:/ / markets. html). Guardian. techcrunch. Retrieved 2009-01-06. com/ en/ scorecard/ badoo. 2010). 2010. com/ stocks/ news/ read?GUID=15557564). November 12.Badoo" (http:/ / social-networking-websites-review. com/ badoo-facebook-2011-4 [18] Kiss. com/ badoo-review. com). Accessed March 2008. Mark Sweney . . Retrieved 2011-03-23. Retrieved 2011-01-25. [17] http:/ / www. shtml) (in Finnish). toptenreviews. uk/ digitalcontent/ 2008/ 03/ elevator_pitch_why_badoo_wants. [21] "WOT Reputation Scorecard" (http:/ / www. [15] "Badoo. Retrieved 2011-01-25. Retrieved 2011-01-23. [22] "Treffipalvelu varastaa profiilitiedot: Varo tätä sovellusta Facebookissa" (http:/ / www. [20] Butcher. December 24 2007 . Retrieved 2010-08-31. . . co. iltalehti. com/ 2010/ 01/ 05/ social-network-badoo-is-banned-in-iran/ ). [24] Elevator Pitch: Why Badoo wants to be the next word in social networking (http:/ / blogs. 2008). Retrieved 6 January 2011. Web of Trust. co. Retrieved 6 January 2011. businessinsider. Mike (January 05. badoo. com). com/ badoo). . guardian.

raised $30 million in equity funding from Tudor Ventures January 2008 – Batanga. acquires HispanoClick June 2008 – Batanga consolidates online operations to its Coral Gables.000 for MyBatanga. David Chitel and John Leguizamo in NYC. including Batanga. Timeline • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1999 – Planeta founded by Rafael Urbina in Miami. Batanga.com [1] Website Batanga.com offers music videos. Batanga operates through several media vehicles. Inc. by Troy McConnell and Jochen Fischer.com 2001 – LatCom Communications co-founded by Allan Suarez. Batanga no longer offers Internet radio streaming to people who reside outside the USA. the largest ad network targeting Hispanics in the U. CEO Rick Marroquin. delivered to subscribers and selected universities across the United States six times per year. founder Rafael Urbina.S. Hispanics. FL offices .S. sponsor-driven music-oriented events targeted to U.000 user generated stations.Batanga Publishing and Batanga Live. Inc. NC. Inc. Batanga. Florida Key people Troy McConnell. September 2001 – First Latino Step campus event. Hispanic audience. Batanga Music Magazine and Batanga University. As of July 2008. Inc. Batanga Publishing produces two magazines. acquired HispanoClick. Batanga LIVE promotes and executes custom. Florida (1999) Headquarters Coral Gables. In addition. November 1999 – First song streamed on Batanga. maintains offices in Miami and New York.S. produced by LatCom Communications December 2005 – Batanga merges with Planeta Networks November 2006 – Batanga merges with LatCom Communications December 2006 – MyBatanga social network launched August 2007 – Batanga.com 50 Batanga. and over 50.batanga. Batanga.a streaming service hosted in Spain .com . is a media company directed to a U. Batanga. claiming to feature over 50 Latin music radio stations.com Batanga Type Industry Founded Private Internet Music Portal Miami. artist interviews. August 1999 – Batanga founded in Greensboro. In early 2008.com November 1999 – First video streamed on Batanga.com also offers free Internet radio. CMO www. FL. Batanga claimed over 10 million visits to it web services and membership of over 500. produced by LatCom Communications March 2002 – First issue of Batanga Latin Music magazine published.Batanga. Inc.

html . Washington Post [5] Batanga Acquires Latcom from Davidson Media Group. FOXBusiness [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. marketingymedios. foxbusiness. com/ en/ http:/ / www. batanga. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 10/ 06/ AR2006100601704. jsp?vnu_content_id=1003353527 http:/ / www.com 51 External links • Batanga website • • • [2] • Batanga (English) [3] • Batanga (Spanish) [1] Hispanics' Web Identity Grows As Ads Target Diverse Audience.Batanga. com http:/ / www. batanga. html http:/ / www. Marketing y Medios [6] Batanga Acquires HispanoClick. com/ article/ batanga-acquires-hispanoclick_460774_1. batanga. washingtonpost. com/ es/ http:/ / www. com/ marketingymedios/ noticias/ article_display.

Hodge acknowledges that attraction is a strong criterion used when approaching strangers in a bar. The site dubbed the virus as 'Shrek' after the animated film with an underlying storyline of how looks should not matter. since they allow anyone to join and have mediocre or non-existent filters for finding attractive people.com BeautifulPeople. OK'.BeautifulPeople. but later opened its access for users worldwide.com.[4] [5] Some of these rejections have resulted in death threats to the site owners. 2009. 30. It also offers an optional braille translator mode.000 accounts from the United States. ranging from 'Yes definitely'.[3] While the site contains about 5 million members.com 52 BeautifulPeople.[1] [2] The company reportedly has more than 5 million members and websites in several countries in more than 12 different languages.[1] The site was originally launched in Denmark in 2001. and were deemed unattractive. and attempts to transfer this aspect of dating onto the website. the site turned into a pay model similar to eharmony. As of August 12. BeautifulPeople.com URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Owner Created by http:/ / www. not really' to 'No definitely NOT'. 'Hmm yes. This upset many long term users who had used the site for free for several years and weren't going to the site for dating purposes but to communicate with other friends with similar interests.[2] Later it was revealed that it was a publicity campaign that won a "Best Global Campaign" award at the CIPR Awards in 2010.com is an online dating service focusing on attractive people based on the opinions of the community.[4] Each application is rated on a scale of 4.000 people were kicked off of the website as a result of this at a cost of $100. Many users have stopped using the site due to the new pricing model and gone to other less costly means of communication with friends. the site axed at least 25.[7] [8] Some web sites suspect this was a hoax. In response the website set up a helpline with counselors for the distressed people who had been rejected from the website.[6] [9] . 2010.com was allegedly attacked by a virus which allowed users to join without going through a 48 hour voting system by other users to determine whether they are suitable for the site. there really are no options to use the site unless you pay €15-30 ($20-40 US dollars) a month. only 20 percent of applications to the site makes it to the community.[6] In June of 2011 BeautifulPeople. On January 4.000 to the site operator. 'Hmm no. which have received complaints from other users that they had gained weight over the holiday season.[4] In 2009. com Yes Online dating service Yes BeautifulPeople Network [1] Greg Hodge and Robert Hintze Current status Active BeautifulPeople. 2010.[3] Site creator Greg Hodge states that people were tired of using mainstream online dating sites when looking for an attractive partner. He notes the film and main character of Zoolander is an inspiration for the site.

[3] "Lonely hearts website for beautiful people only goes global" (http:/ / www.BeautifulPeople.com • Adult FriendFinder • Ashley Madison References [1] Nesdoly. sophos. Retrieved 2010-01-04. "The dating agency where looks are absolutely everything" (http:/ / www. com/ living/ article/ 447650). uk/ lifeandstyle/ 2011/ jun/ 20/ dating-website-beautiful-people-members [8] http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ 06/ 20/ beautifulpeople-dupes-mediashrek-virus-media-stunt/ ). Brisbane Times. . Retrieved 2010-01-04. uk/ news/ article-1222973/ The-dating-agency-looks-absolutely-everything. [2] "BeautifulPeople. dailymail. Dailymail. . co. [5] "Dating site rejects 'ugly' Poms" (http:/ / www. [4] Andrews.com) . June 20. 2009-11-12. bbc. [6] Naked Security. [7] http:/ / www. html). html). 2011. June 20. Retrieved 2010-01-04. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 8439495.2817. uk/ relationships/ online-dating/ 6434425/ Lonely-hearts-website-for-beautiful-people-only-goes-global. "Only pretty people need apply to website" (http:/ / www. html). asp [9] shinyshiny. guardian. Emily (2009-10-26).2387267. com/ article2/ 0. Did Dating Site BeautifulPeople.com hoax us about an invasion of ugly people? (http:/ / www. Telegraph. 2009-10-26. BeautifulPeople dupes media with Shrek virus publicity stunt (http:/ / nakedsecurity. pcmag. . BBC News.com axes holiday weight gain members" (http:/ / news. stm).00.BeautifulPeople.com (http://www. thestar. html). . co. Retrieved 2010-01-04. brisbanetimes. External links • BeautifulPeople. shinyshiny. co. Retrieved 2010-01-04. co. tv/ 2011/ 06/ dating-site-beautifulpeoplecom-might-have-hoaxed-us-about-invasion-of-ugly-people. 2010-01-04. au/ lifestyle/ lifematters/ dating-site-rejects-ugly-poms-20091112-iao9. Tracy (2008-06-24). . 2011. The Star. telegraph.com 53 See Also • Match. com.tv.

scholars. Operation Bibliophile is a closed list. It has a fee of $30 per year due after a two week free trial period. John of God. In the summer of 1997 Lynn DeWeese-Parkinson took over the list adding a bit of whimsy by changing the title from “List Owner” to “Grand Poohbah” and declaring its location in the polity of Bibliotenango. librarians. and general bibliophiles. In February 1995 the list was taken over by Joe McDonald of SmartDOCS. the volume of email was large. Its members are drawn from around the world and include many of the most knowledgeable of bibliophiles. out-of-print and scarce books. External links • Bibliophile Mailing List Homepage [2] . only subscribers are allowed to post and are expected to observe the amenities of good manners and professional behavior. At about the same time its management became the responsibility of Shoshana Edwards. The list membership had grown to over 550. students.Claremont. the patron of booksellers.Edu server hosting the list could no longer handle the bandwidth. as well as posting books wanted and books for sale listings. By early 1995 the Iris.com in the Santa Clarita Valley of Southern California. It is not monitored but the discussions are followed by its Grand Poohbah who attempts to keep them within freely drawn bounds. and book lovers. collectors. Booksellers. and with an average of 15 to 20 posts per day. History The Bibliophile Mailing List was started in 1994 by Michael Medlin at the Claremont Colleges. share news and discussions on all manner of topics of interest to bibliophiles. Today its membership is just over 1000 booksellers. librarians.Bibliophile mailing list 54 Bibliophile mailing list Bibliophile Mailing List URL Type of site Registration Owner Created by Launched [1] e-list and virtual community Subscription Lynn DeWeese-Parkinson Michael Medlin 1994 Current status 1000 members The Bibliophile Mailing List is an electronic mailing list for sellers and collectors of rare. The list and the whimsy has continued with events such as the annual "running of the book scouts" on the day of St.

2007). • Lightner. 1. Hugh (July 14. org/ newsletter/ archive/ v6/ deweesepark.Bibliophile mailing list 55 References • Hollowell. "The Grand Pooh-Bah: An Interview with Lynn deWeese-Parkinson" [4].. no. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. bibliophilegroup. Barbara (February 2002). IOBA Standard Vol III. bibliophilegroup. "Selling books on Biblio List" [3]. Book Links. ioba. com/ bookselling/ venues/ selling-books-on-the-biblio-list http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / hughlh. html .

com [1] Social network service Google. Though BIGADDA is not in the same league of popularity as its foreign counterparts like Facebook. it doesnot offer paid services as Snapfish. President Reliance Entertainment Lets Catch Up BIGADDA. . Dataquest. which is one of the most widely used multi-user blog sites. The celeb blogs feature has celebrities like Amitabh Bachchan. Surat. a popular IT journal also featured BIGADDA along with sites like IndyaRocks & BharatStudent as one of the top 25 web 2. AdSense. it still claims that top 20 cities account for 45% users from within India while 40% of the users come from Tier III cities like Tuticorin. India Rajesh Sawhney.BIGADDA 56 BIGADDA BIGADDA Type Founded Headquarters Key people Owner Slogan Website Type of site Advertising Registration Available in Launched Subsidiary 2007 Mumbai. users can make their posts searchable on the net and can spice up their blogs with various widgets and graphic options available. Kodakshare. It claims to be the largest and the fastest growing youth networking site in India[3] . However. Blogs The vertical works on the Wordpress 2. BIGADDA features Photos Online platform for users to upload and share unlimited photos for free with friends & family. Bhilai. Nasik[4] . Harbhajan Singh.7 platform. part of the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group.FOCUSA2Z[6] but has similar features like flicker.0 start-ups in India[5] . Amritsar. Apart from the regular features available. Proprietary Required English August 2007 Current status Active BIGADDA is a social networking website belonging to the internet and new media vertical[2] of Reliance Entertainment. Other blogs created can also be imported on BIGADDA. Guwahati. Arbaaz Khan and Akshay Kumar amongst other celebrities.

no/ artikler/ avis/ article7468. no . focusa2z. a Norwegian news company. bollywood. in/ ). External links • Official website [2] References [1] http:/ / avis. com/ Reliance Big Entertainment Website. . There is no sandbox open to developers. ece [2] http:/ / www. rbe. 2008-11-11. "BIGADDA's userbase crosses three million mark" (http:/ / economictimes. Retrieved 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2008-03-04. pop. However there is an email id provided on their website for developers to submit applications. Retrieved 2009-06-12. [6] http:/ / www. biip. Users can also come and listen to a varied range of songs including Hollywood. 2005. the Danish publishing house Egmont and the founders.com. Users' profiles are visible to all other users. Dagens Næringsliv.no was recently sold to Mediehuset Nettavisen AS and Egmont for a reported 20 million USD. .8 compliant. Retrieved 2008-06-12. kan få 100 mill. 2008-03-04. bigadda. 2008). Users use nicknames instead of real names. ilike Applications The BIGADDA application platform is OpenSocial v0.BIGADDA 57 Music Online platform for users to upload and share songs with friends and family. Economic Times. Retrieved 2009-06-12. Profiles" (http:/ / dqindia. com/ content/ top_stories/ 2009/ 109050803. com/ frontpage/ aboutus).in. References • "Betalte én krone. dn." [1]. cms). BIGADDA. com [1] [2] [3] [4] External links Biip. It was founded on June 1. [5] "Top Stories . ibibo. ciol. "About Us" (http:/ / www. and is owned by Mediehuset Nettavisen AS. asp). rock. Biip. "Reliance BIG Entertainment" (http:/ / www. References http:/ / www. DataQuest.000 users and profiles (as of May 5. bigadda. indiatimes. .com. metal and classical.no is the third largest Internet-based community in Norway (after Facebook and Nettby) with more than 320. There are a few games from Zapak (a partner site) and a couple of other applications currently online. com/ Infotech/ BigAddas_userbase_above_3_mn_mark/ articleshow/ 3701081. co. 2009-08-15. .no Biip.

Bilddagboken 58 Bilddagboken Dayviews is a Swedish virtual community where users can upload photographs and present these to other members. Bilddagboken is available in 5 different languages (see below). As of 2008. kiaindex.se [5] • (English) Myphotodiary. se/ p/ forum. no/ http:/ / billeddagbog. xml) A thread in the bilddagboken. while other communities in Sweden are mostly aimed at chatting. Bilddagboken had more than 100 000 users logged in at the same time.[4] In October 2008. Recently. html?fID=4& tID=60518 http:/ / www. bilddagboken. Bilddagboken. according to themselves. se/ nyheter/ 2007/ 02/ 15/ lunarstorm-koper-del-av-bi/ index. the community surpassed more than 200 million uploaded images. fi/ http:/ / bildedagboka. The Bilddagboken sister sites have been 'live' for almost 2 years and have failed to capture any presence within International markets. com/ http:/ / kuvapaivakirja. org/ ?natoff=1 Resumé: Lunarstorm köper del av Bilddagboken (http:/ / www. It also reached 800 000 members in the same week. resume.com [6] • (Finnish) Kuvapaivakirja. although only Swedish and English are available at this time. bilddagboken.com are since November 2009 the same site. primarily because the site is aimed entirely at sharing images.se and Myphotodiary. The community has succeeded well on the virtual community market in Sweden. setting a record for itself. se http:/ / www. On the 15th of October 2007 it was confirmed that Lunarstorm had bought 40 % of Bilddagboken. The page is. Sweden's largest and fastest growing website.[2]) The page has about 20 000 to 80 000 members logged in at any given time and about six million visitors (one million unique visitors) per week (July 2008).[1] (Statistics about Swedish commercial websites is available at Kiaindex . Bilddagboken has also created a new forum for all users. se/ ) http:/ / www.dk [9] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] The news page as a logged in member on (http:/ / www. with a link to change language in the footer of the page.fi [7] • (Norwegian) Bildedagboka. dk/ . myphotodiary. External links • (Swedish) Bilddagboken. The other localizations are still separate sites.no [8] • (Danish) Billeddagbog. This effectively overloaded the servers and caused slow surfing at their site.se forum http:/ / bilddagboken.[3] On the 14 June 2008.

education. net [2] Gilbert.net/bionet/mm/bioforum/1991-July/003257.* includes bionet.[3] It latter moved to the United Kingdom's MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research (RFCGR). As one of the earliest bioinformatics community projects on the Internet. D. [3] Benton. BIOSCI/Bionet provides public.3. is a set of electronic communication forum used by life scientists around the world.arabidopsis. doi:10. bionet.net domain and the Usenet hierarchy of Bionet for promoting open access communications among bioscientists. co-founder of BIOSCI with Dave Kristofferson of GenBank (Intelligenetics). pdf). bioinformatics software and computational biology.elegans and annelida (worms).html) .BIOSCI 59 BIOSCI BIOSCI. with the closing of RFCGR. org/ cgi/ reprint/ 5/ 3/ 300. It includes the Bionet Usenet newsgroups and parallel e-mail lists.bio. PMC 330520. open access biology news and discussion for areas such as molecular biology methods and reagents.1093/nar/18. We combined forces to start the Bulletin boards. in conjunction with public biology data distribution. I was also a user of MOLGEN at Stanford.300. bionet. in collaboration with Martin Bishop and Michael Ashburner in the University of Cambridge. in the early 1980s.plants.indiana. BIOSCI/Bionet moved to Indiana University Biology Department's IUBio Archive. and several organism communities including yeast.molbio.biology.bio. bionet. In 2005. (1990). maize (corn).G. fruitfly. with public archives since 1992 at www.1093/bib/5. and research communities of bionet.bio. the plant arabidopsis.bio.6. D. bio.[2] BIOSCI/Bionet was started as part of the GenBank public biosequence database project by Intelligenetics at Stanford University in the mid 1980s. The Usenet hierarchy of Bionet. PMID 15383216.bio. toxicology.html) NIH support of GenBank/BIOSCI (http://www.methds-reagnts.computational plus 50 other active areas of discussion. Briefings in Bioinformatics 5 (3): 300–304.net/bionet/mm/bioforum/1991-July/001798.genome.net [1] . C.announce (general biology announcements). and others. Martin Bishop and I ran an email news service for a sequence analysis service that we ran on the Cambridge IBM3084Q mainframe.neuroscience. doi:10. Nucleic Acids Research 18 (6): 1517–1520. writes of its origins . and there Dave Kristofferson ran an internal bulletin board using ANU News.net/) IUBio Archive (http://iubio. References [1] http:/ / www. Michael Ashburner. bionet. bionet. oxfordjournals. bionet. GenBank acquired the bio. "Recent changes in the GenBank On-line Service".1517. PMID 2326192.drosophila. External links • • • • BIOSCI/Bionet (http://www.microbiology. . (2004).edu/) Dave Kristofferson on BIOSCI (http://www.. "Software Review: Bioinformatics software resources" (http:/ / bib. also known as Bionet..

s. discuss everything what is in teenager's head in forum with other young people or meet students in the same age. He created BIRDZ in 2000.SK Commercial? URL Type of site Target group Registration Available language(s) Owner Created by Yes http:/ / www. Photos. Maybe the suffering of the dying animal goes to his flesh. Tomas Abaffy Tomas Abaffy is a graphic designer and Web designer. Blog.s. User base Tomas Abaffy. In February 2008 portal was bought by Perex. autor of birdz. Users upload thousands of photos. He is also known for his famous status message on BIRDZ: "Since I eat less meat and more vegetables. college students Open up to age of 30 Slovak. History BIRDZ.sk BIRDZ has now about 100000 registered teen users.BIRDZ 60 BIRDZ BIRDZ. and make new friendships. a. birdz.SK is a social networking site for Slovak teenagers and students. The Portal was designed and developed by freelance web designer and college student Tomas Abaffy. Registration is free and open for all users age between 11 and 29 years. mostly aged from 13 to 26 years old. After a huge relaunch BIRDZ became one of the first community portals in Slovakia. Tomas Abaffy BIRDZ or BIRDZ. Maybe meat causes sadness. I feel happier. with their own Webpage. Users create accounts. a. who is sole owner of the company. . :D". In 2004 he co-founded (with Radoslav Augustin) the media news server Mediálne. Czech Perex. subsidiary of Northcliffe International.SK was launched on 4 December 2000 as a student's ezine. It is the largest portal of this kind in Slovakia. publishing house. they can show their talent. write almost thousand blogs and send a large amount of internal messages every week.sk which was sold to a publishing company in 2006. sk/ Social network service teenagers.

booom.sk history [6] article about history of the project (in slovak language) PEREX a. sk http:/ / online. [7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. sk http:/ / www. sk/ about/ historia/ [7] http:/ / www. GigaCast.s. perex. according to AIM Monitor (Gemius) [2] Booom. gigacast. birdz. sk http:/ / www. [4] is social networking utility of user which communicate and share their experiences between friends External links Birdz.sk [1] is largest dating/chatting portal in Slovakia. birdz. aimmonitor.sk [3] is a social network of clubbers. charges membership fee. sk [6] http:/ / www. sk http:/ / www. sk/ .BIRDZ 61 Competitors Pokec.sk and family.sk [5] homepage Birdz. pokec.

focusing on connecting people. and Women.com were also purchased. New York. a Lanham-based media begun by Cathy Hughes for $38m. with three already in existence targeted at African-Americans.[2] BlackPlanet was the brainchild of Wasow and Community Connect’s CEO Benjamin Sun.[2] . Heritage & Identity.com.[2] The most popular forums were Relationships.com and AsianAvenue.com Type Founded Headquarters Social networking company 1999 205 Hudson Street. Religion & Spirituality. to dating. 2001 by Omar Wasow. rather than feeding them content. who in 2001 was running ‘New York Online’ a pre-web community he started in 1993 from his living room in Brooklyn.com [2] In April 2008.[2] Company The website is run by Community Connect of New York City. Community Connect also runs AsianAvenue. or Social Network Site (SNS). Launched in 1999 it was a relative late comer to social media sites. MiGente.com [1] Owner(s) Website BlackPlanet was launched on September 1.com and MiGente.BlackPlanet 62 BlackPlanet Blackplanet. This move was taken by Radio One to diversify beyond radio to reach black audiences. an internet analyst. Community Connect was purchased by Radio One. USA Community Connects Inc blackplanet. [4] BlackPlanets’s broader mission is to strengthen the Black community. and started as a place for matchmaking and job postings but also has forums for discussion on political and social issues. chat and message boards.[3] Along with BlackPlanet. Current Events.[2] Website BlackPlanet is an African-American community website.[5] Wasow says BlackPlanet’s home-grown software allows users to move between personal pages. 6th Floor New York.

You better earn your bucks because they get mighty hungry.[9] Recreational Features BlackPlanet has recently introduced two interactive games for users.[8] In early 2010 BlackPlanet launched a new homepage that included an Activity Feed allowing users to see updates from everyone on BlackPlanet. ‘Farmandia’ and ‘Fishdom’.S.4% Female 65.[10] . as well as personal profiles BlackPlanet also allows pages for brands. The more you play. who point out the need for improvement of the site’s infrastructure and principle features such as chat prior to the introduction of games. either friends or by location.[7] In 2009 BlackPlanet introduced new features to the website. ‘When you’re done spending time on the farm. the current chat is powered by a company called Chat Blazer and is Flash based. and a news bar that keeps users up to date with information shared on Interactive One and BlackPlanet. Need a little help? Invite other BlackPlanet members to lend a hand.8 million registered users since its inception in 1999. Grow your produce.’[10] BlackPlanet describes Fishdom thusly.BlackPlanet 63 Statistics In January 2007. BlackPlanet describes Farmandia thusly.5% Composition Black: 88% “BlackPlanet creates branded profile pages to integrate advertisers into the social community. care for your animals and build your barns. You never know when you’ll need to purchase more food.[5] A time of purchase the site had around 20million members and was the fourth most-visited U. including a Facebook-style status update. accessorize your underwater kingdom or give your fish some new friends. grab your virtual fishing rod and head to Fishdom where you’re responsible for feeding your exotic collection of underwater friends. enabling members to engage as friends”. ‘Farmandia puts you in the farmer’s seat.[6] Target Audience [7] • • • • • Male 34. and products.6% Median Age: 32 Attended/Grad College: 64. The chat function was also updated in 2009. the membership log on BlackPlanet’s home-page boasted 15.’[10] The similarities to Facebook’s ‘Farmville’ has not gone unnoticed by the BlackPlanet users. social networking site. the more points you’re rewarded so you can keep your farm in business. personalities.

Gphone. and is well responded to in general. in March 2011. drawing attention to the appearance of the chosen member. "poke" crushes. as a precursor to Facebook and Myspace.[11] Wasow himself has stated. BlackPlanet found itself to be the fourth most popular social networking tool on the internet.[8] Social networks It has been stated that online social networks have come to define the modern Internet experience. Its Twitter feed is updated on a near daily basis.BlackPlanet 64 Mobile applications BlackPlanet also introduced mobile applications in 2009 for mobile phones.'[11] List of social networking websites BlackPlanet utilises other social networking tools such as Twitter and Facebook in order to reach new and potential users. Check her out’[13] and ‘Still need proof that we have the prettiest members on the planet? You're welcome. she's our member of the day.’[13] . leading critics to suggest that 'BlackPlanet has fallen to the wayside as other networks have taken the social network mantle.[11] As of June 2007 BlackPlanet had 16. do you ever pamper yourself with a gentleman's facial. This is an opt-in service. The Facebook status update feature is used to ask questions to the page followers. manicure or pedicure? Ladies. BlackPlanet fails to gain recognition in the top 15 social networks according to eBizMBA. web-savvy African Americans were connecting on BlackPlanet.[8] BlackPlanet Text Alerts are also available to alert users to updates and notifications. BlackPlanet enjoyed more than 6 million unique visitors a month in April 2008. or "retweet" celebrities.[14] ‘What do you think of people using the term "ghetto" when describing something that's not desirable?’[14] And ‘Men.’[13] The BlackPlanet Twitter feed is also used to post announcements and updates regarding the BlackPlanet site itself. Go from drab to fab in 5 minutes. what do you think of men who take care of their skin and nails?’[14] Both social networking tools are used to advertise the ‘Member of the Day’ feature. but with the vast increase in Facebook. Accompanying a link to the member’s profile is a short comment such as ‘She's beautiful. Wider political issues are also mentioned including ‘What will you do #ifgovernmentshutsdown ?’[13] The BlackPlanet Facebook page is used to encourage discussion of issues both directly and indirectly applicable to its community of African American users.[8] BlackPlanetMobile did not work on the iPhone. she's single. The guys who started Myspace were quoted in Business Week magazine saying that they looked at BlackPlanet as a model for Myspace and thought there was an opportunity to do a general market version of what BlackPlanet was. Blackberry or Sidekick smart phones when introduced.. commenting and highlighting points of interest to the black community. Before today's popular networks allowed you to "like" posts.5 million members and 80 million page views Described as the largest online media entity for African Americans and 'the grand daddy of social-networking sites' [12] .. Questions have included 'What do you think of the idea of Black Marriage Day?’. The application BlackPlanetMobile was free when it was introduced but was not exclusive of mobile provider charges. In 2007.[11] BlackPlanet. has gone some way to influencing the internet as users recognise it. what do you think about that?’[13] and ‘Weave secrets revealed. Recent tweets include ‘83% of BP voters think non-Black rappers shouldn't use the #nword. Twitter and MySpace usage.

such as BlackPlanet do host users who wish to promote separatism. stupidvideos. niche community tools. hi5. live365. an original employee of BlackPlanet believes ownership of the site.com. Finding gangs on geocities. We found we were not segregating the web.' he says. The Defence network contains more than 15. The media perceived this move into a niche social networking tool to be a 'smart move' by the Senator.2011. [14] Gary Dauphin. This became noticeable during the 1990s when it became fashionable for gangs to use free webspace from internet service providers to put up their own gang webpage'.com. and I would venture that that period was the site's finest hour. suggesting high usage levels. where I got my start on the Web was owned for most of its early life by a largely Asian American group. 'BlackPlanet. and especially Myspace. but it did understand the underlying call to service implied in running an ethnic site. blackplanet. BlackPlanet was featured in the press when the U.com.com. 2007 during his Presidential campaign bid.579 friends on BlackPlanet.com.com [16] . and of ethnic sites in general. 'Anybody can join any of the sites. pandora. The ownership wasn't African American.com. along with other internet service providers (ISPs) provided the foundation of what today is known as gang internet investigation a specialized area of expertise in gang investigation. myspace.BlackPlanet 65 Ethics Wasow says he occasionally gets questions about whether BlackPlanet is fostering racial separatism.com and filecabi. blackplanet.000 local and regional networks and more than five million computers in the grid. Over 2/3's of BlackPlanet's online community stated their intention to vote in the 2008 election [4] in an online poll conducted by the site itself. they had high ambitions for their company as a Web community platform provider that raised the bar for BP overall. BlackPlanet gained considerable publicity when (then) Senator Barack Obama began using the site on October 5. As part of their mission they aim to motivate and involve individuals to participate in civic engagement. BlackPlanet Rising BlackPlanet Rising is a BlackPlanet users’ community project set up by the website to encourage community support and services by its members. President Obama had 450. metacafe. photobucket. Featured authors are highlighted along with their contributions to the site. such as gangs. Within 10 days.[17] BlackPlanet Rising hosts a blog which contains posts from BlackPlanet users. 'Gangs have had a presence on the internet since its inception.com. On 30.com. .03.000 friends. but does not feature recent status updates. ifilm. Banned sites were youtube.S.com.'[2] However.com. mtv. Department of Defence or the Pentagon banned it amongst other sites in order to free up bandwidth. and this has not gone unnoticed. should lie within the ethnicity group. he had gained nearly 200. The page continues to be updated with regular blog posts. 'Voluntarily socializing with people who share your interests is what freedom is all about.[15] In the press In 2007. and moreover.

retrieved 2011-04-19 [7] Interactive One. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (13). App Appeal. These are often political and social advocates.com" (http:/ / onlinelibrary. com/ app/ blackplanet/ ). The website contains a feature article on this individual. html). . Community concerns and Civic Engagement: Exploring Black Social Networking Traditions on BlackPlanet. com/ your_page/ blog/ view_posting. . retrieved 2011-04-19 [4] Jose Antonio Vargas (2007-10-16). 00398. blackplanet. D.BlackPlanet 66 Donations BlackPlanet Rising works with a charitable organization called DonorsChoose. businessinsider. Volunteers BlackPlanet Rising’s VolunteerMatch site matches user’s locations with volunteer opportunities in their area. and the launch of TelAfric [19] at the Houston Museum of African American Culture. 2007. “Double Your Impact” support programs involve BlackPlanet Rising matching user donations. pdf).[20] Volunteer opportunities include educational programs.0 (2009-03-19). retrieved 2011-04-19 [9] New BlackPlanet Homepage is Live! (http:/ / www.023 donated by 36 donors. html?pid=582781& profile_id=33157858& profile_name=MemberAdvocate& user_id=33157858& username=MemberAdvocate). "BlackPlanet gets an upgrade. 2010-03-23. blackplanet. volunteer drives for causes such as homelessness. . retrieved 2011-04-19 [5] Byrne. . Stanford Magazine.org. "BlackPlanet's Universe" (http:/ / www. . "Obama Networkd on BlackPlanet. retrieved 2011-04-19 [3] "BlackPlanet" (http:/ / www. and community activists that support the African American community.com" (http:/ / voices. Introduces Status Updates" (http:/ / www. com/ 44/ 2007/ 10/ obama-networks-on-blackplanetc. com/ your_page/ blog/ view_posting. which connects users to offer donations of critical resources.[21] Risers of the Month include: • • • • • Janks Morton – March 2011 Kevin Powell – February 2011 Oni Joseph – November 2010 Ryan Mack – October 2010 George L. Business Insider. . (2008-04-11). 1111/ j. .org. com/ 2009/ 03/ 19/ blackplanet-gets-an-upgrade/ ). blackplanet. Black Web 2. wiley. com/ 2008/ 4/ blackplanet-parent-community-connect-sells-to-radio-one-for-38-million#ixzz1I5PmhhDv). social rights programs and other opportunities to support your community. They quote Barack Obama’s election as President as a call for users to “bring a new energy and agenda to our country”. such as books. Cate R. . com/ Stanford_Magazine_04. D.org had reached $11.190 students in April 2011. com/ doi/ 10. Riser of the Month The BlackPlanet Rising community campaign has identified a ‘Riser of the Month’ since September 2010. reaching 5. 1083-6101. health programs. com [2] Corcoran. field trips and guest speakers to public schools. (2008). BlackPlanet Rising’s Giving page via DonorsChoose. retrieved 2011-04-19 [6] Frommer. washingtonpost. "Public Discourse. 2010-12-01. retrieved 2011-04-19 [8] BW 2. appappeal. "BlackPlanet Parent Community connect Sells to Radio One for $38 million" (http:/ / www. March 2011.0. blackweb20. (2004-04-01). supplies. retrieved 2011-04-19 [10] 2 New Games Released on BlackPlanet (http:/ / www. x/ pdf). Cook III – September 2010 References [1] http:/ / www. N. html?pid=582781& profile_id=33157858& profile_name=MemberAdvocate& user_id=33157858& username=MemberAdvocate). computers. omarwasow. BlackPlanet (http:/ / interactiveone. retrieved 2011-04-19 .[18] Events Past events organised by BlackPlanet Rising include Fundraisers for Earthquake and Tsunami relief projects. . com/ brand/ blackplanet/ #more-148). The choice of donations and projects to support is available through BlackPlanet Rising and donorschoose. Washington Post.

does anyone know whether you’re black or Latino" (http:/ / www. . com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2008/ 04/ 10/ AR2008041003786. kwtw.com) InteractiveOne. retrieved 2011-04-19 [18] BlackPlanet Rising. (2011-03-08).com (http://www.com (http://www. com/ mission/ ). retrieved 2011-04-19 [15] Prince.InteractiveOne. 67 External links • • • • • BlackPlanet.com (http://www. retrieved 2011-04-19 [13] BlackPlanet on Twitter (http:/ / twitter. complex. .Radio-One. BlackPlanet Rising VolunteerMatch (http:/ / bprising. Risers of the Month (http:/ / blackplanetrising. The Washington Post. com/ risers/ ).com) Radio-One. retrieved 2011-04-19 [16] KWTW. . facebook. [21] BlackPlanet Rising. and if Facebook may have peaked" (http:/ / www. http:/ / www.com) .AsianAve. com/ donate/ ). com [20] BlackPlanet Rising.Mission (http:/ / blackplanetrising. com/ tech/ 2011/ 03/ interview-blackplanet-founder-talks-myspace-twitter-facebook). poynter. com/ BlackPlanetOfficial). Complex. com. com/ blackplanet). org/ ). retrieved 2011-04-19 [12] "Radio One buys Social Networking Firm" (http:/ / www.blackplanet. retrieved 2011-04-19 [17] BlackPlanet Rising . 2008-04-11. volunteermatch. retrieved 2011-04-19 [14] BlackPlanet (http:/ / www. why he was sceptical of Twitter.com (http://www. "On the Internet.com (http://www.BlackPlanet [11] "BlackPlanet’s founder talks MySpace.com) MiGente.com) AsianAve. [19] http:/ / www. 2011-03-23. washingtonpost. Donate (http:/ / blackplanetrising. . html). Poynter. . . org/ latest-news/ top-stories/ 120696/ on-the-internet-does-anyone-know-whether-youre-black-or-latino/ ). R.MiGente. telafrictv.

Malay. it is credited for helping popularize the format. Polish. Dutch. Slovak.com URL Commercial? Type of site Registration blogger. Blogger was ranked 16 on the list of top 50 domains in terms of number of unique visitors in . left Google. Spanish. alongside the gold release. Persian. Tamil. individual archive pages for posts.Blogger (service) 68 Blogger (service) Blogger Blogger. Blogger had completely moved over to Google operated servers. Finnish. Blogger was launched by Pyra Labs. Marathi.[5] In December 2006. codenamed "Invader". allowing users to post photos to their blogs. Oriya. Generally. Chinese (Traditional). Serbian. French. This migrated users to Google servers and had some new features. Slovenian. Italian. Greek. Telugu.com Yes Blog Host Optional. Romanian. Filipino. By May 2007.[4] History On August 23. Portuguese (Portugal). Turkish. Thai. Russian. 2010 Blogger allowed users to publish blogs on other hosts. Extended Downtime Blogger is a blog-publishing service that allows private or multi-user blogs with time-stamped entries. Gujarati. Bengali. Blogger launched its latest version in beta. Evan Williams. In 2004. Korean. On May 9. Hungarian. Google purchased Picasa. Up until May 1. Chinese (Simplified). Catalan. Free [1] Available language(s) Arabic. Malayalam. In October 2004. Indonesian. Pyra Labs' co-founder. Hindi. Bulgarian. Kannada. 2004. Blogger introduced a major redesign. Pyra Labs August 23. 1999 5 (May 2011) [2] [3] Active. this new version of Blogger was taken out of beta. Lithuanian. and posting by email. Swedish. adding features such as web standards-compliant templates. Danish. Vietnamese Owner Created by Launched Alexa rank Current status Google Inc. Czech. English. Japanese. German and Spanish. via FTP. Latvian. Portuguese (Brazil). 1999. comments. Croatian. with domains other than blogspot. the blogs are hosted by Google at a subdomain of blogspot. 2006.com allowed via Custom URLs. Ukrainian. Pyra Labs was acquired by Google under undisclosed terms. Norwegian. All such blogs had (or still have) to be moved to Google's own servers. which was bought by Google in 2003. On August 14. including interface language in French.com. German. It was created by Pyra Labs. Hebrew. In February 2003. The acquisition allowed premium features (for which Pyra had charged) to become free. it integrated Picasa and its photo sharing utility Hello into Blogger. As one of the earliest dedicated blog-publishing tools. Italian.

In September 2009. In 2010. improved image handling. and other Google Docs-based implementations.[6] 69 Redesign As part of the Blogger redesign in 2006. blogs are updated dynamically. and they state no decision has been made about supporting it with the new Blogger. Furthermore. a drag-and-drop template editing interface. • Blogger supports Google's AdSense service as a way of generating revenue from running a blog. a standalone app of the Windows Live suite. publishes directly to Blogger. Placeholder image for tags so that embeds are movable in Compose mode. • Blogger offers a template editing feature. As of January 2007. [12] • Blogger also started integration of Amazon Associates as a service to generate revenue. New features are discussed in the service's official blog [9]. • "Blogger for Word" is an add-in for Microsoft Word which allows users to save a Microsoft Word Document directly to a Blogger blog. including: • • • • • • • • Adding location to posts via geotagging. which allows users to customize the Blogger template.[8] new features are tested before being released to all users. Google says "Blogger for Word is not currently compatible with the new version of Blogger". New Preview dialog that shows posts in a width and font size approximating what is seen in the published view. . faster loading time. and "undo" and "redo" buttons. Post time-stamping at publication. reading permissions (to create private blogs) and new Web feed options. not at original creation.and offline.[10] Integration • The Google Toolbar has a feature called "BlogThis!" which allows toolbar users with Blogger accounts to post links directly to their blogs. a strike-through button. per-blog preference. The size is saved in a per-user. • Windows Live Writer. including label organization. • Google Docs has direct publishing integration to Blogger. several new features were introduced. In a version of the service called Blogger in Draft. Raw HTML Conversion. Blogger claims that the service is now more reliable because of the quality of the servers. Microsoft Office 2007 adds native support for a variety of blogging systems. The new post editor was criticized for being less reliable than its predecessor.[7] Along with the migration to Google servers. making it possible to establish group blogs. • Blogger offers multiple author support. Blogger introduced new templates and redesigned its website. as well as edit their posts both on. Full Safari 3 support and fidelity on both Windows and Mac OS. and an expanded color palette.[11] However. Google introduced new features into Blogger as part of its tenth anniversary celebration.Blogger (service) 2007. The features included a new interface for post editing. Also added was the full justification button. Link editing in Compose mode. including Blogger. all blogs associated with a user's Google Account were migrated to Google servers. New toolbar with Google aesthetics. Vertical re-sizing of the post editor. as opposed to rewriting HTML files.

alexa.[14] . blogger.000 unique labels per blog.com . com/ 2009/ 12/ critique-and-criticism-of-new-blogger. blogger. [7] Blogger Buzz: The New Version of Blogger (http:/ / buzz. Retrieved 2011-06-04.[17] [18] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / blogger. blogger. Limitations Blogger has imposed the following limitations on content storage and bandwidth. com/ [9] http:/ / bloggerindraft. com/ The Story of Blogger. nytimes. 2007. blogspot. com/ about) "blogger. html Blogger Beta: Feature Complete! (http:/ / buzz. com). Blocking of *. Blogger is blocked in Pakistan. com/ bin/ answer. com/ 2006/ 11/ blogger-beta-feature-complete. to different degrees.blogspot. New York Times. Jeffrey (2008). html?_r=1& partner=rss& emc=rss& pagewanted=all). com/ document/ pub?id=1OHEcSrtwCLCe1ciEKYr5cgjtwW1uZSPYcsIUw6vkM7c& pli=1 .com (http:/ / www. com/ [10] Critique and Criticism of the New Blogger Post Editor . Alexa Internet. Inc. Retrieved 2008-12-01.Experiment Garden (http:/ / experimentgarden. py?answer=42497& topic=8931 [12] http:/ / buzz. Blogger. by 24 countries. blogger. google. . com/ 2007/ 10/ 30/ top-50-websites-domains-digg-youtube-flickr-facebook/ ) September. "Over the past couple of years. blogger. and Orkut in Saudi Arabia.com Ranked by Unique Visitors"” (http:/ / blog. com/ 2010/ 01/ important-note-to-ftp-users. often causing the number of posts on the main page to be less than that specified by the user and leading to a hostile response from some users.this applies to Boulogne-Billancourt as well.Traffic Details from Alexa" (http:/ / www. Google and its various applications have been blocked. blogspot. html) [11] http:/ / help. November 02. "Google’s Gatekeepers" (http:/ / www. compete.[16] Blogger introduced "auto-pagination". com/ siteinfo/ blogger. com/ 2008/ 11/ 30/ magazine/ 30google-t. html) [8] http:/ / draft. 20 unique labels per post Number of pictures (hyperlinked from user's Picasa Web Album) = Up to 1 GB of free storage Size of pictures = If posted via Blogger Mobile. html [13] Rosen. The official Blogger Buzz. blogger. 2010.blogspot." [14] https:/ / docs. limited 250 KB per picture. [6] "Top 50 Domains .TheLifeMovie. which limited the number of posts that could be displayed on each page. com/ 2009/ 12/ blogger-integrates-with-amazon. http:/ / buzz. 2006. posted pictures are scaled to 800px Team members (those that can write to a blog) = 100 Stand-Alone Page = Limited to 10 page which can be standing alone On February 18.www. html). per user account:[15] • • • • • • • Number of blogs = Unlimited Size of pages = Individual pages (the main page of a blog or archive pages) are limited to 1 MB Number of labels = 5.Blogger (service) 70 Blocking Blogger has been blocked for periods of time in the following countries: • • • • • • • • • • Fiji People's Republic of China Iran Pakistan[13] Syrian Arab Republic Myanmar Kazakhstan Cuba Turkey France in the municipal libraries of Paris for a few weeks by now. for example. . blogger.com domains by keyword-based Internet filtering systems is also encountered due to the domain containing the substring "gspot". com/ 2006/ 12/ new-version-of-blogger.

71 External links • Official website (http://https://www. 2010. Blogger Buzz. 2010). blogger. py?hl=en& answer=42348). Retrieved 21 December 2009. .com) • Blogger (service) (http://www. Blogger Help Forum (retrieved March 1. com/ support/ blogger/ bin/ answer.dmoz. google. com/ support/ forum/ p/ blogger/ thread?tid=33d7b281c3f27ad0& hl=en)".org/Computers/Internet/On_the_Web/Weblogs/Tools/Publishers/ Blogger/) at the Open Directory Project . google. 2010). February 18. html)". Blogger Help Forum (retrieved March 1.blogger.Blogger (service) [15] "What are the limits on my Blogger account?" (http:/ / www. [18] " Problem Rollup: Auto Pagination for blogs with Layouts templates (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 02/ auto-pagination-on-blogger. [17] " Problem Rollup: Auto Pagination for blogs with Classic templates (http:/ / www. com/ support/ forum/ p/ blogger/ thread?tid=211d87eb120a771a& hl=en)". [16] Vardhman Jain. google. " Auto Pagination on Blogger (http:/ / buzz.

. 2005 1. Compared to other blogging services. Features A unique characteristic on Blogster features a combination of blogging and social networking. commenting on articles and interacting in an online community.[6] Blogster Groups was introduced on March 30. History The purchase of the domain name "www. They can also add other users with the same interests as friends. upload photos on a gallery.000. images. Blogster has added several new features to its website like the Wall. which aims to allow members to create professional or social groups. creating friend lists.[3] As of August 2009. Ohio. Blogster members can network and collaborate by creating a blog. join groups. which was priced at US$100. chat with other users.[5] and Lifestream.com [1] Social network service Required English Blogster Team November 24. 2009. Blogster maintains an online community of users who publish content.000 users. share information.[2] The site was then put up on sale in January 2007 through SitePoint before being purchased by a group called "Blogster Team. and easy-to-use settings options.Blogster 72 Blogster Blogster URL Type of site Registration Available language(s) Owner Launched Alexa rank Current status www.blogster. the site already has over 30.[4] Over time. Twitter and Flickr accounts. and connections. and even incorporate their blog RSS feed. which displays an aggregated chronological view of the users' activities within the site. Members can network with same interests.000 members. Blogster is positioned on simplicity. the site has over 50. It was considered as the top domain name acquisition in 2005. a space on every user's profile page that allows members to post messages for the user to see.com" was first announced by a pair of entrepreneurs named Tony Colan and Ed Harrison of Cleveland. photos. 53328 active Blogster is a blogging community that features specific-interest blogs." At that time. Blogster differentiates itself as having spam-free blogs. video and more.[7] Meanwhile.blogster. Their programming team rewrote the entire software for the site before going live that same year. Users create both their profiles and their blogs. building a personalized profile.

"Blogster. Social. Blogster groups were able to customize their blog with their own photos. Another feature of the Photos applications is the ability to embed the photo to a blog post and tag the photo. Tag Maps. blogster. blogster. 2009. inbox and comments to private. Members only can be seen only by all Blogster members. and colors. Yahoo Answers. External links • Blogster Homepage [12] References [1] http:/ / www. 2009). [3] Peter Cashmore (January 18. 2009.com. . The flagging system was launched on November.[8] On October 29. . 2009. "Groups and Customized Friends Going Live Soon!" (http:/ / www. .Blogster Blogster Photo System was introduced on June 26. Members may also send virtual gifts to their friends. For example. com/ help). Retrieved August 14. com/ [2] Philippines Hardware Zone (December 16. [4] Blogster.[9] Blogster launched its own Chat function on October 12. 2009). com .com. Skype Pro" (http:/ / mashable. wall. Privacy settings can be set for individual photos. com/ team/ photo-system-live-now). 2008. com/ team/ first-phase-of-the-new-blogster-live-chat-is-up). com/ 2007/ 01/ 18/ geniuscom-funded-blogster-sale-nytimes-widgets-tag-maps-yahoo-answers-socialcom-mefeedia-aol-qvc-tutorlinker-filmcom/ ). [10] Blogster (October 12. [7] Blogster (March 27. [12] http:/ / www. 2009. php?cid=4& id=3352).com Funded. . while the privacy of another photo can be set so that all Blogster users can see it. hardwarezone. A "Report Inappropriate Content" link is also found at the bottom of every page. com/ team/ blogster-new-footer). "Lifestream on Blogster" (http:/ / www. blogster. design. "First phase of the new Blogster Live Chat is Up" (http:/ / www. Film. . 2009). [8] Blogster (June 26. com/ team/ comment-wall-will-be-added-to-your-blog-today). . TutorLinker. "Customize Theme for Groups" (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 14. [6] Blogster (October 27. blogster. [9] Blogster (October 28. the privacy of an photo can be set so that only the user's friends can see the photo. com/ team/ groups-and-customized-friends-going-live-soon). Blogster developed a flagging system that allow users to easily report content that violate Blogster’s terms of use (such as sites that contain Threats of Physical Harm or Underage Nudity). . members only and friends only. . 2009 Blogster launched a new footer to allow members to chat one to one easily. The inbox allows members to exchange and archive messages. 2005). allowing users to chat their friends about different topics. limiting the groups of members that can see a photo. 2009). Blogster also allows a user to set their photos. "Photo System Live Now!" (http:/ / www. blogster. AOL QVC. blogster. 2009. Friend profiles are seen only by their friends. blogster. Blogster Sale. "Genius. NYTimes Widgets. blogster. Blogster introduced a new mail system. 2009). Members may block contacts with whom they do not want to interact. lifestream.[10] On November 10. 2007). "Blogster Q & A (Help Section)" (http:/ / www. blogster. 73 Privacy and security Blogster offers three privacy levels: public.com is the Top Domain Name Acquisition in 2005" (http:/ / ph. "Comment Wall Will Be Added to Your Blog Friday" (http:/ / www. . blogster. 2009). com/ news/ view. Flagged content are reviewed by Blogster’s employees and shut down as appropriate. "Blogster New Footer" (http:/ / www.[11] On October 30. Public profiles can be seen by any user. com/ team/ lifestream-on-blogster). [11] Blogster (November 11. MeFeedia. [5] Blogster (April 23. com/ team/ customize-theme-for-groups). 2005. web feed. 2009). .

Guy Eliav Nir Ofir Oren Levy 2006 6. The sister site. Handset owners can watch live content that is being produced and broadcast on blogTV.com. In 2006 blogTV expanded and opened its Canadian equivalent. Tapuz People Ltd. and Mike Mozart. blogTV. The platform also includes a chat system. Its goals were to supply anyone and everyone.BlogTV 74 BlogTV BlogTV URL Slogan Commercial? Type of site Registration blogTV.[5] Worldwide blogTV has a partnership with ICQ.ca.883 [2] Created by Launched Alexa rank Current status Active blogTV began in June 2004. It also announced a series of new users including Christine Gambito. Users can create live video shows. blogTV.com was officially launched in June 2007 to America and the rest of the world. The broadcaster can broadcast to its audience with a webcam. Ongoing updates In February 2008. ICQ is an IM platform widely used in Europe. a way to express their talents & ideas to the world and to socially network with people face to face. blogTV launched the first live User-generated content for mobile phones.[4] In July 2008.com Inc. has its on personal community manager much the same as worldwide blogTV. Phillip DeFranco. in Israel. 2008 blogTV launched a "new season" with updates to the viewing platform such as personalized user pages.[3] On April 16. Michael Buckley.com [1] You're Featured! Yes Video chat Optional Available language(s) English Russian Hebrew German Owner blogTV. blogTV launched its Russian sister site. with internet access. Israel and in Russia. After seeing great success in Canada. ICQ also established a promotional partnership with the blogTV Russian sister site. interact with their audiences or invite co-hosts to join their show over the internet or by using WAP. Kevin Edwards. The site has a promotional partnership with ICQ which is an IM type platform. . and was a pioneer in the webcasting industry.

com/ siteinfo/ blogtv. com/ 2008/ 04/ new-shows-new-f. Other features for the junior members include no private message options. Retrieved 2008-05-05. com/ 2009/ 03/ blogtv-junior-is-here. We hope that this new junior channel will allow our junior members to safely enjoy their time on the internet and will allow our older members to mingle with more people in their own peer group. com/ bd5x7) [9] "The Official blogTV Toolbar. 12 oz at 11:22 p. the live text chat had over 400 viewers. Only certain people may be able to be a part of this program but it could still produce 50% of the ad revenue generated from live shows.BlogTV In December 2008. 2009 blogTV released the junior channel type. 2008-02-06. The junior members can only broadcast to other junior users (13-15 year olds)." (http:/ / blog. 2008-04-16. and much more. $100 of ad revenue must be made to receive the product. [4] "Spring 2008 on blogTV! A new season. Mozilla Firefox and the Firefox related browsers with the ability to use Firefox Add-ons Epic Browser and Wyzo. This type of account allows users to navigate beyond the usual free account features at the cost of $24. blogTV began its Video Ad Revenue Share Program. blogTV. . Accessed April 22. blogtv. such as a need of 10.0 version of the toolbar. com/ proaccount. com [2] Site Information from Alexa (http:/ / www. html) [8] Chat Room Roster (http:/ / twitpic.000 views from all of your combined videos. Incredibly. .[6] SUP On March 4. blogTV gave introduction to a new type of account.m. 2009 blogTV launched their 1. htmlVideo). despite hospital restrictions preventing a video feed. A recent feature has been added to gift your friends the pro status. 8 lbs. blogtv. webware. Currently the toolbar is only available for Internet Explorer. Retrieved 2008-04-14. alexa.0 version of their toolbar. CDT. blogTV Community Manager. It has been declared as blogTV's very first live birth. com/ 2009/ 09/ the-official-blogtv-toolbar."[7] On July 16. Pro. 2010 the site released its 2.. a well known YouTube celebrity.. 2010. Kara Hannah Tells the Site Users: "Each of these features was put into place with the well being of the junior members at heart and absolutely not done in order to remove privileges from our younger friends. This newly introduced account allows users to host private shows. there will be no way to change the age of a junior member to change their age into a regular member account type. com/ 8301-1_109-9865946-2. For the regular members they are also not given the right to change their age to a junior member profile (to watch other junior members). In February 2009. 2009 Karen Alloy aka Spricket24. [3] "Video broadcasting service BlogTV goes mobile" (http:/ / www. With certain criteria to apply. html) . went into labor and gave her fans live updates during her delivery. com/ ) [6] blogTV Pro (http:/ / www.com. generate new emoticons. blogtv. Lulu Augustine Alloy was born 22". and no co-hosting or inviting a co-host is allowed. asp) [7] Junior Member Accounts (http:/ / blog. the cost of the account remains the same and you are given the choice to gift a pro account as yourself (sharing who is gifting the account) or you can gift the pro account anonymously. com) Alexa Internet. [5] blogTV Russia "Sister Site" (http:/ / ru." (http:/ / blog. blogTV. junior members can only view junior member's profiles.[8] On September 16. html). more recording space: up to 30 minutes per recording (500 minutes total). This is for users aged between 13 and 15 years of age. blogTV.99 a year. guests are not allowed to enter the chat room. blogtv. On June 29. webware. with many more features. videos and embedded shows.[9] 75 References [1] http:/ / www.

blogTV.com) Company blog (http://blog.twitter.com/blogTV) blogTV's Junior United Broadcasting Association (http://www.BlogTV 76 External links • • • • blogTV homepage (http://www.blogtv.com) Company twitter (http://www.blogtvjuniors.info) .

United States (2007) Headquarters Detroit. Furthermore.com Bongotones. with even more diverse tastes in music. Currently.com . but is in the process of launching applications that will allow users to customize and create their own free mobile wallpapers. Michigan. . South America.bongotones. WWJ (AM) . customize and create free mobile multimedia.com Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Social Network Detroit.com . Bongotones. the website builds a following through user registration.com allows access to free ringtones. Similar to other social networking services. Michigan.com 77 Bongotones. The company saves the users both time and money when it comes to creating multimedia for their phones. Antarctica Mobile content www.com has established a highly-anticipated artist sign up page.com is a Detroit based. global mobile entertainment company that allows mobile phone users to gain access to mobile content through custom online applications.S. Also. [5] [6] DetroitStartups.com [1] Bongotones. allowing musicians and bands the opportunity to convert their original music into ringtones in minutes. Asia. AnnArbor. making them instantly available [2] [3] [4] to fans. Moreover. U. Africa. Australia. Bongotones. Bongotones. Features Bongotones. Europe. Bongotones. The company was founded in September 2007 as the brainchild of three diverse friends from Detroit and Toronto. as well as allowing them to enjoy their visit through interaction with others. Area served Products Website North America. These applications allow users to upload their own personal music and create their free ringtones in whatever fashion they desire.com allows users a forum to upload. games and videos.com has created a mobile social network dynamic that establishes a community of users from over 150 countries that have the same interests. there is an extensive user-generated content database of ringtones that users can automatically send to their mobile phones.com as well as MyCityBuzz.Bongotones.com has been featured in The Oakland Press .

php) • Interview w/ Bongotones.com) • http://www.com/aboutus) • Ann Arbor startup BongoTones pursues new mobile content platform (http://www. annarbor.mycitybuzz.bongotones. com http:/ / www.annarbor. com/ http:/ / www.com 78 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www.wwj.com Website (http://www. com Sources • Business Spotlight: Site offers free ringtones (http://www.com (http://www.com/articles/2009/08/15/ business/doc4a86a3e5db9c2477788280.edu/alum-sites.Bongotones.com/reviews/bongotones/ .bongotones.com (http://michigantoday. com http:/ / www.umich. theoaklandpress.txt) • Interview with Nareg Sagherian of BongoTones.com Co-Founder Nareg Sagherian (http://www.com/2009/07/16/ interview-with-nareg-sagherian-of-bongotonescom/) • Michigan Startup Aims To Help Bands Sell Ringtones (http://www.detroitstartups. com http:/ / www. bongotones.com/content/view/ 1403/74/) • Bongotones.ringtonesmash. mycitybuzz. wwj.com Official Website (http://www.com/ Michigan-Startup-Aims-To-Help-Bands-Sell-Ringtones/4899804) • bongotones. detroitstartups. com http:/ / www.theoaklandpress.com/ business-review/ann-arbor-startup-pursues-new-mobile-content-platform/) External links • Bongotones.

"Site review: BookArmy beta" (http:/ / econsultancy. New Media Age. "HarperCollins stands down BookArmy" (http:/ / www. External links • BookArmy (http://www. html).[6] References [1] David Kaplan (13 November 2008).com.[5] BookArmy closed on 21 December 2010 citing "strong competition from similar sites and fewer advertising opportunities". . record their own personal book collection and create reading lists. BookArmy was launched in February 2009. "HarperCollins deploys BookArmy" (http:/ / www. html). co.com. Retrieved 6 January 2011. thebookseller. and featured pages for around six million books and authors.Bookarmy 79 Bookarmy BookArmy was a social networking website and book recommendation tool for readers. thebookseller. Paid Content UK. .bookarmy. com/ news/ 81793-bookarmy-goes-video. .[2] BookArmy carried every English language book with an ISBN. [3] Graham Charlton (16 December 2008). Retrieved 6 January 2011. thebookseller. Retrieved 6 January 2011. Econsultancy. "HarperCollins opens book forum" (http:/ / www. owned by HarperCollins.[1] BookArmy was owned by HarperCollins UK and Fleming Media. TheBookSeller. and closed in December 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2011. . [5] "BookArmy goes video" (http:/ / www. BookArmy launched its video channel.com. 1 April 2009. html). Retrieved 6 January 2011. TheBookSeller.[4] On 25 March 2009. TheBookSeller. article). [6] Graeme Neill (10 December 2010). com/ news/ 137922-harpercollins-stands-down-bookarmy. "HarperCollins Book Recommendation Site ‘Book Army’ Won’t Launch This Year After All" (http:/ / paidcontent. [2] Graeme Neill (3 March 2009).[3] All data was collected from Nielson. . though remained in its beta phase. After being in private beta for some months the site went live in February 2009.com/) . uk/ article/ 419-harpercollins-aims-for-09-launch-for-books-recommendation-site/ ). Retrieved 6 January 2011. . uk/ news/ -harpercollins-opens-book-forum/ 39613. nma. com/ news/ 78767-harpercollins-deploys-bookarmy. com/ us/ blog/ 3067-site-review-bookarmy-beta). Site users could discuss and review titles. [4] Luan Goldie (18 September 2008). co.

bookglutton. com/ 2008/ 01/ 18/ bookglutton-public-release/ http:/ / www. com/ article/ 101-websites-2009-communities http:/ / www. org/ templates/ story/ story. 2008. "BookGlutton Partners with O'Reilly for Bookstore" [1] June. publishersweekly. NPR. 2009. Mashable. Venture Capital Journal. com/ 2009/ 01/ 30/ elevator-pitch-friday-bookglutton-the-computers-kindle/ http:/ / mashable. chat inside chapters and attach notes on paragraphs. 2009. "Chat While Reading: The Future Of Books?" [3] June 2009. "The Future of Reading in a Digital World" [2] July 2. 2009. read books online. Writer's Digest. References • • • • • • • October 30. TechCrunch. html http:/ / www. vcjnews. The Computer’s Kindle" [6] January 18. wired.Bookglutton 80 Bookglutton BookGlutton is a "social reading" website launched in January 2008. "Barging Into the Book Club" [4] April 2009. php?storyId=106150832 http:/ / www. com/ article/ CA6704493. "BookGlutton. com/ http:/ / writersdigest. com/ techbiz/ people/ magazine/ 17-06/ st_thompson http:/ / www. 2009. Visitors to the website can create virtual book groups. WIRED. "BookGlutton’s Kindle Competitor Launches Public Beta" [7] External links • BookGlutton official site [8] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. npr. Publishers Weekly. "101 Best Websites for Writers: Writing Communities" [5] January 30. techcrunch. com .

Advisor BuzzFeed Inc. . "The Viral Web In Real Time" BuzzFeed. the website hosts a battle. 2006 New York City.BuzzFeed 81 BuzzFeed BuzzFeed Type Founded Headquarters Key people Private October. Senior Editor Ze Frank. These posts are the site's attempt to capture the essence of viral media currently resonating on the web. 2006 Current status Active BuzzFeed is a website that combines a technology platform for detecting viral content with an editorial selection process to provide a snapshot of "the viral web in realtime. and the creation of a giant energy malt liquor drink using a forty ounce beer and a can of Red Bull. Jason Kottke. These labs are conducted sporadically and have no set release schedule. BuzzFeed is located in SoHo. test." Cofounded in 2006 by Jonah Peretti (who is also cofounder of The Huffington Post). Other posts are compendiums of memes or images that are all similar to each other in some way. but these posts are infrequent. New York. On Fridays. New York. most time-wasting Flash game. where users are challenged to post the best. Occasionally there are quizzes. Advisor. Past efforts have included: attempting to break a beer bottle in half for use as a shiv in a bar fight. Homepage content The BuzzFeed homepage consists of a time-sequential list of posts from users and staff members. CEO Peggy Wang. image. or link. citizen journalism investigating a fire on the Manhattan Bridge. There is also a brief bio section and a scoreboard of how many times these users posts have been featured on the homepage or awarded "Gold Stars" by the staff. User profiles Every registered user of BuzzFeed has a homepage that contains links to their most recent contributions to the site. and to sometimes create viral media. The content of the posts is usually either a video. BuzzFeed labs BuzzFeed Labs are an ongoing effort on the part of the BuzzFeed editors to track. USA Jonah Peretti.com [1] Owner Slogan Website Type of site Advertising Registration Available in Launched News & blogging partner websites Optional English October.

New York Times. and video-sharing social media network.com [4] References [1] http:/ / www. then a visual badge is tacked-onto the edge of the thumbnail image for that post. History Buzznet. Sun-Herald for Hurricane Katrina coverage. August 4. nytimes.[5] In July 2007 Tyler Goldman was named CEO. the Miami Herald for [2] Hurricane Wilma coverage. most predominantly music. Like other social networking sites. Miss. "Has Google Found a Stairway to Heaven in Brooklyn?" [3]. Unlike classic social networking sites. References • Jenna Wortham. and the Biloxi. Anthem Venture Partners. Newspapers that joined Buzznet for its photo-sharing capabilities include the Houston Chronicle for Hurricane Rita coverage.[4] In May 2007 Buzznet received a $6 million round of funding from Redpoint Ventures and previous investors. The report deemed Buzznet the fastest growing social media community on the Internet. com Buzznet Buzznet is a photo. Kevin Woolery and Anthony Batt.com was founded by Marc Brown. Buzznet is a platform for members to share content based on their personal interests. com/ 2008/ 12/ 18/ technology/ personaltech/ 18basics. Tags like "LOL" "Eww" "Old" "WTF" "TRASHY" "GEEKY" "CUTE" are available for users to award to posts that they feel merit them. The site was officially launched in 2005 when the company received private funding from Anthem Venture Partners. journal.[8] [9] . newspapers and journalists utilized Buzznet’s photo galleries. 2009 External links • Buzzfeed. alerting others to its content. in February 2007 Buzznet’s site visits more than doubled.[6] In March 2008 Buzznet received an additional funding round of $25 million[7] In April 2008 Buzznet announced the acquisition of the popular music blog Stereogum. which focus primarily on messaging and profile pages. and the media. Bits Blog. If enough users feel the same way. celebrities. com/ [2] http:/ / www. buzzfeed. "Staying Informed Without Drowning in Data" [2]. events and interests.[1] Before the end of 2005. 2008 • Jenna Wortham. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 08/ 04/ has-google-found-a-stairway-to-heaven-in-brooklyn/ [4] http:/ / www. December 17. certify. html?scp=3& sq=buzzfeed& st=Search [3] http:/ / bits. owned by Buzz Media. New York Times. Buzznet members participate in communities that are created around ideas.BuzzFeed 82 Badges A key component of Buzzfeed's ongoing mission to sort.[3] In April 2007 Buzznet hosted the official online community for the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival. and promote the viral web is the use of "Badges". blogs. Steve Haldane. According to a March Hitwise report. buzzfeed.

HIM [14] AFI. this is Buzznet's first and only content partnership. Topics are most commonly a band. Each photo. Cartel. Avril Lavigne. and Lostprophets [20] maintain user pages and semi-active blogs on Buzznet. Boys Like Girls. and links that have been tagged to a particular topic. capable of locating a search query within all Buzznet media. or post journals. Artists (bands) Bands such as The All-American Rejects. journals. recent news about celebrities.[17] Anberlin. festival updates.Buzznet In May 2008. photo. and video pages on Buzznet. User pages User pages are controlled by individual members and can be customized with colors and text. upload photos. events. Top buzzed members and top content contributors are recognized throughout the site. Past contests include “Get Dressed by Avril” Merch Model Search. and journal can receive buzz from other members. or access their account with mobile and iPhone versions of the site. With the mobile version. endorsed by pop-rock icon. Buzznet mobile Users can access Buzznet from a mobile device in four different ways. Buzz Members are recognized for their popularity in the Buzznet community based on the amount of buzz they receive.[11] and "Feel the Elite Beat" Dance Video Contest sponsored by Nintendo. celebrity. and fan bases. registered members are prompted to upload videos.[12] The homepage also links to music features. Upon sign in.[18] The Sunpilots.[21] . or record label. celebrity. They can upload content directly via email.[10] 83 Features Homepage content The Buzznet homepage links site viewers to music. The homepage also contains a search utility.[19] Fall Out Boy. Tag topic pages also have a user-generated forum that hosts open discussions on subjects related to the tag. video. Tag topic pages Tag topic pages house all photos.com for its heavy metal music content. The Maine (band). and Internet stars. all of which can be tagged to appropriate tag topic pages. 30 Seconds to Mars. Each Buzznet contest is typically endorsed by a band. Group pages are generally used for contests. Banners displayed on the homepage link to Buzznet’s contest groups and Buzznet polls. Buzznet announced a partnership with TheGauntlet. All Time Low.[16] Blaqk Audio. musicians and other elements of pop culture is displayed and frequently updated. community. users can update their account. On the homepage. with ShoZu. and post journals. but are generally more content-specific and exclusive. pop culture.[13] My Chemical Romance. Group pages Group pages have features similar to tag topic pages. or content genre. videos. photos. Unlike its other music site buyouts.[15] New Found Glory.

PR Newswire. com/ user/ ). . . Bands on Friends or Enemies include Fall Out Boy. [10] Joseph Weisenthal (2008-04-14). buzznet. com/ news/ articles/ 1559054/ 20070508/ lavigne_avril. and Gym Class Heroes. . washingtonpost. MTV. [13] "All Time Low's Profile on Buzznet" (http:/ / alltimelow. . com/ user/ ). [21] Buzznet Mobile (http:/ / www.net. The New York Times. [6] "Buzznet Names Internet Veteran Tyler Goldman as CEO to Continue Driving Substantial Growth" (http:/ / www. Adds Stereogum To Roster" (http:/ / mashable. "Buzznet Acquires Alternative Music Community Absolute Punk". Buzznet. com/ user/ ). Kotaku. Techcrunch. . [2] "Buzznet and the Houston Chronicle Offer Site to Share Storm Images and Tales" (http:/ / www. [11] MTV News Staff (2007). com/ www/ mobile/ ?t=footer|mobile) [22] Kristen Nicole (2007). [14] "30 Seconds to Mars' Profile on Buzznet" (http:/ / 30stm. Retrieved 2010-04-27. PR Newswire. . Friends or Enemies is a site that facilitates dialogue between bands and their fans. php). "Buzznet Nabs a Purported $25m in Funding. Washington Post. com/ gaming/ tag/ the-elite-beat-agents-dance-video-contest-221937. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2008/ 04/ 14/ AR2008041401235. com/ ) [24] no byline (2008-05-20). Billboard 120 (30): 10. Cobra Starship. "Avril's Merch Model Search" (http:/ / www. . . . Mashable. [18] "Anberlin's Profile on Buzznet" (http:/ / thesunpilots. [3] LeeAnn Prescott (2007). 2005. . . Washington Post. com/ user/ ). com/ coms2/ summary_0286-32467624_ITM). Plans to Launch “Videogum” Next Week" (http:/ / mashable. html). com/ user/ ). washingtonpost. accessmylibrary. com/ 2008/ 04/ 03/ buzznet-steregum-videogum/ ). . "Under the Influence". . . 2007-07-26. 2008.com. Mashable. com/ user/ ). [16] "Boys Like Girls' Profile on Buzznet" (http:/ / boyslikegirls. buzznet. . . Retrieved 2010-04-27. 3577. Science Letter. com/ coms2/ gi_0199-5423643/ Insider-pages-moving-into-venture. . techcrunch. Hitwise. p.[23] As of May 5. buzznet. nytimes. [20] "Lostprophets' Profile on Buzznet" (http:/ / lostprophets. buzznet. com/ 2008/ 03/ 29/ buzznet-funding/ ). . mtv. mywire. [23] Tila's Hot Spot (http:/ / tilashotspot. "The Elite Beat Agents Dance Video Contest" (http:/ / kotaku. Cortney (2008-07-26). "Honda Civic Tour Partners with Friends or Enemies for UGC Fan Community" (http:/ / mashable. [4] Jeff Leeds (2007-04-28).com. "Buzznet Lands $6 Million" (http:/ / www. com/ user/ ). jhtml). "Buzzing" (http:/ / goliath. hitwise. com/ pubs/ PRNewswire/ 2005/ 09/ 24/ 1025027?& pbl=15). com/ user/ main/ ). html). Los Angeles Business Journal.com has partnered with the Honda Civic Tour and Friends or Enemies. [9] Joseph Weisenthal (2008-04-14). buzznet. com/ 2007/ 05/ 16/ honda-friendsorenemies/ ). Mashable. [12] Flynn De Marco (2006). "Denton Slims Down Gawker Media" (http:/ / www. . buzznet. Buzznet purchased Absolutepunk.Buzznet 84 Partnerships Buzznet.com has also partnered with Tila Tequila to create a separate site called tilashotspot. [15] "Cartel's Profile on Buzznet" (http:/ / cartel. com/ 2007/ 04/ 28/ coachella-capturing-the-buzz/ ). [19] "The Sunpilots' Profile on Buzznet" (http:/ / anberlin. "Denton Slims Down Gawker Media" (http:/ / www. com/ leeann-prescott/ 2007/ 03/ buzznet_and_imeem_fast_growing. buzznet. com/ 2007/ 05/ 24/ buzznet-lands-6million/ ). com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2008/ 04/ 14/ AR2008041401235. [17] "Blaqk Audio's Profile on Buzznet" (http:/ / blaqkaudio. "Coachella: Capturing the Buzz" (http:/ / artsbeat. [7] Paul Glazowski (2008). [8] Paul Glazowski (2008). html). [5] Duncan Riley (2007). . html). . [25] Harding.[22] Like Buzznet. buzznet. blogs.[25] Notes [1] Hilary Potkewitz (2006). "Buzznet Confirms Stereogum Deal. ecnext. buzznet.[24] As of July 2008 Buzznet is partnered with heavy metal site TheGauntlet. "Buzznet and IMEEM: Fast Growing Social Networks" (http:/ / weblogs. .

[1] . Images are only accepted if the submitter is the original copyright owner. Ranks Caedes has its own leadership hierarchy based on the Roman Senate structure. Features Image Upload The main objective of this forum is for authors to share their own original images. as long as at least 10 votes have been cast.Lowest ranking members of the Caedes Senate who maintain order Cadre . 2005 issue. External links • Buzznet. designers. users can comment on each other's work and submit their own work. Awards • PC Magazine named Caedes in its top 101 Web Sites in its October.Users who have not uploaded any images Voting Voting on images is considered an essential part of being in the community. and use images that have been posted on the website as desktop backgrounds. Retrieved on 2008-02-19. Members retain all copyrights to their images. The c-index is mostly based on the average of all the votes for the image. and photographers who share their work through the medium of computer wallpapers.battblog.buzznet. Visitors can browse the galleries of images. and supplying an e-mail address).Anthony Batt (http://www. In order to receive votes.com/2007/03/14/buzznet/) mashable.Forum Moderators Praetori .com/blog/) Caedes Caedes is an Internet community of artists.Users who have uploaded at least one image Members . or if the image is in the public domain. After registering (by choosing a screenname and password. Users rate an image on a scale of 0 to 10.com) • Buzznet & Buzzmedia Founder . A 'C-index' is updated for images every 24 hours.com.Image Moderators Aediles . artists must vote on 10 images for each image they post. • • • • • • • Praetor Maximus .Users who donate $3 a month Artists .Buzznet 85 References • Buzznet Hits Sweet Spot (http://mashable.com (http://www.Site Administrator Consuls .

000+ members and more than 7000 ideas from the crowd. the original Cambrian House community attracted 50. Results Launched in 2006. primarily in relation to crowdsourcing in a variety of media including: CBC Radio's . asp [2] http:/ / www.Crowdsourcing the testing of mobile phone applications . the crowdsourcing business model.The Current [1].a virtual wrapper for online gift certificates Gwabs [11].Caedes 86 External links • Caedes [2] References [1] http:/ / www.a cyberbegging website dominated by scammers Prezzle [10]. net Cambrian House Cambrian House began as a crowdsourcing community that pioneered the technology to tap crowds for the best software ideas. IStockphoto. The company has also gained a degree of notoriety for its unconventional promotional efforts. they developed a crowdsourcing platform Chaordix – the technology to harness a crowd for breakthrough ideas. including feeding 1000 pizzas to Google unannounced [6]. and t-shirt design company Threadless. auctioning a celebrity endorsed laptop for charity [7]. These weaknesses have been successfully overcome by other companies including InnoCentive. caedes.1871383.online community-based service that allows independent producers of media to seek out support and funding from the public • Mob4Hire [12].PC based P2P desktop combat game [ FilmRiot]. the relatively low quality of some ideas. To power open innovation in other businesses. The Financial Times[2] and Economist Intelligence Unit [3]. and weighing a goat [8] Launched Businesses • • • • RobinHoodFund (later sold as Greedy or Needy) [9]. and the large number of duplicate submissions. the management complexity of distributed development. In the news Cambrian House has been discussed. which examines and discusses the concept of peer production.1895. com/ article2/ 0. Weaknesses in the idea-community model included the challenge of convincing users to read and rate a rapidly growing pool of ideas. pcmag. and the possibility of using prediction markets to estimate market demand for products.00. in addition to new media such as TechDigest [4] and Mashable [5] Cambrian House is also the subject of an eponymous Harvard Business case (N9-607-089).

com [10] http:/ / www. portfolios and art calendar. google. the applications for national art salons increased three times and. in Porto Alegre. com [11] http:/ / www. greedyorneedy. html [3] http:/ / www. com [14] http:/ / www. ft.[1] It holds and spreads information. it has become the most influential medium of information and politization of Brazilian contemporary art in the Internet. Canal Contemporâneo's coordinator. Six years after its creation and succeeding developments. Its on-line activism with petitions. viewswire. Created by the artist Patricia Canetti in 2000-2001. they were multiplied by 10. Patricia Canetti. com [12] http:/ / www. gwabs. com/ registration/ barrier?referer=http:/ / www. knowledge and debates in its different online modules: e-bulletins. it completes its mission as a collective work and a space of engagement for the needs of the visual and technological arts. which was sent to an initial list of 200 electronic addresses. ft. curated by Cristiana Tejo. Performing as an “artist” in the contemporary art circuit. Lovink). ft. blogs. Then. com/ [8] http:/ / video. with the work "Quebra de Padrão" (Breaking standards). mob4hire. Canal Contemporâneo and the works in it are also inserted in the exhibitions context. html [5] http:/ / mashable. ca/ videoplay?docid=-7680746727646474082& q=cambrian+ house+ goat [9] http:/ / www. connecting people and institutions around the 27 Brazilian states and over 80 countries. has been a member of the . google. ca/ videoplay?docid=2611684613035575342& q=feeding+ google [7] http:/ / www. prezzle. Canal Contemporâneo has been efficient in rousing communication and interaction. H. forums and lists of discussion guides frequent journal articles and has been able to encourage mobilization. forums. as part of the 46th Visual Arts Salon of Pernambuco. Radical Media (J. Based on concepts like Virtual Community (Howard Rheingold). com/ 2006/ 07/ 12/ cambrian-house-digg-for-software-development/ [6] http:/ / video. since then. Though the visibility given by Canal Contemporâneo since 2001. com Canal Contemporâneo Canal Contemporâneo is a digital community and publication focused on Brazilian contemporary art. Canal Contemporâneo made its debut in exhibitions in 2004. D. with the work "Para que servem os Salões?" (What are the salons made for?). tv/ 2006/ 09/ wednesday_inter_4. Garcia/G. com [13] http:/ / www. google. came "Tudo aquilo que escapa" (Everything that escapes). The first one was the hiPer> relações eletro // digitais [3] (hiPer>electro//digital relations). followthewhitelaptop. Canal Contemporâneo was born like a bulletin (the so called e-nforme). curated by Daniela Bousso for the Sergio Motta Art and Technology Award and for the Santander Cultural.Cambrian House 87 External links • Cambrian House [13] • Chaordix [14] References [1] http:/ / video. ca/ videosearch?q=cambrian+ house [2] https:/ / registration. com/ companies/ it& location=http%3A/ / www. cambrianhouse. asp?layout=EBArticleVW3& article_id=101756795& channel_id=& category_id=& refm=ebCh& page_title=Latest [4] http:/ / techdigest. at Museu do Estado in Recife. Downing) and Tactical media (D. It got clear in the episode [2] that turned the community against the use of public funds for the construction of a Guggenheim Museum in Rio de Janeiro (2003) and in the process of including the Digital Art in the scope of the Brazilian Funding laws (2004). com/ index. Canal Contemporâneo was also invited to take part in the Digital Communities category in Ars Electronica and. for the regional ones. chaordix. being visited by more than 80 thousand people per month. com/ cms/ s/ cec39da4-a04e-11db-9059-0000779e2340.

[6] Since 2005. Petrobras. com. 2007). Petrobras. 2010. .org.relações eletrodigitais" (http:/ / www. [5] Alessandro Ludovico (July 18. php?entrevista=24) (in Portuguese). 2007). [2] http:/ / www. LabforCulture. net/ entrevistas. labforculture. asp). External links • • • • Official website (http://http://www. "Report on Processual Aesthetics – Processual Editing: Net-working" (http:/ / www. 2010.entrevista com Georg Schöllhammer" (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 5. Canal Contemporâneo has also taken part of the Documenta 12 magazines. com.Agenda Canal Contemporâneo" (https:/ / www2.org. br/ minisite/ MemoriaCultural/ port/ difusaoCulturaInternet/ AgendaCanal. the special projects of Canal Contemporâneo have been sponsored by Petrobras. Retrieved August 6. . asp) (in Portuguese). org/ en/ users/ site-users/ site-members/ documenta-12-magazines/ 51305/ 11070). LabforCulture. br/ hiper/ hotsite.Canal Contemporâneo International Advisory Board of Digital Communities. "Um manifesto pela turbulência . [7] "Difusão da Cultura na Internet . .[7] Brazilian major cultural sponsor.com/homedocanal) Canal Contemporâneo (http://www.canalcontemporaneo.com/canalcontemporaneo) Page at Twitter (http://twitter. petrobras. 2010. html) (in Portuguese). labforculture. Retrieved August 6.com/user/canalnotubo) channel on YouTube . canalcontemporaneo. art. 88 References [1] "Petrobras an Broadcasting Culture over Internet . santandercultural. Retrieved August 6. 2007). com.Projects" (http:/ / www2. br/ cultura/ ingles/ difusao/ proj/ proj_canalcontemporaneo.br) Page at Facebook (http://www. br/ documenta12magazines/ _v2/ contributions. [4] Sílvia Guerra (February 14.youtube. org/ en/ users/ site-users/ site-members/ documenta-12-magazines/ 51305/ 11176). .art. Santander Cultural.facebook. 2010. in July 2007[5] . Retrieved 6 August 2010. artecapital. petrobras. . . [6] Nat Muller (July 20.[4] collaborating with several theoretical and artistic works and being invited to talk in the “Paper and Pixel” week in Kassel (Germany). "Paper and Pixel: internal meeting report" (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 6. 2010. php?id=82& section=9 [3] "hiper . Arte Capital.

AOL. While all of Cellufun's games and applications remained free to play.Cellufun 89 Cellufun Cellufun URL Type of site Registration m. In mid-2009. Games Social Games • • • • • • • • • MOBile Wars [4] Beach Party [5] FunFlirts [6] Call of the Pharaoh [7] . Cellufun's community. Cellufun added a new revenue stream by introducing a premium virtual currency called "FunCoins" to compliment the existing "earned" point system called Cellupoints. MetroPCS. Based on Wall Street in New York City. Cellufun partners with mobile operators. Verizon Wireless.com [1] Mobile social network Optional Available language(s) English. Arthur Goikhman and Cary Torkelson. Virgin Mobile. German. mobile device makers. the company was founded in 2005 by Stephen Dacek. Spanish. For several years. and USA Today to deliver branded entertainment and marketing. as of July 2009 consisted of over 2 million registered users[3] . the introduction of FunCoins opened up some premium content such as unique avatar clothes and special [2] in-game advantages to those who wished to purchase the new currency . Italian.Winner of Best Game at the Global Mobile Awards 2008[8] MobilePet Online [9] Cellufun Ice Fishing [10] Space Wars [11] Cellufun Farming [12] Cellufun Mining [13] . and media companies such as AT&T Mobility. the company relied on advertising as its sole source of revenue. RIM.cellufun. Russian Cellufun is a mobile social and gaming community where people meet and play social games.

[3] Cellufun passes 2m mobile gamers milestone | Mobile Entertainment News (http:/ / www. asp?c=com& g=flirts [7] http:/ / www. cellufun. cellufun. com/ Games/ Game. com/ ?f=Wikipedia [2] O'Donnell. asp?game=Chess [15] http:/ / www. . Call of the Pharaoh. asp?c=com& g=mine [14] http:/ / www. asp?c=com& g=farm [13] http:/ / www. asp?c=board& g=ck [19] http:/ / www. usatoday. asp?c=com& g=beach [6] http:/ / www. 2009). cellufun. com/ Games/ Game. virtual retail sales are hot. asp?c=com& g=sw [12] http:/ / www. com/ Games/ Game. asp?c=com& g=fish [11] http:/ / www. held at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. cellufun. com/ Games/ Game. cellufun. biz/ news/ 33944/ Cellufun-passes-2m-mobile-gamers-milestone) [4] http:/ / www. Then. Cellufun scored at the highest level of the Mobile Industry by being awarded a joint win in the "Best Mobile Game" category at the Global Mobile Awards 2008[26] . com/ Games/ Game. asp?c=com& g=wapmp [10] http:/ / www. Retrieved April 28. com/ Games/ Game. cellufun. cellufun. cellufun. 2008. Jayne (December 24. com/ Games/ Game. mobile-ent. USA Today. com/ Games/ Game. cellufun. htm). Cellufun won for the multiplayer WAP game. especially for avatars" (http:/ / www. html) [9] http:/ / www. cellufun. asp?c=board& g=ws [17] http:/ / www. cellufun. cellufun. "Unlike reality.Cellufun 90 Head-2-Head Board Games • • • • • • Chess [14] Backgammon [15] Battleship [16] 4 In-A-Row [17] Checkers [18] MoThello [19] Casino Games • • • • Blackjack [20] Video Poker [21] One Thumb Bandit [22] Scratch-n-Win [23] Adventure Games • The Captives of Witch Hill [24] Iphone Applications The Battle for Orion's Belt Awards On January 28. com/ Games/ Game. asp?c=com& g=pyr [8] (http:/ / www. com/ tech/ products/ 2009-12-23-virtual-retail-sales-avatar_N. where players must work together to build a pyramid. asp?c=board& g=bg [16] http:/ / www. com/ Games/ Game. globalmobileawards. com/ Games/ Game. cellufun. 2010. asp?c=com& g=mob [5] http:/ / www. cellufun. References [1] http:/ / m. com/ Games/ games. cellufun. com/ Games/ games. cellufun. com/ history/ 2008_winners/ cellufun. on February 14. asp?c=board& g=mo . Cellufun's The Mobile Ring was awarded 2008 Best Mobile Game at NAPTE Mobile++ Top 12[25] . com/ Games/ Game. com/ Games/ Game. asp?game=4Row [18] http:/ / www.

shtml) 91 External links • Cellufun Corporate Site (http://www. cellufun. asp?c=cg& g=SnW http:/ / www. com/ Games/ Game. com/ Games/ Game. com/ ?page_id=39) Global Mobile Awards 2008 (http:/ / www. cellufun.digitalmedianet.cellufun. natpemobile.techcrunch. com/ Games/ Game. cellufun. asp?c=cg& g=bj http:/ / www. globalmobileawards. com/ Games/ Game. com/ winners. asp?c=cg& g=slots http:/ / www.com/articles/viewarticle. cellufun. com/ Games/ games.jsp?id=158477) .Cellufun [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] http:/ / www.com) • Techcrunch (http://www.com (http://dmnnewswire.com/tag/cellufun/) • DigitalMediaNet. cellufun. asp?game=Adventure NATPE Mobile++ Top 12 (http:/ / www. asp?c=cg& g=vp http:/ / www.

In mid-2007.[5] stranding hundreds of customers without websites or backups. and embedded programming. In 2004 the site expanded on shared hosting with a PhpBB-based forum. desktop applications. releasing popular projects such as the Clove 2 typing glove. as well as the hardware and computer software to support internet-connected calculators. an extensive shell called Doors CS for these devices. History Cemetech began as a personal website hosted on Homestead and later GeoCities. and mobile/web applications. attracting programmers who began publishing their own independent software projects on the site. .cemetech. Among its most notable projects are the Doors CS shell for the TI-83+ series of graphing calculators. web. began the site to showcase his personal projects. and its primary hardware focus is on mobile and wearable computing hardware. it has branched out to become one of the several major sites of the TI calculator hobbyist community and a source for hardware and programming development assistance. Major software projects have included networking libraries for calculators and other low-resource devices.146 Online [2] Cemetech (pronounced English pronunciation: /ˌkɛ ˌmɛ ˌtɛk/) is a programming and hardware development group and developer community founded in 2000.net [1] Leading the Way to the Future No Forum/Development group Optional Available language(s) English Created by Launched Alexa rank Current status Christopher Mitchell March. an electro-acoustic musical instrument. Cemetech expanded further into hardware development. Early projects were primarily calculator-related.[4] The site spent the following three years consolidating its presence in the TI graphing calculator enthusiast community.net [3]. later branching out into computer. but since its early days. 2000 591. and the CALCnet / globalCALCnet system for networking graphing calculators and connecting them to the Internet. general electrical engineering. Its primary software focus is calculator programming. Christopher "Kerm Martian" Mitchell. and in March 2005 moved to Cemetech. the Ultimate Calculator. Cemetech lost several thousand posts when hosting provider Jatol disappeared overnight. It has incubated many software and hardware projects beginning in the calculator community at its roots but including microprocessor development. the Clove 2 dataglove. The founder of the site.Cemetech 92 Cemetech Cemetech URL Slogan Commercial? Type of site Registration www. and several hardware mods of graphing calculators. and work on distributed computing and image processing projects by the founder and several staff members. From 2008. publishing personal software and hardware projects.

a networking stack. org/ story/ 10/ 12/ 16/ 204241/ Calculator-Networking-With-CALCnet-and-Doors-CS).[21] While much of the hobbyist community agreed with the letter or spirit of the proclamation. html).net – Traffic Details from Alexa" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-02-27.[22] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. net). and at one point. and research into parallelization. org/ story/ 07/ 09/ 11/ 0038207/ Jatolcom-Disappears-Stranding-Customers). Retrieved 2011-02-27. • Ultimate Calculator[17] : A project involving fully customizing the hardware of a TI-83+. org/ archives/ news/ articles/ 14/ 146/ 146642. ticalc.[20] In early 2011.Cemetech 93 Projects The following Cemetech projects have been widely disseminated on technology news sites and blogs. . Hack a Day. and image processing.org. Same applications include a chat client that can link calculators to each other and to IRC as well as a scorched-earth genre multiplayer game called Obliterate. . • Clove 2[6] [7] : A Bluetooth data glove for one-handed typing. . [8] "Peer network using graphing calculators – Hack a Day" (http:/ / hackaday. Retrieved 2011-02-27. net/ about).[19] Cemetech's growth and gradual gain in reputation resolved these initial bumps but in recent years have introduced a tension between the site and fellow community site Omnimaga. There have been two incarnations of the Ultimate Calculator. • SourceCoder[16] : An online IDE for the TI-BASIC programming language. cemetech. this includes customization of the casing. com/ 5024693). [10] "Find an Oasis in Doors CS 7. hardware and software projects for music visualization. net/ "Cemetech. com/ 2010/ 12/ 16/ peer-network-using-graphing-calculators/ ). and features for users and developers. net "Cemetech" (http:/ / www..] is NOT wrong is TI's refusal to make the NSpire a platform for Doom or Quake or any other distraction that kids enjoy.. adding a PS/2 mouse port. [6] "Clove 2 typing glove leaves your other hand free for high fives . Retrieved 2011-02-26. Stranding Customers" (http:/ / tech. . Slashdot. or to each other.[11] • gCn (globalCALCnet)[12] [13] and CALCnet[9] : A linking protocol for linking the TI-83+ series of graphing calculators over the internet. Inc. even incorporating a PS/2 trackpad.org. com/ siteinfo/ cemetech.Engadget" (http:/ / www. • Doors CS[8] [9] [10] : A calculator shell for the TI-83+/TI-84+ series of graphing calculators. alexa. [7] "DIY Clove 2 Glove Allows You To Type One-Handed. These things may be fun. Retrieved 2011-05-13. offering a GUI API. calling on community members to "ignore the Nspire CX and get a [. Retrieved 2011-03-24. Cemetech. many TI-BASIC and z80 Assembly programs. . Engadget. engadget. Alexa Internet. Controversy and Criticism Early in its history. Cemetech's members took a vocal stand against Texas Instruments' educational division for the TI-Nspire CX graphing calculator to be introduced in Spring 2011. Cemetech became embroiled in drama wracking the Texas Instruments calculator hobbyist scene. . ticalc.[18] Cemetech's many other past and present projects include web applications for trend aggregation and data mining. . "Jatol. [9] "Calculator Networking With CALCnet and Doors CS" (http:/ / hardware.[14] • Multichord[15] : An electro-acoustic musical instrument using a hard drive to tension a string that can be strummed or plucked. com/ 2008/ 07/ 13/ clove-2-typing-glove-leaves-your-other-hand-free-for-high-fives/ ). occasionally spawning backlash from one or both sites. Various community members spoofed user accounts in an attempt to further discredit Cemetech.com Disappears.. a discussion between teachers and community members on a semi-official TI-Nspire discussion group prompted criticism of Cemetech's attitude as contrary to the purpose of TI's calculators. and a third is said to be in development. distributed computing.. slashdot.] Prizm" from TI competitor Casio. Retrieved 2011-02-26. Sans Keyboard" (http:/ / gizmodo. Retrieved 2011-02-27. partly stemming from a premature announcement of the Doors CS project. but they aren't about learning math". Gizmodo. cemetech. explified in "[o]ne thing that [. cemetech. http:/ / www. slashdot. .0" (http:/ / www. . Slashdot.

" [2] Reso.Hard Drive Musical Instrument . 2010). [17] "Mod Your Boring TI-83 Calc | Hack N Mod" (http:/ / hacknmod. . [22] "Why TI Calc Coders Should Abandon the Nspire CX" (http:/ / groups. Retrieved 2011-02-27. There's a bit of mystery behind the whole process. Hack N Mod. Fox News. [19] "Problems with lists.598671. com/ story/ 0. org/ archives/ news/ articles/ 14/ 146/ 146444. New York Times. "The New Dating Tools: A Card and a Wink" (http:/ / www.” “i can break ice with this little card. com/ 2010/ 01/ 26/ multichord-hard-drive-musical-instrument/ ). [12] "Online Multiplayer Games on TI Calculators" (http:/ / games. 94 Cheek'd Cheek’d is a dating and social networking website based in New York City. org/ archives/ news/ articles/ 7/ 74/ 74074. business-sized cards that say things like.[1] [2] Recipients of the cards can then look up the profile of the Cheek'd user with the information provided on the card.” “you never know” and “my dog likes your dog. [20] "Our Current Problem" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2011-02-27. . [13] "Global CALCnet: Your TI-83 Just Acquired Internet" (http:/ / hackaday. "Google Groups: tinspire". Founder Lori Cheek has created a set of subtle. [14] "Obliterate Bonds of Oppression With Online Gaming" (http:/ / www. "Members pay $25 for 50 cards and a month’s subscription.org" (http:/ / www. Slashdot. I think it's a light and fun alternative to handing your regular card away. Retrieved 2010-o8-14. nydailynews. “They don't clearly say ‘I want to date you. 2010). They also include a web address and a code. org/ index. html). . org/ story/ 11/ 02/ 22/ 0340258/ Online-Multiplayer-Games-On-TI-Calculators). slashdot.00. Cemetech. php?id=443). cemetech. Retrieved 2011-02-27. . Retrieved 2011-03-24. which had its debut in May. com/ 2010/ 07/ 22/ fashion/ 22date.[4] The intent of the concept is to expand subscriber's dating opportunities beyond the pool of people registered with an online dating service. . ticalc. Retrieved 2011-02-28. Cheek’d." [3] "Cheek'd and FlipMe! Introduce Dating Cards" . ticalc. Hack a Day. net/ news. Retrieved 2011-02-27. Retrieved 2010-08-15.Hacked Gadgets . nytimes. php?year=2010& month=all& id=376). foxnews.org. [15] "Multichord . Users set up profiles and recipients of the cards can look up their secret admirers and proceed as they like…or not. . an architect who works part-time in sales for a high-end Manhattan furniture company. founded one such venture. . Retrieved 2011-03-24. html). 2010). . . “i dare you. "Latest dating trends include Web-based calling cards and GPS-powered apps" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2010-07-23. . net/ news.”" . ticalc. html#ixzz0wdT7LZiO). com/ dating-relationships/ news/ cheekd_and_flipme_introduce_dating_cards/ hof10740) [4] Jenny Block (August 05. ticalc. be it in a club or in a subway on their morning commute. ticalc. com/ group/ tinspire/ browse_thread/ thread/ 552a2517900b6a52/ 5348a27c9836322b). But your catch of the day doesn’t have to pay anything to contact you through the site. html?test=faces).. com/ 2011/ 02/ 22/ global-calcnet-your-ti-83-just-acquired-internet/ ).org.’” explains Cheek. . omnimaga. black.2933.[1] Concept Subscribers get a set of 50 business cards that can can give out when someone catches their eye that they are [2] [3] interested in meeting. terra.ticalc. "Ms. Hacked Gadgets.DIY Tech Blog" (http:/ / hackedgadgets. "Fox on Sex: The Art of Flirting" (http:/ / www. [21] "Cemetech" (http:/ / www. “But there are alluring sayings on each of them and a few laugh-out-loud lines. Retrieved 2011-03-23. New York Daily News. google. Retrieved 2011-02-27. html). net). . Cheek. Users receive calling cards to dole out to alluring strangers they encounter in their everyday lives.[5] [6] References [1] Stephanie Rosenbloom (July 21. com/ lifestyle/ 2010/ 07/ 24/ 2010-07-24_latest_dating_trends_include_webbased_calling_cards_and_gpspowered_apps. cemetech. Retrieved 2011-02-27. Retrieved 2011-03-24. . Retrieved 2011-03-24. org/ archives/ news/ articles/ 14/ 147/ 147311. It was founded in 2010 by Lori Cheek. .org. Paulina (July 23.. Each card has an interesting phrase like "I am totally cooler than your date" or "feel free to stalk me" and a url to the subscriber's account at the website.Cemetech [11] "Doors CS" (http:/ / dcs. cemetech. ticalc. [18] "Cemetech | News | Ultimate Calculator 3 Progress" (http:/ / www. "A company called Cheek’d has come up with an interesting marriage of old school flirting and newfangled technology.. php?topic=5231).Terra USA (http:/ / en. "Omnimaga". All you do is sign up and give out the cards at will. html?src=me& ref=general). Cemetech. [16] "Cemetech's SourceCoder Updated" (http:/ / www. com/ hack/ mod-your-boring-ti-83-calc/ ).

de/ lebensart/ partnerschaft/ 2010-08/ dating-cards-flirten& sl=auto& tl=en) 95 External links • Official website (http://http://cheekd. co. specifically design for companies operating in the digital sector. co.'s oldest known electronic mailing lists. Retrieved 2008-07-21. an email-based announcement service for jobs within the Internet and digital media industries. newmediaage. . [2] "UKNM: Fwd: RE: Do we care to comment?" (http:/ / www. [6] Alan Mitchell (2001-05-10). including uk-netmarketing. shtml). . [5] Justin Pearse (2001-05-03).[10] The company also a series of trade missions for UK Trade & Investment. "Prepare for the search engines" (http:/ / www. co.[2] and Brent Hoberman. newmediaage. New Media Age. chinwag.[8] [9] Chinwag is also known for its periodic. html). "Finding funding you can trust" (http:/ / www. uk/ Articles/ 19758/ Finding+ funding+ you+ can+ trust. about which discussions have appeared in New Media Age. shtml). zeit.Zeit Online (http:/ / translate. New Media Age. . 1998-10-12. 14–19 September 2009 • Digital Mission to SXSW interactive. chinwag. "Keeping clear of viruses" (http:/ / www. com/ uknetmarketing/ archive/ archive-jan-2000/ msg00080. uk/ Articles/ 8593/ Keeping+ clear+ of+ viruses. com/ wobble2). . co. html).[11] Digital Missions to date are: • Digital Mission to New York. html). Retrieved 2008-07-21.) consisting of new media and digital marketing professionals. Retrieved 2008-07-21. .K. Retrieved 2008-07-21. [8] "What happens when Web 2. Past speakers include Andrew Orlowski of The Register and Neville Hobson.Cheek'd [5] "Getting cheeky" . New Media Age.Official Digital Mission website References [1] "Re: UKNM: Streams of Consciousness" (http:/ / www.[3] A sister-site Chinwag Jobs was launched based on Chinwag's uknm-jobs e-mail list.com) Chinwag Chinwag is an Internet community based in Soho. newmediaage. Retrieved 2008-07-21. shtml).K. chinwag. 13–17 March 2009 External links • Chinwag [12] — Official website • Digital Mission [13] . . [4] Vicky Grinnell (2001-04-26). Chinwag Jobs is a recruitment website. 1999-06-22. Retrieved 2008-07-21.[4] [5] [6] [7] Chinwag also hosts monthly events under the brand Chinwag Live. com/ uk-netmarketing/ archive/ archive-jun-1999/ msg00195. chinwag. com/ translate?js=y& prev=_t& hl=en& ie=UTF-8& layout=1& eotf=1& u=http:/ / www. Chinwag was founded in 1995 by Sam Michel (Internet consultant).0?" (http:/ / live. United Kingdom (U. .[1] Ivan Pope. Retrieved 2008-07-21. google. com/ prunspun). [3] "UKNM: lastminute. . London. These events are informal. panel-based sessions focusing on issues affecting the new media industry. uk/ Articles/ 8772/ Viral+ marketing+ kill+ or+ cure.Honolulu Weekly (http:/ / honoluluweekly. Retrieved 2008-07-21. chinwag.com does delight its customers!" (http:/ / www. These email lists form the center of the community and include contributions from many notable Internet pioneers and commentators including Bill Thompson. uk/ Articles/ 5444/ + Prepare+ for+ the+ search+ engines. com/ uknetmarketing/ archive/ archive-oct-1998/ msg00163. large-scale networking evenings. .0 meets Bubble 2. . 2000-01-06. [9] "PR Unspun" (http:/ / live. [7] Michael Nutley (2001-05-17). and hosts several of the U. "Viral marketing: kill or cure?" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-07-21. html). New Media Age. com/ city-wise/ 2010/ 08/ getting-cheeky/ ) [6] "Business cards for love" . newmediaage.

[12] http:/ / www. brandrepublic. com/ News/ 663298/ Chinwag-attracts-three-sponsors-digital-networking-event/ ). chinwag. com/ [13] http:/ / digital-mission. "Chinwag attracts three sponsors for digital networking event" (http:/ / www. uk/ media/ pda/ 2008/ jul/ 09/ anotherdigitalmissiontothe).Chinwag [10] Ben Bold (2007-06-11). Retrieved 2009-03-06." (http:/ / www.. Brand Republic. .. [11] Jemima Kiss (2008-07-09). . org 96 . guardian. "Another digital mission to the west. London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-07-21. co.

TX. media. 2006-09-05.Classical Lounge 97 Classical Lounge Classical Lounge Founded Headquarters Key people Website Type of site Registration Available in Launched 2006 Austin. 2006 Current status active Classical Lounge was the first social networking site designed solely for classical music lovers. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ 5388716. managers. classicallounge. palmbeachpost. bbc. html).com) .[1] The site facilitates interaction between musicians. students. Since then. the PalmBeachPost. stm). United States Miro Quartet http:/ / www. 2006-09-02. instrument makers and dealers. Built to expand the classical music community. palmbeachpost. [2] PalmBeachPost.miroquartet. html). History Classical Lounge was founded in August 2006 by the members of the Miro Quartet. composers. journalists.[2] The article falsely credited the social networking site to 21C Media.[3] References [1] BBC.com) • Miro Quartet (http://www. com Social network service optional English August 16. presenters. co. Members of the site can share their music and generally network with the broad classical music community. External links • Classical Lounge Official Website (http://www. [3] PalmBeachPost. tech-savvy fan base that contradicts the stereotype of the "old and stuffy" classical music audience. com/ blogs/ content/ shared-blogs/ palmbeach/ stepanich/ entries/ 2006/ 09/ the_envy_debate.com called it "essentially a MySpace-style deal for classical players. critics and enthusiast". Classical music fans go digital (http:/ / news. and the news site later corrected its error. Classical music enthusiasts and audience members are also encouraged to participate. it has gained several thousand members. Hanging at the Classical Lounge (http:/ / www. com/ blogs/ content/ shared-blogs/ palmbeach/ stepanich/ entries/ 2006/ 09/ hanging_at_the. the site and its membership are evidence to a modern.classicallounge. In September 2006. 2006-09-28.com.com. The Envy Debate Continues (http:/ / www.

8 million pay subscribers. In 2010. . Classmates Media had more than 50 million members. and photographic images. (Nasdaq: UNTD) acquired Classmates Online in 2004[6] and continues to own and operate the company as part of its Classmates Media Corporation subsidiary. work and the United States military. home. Nielsen Online had ranked Classmates as number three in unique monthly visitors (U.[12] As of June 30.45% market share.[5] Corporate Information United Online. which included a website redesign. Classmates Media also operates the following international sites designed to enable users to connect with old friends: • • • • StayFriends.at (Austria) Trombi.com (France) Classmates Media Corporation's business model is based on user-generated content and revenue from paid subscriptions and advertising sales.com Classmates. television program The View mentioned Classmates. music tracks.se (Sweden) StayFriends.[11] In early 2008. Classmates was not among the top 10 social networking websites and forums. and to appeal more to older users. CEO Mark Goldston described the transition of the website "to increasingly focus on nostalgic content" such as "high school yearbooks.com 98 Classmates. Classmates Media operates online social networking and loyalty marketing services under the Classmates.com [1] Commercial? mixed Type of site Owner Created by Social network service United Online Randy Conrads Classmates.de (Germany) StayFriends.[10] The previous time Classmates appeared on Hitwise's top 10 list of social networking websites was June 2009.com[7] and MyPoints[8] brands. Inc. when it appeared tenth with 0.com URL classmates. movie trailers.S."[4] To this end. Inc.Classmates.com as having more than 40 million[14] members in the United States and Canada.[13] In 2006.[3] The social media website was originally designed to assist members in finding friends and acquaintances from kindergarten. college. but only 3. the website name was changed to Memory Lane. high school. as measured by Hitwise. 2008.[9] Users and ranking among other social networking sites As of November 2010. primary school. work) among social networking sites.com is a social network service created in 1995[2] by Randy Conrads who founded Classmates Online.

Controversial business practices It is standard practice for Classmates.com currently faces a lawsuit for this practice (which. as part of a probe into the discount club industry.[20] . but the recipient cannot read them unless the sender becomes a paid member.000 as recently as January 2010.com shows Classmates.S.211 most visited website on March 12. see the names of others who have visited their profile and signed their guest book. Settlement on hidden online shopping fees On August 18.[16] 99 Privacy Classmates. Basic members may also post to and read community message boards and view information about upcoming reunions. including Classmates.[17] Classmates. this is frequently untrue. 2011.[18] In addition. In December 2006. entering this information triggered small. if the allegation is true. interests.[19] Under the scheme investigated. announcements and send email to and receive email from any member.Classmates. As more users move to Facebook.com was Number 4 among the Top 25 Web Destinations Ranked by Consumer Content Revenue in both 2002 and 2003[15] (the last years that individual site rankings were broken out). This doesn't become apparent until an email is already composed and sent. street addresses or phone numbers since this would allow the members to communicate with one another outside of the site and therefore not pay for communications. biographies. Classmates. not screen names (although some members use a "fake name"). Gold members. when PC World magazine field tested several companies to determine how easy or difficult it was to cancel their service. but they may not email anyone or view other members' profiles.com to be the 4. Alexa. 2010. Classmates was among the retailers that agreed to pay $2. Basic members who try to send emails or view profiles are funneled to a page where they can upgrade to Gold member status for a fee. view notes posted on their profile bulletin board. Basic members can create profiles and search the entire social network service for friends. Classmates. and Classmates. consumers who signed up for discounts or cash-back promotions were asked to enter their payment information. so email addresses and contact information are never revealed unless self-disclosed by members one-on-one. constitutes fraud).com to auto-renew memberships at the end of each billing period. who pay a fee. Registering and networking It is free for people to register as a Basic member of Classmates. billed to unfamiliar company names.com also routinely sends e-mails indicating that one of the recipient's classmates is looking for him/her.com was one of the companies that received their worst rating. Member privacy is protected through a double-blind email system. access and use tools for planning reunions and create their own private groups. Allegedly. falling from the top 1.com members use real names. Market Spending Report. Classmates' share of the settlement amounts to $960. They can write emails and send them. Classmates.000 and a commitment to end these practices.com According to the Online Publishers Association Paid Content U.com. the site has fallen in popularity.1 million toward refunds and consumer education.com does not allow members to provide each other with private e-mail addresses. photos. easy-to-overlook recurring charges on the accounts. New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo announced a settlement with six companies. may view other members' profiles. timelines.

David Catapano and Anthony Michaels. . cnet. seattletimes. February 1.webservices/ article. com [17] "Just Cancel the @#%$* Account! Big Hassles. pcworld. Market Spending Report (http:/ / www. html [21] Greg Sandoval (November 23. August 30. cgi/ web/ vortex/ display?slug=classmates26& date=20041026). com [9] No. Accessed May 30. 2004. earned $70 million from marketing practices under investigation in 2009 by the Senate Commerce Committee involving piggybacking a second credit card transaction with membership to Classmates.128206-page. untd. marketingcharts. theviewnewspapers.500 as part of that provision. marketingcharts. 2006. 2007. Cnet. ag. 2006. com/ cmo/ about).5 million to its users to settle a lawsuit that accused the social network of sending fraudulent emails that told recipients their old friends from school wished to reconnect (and the recipients would need to buy Classmates. [20] http:/ / www. online-publishers. 2011).com. com/ interactive/ top-10-social-networking-websites-forums-june-2009-9777/ [12] Nielsen Online. [13] http:/ / investor. The lead plaintiffs in the case. nwsource. alexa. asp?article=7029& paper=91& cat=187). [6] Seattle Times. ny. mypoints. com/ 8301-1009_3-10403286-83. No. seattletimes.Classmates. classmates. com/ article/ id. wired. cgi/ web/ vortex/ display?slug=classmates26& date=20041026). TechFlash.com has agreed to pay up to $9.S." (http:/ / www.[21] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. About Classmates Online. com/ cgi-bin/ texis. Take a Second Chance with that First Love (http:/ / www. . com/ siteinfo/ classmates. com/ cgi-bin/ texis. In Search of the Past (http:/ / www. com/ politics/ law/ news/ 2008/ 11/ classmates [19] "UPDATE 1-Cuomo says 6 settle on hidden online shopping fees" (http:/ / www. cfm?ReleaseID=526852 Todd Bishop (February 23. classmates. May 2004. would each receive $20. Piggybacking United Online. 2 Internet service provider buying Classmates Online (http:/ / archives. gov/ media_center/ 2010/ aug/ aug18a_10. shtml). cominvestor. com/ interactive/ top-10-us-social-network-and-blog-site-rankings-issued-for-feb-3851/ nielsen-online-top-10-social-networking-sites-us-february-2008jpg/ ). com/ article/ idUSN1820540420100818?utm_source=feedburner& utm_medium=feed& utm_campaign=Feed:+ reuters/ privateequityNews+ (News+ / + US+ / + Private+ Equity+ News)& utm_content=Google+ Reader). 2009). com [8] http:/ / www. February. com/ interactive/ top-10-social-networking-websites-forums-september-2010-14529/ [11] http:/ / www. 2006.8-c. cbsnews. com/ article. Inc (http:/ / www. marketingcharts.com (http:/ / www. Classmates. October 26. . reuters. Nielsen Online Unique Monthly Visitors Ranking for Classmates. html). 2003.com. December 22. classmates. com/ releasedetail. the parent company of Classmates. html) PC World Magazine. pdf) (PDF file). 2 Internet service provider buying Classmates Online (http:/ / archives. 2008. http:/ / investor. August 18. com CBS News. com/ stories/ 2003/ 05/ 05/ 60II/ main552363.com brand demoted in 'Memory Lane' site launch" (http:/ / www. "Classmates.com memberships to receive their old friends' contact information).com. [10] http:/ / www. Reuters. . 2010. [18] http:/ / www. com/ seattle/ 2011/ 02/ classmatescom-gets-demoted-in-memory. untd. Retrieved 2009-08-22.com involving a loyalty program. [15] Online Publishers Association. Retrieved 2011-02-27. cfm?ReleaseID=328744 [14] The View. html). nwsource. untd. Paid Content U. [16] http:/ / www.com 100 False Advertising Lawsuit Settled Seattle-based Classmates. techflash. [7] http:/ / www. "E-tailers snagged in marketing 'scam' blame customers" (http:/ / news. org/ pdf/ opa_paid_content_report_may04. com/ releasedetail.

html) . Inc.com 101 External links • Classmates.com (http://www. com/2008/10/steven-mcarthur. Oct '08 (http://www.Classmates.html) • Consumer complaints against classmates.com official website (http://www.consumeraffairs.classmates.socialnetworkingwatch.jsp) • Steven McArthur. Inc.com) • Classmates Online.com/dating_services/classmates. Classmates Online. President Interview.com/cmo/privacy. Privacy Policy (http://www.classmates.

and BLURR2. .Club Caribe 102 Club Caribe Club Caribe The title screen of Club Caribe Developer(s) Publisher(s) Platform(s) Genre(s) Mode(s) Quantum Link Quantum Link Commodore 64 Virtual world Multiplayer Club Caribe was one of the first graphical online worlds. It was available in the 1980s on the exclusively Commodore 64 online service Quantum Link. Famous personalities in the Club Caribe virtual world include Tahiba the island witch. Originally available in limited release as Habitat. a writer for the Island Times newspaper. Club Caribe was eventually released to the public as an extension of Q-Link's "People Connection".

. Parnes was temporarily relieved of his teaching duties and had some extra time to devote to his experimental system. 1975 Development status Historic Written in Operating system Available in Type FORTRAN MTS.[5] MTS served as an excellent development environment for CONFER. particularly the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching (CRLT).[2] CONFER is the progenitor of the computer conferencing systems Caucus.[1] The CONFER system continued to be a widely used communication tool until 1999. and YAPP." MTS at U-M and later at Wayne State University was a good match for CONFER because both systems were attached to the Merit Network and thus had a broader reach within Michigan via Merit and within the U. and later still the IBM Global Network and the Internet. OR PASS: Original author(s) Developer(s) Initial release Robert Parnes Advertel Communication Systems.[3] Origins and history CONFER was developed in the mid-1970s when University of Michigan experimental psychology graduate student Bob Parnes attended a seminar where Professor Merrill M. ADP's Autonet. According to Parnes." This feature allowed the consumer to voice their "feelings" or opinion on a statement by voting. FORGET. but offered instead to attempt writing a similar program for MTS.[4] Flood had a magnetic tape of a prototype system and approached Parnes about getting it to run on the Michigan Terminal System (MTS). PicoSpan. which he called "CONFER". the university's time-sharing system.CONFER (software) 103 CONFER (software) CONFER DO NEXT? RESPOND.S. "I don't think I could have written CONFER anywhere but on MTS. Tymnet. Parnes declined. CONFER was developed. Flood discussed aspects of electronic mail and conferencing on group decision making. Inc. It was developed in 1975 at the University of Michigan by then graduate student Robert Parnes.[5] With the support of the university. Unix English Computer conferencing CONFER is one of the first and one of the most sophisticated computer conferencing systems. c. which was built on top of the MTS file structure and exploited its file sharing features. Bob Parnes. The unique CONFER feature in this regard was initially the functionality of the "vote. and internationally via Merit's interconnections to Telenet (later SprintNet). Because of a graduate teaching assistant strike. 2004 Parnes' vision of the system was one where the individual group participant would alternate between being a producer and being a consumer of information.

command driven system with extensive prompts and online help. or an event. known as CONFER U.[9] Discussions are organized around "conferences" that focus on a topic. Bulletins. reverse chronological order. The Unix version was also used at the University of Michigan and by the Research Libraries Group.[6] MSU and HP both ran MTS so they could run CONFER. Each conference has one or more organizers. or observers. Individuals join conferences as participants. while an auditor or observer just views them. One can view items in chronological order. or by following a thread of related items linked together using next and previous item links. A participant may contribute items and responses. Another type of response is a vote where a numeric response followed by an optional text comment is given with only one response per item per participant. the University of Alberta (UQV). One can also view specific items.[5] The CONFER system continued to be a widely used communication tool until 1999. . and the University of Alberta had moved from the Michigan Terminal System to distributed computing environments and several newer digital technologies replaced the functionality provided by CONFER. but not for observers. and messages. notices that are displayed when a conference is entered with no responses allowed.CONFER (software) Parnes went on to form his own company — Advertel Communication Systems. and participants can register in a conference under a pseudonym. CONFER keeps track of what has been seen for participants and auditors. a group or community. Inc. — which marketed and supported CONFER. The item's author can specify the type of responses desired.[7] [8] A Unix version. Other people can then make their own responses to the initial entry. Conferences may be "public" (open to anyone with an account on the host system where CONFER runs) or private (invitation only). Of course one can always go back and look at old items and responses as well. Features CONFER provides facilities for online discussion of topics of general interest. Conferences are accessed using terminals from various locations. It does not have a graphical user interface (but see InfoX below) or allow the display of photographs or other graphics. and at Hewlett-Packard (HP). CONFER allows the use of pseudonyms for items. Each time a conference is visited by a participant or auditor. discussions are managed as a collection of items. auditors. One person starts an item by entering the item text and giving it a title. And still another response type is a dynamic value vote. an auditor. CONFER displays a list of new information that has been entered since the previous visit. or a temporary observer. The item text and each response is signed with the name of its author. Michigan State University (MSU). As a system developed in the mid-1970s. allowing discussion without having to meet physically or participate at the same time. responses. WSU. are another less frequently used form of communication. was created and installed at Western Michigan University (WMU). Participants can make as many discussion responses to an item as they like. Within a conference. By this time. U-M. CONFER is a text oriented. new items or items that have new responses. a range of items. Many conferences that allow pseudonymous comments ask participants to register under their own names to establish a legitimate tone for the conference. Once one has joined a conference. The most common type of response is a discussion response where the response is simply text. called a header.[2] 104 Sites where CONFER was used In addition to the University of Michigan CONFER was used at Wayne State University (WSU). To participate in a conference one must first register as a permanent participant. and help establish the credibility of the participants.

Not only did CONFER offer the opportunity for various forms of group discussion. The buttons at the top of the screen allow the user to join a conference. Some CONFER II functions are not available through InfoX.[4] [11] Karl Zinn from U-M's CRLT was interested in testing the technology to facilitate the coordination of tasks among the conference staff as well as using the system to allow conference participants to extend discussions on conference topics. InfoX adds Macintosh-style word processing features to the more traditional editing functions available from the CONFER command-line interface. so one can select an item by title. change entries. or send or receive CONFER messages. When a conference folder is opened. participate in CONFER II conferences. CONFER provided a new opportunity for group discussion and is credited for playing a "tremendous role in enlarging the electronic community" at the University of [2] Michigan.[5] And while the MTS $MESSAGE e-mail system eventually surpassed CONFER as the e-mail facility of choice at Michigan. hold meetings. Those working on the Merit Network were also excited by the potential for CONFER. use polled or numeric responses. and manipulate files. One can use the standard Cut. enter pseudonymous or anonymous responses. read a particular item or response. students. access the MTS User Directory. read any item. post or read bulletins. and mark all items as seen. Uses The U-M Center for Research on Learning and Teaching (CRLT) was an early sponsor and proponent of CONFER and saw great promise in it for expanding learning environments. or mark all items as seen. CONFER continued to gain in popularity with faculty. InfoX allows users to join a conference. organizers and advanced users choose to access conferences through the traditional CONFER II command-line interface. Text is automatically wrapped text in conference entries and messages. One cannot use the program to enter organizer-defined commands. Proceedings of the ACM Annual Conference/Meeting. enter or respond to an item. Copy. and staff through the 1980s. and buttons) that can be used to check electronic mail. and create. and Paste commands under the Macintosh Edit menu to move text from any Macintosh file to a conference entry or message.CONFER (software) CONFER also provides a "meeting" mode to allow real-time discussions and includes facilities to support "simulations" as described below. • "Computer-based educational communications at the University of Michigan". administrators. InfoX displays a variety of information about new items and new responses. Because InfoX does not allow for many conference management features. windows.[9] It provides a modern user interface (menus. enter a new item. icons. edit. The participants — both consultants and users — learned a lot from each other through the conference. forget an item. Unseen conference items are displayed in much the same way messages are displayed. The following papers give a hint at the range of activities for which CONFER was used. forget an item. the computer conferencing portion of CONFER continued to thrive. access the index or summaries. 1976[12] . it also served as the first widely used e-mail system on the Michigan campus. 105 Commands InfoX InfoX (pronounced “info-ex”) is a program for the Apple Macintosh developed by the Information Technology Division at the University of Michigan. and they created the statewide MNET:Caucus conference to help Merit users get quick answers to their questions and take some of the load off their consulting staff. not just by item number. The first major "test" for the CONFER system was the October 1976 International Society for Technology Assessment (ISTA) Conference held in Ann Arbor.

Lecturer in U-M's Department of English. CHI '81 Proceedings of the joint conference on Easier and more productive use of computer systems. in their courses Poli Sci 471. Medical Teacher. "American Foreign Policy Process" and Poli Sci 353. 1977. Journal of Accounting [23] Education. 1986. U-M Computing News. U-M Computing News. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Application in Medical Care. "Arab-Israeli Conflict"[22] • "Computer conferencing for accounting instruction". 1986. FORGET OR PASS:Meet:Students T-shirt. 1989[24] • "Institutional Gaming through the use of Computer Conferencing". Empowering networks: computer conferencing in education. 1981[16] • "Computer conference and message systems: Their use in a university computer center". 1989 • "The Integration of Computer Conferencing into the Medical School Curriculum". 1981[15] • "Uses of CONFER at Wayne State University". 1986. 1981[17] • "Is It Time for CONFER. Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM SIGUCCS conference on User services. Committee for Information on Science and Technology (CIDST) of the Commission of the European Communities[13] • "Third party consulting in the network environment". CHI '81 Proceedings of the joint conference on Easier and more productive use of computer systems. a Computer-Based Conference for Dental Public Health?". c. USA . University of Michigan.CONFER (software) • A Meeting-related Information Exchange Facility within a computer conferencing environment. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. 1984[18] • "The Design and Implementation of a Statewide Perinatal Automated Medical Network for Michigan (PAM/NET)". 1992[25] • "Connecting the University and the Field of Practice". Ann Arbor. 1985[20] • "Using Computers to Teach Writing". Michigan. describes how Richard Meisler. describes the use of Confer by Fred Goodman and Edgar Taylor of the U-M School of Education. Empowering networks: computer conferencing in education. uses CONFER to effectively teach students how to write[21] • "Politics and Computers". 1981[14] • "The CONFER experience of the Merit Computer Network". and Raymond Tanter in Political Science at U-M. CHI '81 Proceedings of the joint conference on Easier and more productive use of computer systems. 1992[26] More than 400 of us do it24 hours a day! :-)$Source Meet:Students 106 RESPOND.

COW. in a sense." 107 Legacy There is a group of computer conferencing programs whose designs were derived from CONFER which are sometimes called "WELL-style" systems. ITD Reference R1044. Said Parnes. October 1. and YAPP. Computers and Composition. ITD Reference R1045. For many on the Michigan campus and elsewhere. ITD Reference R1042.[29] This very popular conference marked. 1989 (1 page)[10] Computer Conferencing Guidelines. Caucus. because The WELL has been very influential in spreading this design. blogs.[30] WELL-style systems facilitate group discussion by treating discussion items as part of an ongoing conversation with an inherent structure. 1995[28] In 1991. WELL Engaged. a group of U-M students established the first computer conference exclusively for students called MEET:STUDENTS. CONFER has had a strong influence on most of the major computer conferencing. and communicating outside the normal parameters defined by time and space. 1994[27] • "Crisscrossing Grand canyon: Bridging the gaps with computer conferencing". Examples of WELL-style Web conferencing software include: Backtalk. 1989 (8 pages) Guidelines for Effective Conferencing for Participants. "CONFER enabled a lot of people to talk together who wouldn't have otherwise. and other similar programs and sites that followed. The conversations are organized as linear chains of items and responses with individual items and responses displayed as a continuous stream of text. the acceptance of online communications as a culturally accepted mode for student communication and exchange. Archivaria 38. the benefits of CONFER included meeting new people with similar interests. Because of its influence on these programs. Motet.CONFER (software) • "Uses of Electronic Communication to Document an Academic Community: A Research Report". Documentation • • • • • • • • • • • • • MTS Volume 23: Messaging and Conferencing in MTS[9] Confer and MTS Help. engaging in group discussion.[2] CONFER played a tremendous role in enlarging the electronic community at the University and in removing the traditional geographic borders of the classroom and campus. October 1. Web crossing. 1989 (5 pages)[33] The Beginner’s Guide to Confer II (approximately 40 pages) An Intro Guide to Using Confer II (approximately 15 pages) The Reference Guide to Confer II (approximately 100 pages) The Organizer’s Guide to Confer II (approximately 75 pages) The Quick Reference Card for Confer II (2 pages) A summary of Confer commands (2 pages) A guide for using Confer with multiple userIDs (3 pages) A guide for the program CNFR:CHECK which monitors conference activity (3 pages) . 1989 (2 pages)[31] [32] Guidelines for Effective Conferencing for Organizers. October 1. ITD Reference R1043. social networking. PicoSpan. October 1.

google. Educational Technology Publications. [2] "Students Met Students on Confer U". com/ doi/ 10. Oncology Department. [14] "Third party consulting in the network environment" (http:/ / dx. a Computer-Based Conference for Dental Public Health?" (http:/ / www. University of Michigan. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=0CYIg9pG2KsC& oi=fnd& pg=PA215& dq=CONFER+ "Robert+ Parnes"+ Michigan& ots=sE6pHYoc2i& sig=0pluGgYpZkYfZuClJpIWAaF54y0#v=onepage& q=CONFER "Robert Parnes" Michigan& f=false). com/ url?sa=t& source=web& cd=6& sqi=2& ved=0CD8QFjAF& url=http:/ / www3. Pediatrics Department. pp. deepdyve.208-215. Robert O. Susan E. Report prepared in response to a request from an Ad Hoc Meeting on Conference Information Systems held on the initiative of the Committee for Information on Science and Technology (CIDST) of the Commission of the European Communities. pdf). ncbi. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. umich.focusrgn=bioghist. CHI '81 Proceedings of the joint conference on Easier and more productive use of computer systems (Part . php). Helen. 236 pages. nlm. Poland. Information Technology Division. Roistacher. google. Volume 44. umich. com/ site/ michiganterminalsystem/ discussions/ how-did-sites-learn-about-and-make-the-decision-to-use-mts/ xb11hewlett-packardhp).subview=standard. May 1984 (http:/ / onlinelibrary. com/ journal/ 120036139/ articletext?DOI=10. 1989 [11] "Confer at the ISTA congress" (http:/ / www. Ann Arbor.. 1996. InfoTech Digital. wiley. Issue 2. USA [20] "The Design and Implementation of a Statewide Perinatal Automated Medical Network for Michigan (PAM/NET)" (http:/ / www. Editor. Information Technology Digest. Volume 1981.. Center for Research on Learning and Teaching (CRLT). htm) by David R. 13-19. 44. pp. org/ 10. nih. [12] "Computer-based educational communications at the University of Michigan" (http:/ / portal. org/ 10. Karl L. Michael. Reference 1042. .view=reslist. 1111/ jphd. September 2010 [8] "How did sites learn about and make the decision to use MTS: HP" (https:/ / sites. 1996 (vol.D.II): Human interface and the user interface. 1145/ 800276. Ph. com/ works/ wwwu/ book. deepdyve. [18] "Is It Time for CONFER. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Application in Medical Care. pages 150-154. SA Eklund. 1986. Information Technology Division. Zinn. Topol.. acm. 1145/ 800276. [16] "Uses of CONFER at Wayne State University" (http:/ / dx. Ann Arbor. 42/ 79573/ 1/ r1042-ConferHelp-Oct1989. wiley. 1985. p 232. [5] "MTS Fostered Creation of Computing Community" (http:/ / www. laetusinpraesens. 1984. [19] Meet:Students T-shirt. [6] "Where was CONFER installed?" (https:/ / sites. interscience. Zinn. and Ronald L. Detroit. x& rct=j& q=confer "robert parnes" michigan& ei=i1XnTOmJOI-knQfw4NnvDA& usg=AFQjCNFh4O4vJgpeTTL7IMKgEld2y6ZupQ& cad=rja). 1111%2Fj.II): Human interface and the user interface. M. doi. Christine. com/ site/ michiganterminalsystem/ discussions/ confer/ wherewasconferinstalled). lib. pdf). CHI '81 Proceedings of the joint conference on Easier and more productive use of computer systems (Part . Wayne State University. Ph. Karl Zinn Papers (http:/ / quod. doi. 805559). gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC2578064/ pdf/ procascamc00005-0526. New Jersey. [13] A Meeting-related Information Exchange Facility within a computer conferencing environment (http:/ / www. Bentley Historical Library. tb03051. Wendt. (Luxembourg. e-mail summary in the Michigan Terminal System Archive [9] MTS Volume 23: Messaging and Conferencing in MTS (http:/ / deepblue. 810997). v11. google.byte=142633388). PDF/A. Ann Arbor. May 13. November 2010 [7] "How did sites learn about and make the decision to use MTS: MSU" (https:/ / sites. University of Michigan. Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM SIGUCCS conference on User services. doi. html). and Hench. University of Michigan. 1984. by CF Reactor.. Proceedings of the ACM Annual Conference/Meeting.D.).didno=umich-bhl-0476. Parnes. Wolley in the International University Consortium Conference on WWW Course Development & Delivery. University of Michigan. edu/ cgi/ f/ findaid/ findaid-idx?c=bhlead. 1752-7325. McCord. edu/ bitstream/ 2027. org/ docs70s/ 78ccenve. google. pp.CONFER (software) 108 References [1] Empowering networks: computer conferencing in education (http:/ / books. 1997. and published in the book World Wide Web Unleashed (http:/ / www. 1981. [3] Choosing Web Conferencing Software / Centralized Forums / Examples of WELL-style Web conferencing software (http:/ / thinkofit. pages 73–77. Volume 1981. i2. c. in ACM SIGCUE (Special Interest Group on Computer Uses In Education) Outlook. org/ citation. Steven M. org/ ~jss/ work/ mts/ overview. November 13. 810996). Waggoner. e-mail between Bob Parnes and Jeff Ogden.D. Volume 1981. lib. html). no. September 8. cfm?id=800191. clock. Ann Arbor. Robert. February 1991. Bollinger. 1976. Englewood Cliffs. 1997 [4] Biography section. com/ lp/ association-for-computing-machinery/ computer-conference-and-message-systems-their-use-in-a-university-TN1F931tXn). 1992. and Glenn E.II): Human interface and the user interface. com/ webconf/ wcchoice. University of Michigan. (Part . edu/ bitstream/ 2027. umich. lib. 810994). [15] "The CONFER experience of the Merit Computer Network" (http:/ / dx. September 1977). issue-2/ issuetoc). [17] "Computer conference and message systems: Their use in a university computer center" (http:/ / www.idno=umich-bhl-0476.. John December (Ed. december. CHI '81 Proceedings of the joint conference on Easier and more productive use of computer systems. e-mail from Rich Wiggins. October 1. google. pdf). April 197. 1145/ 800276. com/ lp/ association-for-computing-machinery/ confer-at-the-ista-congress-BIC1lhJAJy). Children's Hospital of Michigan and Wayne State University. com/ site/ michiganterminalsystem/ discussions/ how-did-sites-learn-about-and-make-the-decision-to-use-mts/ 9msu). University of Michigan. org/ 10. Alan. Cummings. 530KB [10] Confer and MTS Help (http:/ / deepblue. Koning. Richard C. 42/ 79615/ 1/ MTSVol23-MessagingAndConferencingInMTS-Feb1991.cc=bhlead. 5. Detroit. Karl L. USA. Michigan. 5).

42/ 79624/ 1/ r1045-ConferParticipants-Oct1989. 10 November 1986 [23] "Computer conferencing for accounting instruction" (http:/ / www. University of Michigan Computing Center. 42/ 79625/ 1/ r1043-ConferencingGroundRules-Oct1989. umich. com/ works/ wwwu/ book. Editor. #8. com/ science?_ob=PublicationURL& _tockey=#TOC#5980#1989#999969998#311537#FLP#& _cdi=5980& _pubType=J& view=c& _auth=y& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=4b204d156f3e552bcd64c68c91cfa615). Goodman. sciencedirect. sciencedirect. #7. 2.CONFER (software) 513-517 [21] "Using Computers to Teach Writing" (http:/ / babel. Vol. edu/ ~umscp/ history. org/ cgi/ pt?id=mdp. USA.D. University of Michigan. umich. Spring 1989 (http:/ / www. google. Christine and Swift.).start=1. com/ books?id=0CYIg9pG2KsC& pg=PA102& lpg=PA102& dq=arab+ israeli+ conflict+ simulation+ confer+ parnes+ michigan& source=bl& ots=sE6pFWph5j& sig=tKD0PB0NxG3aCU-EyQf_P3jHOS0& hl=en& ei=qVDnTNSmGcejnQfCw5zqDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CBoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=arab israeli conflict simulation confer parnes michigan& f=false). USA.page=search. Pages 69-7. Anne J.view=image.1 . [28] "Crisscrossing Grand canyon: Bridging the gaps with computer conferencing" (http:/ / www. 3-4.q1=parnes confer. U-M Computing News. In Empowering networks: computer conferencing in education. Mary Minock and Francis Shor. umich. Wayne State University. ca/ archivar/ index. 39015038722222. html).page=root. University of Michigan Computing Center. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6W49-4MPCXM6-C& _user=10& _coverDate=12/ 31/ 1995& _rdoc=11& _fmt=high& _orig=browse& _origin=browse& _zone=rslt_list_item& _srch=doc-info(#toc#6537#1995#999879996#640587#FLP#display#Volume)& _cdi=6537& _sort=d& _docanchor=& _ct=14& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=6c5fc15bd18bb511870637c2ab124f5a& searchtype=a). [24] "The Integration of Computer Conferencing into the Medical School Curriculum" (http:/ / informahealthcare.al. 1997 [31] Computing Conferencing Guidelines (http:/ / deepblue. hathitrust. Pages 355-365.q1=parnes confer. October 1. Educational Technology Publications. html). Information Technology Division. sciencedirect. Ann Arbor. 39015038722222. 1989 [32] Guidelines for Effective Conferencing for Organizers (http:/ / deepblue. University of Michigan. lib. com/ doi/ abs/ 10. 1996. php/ archivaria/ article/ download/ 12026/ 12995). J. Ann Arbor. University of Michigan. 27 October 1986 [22] "Politics and Computers" (http:/ / babel. Waggoner. Information Technology Division. edu/ bitstream/ 2027. umich. google. Information Technology Division.seq=152. 1992. Volume 12. 91-113). 1989.size=25. com/ webconf/ wcchoice. Myles Stern. Computers and Composition.1-33. U-M Computing News. Englewood Cliffs.start=1. and published in the book World Wide Web Unleashed (http:/ / www. pp. reports results from The Bentley Historical Library Computer Conferencing Appraisal Project (NHPRC Grant No.num=26). Pages 213-220 [25] "Institutional Gaming through the use of Computer Conferencing" (http:/ / books. pdf). October 1. Issue 3. Medical Teacher. No. Ten Haken. Fredrick L. edu/ bitstream/ 2027. pdf). 3109/ 01421598909146325?2). pp. com/ science?_ob=PublicationURL& _tockey=#TOC#6537#1995#999879996#640587#FLP#& _cdi=6537& _pubType=J& _auth=y& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=c769c3869a18cbfeb0f8a96953618687). Issue 1. Reference 1043. Michael Waggoner (Ed. 42/ 79627/ 1/ r1044-ConferOrganizers-Oct1989. lib. Wayne State University. 1995 (http:/ / www.. USA. pp. v. Gilliland-Swetland and Greg Kinney. org/ cgi/ pt?id=mdp. New Jersey. [27] "Uses of Electronic Communication to Document an Academic Community: A Research Report" (http:/ / journals. 1989 [33] Guidelines for Effective Conferencing for Participants (http:/ / deepblue. Michael. Wolley in the International University Consortium Conference on WWW Course Development & Delivery.view=image. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6VDD-45PMR33-8& _user=10& _coverDate=01/ 01/ 1989& _rdoc=8& _fmt=high& _orig=browse& _origin=browse& _zone=rslt_list_item& _srch=doc-info(#toc#5980#1989#999969998#311537#FLP#display#Volume)& _cdi=5980& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _ct=22& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=d5543ac045de1271f6677c4361191651& searchtype=a).num=3#). Reference 1044. October 1. htm) by David R. 11. Volume 3. december. Journal of Accounting Education. 101-126 [26] "Connecting the University and the Field of Practice" (http:/ / books.seq=177. Karen.size=100. 1989 109 . Canning. lib.). [29] "The History of the Student Conferencing Project at the University of Michigan" (http:/ / www. Empowering networks: computer conferencing in education. 1992. pdf). hathitrust. pp. com/ books?id=0CYIg9pG2KsC& lpg=PA1& ots=sE5tG1ne-p& dq="Michigan Terminal System"& lr& pg=PR4#v=onepage& q="Michigan Terminal System"& f=false). 79-96.1. sfu. Archivaria 38 (Fall 1994). v. web page at the University of Michigan [30] Choosing Web Conferencing Software / Categorizing the Products / Centralized Forums (http:/ / thinkofit. Ann Arbor. Reference 1045. sciencedirect. et. John December (Ed. edu/ bitstream/ 2027.

jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ244636&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no& accno=EJ244636).gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini. In CHI '81 Proceedings of the joint conference on Easier and more productive use of computer systems (Part . Computing Center.1. University of Michigan. pp.1145/800276. 2007.7. p.com/url?sa=t& source=web&cd=5&sqi=2&ved=0CDcQFjAE&url=http://greatgreenroom. Volume 1981. "Learning how to confer: The interplay of theory and practice in computer conferencing" (http:// dx. University of Michigan-Flint and Ann Arbor. "CONFER Connection" (http://www.org/10.lib. Learning to CONFER: The Interplay of Theory and Practice in Computer Conferencing (PhD dissertation) (http://quod.subview=standard.II): Human interface and the user interface.eric. in the Karl Zinn papers at UM's Bentley Historical Library.4 (April 1981). • Parnes.didno=umich-bhl-0476.idno=umich-bhl-0476. Volume 1981. Robert. U-M Sunday in the Park with Parnes . CHI '81 Proceedings of the joint conference on Easier and more productive use of computer systems (Part .soe. Jan.edu/cgi/f/findaid/ findaid-idx?c=bhlead. • Zinn.size=100.page=root.view=image. vol.1145/800276. no. Interactive Communications & Simulations.13 July 1986Bob is 4th from the left in the top row (with Computing News. Robert.II): Human interface and the user interface.edu/main/section/ 2).810993).byte 1981. 2 folders.doi.hathitrust.seq=29.CONFER (software) 110 External Links • Arab-Israli Conflict Web site (http:/ /ics. Karl.umich.umich.2 (11 the baseball cap). • Wolter.org/10.ed. 39015038722222. includes group photo. 3 • Parnes. The Great Green Room. Creative Computing.810995). vol.org/cgi/ pt?id=mdp.focusrgn=C01.view=reslist.google. Karl.num=20). box 1.org/cgi-bin/bt/backtalk/wasabi/ begin?item=19&rct=j&q=confer "robert parnes" michigan&ei=i1XnTOmJOI-knQfw4NnvDA& usg=AFQjCNFzcGLSvB_GwS2aMTQdIeiz7mU8Rw&cad=rja). • "Sunday in the Park with Parnes" (http://babel.doi. "Case study of a user-oriented conferencing system" (http://dx.98-102 . "A Partial History of Computer Conferencing in Ann Arbor" (http://www. no. August 1986). • Zinn.cc=bhlead.

Learning Networks. In an age before easy dissemination of images and sounds on the Web. html). geteducated. nytimes. MIT Press. [5] Michael Freitag (1989-04-02). Harlan Cleveland. Inc. and there were no face-to-face classes. com/ en/ ego/ literary_genius/ cat4-03." and "Technology and the Disabled". za/ ftp. California. html). Gail S." (http:/ / cgi. Issue 02. David G. apple2. 103–104. . Electronic Networking Association. archive. and Harvey Wheeler among others." "Book Publishing for the 21st Century. [7] Gail S. htm) on 2008-07-05. The New York Times (paid access). If It's Out There.A. Connect Ed classes were conducted entirely in text. Softserv Catalog. Internet World. . David Gerrold. "geteducated. [6] Softserv 4. Frank Schmalleger. Lionel Kearns. com/ article/ mg14820045. Retrieved 2008-08-24. org/ web/ 20080705095245/ http:/ / www. pp. Retrieved 2008-08-25. an online book ordering service.com" (http:/ / web.[3] [5] Faculty and special lecturers included Michael A. Michael Heim. [8] Apple A2 Pro Roundtable (1993 March 1).arc. [3] Ray Percival (1995-11-28). [2] Vicky Phillips (September 1996). com/ articles/ articles_old/ iw. Ablex.[5] [6] [7] [8] Courses included "Computer Conferencing for Business and Education." "Artificial Intelligence and Real Life. GEnie Lamp A2Pro ~ A T/TalkNET OnLine Publication ~ Vol. Other reading • Paul Eng (1994-10-17). Retrieved 2008-08-25." for casual conversation. totse. gjhost. .1. Retrieved 8 October 2010. . com/ articles/ articles_old/ iw. . geteducated. "Catalog of paperless books available from Softserv" (http:/ / www. Straus. Murray Turoff (1995). pp. com/ ~cgi/ mt/ netweaverarchive/ 000144.[3] Technical services were provided by the New Jersey Institute of Technology on their "Electronic Information Exchange System" (known as "EIES")[4] administered by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz. org. Connect Ed offered the M.htm). "A sheepskin from Online U. and an e-text publishing arm. Donald B. txt). ISBN 0262082365. It's Posted Here" (http:/ / query. org/ doc/ genie/ a2pro/ genielamp/ aplp199303. J.[3] Connect Ed also worked with Polytechnic University in Brooklyn and Pacific Oaks College in Pasadena. New Scientist. "Connected Editions". 57–58.com/archives/1994/ b3394114.03 (1991-06-05). Netweaver." "Technological Forecasting.Connected Education 111 Connected Education Connected Education . "Connected Education." (http://www. Thomas (1988-02-01). . the "Connect Ed Library". Meeks. Nicholas Johnson. Brock N.was a pioneering online education organization founded and administered by Paul Levinson and Tina Vozick.also known as Connect Ed . "Digital Publishing News" (http:/ / mirrors.[2] [7] Students were enrolled from 40 states in the United States and 20 countries around the world. Thomas. Gregory Benford.[1] Operating from 1985 to 1997. "Carry on learning" (http:/ / www. Features of the electronic campus included the "Connect Ed Cafe. com/ gst/ fullpage. gno." "Science Fiction and Space-Age Mytholoogy. Lucio Teles." "Ethics in the Technological Age. newscientist. Retrieved 2008-08-25. and by the Unison Participate system. Neil Schulman. [4] Starr Roxanne Hiltz (1994). Banks. William Benzon. Starr Roxanne Hiltz. degrees in Media Studies (through The New School in New York City)[2] and Creative Writing (through the Bath College of Higher Education in England). Paul Levinson. Keith Ferrell. Hays. Rusty Schweickart." "Philosophy and Technology. Business Week. The Virtual Classroom: Learning Without Limits Via Computer Networks. htm). 300-carry-on-learning-learning-cyberspace. Sylvia Engdahl. Retrieved 2008-08-25. Retrieved 2008-08-25. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. html).businessweek. References [1] Linda Marie Harasim. html?res=950DEED8133FF931A35757C0A96F948260& sec=& spon=& pagewanted=all). "LIFE STYLE:As Computer Bulletin Boards Grow. .

[5] [6] to counter what he called the liberal bias of Wikipedia. family-friendly" content.conservapedia. son of conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly. The website considers itself to be a supporter of "conservative.034 in United States) Active.Conservapedia 112 Conservapedia Conservapedia Conservapedia logo URL Slogan Commercial? Type of site www. [3] [2] Conservapedia is an English-language wiki project written from an American conservative Christian point of view. including commentators and journalists. as well as from various figures from both ends of the political spectrum. Examples of the ideology of Conservapedia in its articles include: advocacy for Young Earth creationism. and claiming a proven link between abortion and breast cancer[9] .[10] The project has received negative reactions from the mainstream media.752 (11. accusations against US President Barack Obama.[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] and has been criticized for bias and inaccuracies. a conservative re-interpretation of the Bible.[4] It was started in 2006 by homeschool teacher and attorney Andy Schlafly.[7] [8] It uses editorials and a wiki-based system to generate content. criticism of Albert Einstein and relativity.com [1] The Trustworthy Encyclopedia No Internet encyclopedia project Wiki Optional (required to edit pages) Registration Available language(s) English Owner Created by Launched Alexa rank Current status Andrew Schlafly Volunteer contributors 2006 ~47.[14] [16] [17] . Conservapedia also operates a "Conservative Bible Project".

Articles and other content on the site frequently include criticism of Wikipedia as well as criticism of its alleged liberal ideology. as reported by Shawn Zeller of Congressional Quarterly. including U.[5] [8] the site was founded in 2006. stored on Conservapedia. which is associated with Phyllis Schlafly's Eagle Forum organization.[12] In a March 2007 interview with The Guardian. let's disclose that point of view to the reader". and other miscellany.S. opposite Wikipedia administrator Jim Redmond. Schlafly became concerned about bias after Wikipedia editors repeatedly reverted his edits to the article about the 2005 Kansas evolution hearings.[7] [14] [19] Conservapedia founder Andrew Schlafly The "Eagle Forum University" online education program.[29] [30] In response to Wikipedia's core policy of neutrality. that Wikipedia articles apparently prefer to use non-American spellings even though most users are American.[26] Editorial viewpoints and policies Conservapedia has editorial policies designed to prevent what Schlafly sees as structural and ideological problems with Wikipedia and generalized vandalism. with its earliest articles dating from November 22. I mean let's take a point of view. Conservapedia contains over 34. It ends up having all the neutrality of a lynch mob". Today.Conservapedia 113 History and overview Conservapedia was created in November 2006 by Andrew Schlafly. They make no effort to retain balance. [27] differ from Wikipedia's editorial policies.[8] [20] [21] Editing of Conservapedia articles related to a particular course topic is also a certain assignment for Eagle Forum University students. In one case my factual edits were removed within 60 seconds—so editing Wikipedia is no longer a viable approach". Differences from Wikipedia Many editorial practices of Conservapedia differ from those of Wikipedia.[14] [25] It was.[11] Schlafly expressed hope that Conservapedia would become a general resource for American educators and a counterpoint to the liberal bias that he perceived in Wikipedia.[19] On March 7. and found it and the biased editors who dominate it censor or change facts to suit their views.[6] He felt the need to start the project after reading a student's assignment written using Common Era dating notation rather than the Anno Domini system that he preferred.[23] The site also hosts debates in which its users may participate.[14] Launching the online encyclopedia project. at one point. Schlafly has stated: "It's impossible for an encyclopedia to be neutral. which include following a The site's "Conservapedia Commandments" [28] neutral point of view and avoiding original research. not counting pages intended for internal discussion and collaboration. Schlafly asserted the need for an alternative to Wikipedia due to editorial philosophy conflicts. "I've tried editing Wikipedia.[18] Although he was "an early Wikipedia enthusiast". a Harvard and Princeton-educated attorney and a homeschool teacher. the most-viewed page on the site. Schlafly stated.[21] Running on MediaWiki software. uses material for various online courses. that the .[7] [8] [19] As of September 2010. 2007. subjects discussed include religion and politics. history.[24] Editors of Conservapedia also maintain a page titled "Examples of Bias in Wikipedia" that compiles alleged instances of bias or errors on Wikipedia pages.000 pages.[22] Regular features on the front page of Conservapedia include links to news articles and blogs that the site's editors consider relevant to conservatism. Schlafly was interviewed on BBC Radio 4's flagship morning show.[7] and "Wikipedia does not poll the views of its editors and administrators. Schlafly raised several concerns: that the article on the Renaissance does not give any credit to Christianity. minimal "stub" articles.

regardless of what Conservapedia may think. particularly on their entry titled "Counterexamples to relativity". Park has also criticized Conservapedia's entry on the theory of relativity. in which they reported on Conservapedia's entry and stated that Andy Schlafly. humanities scholars often confuse the issue by misusing the term "relativity". "has found one more liberal plot: the theory of relativity". assigning them a zero score on their 0 to 100 fallacy-versus-fact "Science Index". arguing that its criticism of the principle as being "heavily promoted by liberals who like its encouragement of relativism and its tendency to mislead people in how they view the world" confuses a physical theory with a Christian-conservative moral value. and said that the theory of relativity has passed every test that the theory has been put through.Conservapedia article on American activities in the Philippines has a distinctly anti-American bias. Wile. and that Einstein was only a minor contributor to the theory of relativity.[12] As of March 4. criticized Conservapedia's views on relativity and responded to several of Conservapedia's arguments against it.[12] [16] [31] [39] Conservapedia asserts that there is a proven link between abortion and breast cancer.[17] A Los Angeles Times journalist voiced concern that children stumbling on the site may assume Conservapedia's scientific content is accurate.[44] New Scientist. Although not all contributors subscribe to a young earth creationist point of view—senior administrator Terry Koeckritz stated to the LA Times that he does not take the Genesis creation account literally[18] :9—sources have attributed the poor science coverage to an overall editorial support of the YEC perspective and an over-reliance on home schooling textbooks.[34] Conservapedia's article on evolution presents evolution as a scientific theory that lacks support and conflicts with evidence in the fossil record that creationists perceive to support creationism. The theory of relativity is ultimately not so much about what it renders relative—three dimensional space and one-dimensional time—but about what it renders absolute: the speed of light and four-dimensional space-time. New Scientist stated at the end of their article that:[45] :2 In the end there is no liberal conspiracy at work.[31] [32] [33] 114 Conflict with scientific views Various Conservapedia articles have been challenged from a scientific perspective. In October 2010. and that attempts to include pro-Christian or pro-American views are removed very quickly. the entry has been deleted.[42] [43] On March 19. 2007.[35] [36] The entry also suggests that sometimes the Bible has been more scientifically correct than the scientific community. wild wiki on which anything goes".[40] [41] while the scientific consensus is that the best studies indicate that there is no such association for first-trimester abortion. Schlafly also claimed that the Wikipedia policy of allowing both Common Era and Anno Domini notation was anti-Christian bias.[45] :1 University of Maryland physics professor Robert L.[46] In a similar statement. Attention was drawn to the article by a Talking Points Memo posting.[7] An entry on the "Pacific Northwest Arboreal Octopus" has received particular attention. saying "People need to be very careful about where they look for scientific information".[7] [8] [17] In an analysis in early 2007. a science magazine.[18] Conservapedia has also received criticism for its articles regarding the theory of relativity. science writer Carl Zimmer found evidence that much of what appeared to be inaccurate or inadequate information about science and scientific theory could be traced back to an over-reliance on citations from the works of home-schooling textbook author Jay L. Another claim is that "Einstein's work had nothing to do with the development of the atomic bomb". articulating the dismissal of Conservapedia by the Royal Society.[37] Schlafly had defended the statement as presenting an alternative to evolution. Scientific American criticized Conservapedia's attitude towards the Theory of Relativity. Schlafly has asserted that the page was intended as a parody of environmentalism. 2007. describing Conservapedia as "the online [38] .[45] Against Conservapedia's statements. an article that lists examples as to why the theory is incorrect. New Scientist stated that one is unlikely to find a single physicist that would claim that the theory of general relativity is the whole answer to how the universe works. the British free newspaper Metro ran the article "Weird. The theory in no way encourages relativism. Conservapedia's founder. Unfortunately.

[which] implies that Einstein's theory of relativity is part of a liberal plot. you've got to wonder which 'unreasonable' explanations they rejected when formulating that entry". often a liberal is merely someone who craves attention.[7] He also has claimed that Wikipedia is "six times more liberal than the American public". the articles about conservative politicians. uses racial quotas and stated: "The statement about affirmative action is accurate and will remain in the entry". the Harvard University legal journal for which Obama was once an editor and president. its entry on Obama asserted that he "has no clear personal achievement that cannot be explained as the likely result of affirmative action". [55] which Sabbatini found to be plagued by disputes over inclusion of potentially controversial details about her life. a claim that has been labeled "sensational" by Andrew Chung of the Canadian newspaper the Toronto Star.[56] Licensing of content Conservapedia allows users to "use any of the content on this site with or without attribution". The copyright policy also states "This license is revocable only in very rare instances of self-defense. gentler" and "far shorter and less controversial" reference for one wishing to learn about Palin in contrast with the corresponding Wikipedia entry. and associated the party with the homosexual agenda. Some Conservapedia editors urged that it be changed or deleted. which may lead to unpleasant results". stating that "People who contribute [to Conservapedia] are giving them full control of the content. American Prospect associate editor Ezra Klein derided the Conservapedia article on atheism in his weekly column: "As Daniel DeGroot notes.[14] John Cotey of the St. Hugh Muir of the British newspaper The Guardian mockingly referred to Conservapedia's assertion that Obama has links to radical Islam as "dynamite" and an excellent resource for "US rightwingers".[53] In contrast.[18] [54] Mark Sabbatini of the Juneau Empire considered the Conservapedia entry on Sarah Palin. such as Republican former US president Ronald Reagan and former British Conservative Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher have been observed as praising their respective subjects. such as protecting continued use by Conservapedia editors or other licensees". and who uses many words to say nothing. It also does not permit "unauthorized mirroring". The article "Liberal" begins with text originating[48] from Schlafly personally: "A liberal (also leftist) is someone who rejects logical and biblical standards. often for self-centered reasons. There are no coherent liberal standards.[52] In addition. In July 2008."[47] 115 Political and religious ideology Many Conservapedia articles criticize values that its editors associate with "liberal ideology".[51] The Conservapedia entries on Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and President Barack Obama are critical of their respective subjects.[57] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has raised concerns about the fact that the project is not licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) or a similar copyleft license. the Republican vice-presidential candidate for the 2008 US presidential election a "kinder. Petersburg Times observed that the Conservapedia article about the Democratic Party contained a criticism about the party's alleged support for same-sex marriage.[50] Schlafly said in an interview with National Public Radio that Wikipedia's article on the history of the Democratic Party is an "attempt to legitimize the modern Democratic Party by going back to Thomas Jefferson" and that it is "specious and worth criticizing".[18] During the 2008 presidential campaign."[49] Leonard Pitts quoted it in a critical comment saying "You may judge Conservapedia's own bias by reading its definition of liberal". but Schlafly responded by asserting that the Harvard Law Review.Conservapedia encyclopedia run by conservative lawyer Andrew Schlafly.[14] :4 .

which is claimed to reflect Wikipedia's "substantial anti-intellectual element".[31] Conservapedia has been compared to CreationWiki. concise.[19] Thomas Eugene Flanagan. and without gossip or foul language" and that users make most edits on their site quality edits to articles. clean. and GodTube. a conservative professor of political science at the University of Calgary.[16] Wired magazine noted that Conservapedia was "attracting lots of derisive comments on blogs and a growing number of phony articles written by mischief makers". commented vandalism was intended to "cause people to say. columnist for The Washington Times and contributor to the conservative Media Research Center blog NewsBusters. The commandments also cite the United States Code as justification for legal action against edits that contain obscenities or are vandalism or spam.[33] Fox News obliquely compared it with other new conservative websites competing with mainstream ones. while articles about the United States use American English.[12] Iain Thomson in Information World Review wrote that "leftist subversives" may have been creating deliberate parody entries. The "Conservapedia Commandments" also require edits to be "family-friendly. such as MyChurch.[60] one of the site's criticisms of Wikipedia is "silly administrator names". such as 90% talk and only 10% quality edits" may be blocked. has argued that Conservapedia is more about religion.[64] APC magazine perceives this to be representative of Conservapedia's own problem with bias.S. for de novo or otherwise well-maintained articles are welcome". an ongoing retranslation of the Bible which Dreher attributes to "insane hubris" on the part of "right-wing ideologues". a Christian version of video site YouTube.[14] Matt Millham of the military-oriented newspaper Stars and Stripes called Conservapedia "a Web site that caters mostly to evangelical Christians". Atty. than conservatism and that it "is far more guilty of the crime they're attributing to Wikipedia" than Wikipedia itself.[18] Other editorial policies Conservapedia states on its "Manual of Style" page that "American English spellings are preferred but Commonwealth spellings. a wiki written from a creationist perspective.[63] Its scope as an encyclopedia. to resolve editorial disputes. U.[62] The Guardian of the United Kingdom has referred to the Conservapedia's politics as "right-wing". Schlafly[59] and other Conservapedia editors[26] considered Wikipedia's policy allowing British English spelling to be anti-American bias. according to its founders. and users that have usernames deemed "frivolous" by the admins are blocked. Brian Macdonald. Gonzales was said to be "a strong supporter of torture as a law enforcement tool for use against Democrats and third world inhabitants".[27] Conservapedia policies encourage its users to choose usernames "based on [their] real name or initials". a Conservapedia editor. "offers a historical record from a Christian and conservative perspective". "malicious editing". argued that conservatives concerned about bias should contribute more often to Wikipedia rather . Gen.[37] Conservative and Christian commentator Rod Dreher has been highly critical of the website's "Conservative Bible Project".[5] [12] and Theopedia.[16] Matthew Sheffield. Alberto R. specifically Christianity.[58] Initially. pornographic photos and satire". a wiki with a Reformed theology focus. For example. a Christian version of social networking site MySpace.[65] The project has also been criticized for promoting a dichotomy between conservatism and liberalism and for promoting relativism with the implicit idea that there "often are two equally valid interpretations of the facts".'" Macdonald has spent many hours daily reverting. It prefers that articles about the United Kingdom use British English. in the words of Stephanie Simon of the LA Times.[61] Reception The Conservapedia project has come under significant criticism for numerous factual inaccuracies[16] [17] and factual relativism. accounts that engage in what it considers "unproductive activity. 'That Conservapedia is just wacko. Vandals had inserted "errors.Conservapedia 116 Vandalism The site has stated that it prohibits unregistered users from editing entries due to concerns over vandalism and defamation.

referred to the project as "Wikipedia for the bigoted". and relativity and geology are junk sciences." [70] Opinions criticizing the site rapidly spread throughout the blogosphere around early 2007. Schlafly and one of his homeschooled students appeared on the CBC program The Hour for the same purpose. particularly on the page "Conservapedia:What is going on at CP?". Conservapedia administrators "questioned his credentials and shut off debate". It also highlighted Conservapedia's "Examples of bias in Wikipedia" article.[5] [62] [74] 117 Jimmy Wales Wikipedia's co-creator Jimmy Wales said about Conservapedia that "free culture knows no bounds" and "the reuse of our work to build variants [is] directly in line with our mission". such as Tangle.com (formerly GodTube). in an article entitled "Ten Impressive.[67] Bryan Ochalla." "Hollywood values". praised Conservapedia as a more family-friendly and accurate alternative to Wikipedia. writing for the LGBT magazine The Advocate. columnist Emma Jane described Conservapedia as "a disturbing parallel universe where the ice age is a theoretical period.[71] Stephanie Simon of the Los Angeles Times quoted two Conservapedia editors who commented favorably about Conservapedia. comedian Lewis Black lampooned its article on homosexuality. repeatedly attempted to edit Conservapedia's article on breast cancer to include evidence arguing against Conservapedia's claim that abortion was a major cause of the disease. started another website. including those on "Atheism and obesity. as well as conduct "explorations of authoritarianism and fundamentalism" and explore "how these subjects are handled in the [77] media. pornographic images. RationalWiki members monitor Conservapedia. which adopted the format of the more prominent Facebook. which encourages readers to contact Jimmy Wales and tell him to "sort it out. amongst others.[66] Author Damien Thompson says Conservapedia "is to dress up nonsense as science". Weird And Amazing Facts About Wikipedia."[73] Conservapedia's use of Wikipedia's format to try and create a conservative and fundamentalist Christian alternative encyclopedia. and "crank ideas". the "anti-science movement"." According to an article published in the Los Angeles Times in 2007.[14] RationalWiki In April 2007. intelligent design is empirically testable. and satire. a doctor of internal medicine. such edits have introduced errors. QubeTV and MyChurch. policy director for the conservative Christian political action group Concerned Women for America.Conservapedia than use Conservapedia as an alternative since he felt that alternative websites like Conservapedia are often "incomplete". "From there.[12] [23] Schlafly appeared on radio programs Today on BBC Radio 4[59] and All Things Considered on NPR[7] to discuss the site around that time." highlighted several of Conservapedia's articles. YouTube and MySpace.[18] :3 Several editors whose accounts were blocked by Conservapedia administrators.[68] On the satirical news program The Daily Show. and—by their own admission—engage in acts of cyber-vandalism".[18] :4 . RationalWiki [76] to analyze and refute "pseudoscience".[69] Writing in The Australian. Peter Lipson.[75] Wales denied Schlafly's claims of liberal bias in Wikipedia. In May 2008.[72] Wired Magazine. has been mirrored by other sites. respectively. including Lipson.[18] :3 RationalWiki members and others have inserted vandalism edits into Conservapedia.[18] Matt Barber.

2009.[81] was widely reported on news-aggregating sites and web logs. recorded on a Conservapedia page entitled "Lenski dialog".[96] [89] [90] . Lenski replied again that the relevant data was already in the paper. though possibly historically valid. Rod Dreher. wrote that bending the word of God to one's own ideology makes God subservient to an ideology.[86] The project intends to remove sections of the Bible which are judged by Conservapedia's founder to be later liberal additions.Conservapedia 118 Lenski dialogue On June 9.[78] Schlafly contacted Lenski to request the data. Carl Zimmer wrote that it was readily apparent that "Schlafly had not bothered to read [Lenski's paper] closely". for they do not know what they are doing". stated: "I've seen some incredibly stupid and misguided initiatives by 'conservatives' in my day.[10] These include the story of the adulteress in the Gospel of John in which Jesus declares "Let him who is without sin cast the first stone". but [93] this one takes the cake" and "There's certainly nothing 'conservative' about rewriting the Bible". since it appears only in the Gospel of Luke and since.[83] During and after the Lenski dialogue on Conservapedia. which he would willingly share with qualified researchers at properly equipped biology labs. On October 7. and that he felt insulted by letters and comments on Conservapedia which he saw as brusque and offensive.[80] The exchange. and many modern textual scholars consider that they are not authentic parts of the gospels.[86] The adulteress story and the "forgive them" line are missing from many early manuscripts.[79] The Daily Telegraph later called Lenski's reply "one of the greatest and most comprehensive put-downs in scientific argument". described the project as "insane hubris" and "crazy". This quotation is a favorite of liberals but should not appear in a conservative Bible".[85] Conservative Bible Project Conservapedia hosts the "Conservative Bible Project".[94] [95] This was followed by an interview between Colbert and Schlafly on December 8.[92] Joseph Farah.[87] [88] The Bible project has met with extensive criticism. a conservative editor and columnist. several users on the site were blocked for "insubordination" for expressing disagreement with Schlafly's stance on the issue. Stephen Colbert called for his viewers to incorporate him into the Conservapedia Bible as a Biblical figure and viewers responded by editing the Conservapedia Bible to include his name. which reported that the bacteria evolved the ability to metabolize citrate. another conservative Christian writer. he further described the project as "It's like what you'd get if you crossed the Jesus Seminar with the College Republican chapter at a rural institution of Bible learnin'". coli experiment. 2008.[86] The project also intends to remove Jesus's prayer on the cross.[82] and PZ Myers criticized Schlafly for demanding data despite not having a plan to use it nor the expertise to analyze it. rather than the other way around. Lenski explained that the relevant data was in the paper and that Schlafly fundamentally misunderstood it. a project aiming to rewrite the English translation of the Bible in order to remove terms described as "liberal bias". 2009. editor-in-chief of WorldNetDaily. forgive them. including claims of outright deceit.[15] [91] Ed Morrissey.[84] The dialogue between Lenski and Conservapedia is noted in Richard Dawkins' The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution in a chapter concerning Lenski's research. according to Schlafly. New Scientist published an article describing Richard Lenski's 20-year E. that the "raw data" were living bacterial samples. "Father. "the simple fact is that some of the persecutors of Jesus did know what they were doing. Schlafly wrote again and requested the raw data.

Retrieved 2008-06-26. itwire.com (Toronto). conservapedia. php?title=Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view& oldid=102236018). . [14] Chung. . com/ content/ view/ 10160/ 1154/ ).S. 2008-05-27. [21] "American History 101" (http:/ / eagleforumu. Retrieved 2007-03-05. Adam (2007-03-05). alexa. Rod (1 October 2009). php?title=Conservapedia:Guidelines& oldid=461391#Attribution). . html). Heise Online. de/ newsticker/ meldung/ 86145). Crunchy Con. The Guardian. html). Retrieved 7 October 2009. 2009. The New York Times. cfm?int_course_id=25& classID=134#classLinks). . [27] "Conservapedia Commandments" (http:/ / www. "Sickopedia" (http:/ / www. wikipedia. Conservapedia. "Conservative “Alternative To Wikipedia” Launched" (http:/ / www. "Conservatizing the Bible" (http:/ / blog. uk/ conor_clarke/ 2007/ 03/ a_fact_of_ones_own_1. Alexa. Retrieved 2007-03-05. [12] Calore. co. co. org/ w/ index. San Diego CityBeat. . org/ EAGLEFORUMU/ INSTRUCTOR/ VIEW. [1] [2] [3] [4] . [23] Decker. conservapedia. 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html). com/ the-colbert-report-videos/ 251994/ october-07-2009/ tip-wag---conservapedia--louvre---honda-unicycle)". . com/ features/ view/ feature/ The-Bible-Conservative-Edition-172). Retrieved 2009-12-09. But what's in a political 'translation'?" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 7 October 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009. 6 October 2009. James F.Conservapedia [89] Franzen. colbertnation.conservapedia. 6 October 2009. com/ 2009/ 10/ 08/ stephen-colbert-how-you-can-make-him-moses/ ). Clark (8 October 2009). html). Entertainment Weekly (PopWatch). . 22 October 2009. Hot Air. csmonitor.com/ watch?v=FvT5YuDovHI) on YouTube . [95] Collis. [92] "Do conservatives need their own Bible translation?" (http:/ / hotair. Carl (7 October 2009). The Colbert Report. com/ index. php?pageId=113599). ew. Retrieved 7 October 2009. New York Daily News. Retrieved 15 October 2009. "Translating the Bible is no joke. theatlanticwire. [94] " The Colbert Report (October 7. "The Bible: Conservative Edition" (http:/ / www. com/ the-colbert-report-videos/ 258144/ december-08-2009/ andy-schlafly)". colbertnation. . The Colbert Report. "Stephen Colbert wants you to put him in the Bible" (http:/ / popwatch. 2009 episode) (http:/ / www.com/) • Andrew Schlafly and students talk about Wikipedia and Conservapedia on The Hour (http://www. [96] " The Colbert Report (December 8. .com's Conservative Bible Project aims to deliberalize the bible" (http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 1207/ p09s04-coop. The Atlantic Wire. 2009-12-08. [90] McGrath.youtube. 2009-10-07. nydailynews. Retrieved 7 October 2009. com/ lifestyle/ 2009/ 10/ 06/ 2009-10-06_conservapediacoms_conservative_bible_project_aims_to_deliberalize_the_bible. . 2009 episode) (http:/ / www. (7 December 2009). [91] "Conservapedia. The Christian Science Monitor. 122 External links • Official website (http://http://www. WorldNetDaily. [93] "Now 'conservatives' are twisting Scripture" (http:/ / www. wnd. com/ archives/ 2009/ 10/ 06/ do-conservatives-need-their-own-bible-translation/ ).

CozyCot becoming one of the local websites "putting Singapore on the global map". with a 115% growth. The importance of its review database is increased by an iPhone scanner software developed by CozyCot.000 Alexa ranking) mooted the decision to turn it into a venture business. as readership of Singapore women’s magazines continued turning toward online content. she invested $100.. forums. online shopping etc. Singapore Area served Key people Products Revenue Employees Website East Asia and Southeast Asia (mainly Singapore) Nicole Yee CozyCot (website and newspaper). in 2007 she hired the first employee. Australia and New Zealand. the concept of sharing product and service information and opinions gathered a steady community. turning it into a venture business. with over 500. CozyCot launched the newspaper with the same name. CozyCot users interact in the forum and by reviewing beauty products (the review system produced reviews for over 35.[7] developing the portal into Singapore's largest online women community for beauty. in order to get together. as a hobby website dedicated to Asian women. in 2008. which (together with a presence of the website in the top 100. Several fragrance brands took notice of the growing community and offered to support her in terms of providing event venues. com/ CozyCot is a social networking website for women from East Asia and Southeast Asia (especially Singapore).[6] Its revenue exceeded US$1 million in 2009.[3] Since 2006.CozyCot 123 CozyCot CozyCot Pte.000 unique visitors each month.[4] The community kept expanding. cozycot. Ltd.000 products).Womens Sites' industry (and from January . where members could post reviews and share shopping and fashion tips and opinions. In April 2010.000 in the website.[3] As the online community grew.[4] [5] There followed other commercial projects (workshops. Nicole Yee founded CozyCot Pte.Beauty' industry) . the founder Nicole Yee began organizing live events for members. Ltd.[2] then.cozycot. It was founded by Nicole Yee in 2001. In 2002. as the managing company of the portal. Type Founded Privately held company 2001 (website). 2010 also in `Lifestyle .16 million (2009) 38 [1] [2] http:/ / www.[8] It expanded also geographically. product launches.[2] in the rest of East Asia and among Asian women from USA. various live events $1. fashion and lifestyle.com ranks first every year in the Hitwise Singapore 'Lifestyle .June. Subsequently. also in the live events organized by the staff. which allows users to pull up product reviews from the website by capturing the barcodes with cameras in their iPhones. History CozyCot started in November 2001 as an Internet portal based in Singapore.). 2002 (company) Headquarters 1 Scotts Road #26-05/07 [1] Shaw Centre.

com).com. thus making the company majority-owned by JDB. its results showing increasing orientation of the public towards online content. named House Husbands.[18] 124 2010 funding In 2010.[19] The main language used is English. MindShare announced the launching of an online reality show on CozyCot. A CozyCot debate on plastic surgery.[12] a 1000-square-foot retail outlet in Orchard Central[4] and launching the newspaper CozyCot.[20] Reviews CozyCot has a product library of over 35. which are available for members' reviews. at Hitwise Singapore Hitwise Top Ten Awards. named "Cotters". career.com.[17] This produced Asia-Pacific Region’s first real time CRM database profiling and tracking. Forum The initial forum in the early years was mostly dedicated to sharing shopping and fashion tips and opinions.[1] Community The users of CozyCot.com and sgCarMart. CozyCot started the campaign "Surrender Your Bras for a Cause".[4] [21] [22] [23] Events CozyCot plays host to events that allow members to interact with one another.[11] The company developed also an offline presence. focus groups. through workshops.[13] In May 2010. in the hope of making Singaporean women more aware of the lack of basic necessities like bras among women and young girls in neighbouring . also in the live events organized by the staff.[4] These themes are termed "channels" (28 as of April 2009). an increase of the number of employees and it would help the company expand in the region (with 2011 plans to expand to Malaysia and the Philippines). The show. some (like those on spas and fragrances) noticeably missing from most other forums. A system of accumulating points (according to the activity in the site) is enabled for giving rewards for members' support. CozyCot Pte.[4] [9] [10] In October 2009. to celebrate its 7th year anniversary. In collaboration with Citibank.[6] The forum has been remarked for its diversity of topics. attracted an undisclosed investment from Hong Kong's JDB Holdings.[19] interact in the forum and by reviewing beauty products. Streetdirectory. 88DB. encouraging women to donate bras to those less fortunate in Southeast Asia. with over 1000 comments and 8 million hits.7 September 2008. road tests etc. opening Ninki-Ô.000 products. Ltd. technology and weddings. motherhood. The funding would permit a technology transfer. both in researching and in voicing opinions about products. is focused on a group of men looking to prove they are equally adept in the boardroom as well as in the family’s baby room. one of the largest digital media networks in Asia (with investments in other regional digital platforms like JobsDB. On its 9th anniversary (4 December 2010). An iPhone scanner software allows users to pull up product reviews from CozyCot's website by capturing the barcodes with cameras in their iPhones. finance. CozyCot organized the CozyCot Holy Grail Private Party on 6 . CozyCot appointed Nielsen for web analytics and audience measurement[14] [15] [16] (the website is audited by Nielsen since 2005). The cast would compete in various parenting tasks for prizes. It expanded then to cover home and living. has been covered in Hankook Ilbo.CozyCot based on monthly average market share. but there appear also (partial) postings in Chinese. regarding the specific Chinese views on this topic and their cosmetic tourism in South Korea.

The Business Times. html?+ cozycot+ business+ times& cd=7& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=sg& client=firefox-a)) [13] Deepa Balji (Apr 20. Hitwise. sg/ sub/ specialfocus/ story/ 0. 2010). html). Capital 95.4582.4574. sg/ mnt/ html/ btpre/ registration/ redirect. Retrieved May 12. com/ prerobot/ sph. media. cfm?ID=2642& mnuid=92). cozycot. 2010. 2010). Retrieved June 01. 2010. net/ BR/ searcharticle/ 2009_10/ Mindshare-to-launch-online-reality-show-on-CozyCot-in-Singapore/ 37345). The Business Times. 2010. googleusercontent. ( cache (http:/ / webcache. . pdf). . marketing-interactive. "Cozying up to female readers reaps dividents". Retrieved September 28. Nielsen Company. sg/ podcast/ MDC100420-0000004/ 下狭大沋勋). Retrieved June 15. ( republished (http:/ / www. 2010. "Women-centric Marketing Web Site attracts Members" (http:/ / www.4582. . [10] "Hitwise Top Ten Awards . [2] Lee Yen Nee (June 09. 2010). 2010. 2009). "CozyCot signs with Nielsen for web analytics and audience measurement" (http:/ / www. a newspaper named CozyCot was launched as a 25-pages free monthly publication with a print run of 200.CozyCot countries. Media Asia. straitstimes.Lifestyle .com. . "CozyCot appoints Nielsen for web analytics and audience measurement" (http:/ / www. msn.[13] Awards CozyCot has won Singapore's First Women's Site Award at Hitwise Singapore Online Performance Award for four consecutive years since 2006. businesstimes. com/ news/ new-business/ cozycot-appoints-nielsen-for-web-analytics-and-audience-measurement/ 4002627. com/ sg/ resources/ top-ten-award?action=confirm& market=sg& sDomain=forums.00. com. [18] "Nielsen and CozyCot reveal the latest in consumer insights analysis" (http:/ / www. article).Beauty Sites" (http:/ / www. "Her hobby is now a million-dollar business" (http:/ / www.[4] References [1] Chen Huifen (December 21. [12] Melissa Lwee (June 12. . com& iDate=201002& iCatnum=281& Cal=& semi=1). compelite. .390191. capital958. sg/ mbs/ pub/ mag/ mbs_pub_mag_list. sim. 2010). "Mindshare to launch online reality show on CozyCot in Singapore" (http:/ / w2. 2010. research-live. 2010). The Straits Times. Retrieved May 27. May 24. com& iDate=201002& iCatnum=277& Cal=& semi=1). Nielsen Company.( part 1 (http:/ / www. com/ news/ 19537). Marketing-interactive. html)) [3] Tham Yuen-C and Phebe Bay (May 26. 2010). com/ pr/ cozycot_mr-sep10. Retrieved June 14. hitwise. html).000. "CozyCot calls in Nielsen for profiling" (http:/ / www. The Business Times. 2010. 2010. capital958. com/ Money/ Story/ STIStory_537505. mp3) ( also on Singapore MSN (http:/ / entertainment. html) in Entrepreneur) [7] Kenny Lim (October 30. asia/ searcharticle/ 2010_04/ VIDEO-Nicole-Yee-of-CozyCot-on-womens-online-habits-and-new-innovations/ 39756?src=mostpop). xin. .( available also in mirror page (http:/ / meltwaternews. The Straits Times. nielsen-online. . pdf). Retrieved May 12.[24] [25] [26] 125 Related publications In April 2010. asia/ searcharticle/ 2009_10/ Her-World-readership-tumbles-as-Singaporean-women-move-online/ 37709). . com/ en/ radio/ podcast/ capital958. Retrieved May 10. October 11. marketing-interactive.418399.00. "Jason Parquet. Retrieved May 12. Today's Manager (Singapore Institute of Management). sg/ download/ MDC100602-0000009/ web/ MDC100602-0000009. part 2 (http:/ / www. "CozyCot forays into print industry" (http:/ / www. com. Retrieved May 10. CozyCot get funding for next level of growth" (http:/ / www. 2010. Retrieved December 28. . Research-live. com/ search?q=cache:zQExEdH9cS0J:www. 2010. . . pdf). asp?pub=ST& sphurl=www. . . hitwise. cozycot. . nielsen-online. com/ tradejournals/ article/ 198473955. 2005. straitstimes. edu. sg/ download/ MDC100602-0000010/ web/ MDC100602-0000010.00. 2009). September 09. [5] "下 班 大 沙 发 之 cozycot 创 办 人 余 诗 音 Nicole Yee" (http:/ / www. jsp?dlink=/ sub/ storyprintfriendly/ 0. com/ / Money/ Story/ STIStory_537505. 2010. sg/ sub/ storyprintfriendly/ 0. com/ pr/ pr_051011_singapore. 2010. com/ pr/ nielsen& cozycot-apr10. "Net winners" (http:/ / www. businesstimes. html). businesstimes. 2010). 2010. brandrepublic. Nielsen Company. "Unique selling propositions" (http:/ / www. aspx?cp-documentid=4067156)) [6] N Ravindran (April--May 2009 edition). 2010).com. "Her World readership tumbles as Singaporean women move online" (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 09. 2010. Media Asia. com/ news/ 19116).Lifestyle . straitstimes. [14] Deanie Sultana (May 06. . . [17] "Nielsen//NetRatings Launches Market Intelligence" (http:/ / www. entrepreneur. Marketing-interactive. html?). Retrieved September 28.390191. 2010. nielsen-online. [9] "Hitwise Top Ten Awards .com. Retrieved May 10. 2010. capital958. com/ DigitalLife/ Work/ Story/ STIStory_531313. media.8FM. 2010. 2010). [11] Kenny Lim (October 1. Hitwise. Retrieved May 12. [4] Chen Huifen (April 27. 2010. 2010. Retrieved September 15. May 03. Retrieved May 12.Womens Sites" (http:/ / www. . com. mp3). [15] James Verrinder (May 06. com/ sg/ resources/ top-ten-award?action=confirm& market=sg& sDomain=forums. [8] "Nicole Yee of CozyCot on women’s online habits and new innovations" (http:/ / www. [16] Elizabeth Low (May 06.

Urban (Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings): p. [20] Park Jin-Woo (Apr 16. html). 938live. hankooki. com/ lpage/ health/ 201004/ h2010041707562384530. sg/ download/ MDC100519-0000006/ web/ MDC100519-0000006. . asiaone. . mp3)) [24] "CozyCot 9th Birthday Bash" (http:/ / www. 938LIVE. cozycot. 126 External links • Official website (http://http://www. com/ sg/ app/ shopping-reviews-app/ id355843599?mt=8). "중국인 '성형관광' 러시" (http:/ / news. channelnewsasia.cozycot. The Straits Times. [26] "募 捐 舊 胸 圍 送 貧 困 國 " (http:/ / the-sun. 2010. youtube. 2010). 2010. html?pubdate=20101207). 2010. 2010. 2010. com/ watch?v=sstVWlAzoiU). The Sun (Hong Kong). apple. . May 26. [23] Michelle Martin (May 12. msn. Retrieved December 24. 2010. MediaCorp Channel 8. xin. 2010. com/ birthdaybash/ media). com/ stories/ singaporelocalnews/ view/ 1097269/ 1/ . . Hankook Ilbo. [21] "Shopping Reviews App by CozyCot Pte Ltd" (http:/ / itunes. 2010). . 2010. 18. June 5.com" (http:/ / entertainment. iTunes. . Retrieved June 18. Retrieved December 24. [22] "网 上 热 报 " (http:/ / www. com/ Just+ Woman/ News/ Beauty+ %26+ Fashion/ Story/ A1Story20071008-28896. Retrieved May 12. "Passion People — Nicole Yee Founder of Cozycot. html).CozyCot [19] Emily Lek. ( mp3 (http:/ / www. October 4 2007. htm). Retrieved December 24. aspx?cp-documentid=3973402). "Beauty Talk" (http:/ / www. . cc/ cnt/ china_world/ 20101207/ 00423_080. Retrieved May 12. Retrieved May 12. on. 2010. Channel News Asia.com/) . [25] "Singapore women donate bras to less fortunate in region" (http:/ / www. com/ en/ radio/ podcast/ 938live.

Italian.Craigslist 127 Craigslist Craigslist Inc. in 2006 . forums None Optional English. featuring local events in the San Francisco Bay Area. résumés. Portuguese 1995 Current status Active Craigslist is a centralized network of online communities. personals. cities in 2000. It started expanding to other U. United States 570 cities in 50 countries Jim Buckmaster (CEO) Web Communications 32 craigslist. and discussion forums. gigs. the founder of Craigslist. Craig Newmark began the service in 1995 as an email distribution list of friends.org 36 [3] [2] Classifieds. Spanish. housing. services. featuring free online classified advertisements – with sections devoted to jobs. Craig Newmark. French. Type Founded Founder Headquarters Area served Key people Services Employees Website Alexa rank Type of site Advertising Registration Available in Launched Private company 1995 (incorporated 1999) Craig Newmark [1] San Francisco Bay Area. before becoming a web-based service in 1996 and expanding into other classified categories. community. for sale. German. and currently covers most of the countries in the world.S.

As of 24 September 2009.C. cities in 2000.[6] In January 2000. social and trusting communal ways on the Internet via the WELL.[7] The web site expanded into nine more U. MindVox and Usenet. Around the time of these events. iCraigslist incorporated as a private for-profit company in 1999. there were nine employees working out of Newmark's apartment in San Francisco. Newmark still thought his career was as a software engineer ("hardcore java programmer") and that Craigslist was a cool hobby that was getting him invited to the best parties for geeks and nerds.[4] [5] In early 1995. In the fall of 1998. Buckmaster contributed the site's multi-city architecture. Los Angeles. a new section called "Gigs" was added. Expansion to more cities The first 14 city sites were:[8] (entire list [9]) • • • • • March 1995: San Francisco Bay Area June 2000: Boston August 2000: Chicago. the US states of Delaware and Wyoming. Portland. self-posting process. Craigslist began charging $25 to post job openings on the New York and Los Angeles pages.org". Paris. Seattle. In April 1999. Craig registered "craigslist. People trying to get technical positions filled found that the list was a good way to reach people with the skills they were looking for. Newmark realized that the site was growing so fast that he could stop working as a software engineer and work full-time running Craigslist. when Newmark learned of other organizations called "List Foundation". This led to the addition of a category for "jobs". search engine. Craigslist founder Craig Newmark decided to create something similar for local events. D. 2004. flagging system. Community members started asking for a web interface. four in 2001 and 2002 each. word of mouth led to rapid growth. Amsterdam. where low-cost and unpaid jobs and internships can be posted free. the use of this name was dropped. 500 "cities" in 50 countries have Craigslist sites. On August 1. Bangalore. he began an email distribution list of friends.S.[8] Some Craigslist sites cover large regions instead of individual metropolitan areas—for example. personals categories. and feeling isolated as a relative newcomer to San Francisco. On the same day. city included. and 14 in 2003. there are 695 unique Craigslist sites that can be posted to. User demand for more categories caused the list of categories to grow. São Paulo. . The initial technology encountered some limits. current CEO Jim Buckmaster joined the company as lead programmer and CTO. In November 2004. Most of the early postings were submitted by Newmark and were notices of social events of interest to software and Internet developers living and working in San Francisco. As of May 2008. San Diego. British Columbia was the first non-U. and the web site went live in 1996. Vancouver Vancouver. the California Gold Country. New York.S. so by June 1995 majordomo had been installed and the mailing list "Craigslist" resumed operations. Soon. By April 2000. homepage design. October 2000: Sacramento April 2001: Atlanta. and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan are among the locations with their own Craigslist sites. Washington. The number of subscribers and postings grew rapidly. There was no moderation and Newmark was surprised when people started using the mailing list for non-event postings. the name "List Foundation" was introduced and Craigslist started transitioning to the use of this name. By early 1998. Austin. Denver. the Colorado Western Slope. and Tokyo became the first cities outside primarily English-speaking countries.Craigslist 128 History Having observed people helping one another in friendly. featuring local events in the San Francisco Bay Area. London was the first city outside North America. discussion forums. and best-of-Craigslist feature. He was promoted to CEO in November 2000.

[12] Financials and ownership In December 2006. Craigslist executives took actions that "unfairly diluted eBay's economic interest by more than 10%." eBay claimed that in January 2008. Orange County (California) and Portland. eBay owns approximately 25%.C. In 2009.[15] [16] [17] On August 13.[10] [11] The classified advertisements range from traditional buy/sell ads and community announcements to personal ads.com on January 8. Craigslist operated with a staff of 28 people. 2011). Craigslist filed a counter-suit against eBay in May 2008 "to remedy the substantial and ongoing harm to fair competition" that Craigslist claims is constituted by eBay's actions as Craigslist shareholders. The company does not formally disclose financial or ownership information. Philadelphia.Craigslist 129 Operations The site serves over 20 billion page views per month."[19] In response. and dates. jobs. at the UBS Global Media Conference in New York.[20] .4 million unique monthly visitors in the United States alone (per Compete. Analysts and commentators have reported varying figures for its annual revenue.[17] [18] [8] In April 2008. there have been no substantive changes to the usefulness or non-advertising nature of the site—no banner ads.. putting it in 37th place overall among web sites worldwide and 10th place overall among web sites in the United States (per Alexa. Boston. Seattle. instead it prefers to help users find cars. and Newmark is believed to own the largest stake. but it remains to be seen what ramifications the change will actually have. making it one of the top job boards in the world. D. Craiglist's main source of revenue is paid job ads in select cities – $75 per ad for the San Francisco Bay Area. $25 per ad for New York City. eBay announced it was suing Craigslist to "safeguard its four-year financial investment. Washington. The site receives over 2 million new job listings each month. Craigslist CEO Jim Buckmaster told Wall Street analysts that Craigslist has little interest in maximizing profit. and $25 million in 2006 to possibly $150 million in 2007. apartments. and eBay (the three board members). $20 million in 2005. Newmark announced on his blog that auction giant eBay had purchased a 25% stake in the company from a former principal. Los Angeles. Buckmaster. As of May 2011. charges for a few services provided to businesses. with over 49.[13] [14] Craigslist headquarters in the Sunset District of San Francisco. San Diego. 2010). Oregon – and paid broker apartment listings in New York City ($10 per ad). The company is believed to be owned principally by Newmark. With over 80 million new classified advertisements each month. Craigslist is the leading classifieds service in any medium. ranging from $10 million in 2004.com on March 24. Chicago. Some fans of Craigslist expressed concern that this development would affect the site's longtime non-commercial nature. 2004.

and sex. The number of flaggings required for a posting's removal is variable and remains unknown to all but craigslist. a sense of community trust and even intimacy. it is not staffed by Craigslist employees.[25] Flaggings can also occur as acts of disruptive vandalism and for the removal of competitors postings.[23] To better understand and clarify flagging it is up to the users to define rules themselves in such places as the Unofficial Flagging FAQ[26] and the flag help forum. even by 1996 standards. customer service and simplicity.[23] Items are flagged for three categories: misplaced.[28] The forum volunteers have no access to information about craigslist. and Portuguese became the first non-English languages supported.org. and "sex". or spam/overpost.org user accounts or ads. a design philosophy common in the late 1990s but almost unheard of today for a major website. German. Newmark was approached with an offer for running banner ads on Craigslist.[29] Personals [34] [35] [34] [35] Over the years Craigslist has become a very popular online destination for arranging for dates. Other factors he cites are consistency of down-to-earth values. prohibited.[24] Although users are given a short description of each flagging category. and must rely upon information supplied by the ad poster to try and piece together the reason an ad was flagged and removed. or misunderstanding of the Craigslist Terms of Use. "dating/romance". Classified ad flagging does not require account log in or registration. Craigslist continues to avoid using images and uses only minimal CSS and JavaScript.[36] . the site design has remained virtually unchanged. Spanish.[36] They have however added links to San Francisco City Clinic and STD forums.[23] When a certain number of users flag a posting.[31] [32] [33] The personals section allows for postings that are for "strictly platonic". and as of April 2010. Since 2001. prejudice.[30] The forums usefulness and effectiveness can be compromised by people who post malicious replies to help threads. but he decided to decline.Craigslist 130 Site characteristics The site is notable for having undergone only minor design changes since its inception. French. and it is not affiliated with craigslist.[36] The company has been pressured by San Francisco Department of Public Health officials leading Jim Buckmaster to state that the site has a very small staff and that the public must police themselves. Newmark says that Craigslist works because it gives people a voice.[22] Flagging Craigslist has a user flagging system to quickly identify illegal and inappropriate postings.[29] The Flag Help Forum's unmoderated format allows anyone to post anonymously and without accountability. San Francisco Craigslist's men seeking men section was attributed to facilitating sexual encounters and was the second most common correlation to Syphilis infections. it is removed.[36] In 2005. users ultimately flag on their preference. Craigslist staff posted mock-banner ads throughout the site as an April Fools' Day joke. and can be made anonymously by any visitor. In 2002.[21] Languages In March 2008. Italian.[31] [32] The site has been found to be particularly appealing to help connect lesbians and gay men with one another because of its free and open nature in addition to it being hard to find gay people in one's area for some.[27] The Flag Help Forum is an unmoderated volunteer community.org. the design is very simple.

S. Sex ads cost $10 initially and it was estimated they would have brought in $44 million this year had they continued. "casual encounters". the "censored" label and its dead link to adult services were completely removed. then they're not going to take chances. Free speech and some sex crime victim advocates criticized the removal of the section. 2010. including "men seeking men. renewed for $5. but no disclaimer was put on the "men seeking women". The adult services section link was still active in countries outside of the U. As a response to charges of 2010 with black censored box in place of Adult discrimination and negative stereotyping. but the public pressure has increased and Craigslist is a small company."[39] Today. after pressure from Ottawa and several provinces. However. saying that it threatened free speech and that it diminished law enforcement's ability to track criminals. monthly revenue from sex ads on six other sites (primarily backpage."[42] On September 8. that it had closed its adult services in the United States for good. replacing it with an adult services section to be reviewed by Craigslist employees. "If you impose liability on Craigslist. Craigslist announced that it would close the erotic services section.[47] On December 19. 2010. attorney and assistant professor at UC Berkeley. "women seeking Craiglist website as it appeared on September 4.S. Craigslist closed 'Erotic Services' and 'Adult Gigs' from its Canadian website. senior staff attorney for the Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2010.1 to $3. it defended its right to carry such ads and its efforts to fight prostitution and sex trafficking. The site received criticism and complaints from attorneys general that the section's ads were facilitating prostitution and child sex [41] [42] trafficking. On May 13. Buckmaster explained that Services the company's policy is a response to user feedback requesting the warning on the more sexually explicit sections. all of the above listed boards (as well as some others) have a disclaimer. "Craigslist isn't legally culpable for these posts. 2010. the removal was applauded by many state attorneys general and some other groups fighting sex crimes.[48] . However. said.[45] [46] In the four months following the closure. a disclaimer was put on the "men seeking men". 2009.1 million. 2010.[41] Matt Zimmerman. Brian Carver.Craigslist 131 Adult services controversies and closure Advertisements for "adult" (previously "erotic") services were initially given special treatment. men" or "women seeking women" boards. and "rants and raves" boards to ensure that those who clicked on these sections were over the age of 18. On September 4. Craigslist said that there is some indication that those who posted ads in the adult services section are posting elsewhere. then closed entirely on September 4. It would likely result in the takedown of what might otherwise be perfectly legitimate free expression.com) increased from $2. Craigslist closed the adult services section of its website in the United States.[37] [38] In 2002.[43] [44] Craigslist announced on September 15. partly due to price increases. said that legal threats could have a chilling effect on online expression. The site initially replaced the adult services page link with the word "censored" in white-on-black text. "erotic services". YouTube and Facebook for anything their users do. This decision came after allegations by several U. states [40] Postings to the new category cost $10 and could be that the erotic services ads were being used for prostitution. following a controversy over claims by state attorneys general that the advertisements promoted prostitution.

in Vancouver.[52] • On September 8. in Arlington.[50] Incidents • On February 3. 51 of Troutman. and Amy Ruth Bergquist. Thorsen was sentenced to five years in Federal Prison. the San Francisco Bay Guardian published an editorial criticizing Craigslist for moving into local communities and "threatening to eviscerate" local alternative newspapers. • On February 8. who had met Donaldson via Craigslist. 2008.[51] The case. Eric Christopher Thorsen. whom he had met through his girlfriend. 2006. 32.[54] • On October 26. in January. 52. home addresses. a woman from Minneapolis. 2008. then used stolen identification. the ad had actually been placed by "Craigslist Killer" Michael John Anderson. after reaching an accord with over forty of the United States' top prosecutors. This information. police reported that a Vancouver couple had attempted to sell their week-old baby on the site. was subsequently dismissed because of immunity granted by Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act. was publicly posted online. The investigation is ongoing. etc. 2006. checks and credit cards to purchase merchandise from online retailers as well as prescription drugs..[59] Thorsen and Bergquist ultimately pleaded guilty to trafficking in stolen documents and aggravated identity theft. Craigslist has been compared to Wal-Mart. Craigslist. 25. a Minneapolis couple were indicted for using Craigslist to advertise for sexual services. Craigslist announced that it would crack down on ads for prostitution by requiring people who post "erotic services" ads to provide a working phone number and pay a fee with a valid credit card. but the couple claimed that it was merely a joke.[60] • In April 2008. Donaldson was indicted for the murder. 2009. photos. Minnesota pleaded guilty in federal court to running an underage prostitution ring through Craigslist. including email addresses.[63] • On December 7. Katherine Olson.[53] • On September 12.[58] • In April 2008. Virginia. Matthew Hicks. the San Francisco Chronicle criticized Craigslist for allowing ads from dog breeders. but was subsequently acquitted on Jan 23. was fatally shot after robbing.[64] . California. a Michigan woman was charged with using Craigslist to hire a contract killer to murder a romantic rival in Oroville.Craigslist 132 Criticism In July 2005. and then picking the pockets of those who responded.[55] Anderson was convicted of his "Craigslist Killing" in 2009. a Minneapolis woman. 30. North Carolina was arrested for the murder of Bonnie Lou Irvine. and thereby allegedly encouraging the over breeding and irresponsible selling of pit bulls in the Bay Area. British Columbia. she had agreed to meet him after she responded to his ad on Craigslist. 2008. phone numbers.[61] • On May 27. 2007.[56] [57] • On March 22. assaulting and attempting to murder Willie Donaldson. 35. The couple had placed this ad to cover up their own burglary of his house. leading to the loss of his possessions. North Carolina. was found murdered in the trunk of her car after she responded through Craigslist to what she thought was a job as a nanny. 2007. Bernard George Lamp. 2008.[62] • On November 7. Craigslist was sued by the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law for allegedly allowing users to post discriminatory housing ads in Chicago that violate the Fair Housing Act. a couple was charged with placing an ad on Craigslist inviting the public to take anything from a man's home in Oregon. In addition the couple were responsible for tens of thousands of dollars of bank fraud throughout the Twin Cities area. several sites reported that Craigslist's "Casual Encounters" forums in several cities had been compromised by individuals posting fraudulent ads in order to obtain personal information about people. 2008.[49] In January 2006. of Cornelius. Bergquist to three and a half. a multinational corporation that some feel crushes small local businesses when they move into towns and offer a huge assortment of goods at lower prices. Chicago Lawyers' Committee For Civil Rights Under Law v.

He was arrested the following week while driving to a casino with his fiancée.[70] and whose corpse was found on April 14 in a Boston hotel. Korena Roberts of Oregon was arrested for allegedly killing 21-year-old Heather Snively—who was eight-months pregnant—and her unborn baby. He then was accused of another armed robbery of an escort in another Boston hotel several days earlier and an attempted armed robbery at a Warwick. South Carolina Atty Gen. 43-year-old Jimmy Sanders. in fact. Four suspects were taken into police custody. Richard (last name not mentioned) and his mother were attacked in Tacoma.[74] • In December 2009.[73] • In August 2009. the attorneys hold that there are still hundreds of such listings emerging every day. a virtual community established around harassing people via Skype. federal law protected it from criminal proceedings for failure to do so. were outed on The Smoking Gun for activities that also included posting fraudulent ads on Craigslist and then shouting racist. feigned interest in making a purchase.[67] • On March 20. members of Pranknet. where prostitution runs rampant. a 71-year-old Oscar Award winning film director and songwriter was arrested on 11 counts of rape. 2009. This was reported in the national news. on suspicion of the armed robbery and murder of Julissa Brisman. he committed suicide in his jail cell while awaiting trial. 2009. accusing the site of "knowingly promoting and facilitating prostitution" in its "erotic services" advertisement section. 2009.Craigslist • On March 5. Joseph Brooks. They were reported to have met through an advertisement by Roberts on Craigslist for the sale of baby clothes. nor was it required to by federal law.[72] • In June 2009. proclaimed they were on their way over to rape them and murder their children.[68] • On April 20. Boston police arrested twenty-three-year-old Boston University medical student Philip Markoff of Quincy.[76] 133 . The father. and that the company really ought to do more.[65] [66] The company argued that it could hardly be expected to sift successfully through the vast volume of listings it received every day.[69] • On April 20. WA with a hammer after seeing a bogus car ad on Craigslist.[67] On August 15. He pleaded not guilty. Brooks won his Academy Award for writing the Debbie Boone song You Light Up My Life in 1977 and also directed the film of the same name. Weber was found bound and stabbed fifty times. Massachusetts."[67] Although Craigslist claims to have reduced inappropriate erotic listings by 95 per cent since its accord with prosecutors in November 2008. but it swiftly employed the same defense that it used against Dart. Rhode Island hotel two days later. a widely publicized crime. and when they learned the woman's address. Washington home. but was caught after the intervention of a passer-by. a family of four was terrorized by four people who responded to a Craigslist ad for the sale of a diamond ring. 2010. Henry McMaster threatened the company with criminal proceedings. the ABC radio news reporter George Weber was allegedly murdered by John Katehis in Brooklyn. Markoff is accused of first bludgeoning and then shooting her with a gun. Cook County. by cutting open her abdomen. including 9 counts of raping women aged 18 to 30 whom he met through advertisements offering film roles on Craigslist. a Lucchese crime family associate attempted to steal an engagement ring from a seller on Craigslist by attacking him with mace. Illinois Sheriff Tom Dart's Department filed a lawsuit against Craigslist. Pranknet members also responded to ads placed by young women selling household goods.[75] • In April 2010. was murdered defending his eldest son after letting a couple into their home to look at the ring who proceeded to take out a gun and let two more accomplices enter the Edgewood. 2009.[71] • Subsequent to the Brisman murder.[67] • In June 2009. whose massage services were advertised on Craigslist in Boston and Rhode Island. state attorneys general countrywide plied increased pressure on the site "to shutter what they call the nation's busiest virtual street corner. The two had met via Craigslist. sexually graphic and obscene tirades at people who called to inquire about their ads.

Kugli. [2] http:/ / www. 2007. Adoos. Locanto. craigslist. com/ cgi-bin/ article. Michael Ferris Gibson filmed the documentary 24 Hours on Craigslist. Retrieved September 6. [7] "Jim Buckmaster—CEO & programmer" (http:/ / web. com/ craigslist/ --ID__129617--/ free-co-factsheet.[81] The show focuses on a young man's sexual experiences on Craigslist and was so successful that it returned to New York by popular demand in February 2008. 2004. [4] "craigslist factsheet" (http:/ / www. [9] http:/ / www. 2000. hoovers. craigslist. org/ about/ management. It accepts charitable donations. [5] "On The Record: Craig Newmark" (http:/ / www. [8] craigslist. html). April 19. com/ siteinfo/ craigslist. August 14.[80] Related media • In 2003. org/ about/ expansion). .org. html . org/ aboutus. done in the style of The Doors. August 14. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.org – Traffic Details from Alexa" (http:/ / www. Retrieved September 6. The latest Boot Camp event was held on Saturday. html) on June 20. . San Francisco Chronicle. Adsglobe. org/ about/ factsheet. Retrieved May 8. Hoover's. Olx. [6] "Archived page from Craigslist's About Us" (http:/ / web. "Weird Al" Yankovic released a song entitled "Craigslist" which is a parody of the website. org). Retrieved May 8. including: Ebay Classifieds. the Craigslist Foundation has hosted an annual conference called Boot Camp. . . org/ web/ 20070630145737/ http:/ / www. Ryan J. org/ aboutus. Inc. Craigslist. and rather than directly funding organizations. TMP& ao=all). .org (November 2006). alexa. the company started the Craigslist Foundation. html). craigslist. • On June 16. 2008. org/ web/ 20000620192058/ http:/ / craigslist. Retrieved March 19. • On January 3. craigslist. org/ [3] "craigslist. org/ about/ factsheet. Adpost. 2009. 2007. • In November 2007.Craigslist 134 Competition The international popularity and success of Craigslist has lead many other players to enter into the global online classifieds market. 2011. 2011. Retrieved November 15.[78] a § 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that offers free and low cost events and online resources to promote community building at all levels. 2010. the organization that manages AllforGood. and Oodle. . Archived from the original (http:/ / craigslist. motivating and inspiring greater community involvement and impact. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2004/ 08/ 15/ NEWMARK. Davis directed Jeffery Self's solo show My Life on the Craigslist at Off-Broadway's New World Stages. html). "craigslist fact sheet" (http:/ / www. craigslist. an in-person event that focuses on skills for connecting. 2007. 2000.[79] The Craigslist Foundation is also the fiscal sponsor for Our Good Works. 2011.000 people since its inception. 2007. Alexa Internet. Boot Camp has drawn more than 10. a movie named "The Craigslist Killer" premiered on Lifetime featuring the story of Philip Markoff. an application that distributes volunteer opportunities across the web and helps people get involved in their communities. References [1] "craigslist – Company Overview" (http:/ / www. ClassifiedsForFree. xhtml). Retrieved February 8. . who was accused of robbing and/or murdering several sex workers he met through Craigslist's adult services section. craigslist. archive. archive. html) on June 30. sfgate.[82] • Nerdcore hip-hop musician Schäffer the Darklord recorded a song called "Craig's List" for his album "Mark of the Beast". it produces "face-to-face events and offers online resources to help grassroots organizations get off the ground and contribute real value to the community". Since 2004.[77] Nonprofit foundation In 2001. org/ about/ management. 2008.

2007. "craigslist fact sheet" (http:/ / www. Brian M. co. cnn. [31] Craigslist hookups (http:/ / chicago. opinionjournal. "Selling items online" (http:/ / web. cnn. May 13. Craigslist users. "Newspaper Killer" (http:/ / www. . org/ web/ 20070702115137/ http:/ / www. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 7399720. . htm). [26] "Unofficial Flagging FAQ" (http:/ / www. eskimo. Retrieved May 8. Maria Cramer (http:/ / books. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 7362221. Timeout. html). [30] "Unofficial Flagging FAQ – unmoderated" (http:/ / www. April 23. craigslist. The Advocate. 2010. org/ about/ terms. html?id=110008531). Retrieved April 7. [21] "april fool's rules" (http:/ / web. 2006). com/ thelatest/ thelatest. html?_r=1& hp). com/ ~newowl/ Flagged_FAQ. [39] "Warning: men seeking men—Craigslist posts disclaimer for gay male personals" (http:/ / web. com/ content/ bu342n2vt1163174/ ). [20] "Craigslist strikes back at eBay" (http:/ / news. php). archive. 2010. cfm?blog_id=2296) on July 2. CNN. "Just An Online Minute… Stunning Wall Street. google. [18] Sandoval. Retrieved March 24. Wall Street Journal. [12] Jones. The New York Times. . Amanda. [23] "Unofficial Flagging FAQ" (http:/ / www. org/ pdfs/ PIP_SellingOnline_Nov05. forbes. . Retrieved May 8. usatoday. 2007. 2007. com/ ~newowl/ Flagged_FAQ. [25] "terms of use" (http:/ / www. org/ about/ help/ flags_and_community_moderation). [16] Carney. CNET. . BBC. Greg (July 3. August 31. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com/ articles/ sex-dating/ 79484/ craigslist-hookups). org/ forums/ ?forumID=3& all=Y). eskimo. [11] craigslist. . com/ dpp/ news/ national/ college-student-to-launch-'sex-hookup-site'). 135 . com. Why not?" (http:/ / www. abc2news. com/ money/ 2007-01-02-terror-war-business-usat_x. sovo. com/ articles/ 2010/ 10/ 28/ cover_story/ doc4cc97ae6702ba326065179. Pew Research Center. 2008. eskimo. of. Wendy (December 7. [27] "Craigslist flag help forum" (http:/ / craigslist. com/ editorial/ feature. use#conduct). 2008. Adam (December 12. Retrieved August 22. . content/ index. txt). by Christian Grov [36] The Hottest Spot Online – The explosively popular-and free-Craigslist attracts both gay men and lesbians by the thousands but the guys and gals aren't generally looking for the same things (http:/ / books.Craigslist [10] Lenhart. BBC. 2006). 2005. 2008). com/ online_minute/ ?p=1394). [28] "Unofficial Flagging FAQ – volunteers" (http:/ / www. [13] Davis. html) on November 10. stm).and Drug-Seeking in a Probability Sample of Men-for-Men Online Bulletin Board Postings (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). 2006. 2007. com/ thelatest/ thelatest. org/ web/ 20070714052427/ http:/ / www. Retrieved September 15. Fortune. com/ editorial/ feature. By Paul LaRosa. . stm). Retrieved September 4. htm#unmoderated). html?hpt=Mid). Retrieved September 6. theotherpaper. . html). ABC News [33] Columbus Sex Survey (http:/ / www. MediaPost. 2007. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. eskimo. com/ ~newowl/ Flagged_FAQ. html?id=110008531" (http:/ / valleywag.com. Craigslist users. opinionjournal. and cheaper than bars (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 22. . 2010. Southern Voice. 2007). . adult. 2010. html). Retrieved May 13. htm). [22] Craig Newmark (March 27. Retrieved September 13. "Multiple language support on Craigslist" (http:/ / www. 2010. com/ books?id=DGUEAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA69& dq=San+ Francisco+ City+ Clinic+ -"Webster's+ Quotations"& lr=& ei=K0__TLuhOo3yyASY_LTVDw& cd=20#v=onepage& q=San Francisco City Clinic -"Webster's Quotations"& f=false).org. Retrieved March 24. org/ about/ pr/ factsheet). eskimo. Owen (July 26. cnewmark. com/ 2010/ 09/ 05/ technology/ 05craigs. . [37] "Attorneys general call for Craigslist to get rid of adult services ads" (http:/ / www. com/ ~newowl/ Flagged_FAQ. com/ technology/ 2006/ 12/ 08/ newspaper-classifield-online-tech_cx-lh_1211craigslist. . Retrieved March 24. cnewmark. "Zen and the Art of Classified Advertising: Craigslist could make $500 million a year. org/ web/ 20061110233425/ http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ CRIME/ 08/ 25/ craigslist. [15] Lashinsky. . Craigslist users. Craigslist users. Shunning Profits" (http:/ / blogs. 2010). by Ann Rostow. . 2010. craigslist. Retrieved June 2. [17] Thomas. Jeremy (November 2005). [14] Hau. org/ pdfs/ PIP_SellingOnline_Nov05. Valleywag. . htm). archive. com/ magazines/ fortune/ fortune_archive/ 2005/ 12/ 12/ 8363113/ index. 2007. sovo. html). The Other Paper [34] Seven Days of Rage: The Deadly Crime Spree of the Craigslist Killer. Retrieved February 8. Shermak. 2006). craigslist. archive. Craigslist. [29] "Unofficial Flagging FAQ" (http:/ / www. Craigslist. pewinternet. 2007). "Craigslist grapples with competitor on board" (http:/ / news. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=y8rWfwKR1SQC& oi=fnd& pg=PA1& dq=craigslist+ hookup& ots=mILoycUQlr& sig=uDupf1PucGjvugfIA2NBsWCMoFI#v=onepage& q=craigslist hookup& f=false) [35] Risky Sex. 2008. 2007. Retrieved September 15. cfm?blog_id=2296). htm#001). google. com/ 2008/ 03/ multiple-langua. Retrieved September 6. timeout. 2009. Craigslist users. 2010. Craigslist. "Burning Sensation" (http:/ / money. 2005). . 2008. craigslist. 2008. Retrieved May 8. 2010. (June 17. Del (January 2. Retrieved September 15. . org/ about/ aprilfools. "Can small businesses help win the war?" (http:/ / www. bbc. pdf) on July 14. 2010. Retrieved August 22. nytimes. 2007. pewinternet. 2010. 2007). . Craigslist users. [38] Miller. . [24] "flags and community moderation" (http:/ / www. bbc. com/ 2100-1024_3-6194872. . Claire Cain (September 4. 2010. htm#volunteers). com/ ~newowl/ Flagged_FAQ. [19] "EBay sues Craigslist ad website" (http:/ / news. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com/ tech/ mythbusting/ craig-newmark-filthy-rich-on-ebays-millions-283002. co. Retrieved September 15. Retrieved March 24. . Louis (December 11. "Craigslist Blocks Access to ‘Adult Services’ Pages" (http:/ / www. Forbes. August 26. . craigslist. Retrieved August 22. USA Today. 2009 [32] College student to launch 'sex hookup site: It's safer than CraigList. 2008. org/ about/ aprilfools. mediapost. . springerlink. "http:/ / www. htm#000). 2008. 2008.

2007. 2006. John (March 6. DTL). 2010. cgi?file=/ c/ a/ 2005/ 07/ 11/ MNGJ2DLUUH1. [56] US woman indicted for allegedly placing Internet ad that solicited hit on lover's wife (http:/ / web. pdf). Retrieved September 6. waxy. 2007. html). [45] Miller. Ill. Claire (September 9. [59] Woman pleads guilty in craigslist sex scam (http:/ / www. . 2005). October 29. org/ web/ 20080501184802/ http:/ / wcco. msnbc. . com/ cgi-bin/ article. Retrieved July 16. startribune. [68] MBC. html). [49] Ilene Lelchuk (July 11. com/ nytimes/ docs/ craigslist/ clccrcrg20306cmp. . canada. CNET. [50] Tim Redmond (July 11. Inc. . 370262. com/ local/ south/ 44477897. sfgate. Inc. "Law enforcement officials warn that the slaying of Julissa Brisman is far from the only violent crime linked to Craigslist. "Craigslist removes 'censored' bar from site" (http:/ / news. 2009. com/ 2010/ 09/ 16/ business/ 16craigslist. 2010). The Canadian Press. html). Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles). [44] Matyszczyk. "Craigslist Comes Clean: No More 'Adult Services. Michael A. [53] "Sex Baiting Prank on Craigslist Affects Hundreds" (http:/ / www. sfgate. . com/ blog/ 2011/ 01/ 26/ price-increases-drive-growth-in-adult-ad-revenue/ ). uscourts. archive. com/ servlet/ an/ local/ CTVNews/ 20101218/ 101218_craigslist_prostitute/ 20101218/ ?hub=CP24Home). nytimes. cnn. September 6. 2010. ring. 2010. 2009) [67] Sarno. DTL#ixzz0ykq1HJrf). com/ news/ 21823467/ detail. "Craigslist Pulls ‘Censored’ Label From Sex Ads Area" (http:/ / bits. James Temple. 2008. 2010 [43] Miller. sfgate. ring. 2005). September 4. February 8. gov/ fdocs/ docs. suspect met online. 2009). 2. written at San Francisco. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 17. html). . time. startribune. "Craigslist to Remove Category for Erotic Services" (http:/ / www. cat ads" (http:/ / www.Craigslist [40] Stone. 2009. Archived from the original (http:/ / wcco. 2d 961 (N. 2010. Chris (September 8. html?scp=2& sq=Craigslist& st=cse). September 5. [54] "Woman Pleads Guilty in Teen Prostitution Ring" (http:/ / web. 2008). Retrieved January 9. Boston Herald. com/ cgi-bin/ article.00. . newsbank. com/ 2010/ 09/ 09/ craigslist-pulls-censored-label-from-sex-ads-area/ ). org/ web/ 20080130133727/ http:/ / www. The New York Times. March 22. . Retrieved September 6. nytimes. html?hpt=T2). Retrieved April 23. 20. Retrieved January 3. 2010). Inc. blogs. "Craigslist pressured to ban dog. 2011. com/ id/ 22860988/ ) [57] "Woman Charged For Craigslist Killer Ad" (http:/ / www. December 18. [58] "Warrants detail how murder victim. go. com/ theprovince/ news/ story. 2008. . Retrieved September 6. "Craigslist Says It Has Shut Its Section for Sex Ads" (http:/ / www. 2008. AIM group. Charlotte Observer. fox24. com/ 2009/ may/ 11/ business/ fi-craigslist11). .2019499. 2007. Retrieved September 17. switched. html?elr=KArks:DCiUHc3E7_V_nDaycUiD3aPc:_Yyc:aUU) [60] 2nd person sentenced in Craigslist ID theft case (http:/ / www. . . . The New York Times. com/ 2008/ 04/ 03/ couple-behind-bogus-craigslist-ad-arrested/ ) [62] Vancouver baby put up for sale on Craigslist in government care (http:/ / www. ca7. [66] Dart v. 2010." [65] Koopman.D. January 26. Retrieved September 12. Retrieved April 24. 665 F. Inc. html). latimes. Retrieved September 6. teenagers. Oct. com/ TheLaw/ story?id=3789765& page=1).' Ever" (http:/ / www. com/ 8301-17852_3-20015915-71. 2009). Retrieved September 5. org/ archive/ 2006/ 09/ 08/ sex_bait. San Francisco Chronicle. censored/ index. [51] "Chicago Lawyers Committee For Civil Rights Under Law. 2010). com/ 2010/ CRIME/ 09/ 04/ craigslist. 2010. . com/ topnews/ 2008/ 02/ 08/ woman-charged-for-craigslist-killer-ad). findlaw. 2009. Brad (May 13. com/ cgi-bin/ article. "Editor's Notes" (http:/ / www. html?elr=KArksUUUU) [61] Couple Behind Fake Craigslist Ad Arrested – Switched (http:/ / www. bna. html?id=102a84f7-176b-4d07-ad86-0f3cd29a7e8d) [63] (http:/ / www.com. September 13. fwx?submit=showbr& shofile=07-1101_021. pdf) (PDF). com/ time/ nation/ article/ 0. Time. "Chicago Lawyers' v. [48] "Craigslist pulls 'erotic services' from Canadian site" (http:/ / www. 2010.. 2008. after e-mailing. cnet. 2007. Retrieved April 23. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2010/ 09/ 04/ BU841F8URH. April 19. html). "Teen in Custody for Murder of Radio Reporter : WFMZ-TV 69News" (http:/ / www. 2007. com/ article. com/ topstories/ prostitution. David (May 11. 370262. sfbg. bostonherald. Craigslist Inc" (http:/ / www. wfmz. Retrieved February 20. . webpronews. shtml). [46] Lindenberger. Claire Cain (September 15. . . com/ news/ regional/ view." (http:/ / news. FindLaw. Retrieved April 30. . cp24. v. they set up a meeting in person.8599. "Craigslist's erotic services ads draw more fire from states" (http:/ / articles. bg?articleid=1166573). February 3. Supp. 2010. Wfmz. msn. 2008. 2009. com/ 40/ 18/ x_editors_notes. 2006. 2010). [52] United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (March 14. [55] "Ad for Online Nanny Lured Woman to Her Death" (http:/ / abcnews. 2. asp?pkid=14293) [64] "Caught up in a violent Web" (http:/ / www. 2010. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=CO& s_site=charlotte& p_multi=CO& p_theme=realcities& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_topdoc=1& p_text_direct-0=11F98090379A4C78& p_field_direct-0=document_id& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& s_trackval=GooglePM). Retrieved March 15. (September 16. html) on May 1. nytimes. [41] "Adult services censored on Craigslist" (http:/ / www. . com/ local/ south/ 30724799. New York Times. 2009). DTL). Craigslist. 2008. archive. San Francisco Bay Guardian. [47] "Price increases drive growth in adult ad revenue" (http:/ / aimgroup. documents say" (http:/ / nl. Retrieved September 12. html). [42] Craigslist removes ads for adult services (http:/ / www. com/ topstories/ prostitution. Retrieved April 23. 2009. . San Francisco Chronicle. . "Craigslist sued over erotic-services ads" (http:/ / www. Craigslist. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2009/ 03/ 05/ BA3Q16A1FU. com/ eclr/ dartvcraigslist. teenagers. (http:/ / pub. com/ 2009/ 05/ 14/ technology/ companies/ 14craigslist. 2009. CNN. 2007. 136 .

com/ communities/ ondeadline/ post/ 2009/ 06/ 67868277/ 1?loc=interstitialskip). New York Daily News. 2010. com/ news/ regional/ view/ 20100815sources_craigslist_killer_philip_markoff_commits_suicide/ srvc=home& position=recent). 2008. craigslistfoundation. 2009.craigslistfoundation. playbill. allforgood.09 (http://www. [72] "Ore. Retrieved November 10. html). USA Today. "Jeffery Self to Offer My Life on the Craigslist at New World Stages Nov. . html [75] NY Post – Man tries to sell engagement ring. com/ news/ ny_crime/ 2009/ 04/ 20/ 2009-04-20_massachussetts_police_arrest_suspect_in_craigslist_killer_case. nydailynews. 22 & 29" (http:/ / www.wired.org/) Why Craigslist Is Such a Mess Wired Magazine: 17. 2010). woman accused of killing mother-to-be" (http:/ / content. html). broadwayworld. ." [71] Sweet. org) [79] Craigslist Foundation events (http:/ / craigslistfoundation. thenewstribune. January 23. msn. usatoday. com.com/entertainment/theweb/ magazine/17-09/ff_craigslist?currentPage=1) An overview article by Wired Magazine about Craigslist . June 8. thesmokinggun. . msnbc. Adam (October 17. "Sources: Accused ‘Craigslist Killer’ Markoff commits suicide" (http:/ / bostonherald. 2008.. Retrieved August 15. suspected 'Craigslist Killer' of model Julissa Brisman.org/) company blog (http://blog. 2007). cfm?colid=24539). . [82] "'My Life on the Craigslist' Returns Feb. Retrieved April 21.craigslist. ninemsn. gets robbed by mob associate (http:/ / www. org/ events/ index. The News Tribune. 1" (http:/ / www. Laurel J. 15. Christine McConville and Michele McPhee (August 15. "Top 10 Global Classifieds Websites" (http:/ / www. . au/ entertainment/ 829330/ oscar-winner-arrested-over-rape-claims) [74] http:/ / www. com/ news/ article/ 111961. 2010). 2010 [77] List Guy (February 22. Retrieved May 8. . 137 External links • • • • Craigslist homepage (http://www. makethelist.Craigslist [69] (http:/ / www. in custody" (http:/ / www. Playbill. nypost. [78] Craigslist Foundation (http:/ / www.org/) Craigslist Foundation (http://www. 2009. April 20. com/ p/ news/ local/ manhattan/ craigslist_attack_bSDLcIsPJv60xqJrgJ33jO) [76] How Edgewood family was terrorized (http:/ / www. Boston Herald. May 15. html) [80] AllforGood. "Suspected "Craigslist killer" may have robbed his victims to pay off gambling debts. com/ viewcolumn.org (http:/ / www. [73] Oscar winner arrested over rape claims (http:/ / news. 2010. com/ 2010/ 05/ 12/ 1183143/ how-edgewood-family-was-terrorized. html).craigslist. com/ archive/ years/ 2009/ 0803091pranknet1. Broadway World. com/ id/ 30339177/ ) [70] "Cops have Philip Markoff. net/ top-10-global-classifieds-websites/ ). 2009. Fun Lists. org) [81] Hetrick. Retrieved May 8. 2008.

They could select to go on a single blind date (1 other person) or a double blind date (3 other people).000 dates. "The website Crazy Blind Dates give you dates on demand" (http:/ / www. Time Out reported that the website is under construction for updates but will remain free when it is in operation again. webcitation. They do not know what their date will look like and are only given basic information including first name. Retrieved 10 July 2009. "Dating site is mostly random — but it’s fast" (http:/ / www.[3] As of 2008. org/ 5npx2xOoI). Xconomy. boston. com/ boston/ 2007/ 11/ 16/ two-new-sites-to-ease-your-way-through-dating-hell/ ) on 2009-06-10. In April 2010. org/ 5qjanr6Ef). webcitation.com/) . 1bb6148. webcitation. org/ 5iAoI2UBc). oftentimes just a few hours. [2] Williams. Columbia News Service. xconomy. Retrieved 10 July 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2009.[2] As of April 2011. . Time Out. gender. D. New York City. com/ lifebeat/ content/ lb_crazy_blind_date_cns_03-16-08_AC98PO1_v13. The Boston Globe. The site served people in Boston. External links • Official website (http://www.. Retrieved 10 July 2009.[5] Daters meet up at a location agreed to by each person. and Los Angeles. html) on 2009-06-10. age. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. one of the founders of the dating site OkCupid.crazyblinddate. "Two New Sites to Ease Your Way Through Dating Hell" (http:/ / www.000 members who have gone on 90. [3] Goldstein. "The "Date" in Dating Website" (http:/ / www. History Crazy Blind Date was launched in November 2007 by Sam Yagan. go.[1] Users used the "date wizard" to provide basic demographic information about themselves and their preferred dates. webcitation. [4] Bachko. occupation. Chicago. Washington. org/ 5iAlDvMPK). Meredith (2008-01-15). Allison (2010-04-01).Crazy Blind Date 138 Crazy Blind Date Crazy Blind Date (CBD) was a no-cost dating service that set people up on blind dates with little to no notice. Archived from the original (http:/ / abcnews.C. . Austin. Retrieved 2010-06-24. San Francisco. Katia (2008-03-16). Archived from the original (http:/ / newyork. education. com/ articles/ sex-dating/ 84226/ how-about-we-dating-website) on 2010-06-24. ABC News. . "Your Best Bet for Love? Timing" (http:/ / www. com/ Business/ Story?id=4274238& page=1) on 2009-06-10. the service has 10. References [1] Netter. webcitation. . timeout. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. org/ 5iAobQNyP). projo. Wade (2007-11-16). [5] Roush. the service is still not available. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Sarah (2008-02-12). and ethnicity.[4] The CBD matching service uses basic demographic information to set up blind dates with little notice. com/ lifestyle/ articles/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ dates_on_demand/ ) on 2009-07-10.

uk/). retrieved March 7. sfgate. Retrieved 2008-08-18. [4] "TripAdvisor Acquires Cruise Critic. San Francisco Chronicle.[5] [6] References [1] http:/ / cruisecritic. PR Newswire. (English) (UK) . DTL). 2008 External links • CruiseCritic.cruisecritic. which is one of the business unit of Expedia. They offer over 225 reviews written by editors and members of the site. Cruise Deals and Cruises Travel News and Reviews. com/ aboutus/ index. including low-carb [2] cruising. . Leading Cruise Community. [5] "About Us" on TripAdvisor Media Network (http:/ / www. tripadvisor. fitness cruises. html). . cfm?ID=1) — Cruise Critic section.cruisecritic. com/ cgi-bin/ article. com/ [2] "About Us" on Cruise Critic (http:/ / www. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2003/ 04/ 27/ TR273712. it has now become one of the brands operated by TripAdvisor. html). expediainc. forums Available language(s) English Launched 1995 (America Online) 1998 (Official Launch) 10. com/ pages/ about_us. disabled cruising and gay cruises.uk (http://www. retrieved March 7. . press release. 2008 [6] Expedia Inc business units (http:/ / overview.co.com (http://www. Inc. news on cruising and a forum. Spud (2003-04-27). encyclopedia.com/).com[4] . com/ phoenix. cruisecritic. zhtml?c=190013& p=irol-govManageBus). "Cruise Web sites finding everyone's a critic" (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www. 2007-05-23. Originally started in 1995 as a feature of America Online[3] . [3] Hilton.co. and information on cruise ships and over 135 ports of call and includes information on specific cruising styles niches.584 Online Alexa rank Current status Cruise Critic is a cruise review community website which also has information for cruisers written by editors. com/ doc/ 1G1-163789809.Cruise Critic 139 Cruise Critic Cruise Critic URL Slogan Type of site Homepage [1] Cruise Reviews. (English) (USA) • CruiseCritic.

CrystEngComm. New Journal of Chemistry and Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry). rsc. publishes occasional profiles (interviews) of crystal engineers. Therefore. Usually. CrystEngComm. org/ Publishing/ . for crystal engineering. and a terminology wiki. rsc. Journal of Materials Chemistry. instead supporting anonymity or pseudonymity. CrystEngWiki.Crypto-society 140 Crypto-society A crypto-society is an encrypted virtual community. It is common for these communities to avoid real-life identifiers. It is nearly impossible to create a face to face crypto-society as it would take too much time and resources to encrypt all the human to human interactions. The website is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Also on the community are links to research articles on crystal engineering including CrystEngSelects (a selection of recent articles of interest to crystal engineers from across the RSC journals Chemical Communications. org/ Publishing/ Community/ index. Some encrypted societies that exist today are: • • • • Freenet Invisible IRC Project (IIP) I2P Anonymous remailers CrystEngCommunity CrystEngCommunity is a virtual web community for people working in the field of crystal engineering. org/ wiki/ rsc/ index. CrystEngCommunity has links to the main international research groups working in crystal engineering. php?title=Main_Page [3] http:/ / www. nearly all encrypted communities are hosted on the Internet with computers aiding the users in the encryption of their interactions. asp [2] http:/ / prospect. and links to past crystal engineering articles from the RSC Journals Archive. links to special CrystEngComm Discussion conference special issues. so that members know each other by reputation. book reviews and a compilation of useful weblinks for crystal engineers The community has a particularly close association with the RSC’s crystal engineering journal. External links • CrystEngCommunity [1] • CrystEngWiki [2] • RSC Publishing homepage [3] References [1] http:/ / www. Other useful links include downloadable wallpapers for PC desktops. rsc. a conference diary that lists and links to international events in the field of crystal engineering. Dalton Transactions. such communities employ public-key cryptography to ensure that their users can speak freely amongst themselves with a greatly reduced probability of anyone else eavesdropping on their conversations.

The site provides members with continual support as someone is always available to talk. Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer Lars Nilsen. parenting. Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer Josh DeFord. divorce. [2] As of November 4. DailyStrength had 14. Medical professionals are also available to contact and treatments for a variety of illnesses and problems are also listed on the site. The site contains online communities that deal with different medical conditions or life challenges. and a wide variety of cancers. California. DailyStrength’s market share increased by 95%. each spending 82 minutes on the site and each viewing approximately 145 pages. 2006 Current status active DailyStrength is a social networking website where users provide one another with emotional support by discussing their struggles and successes with each other.[7] As of September 2007. 2006 Los Angeles. USA Doug Hirsch.org [1] Employees Slogan Website Type of site Launched social networking August 3. Hirsch was one of the first employees at Yahoo [2] and previously [5] built products for online communities there and at Facebook.DailyStrength 141 DailyStrength DailyStrength Type Founded Headquarters Key people Private August 3. The company was founded on August 3.000 average daily visitors. Lars Nilsen and Josh DeFord and has offices in Los Angeles and Santa Cruz. USA. The site is free for members and the members are encouraged to remain anonymous. 2007. DailyStrength has created over 500 support groups [3] focused on issues such as depression. 2006 by Doug Hirsch [4] . [8] . Hirsch founded the company in response to his own difficulties dealing with a death in his family as a teenager. [6] Over the six-month period ending June 2007. Co-founder and Chief Product Officer 20 (2007) People Powered Healthcare dailystrength. with the average user spending over 26 minutes on the site.

comscore. hitwise. com/ article/ SB116717686202159961. 2007 [5] http:/ / online. com/ health/ 337891_websites05. org/ archive/ interview-with-doug-hirsch-of-daily-strength Entrepreneur 27 December 13. com/ leeann-prescott/ Hitwise [8] http:/ / www. entrepreneur27. 2006 [6] http:/ / www. 2006 [3] http:/ / www. [7] http:/ / weblogs. com/ Comscore Key Measures Report for Health Media External links • DailyStrength Support Groups (http://dailystrength.org/) . org [2] http:/ / www. 2006. mercurynews.DailyStrength 142 References [1] http:/ / www. com/ 2006/ 11/ 07/ daily-strength-online-support-groups-and-aggregate-treatment-info/ TechCrunch November 7. com/ localnewsheadlines/ ci_6956968 The Mercury News September 21. dailystrength. seattlepi. html Seattle Post Intelligencer [4] http:/ / www. techcrunch. html Wall Street Journal December 27. wsj.

Kropotkin and Gandhi ideas. They were inspired by flashmob. Basic concept of the community Darudar users call themselves comembers (means "community members"). On 22 September 2008 service was launched in Russian. Other comembers can wish it. DaruDar gift is a thing. Main condition of participation is following the rules of gift giving[2] and communication[3] set on the site. The community is based on principles of self-organization. to make it a daily and routine act. Only those offers which simultaneously satisfy all three of the following conditions and cannot exist without them should be considered gifts on Darudar: • It can be wished • It can be promised . With collaborative help of the community service was translated into English in 2010. promised and thanked. The global mission of DaruDar[4] is to create a widespread social practice of gift-giving. skill or service of a comember that he/she wants to give away to someone.org [1] Give away and receive as a gift to make the world better No Giving-away service.DaruDar 143 DaruDar DaruDar URL Slogan Commercial? Type of site Registration darudar. “junk”. their skills and time to each other for absolutely free requiring nothing in return. wished. “freebie”. “crap” are considered obscene on DaruDar. Community Invite or Application Available language(s) Multilingual Launched Revenue Current status September 22. 2008 Donations and Google AdSense Active DaruDar is an international community where people give away things. Words like “lot”. It was created by four friends who had worked with Habrahabr project earlier. In order to offer a gift a comember creates a publication describing what he gives. Later the gift giver chooses someone to promise their gift. “exchange”. Every gift can be commented.

possibility of sending by post. In addition to the basic principles traditions also include the follow issues: • Community Mission[4] • Code of ethics[3] • Not for gift giving[5] Furthermore comembers can help and guide each other using disapproval tools. image or video which will prove that the gift handover was fulfilled. thematic categories. Thanks The gift giver promises their gift to one of the wishers.DaruDar • It can be given For example text or image file cannot be a gift as in fact they both are gifts for all. One can always see who gave this gift away to whom. public responses. Group members can cooperate to filter and recommend gifts of special interest for them to the group. Gift crossing You can keep giving away the gift you have received and get involved into "gift crossing". the total number of gifts etc. vox populi and wardens help. It can contain text. languages etc. global pulse of gift giving for the past three months. Looking for interesting or wanted things. Daronomics Daronomics is a global statistical section of community gift giving[6] . Each group brings together people of similar interests. All written thanks are collected into comember's profile. Search & Filtering Darudar as a service of gift giving has a search and filtering tools. After meeting and receiving the gift the wisher should write thanks for this gift. The same information is available for each city. . Groups Groups are a collaborative comember-created filters. Essentially there is a list of principles how the gift giver or the wisher should behave in certain cases. the number of comembers registered on the site. Principles of self-organization Each comember has to follow the traditions of DaruDar[2] . Due to this mechanisms things are distributed to be as useful for people as the things could be at the time. 144 Features of the service The main feature of this gift-giving service is it's mechanisms enable people to make clever choices about whom to give their things to (what they feel are appropriate). It shows how many cities are involved into the gift giving. Despite the fact that formally it may be a gift some of them should not be given away on Darudar[5] . All gifts involved into the gift-crossing have their own individual story. skills or services by search you can optionally specify results by geographical location.

youtube.com/watch?v=41Wg098Xbbo)» programm on the «STB» channel on 30 March 2009 (Ukrainian) • TV report in « КультУРА (http://www.wma) on «Radio Mayak» radio on 24 October 2008 (Russian) • « Будь щедрее! (http://www.ru/piter/articles/971196/)» article in «Cosmopolitan Saint-Peterburg» magazine on 8 February 2011 (Russian) • « Почтальоны мечты (http://www.lookatme.ru/mayak2/107075.5-tv.html)» article on the site of «Итоги» magazine on 24 November 2008 (Russian) • Mentioned in « Прогресс (http://www.com/watch?v=dZTClWHUsLc)» programm on «1+1» channel on 15 August 2010 (Ukrainian) • TV report in « Prime Time Russia (http://rt.afisha. org/ page/ ideology/ codex/ ) Mission (http:/ / darudar.vmdaily.ru)» magazine on 20 October 2008 (Russian) • Интервью c Максимом Каракуловым (http://audio. Максим Каракулов (http://www.html)» article in «Вечерняя Москва» newspaper on 21 February 2011 (Russian) • TV report in « За окнами (http://www.rfn.youtube.DaruDar 145 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / darudar. org/ page/ ideology/ notagift/ ) Daronomics (http:/ / darudar.ru/article/4511/)» article in « Афиша (http://afisha.ru/article/113772.org/blog/92/)» TV cast on «MTV Russia» channel on 17 June 2009 (Russian) • Essay in «Site of the day» section in «Vedomosti» newspaper on 5 August 2009 (Russian) • Article « Подарю лошадь.ru) site on 9 November 2008 (Russian) • « …То есть даром (http://www.ru/programs/broadcast/503192/)» TV cast on «5-tv» channel (Saint-Peterburg) on 8 February 2009 (Russian) • Mentioned in « Телепорт (http://darudar. org/ page/ ideology/ traditions/ ) Code of ethics (http:/ / darudar. org/ page/ ideology/ mission/ ) Not for gift giving (http:/ / darudar.ru/snd/2011-02-07-echonet-0818.mp3) on «Echo of Moscow» radio on 7 February 2011 (Russian) • « Дару–дар .com/darudar_en) on Twitter Publications • « Лицо.echo. С доставкой на дом (http://kp.youtube.новый способ стать счастливее (http://piter.com/watch?v=UQeexrJLI3s)» programm on the «7 канал» channel (Kharkiv) on 13 October 2009 (Ukrainian) • TV report in « ТСН (http://www. org/ daronomics/ ) External links • DaruDar (http://youtube.itogi.msk. org/ Traditions (http:/ / darudar.ru/daily/24556.com/darudarorg) on Youtube • DaruDar (english) (http://twitter.cosmo.com/news/prime-time/flea-market-antiques-moscow/)» programm on «Russia Today» channel on 28 March 2011 (English) .ru/flow/bud-schedree)» article on Look At Me (http://lookatme.ru/hitech-internet/2008/48/134875.5/731843/)» in «Komsomolskaya Pravda» newspaper on 13 September 2010 (Russian) • Передача Эхонет (http://cdn.

One dead holds the world record for the one mile run for females age 70 and older. training program. academics and researchers. Washington in June. • An example of a geographic group is the SOBER Deads (Southern Ontario and Buffalo Expired Runners). Three Dead Runners Society groups also operate on the facebook social networking website. a group based in Italy." Online discussion includes everything from meditation to marathon training—and even topics only marginally related to running. you may react differently to the shoe. where the group was founded in 1991 The original DRS group. bananas. 2007.700 members. Deads range from beginning runners to elite athletes. Deads also meet regularly at races. known as "the big list. Sublists have a geographic or thematic focus. bagels. writers and editors of running magazines. It is an early example of a virtual community formed around a non-professional topic. symbolizing computers. Membership broadened with the growing use of email in the mid-1990s. duathlons. e. symbolizing the Lone Star State of Texas.Dead Runners Society 146 Dead Runners Society The Dead Runners Society (DRS) is a worldwide online running club. DRS pre-dates widespread use of the World Wide Web. Deads say the civilized level of discourse and strong sense of community sets DRS apart from other mailing lists. A dead who encourages another via private email YMMV: Your Mileage May Vary. medical treatment. or other matter under discussion . Other DRS lists The DRS flag includes a smiley emoticon. Northwest branch (NoWDead) hosted the next World Conference in Tacoma. more than 20 sublists have been formed. Among them: • • • • • • • • Clydesdale: a heavy runner Encounter: a face-to-face meeting of Dead Runners Filk: In DRS parlance. librarians. Some deads subscribe to one (or more) of the sublists but are not subscribed to the big list or have set NOMAIL option on the big list. and other multi-sport events.[1] It was founded by Loreen Kail. Messages are posted in the Italian language. and water Penguin: a slow runner (coined by John "the Penguin" Bingham) ORN: Obligatory Running Note. and coined various terms. DRS is notable for its unusual role in the development of both the Internet and the sport of running.g. the group has adopted. sports drinks. Other deads are coaches. DRS Italia members hosted DRS World Conference XV in Turin. A brief note about a run appended to a message with no other running content VRP: Virtual Running Partner.[2] for dead runners who are interested in triathlons. [1] Members DRS members are known as "deads. Italy in May. while the U. and a star. In DRS parlance. adapted. and developers of running-related software.S. Terminology Over the years. race directors. Founded by Chris Conn in 1991 as an electronic mailing list. a running-related song in which new lyrics are written to an existing tune Goomies: Post-run snacks and drinks." now has about 1. Annual World Conferences have been held since 1993. 2008. • An example of a thematic group is TRI-DRS. • DRS-readers and DRS-mind are examples of thematic groups for discussions. Over the years. One of the most active sublists is DRS Italia. Many early DRS members were computer professionals.

1998. Name The Dead Runners Society's name derives from the film Dead Poets Society which had as its motto Carpe Diem—Seize The Day.A.A.A. World Conference III: San Francisco. Hays[15] .S. U. 1993. U. Washington.S. U. Louis. Indiana. U.A. 1995. District of Columbia.S. Arizona.A. World Conference XIV: Toronto. New York. A few have gone further and transferred their accumulated knowledge to paper or software applications. 2007. World Conference II [12]: St. World Conference XII: Boston. 2001.A. World Conference XI: Cupertino.S.A. The Dead Runners Society is incorporated in Texas as a non-profit organization.S. U. World Conference XV [7]: Torino. U. World Conference V [10]: Eugene. U.S. World Conference XVII [5]: St. U. 2002.S.A. World Conference XVIII [4]: Gainesville. . Missouri. U.A.A.CANCELLED 2009.Dead Runners Society 147 History The list founder is Chris Conn. World Conference VI [9]: St. The Dead Runners Society amended this to Carpe Viam—Seize the Way (or Seize the Roadway). Arizona. a runner and software engineer in Austin.S. U. Books and Tools by Dead Runners Virtual (or long-distance) training and coaching is one of the benefits of belonging to DRS. World Conference I: Washington.A. Ontario.A. 2003. U. DRS conferences Since 1993. World Conference XVI [6]: Tacoma. World Conference IV [11]: Cleveland. World Conference IX [8]: Albuquerque.S. Some members have created Web pages for running advice. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2010. 1996. Missouri. U. U. 1997.A.A. California. World Conference VII: Tucson.S. New Mexico.S.S. Massachusetts. U.A. Ohio.S. U. 2008.A.S. VIII 1999.S. Texas. the DRS has been holding annual conferences in different cities. 2004. Louis. Louis. U. Italy 2006. To encourage attendance. the host city generally creates a Web-based guide to their city's attractions. 1994. A few examples follow: • Marathoning for Mortals by John Bingham [13] • Hal Higdon's Beginning Runner's Guide and Marathon: the Ultimate Training Guide by Hal Higdon[14] • Excel™ Running Log by Alan Rubé and David S.S. Florida. with the abbreviation DRSWCn[3] . Oregon. World Conference XIII: Tucson. Missouri. 2000. World Conference X: Indianapolis. California. World Conference VIII: New York. Canada 2005.

cadcam. com/ drswc15.cadcam. deadrunnerssociety. deadrunnerssociety. thenewstribune. com/ hashiru/ drswcix [9] http:/ / www. php [7] http:/ / italy.iupui. archive. pbase.iupui.cadcam. deadrunnerssociety. Nathan (1993) On-Line Athletic Club Keeps Conversation Running. Craig (2008) "Dead Runners Will Join Field of Tacoma Race". davidhays.com) Dead Runners Society Italia Home Page (http://italy. com/ drswc/ drswc16.iupui.edu/drs/flag. Emmaus.html) Chris Conn's DRS Page (http://storm. com/ drswc/ drswc17. edu/ drs/ sublists. htm [12] http:/ / www. html Running Log • Bingham.deadrunnerssociety.edu/~cmcgoat) .com/catalog/ Books by Hal Higdon [15] http:/ / www. php [5] http:/ / www.com) DRS flag: origin and heraldic description (http://storm. com/ drswc/ drswc06. deadrunnerssociety. org/ web/ 20091026201356/ http:/ / www. deadrunnerssociety. com/ drswc/ drswc18. php [13] Books by John Bingham [14] [https://www.org/ TRI-DRS. php [6] http:/ / www. net/ running/ runlog/ runlog.html) Main page for DRS (http://storm.deadrunnerssociety.cadcam. ntlworld. deadrunnerssociety.: Rodale Press • Cobb. Boston Globe • Hill. com/ tony. com/ Colosseum/ Track/ 9582/ drswc. html [11] http:/ / homepage. John (2002) No Need for Speed. triathlon sublist of DRA [3] DRS World Conferences (http:/ / www. php) [4] http:/ / www. php [8] http:/ / www.com/news/local/story/388887. Pa. php [10] http:/ / web. bell2/ racerep/ drswciv.Dead Runners Society 148 References and external links [1] DRS sublists (http:/ / storm. html) [2] [http://www. com/ drswc/ drswc. geocities.html) • Dead Runners Society Central (http://www.edu/drs/drs. com/ drswc/ drswc02.com) • • • • • Dead Runners Society World Conference (http://www. Seattle News Tribune (http://www.halhigdon.drswc. iupui.tri-drs. deadrunnerssociety.

It currently has over 2000 registered users with real names. pp. php?page=newsdetails& start=0& mod=2008=en& id=354) at Riva Website is currently down. Die Netzwerker.Decayenne 149 Decayenne Decayenne is an invitation-only on-line social network service founded in 2001 [1] in Düsseldorf (Germany) by Phillip Eissing. date of birth. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=239:decayenne& catid=44:news& Itemid=27) at Metier Fashion Designer Magazine [4] "Riva for the Kids of Africa at 2008 Decayenne Ball" (http:/ / www. easybourse. 6. Members only! In: "1st" First Magazine. the Decayenne community meets off-line in both official and unofficial events. decayenne. Although primarily a website. com/ visitors/ index. External links • Decayenne (http://www. The site is open to Mongolian people only. com/ Website/ interview/ 275-ioannis-voudouris-alexander-eissing-decayennecom. External links • Delhii [1] References [1] http:/ / delhii. Official charity events that are held in cities such as Zurich.[2] Its member pool aims at exclusivity and is composed of mostly Europeans and Americans. schools and universities they attended. at easyBourse. usually in internationally popular cities such as London and Manhattan [3] . and Ioannis Voudouris. nolchametier. Marco Schierhorn. One can find friends by a search tool or looking through one's acquaintances' acquaintances. Vienna 2008. June 2008. riva-yacht. October 2006 [2] Steinitz.. Every user can provide personal information such as the place they live in. workplaces. 2007. com/ index.decayenne..com) delhii Delhii (means World in Mongolian) is a Mongolian social networking web service started on February 8. com/ . benefit UNESCO and Kids of Africa [4] . pdf) [3] "Decayenne" (http:/ / www. 158-161 (http:/ / www. and interests. Sylvia M. Alexander Eissing. php) by Marie-Laure Hardy. References [1] "Interview" (http:/ / www. Vol. com/ images/ press/ DCY_press_1st.

It also launched the popular viral.in/brandPage_hindustan. Middle East. HT Media also owns the radio channel. • Celebrity Columns: Leading Bollywood celebrities like Priyanka Chopra. Anoushka Shankar and others write columns for HT City. desimartini. • Chat Rooms: DesiMartini users can join the chat rooms or create their own. • Groups: Users can create and join groups and communities. HT acquires DesiMartini.com/2007/11/21/ ht-media-acquires-social-networking-website-desimartinicom/) • Alexa traffic ranking (http://www. The message board is called Pingdom • Allows users to transliterate and communicate in 6 regional languages in addition to English. com http:/ / htcity. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] (JuxtConsult 2007) "HT acquires DesiMartini" (http:/ / www. http:/ / www. Makkadman [3] produced by WebChutney [4]. com/ news/ story. aspx?Page=Page-HTMedia-hindustantimescom) • HT Media acquires DesiMartini (http://www. South East Asia and Scandinavia.com/data/details/traffic_details/desimartini.vccircle. and the newspaper brands. Karan Johar. Hindustan Times. Hindustan and Mint (newspaper). daily Horoscope and online games.com&size=Large&w=700&y=p&z=3) . com http:/ / www. Some of the features include: • Users can create their own customizable profiles. the lifestyle supplement of Hindustan Times and get published online on DesiMartini here. makkadman. com http:/ / www. founded by Vivek Pahwa & Dhruv Gupta[2] . It was acquired by Firefly e-Ventures. Its users are primarily from towns and cities across India though it is also has a presence in the USA. • Love Calculator: Matches people on the site on the basis of their likes and dislikes. • Send public messages and private messages called Ping.com/) • DesiMartini part of Hindustan Times property (http://www. webchutney.Celebrity Columns [5] • Page 3 Photos: Latest Page 3 photos from celebrity parties also get covered and display in the Page 3 section of DesiMartini. Features DesiMartini targets the Indian youth by providing normal social networking features.htmedia. an HT Media company in November 2007.comh=400&range=1y& site0=desimartini.alexa. History DesiMartini is based out of India and was launched in Dec 2006. UK. html?sid=19738). • Photos: Users can upload unlimited albums and photos. youtube. afaqs. • Polls: Users can create and participate in polls and send them to their friends. Akshay Kumar. Social Networking is one of the fastest growing segments in the Indian Internet space. • Other features include blogs. • Videos: Users can upload videos directly from You Tube [6].juxtconsult. . com • JuxtConsult (http://www. Deepika Padukone Imran Khan (actor). Fever 104 FM. currently used by over 44% of Internet users in India [1] .Desimartini 150 Desimartini DesiMartini is a social networking site launched in December 2006 focussed on connecting Indians. • Privacy: Users have the option to keep their profile private.

wordpress.com/watch?v=-IiIsHuEeq4) • List of social networking websites with Alexa rank (http://rahulpandy.com) • Desi Social Web (http://www.indianwebshowcase.com) .youtube.com/2008/01/18/ list-of-social-networking-websites-with-alexa-rank) • DesiMartini review (http://www.com/indian-web-20/desimartini-when-desi-meets-social-web/) 151 External links • DesiMartini (http://www.com/Desimartini.reviewsaurus.desimartini.Desimartini • Desimartini TV ad (http://www.

traditional art. It was first launched on August 7.com attracted at least 36 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study. along with extensive downloadable resources such as tutorials and stock photography.[4] deviantArt aims to provide a platform for any artist to exhibit and discuss works. and over 100 million submissions.5 million comments daily. Angelo Sotira. is the official deviantArt mascot. deviantArt users submit over 1. and Matthew Stephens August 7. Angelo Sotira and others. literature. is headquartered in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles. digital art. and others. Additional utilities include journals. including photography. 2000 126 [2] Current status Active deviantArt[3] (official typeset as deviantART.4 million "favorites" and 1. In addition. Inc.5 million members. polls." a small robotic cat character. As of August 2010 the site consists of over 14.000 submissions per day. .com [1] deviantART: where art meets application! Yes Art display/Social networking service Optional deviantArt.[6] DeviantArt allows submissions across a wide variety of media.deviantArt 152 deviantArt deviantART URL Slogan Commercial? Type of site Registration Owner Created by Launched Alexa rank deviantART. and receives around 140. 2000 by Scott Jarkoff. California. though submissions must be in text or still image format. Works are organized in a comprehensive category structure.[3] commonly abbreviated as dA) is an online community showcasing various forms of user-made artwork. skins for applications. Flash. Matthew Stephens. filmmaking. groups and portfolios.[5] The domain deviantart. "Fella. United States. Scott Jarkoff. LLC. deviantArt.

Users can also obtain Premium Prints Account offering 50% of the profits and an immediate check of material submitted for sales.[14] Version 4. released on May 18.[13] Version 3.[15] Version 5. After several complaints made by most of the community about bugs and glitches in the newest version. browsing was made easier.[8] deviantArt was loosely inspired by projects like Winamp facelift. All three co-founders shared backgrounds in the application skinning community. Version 2. released on August 7. the message center. versions were released on the date of site's birthday. there is a slight change of design and easier search options. The design style of the site was slightly modified as well. In this revision. as part of a larger network of music-related websites called the Dmusic Network. each deviant has a Prints account. Matt Stephens and Angelo Sotira.[8] [9] [10] Growth On November 14. 2007.org. features a new smaller header design and removal of search bar except on home page. all application skin-based websites. deviantArt gave its users the option to submit their works under Creative Commons licenses giving the artists the right to choose how their works can be used. 2006. 2010. deskmod. a film category was added to deviantArt. In version 4. After version 2. 2006. Version 6. 2000 by Scott Jarkoff.com. Users are given more options to customize their profiles. receiving 20% of the profits.[16] In version 5. The site flourished largely because of its unique offering and the contributions of its core member base and a team of volunteers after its launch. through which they may sell prints of their works for money. releasing multiple features at once.[12] Versions deviantArt has been revising the site in versions. released in early 2009. Sotira entrusted all public aspects of the project to Scott Jarkoff as an engineer and visionary to launch the early program. Users are now able to customize the deviantArt navigation toolbar. Angelo Sotira currently serves as the chief executive officer of deviantArt. released on July 10. a deviant could also sell their work for 50% of each sale.[7] but was officially incorporated in 2001 about eight months after launch. the chat client called dAmn was added to the site. from administrators to volunteers serving as gallery directors and Message Network Administration.[11] On September 30.deviantArt 153 Origins deviantArt was originally launched on August 7. released on August 7. Inc. 2008. released on August 7. August 7. and skinz. Before version 5 of deviantArt.1. In this revision.org. the staff made updates to Version 7.[17] Version 6. Many of the individuals involved with the initial development and promotion of deviantArt still hold positions with the project. giving comments or critiques to the artist about a particular moment in the film. By paying for a subscription. but it was Matt Stephens whose major contribution to deviantArt was the suggestion to take the concept further than skinning and more toward an "art community". 2002. In version 2. front page and footer were revamped. An artist and other viewers can add annotations to sections of the film. . excluding Versions 6 and 7. and stacks are added to message center later in 2010. Version 7. released on February 5. 2004. users did not have by default access to this service and it had to be obtained separately. screenphuck. including a search bar to every page.com. 2003. customize. allowing artists to upload videos.

Sotira insists he was a founder. which was carried out by many of Scott Jarkoff's supporters. It should be noted that despite a big turn out. deviantArt went onto a World tour.[22] With Matthew Stephens' resignation in 2003. only a tiny percentage of the deviantArt population actually attended the summit. 2005. A mechanism for notifying administrators of potential copyright and licensing violations is available. no plans were ever made for a 2006 Summit. supporters of Scott Jarkoff assert that now neither of the founders remain in deviantArt's administration. 2009. money. Jarkoff also posted an explanation on his personal website.[22] Various campaigns have sprung up in support of Scott Jarkoff. including Sydney. and also the first full time working staff member of the deviantArt administration.[22] [23] deviantArt staff have portrayed his termination as necessary. 2005. Sotira posted an official response to explain the situation. United States. "Save the Alien.[24] On July 31. due to legal restraints." Jarkoff's mascot).000 new images daily. London. which receives 50.[20] Some members of the community have also been the victims of this type of abuse from disreputable vendors using artwork illegally on products and prints." and "Yellow Day" (because Jarkoff was known as the "yellow alien. Istanbul. deviantArt held their first convention. Toronto and Los Angeles. The Hollywood Palladium while hosting the first deviantArt Summit deviantArt World Tour Starting May 13. California.[21] Termination of Scott Jarkoff On July 29. co-founder Scott Jarkoff was removed from the deviantArt staff. the new "Portfolio" feature of deviantArt was previewed to attendees. but this assertion was disputed. Singapore. Giant projection screens displayed artwork as it was being submitted live to deviantArt. including the "Bring Back the Community" campaign. Paris. 2005. This may be due to lack of interest. visiting cities around the world. so such violations can remain unnoticed until reported.deviantArt 154 Special events deviantArt Summit On June 17 and June 18. In contrast. The summit consisted of several exhibitions by numerous artists. or inability to find a location.[18] [19] Criticism Copyright and licensing issues World Tour meet in Toronto in 2007 There is no review of potential copyright and Creative Commons licensing violations when a work is submitted to deviantArt. Berlin. however. at the Palladium in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles.[23] . Leaders of deviantArt had hoped to hold a new summit each year. the deviantArt Summit. The deviantArt administration has been generally tight-lipped throughout the incident. angering members of the community. New York City.[22] The response to this entry was mixed. During the world tour. including artscene groups old and new at about 200 different booths. Warsaw.

2007-10-07. deviantArt. that Jarkoff did nothing on the site in the beginning. . com/ [2] "deviantart. but Sotira claims that in reality. asp?privcapId=22872779)" Businessweek Investing. deviantArt.[27] 155 References [1] http:/ / www. . deviantArt. Retrieved 2007-12-21. . Retrieved 2007-12-27. deviantArt. [25] "Jark's deviantArt Journal . com/ article/ 23753/ ). He accuses Jarkoff of hypocrisy by saying that Jarkoff still owns shares of deviantArt stock. [12] "News: Now Playing: deviantArt Film!" (http:/ / news. 2007. com/ article/ 6581/ ). . Sotira implies that Jarkoff defrauded even though Sotira was going to use deviantArt's money to fight any legal battle against Jarkoff. [6] deviantArt attracts almost 40m visitors online yearly (http:/ / siteanalytics. Sotira responded. deviantArt. com/ ). [26] "Comment by Spyed on Jark's deviantArt Summit Never Before Seen Footage" (http:/ / comments. deviantart. "spyed's deviantArt Journal" (http:/ / spyed. [21] "Art Theft Scandals Rock deviantArt" (http:/ / www. Turns Three!" (http:/ / news. businessweek. Accessed November 9. . deviantart. Retrieved 2007-12-22. [24] Scott Jarkoff (2005-09-05). "Jark's deviantArt Journal" (http:/ / jark. [8] Cyan Banister. com/ article/ 10692/ ).Angelo Sotira's Closing Speech PT 2" (http:/ / www. he had more than enough money to cover any legal costs for any lawsuits. [19] deviantArt. com/ 2007/ 05/ 29/ art-theft-scandals-rock-deviantart/ ). 2005-08-03. . deviantArt. [10] http:/ / news. Retrieved 2007-12-27. com/ journal/ 14959691/ ). Alexa Internet. com/ 5/ 14959691/ 564336000). . com/ ). . deviantArt. Retrieved 2007-05-29.[25] On October 13. com/ policy/ service/ ).[26] claiming that Jarkoff lied about his role in deviantArt's development. . "[[TechCrunch (http:/ / techcrunch. . Retrieved 2010-12-30. Jarkoff wrote a journal in which he complained about his video getting deleted due to a copyright violation. com/ 2010/ 08/ 22/ stop-being-weak-an-interview-with-angelo-sotira-ceo-of-deviantart-com-tctv/ )]"]. com?metric=uv) [7] Angelo Sotira (2003-04-10). . Retrieved 2008-01-06. 2007. [14] "News: deviantArt Passes The Terrible Twos. deviantart. . deviantart. Jarkoff claimed he needed money to sue Sotira for wrongful termination. Retrieved 2007-12-22. "News: deviantArt Version 6" (http:/ / news. . alexa. . . Retrieved 2008-01-08. [9] "deviantArt: About deviantArt's Team Core" (http:/ / about. [15] http:/ / news. [13] "News: OMG OMG OMG" (http:/ / news. 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-21. [18] deviantArt (2009-05-08).com .deviantArt Summit Never Before Seen Footage" (http:/ / jark. 2002-02-05. "#hq on deviantArt" (http:/ / hq. deviantArt. deviantArt.LIVE!" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2007-12-22. deviantArt. deviantArt. . [5] "deviantART 10th Birthday Bash at House of Blues .. com/ article/ 125134/ [11] "News: New Submission Process. youtube. compete. com/ article/ 52608/ ). [3] "deviantArt: Terms of Service" (http:/ / about. . . deviantart. Retrieved 2007-12-21. com/ journal/ 9639361/ ). com/ 5/ 14959691/ 561587288). [27] "deviantArt: Comment on deviantArt Summit Never Before Seen Footage by Jark" (http:/ / comments. Retrieved 2008-01-05. com/ 155/ ).. . Retrieved 2007-12-26. "deviantArt World Tour 2009" (http:/ / news. .deviantArt On October 7. [4] " deviantArt. Retrieved 2007-12-21. com/ article/ 34930/ ). com/ article/ 79645/ ). com). com/ journal/ 609173/ ). [20] "FAQ #155: How do I report a submission which I think breaks the rules? on deviantArt Help and FAQ" (http:/ / help. and even went so far as to set up a fund for it. Inc. com/ journal/ 6095324/ ). (http:/ / investing. [22] "spyed's deviantArt Journal: A Response" (http:/ / spyed. deviantArt. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. Inc. com/ siteinfo/ deviantart. . com/ deviantart.Traffic Details from Alexa" (http:/ / www. [17] deviantArt. deviantArt. . and that he was the one who fired Matthew Stephens in 2003. com/ probes/ 2005/ 08/ 03/ involuntary-termination/ ). 2005-08-03. com/ watch?v=9O2lRAooUWk). . deviantArt. com/ article/ 15672/ [16] Angelo Sotira. Inc. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2008-07-10. plagiarismtoday. [23] "Jarkolicious :: Involuntary Termination" (http:/ / jarkolicious. com/ journal/ 6418270/ ). "Spyed's deviantArt Journal: deviantArt v5 Release Notes" (http:/ / spyed. deviantArt.

forums.deviantArt 156 External links • Official website (http://http://www. It has two social networks that reach nearly 150.S. Word in Your Hand The Word in Your Hand project invites participants to share photos showing a word in their hands describing life with diabetes. friends and caregivers describe their feelings towards diabetes.000[6] and 13.[12] In 2008.000[7] registered members respectively. Diabetes awareness programs The Diabetes Hands Foundation has developed diabetes awareness programs such as Word In Your Hand. CA-based 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that runs online communities for people touched by diabetes and raises diabetes awareness.000 people per month. is a Berkeley. are social networking sites for people touched by diabetes and were established in 2007. photos and blogs. They provide general information. CA. EsTuDiabetes.[13] . Andreina Davila (Creative Director.[2] The Diabetes Hands Foundation is funded through sponsorship income. Through the project.[5] TuDiabetes and EsTuDiabetes have more than 19. founded in 2008. videos. the Big Blue Test. Key people Manny Hernandez (President. Chairman of the Board).com/) Diabetes Hands Foundation Diabetes Hands Foundation Founders Founded Location Manny Hernandez March 2008 Berkeley. DHF licensed the Word in Your Hand trademark to LifeScan. for use as part of its Global Diabetes Handprint Campaign. U." Employees 3 Website diabeteshandsfoundation. grants[3] and earned income. Inc.org [1] The Diabetes Hands Foundation ("DHF"). people with diabetes along with their family.deviantart. In early 2011 DHF launched a TuDiabetes mobile app[10] and an EsTuDiabetes mobile app[11] for iPhone and Android mobile devices. donations. Secretary) Focus "Connect people touched by diabetes and raise diabetes awareness.[4] Online communities TuDiabetes and EsTuDiabetes TuDiabetes and its Spanish counterpart. Both sites are built on the Ning platform[8] and are an example of nonprofit online communities[9] . No-Sugar Added Poetry and Making Sense of Diabetes.

000 views to date. DHF won two 2011 Telly Awards for the Big Blue Test video[17] . a research paper detailing the first lessons learned in connection with TuAnalyze [24] was published in the Public Library of Science.[15] In 2010. TuDiabetes won 2nd place for Best Patient Community .[25] [26] [27] The game was developed in 2010 by the Diabetes Hands Foundation in collaboration with the Joslin Diabetes Center. with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. TuDiabetes received the Best Patient Community award by Creation Interactive. No-Sugar Added Poetry No-Sugar Added Poetry is a book of diabetes poems[18] written by members of TuDiabetes. the Big Blue Test was promoted through a video[16] that has received more than 130.Non-Brand Controlled (for communities with no direct affiliation to a pharma or healthcare company).[21] Members of TuDiabetes submit their Hemoglobin A1C data. touch and smell. exercise for 14 minutes.[28] [29] In November 2010. Polonsky.[19] It sought video entries about life with diabetes through one of the five senses: sight. DHF held the Making Sense of Diabetes video contest.[20] showcasing footage from some of the videos for each of the senses.[30] Awards and recognition • In the Healthcare Engagement Strategy Awards 2011 Diabetes Hands Foundation received the Connecting Patients Award by Creation Interactive. The event is called The Big Blue Test because blue is the color associated with World Diabetes Day.[32] • In the 2010 Healthcare Engagement Strategy Awards. founder of the Behavioral Diabetes Institute. HealthSeeker HealthSeeker is a social game on Facebook that aims to help people live healthy lifestyles. hearing.[31] • In the 2010 Dose of Digital Dosie Awards.org with a foreword by William H. Applications and Social Games TuAnalyze Since May 2010. The program aims to raise awareness about diabetes and the importance of exercise in diabetes management every November 14. the game was made available in Spanish.Diabetes Hands Foundation 157 Big Blue Test The Big Blue Test first took place on November 14.[34] . TuAnalyze was made available in Spanish through EsTuDiabetes. It produced a compilation video. Diabetes Hands Foundation has partnered with Children's Hospital Boston to develop TuAnalyze.[14] World Diabetes Day. a diabetes data mapping and surveying application. Making Sense of Diabetes To raise diabetes awareness and in preparation for World Diabetes Day 2009 on November 14. taste. Diabetes Hands Foundation was designated as a World Diabetes Day Champion by the International Diabetes Federation. test again and share their results. people with diabetes test their blood sugar levels.[21] In late 2010. The project's goal is to gather information through data donations[23] that can be used by researchers and to raise awareness about diabetes. Players select missions such as stress-reducing or exercise-inducing activities to complete within a given period of time to help create a healthier lifestyle. During the Big Blue Test. The service combines the data and displays the results on maps. In early 2011. under the name EsTuAnálisis.[22] Data entered by participants is stored in the Indivo open-source Personally Controlled Health Record ("PCHR") system.[33] • In 2009.

org/ article/ info:doi/ 10. on World Diabetes Day (http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2009/ apr/ 16/ social-networking-sites-changing-way-people-learn-/ ) [6] http:/ / www. elperiodicousa. estudiabetes. ning. org/ profiles/ members [8] Nonprofit know-how when networking on Ning (http:/ / blog. com/ noticiashispanicprwire/ 18434/ nuevo-juego-de-facebook(r)-encara-el-alarmante-iacutendice-de-diabetes-entre-los-latinos). advisors Among its members.Diabetes Hands Foundation • TuDiabetes received 2nd place for Niche Social Networking in the 2008 Web 2. org/ Diabetes_Hands_Foundation/ Diabetes_Hands_Foundation__|__Our_Work_|__Awareness_Initiatives___|__Word_in_Your_Hand. 2010. diabeteshealth. org/ en/ news/ three-months-to-go-to-world-diabetes-day-1) [16] Do the BiG Blue Test. tudiabetes. the Board of Directors of Diabetes Hands Foundation has a former executive from JDRF. html) [22] Introducing “TuAnalyze”: Why Mapping Diabetes Data Matters (http:/ / www. quantcast. html) [20] Making Sense of Diabetes video (http:/ / www. games.0 Awards by SEOmoz. youtube. org/ magazine/ only-online/ big-blue-test-worldwide-diabetes-test) [15] Three months to go to World Diabetes Day! (http:/ / www. diabetes. com/ apps/ estudiabetes) [12] Word in Your Hand initiative (http:/ / diabeteshandsfoundation. guidestar. doseofdigital.[35] 158 Board of Directors. tudiabetes. com/ booster_shots/ 2009/ 09/ competition-whats-diabetes-like-to-live-with-make-a-movie. 0019256) [25] Video Games Modifying Behavior Towards Good (http:/ / www.[37] References [1] http:/ / www. html) [9] 5 Tips for Creating Non-Profit Online Communities (http:/ / mashable. prnewswire. com/ p-62ZEe_qxrsQ92) [3] Helmsley Charitable Trust Awards $150K to Diabetes Social Media Player (http:/ / helmsleytrust. org/ forum/ topics/ diabetes-hands-foundation-wins) [18] No-Sugar Added Poetry Book Tells Diabetes Like It Is (http:/ / www. latimes. worlddiabetesday. diabetesmine. . diabeteshandsfoundation. org/ organizations/ 26-2274537/ diabetes-hands-foundation. ljworld. insidefacebook.[36] DHF also receives advice from diabetes experts such as Kelly Close. com/ news-releases/ no-sugar-added-poetry-book-tells-diabetes-like-it-is-99754254. com/ news/ health/ blog/ 2010/ 05/ _children_hospi. diabetes. com/ 2010/ 02/ 12/ non-profit-communities) [10] Download the TuDiabetes App (http:/ / mobileroadie. com/ apps/ tudiabetes)] [11] Download the EsTuDiabetes App (http:/ / mobileroadie. November 10. org/ magazine/ only-online/ facebook-game-focuses-health) [29] Digital Channels for Diabetes: Facebook (video) (http:/ / www. pone. org/ [2] Quantcast statistics for the Diabetes Hands Foundation websites (http:/ / www. boston. youtube. com/ articles/ hes-dhf/ ) [32] 2010 Dose of Digital Dosie Award Winners (http:/ / www. El Periódico USA. com/ read/ 2008/ 10/ 27/ 5953/ lifescan-launches-diabetes-handprint-project-/ ) [14] The Big Blue Test: Worldwide Diabetes Test-In (http:/ / forecast. aspx) [5] Social networking sites changing the way people learn about health (http:/ / www2. com/ watch?v=29bng1H4XTs) [21] Children's project uses social network to map diabetes (http:/ / www. org/ node/ 3598) [24] Sharing Data for Public Health Research by Members of an International Online Diabetes Social Network (http:/ / www. iftf. Kerri Sparling (from Six Until Me) and Riva Greenberg. com/ watch?v=nkLHgK94Z0E) [17] Diabetes Hands Foundation Wins 2 Telly Awards (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=KIWWo1y04Z0) [30] "Nuevo juego de Facebook encara el alarmante índice de diabetes entre los Latinos" (http:/ / www. org/ news/ grant-news/ helmsley-charitable-trust-awards-150k-diabetes-social-media-player/ ) [4] Diabetes Hands Foundation Guidestar nonprofit report (http:/ / www2.Connecting Patients Award (http:/ / creationhealthcare. (http:/ / latimesblogs. com/ 2010/ 06/ 21/ facebook-app-aims-to-help-control-diabetes/ ) [28] Facebook Game Focuses on Health (http:/ / forecast. org/ profiles/ members [7] http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 05/ 2010-dose-digital-dosie-award-winners/ ) . [31] The Diabetes Hands Foundation . plosone. html) [13] LifeScan Launches Diabetes Handprint Project (http:/ / www. fastcompany. filmmaker Sean Ross and mobile health expert Jody Ranck. 1371/ journal. html) [23] What if Self-Tracking Goes Mainstream? (http:/ / www. com/ 1669932/ behavioral-videogames) [26] New Facebook game seeks to manage real-world diabetes risks (http:/ / blog. com/ 2010/ 05/ introducing-“tuanalyze”-why-mapping-diabetes-data-matters. html) [19] What's diabetes like to live with? Make a movie. com/ 2010/ 06/ 21/ new-facebook-game-seeks-to-manage-real-world-diabetes-risks/ ) [27] Facebook App Aims to Help Control Diabetes (http:/ / www. two key Patient Opinion Leaders in diabetes and the VP for Full Sail University online. com/ 2008/ 10/ nonprofit-know-how-when-networking-on-ning.

com/diabetesHF) Diabetic Rockstar Inc Diabetic Rockstar Inc is a non-profit that incorporated in the State of New York in 2008.[3] Observer & Eccentric Newspapers. Chicago. 2007) meeting with prolific members of the Diabetes Online Community (DOC). Offline Activity Diabetic Rockstar has organized fundraising events in New York. Detroit. Programs include Fight It!.[1] History Diabetic Rockstar was established as a blog by Christopher Thomas in 2007. most of which focused on helping uninsured. Reader's Digest[4] and various viral postings. which aims to inspire and motivate young diabetic children to lead productive lives. html) [37] Diabetes Hands Foundation Board of Advisors (http:/ / diabeteshandsfoundation.guidestar.twitter.[7] In 2011 Diabetic Rockstar will begin a sponsorship program in an effort to help diabetic children afford attendance to diabetes camps.org) • Guidestar Nonprofit Report (http://www2. Arizona and the Caribbean.[5] and Wiser Time.Diabetes Hands Foundation [33] Best Patient Community Award . seomoz.com/user/DiabetesHands) • @DiabetesHF on Twitter (http://www. org/ web2. Membership grew exponentially after press coverage from About. Mentoring. worlddiabetesday. org/ Diabetes_Hands_Foundation/ About_dhf__|_Our_Team__|__Our_Advisors. The social network has members representing all 50 US states and over 30 countries worldwide. Diabetic Rockstar began developing several unique programs.aspx) • DiabetesHF page on Facebook (http://www. Non-Profit Status and Programs After its 2008 incorporation. newly diagnosed and financially struggling diabetics. The website allows members to interact with one another in a similar manner to larger user networks Myspace and Facebook. html) 159 External links • Diabetes Hands Foundation (http://diabeteshandsfoundation.facebook.com/diabetesHF) • DiabetesHands channel on YouTube (http://www.0 Awards (http:/ / www. aboard Carnival Cruise Line.youtube.[2] Following a World Diabetes Day (November 14. com/ articles/ best-patient-community-award/ ) [34] World Diabetes Day Champions (http:/ / www. 0#cat_89) [36] Diabetes Hands Foundation Board of Directors (http:/ / diabeteshandsfoundation. and YoungStars. but with additional unique content focused on diabetes.Creation Interactive (http:/ / creationinteractive. . The organization's main website is a free social-network connecting people affected by diabetes. which matches newly diagnosed diabetics with veterans of the disease. An April 2008 event featured musical performances by Mere. a Hoboken-based band recently included on the USA Olympic Team Soundtrack. org/ Diabetes_Hands_Foundation/ Our_Team.[6] which distributes medical supplies and sponsorships. Thomas permanently changed the domain to the present day social network format.com.org/organizations/26-2274537/ diabetes-hands-foundation. a nationwide act often seen touring with Pete Cornell. org/ en/ the-campaign/ wdd-champions) [35] SEOmoz's Web 2.

[1] The Digital Classicist was founded in 2005 as a collaborative project based at King's College London and the University of Kentucky.Diabetic Rockstar Inc 160 Rockstar Books In 2010. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Diabetes Mine: http:/ / www.com) Digital Classicist The Digital Classicist is a project and community for those interested in the application of Humanities Computing to the field of Classics and to ancient world studies more generally. com External links • Main page (http://www. rockstarbooks. com/ od/ familymatters/ a/ dia_rockstar. rd. including Richard Beacham (of the King's Visualisation Lab). University of London) and the late Ross Scaife (Stoa Consortium and University of Kentucky). about. net Fight It! Main Page: http:/ / www.diabeticrockstar. org http:/ / www. com Rockstar Books: http:/ / www. Alan Bowman (Professor of Ancient History at University of Oxford). htm Reader's Digest: http:/ / www. Diabetic Rockstar established Rockstar Books & Productions. com/ 2008/ 10/ you-might-even-be-a-diabetic-rockstar. . diabeticyoungstars. html Make A Difference: http:/ / www. fight-it. Boris Rankov (Professor of Ancient History at Royal Holloway. Silvio Panciera (of University of Rome La Sapienza).[2] Digital Classicist poster from DRH 2005 Activities of The Digital Classicist Membership Many notable Classicists and Digital Humanists are on the advisory board of the Digital Classicist. org/ About. Bernard Frischer (of the Virtual World Heritage Laboratory). html Mere: http:/ / www.com: http:/ / diabetes. Willard McCarty (winner of the Lyman Award and Professor of Humanities Computing at Department of Digital Humanities). diabetesmine. James O'Donnell (Provost of Georgetown University).[8] a publishing company releasing books and educational materials specifically aimed at people affected by diabetes. mere. and disseminating advice and experience to the Classics discipline at large. com/ make-it-matter-make-a-difference/ make-it-matter-the-power-of-three/ article115280. Michael Fulford (Professor of Archaeology and Pro-Vice-Chancellor at University of Reading). The project claims the twin aims of bringing together scholars and students with an interest in computing and the ancient world. makeadifference101. Gregory Crane (of the Perseus Project). wordpress. with editors and advisors from the Classics discipline at large.

word-processing and printing issues.) [2] See http:/ / www. drh. stoa. uk/ programme-revised-feb07. bham. digitalclassicist. Most list traffic consists of announcements and calls.[8] In 2008 the Digital Medievalist published a collaborative issue of Digital Classicist articles in memory of Ross Scaife. rsd. uk/ ) and especially http:/ / www. with occasional flurries of more involved discussion. org. (poster). methodsnetwork. [10] References [1] See Bodard & Garcés.Digital Classicist 161 Blog The Digital Classicist community have taken an active role in posting news to the long-standing blog of the Stoa Consortium [3]. and http:/ / www. uk/ lists/ digitalclassicist. delivered at Digital Resources for the Humanities conference. ac. September 2005. com/ isbn/ 9780754677734 . and panels at the Classical Association Annual Conference in Birmingham 2007[6] and Glasgow 2009. digitalclassicist. Discussion list The Digital Classicist discussion list is hosted by JISCmail in the UK. ashgate. and the Digital Resources in the Humanities and Arts conference in September 2008. uk/ activities/ act9. to more advanced Humanities Computing questions and project management advice. and a FAQ that solicits collaborative community advice on a range of topics from simple questions about. and various communities of scholars with digital interests.. uk/ drh2005-abstracts. The project Wiki contains lists of digital Classics projects. org/ wip and http:/ / wiki. org/ journal/ 4/ [10] See http:/ / www. 'The Digital Classicist'. pdf on the Classical Association conference (2007) [7] See DRHA (http:/ / www. ac. org. html. Among the events cited are a series of summer seminars which have run each year since 2006 at the Institute for Classical Studies in London. uk/ cgi-bin/ webadmin?A2=ind0506& L=digitalclassicist& P=361 for the initial announcement and discussion of the project's charter [3] http:/ / www. [9] More recently a collection of papers from the 2007 seminar series and conference panels have been published by Ashgate: Digital Research in the Study of Classical Antiquity (Bodard and Mahony (eds) 2010). ac. drh.[7] The Project was also among the sponsors of the Open Source Critical Editions workshop in 2006.g. digitalclassicist. org/ Current_events on Digital Classicist events. org/ [4] See archives at http:/ / www. ca2007. jiscmail. cam. pdf (Poster won first prize in the poster competition. digitalmedievalist. University of Lancaster. [9] See http:/ / www. ac. http:/ / www. jiscmail. html [5] See http:/ / wiki. (2005). The Wiki is hosted on the servers of the Centre for Computing in the Humanities at King's College London[5] Seminars and Publications The members of the Digital Classicist community also report quite heavily on any conference and seminar activity that they take to reflect well on the project as a whole. Greek fonts and Unicode. A particular focus seems to be the Open Source and Creative Commons movements. ac.[4] The Wiki The main website of the Digital Classicist project is little more than a gateway containing links to the project Wiki and a few static materials. the proceedings of this workshop are said to be in preparation for publication. org/ Main_Page [6] See http:/ / www. pdf for the DRHA 2008 programme [8] See http:/ / www. software tools that have been made available for classicists. e. which concerns itself with both Classical and Digital Humanities topics. uk/ drha08/ assets/ docs/ DRHAProgramme08.

ac.org/) Digitalclassicist discussion list (http://www. The site was created as a digital public square project for Palm Beach County. community resources. ratings.org [1]. University College London Digital Medievalist 4 (http://www. and was funded by a Civic Initiatives Leadership Grant from the John S. At its most basic.Digital Classicist 162 External links • • • • • • The Stoa Consortium (http://www. read and share news.ucl. created by a group of people with a common interest in a specific community.ac. community news and events. Knight Foundation. The DPS offers a platform for dialogue and encourages people to connect in a virtual setting to establish relationships that can effect social change. A thriving digital public square has a rich content stream that may include video footage of community events and an interactive community record of nonprofit news and resources.org/journal/4/) a special joint issue with Digital Classicist • Diotima: Women and Gender in the Ancient World (http://www.digitalmedievalist. History The term “digital public square” was originally coined by the Community Foundation for Palm Beach and Martin Counties during the development of yourPBC. creativity and opinions while developing solutions to a community's challenges.org/diotima/) Digital public square Digital public square (DPS) is a term that refers to a user-driven website that relies upon user-generated content (UGC).jiscmail. and a resource center with published research and articles.uk/dh/). and James L.org/) The Digital Classicist wiki (http://wiki. a digital public square represents an evolution in how people discover. which may include featured discussions of topics of community interest.ac. an events calendar with community events and volunteer opportunities.kcl. a digital public square provides a virtual platform for the exploration of issues and the sharing of ideas.digitalclassicist. news articles.stoa. Users/content providers share the common goal of informing and becoming more informed about a shared geographic community or a community of ideas. Florida. King's College London UCL Centre for Digital Humanities (http://www.uk/cch/).stoa. . Modeled after the traditional “public square” where townspeople would gather to exchange views. Structure A digital public square is characterized by user-generated content. and an extensive directory of social services. multimedia.uk/digitalclassicist) (@JISCmail) Centre for Computing in the Humanities (http://www. information and content. comments.

php http:/ / dps.0 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / yourPBC. org/ gableshomepage. gablesfoundation. Inc. Tallahassee. gov/ . org/ about-us http:/ / www. org http:/ / tothevillagesquare. dc. org http:/ / cfpbmc. FL digital public square project [3] Coral Gables.Digital public square 163 Examples yourPBC digital public square [2] [1] created by the Community Foundation for Palm Beach and Martin Counties. FL digital public square project [4] District of Columbia Digital Public Square [5] See also: Web 2.

California Ted Rheingold (Top Dog) 19 www. Dogster won the 2005 Webby category for best community site. Forums Forums are public message boards that users use for everything ranging from regular conversation to role play and in-depth discussions concerning dog health. During the events.[2] Special events Dogster holds various special events during the year. ranging from face to face events or the World's Coolest Dog and Cat Show which happens on-line. and grooming. a cat-oriented website with a similar format. Its sister site is Catster. This virtual currency can be given to the users after engaging in some of the website activities.Dogster 164 Dogster Dogster Inc Type Industry Founded Founder(s) Corporation Internet 2004 Ted Rheingold Steven J.dogster. Reading John Vars San Francisco. . users take part in a photo contest which consists of uploading a photo and photo for different photos in different categories. training. using PayPal or by purchasing a Plus subscription. Most users talk in the voice of their dog. nutrition.com [1] Headquarters Key people Employees Website Dogster is a dog-themed social networking and forums-based website. Users of the site create a pet page which is a customizable web page for which they can give treats or purchase virtual items using what are called zealies.

Webby Awards. which are clubs specially devoted to certain topics.Dogster 165 Groups Dogster users can form groups.Stars last forever and can be given for 5 zealies.dogster. All these are displayed on a dogs page. and cost 1 zealie. and are either 5 or 20 zealies.com/) . com/ webbys/ current. com/ [2] "2005 Webby Community Award" (http:/ / www. Rosettes expire after a month. References [1] http:/ / www. and special gifts. dogster. . Dogster has three types of gifts: stars . rosettes. These include hangout groups. External links • Dogster (http://www. role playing groups and groups for a particular dog breed.Special Gifts also last a month. php?season=9#webby_entry_community). Gifts Members of Dogster receive a gift in the form of a blue star when they sign up. webbyawards. Retrieved 2008-06-23.

a German company constituted under civil law. . Doler are accessed to vote an “Internet Chancellor” for a period of four months. Most of the members are college and university students. In these polls all Doler are able to discuss the issue and to evaluate articles by other member. friends list. 2000 Current status active dol2day is the name of a social networking platform for politically interested German speaking people. This page contains information about their name. Features dol2day provides several features for its members (“Doler”). Doler also have the option to upload a photo on their personal page. This “Internet Chancellor” organizes [3] chats with politicians and other celebrities (e.Dol2day 166 Dol2day dol2day Type Founder Headquarters Slogan Website Type of site Registration Available in Launched Private DEESITE GbR (German company constituted under civil law) Aachen. Users can start public-opinion polls about political and social topics. The site is a combination of Internet forum and multi-user dungeon (MUD). Germany Die Politik-Community (the politic-community) dol2day [1] Social network. political preferences and group as well as virtual party memberships within dol2day. interests. dol2day is the abbreviation for “democracy online today”. Franz Müntefering. Virtual community required German May 15. DEESITE GbR. age. dol2day is comparable to other social networking sites. Therefore dol2day claims to be one of the oldest social networks and the biggest for politics in Germany. pupils and younger professionals. Furthermore the website provides a private messaging service for its members and an internet radio[2] .g. But the ultimate decision makers are the owner of dol2day. Users are able to keep and maintain a personal page. Average age is between 20 and 30 years. Christian Wulff. Günter Verheugen) and starts referendums to develop the community. contact details. The website was launched in May 2000 by five students from Aachen. From time to time Doler are holding local real life-meetings. in particular from Germany.

php3?position=14000& ini_id=3985) . com/ index. dol2day. de_7580. dol2day. http:/ / www. de/ tmp/ tunein/ media_s7.Dol2day 167 References [1] http:/ / www.dol2day. asx [3] chat-guestbook. pop-stream. php3?position=15000 External links • (German) Official website (http://www.com) • (German) DORA community radio website (http://www. http:/ / www.com/index. pop-stream.dol2day. de [2] DORA internet radio (direct link).

Primarily covering the UK it lists nearly 185. dontstayin.com (DSI) Profile page of Tim Aylott URL Commercial? Type of site Registration http:/ / www. In November 2006 DSI was reportedly used to organise[18] what has been described as the biggest flash mob ever[19] in Paddington Station. DSI was featured in a documentary[20] made by Juniper TV[21] as part of Channel 4's "Trouble Online" series[22] that profiled new media enterprises that have been set up by young entrepreneurs.DontStayIn 168 DontStayIn DontStayIn. London. post comments and upload photos from anywhere in the world. com Yes Social network service Required to Participate Available language(s) English Owner Created by Launched Development Hell Ltd Tim Aylott. In 2005. DSI members are known for their loyalty to and promotion of the site. add events and venues and otherwise contribute.[1] The site was also ranked continuously from April 2006 to December 2008 in the top 3 websites in the UK by Hitwise for their "Entertainment . is a social networking site based around clubbing. UK.Q2/2006 [2]   Q3/2006 [3]   Q4/2006 [4]   Q1/2007 [5]    Q2/2007 [6]   Q3/2007 [7]   Q4/2007 [8]   Q1/2008 [9]   Q2/2008 [10]   Q3/2008 [11]   Q4/2008 [12]) The format of the site allows any user to add event listings.000 events and has over 430. DSI users (often shortened on the site to "DSIers"). Members are encouraged to upload picture galleries to the site for events they've attended. Many users have also commented favourably about the site and its impact on their lives when it is mentioned by reviewers (see comments here for an example) [13].000 websites in the world. (Hitwise awards .000 verified members.Nightlife" category. 'Spotters' are DSI members who review and photograph events and promote DSI. commonly abbreviated to DSI. John Brophy and Dave Brophy April 2003 DontStayIn. . Alexa ranks DSI as one of the top 7. have used DontStayIn to set up events[14] [15] and user-groups[16] [17] to promote the meeting up of DSIers in real life.

The number of events on DSI is over 210. 169 Awards/History 2003 Set up by founders under initial name of "YouGotSpotted. Over 120.000.remained number 1 until Q4/2008 Won the Hard Dance Awards [27] "Best Website" award Won the Hardcore Heaven Awards [29] "Best Website" award 2008 Won the Hard Dance Awards [27] "Best Website" award 2009 Taken over by Development Hell Ltd.000 registered members on DSI. • Verified members . Around 35.000 forum posts are written every month.Nearly 12 million photos have been uploaded to DSI so far.There are over 20 million discussion forum posts on DSI.DontStayIn On 14 April 2009. . • Forum Posts . Around 2. DSI Stats From the site[30] (as of 28 April 2009): • Photos .000 log in at least once per month.There are now over 490.000 photos are uploaded every month and there are around 13 million photo viewings every month. Around 2500 new events are added every month.Nightlife" in the UK Q2/2006 Hitwise Hard Dance Awards [27] "Best Website" award Won the Musik 4 You [28] Awards "Best Website" award [26] Won the 2007 Became number 1 in the "Hitwise" rankings for the category "Entertainment . 2006 Entered the "Hitwise" top 3 for the category "Entertainment .Nightlife" in the UK Q2/2007 Hitwise [26] . • Events .org snapshot of site [24] 2005 Won the House Music Awards prize for "Best Web Resource"[25] .com" Archive. On average around 150. DontStayIn Ltd was acquired for an undisclosed sum by Development Hell Ltd.500 new members are signing up every month.com" 2004 Renamed "DontStayIn. the publishers of The Word and Mixmag[23] .

co. com& iDate=200604& iCatnum=233 [5] http:/ / www. html?sDomain=www. com/ uk/ barnstaple/ little-roadway-farm-campsite/ 2006/ jun/ 16/ event-29398) [15] DSI Does. hitwise. uk/ awards/ popup. com/ [29] http:/ / www. co. html?sDomain=dontstayin. co. dontstayin. dontstayin. com& iDate=200602& iCatnum=233 [27] http:/ / www.com (http:/ / www. group . dontstayin. uk/ awards/ popup.DontStayIn (http:/ / www.html) How to make 80 million friends and influence people (http://observer. html [14] Camp DSI 2006 . utalkmarketing.00. co. html?sDomain=www. html?sDomain=www. co. html?in_article_id=419829& in_page_id=1770) [20] "Download our channel 4 programme!" . channel4. co. aspx?ArticleID=706& Title=Digital_marketing_rallies_mob) [19] The biggest flash mob ever | the Daily Mail (http:/ / www. com/ 2006/ 07/ alternatives_to.html) . hitwise. html?sDomain=www. hitwise. hitwise. com/ chat/ f-3/ k-270093) [21] Juniper Tv (http:/ / www. com& iDate=200603& iCatnum=233 [4] http:/ / www.DontStayIn (http:/ / www. uk/ awards/ popup. junipertv. html?sDomain=www. dontstayin. com) [2] http:/ / www.com/2006/07/alternatives_to.. com& iDate=200602& iCatnum=233 [3] http:/ / www. hitwise.com/2006/01/sexa_graden_soc. dontstayin.1799881. co.DontStayIn (http:/ / www. dontstayin. com/ [25] House Music Awards 2005 . slamminvinyl. uk/ awards/ popup. alexa. uk/ zcashonclub.anthems. dontstayin. uk/ awards/ popup.com/2006/09/uk_clubbers_lov.DontStayIn (http:/ / www. uk/ awards/ popup. co. uk/ awards/ popup. dontstayin. archive. hitwise. dontstayin. dailymail.UKMusic. ukmusic. dontstayin. html) [26] http:/ / www.trendcatching. hitwise. harddanceawards. html?sDomain=www. musik4you. com& iDate=200704& iCatnum=233 [9] http:/ / www.. uk/ awards/ popup. html?sDomain=www..trendcatching.minorityrapport.DontStayIn 170 References [1] dontstayin. dontstayin.DontStayIn (http:/ / www. html) [22] Money and Business from Channel4.DSI's 3rd Birthday! .uk/review/story/ 0. co. uk/ awards/ popup.. html?sDomain=www. com/ learning/ microsites/ M/ moneyandbusiness/ trouble. com/ data/ details/ traffic_details?url=http:/ / dontstayin.com .com (http:/ / www. com/ features/ articles/ house-music-awards-2005. com/ [28] http:/ / www. com/ parties/ dontstayin-events) [18] UTalkMarketing . html) [23] Mixmag publisher Development Hell buys DontStayIn. dontstayin. co.com . html?sDomain=www. uk/ pages/ live/ articles/ news/ news. co.Upfront and Ruthlessly Independent (http:/ / www. uk/ awards/ popup. com& iDate=200802& iCatnum=233 [11] http:/ / www.com/ House-Music-Awards-2005-Winners_s1026.Digital marketing rallies mob (http:/ / www. guardian.guardian. com& iDate=200803& iCatnum=233 [12] http:/ / www. html?sDomain=www. com/ hh_poll/ [30] stats .DontStayIn (http:/ / www. dontstayin.html) UK clubbers love Dontstayin not myspace! (http://www. com& iDate=200702& iCatnum=233 [7] http:/ / www.html) • House Music Awards 2005 Best Web Resource Winner (http://www.co. com/ pages/ stats) External links • • • • DontStayIn Website (http://www. co. Alton Towers Round 2 . hitwise. co. dontstayin. co. com& iDate=200701& iCatnum=233 [6] http:/ / www. trendcatching. com& iDate=200703& iCatnum=233 [8] http:/ / www.Traffic Details from Alexa (http:/ / www. hitwise. com/ uk/ stafford/ alton-towers/ 2007/ apr/ 27/ event-81693) [16] DSI Does.html) • Sexa Graden: Social Media Abroad (http://www. com& iDate=200804& iCatnum=233 [13] http:/ / www. dontstayin. dontstayin.dontstayin. com/ Pages/ Article. uk/ awards/ popup. dontstayin. uk/ awards/ popup. com& iDate=200801& iCatnum=233 [10] http:/ / www. dontstayin.com/) Alternatives to myspace: Dontstayin (http://www. hitwise. org/ web/ 20040202121116/ http:/ / www. com/ parties/ dsi-does) [17] DontStayIn events group . hitwise. uk/ media/ 2009/ apr/ 15/ mixmag-dontstayin-development-hell) [24] http:/ / web. hitwise. co. html?sDomain=www.

where Simutronics already had other games including GemStone III and Orb Wars. the team called its as yet unnamed game many things. the staff of Simutronics and DragonRealms engaged in a major overhaul of the system to make it work with the newer game engine (IFE2). DragonRealms was offered on GEnie and later AOL. but in different eras. led by Eric Slick.[3] During the first half of 2004. played using a custom client based on Windows telnet architecture. Elonka Dunin. it was developed from 1992-1995 and released in February 1996.[1] One of the oldest and most popular examples of the MUD genre. though it has not always been clear which game world pre-dated the other. are said to take place in the same game universe of Elanthia. Jim Penrose. with assistance from Tina Hill. and John examples of skills. and opened on the GEnie service. in response to a production request for a new game to open at the same time as the then-pending Ziff-Davis online service. Stephanie Shaver.DragonRealms 171 DragonRealms DragonRealms Developer(s) Platform(s) Simutronics Microsoft Windows. unlike GemStone IV. The game was implemented by a team of on-site employees and A screenshot from DragonRealms showing off-site contractors. Nancy Gross. though this was no relation to the earlier working title of the DragonRealms game. Both games are considered flagship products of Simutronics. David and descriptions Dean. and in the mid-1990s were the top two games on America Online. The two games.[3] They were the top two products on GEnie. It was originally intended for an online service planned by the Ziff-Davis company. While in development. Game The design basis for the game was created by Simutronics founder David Whatley. the game was renamed as DragonRealms. In later years. and Melissa (Callaway) Meyer. When Ziff-Davis did not launch the service. DragonRealms and GemStone. the . When AOL and other services went to an hour rate instead of flat fees.) Release date(s) February 1996 Genre(s) Mode(s) MMORPG. Compuserve. communication. and Prodigy. together bringing in over one million hours per month of usage." When the Ziff-Davis contract was cancelled. who later became producer of GemStone III. and have been some of the longest-running and most popular online text games in existence. equipment Donham. DragonRealms was offered on the web on its own site[2] and through the Microsoft Gaming Zone. Mac OS X (Game is a text game. including "GemStone IV" and "Project Bob. This project was dubbed "DR2" but. GemStone III was extensively updated and took the more appropriate name for itself of GemStone IV. MUD Multiplayer DragonRealms is a medieval fantasy game set in the world of Elanthia.

"A virtual world can have multiple currencies. "The Game Archaeologist plays with MUDs: The games" (http:/ / massively. the "Platinum" server (intended for mandatory roleplay acting) and "The Fallen" (intended for unrestricted player killing. 2000. 172 Gameplay Character creation and gameplay in DragonRealms allows players to assume the role of a variety of races and professions and participate in combat. pp. Designing Virtual Worlds. trading (in multiple currencies[4] ) and other activities in an array of different settings. Massively. Simutronics' game DragonRealms successfully runs three "local" currencies. DragonRealms 2 removed some programming limitations which made it difficult to come up with some kinds of new content and new mechanics. non-standard casting (magic) classes and a use-based training system and a comparatively active base of players distinguish DragonRealms from many other text games. net) [3] (http:/ / www. However. including the ability of players to increase character level (referred to as "circles" in DragonRealms) through experience gained in-game. Subscribers can choose to play on one of three different game servers. play.. .net/) . Retrieved 2011-04-25. play. joystiq. net/ corporate/ release. ISBN 0-201-87484-9 External links • Official web site (http://www. com/ 2011/ 04/ 19/ the-game-archaeologist-plays-with-muds-the-games/ ). [2] dragonrealms. Naval travel and combat.net (http:/ / dragonrealms.." • Amy Jo Kim. Gameplay on DragonRealms also shares elements common to many role-playing games. 311. including the "Prime" server (intended for normal gameplay). References [1] Olivetti. DragonRealms 2 did not in itself come with major new gameplay systems or content visible to the player. Community Building on the Web. asp?release=6) [4] Bartle. idle time and use of scripted commands).dragonrealms. Richard (2003). it was a behind the scenes transition enabling the Gamemasters to create such systems in the future. Justin (2011-04-19). ISBN 0-1310-1816-7.play. and progress becomes more difficult as the character develops.DragonRealms actual name of the game was not changed. New Riders. and exchange rates between them . Players train their characters' skills in specific categories in order to gain strength and abilities. Peachpit Press.

simultaneously with the shoot and post production of the scripted content. These layers of participation form the participation pyramid.0 extends the content to all media and invites the audience not only to watch the drama. the quantity participation. offering various layers of involvement. The top levels. commissioned by national broadcasters of Belgium (VRT) and Sweden (SVT). The highest levels of participation. is designed to generate content by the participant in various forms. the quantity participation.Drama 2. The goal of this format is to synchronize scripted content with user-generated content. A community is built months before the launch of the TV drama. The lower levels are aimed at a broad audience and casual fans. Participation pyramid .0 is a multi-platform television format.0 Drama 2. This user generated content is quoted in the TV drama through so called donut holes and steered by matches. The TV drama invites the audience to participate online and in reality. the quality participation. but actively participate online and in reality. Drama 2. It was first defined by Peter De Maegd and Eric Taelman throughout the development of the multi-platform series The Artists. is designed to distribute the content generated by the quality participation. are aimed at the hard-core fans.0 173 Drama 2. The lower levels of participation.

Dreamwidth's terminology reflects this split: for instance the "friends page" has been renamed as "reading page". crosspost to multiple sites. Open operations. Open expression. Areas in which Dreamwidth differs significantly from Livejournal include the following: Accounts Free accounts may only be created with an invite code. born out of a desire for a new community based on open access. where they may post entries. LLC URL Slogan Commercial? Type of site www. transparency. and have additional features.org [1] Open Source. Interoperability Dreamwidth provides greater interoperability with other Livejournal-based sites. "Paid" and "Premium Paid".Dreamwidth 174 Dreamwidth Dreamwidth © Dreamwidth Studios. and "custom friends groups" has been split into "access filters" and "reading filters". as separate actions. Yes Blog/Social Network Available language(s) English Owner Denise Paolucci and Mark Smith Dreamwidth is an online journal service based on the LiveJournal code.[3] Their diversity statement [4] has been widely praised for its inclusivity. or grant access for other users to read locked entries. each of which has a webpage of its own. User relationships In response to criticisms of LiveJournal's friending system. Users may subscribe to other users' journals. Paid accounts exist on two levels. Dreamwidth also provides shared or group journals called "communities".[5] [6] Dreamwidth was announced on 11 June 2008[7] and went into open beta on 30 April 2009. Dreamwidth has split user relationships into two parts: subscriptions and access control. It is a code fork of the original service. set up by ex-LiveJournal staff[2] Denise Paolucci and Mark Smith. .[9] At the time of the open beta launch. features are similar to those of LiveJournal: users have journals. including the ability to import a journal from another site.[8] Features For the most part. a limited number of Seed Accounts were also available. and have limited features.dreamwidth. and on which other users may comment. freedom and respect. and greater functionality for users who log in via OpenID.

The majority of the Dreamwidth code is available under the GPL for other sites to use. 2010.[15] A 2009 OSCON presentation saw Dreamwidth identified as highly unusual among open source projects. Founders of the site rejected the advertising model as intrusive. paid account users can search their journal This was introduced on 24 July 2009. About 75% of its developers are female. 2010. removing unwanted features (such as advertising) and adding new ones as described above.[22] They were allotted seven students.[21] about their techniques.[11] [10] 175 . Missing features The following features.conf. for the number of women on its development team. available on LiveJournal.5% in the field as a whole.0 Expo[20] and OSCON.[16] [17] compared with around 1. It is written primarily in Perl.[19] and have been invited to speak at Web 2.[27] Influence Following the positive reactions to Dreamwidth's diversity statement and model of inclusiveness.[24] On September 7.[14] Unlike many other social networking sites using the LiveJournal codebase. where users can purchase add-on or premium features. Dreamwidth was accepted as a GSoC mentoring organization for the summer of 2010.fm music detection Singles Commenting using Facebook and Twitter accounts Development Dreamwidth is based upon the free and open source[13] server software that was designed to run LiveJournal. are not available on Dreamwidth[12] : • • • • • • • • • • picture hosting voice posting S1 style system to-do lists TxtLJ pingbacks nudge Last. . Mark Smith announced that he had stepped back from Dreamwidth's front line[25] and moved to work for StumbleUpon.Dreamwidth Search In addition to the search facilities brought over from LiveJournal.[26] He is still an owner of Dreamwidth along with Denise.[18] Paolucci and Smith also spoke at linux. Instead. who worked on a variety of projects. they implemented a payment system.au 2010 about Dreamwidth's development model. however. including Python's diversity list [28] and Dreamfish [29]. also known as Afuna or fu was introduced as the site's first paid employee on April 7.[23] Staff Athena. Dreamwidth is a code fork. various other projects have followed suit. such as InsaneJournal and DeadJournal.

" Social Networks: They're Popular. dreamwidth. NPR – Morning Edition. July 23. html) [23] GSoC Results (http:/ / dw-dev. dreamwidth. php?storyId=105493600)". com/ 146212. [16] Krill.Dreamwidth 176 External links • Dreamwidth. nz/ programme/ schedule/ view_talk/ 50329?day=wednesday) [20] (http:/ / www. org. web2expo. dreamwidth. April 5. Retrieved December 6. com/ 226141. html) [12] If you're coming from LiveJournal to Dreamwidth: What's Missing? (http:/ / www. Paul. livejournal. Google Summer of Code students! (http:/ / dw-dev. lca2010. org/ ) [19] LCA10: Build Your Own Contributors.1)". org/ support/ faqbrowse?faqid=4) [10] http:/ / www. org/ moin/ DiversityInPython [29] http:/ / www. org/ [2] Dreamwidth: Our People (http:/ / www. dreamwidth. org/ legal/ diversity [5] sofiaviolet: In which I extend a metaphor so far it squeaks. [17] Kirrily Robert: Standing out in the crowd (http:/ / infotrope. org/ site/ staff) [3] Dreamwidth Guiding Principles (http:/ / www. Laura Sydell. org/ 42626. (http:/ / synecdochic. Coming Summer 2008. html) [25] The State of Mark: Dreamwidth (http:/ / mark. But Will They Pay? (http:/ / www. org/ 5035. npr. org/ support/ faqbrowse?faqid=121 [31] http:/ / wiki. html) [24] Update. livejournal. One Part At A Time (http:/ / www. dwscoalition. org/ notes/ Main_Page . dreamwidth. com/ oscon2010/ public/ schedule/ detail/ 13542) [22] Welcome. org/ 325660. dreamwidth. Retrieved December 6. (http:/ / sofiaviolet. June 23. livejournal. org/ 21501. dreamwidth. 2009. org/ ) [15] Renee Montagne. 2010 (http:/ / dw-news. dreamwidth. InfoWorld. org/ 56125. dreamwidth. html) [27] Dreamwidth: Our People (http:/ / www. dreamwidth. 2009. com/ pg/ pages/ url/ humanifesto [30] http:/ / www. net/ blog/ 2009/ 07/ 25/ standing-out-in-the-crowd-my-oscon-keynote/ ) [18] FLOSSpols (http:/ / flosspols.org [1] • A Guide to Dreamwidth for LiveJournal users [30] • Dreamwidth Notes: dwscoalition wiki [31] References [1] http:/ / www. dwscoalition. org/ 19375. dreamwidth. " Microsoft maintains openness push (http:/ / www. 2009. dreamwidth. dreamwidth. et al. dreamwidth. oscon. 2009. dreamwidth. html) [26] The State of Mark: StumbleUpon (http:/ / xb95. com/ code/ ) [14] Dreamwidth repositories (http:/ / hg. org/ legal/ principles) [4] http:/ / www. html?format=light) [6] zevinboots: Dreamwidth. python. org/ support/ faqbrowse?faqid=131) [13] LiveJournal Code (http:/ / www. com/ d/ open-source/ microsoft-maintains-openness-push-539?page=0. org/ templates/ transcript/ transcript. dreamwidth. org/ tools/ search [11] dw_news: mid-week surprise feature rollout (http:/ / dw-news. org/ site/ staff) [28] http:/ / wiki. html?format=light) [8] dw_news: Welcome to Dreamwidth Studios! (http:/ / dw-news. dreamwidth. com/ webexsf2010/ public/ schedule/ detail/ 14295) [21] (http:/ / www.org (please feel free to repost) (http:/ / zevinboots. org/ 9221. html?format=light) [7] synecdochic: Announcing Dreamwidth Studios. dreamfish. html) [9] FAQ: What are paid accounts? (http:/ / www. infoworld. org/ 711972.

this allows the transmission of practically unlimited amounts of data. transformation initiatives actually contribute to better eSociety. While the term information revolution describes current economic. whether from fixed stations or from mobile appliances. I mean. data or any other form of signal which can now be easily compressed and elaborated – and. few years ago. In a narrower sense. e-democracy. Digital transformation affects both individual businesses and whole segments of the society. or medicine. then.[2] The e-society may include e-business. other to government (voting/governance). social and technological trends. the digitalization of any form of multimedia information .be it voice. eSociety is based on Information. data or any other form of signal which can now be easily compressed and elaborated—and second the capability offered by the web of reaching in real-time any location in the world from any other location on the globe. peer to other (business to consumer. an improving mix of wideband networking. since they are capable of radically changing the dynamics and the interaction between individuals and configuring new scenarios for economic and entrepreneurial activities. Broadly speaking. e-Democracy and e-Business to e-Learning and e-Health. e-society will be ideal for the people to achieve better ways of communication as a society can be made up of trickles of eCommunities to derive and new skills which help to improve the distribution of knowledge across the sectors. implies revolutionary changes in the way people interact and companies interact. And this. anywhere in the world. Knowledge. With this definition in mind. e-ministries. In my opinion. "digital transformation" may refer to the concept of "going paperless". in real time. So. and with levels of personalization and customization being reached which were unthinkable of. e-health services. in real-time. etc.[5] Social Integration There are two words that clearly explain the topic of social integration in the eSociety that is Digital transformation and information revolution. Today. ultimately. the capability offered by the Internet of reaching any location in the world from any other location on the globe. video. It can be further described as one that uses digital media in most relationships: peer to peer. e-parliament.[4] The e-Society is therefore the result of our new ability to compress almost infinitely both time and space. video. Availability.[3] In our views. e-payments. The main feature of the information revolution is the growing economic. mobile communications and multimedia capability. second. Digital transformation refers to the changes associated with the application of digital technology in all aspects of human society. this revolution has been triggered by two distinct but correlated phenomena: first.E-society 177 E-society E-society is a society that consists of one or more e-Communities involved in areas from e-Government. the digitalization of any form of multimedia information—be it voice. mass communications. that use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in order to achieve a common interest and goals. therefore.). Access and Use. with cycle times being reduced to a fraction of what they used to be. where means everything goes electronic. even in our wildest dreams. the whole exercise expands into e-Society realms. e-procurement. such as government. the engine behind our continuous progress towards the e-Society can be defined as the continuously increasing availability of those digital data and our continuously improving ability to have an easy access to them. The e-Society – or. if you prefer. government to other (government online).[1] It is a society that can be created by the extensive use of Information and Communication Technologies throughout the world. the knowledge and information society – offers elements of innovation that it would not be exaggerated to call ‘revolutionary’. This indicates the future of the eSociety. This revolution has been triggered by two phenomena: first. These means that digital usages inherently enable new types of innovation and creativity in an electronic Society. As communication is established between eCommunities. But let’s proceed step by step. e-education. e-banking. art. it is a revolution in the way people interact with each other and in the way we conduct business. social and . e-billing etc. as we have said. with several brokerage levels being eliminated from the process.

. • Age. requiring mass amount of information to be carried across different parts of the world in very usual situation. the Internet has been promoted as a gateway to information and communication across the globe. social and otherwise. Only a small percentage of people with an elementary school education or less use the Internet.. Those over 50 and in employment are three times more likely to have access than individuals not in employment. Data comes through research and collection. levels of connectivity are lower in rural areas in relations to the cities. thus creating a global village. The better educated are statistically more likely to have and use connected PCs. being digitally connected becomes ever more critical to economic.E-society technological role of information. Those with higher income more likely to have Internet access than those at the lowest income level. Information is then further considered as an economic activity. collection. The underlying causes of the divide are in all probability more complex. There are wide disparities amongst income groups. Those without the appropriate tools (in terms of PCs and Internet connectivity) and applicable skills will become increasingly disadvantaged.[6] We can distinguish between information. Knowledge is built upon information. Research in the USA has identified the following issues: • Income differences. require the average person to spend considerable amounts of money to send communication materials to various places.[7] Consequences of the Digital Divide The primary concern is exclusion. As ICT becomes ever more pervasive those elements of society without access will be further disenfranchised in terms of: • Fewer employment opportunities • Restricted access to information and support • Increasingly basic facilities such as email. People over the age of 50 have been less likely to use PCs and the Internet. Many forms of important documentations such as mail. Reasons behind the Digital Divide At the most basic level the digital divide arises where individuals or groups of individuals have no or inadequate access to PCs connected to the Internet. knowledge. It follows that addressing this problem by providing access should be a constructive measure in terms of reducing the divide. processing. parcels. and social advancement. but the consumers as well resulting in the social inter-reaction for people to meet in the majority on a safer level and to keep in contact with family and friends. consumer services. Originally used nearly over 15 years ago for province of science. Internet. In particular those with college degrees or higher are ten times more likely to have access. etc. therefore expanding past limitations as to how we socialise. military information etc. engineering. exchange. the idea of a simpler and more productive means to not only reach the distributors. . A less percentage of these groups would be connected to the computer at any time. • Location. • Education. educational. is it a Tool of Social Integration? The Internet was developed due to earlier communication needs. Each year. and wisdom. distribution. Through the Internet we meet new people. The Internet can be defined as no longer a luxury item but rather a resource used by many to achieve different task. financial services. The creation of the Internet and its resources has now developed as the most significant form of communication in today's society. businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard both to their opportunities to access information and communications technologies (ICTs) and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities. The better off are far more likely to have PCs and Internet connections than others. circulation. make new friends. transmission. and control. 178 Digital Divide The digital divide refers to the gap between individuals. Thus. households. and business. data. Information is organized data. since firms and institutions are involved in its production. Wisdom is knowing what to do with the knowledge—knowing how to synthesize the knowledge and make it useful to humankind. Rural areas in particular lag behind cities in terms of broadband access. Generally. These are the bedrock of the Internet.

This difference holds in the aggregate. It provides individuals.E-society • Single parent families. directly or indirectly. as well as across age groups. E-Society represents a revolutionary change in the way people interact with each others beyond countries boundaries. 179 Achievement of the eSociety Time and space compression The e-Society is therefore the result of our new ability to compress almost infinitely both time and space. • Disabilities. which of course is what the letter ‘e’ stands for. Mechanisms used to harvest social information represent a privacy threat for users in many situations and such concerns fall beyond security administrators’ duties and target end-users in their daily tasks. large gaps remain when measured against the National average for Internet penetration. Among those with a disability. the development of the e-Society. computers. nations and continents have been reduced astonishingly. These technological changes have profoundly altered personal and entrepreneurial habits and dynamics. national barriers to global movement of capital and products have also fallen and the most innovative companies already understand that effectiveness and efficiency derive from the extensive and creative use of the new opportunities unleashed by the evolution of communication and information technologies. reduced to a fraction of a second by a simple ‘click’. several privacy and confidentiality concerns arise. and telecommunication on societies have emerged to cover new form of social cyberspace as reference to digital society or e-Society. all of us.[8] Enhanced interaction First. Today. Together with certain monopolistic barriers. on the other. The potential for communication between individuals has grown unrestrainedly. leading to the elimination – thanks to a beneficial process made possible by the new technologies – of intermediate stages and time-cycles. I would like to analyze with you two other trends that. the society of information technology or electronics. and strategies. My first comment on this trend is that globalization and the e-Society are closely interdependent. and completely redefining the interaction between companies and their people. I am referring to the phenomena of globalization on the one hand and. Differences in income and education do not fully account for this facet of the digital divide. Further. Recently information technologies have invaded almost every aspect of our modern life. are exercising – and will in the future increasingly exercise – a powerful influence that will transform the business world and impact. In fact. anywhere in the world. with this emerging social interaction and the wide range of shared data. Estimates of what Internet access rates for this group would be had they had income and education levels in line with the Nation as a whole show that these two factors account for approximately 50% of the differences.0. this allows the transmission of practically unlimited amounts of data. in my opinion. visions. the ability to easily share and publish corporate data. the opinion in respect of female-headed single families in cities is significantly lower. • Race and ethnic groups. in real time. In general the disabled are half as likely to use PCs and have Internet access. people who have impaired vision and problems with manual dexterity have even lower rates of Internet access and are less likely to use a computer regularly than people with hearing and mobility problems. the e-Society is the result of an emerging era of digitalizing different forms of multimedia information making time and space compression a constant evolving task. Two parent families are more than twice more likely to have Internet access than single families. Freedom of expression . Although a quarter of a percentile of the able bodied have never used a PC the proportion for the disabled rises to over half of a percentile. The distances that separated cities. The effects of the World Wide Web and more recently Web 2. The two phenomena reciprocally amplify each other and the appearance of one accelerates the fulfillment of the other in an extremely dynamic growth spiral. such as end-users and organizations. however. Large gaps exist regarding Internet penetration rates among households of different races and ethnic origins. Nonetheless. Further.

who would not meet face to face. It might provide access to information that people need.[12] One of the most pervasive types of virtual community includes social networking services. whatever they are. True information society cannot be conceived without guaranteeing freedom of expression and in particular freedom of the press. that is. To navigate it successfully calls for more than economic capital and practical training. cultural and social capital. video text or avatars. It also requires discrimination about sources. E-business and e-learning were of the first areas of e-Society to emerge. 180 E-Society impacts/influences E-Society is expected to offset social exclusion and empower individuals who might otherwise be unable to manage their own lives. which consist of various online communities. E-learning on the other hand encompasses technologies that allow teachers and students to interact either synchronously or asynchronously. in the following ways: It might facilitate exchange over the web between people in similar situations. informational or transactional offered to citizens and businesses and improves the exchange of information between governmental bodies. Recent years have seen the emergence of various electronic services in an attempt to facilitate everyday life and improve the way common tasks are being carried out. Successful online communities motivate online . the expression of ideas. ever expanding and uneven in quality. potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals. by providing the means necessary to citizens to participate in decision making and monitor governmental processes. is well protected and could seek other opinion. Significant socio-technical change may have resulted from the proliferation of such Internet-based social networks. media and distribution of materials across the internet. An online community can take the form of an information system where anyone can post content. E-democracy is tightly coupled with e-voting. Some major milestones achieved are freedom on public order questions is exceptionally absolute. such as a Bulletin board system or one where only a restricted number of people can initiate posts. such as Weblogs. the web is vast. they can express their opinion or view without any restriction or fear of intimidation. but could not get by other means. aiming to digitise services. E-government is another application of ICT for the benefit of e-Society.[10] Components of E-Society E-Society is a broad term used to describe a research area covering aspects of digital technologies for large user communities. self-confidence and a balance of trust in and wariness about virtual encounters: that is. On the other hand. often called virtual shops offer customers the possibility to buy products through Internet. e-health describes the use of digital technologies in the health care sector. Many means are used in social software separately or in combination. Freedom of expression cannot be limited by reason of the damage which may be caused to society. as it would act against freedom of expression. Lastly. The spread of fear and prohibition is continuously disallowed.[13] Online communities have also become a supplemental form of communication between people who know each other primarily in real life.[11] Virtual/Internet community Virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific media.E-society One thing that the internet has given its uses is Freedom of expression. Use of the web promotes interactive learning and so might be more effective than other forms of learning. and aims to ameliorate and enhance democratic procedures. the right to criticize the government is broader. including text-based chat rooms and forums that use voice.[9] Access becomes ever cheaper and may soon be practical over widespread digital TV. Online shops. E-business refers to the use of information and communication technologies to facilitate transactions between businesses and customers or between businesses. Services provided range from telemedicine and collaborative systems for patient diagnosis to online systems for medical records. e-participation and e-inclusion.

which eliminates vendors and connects buyers directly to suppliers. making money through membership fees.[18] E-Threats and E-Risks The issue of electronic policing came up in one of our discussion forum and we discussed it at learnt. for safety reasons. Users of such communities also have access to thousands of variuos online groups where they can form specialized relationships and access information in such categories as: politics. and recreational pleasures. usage fees. and it is simple and cheap to use. content presentation and effort required for development and maintenance. and advertising commission. others seeks to explore its different weaknesses. Everything comes from the writer with no filter in between. Users of such communities also have a feeling of membership and belonging. Users should be wary of where information is coming from online and be careful to double check facts with professionals. as people are deriving benefits from the eSociety that the internet offers. We have various types of threat and risk of using the internet. Consumers generally feel very comfortable making transactions online as long as the seller has a good reputation throughout the community. it is not being explored. Unfortunately. As a result. information posted may not be reviewed for correctness. Virtual communities also provide the advantage of disintermediation in commercial transactions.[14] 181 Advantages of Internet communities Internet communities offer the benefit of instant information exchange that is not possible in a real-life community.[16] Disadvantages of Internet communities In the internet community. paying bills.[15] Economically. The development of VR and consequently the e-Society is based on improvement and balancing of participants interaction methods. hardware necessary for such interaction. such as: shopping. But the future of eSociety contains a possibility of eSociety. virtual communities can be commercially successful. subscriptions. Identities can be kept anonymous online so it is common for people to use the virtual community to live out a fantasy as another type of person. It is then left with the reader to distinguish between the quality of the materials downloaded. but these doesn’t match up to all the possibilities of the internet. and searching for specific information.E-society participation. users must be careful what information they disclose about themselves to ensure they are not easily identifiable. social activities. technical assistance. Information online is different from information discussed in a real-life community because is less secure online. one of the road-blocks to smooth using of the internet is various kinds of security issues . it also means that it is difficult to choose reliable sources because there is no editor that reviews each post and makes sure it is up to a certain degree of quality. Online communities provide an ideal medium for these types of relationships because information can there is faster response times to all information posted.[17] Virtual Reality Development of e-Society is relying and depending on development of VR technologies that insure interaction between participants of e-Society in more acceptable and tangible way. unfortunately. It encourages people to engage in many online activities from their home. This eliminates pricey mark-ups and allows for a more direct line of contact between the consumer and the manufacturer. they users can give and receive support.

wikipedia. Vassilakis. Springer London.. Community Building on the Web : Secret Strategies for Successful Online Communities Peachpit Press. org/ en/ docs/ gdscsir20041c7_en. 2000) [13] http:/ / en. C. We also find some culture obstacle involved in development of E-society in general. G. 2010. J. org/ wiki/ Online_community [14] http:/ / en. Issn: 1359-4338 [12] Amy Jo Kim (2000). Future Horizons European Electronics 2000. C.. G. Issn: 1359-4338 . org/ wiki/ Virtual_community [15] http:/ / en. pdf [10] Pistorio Pasquale et al (2002). Applied Sci. wikipedia. Issn: 1359-4338 [2] Gao Shang et al Development of E-society in China. and G. Future Horizons European Electronics 2000. org/ wiki/ Virtual_community [16] http:/ / en. org/ wiki/ Online_community [18] Magoulas. G. E-society also affects the ICT development. the biggest challenges in building a participative e-Society will be political. The construction of E-society will need to include the task of changing citizen’s culture opinions and each government should recognize the importance of the issue. “Virtual reality in the e-Society”. G. Stockholm.. Sweden. unctad.. “Virtual reality in the e-Society”. S. Springer London. Towards the e-Society. IAMOT 2006 [3] Jayashree. They don’t want to change their mind to accommodate with the new issues of current society development. (2007). 1 edition (April 6. without the emergence and development of ICT. C. however. Some older people don’t want to accept the conceptual of E-society. the need to make conscious effort towards making some strategies to alleviate the affect of culture problems. Springer London.. (2007). in the years to come. Tenth Annual International Electronics Forum [9] http:/ / www. Towards the e-Society. On the other hand. not technological. On one hand. org/ wiki/ Virtual_community [17] http:/ / en. G. Stockholm University/Royal Institute of Technology (SU/KTH).. Creating Shareholder and Stakeholder Value: the new Corporate Management Model to safeguard the Environment and the Community in which the Company operates [11] Magoulas.. Vassilakis. Vassilakis. Government to E-government to E-society. Lepouras. Tenth Annual International Electronics Forum [5] Pistorio Pasquale et al (2002).E-society 182 Future of E-Society There are still many aspects of the eSociety that should be improved. (2007). “Virtual reality in the e-Society”. unctad. G. 10: 2205-2210 [4] Pistorio Pasquale (2000). Creating Shareholder and Stakeholder Value: the new Corporate Management Model to safeguard the Environment and the Community in which the Company operates [6] Pistorio Pasquale et al (2002). In our opinion the enhancement of information culture study is an approach to manage it and with the rapid development of ICT over the last decade we believe that effective policies would come to place to manage the culture obstacles.. org/ en/ docs/ gdscsir20041c7_en. Lepouras. the society could not get into E-society. wikipedia. Creating Shareholder and Stakeholder Value: the new Corporate Management Model to safeguard the Environment and the Community in which the Company operates [7] http:/ / www.. pdf [8] Pistorio Pasquale (2000).. Lepouras. Therefore. References [1] Magoulas. wikipedia. wikipedia. Marthandan.

" "What ever it is. eBay is one of the notable success stories of the dot-com bubble. Type Traded as Public [1] NASDAQ: EBAY NASDAQ-100 Component S&P 500 Component September 3. Founded in 1995. sell it.003 billion (2010) US$ 15. (NASDAQ: EBAY [1]) is an American internet consumer-to-consumer corporation that manages eBay. California." "Buy it. Shopping mall US$ 9.700 (2010) [2] "Connecting buyers and sellers globally.com No [3] 24 (June 2011) Online auction [4] Required to buy and sell Multilingual eBay Inc.com. you can get it on eBay. an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a broad variety of goods and services worldwide.[5] [6] eBay expanded from its . it is now a multi-billion dollar business with operations localized in over thirty countries.eBay 183 eBay eBay Inc. Auctions Electronic commerce. Worldwide Pierre Omidyar (Chairman) John Donahoe (CEO) Internet. U. Online auction hosting. Kijiji.302 billion (2010) 17. PayPal.801 billion (2010) [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] Founded Founder Headquarters Area served Key people Industry Products Revenue Operating income Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Slogan US$ 22. Gumtree.S.053 billion (2010) US$ 1. love it" Website IPv6 support Alexa rank Type of site Registration Available in eBay. 1995 Pierre Omidyar San Jose.156 billion (2010) US$ 2. eBayClassifieds.

Whitman made the decision to enter politics.com.[16] and both Omidyar and Skoll became instant billionaires.com. or other kind of SKU (via Half. counted hundreds of millions of registered users. a private equity firm based in Nevis. eBay's target share price of $18 was all but ignored as the price went to $53. such as PayPal Pay Later and PayPal Buyer Credit. and incorporated it into features in its own payment systems. eBay entered into its first third-party licensing deal.000. ISBN.50 on the first day of trading. with a company called Electronic Travel Auction to use SmartMarket Technology to sell plane tickets and other travel products. Omidyar's consulting firm.eBay original "set-time" auction format to include "Buy It Now" standard shopping. Astonished."[9] The frequently repeated story that eBay was founded to help Omidyar's fiancée trade Pez candy dispensers was fabricated by a public relations manager in 1997 to interest the media.com is now owned by Echobay Partners. the company had expanded worldwide. by French-born Iranian computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as part of a larger personal site that included.[18] Whitman remained on the Board of Directors and continued to advise Donahoe through 2008.[19] In July 2010.[11] so he shortened it to his second choice. EBay Inc. shopping by UPC. eBay.[9] In February 2002. the company purchased IBazar. In November 1996. on September 3. Growth was phenomenal. At the time. business grew quickly. 2010. but found it already taken by the Echo Bay Mines. 184 Origins and history The online auction website was founded as AuctionWeb in San Jose. Ltd. It is subject to regulatory approval and . online money transfers (via PayPal[7] ) and other services.[8] and confirmed by eBay.83. but will still own 30% equity in the company. 15.7 million in the United States. online classified advertisements (via Kijiji or eBay Classifieds). 2002.8 billion by XPRT Ventures that accused eBay of stealing information shared in confidence by the inventors on XPRT's own patents.[10] The company officially changed the name of its service from AuctionWeb to eBay in September 1997.000 during the whole of 1996. the company had 30 employees[14] half a million users and revenues of $4. Omidyar contacted the winning bidder to ask if he understood that the laser pointer was broken.[17] As the company expanded product categories beyond collectibles into almost any saleable item. In early 2008. the buyer explained: "I'm a collector of broken laser eBay headquarters in San Jose pointers.[20] December 20.brand4friends for 150 million Euro ($197 million) to strengthen the company fashion business in Europe. a similar European auction web site founded in 1995 and then bought PayPal on October 14. online event ticket trading (via StubHub). Originally.7 million in funding from the venture capital firm Benchmark Capital.7 billion.[12] (Echobay. Omidyar had tried to register the domain name echobay.[8] One of the first items sold on eBay was a broken laser pointer for $14. In his responding email. in January 1997 the site hosted 2. Omidyar's own tongue-in-cheek tribute to the Ebola virus. eBay completed the sale of Skype for $2. says it will acquire a German online shopping club .[15] eBay went public on September 21. a gold mining company. This was revealed in Adam Cohen's 2002 book.. eBay was sued for $3. 2008 the company announced that Whitman would step down on March 31. 2008 and John Donahoe was selected to become President and CEO. In late 2009.000 auctions. the site belonged to Echo Bay Technology Group.75 billion. The Perfect Store. among other things.[15] After nearly ten years at eBay.) In 1997.com).000+ employees and revenues of almost $7. 1998. the company received $6. 1995. On January 23. Chris Agarpao was hired as eBay's first employee and Jeffrey Skoll was hired as the first president of the company in early 1996. compared with 250.[13] Meg Whitman was hired as eBay President and CEO in March 1998. California.

eBay expected to close it in the Q1 2011.[21]


Millions of collectibles, decor, appliances, computers, furnishings, equipment, domain names[22] , vehicles, and other miscellaneous items are listed, bought, or sold daily on eBay. In 2006, eBay launched its Business & Industrial category, breaking into the industrial surplus business. Generally, anything can be auctioned on the site as long as it is not illegal and does not violate the eBay Prohibited and Restricted Items policy.[23] Services and intangibles can be sold, too. Large international companies, such as IBM, sell their newest products and offer services on eBay using competitive auctions and fixed-priced storefronts. Separate eBay sites such as eBay US and eBay UK allow the users to trade using the local currency. Software developers can create applications that integrate with eBay through the eBay API by joining the eBay Developers Program.[24] In June 2005, there were more than 15,000 members in the eBay Developers Program, comprising a broad range of companies creating software applications to support eBay buyers and sellers as well as eBay Affiliates. Controversy has arisen over certain items put up for bid. For instance, in late 1999, a man offered one of his kidneys for auction on eBay, attempting to profit from the potentially lucrative (and, in the United States, illegal) market for transplantable human organs. On other occasions, people and even entire towns have been listed, often as a joke or to garner free publicity. In general, the company removes auctions that violate its terms of service agreement.

PayPal-only categories
Beginning in August 2007, eBay required listings in "Video Games" and "Health & Beauty" to accept its payment system PayPal and sellers could only accept PayPal for payments in the category "Video Games: Consoles".[25] Starting January 10, 2008, eBay said sellers can only accept PayPal as payment for the categories "Computing > Software", "Consumer Electronics > MP3 Players", "Wholesale & Job Lots > Mobile & Home Phones", and "Business, Office & Industrial > Industrial Supply / MRO".[26] eBay announced that starting in March 2008, eBay had added to this requirement that all sellers with fewer than 100 feedbacks must offer PayPal and no eBay North First Street satellite office campus (home to PayPal) merchant account may be used as an alternative.[27] [28] This is in addition to the requirement that all sellers from the United Kingdom have to offer PayPal.[29] Further, and as noted below, it was a requirement to offer Paypal on all listings in Australia and the UK. In response to concerns expressed by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, however, eBay has since removed the policy on the ebay.com.au website requiring sellers to offer PayPal as a payment option.

eBay Express
In April 2006, eBay opened its new eBay Express site, which is designed to work like a standard Internet shopping site for consumers with United States addresses. It closed in 2008. Selected eBay items were mirrored on eBay Express, where buyers shop using a shopping

eBay Express logo

eBay cart to purchase from multiple sellers. The UK version was launched to eBay members in mid-October 2006 but on January 29, 2008 eBay announced its intention to close the site.[30] The German version, eBay Express Germany,[31] was also opened in 2006 and closed in 2008.


Selling Manager Applications
At the 2008 eBay Developer's Conference, eBay announced the Selling Manager Applications program (SM Apps).[32] The program allows approved developers to integrate their applications directly into the eBay.com interface.[33] The applications created by developers are available for subscription by eBay members who also subscribe to Selling Manager.

eBay specialty sites
eBay maintains a number of specialty sites. eBay Pulse, for example, provides information about popular search terms, trends, and most-watched items. Other ebay Community Content includes the Discussion Boards, Groups, Answer Center, Chat Rooms, and Reviews & Guides. eBay has a robust mobile offering, including SMS alerts, a WAP site, Java ME clients, an Android OS application and an Apple iPhone application available in certain markets. Best of eBay is a specialty site for finding the most-unusual items on the eBay site. Users can vote on and nominate listings that they find.

Auction types
eBay.com offers several types of auctions. • Auction-style listings allow the seller to offer one or more items for sale for a specified number of days. The seller can establish a reserve price. • Fixed price format allows the seller to offer one or more items for sale at a Buy It Now price. Buyers who agree to pay that price win the auction immediately without submitting a bid. • Fixed price format with best offer allows the seller to accept best offers. If a buyer submits a best offer, the seller either rejects or accepts the best offer. If the best offer is not satisfactory, a seller may submit a counter offer to the buyer. Best offer is not available for auction style listings. In addition, best offer is not available in every category. Sellers also meet specific requirements in order to sell with best offer.

Auction-style listings
Bidding on eBay's auction-style listings is called proxy bidding and is essentially equivalent to a Vickrey auction, with the following exceptions. • The winning bidder pays the second-highest bid plus one bid increment amount (i.e., some small predefined amount relative to the bid size), instead of simply the second-highest bid. However, since the bid increment amounts are relatively insignificant compared to the bid size, they are not considered from a strategic standpoint.[34] • The current winning bid is not sealed, but instead is always displayed. However, at any given moment, the highest bidder's bid is not necessarily displayed, since this amount may be higher than the amount required to win the auction.



Example of bidding on an auction-style listing Suppose bidding for an item placed by Anne starts at $1.00 and that the bid increment amount in this price range is $.25. Eric bids $3.00 for the item, and since no one else has bid yet, eBay displays that the current highest bid is Eric's, with a bid of $1.00, and that the minimum allowable bid is $1.25, which is equal to one bidding increment above the winning bid. Suppose then that Bob bids $2.00 for the item. Since Eric has already bid more than Bob, eBay will display that the current highest bid is Eric's, with a bid of $2.25, which equals the second-highest bid ($2.00) plus the bid increment amount ($.25). Again, eBay will also display that the minimum allowable bid is $2.50, one bid increment above the highest bid. Suppose that Bob bids again, this time at $2.75. Again, since Eric's bid is higher than Bob's, eBay will display that the current highest bidder is Eric, with a bid of $3.00, which is equal to the second-highest bid ($2.75) plus the Sample eBay page layout (as announced on June 15, 2009) bid increment ($.25). eBay will also display that the minimum allowable bid is $3.25, one bidding increment above the current highest bid. Suppose Bob bids one more time, at $10.00. Since Bob's bid is now higher than Eric's, eBay will display that the current potentially winning bidder is Bob, with a bid of $3.25, which is equal to the second-highest bid ($3.00) plus the bid increment ($.25). If Bob were to win the auction, he would have to pay the amount equal to the winning bid ($3.25), even though his previous bid was much larger than that.

Seller ratings
In 2007, eBay began using detailed seller ratings with four different categories. When leaving feedback, buyers are asked to rate the seller in each of these categories with a score of one to five stars, with five being the highest rating and one the lowest. Unlike the overall feedback rating, these ratings are anonymous; neither sellers nor other users learn how individual buyers rated the seller. The listings of sellers with a rating of 4.3 or below in any of the four rating categories appear lower in search results. Power Sellers are required to have scores in each category above 4.5.[35] [36] [37] [38] [39] In a reversal of roles, on January 24, 2010 Auctionbytes.com held an open survey in which sellers could effectively rate eBay itself, as well as competing auction and marketplace sites.[40] In the survey, users were asked to rank 15 sites based on five criteria: • • • • • Profitability Customer Service Communication Ease of Use Recommendation

eBay After the results were published, eBay had finished 13th overall,[41] edged out by established sites such as Amazon and Craigslist, as well as lesser-known upstarts like Atomic Mall and Ruby Lane. In individual category rankings, eBay was rated the worst of all the 15 sites on Customer Service and Communication, and average on Ease of Use. A number of respondents said they would have given eBay a rating of ten 3 to 5 years ago. eBay was rated twelfth out of fifteen in the Recommended Selling Venue category.


Profit and transactions
eBay generates revenue from various fees. The eBay fee system is quite complex; there are fees to list a product and fees when the product sells (Final Value Fee), plus several optional adornment fees, all based on various factors and scales. The U.S.-based eBay.com takes $0.10 to $4 (based on the opening price) for a basic listing without any adornments and 8.75% (12% for some categories, e.g. Clothing & Accessories) of the final price (as of May 2009). The UK based ebay.co.uk[42] takes from GBP £0.15 to a maximum rate of GBP £3 per £100 for an ordinary listing and from 0.75 percent to 10% (writing as of June 2009) percent of the final price. Reduced FVF's are available to business registered customers. In addition, eBay owns the PayPal payment system that has fees of its own. Under current U.S. law, a state cannot require sellers located outside the state to collect a sales tax, making deals more attractive to buyers. Although some state laws require purchasers to pay sales tax to their own states on out-of-state purchases, it is not a common practice. However, most sellers that operate as a full time business do follow state tax regulations on their eBay transactions.[43] [44] However for the tax called Value added tax (VAT), eBay requires sellers to include the VAT fees in their listing price and not as an add-on and thus eBay profits by collecting fees based on what governments tax for VAT.[45] The company's current business strategy includes increasing international trade.[46] [47] eBay has already expanded to over two dozen countries including China and India. The only places where expansion failed were Taiwan and Japan, where Yahoo! had a head start, and New Zealand where TradeMe, owned by the Fairfax media group is the dominant online auction website. A more recent strategy involves the company increasingly leveraging the relationship between the eBay auction site and PayPal: The impact of driving buyers and sellers to use PayPal means not only does eBay turn buyers into clients (as a pure auction venue its clients used to be predominantly sellers) but for each new PayPal registration it achieves via the eBay auction site it also earns offsite revenue when the resulting PayPal account is used in non-eBay transactions. In its Q1 2008 results, total payment volume via PayPal increased 17 percent, but off the eBay auction site it was up 61 percent.[48] For most listing categories, eBay sellers are permitted to offer a variety of payment systems such as PayPal, Paymate, ProPay, and Moneybookers.[49] eBay runs an affiliate program under the name eBay Partner Network.[50] eBay affiliate marketers were originally paid a percentage of the eBay seller's transaction fees, with commissions ranging from 50% to 75% of the fees paid for an item purchased. In October 2009, eBay changed to an affiliate payout system that it calls Quality Click Pricing, in which affiliates are paid an amount determined by an undisclosed algorithm. The total earnings amount is then divided by the number of clicks the affiliate sent to eBay and is reported as Earnings Per Click, or EPC.



As eBay is a huge, publicly visible market, it has created a great deal of interest from economists, who have used it to analyze many aspects of buying and selling behavior, auction formats, etc., and compare these with previous theoretical and empirical findings.

Controversy and criticism
eBay has its share of controversy, including cases of fraud, its policy of requiring sellers to use PayPal, and concerns over forgeries and intellectual property violations in auction items.

Prohibited or restricted items
In its earliest days, eBay was essentially unregulated. However, as the site grew, it became necessary to restrict or forbid auctions for various items. Note that some of the restrictions relate to eBay.com (the U.S. site), while other restrictions apply to specific European sites (such as Nazi paraphernalia). Regional laws and regulations may apply to the seller or the buyer. Generally, if the sale or ownership of an item is regulated or prohibited by one or more states, eBay will not permit its listing. Among the hundred or so banned or restricted categories: • Tobacco (tobacco-related items and collectibles are accepted.)[51] • Alcohol (alcohol-related collectibles, including sealed containers, as well as some wine sales by licensed sellers are allowed, some sites such as ebay.com.au allow licensed liquor sales)[52] • Drugs and drug paraphernalia[53] • Nazi paraphernalia[54] • Bootleg recordings[55] • Firearms and ammunition,[56] including any parts that could be used to assemble a firearm as well as (as of July 30, 2007) any firearm part that is required for the firing of a gun, including bullet tips, brass casings and shells, barrels, slides, cylinders, magazines, firing pins, trigger assemblies, etc. Crossbows and various types of knives are also forbidden. • Police and emergency service vehicular warning equipment such as red or blue lights and sirens (antique or collectible items are exempt) • Used underwear (see Panty fetishism) and dirty used clothing[57] • Forged, illegal, stolen, or confidential documents, which include passports, social security cards, drivers licences, voter registration cards, birth certificates, school documents, medical records, financial information, government license plates, government classified information, or CarFax documents. Any item that is used to modify documents is also restricted.[58] • Human parts and remains (with an exception for skeletons and skulls for scientific study, provided they are not Native American in origin)[59] • • • • • • Live animals (with certain exceptions)[60] Certain copyrighted works or trademarked items.[61] Lottery tickets, sweepstakes tickets, or any other gambling items.[62] Military hardware such as working weapons or explosives. Enriched uranium, plutonium, and other fissile material. Sexually oriented adult material, which must be listed in the "Adult Only" category,[63] notwithstanding certain items prohibited:[63] • • • • Child pornography Materials deemed obscene, including bestiality, necrophilia, rape, coprophilia, and incest Used sex toys Services including any sexual activity

eBay • Links to sites that contain prohibited items • Adult products that are delivered digitally Virtual items from massively multiplayer online games, restrictions that vary by country[64] [65] Ivory products[60] Knives, other than cutlery, are prohibited in the UK following media pressure about the sale of items assessed by police to be "illegal"[66] Many other items are either wholly prohibited or restricted in some manner.[67]


• • • •

Unusual sale items
• In May 2006, the remains of U.S. Fort Montgomery, a stone fortification in upstate New York built in 1844, were put up for auction on eBay. The first auction ended on June 5, 2006, with a winning bid of $5,000,310. However, the sale was not completed, and the fort and lands surrounding it remain for sale and have been relisted on the site several times since.[68] [69] • In February 2004, a scrapped F/A-18 Hornet fighter jet was listed on eBay by Mike Landa, of Landa and Associates, with a starting bid of $1,000,000. He was the legal owner of the plane after purchasing it from a scrap yard and also offered to have the plane restored for flying condition for a Buy It Now price of $9,000,000. Landa also told potential buyers that maintenance of the plane would cost roughly $40,000 a month for just 2 to 3 hours of flying time. The FBI told Landa that he could only sell the plane to an American citizen residing in the United States, and that the plane must not leave U.S. airspace. The auction ended without a sale.[70] • In January 2003, Thatch Cay, the last privately held and undeveloped U.S. Virgin Island, was listed for auction by Idealight International. The minimum bid was $3,000,000.00 and closed January 16, 2003.[71] • In December 2005, a brussels sprout cooked on Christmas Day was listed by "crazypavingpreacher" (Andrew Henderson of Darlington, England). It sold for £99.50 on January 4, 2006. The sprout had been frozen and was sent by first class post in insulated packaging to the buyer, "5077phil". The listing was reported in the Daily Star, making the front page (and was followed by a series of "copycat" listings of various vegetables). The proceeds of the sale were donated to Tearfund, a major Christian relief and development agency working in the Third World. This sprout was the first cooked brussels sprout to be sold on eBay.[72] • In January 2006, a British man named Leigh Knight sold an unwanted brussels sprout left over from his Christmas dinner for £1550 in aid of cancer research.[73] [74] • In May 2006, a Chinese businessman named Zhang Cheng bought a former Czech Air Force MiG-21 fighter jet from a seller in the United States for $24,730. The seller, "inkgirle", refused to ship it. It is not known whether he was refunded.[75] [76] • In June 2005, the wife of Tim Shaw, a British radio DJ on Kerrang! 105.2, sold Tim's Lotus Esprit sports car with a Buy It Now price of 50 pence after she heard him flirting with model Jodie Marsh on air. The car was sold within 5 minutes, and it was requested that the buyer pick it up the same day.[77] • In May 2005, a Volkswagen Golf that had previously been registered to Joseph Ratzinger (then a cardinal, who had since been elected pope and chose the regnal name Benedict XVI on April 19, 2005) was sold on eBay's German site for €188,938.88 ($277,171.12 USD). The winning bid was made by the GoldenPalace.com online casino, known for their outrageous eBay purchases.[78] • A seaworthy 16,000-ton aircraft carrier, formerly the British HMS Vengeance, was listed early in 2004. The auction was removed when eBay determined that the vessel qualified as ordnance, even though all weapons systems had been removed.[79] • Water that was said to have been left in a cup Elvis Presley once drank from was sold for $455. The few tablespoons came from a plastic cup Presley sipped at a concert in North Carolina in 1977.[80] • Coventry University student Bill Bennett got £1.20 for a single cornflake.[81] • A man from Brisbane, Australia, attempted to sell New Zealand at a starting price of A$0.01. The price had risen to $3,000 before eBay closed the auction.[82]

eBay • An Australian newspaper reported in December 2004 that a single piece of the Kellogg's breakfast cereal Nutri-Grain sold on eBay for A$1,035 because it happened to bear a slight resemblance to the character E.T. from the Steven Spielberg movie. Apparently the seller went on to make even more money in relation to the sale for his appearance on a nationally televised current affairs program.[83] • One of the tunnel boring machines involved in the construction of the Channel Tunnel was auctioned on eBay in 2004.[84] • A group of four men from Australia auctioned themselves to spend the weekend with the promise of "beers, snacks, good conversation and a hell of a lot of laughs" for A$1,300[85] • Disney sold a retired Monorail Red (Mark IV Monorail) for $20,000[86] • The German Language Association sold the German language to call attention to the growing influence of English in modern Germany.[87] • In late November 2005, the original Hollywood Sign was sold on eBay for $450,400.[88] [89] • In February 2007, after Britney Spears shaved all of her hair off in a Los Angeles salon, it was listed on eBay for 1 million USD before it was taken down.[90] • In September 2004, the Indiana Firebirds arena football team was auctioned off, first in a regular auction that failed to reach the reserve price,[91] and again as a "Buy it Now" item for $3.9 million.[92] • Bridgeville, California (pop. 25) was the first town to be sold on eBay in 2002, and has been up for sale 3 times since.[93] • In April 2005, American entrepreneur Matt Rouse sold the right to choose a new middle name for him. After receiving an $8,000 "Buy It Now" bid, the Utah courts refused to allow the name change. He currently still has his original middle name "Jean".[94] • In 2004, a partially eaten, 10-year-old grilled cheese sandwich said to bear the image of the Virgin Mary sold on eBay for $28,000.[95] • In January 2008, four golf balls were auctioned on eBay after being surgically removed from the carpet python that had inadvertently swallowed them whilst raiding eggs in a chicken enclosure. The story attracted considerable international attention and the balls eventually sold for more than A$ 1,400. The python recovered and was released.[96] • In May 2008, Paul Osborn of the UK listed his wife Sharon for sale on eBay, alleging that she had an affair with a coworker.[97] • In June 2008, Ian Usher put up his "entire life" on auction. The auction included his house in Perth, belongings, introduction to his friends, and a trial at his job.[98] When bidding closed, his "life" sold for $384,000.[99] • In August 2008, Dr Richard Harrington, Vice President of the UK Royal Entomological Society, announced that a fossilized aphid he bought for £20 from a seller in Lithuania, was a previously unknown species. It has been named Mindarus harringtoni after Dr Harrington. He had wanted to name it Mindarus ebayi, but this name was disallowed as being too flippant. The 45-million-year-old aphid, preserved in a piece of Baltic amber, is now housed in the Natural History Museum in London.[100] • In October 2008, amidst the 2008–2009 Icelandic financial crisis one seller had put up Iceland for sale. Auction started with 99 pence but had reached 10 million pounds (US $17.28 million). However, singer Björk was "not included" in the sale. The notice read Located in the mid-Atlantic ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean, Iceland will provide the winning bidder with — a habitable environment, Icelandic Horses and admittedly a somewhat sketchy financial situation. Bidders' questions included: "Do you offer volcano/earthquake insurance?"[101] • In November 2008, a Swedish man put a digitally hand-drawn picture of a 7-legged spider onto eBay. The picture stemmed from an article on the site 27bslash6.com wherein David Thorne claims to have attempted to pay a chiropractor's bill with a picture of a 7-legged spider, which he valued at $233.95. On eBay, the bidding price started at $233.95, with bidding ended at a sale price of US$10,000.[102] Both the e-mail exchange and the picture have become internet hits.[103]


eBay • In July 2009 Dornoch Capital Advisors placed England's Coca Cola League One Side Tranmere Rovers F.C. on eBay without permission for them to do so from owner and chairman Peter Johnson. This led to Johnson issuing a statement on the team's website saying that the team was not for sale and that he had contacted eBay to have the listing removed.[104] • In August 2009, a mother of six from South Arkansas auctioned off the legal rights to name her unborn child.[105] • In December 2009, a woman auctioned the copyright for a never before seen four-minute home video of Marilyn Monroe smoking a joint.[106] • In September 2010, a 23 year old man named Michael Fawcett, Stockton-on-Tees, was trying to raise money for Cancer Research by attempting to sell a Ghost. The auction caught the attention of a local news paper. However, after day 6 of the auction, eBay removed the item stating it was against their policy to sell ‘intangible items or items whose existence cannot be verified on receipt of them, such as ghosts, souls, or spirits’ .[107] [108]


Charity auctions
Using MissionFish as an arbiter, eBay allows sellers to donate a portion of their auction proceeds to a charity of the seller's choice. The program is called eBay Giving Works in the US, and eBay for Charity[109] in the UK. eBay provides a partial refund of seller fees for items sold through charity auctions.[110] As of March 4, 2010, $154 million has been raised for U.S. nonprofits by the eBay Community since eBay Giving Works began in 2003.[111] Some high-profile charity auctions have been advertised on the eBay home page, and have raised large amounts of money in a short time. For example, a furniture manufacturer raised over $35,000 for Ronald McDonald House by auctioning off beds that had been signed by celebrities. To date the highest successful bid on a single item for charity was for the annual "Power Lunch"[112] with investor Warren Buffett at the famous Smith & Wollensky Steakhouse in New York. The winning bid was $2.63 million with all of the proceeds going to the Glide Foundation. At the time of writing, the winning bidder is still not publicly known, but they will be able to bring up to seven friends to the lunch. The previous highest successful bid on a single item for charity was for a letter[113] sent to Mark P. Mays, CEO of Clear Channel (parent company of Premiere Radio Networks the production company that produces The Rush Limbaugh Show and Glenn Beck Program) by United States Senator Harry Reid and forty other Democratic senators, complaining about comments made by conservative talk show host Rush Limbaugh. The winning bid was $2,100,100, with 100 percent of the proceeds going to the Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation, benefiting the education of children of men and women who have died serving in the armed forces. The winning bid was matched by Limbaugh in his largest charity donation to date.[114] In 2007, eBay Canada partnered with Montreal-based digital branding agency CloudRaker to develop a campaign to raise money for Sainte-Justine children's hospital in Montreal. They aligned themselves with internet phenomenon Têtes à Claques to create an eBay auction based on popular T-A-C character Uncle Tom, an infomercial host who pitches absurd products. eBay and CloudRaker reproduced Uncle Tom’s imaginary products, The Body Toner Fly Swatter, The Willi Waller Potato Peeler, and the LCD Shovel and sold them online. In 6 weeks, they raised $15,000 for Hopital St-Justine with one fly swatter, one potato peeler, and one shovel, a world record. The Body Toner Fly Swatter sold for $8,600, the Willi Waller Potato Peeler sold for $3,550, and the LCD Shovel sold for $2,146.21.

Environmental record
On May 8, 2008, eBay announced the opening of its newest building on the company's North Campus in San Jose, which is the first structure in the city to be built from the ground up to LEED Gold standards.[115] The building, the first the company has built new in its 13-year existence, uses an array of 3,248 solar panels, spanning 60000 square feet (5600 m2), and providing 650 kilowatts of power to eBay's campus.[116] [117] All told the array can supply the company with 15-18 percent of its total energy requirements, reducing the amount of greenhouse gases that would be

eBay produced to create that energy by other means.[116] SolarCity, the company responsible for designing the array, estimates that the solar panels installed on eBay's campus will prevent 37 million pounds of carbon dioxide from being released into the environment as a result of replaced power production over the next three decades.[117] Creating an equivalent impact to remove the same amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere would require planting 322 acres (1.30 km2) of trees.[117] The design of the building also incorporates other elements to reduce its impact on the environment. The building is equipped with a lighting system that detects natural ambient light sources and automatically dims artificial lighting to save 39 percent of the power usually required to light an office building.[115] eBay's newest building also reduces demand on local water supplies by incorporating an eco-friendly irrigation system, low-flow shower heads, and low-flow faucets.[115] Even during construction, more than 75 percent of the waste from construction was recycled.[115] eBay also runs buses between San Francisco and the San Jose campus to reduce the number of commuting vehicles.[115]


eBay Inc. acquired Skype in 2005 and significantly expanded its customer base to more than 480 million registered users worldwide. To focus on its core e-commerce and payments businesses, eBay Inc. sold a majority stake in Skype in November 2009, retaining a minority investment in the company. In May 2011, Microsoft announced that it had acquired Skype for $8.5 billion.

In the summer of 2004, eBay acknowledged that it had acquired 25% of classified listings website, Craigslist. Former Craigslist executive Phillip Knowlton was the seller, and he insisted that his former employer was aware of his plans to divest his holdings. Initially, eBay assured Craigslist that they would not ask the company to change the way it does business. eBay spokesman Hani Durzy stated that the "investment was really for learning purposes; it gives us access to learn how the classified market online works."[118] The classifieds service Kijiji was launched by eBay in March 2005. In April 2008, eBay sued Craigslist to "safeguard its four-year financial investment", claiming that in January 2008, Craigslist took actions that "unfairly diluted eBay's economic interest by more than 10%."[119] Craigslist countersued in May 2008 "to remedy the substantial and ongoing harm to fair competition" that Craigslist claims is constituted by eBay's actions as a Craigslist shareholder.[120] In September 2010, Delaware Judge William Chandler ruled that the actions of Craigslist were unlawful, and that the actions taken by Craigslist founders Jim Buckmaster and Craig Newmark had "breached their fiduciary duty of loyalty", and restored eBay's stake in the company to 28.4% from a diluted level of 24.85%.[121] However, the judge dismissed eBay's objection to a staggered board provision citing that Craigslist has the right to protect its own trade secrets.[122] [123] eBay spokesman Michael Jacobson stated "We are very pleased that the court gave eBay what it sought from the lawsuit."[121]

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. Pages. blogspot. telegraph. html). privateislandsonline. The Daily Telegraph (UK). [65] Anderson.com.Technology . loweringthebar. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 4134407. "Animals and wildlife products policy" (http:/ / pages. Finance. [79] Tweedie. 2006-01-05. nz/ view/ page/ 411365/ 712869). [51] eBay. html). . goldenpalaceevents. [49] "Accepted Payments Policy" (http:/ / pages. [77] "£25. Ars Technica. ebay.uk. ebay. 2005-06-21. stm). navy jet fighter F18 is for sale on eBay" (http:/ / www. html). . [57] eBay. Thenibs.co. "" (http:/ / tvnz. Retrieved 2010-12-25. IDs.ebay. 2008. "Drugs and drug paraphernalia policy" (http:/ / pages. Virgin Island Bidding Reaches Record $3. Retrieved 2009-03-24. . html). 2006-01-05.com. . [60] eBay. Archive. . com/ help/ policies/ bootlegs. [76] May 9. . com/ help/ policies/ downloadable. Retrieved 2009-03-24.com. [48] "Q1 eBay earnings call April 16th 2008" (http:/ / seekingalpha. com/ help/ policies/ tobacco.thenorthernecho. Retrieved 2010-02-25. The Age (Melbourne). ebay. thenorthernecho.nz. weapons. com/ help/ policies/ used-clothing. "Offensive material policy" (http:/ / pages.com. . com.bbc. ebay. "Human remains and body parts policy" (http:/ / pages. Retrieved 2010-02-25. . "Alcohol policy" (http:/ / pages. html#what). . 2003-01-01. ars). [53] eBay. com/ help/ policies/ offensive. [59] eBay. [82] Published: 6:14PM Thursday May 11. html). chinadaily. co. [63] eBay. "eBay bans the auction of in-game items" (http:/ / arstechnica. [72] "Northern Echo archive 5th January 2006" (http:/ / www. eBay Partner Network. [64] "Digitally delivered goods policy" (http:/ / pages. com/ fort-montgomery-newyork. Retrieved 2009-02-17. com/ help/ policies/ intellectual-property-ov. . ebay. html). [70] "U. [67] eBay. . html).co. . Retrieved 2010-02-25. com/ p/ articles/ mi_pwwi/ is_20050229/ ai_mark05050162/ ). "Slot machines policy" (http:/ / pages. co. ebay. Retrieved 2006-06-28. . thisislondon. uk/ news/ worldnews/ northamerica/ usa/ 1451338/ For-internet-sale-aircraft-carrier.au" (http:/ / www. htm). com/ help/ policies/ alcohol. Retrieved 2010-12-25. Retrieved 2008-07-09. ebay. [56] eBay. ebay.. co. "Adult Only category policy" (http:/ / pages. Tvnz. Retrieved 2009-03-24.Breaking .co. html). . BBC News. . . April 24. and knives policy" (http:/ / pages. Lowering the Bar. ebay. bbc. BBC News. [78] "Golf IV von Josef Kardinal Ratzinger" (http:/ / www. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ england/ coventry_warwickshire/ 4137877. html). "Tobacco policy" (http:/ / pages. [75] "Chinese man buys fighter jet on eBay . . Retrieved 2010-02-25. [50] "eBay Partner Network" (http:/ / ebaypartnernetwork. [73] "Charity sprout craze sweeps the nation as £1.S. com/ help/ policies/ firearms-weapons-knives. [54] eBay. and licenses policy" (http:/ / pages. News. html). [62] eBay. 2006 in International Law (2006-05-09). com/ help/ policies/ items-ov. html). Plattsburgh. .theage. Golden Palace. Retrieved 2009-03-24. [80] "" (http:/ / news.550 bid on eBay" (http:/ / archive. "Man Wants Money Back for MiG-21 Bought on eBay" (http:/ / www. [81] "" (http:/ / news. China Daily. cn/ english/ doc/ 2004-02/ 17/ content_306823. stm). 2004-12-30. com/ files/ hub/ en-US/ index. .uk. 2009 15:59 [IST] (2009-04-24).co. com/ article/ 72603-ebay-q1-2008-earnings-call-transcript). .eBay [47] Friday. com/ help/ policies/ wildlife. Retrieved 2010-02-25. indiainfo. [68] Fort Montgomery for sale on eBay Plattsburgh Press Republican. thenorthernecho. ebay. [58] eBay. htm). bbc. . com/ gaming/ news/ 2007/ 01/ 8731. co.-only-three-owners. Privateislandsonline. html). 2004-02-17. uk/ archive/ 2006/ 01/ 05/ The+ North+ East+ Archive/ 7153995. [74] "The NIBS: Unwanted brussel sprout on sale for charity" (http:/ / thenibs. com/ 2006/ 01/ unwanted-brussel-sprout-on-sale-for. ebay. Retrieved 2010-12-25. Retrieved 2009-03-24. Seekingalpha. com/ help/ policies/ accepted-payments-policy. . co. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 7879701. [66] "eBay bans trade in knives in UK" (http:/ / news. com/ help/ policies/ adult-only. [52] eBay. February 9. com/ help/ policies/ slot-machines.blogspot. "Fort Montgomery Island.thenorthernecho. 2004-12-31. stm). . . . . html). June 2006 [69] Next Random Fort Montgomery Island. Retrieved 2010-02-25.indiainfo. ebay.5 Million on eBay Real Estate" (http:/ / findarticles. "The brand that auctioned the www: eBay" (http:/ / finance. Retrieved 2010-12-25. .uk. html). . . html). Retrieved December 25. com/ help/ policies/ government-ids-licenses. 2006-05-01. co. Retrieved 2010-12-25. html). uk/ showbiz/ article-19429823-25000-revenge-of-djs-wife. ebay. theage. au/ articles/ 2006/ 04/ 30/ 1146335603625. "Rules about intellectual property – overview" (http:/ / pages. Retrieved 2010-02-25. com/ help/ policies/ remains. html). New York. 2010. "Firearms. Retrieved 2010-12-25. Retrieved 2010-12-25. 2006 (2006-05-11). html). html). . Retrieved 2010-12-25. com/ 2009/ 04/ 24/ 0904241614_the_brand_that_auctioned_the_www. net/ 2006/ 05/ man_wants_money.S. Retrieved December 25. . Retrieved 2010-12-25.000 revenge of DJ's wife" (http:/ / www. html). Retrieved 2010-02-25. ebay. findarticles. [71] "U. 2006-01-06. It_s_sprout_of_this_world/ ). html). Retrieved 2010-05-21. . United States" (http:/ / www. New York. com. 195 . Neil (2004-01-10). co. [61] eBay. html). Retrieved 2010-12-25.com. . [55] eBay. Nate (2007-01-30). "Used clothing policy" (http:/ / pages. . Retrieved 2010-12-25. com/ help/ policies/ drugs-drug-paraphernalia. ebay. Retrieved 2009-03-24. Archive. "Bootleg recordings policy" (http:/ / pages. Retrieved 2010-02-25. co. uk/ 2006/ 1/ 6/ 215526. ebay. html). Retrieved 2010-02-25. com/ ebay_archives/ popemobile02. 2010. "Prohibited and restricted items – overview" (http:/ / pages. "Government documents. only three owners" (http:/ / www. This Is London. bbc.com.com. do). Retrieved 2010-12-25. "For internet sale: aircraft carrier.

. msnbc. . operationsports. com/ 2007/ 02/ britney-spears-shaved-hair-on-sale-on-ebay/ ) on 2007-02-21. Msnbc. . stm). Retrieved 2010-01-03. co. au/ story/ 0. com/ stories/ 2005/ 04/ 05/ national/ main685791. [114] Strom. 2008-06-30. au/ news/ technology/ blokey-weekend-bids-reach-2450/ 2006/ 01/ 27/ 1138319426355. Retrieved 2010-02-25. modernghana. Retrieved 2009-07-30. org/ tMspages/ CPMarkIV. December 1. html). CNN-IBN. . chicagotribune. Retrieved 2010-06-17. [100] "Insect expert discovers new species on eBay" (http:/ / www. Pages. bbc. [95] "ABC News: Hungry for Miracles?" (http:/ / abcnews. wdr. rothamsted. ninemsn. 2008-08-19.ebay. com/ boards/ archive/ index. 2008. uk/ 2/ hi/ americas/ 4875206. 2008-05-15. com/ Entertainment/ WolfFiles/ story?id=307227& page=1). "Man tried to pay bill with spider drawing" (http:/ / www. 2005-04-05. "Spider minus a leg sells for thousands" (http:/ / news. 2008-06-22. . CNN. BBC News. wdr. Retrieved December 5. .00. ebay. 2008). com/ forums/ football-other/ 95623-afls-indiana-firebirds-sale-ebay. html).com. . [110] "eBay Giving Works fee credits" (http:/ / pages. . Retrieved 2009-03-24. . Retrieved 2008-10-10. [92] "Indiana Firebirds for sale on eBay [Archive] . html?em& ex=1193025600& en=044964c8f9169d02& ei=5087 ). .63 mln on eBay" (http:/ / www. Associated Press. Oursportscentral. [111] Funds Raised http:/ / www. [91] "AFL's Indiana Firebirds for sale on eBay . archive. . "Arkansas Mother Sells Naming Rights of Unborn Son on eBay" (http:/ / www.OurSports Central Independent and Minor League Sports Forums" (http:/ / www. com. The Daily Telegraph. com. . html). Rushlimbaugh. co. October 10. gazettelive. Reuters.22049. 2007-12-06. uk/ corporate/ PressReleases/ PressReleases.uk. 2006-04-04. co. [85] Hearn. shtml). com/ home/ daily/ site_101607/ content/ 01125108. 2008). uk/ ebayforcharity/ index. ebaygivingworks. org/ web/ 20070221003830/ http:/ / hollywood. au/ article. Archived from the original (http:/ / hollywood. smh. [113] "eBay Update: High Bidder on Reid Letter Will Own Historic Document" (http:/ / www. 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2010-02-25. oursportscentral.23599. nytimes. [96] "Snake's golf balls fetch $1400" (http:/ / www. BBC. . 2009. au/ news/ unusual-tales/ snakes-golf-balls-fetch-1400/ 2008/ 01/ 11/ 1199988566831. monorails. . . "Critical Letter to Limbaugh Fetches $2 Million" (http:/ / www. uk/ sport2/ hi/ football/ teams/ t/ tranmere_rovers/ 8176708. Retrieved 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2008-11-18. .com. foxnews. "Blokes pull in the bids on eBay" (http:/ / www. stm). html). uk/ news/ teesside-news/ 2010/ 09/ 15/ dj-turns-to-selling-ghost-on-ebay-for-cancer-charity-84229-27272266/ ). stm). Retrieved 2010-02-25. 2009). 2010-06-11. 2002-06-06. Reuters.com. [105] Joshua Rhett Miller (August 5. [97] "Jealous husband puts wife on eBay" (http:/ / www.0. Pages. Retrieved December 5.00. com/ about-donationamount. go. stm). org/ web/ 20080625043800/ http:/ / www. winner may collect in person" (http:/ / ibnlive. com/ 2007/ 02/ britney-spears-shaved-hair-on-sale-on-ebay/ ). 2005-12-07. com/ id/ 34224533). . archive.com. "Football Club For Sale Or Not" (http:/ / news. . Stephanie (2007-10-20). Retrieved 2009-03-24. . com/ help/ sell/ GivingWorks-fee-policy. rushlimbaugh. bbc. co. Fox News. dailytelegraph. msn. uk/ news/ teesside-news/ 2010/ 09/ 18/ norton-dj-s-charity-ghost-sale-spirited-off-ebay-84229-27289892/ ). outsidethebeltway. but disappointed at bid price" (http:/ / www. [103] Ananova (November 23. [104] TheBoysInBlue (July 30. [108] "Norton DJ's charity ghost sale spirited off eBay" (http:/ / www. com/ stories/ 2005/ 12/ 07/ entertainment/ main1103557. html). . 2008-01-11. com. ninemsn. Operationsports.co. [98] "Bidding begins on 'entire life'" (http:/ / news.00. html). gazettelive. de/ themen/ kultur/ 1/ versteigerung_deutsche_sprache/ index. BBC News. cbsnews. The Sydney Morning Herald.ebay. bbc. ac. aspx?id=665808). cnn.com.eBay [83] "Nutri-Grain that looks like ET" (http:/ / www. html). CBS News. .2933. Retrieved 2008-11-25. Retrieved 2008-06-30. [109] "eBay for Charity" (http:/ / pages. . com/ 2005/ 11/ 17/ news/ newsmakers/ hollywood_sign/ ). . . com. [90] "Britney Spears' Shaved Hair on Sale on eBay!" (http:/ / web. in. guest. Retrieved 2008-08-19. com/ article/ 2010/ 06/ 12/ buffett-lunch-auction-idUSN1115876120100612). outsidethebeltway.org. CBS News.23702440-13762. com/ 2007/ 10/ 20/ washington/ 20letter. php/ t-897. html#deductions [112] "UPDATE 1-Warren Buffett lunch sells for $2. story). shtml). uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 3599191. [107] "DJ turns to selling ghost on eBay for cancer charity" (http:/ / www. Monorails. com.7890092. Louisa (2006-01-17). 2009). . au/ story/ 0. Retrieved 2009-03-24. html). com/ news/ iceland-for-sale-on-ebay-winner-may-collect-in-person/ 75531-13. html?from=rssfeed). Ghana News. . com/ news/ 191832/ 1/ man-tried-to-pay-bill-with-spider-drawing. de/ themen/ kultur/ 1/ versteigerung_deutsche_sprache/ index. reuters. [89] "Buy a piece of HOLLYWOOD" (http:/ / money.com. cbsnews. uk/ 2/ hi/ 7467857. .22881260-5001021. ebay. html). news. html). jhtml)]"]. [84] "Eurotunnel drill bids reach £5m" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2010-02-25. . smh. co. [106] "Film clip shows Marilyn Monroe smoking pot" (http:/ / today. html). . [99] "Man auctions life. html). from the Internet archive [88] "Hollywood Sign Sold For $450K" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-05-01.Operation Sports Forums" (http:/ / www. . 2009. jhtml) on 2008-06-25. 196 [87] "10 Millionen Euro für die deutsche Sprache (German)[[Category:Articles with German language external links (http:/ / web. [86] "" (http:/ / www. The New York Times. Chicago Tribune. 2005-11-17. [93] "" (http:/ / news. [94] "Matthew Sells The Middle" (http:/ / www. co. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 2009. . The Sydney Morning Herald. [102] Matt Bachl (November 14. BBC News. php?PRID=48). co. bbc. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2004-04-05. com/ story/ 0.537426. . [101] "Iceland for sale on eBay. com/ news/ nationworld/ sns-ap-odd-australia-life-for-sale.

html?cm_ven=GOOGLEFI). Retrieved 2010-09-23.). Jill (2005). co. • Collier. The PayPal Wars: Battles with eBay. . Everyday eBay: Culture. [116] "EBay opens building with largest solar roof in San Jose .com. [120] "Craigslist strikes back at eBay" (http:/ / news. eBay For Dummies (http://www. World Ahead Publishing. Ken and Michael Petit with Nathan Epley (2006). [118] Wingfield. Peter & Finlayson. Prnewswire. Kenneth (2006). FAKE: Forgery. Retrieved 2008-05-13.eBay [115] "eBay Inc. Little. . Simon Spotlight Entertainment. mercurynews. & eBay. • Kent. . bbc. Sell and Get the Things We Really Want. . • Nissanoff. • Cohen. 197 Further reading • Cihlar. Retrieved 2010-09-23. ISBN 0-316-15048-7. External links • eBay website (http://www. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 7362221. craigslist. Fundraising on eBay.com/store/product/ eBay-For-Dummies-6th-Edition. FutureShop: How the New Auction Culture Will Revolutionize the Way We Buy. com/ story/ 10857157/ 1/ ruling-restores-ebays-stake-in-craigslist. BBC. Market Watch.com. [117] "SolarCity Helps eBay Campus. the Mafia.mercurynews. ISBN 1-59420-077-7. 2004-EBay Buys Stake in Craigslist. the Media. Origin. August 13. ISBN 0-07-226248-6. com/ healthandscience/ ci_9191170?nclick_check=1). Csrwire. Daniel (2006). 2010-09-09.productCd-0470497416. stm). and the Rest of Planet Earth. • Jackson. . The Grilled Cheese Madonna and 99 Other of the Weirdest.com/) .ebay. html). Christopher (2006). com/ news-releases/ solarcity-helps-ebay-campus-employees-switch-to-clean-power-with-largest-commercial-solar-installation-in-san-jose-57208377. csrwire. Retrieved 2009-03-24. Kaplan Publishing. 2009). • Klink. Retrieved 2009-03-24. Nick: (http:/ / www. Adam (2002). ISBN 1-4169-0711-4. stm). ISBN 0-9768372-1-8.San Jose Mercury News" (http:/ / origin. The Perfect Store: Inside eBay. marketwatch. [122] "eBay Gets Partial Win in Craigslist Poison Pill Lawsuit" (http:/ / www. com/ story/ ebay-wins-legal-ruling-against-craigslist-2010-09-09-184200).dummies. ISBN 0-9746701-0-3. Dawn of the eBay Deadbeats: True Tales of Treachery. . McGraw-Hill. • Hillis.html) (6th ed. ISBN 0-415-97436-4. Stephen (2005). uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 7399720. Retrieved 2010-02-25. Marsha (June 29. org/ about/ press/ ebay. Opens New "Green" Building and Unveils Largest Commercial Solar Installation in San Jose" (http:/ / www. Brown & Company. Employees Switch to Clean Power With Largest Commercial Solar Installation in San Jose" (http:/ / www. . Wackiest. Retrieved 2008-05-08. Random House. For Dummies. Daily Finance. Eric M. Routledge. 2010-09-10. Edward & Klink. Mooncusser Media. com/ press_releases/ 14314-eBay-Inc-Opens-New-Green-Building-and-Unveils-Largest-Commercial-Solar-Installation-in-San-Jose-). BBC. Collecting and Desire. The eBay Entrepreneur. stake) Wall Street Journal. Christopher Matthew (2006). and Fraud from the Dark Recesses of the World's Largest Online Auction Marketplace. 2010-09-09. com/ story/ company-news/ ebay-craigslist-poison-pill-lawsuit/ 19628437/ ). thestreet. The Street. • Walton. prnewswire. bbc. The Penguin Press. . dailyfinance. co. (2004). Lies. 2008-04-23. ISBN 1-4195-8328-X. ISBN 978-0470497418. • Spencer. [123] "Ruling Restores Ebay's Stake in Craigslist" (http:/ / www. Most Famous eBay Auctions Ever. [119] "EBay sues Craigslist ad website" (http:/ / news. 2008-05-13. [121] "EBay wins legal ruling against Craigslist" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-7679-2374-X.com. Lies. Retrieved 2010-09-23.

and the third largest on Lysator. and is now known to be host to whatever its users want to share . but much bigger).000 fantasy and science fiction lovers from all over the globe logged into the site. the building of art galleries. Elfwood had thought about using LysKOM as the software for its forum. However. and a unique forum system. guestbooks and polls about anything and everything. It has about 3000 unique visitors per day according to Google Trends. and contains a quantity of articles that dwarfs that of many other wikis. and much beyond this. In February 2007 it had over 180. a wiki was added. which makes them a unique type of web-forum. forums. The wiki is filled mostly with Elftown’s members’ personal pages. artistic and unique place in the Internet. science fiction. opinions. while Elftown's hardware remained there. Elftown has features such as diaries. the users of Elftown (commonly referred to as "Elftowners") share a widespread interest in a variety of arts and styles. making it one of the biggest online communities in Sweden. They can be hard to use at first. Elftown’s wiki is now about 20 GByte of text (mostly compressed). And there are also full size images in the photo albums (65 GByte. because Elfwood’s then set-up of a LiveJournal community that didn't seem to work that well. One needs to apply to become an Elftown member. Elftown has become more than just a place to share art. In September 2004. .000 members. It was started as the official Elfwood social networking site in February 2002 by Henrik Wallin. Elftown runs on small modern hardware bought by donations from its users. Later on the project became separated and more like sister sites. Elftown has 228 000 "photos" stored (35 GByte).Elftown 198 Elftown Elftown is an Internet community or social networking site for people interested in fantasy and science fiction. art or related subjects. creating an interesting. including everything from traditional to modern.thoughts. a wiki. With time. Being of a mainly artistic origin. fewer images. a messaging system. galleries and even chat-rooms. blogging. interests and whatever else there is to chatter about. History The plan behind Elftown was at first to build a site based around dating site construction software. and is built on a unique software solution built on Roxen Webserver and Pike. approximately 14. and about as many "drawings". but there are also growing resources on fantasy and mythological creatures. The dating site software seemed to be far more adjustable to the running of discussion forums. Later. However. but this failed due to how complicated many users found the system. but everyone who bothers to try and write properly and who has a remote interest in fantasy and science fiction is accepted. and the split became more tangible in 2007 when Elfwood's servers moved from Lysator. people using netspeak may be locked out. but they are very powerful tools once a user is familiar with them. and other things that interested the people of Elfwood. webpage-building (in the wiki). The community comprises mainly Elfwood users and other people interested in fantasy. Elftown now has functions for voting and poll creation. LysKOM was a strong source of inspiration for the Elftown forums.

com/ Elftron http:/ / www. elftown.Elftown 199 References • Review of Elftown on Killerstartups [1] • History of Elftown [2] • Technical details of Elftown [3] External links • • • • Entrance page of Elftown [4] Mainstreet of Elftown [5] Elfwood. elftown. com/ _Elftown%20History http:/ / www. com . com/ [7] http:/ / trends. google. html http:/ / www. com/ Site-Reviews/ elftown-com-fantasy-and-science-fiction http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / www. com/ websites?q=elftown. com/ start. the sister community [6] Elftown at Google trends [7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. elftown. elfwood. killerstartups. elftown.

by Thomas Abrahamsson. without requiring webmaster assistance. .[4] allowing Elfwood members to manage their own individual art galleries and account information directly. 1996. its gallery consisted of three artists (including Abrahamsson). and all submissions and updates to the site were managed directly by Abrahamsson. After a while. under the name of the "Lothlorien" project and was aimed at amateur high-fantasy artists. FARP (Fantasy Art Resource Project) was created. A few months later. In April 2000 the ERB (Elfwood Review Board) was founded.869 [1] Current status Active Elfwood is a popular web-based alternative art gallery and online community devoted to original science fiction and fantasy art and writing. As the Lothlorien membership and gallery expanded.[2] [3] It was started 1 May 1996 by Thomas Abrahamsson[4] and claims to be the largest science fiction and fantasy art site in the world. 1996 25. and two years later the "Wyvern's Library" was created for written science fiction and fantasy submissions. it is responsible for maintaining the rules on Elfwood.com Mixed [6] Artistic community Yes Thomas F Abrahamsson Thomas F Abrahamsson May 1. Abrahamsson developed the site's extranet in August 1997.[5] History Early years Elfwood was originally founded on May 1.[4] [6] [7] At the time. "Zone 47" was created for sci-fi and modern fantasy art. with the individual users e-mailing Abrahamsson with their requested submissions or changes.[4] The site was hosted by the academic computer club Lysator of Linköping University in Sweden.Elfwood 200 Elfwood Elfwood URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Owner Created by Launched Alexa rank elfwood.

[4] In July the FanQuarter area was opened. In January 2004 the sections known as Zone 47 and Lothlorien followed suit with the Wyvern's Library.[10] [11] Elfwood celebrated its 10th anniversary in May 2006. including short stories as well as longer novels broken up by chapters. "Cost for hosting and servers had become too high to handle as a hobby project. dubbed "the infamous April Fool's Day Elfwood crash. movies. In May 2009. The site came back with a timewarp to February and the rules were again revised and rewritten.Elfwood 201 Temporary closing In June 2001. merging to create the current SF&F Art area.[4] In April 2009. A guest writer and guest artist was featured at the summit. replaced by a more user friendly upload interface and simpler moderation process. Elfwood artist Paul Cameron Bennett was charged in League City. Elfwood was transformed into a commercial community in September 2007. who he met through a chat-room linked through Elfwood.[14] . as well as revisions to the rules. accepting a much wider range of works and even out-of-genre items under a special 'Other Works' tab. there were 941 separate galleries in SciFi & Fantasy Art[13] and 148 galleries in FanQuarter. Elfwood was closed due to death threats and reopened a month later. Texas for kidnapping a 14-year-old girl.[4] After that. the Opus Fantasy Arts Festival held the very first Elfwood summit in conjunction with the festival. As of August 16. The Extranet was taken down its functions fully transferred to the main site.[8] Elfwood had a major crash. Abrahamsson was frequently physically unable to access the servers to maintain the site due to their former location at the university grounds. • FanQuarter is devoted to fan art based on sci-fi or fantasy themed visual media such as games. Elfwood launched a completely revised set of simplified rules."[12] With this came the move of the servers from Linköping University. All data was lost and the last backup was from February. Founder Thomas Abrahamsson said. Commercialization and afterwards After 11 years as an amateur website. with several important improvements at the site. every update has had to go through the Elfwood moderators. At the end of 2001 changes to Elfwood were put on hold so a more manageable system could be created. In November of that year. tagging of favorite members and works and much more. Site content Artistic Display Areas Elfwood has three main display areas for creative work: • SciFi & Fantasy Art is the main section (it was formerly divided in two sections. and to commemorate this anniversary. "Lothlorien" for high fantasy art and "Zone 47" for science fiction and modern/futuristic fantasy art). 2010. Archived copies of the Elfwood statistics counter from the Wayback Machine show 8000 fewer images and 200 fewer stories between the 1st and 10th of April 2005. Along with the change came a new layout for the whole site. Before the move. Elfwood was re-launched in a new look and feel. These awards are designated by a star on the thumbnail and an icon of a phoenix feather on the page of the artwork.[12] adding new features for creating user profiles also for visiting users. which were locked down during the holidays. Margaret “Katy” Catherine Wilkerson. cartoons or TV-shows. • Wyvern's Library is for sci-fi and fantasy themed stories and poetry. Along with the new moderating system came Mod's Choice awards. Elfwood was reopened in February 2002 with a new moderating system."[9] on the first of April in 2005. Each day's Mod's Choice awards can be found on the Elfwood homepage.

called the "FARP" (Fantasy Art Resource Project). and so much more. Elfwood had 6700 artists and 1300 writers. It is a free guide to the techniques used by artists and writers of Elfwood in the creation of their work. It also features the history of art. Woodworks was started in January 2002 by Georgette Tan. and includes art. writing. and other guides which may be useful to the amateur artist. It logged 14500 sessions per day. artwork and tutorials by Elfwood members. reviews. which featured articles. The name is slightly misleading since the section also contain articles on writing and world creation in general. It is now hosted in an inactive state at the main Elfwood site after the domain was finally shut down in late 2006. Later on the projects became more like sister projects and the projects got physically split in 2007 when Elfwood's servers moved. Tan later retired as Editor and Megan Larson took the position. tricks & tips. is the official forum of Elfwood. each averaging 35 minutes in length. The Elfwood ezine Woodworks [15] Statistics In 2003.[16] Date Number of Members who Publish Non-publishing Members FanArt (# of Images) 3508 (32467) 3943 (37210) 9183329 ¤ Total Comments Written SciFi Fantasy (# of Images) 2003 5 Jun 2004 [17] Fiction (# of Stories) 6700 artists and 1300 writers 22417 (383239) 24984 (434163) 4822 (30947) 5406 (34431) 1 Apr [10] 2005◊ 10 Apr [11] 2005◊ Dec 2006 May 2008 25 Feb [18] 2009 20 August 2010 29 March 2011 11286593¤ 24523 (426700) 5338 (34228) 3879 (36668) - - 11002115¤ 26285 (451312) 25867 (441332) 25685 (434637) 5771 (36182) 5773 (36055) 5767 (35853) 3836 (36740) 3595 (33830) 3472 (32479) 35451 48622 70686 83345 11002115¤ 4014119 4165282 28841 (488826†) 29436 (494174†) 6419 (37056) 6463 (37296) 3810 (-) 3843 (-) 61580 66463 100650 106205 4134721 4063941 . leading Woodworks to its final issue in December 2004.Elfwood 202 Art and Writing Tutorials Elfwood currently host a sub section. Sixty percent of the users were in the USA and most of the rest in Canada and Europe. released in February 2008. business. Elftown Elftown started out as the official Elfwood social networking site in February 2002 by Henrik Wallin. Two other notable community projects of Elfwood were Elftown and Woodworks. Community The Twilight Tavern. dedicated to articles on the creation of Fantasy and Science Fiction art and stories.

com/ review/ R2UW55K0BV8II1 [8] TJ Aulds. Mitchell's voice rooted in art (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 15. . is an Italian traditional illustrator.[31] [32] References [1] "Elfwood. while others criticize these rules for restricting artistic freedom. it did not appear to change after mid April 2005 until late 2007. alexa. 2010. [4] "Exploring Elfwood With Thomas Abrahamsson & Eliza Leahy" (http:/ / www. 2004. 2004. Blake Stimson. and in May 2009 they were further streamlined allowing also Non-Genre contents under a new "Other Works" tab.000. Tribune-Review.com. [9] http:/ / www. com/ Web20/ elfwood-com-fantasy-art-community). poorly cropped or in the case of writing. ww. Killerstartups. pittsburghlive. Wednesday. com/ ~akwhitby/ profile. the90s.com" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=-gq0EOLXVh4C& pg=PA102). ¤ This number may include posts from Elftown before the project split from Elfwood. 2010. from the ticker on the top right corner of the Elfwood site. Retrieved August 16. As of August 31. Also. In December 2006. Alexa. html). html . these numbers were around 80000 daily unique visitors and around 2000000 web pages daily. [6] http:/ / madman. com/ view/ en/ lysator [7] http:/ / www." in a quote from the San Jose Mercury News.Elfwood * Notes where data may have been left unchanged from previous recording in Wikipedia in error. google. lasso?ewcd=e631a959ddfe9809). B. † This number. Mon. a piece cannot usually be on lined paper.com Site Info" (http:/ / www.[24] Criticism Some regard Elfwood's restrictions regarding the theme and quality of the submitted material as too strict – for instance. com/ node/ 297). com/ story. 2010. Each piece is reviewed by moderators before being displayed in a gallery. Visual worlds (http:/ / books.000 million unique IP numbers (visitors) every month. elfwood. TeachEngineering. gamegrene. [5] John R. [3] Rupp. 2005 the rules were simplified. and profanity and provocative language is not allowed. 203 The Elfwood claims that it currently gets around 3. ." The Daily News.000 pageviews a day and around 3. amazon. com). November 26. com/ x/ valleyindependent/ s_272481. may be counting SciFi Fantasy and FanArt together. ◊ A major Elfwood server crash on the first of April in 2005 wiped out 2 months of data.[3] The community has been described as a "very interactive place where people are very supportive. Figure Drawing: Basic Pose and Construction by William Li and Writing Action by S.500.com . galvnews.org cited two of FARP's tutorials as "excellent guides" for figure drawing and writing about action. Crystal. "Kinko" Hulsey.[19] The FARP section of the site has been frequently recommended as a free resource for tutorials in a wide variety of creative topics. freebase. have faulty HTML. 2003-08-04 07:13. [2] "Elfwood.[20] [21] [22] [23] For example.[25] Some Elfwood fans consider the rules necessary to ensure a certain level of quality in the art they find there. Reception Elfwood has been praised as an outlet for alternative beliefs. anahut. Hall. Lisa Tamiris Becker.[27] [28] • Natalia Pierandrei — better known as "Nati".[29] [30] • Andreas Rocha — is a Portuguese 2D digital illustrator and 3D architectural designer. Gamegrene. com/ siteinfo/ elfwood. Retrieved August 15.[26] Notable artists The following are some notable artists from all over the world who contributed to Elfwood at some point in time: • Alena Lazareva — is a Russian digital artist who specializes in digital painting. killerstartups.Fantasy Art Community | Visit elfwood. . November 10. " E-mail tips off FBI on teen’s location (http:/ / www.

Texty Ladies.org [25] "Rules Introduction – The Common-Sense Rules of Elfwood" (http:/ / www. 2010. . . . [26] "Discuss Elfwood News Item: Elfwood Rules Simplified and Revised" (http:/ / www.10EA9D208469CA90. 2010. University of Colorado at Boulder TE Activity: Wow! That Captures It! (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 16. textyladies.. [14] "SciFi and Fantasy Art Galleries" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20050401014746/ http:/ / elfwood. lysator. [12] Sloan. Elfwood" (http:/ / docs. . Alena Lazareva. com/ goto. pike). com/ view_activity. html). elfwood. San Jose Mercury News. [19] "Try This. 2010. elfwood. com/ books?id=bdWpeA28Y1oC& pg=PA291). htm). pike) on 2005-04-01. Retrieved August 16.com. Techniques and Tutorials" (http:/ / www. nati-art. [31] CG-Node: Interview with Andreas Rocha (http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 02/ fantasy-art-andreas-rocha. . google. Retrieved August 16. alenalazareva. html). html). com/ fantasy_art_galleries. archive. 1-internet-courses.com. com).se/~celeborn) . . lysator. Human factors and Web development. Retrieved August 16. 2010. [29] "Blog Archive » TT: Interview with Natalia Pierandrei" (http:/ / www. Slice of SciFi News Briefs for September 5.com (http://www. com/ woodworks/ ). . com/ blog/ 2009/ 09/ interview-with-digital-artist-alena-lazareva/ ). liu. se/ elfwood. Retrieved August 16. xml) TeachEngineering. Doll Designs.com.com/) • Lothlorien announcement at Wired. 2008 (http:/ / www. 1-internet-courses. liu.com/wired/archive/4. Retrieved August 16. se/ elfwood. lysator. December 20. Archived from the original (http:/ / elfwood. k12. com/ 2008/ 07/ 03/ tt-interview-with-natalia-pierandrei/ ). archive.com. 2005. teachengineering.lysator. [30] "let yourself daydream . . "Live Help Systems" (http:/ / books. [15] "Woodworks" (http:/ / www. pike). Elfwood. [24] Integrated Teaching and Learning Program. . com) on 2009-02-25. 2010. elfwood. 2010.wired. Retrieved August 15. org/ web/ 20090225160111/ http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / elfwood. Elfwood. se/ elfwood. 2010. archive. July 7. liu. html).Elfwood [10] "Elfwood" (http:/ / web. us/ godwin/ hoen_l/ artinsight1/ art1projects/ CurrentArt1Proj. 2010. se/ elfwood. pike) on 2004-06-05. com/ g/ GooglePM/ SJ/ lib00188. Retrieved August 16. pike). elfwood.natalia pierandrei's portfolio" (http:/ / www. elfwood. [22] "A Variety of Free Courses for your enjoyment" (http:/ / www. com/ fanq/ fanart. elfwood. html). Elfwood. . com/ about. 2010. 2010. . dolldesigns. va. archive. com/ od/ digitalarttechniques/ Digital_Art_Techniques_and_Tutorials.. Elfwood. sliceofscifi.com.liu.com. php). [18] "Elfwood" (http:/ / web. org/ web/ 20050410033117/ http:/ / elfwood. Retrieved August 16. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. htm). liu. cg-node. . . teachengineering. 2010. 2010. Graphicssoft.com. html) 204 External links • Mainpage of Elfwood (http://www. lysator. 2010. Nahid Shahmehri. php?section=interview_andreas_pag1) [32] Dark Wolf's Fantasy's Reviews: Fantasy Art – Andreas Rocha (http:/ / darkwolfsfantasyreviews. pike) on 2005-04-10. August 12. lysator. 2010. .com.com. henrico. elfwood. com/ collection/ cub_/ activities/ cub_mechanics/ cub_mechanics_lesson06_activity3. liu. lysator. [23] "Digital Art Techniques and Tutorials" (http:/ / graphicssoft. liu. . about. se/ elfwood.10/net_surf. [27] "Alena Lazareva" (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 16. [11] "Elfwood" (http:/ / web. 2008. Retrieved August 16. com/ discuss/ 118032325. Retrieved August 16. Sam. com/ freecourses. php?url=http:/ / www. se/ elfwood. Retrieved August 16. html). blogspot. com/ tips.html) • Thomas Abrahamsson Homepage (http://www. [16] Johan Aberg. newsbank.elfwood. . Nati-art. com/ about-us. org/ web/ 20040605143422/ http:/ / elfwood. html [21] "Links to Dollmaking Tips. html). [17] "Elfwood" (http:/ / web.about. . [20] http:/ / teachers. com/ erb/ rules1. Robertoblake. College of Engineering. [28] "Interview With Digital Artist Alena Lazareva | NYC Graphic Designer Roberto Blake" (http:/ / robertoblake. Elfwood. com/ 2008/ 09/ 05/ slice-of-scifi-news-briefs-for-september-5-2008/ ) [13] "FanArt Galleries" (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / elfwood.

Union Square Ventures and founders of Flickr and Delicious. July 2010 Art in the Etsy office .[8] Etsy got its name because Robert Kalin "wanted a nonsense word because I wanted to build the brand from scratch. edibles. 2005 222 [2] Etsy is an e-commerce website focused on handmade or vintage items as well as art and craft supplies. wire. Many individuals also sell craft supplies like beads. you say 'etsi' a lot.7 million in sales in May 2007. Haim Schoppik. These items cover a wide range including art. Spencer and Judson Ain.' And in Latin. giving sellers personal storefronts where they list their goods for a fee of $0.[4] On July 29. photography.[7] Investors include Sean Meenan. Jared Tarbell June 18. clothing. to dresses. quilts. Chris Maguire and Haim Schoppik. The site follows in the tradition of open craft fairs.[6] Later Jared Tarbell joined the team. and jewelry-making tools. I was watching Fellini's 8 ½ and writing down what I was hearing. In Italian. Former NPR executive Maria Thomas joined as COO in 2008. was promoted to CEO and left Etsy in December 2009. yes. Robert Kalin resumed his role as CEO. That initial version had taken two and a half months to build. It means 'oh.'" [9] Etsy has grown significantly to hundreds of thousands of sellers and many times that in buyer accounts. jewelry. The vintage items on the site have only one rule to follow: they must be 20 years or older. including Adobe Flash-based visualizations and a taxonomy of categories with tags. knick-knacks and toys."[4] and to "your grandma's basement. it means 'and if. hats and scarves. a small company composed of Robert Kalin.com [1] Commercial? yes Type of site Registration Created by Launched Alexa rank E-commerce Optional Robert Kalin. by iospace.Etsy 205 Etsy Etsy URL Etsy. 2005. bath & beauty products."[5] History The site was launched on June 18.[10] Etsy passed $1.20. The engineers frequently add new tools and functionality to the site to help sellers gain exposure and traffic. These items range from old boots and ice skates. Etsy had its one-millionth sale and anticipated its Etsy staff at work. Chris Maguire.[3] It has been compared to "a crafty cross between Amazon and eBay.

[21] In September 2008. [34] In March 2011. Etsy has a permanent office called the "Etsy Labs" in DUMBO.. the interface "feels slow". a comparison of the two websites included complaints that on Etsy.[12] In January 2008.3 million purchasing 300. which fell short of the $400 million prediction. brought speculation that Etsy could be an increasing competitor.[16] Other reviewers have enjoyed using Etsy's specialized search options.[37] homemade sweets.[36] with the average sale about $15 or $20 and mostly sold by women[11] who tend to be college-educated Along with handmade products.[19] In July 2008. Etsy received an additional $27 million in funding from Union Square Ventures. who formerly worked at Yahoo!.5% of every sale. Hubert Burda Media.[12] and in their twenties and thirties.Etsy two-millionth sale would occur mid-December 2007. Kalin said that the company is profitable and "plans to go public. and PayPal. Etsy Labs has a community workspace that provides equipment and donated materials where Labs members gather to [3] make items. a 2007 effort to encourage buying handmade holiday gifts. people on Etsy sell vintage items. Etsy effectively made any past purchase with feedback eminently searchable. to help buyers and sellers connect with each other and become friends". including a strike by some dissatisfied sellers. Etsy offers multiple options for paying for items.000 items for sale on Etsy.[13] In February 2008. In November 2007.[23] In April 2009.."[32] In December 2010. Additionally. an increase of 43 percent from October 2007. Etsy has since made changes to their systems to better guard information regarding users' purchases. however. including credit card. as that is part of what distinguishes it from eBay. Etsy is one of the main members of the Handmade Consortium. it has approximately 60 employees and sales of $10 to 13 million per month.[25] .[28] along with less 206 expensive or more unusual versions of mass-produced items.[15] At the time.[3] In June 2007 it expected to be profitable by the fall. users organized an "etsyday" promotion on Twitter that brought extra attention to the site. including founders Haim Schoppik and Chris Maguire. and Jim Breyer.[30] [31] In March 2010. however.[22] The company acknowledged concerns about vendors selling other people's work as their own. Etsy hired Chad Dickerson. [35] Operations Etsy makes money by charging a listing fee of 20 cents for each item and getting 3. The site's customer support.[26] Etsy is popular as a side-business[27] as well as a place to buy goods made from recycled and upcycled materials. as Chief Technology Officer.[17] [18] including the "Shop Local" tool. communications teams operate out of this office. and craft supplies.[24] As of May 2009. Etsy "introduced a Facebook-style social networking system called People Search. marketing/PR. Etsy said it had seven million registered users and predicted $400 million in transactions for the year. Etsy saw revenues increase from $180 million to $314 million. and the buying and selling process is United States-centric.[11] but in December 2007 it was not a profitable company. business and Etsy Labs community workspace area. and attend special events. buyers spent $4. take and teach workshops.[25] possibly boosted by consumer interest in cheaper and more personalized goods due to the United States recession.[33] In 2010. Rob Kalin ceded the position of CEO to Maria Thomas. trouble at eBay. some Etsy sellers expressed unhappiness with how Etsy was handling complaints about stores. and that it would continue to focus on a personal community feel as it grows larger.[20] Some longtime Etsy employees left the company in August 2008. Brooklyn.[29] The unique nature of many of the items for sale is part of their appeal to some shoppers. though not until at least next year. By doing so. money order. items are difficult to find.[14] At the same time.

[5] Slatalla. New York Times. com). The Social. "Touring Etsy. International Herald Tribune.P2P Commerce with Tagging" (http:/ / www. com/ siteinfo/ www. . com/ storque/ etsy-news/ a-fond-farewell-2483/ ). crafts). Fauzia (2009-05-03). html?_r=2& oref=slogin& ref=magazine& pagewanted=all). "A Fond Farewell" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-05-12. New York Times Magazine (New York Times). [9] "How Etsy. . Rob (2007-12-16). cbc. . com/ features/ lifestyle/ chi-tc-fash-etsy-0504-0503may03. auctionbytes. uk/ technology/ 2008/ oct/ 15/ etsy-arts-and-crafts-online). Inc. [22] Steiner. affordable and online" (http:/ / www.0 Awards (2006) . "Craft capitalism: Just do it yourself" (http:/ / www. . Alexa Internet. [23] Johnson. businessweek. . "Etsy" (http:/ / www. com/ Articles/ Internet/ Inventions/ etsy-shop-12587. "Turn your skills or your stuff into extra cash" (http:/ / www. html). Retrieved 2008-02-27. Michelle (2007-01-18). stuff/ index. . "Crafty commerce site Etsy gets $27 million in funding" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-05-12. origins. Retrieved 2007-12-19. Etsy. Retrieved 20 April 2011. CNET News. Arlene (2009-02-24). . unionsquareventures.0. aspx). html). com/ articles/ 2007/ 12/ 14/ business/ wbcraft. [20] Kalin. . 2008-02-19. Retrieved 2008-07-28. Retrieved 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "The Long View: Rob & Maria" (http:/ / www. Bobbie (2008-10-15). etsy. for. html). April (2009-04-24). com/ stories/ 2009/ 04/ 24/ artists-share-love-earth-and-crafts/ ). com/ 2007/ 06/ 24/ fashion/ 24renegade. [27] Haley. Claire Cain (2008-12-22). chicagotribune.co. [14] "Ebay. Retrieved 2008-02-27. Fred (2006-06-05). After Meg" (http:/ / www. alexa. nytimes. Columbia Missourian. New York Times. [25] "Etsy Crafts a Recession Success" (http:/ / www.0" (http:/ / www. "Etsy: A Site for Artisans Takes Off" (http:/ / www. html?hpt=C2). Robert (2008-07-09). "Rooting Around Grandma's Basement in Cyberspace" (http:/ / www.ca). "Artists share love of Earth and crafts" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-05-12. uk/ technology/ 2008/ feb/ 18/ etsy. . [11] Miller. . Ina (2009-04-05). Knowledge@Wharton. CNN. seomoz. forbes. [18] Lott. Kerry (2007-06-12). Retrieved 2009-05-12. com/ 2007/ 01/ 18/ fashion/ 18Online. Michael (2005-11-08). Retrieved 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2008-12-08. Steven and Chris (CBC. Melena (2007-06-24). cnn.uk. . name. Digits (Wall Street Journal). Retrieved 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "Etsy: eBay for arts and crafts" (http:/ / www. the Recession Is a Help" (http:/ / www. html?ex=157680000& en=8b334fa53f7dd9da& ei=5124& partner=permalink& exprod=permalink). 2009-05-01. . nytimes. co. com/ smallbiz/ content/ jun2007/ sb20070611_488723.Etsy 207 References [1] http:/ / www.com. Invention and Technology News. [12] Walker. marketingweek. htm). Techcrunch. html). org/ web2. Rob (2007-12-15). Storque. Reddit got their names" (http:/ / www. php). . [4] Ryzik. Dudes Are" (http:/ / www. Caroline (2008-01-30). "How #etsyday Grew on Twitter" (http:/ / blogs.co. [10] Arrington. Netbytes (London: Guardian. Marketing Week. "Do You Etsy?" (http:/ / www. "An Etsy bitsy fashion secret: Spring trends. 2008-07-22. com/ 2011/ LIVING/ 04/ 22/ website. (2009-04-24). your. Retrieved 2010-10-06.3856316. nytimes. com/ 360889/ sellers-growing-increasingly-unhappy-with-lack-of-professionalism-at-etsy). story). guardian. "Where the Crafts Babes and D. com/ [2] "Etsy . Retrieved 2009-05-12.I. "Etsy's Handmade Goods Inspire the Shopper in All of Us" (http:/ / news. Alexander (2009-02-19). [7] "New Roles at Etsy Inc. .Y. html?_r=2& oref=slogin& ref=style& pagewanted=all& oref=slogin). New York Times.uk). Retrieved 2007-12-19. "For Craft Sales. uk/ cgi-bin/ item. [28] Choi. etsy. . . cgi?id=64373& u=pg_dtl_art_news& m=271). co. 0/ interview/ etsy/ 2006). Storque. com/ digits/ 2009/ 04/ 24/ how-etsyday-grew-on-twitter/ ). Chris (2008-08-28). html). Retrieved 2009-05-12. etsy. Retrieved 2007-12-19. CNN. guardian. . Etsy. Jack (2008-02-18). iht. [15] Marco. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ business/ 23craft. [16] Schofield. aspx?R=1007066). eMarketer Digital Intelligence.Interview with Robert Kalin of Etsy" (http:/ / www. . Union Square Ventures. emarketer. . com/ Article. techcrunch. [26] Miller. "Handmade 2. Retrieved 2007-12-19. [29] Arain. Geoffrey A. columbiamissourian. mf/ index. [21] Maguire. news. [8] Wilson. Jen (2009-01-15). BusinessWeek.traffic statistics" (http:/ / www. . com/ 8301-13577_3-9861216-36. com/ 2005/ 11/ 08/ etsy-is-ebay-20/ ). eBay. [13] McCarthy. AuctionBytes. . Tribune Newspapers. Etsy. com/ storque/ etsy-news/ the-long-view-rob-maria-2150/ ). [6] Orland. wsj. cnn. html?_r=2& partner=rss& pagewanted=all). . "Sellers Growing Increasingly Unhappy With Lack Of Professionalism At Etsy" (http:/ / consumerist.com's Brooklyn Headquarters" (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 12/ 16/ magazine/ 16Crafts-t. [17] Takac. com/ 2009/ LIVING/ personal/ 01/ 15/ money. . Retrieved 2008-02-27. . 2011-04-22. com/ 2006/ 06/ etsy_1. "Web 2. Storque. Retrieved 2008-02-27. "Etsy . ca/ stevenandchris/ 2009/ 02/ do_you_etsy. Retrieved 2009-05-12. inventhelp. "Arts and crafts for the space age" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-05-12." (http:/ / www. Meg (2008-02-26). "Etsy brings handmade crafts closer to home" (http:/ / www. com/ entrepreneurstechnology/ 2008/ 02/ 19/ ebay-google-amazon-ent-tech-cx_kw_0219whartonebay. nytimes. co. . . Retrieved 2009-05-12. . com/ storque/ section/ etsyNews/ article/ etsy-announcement-new-roles-at-etsy-inc/ 2268/ ). [24] Fowler. com/ cab/ abu/ y209/ m04/ abu0236/ s02). . Micki (2009-02-16). London: Guardian. Retrieved 2007-12-17. [3] Walker. etsy. . etsy. [19] Baxevanis. Consumerist. Kat.

html?mod=WSJ_hp_editorsPicks). "Online Bazaar Builds on Its Base With Sense of Community" (http:/ / www. Jenna (2010-12-26). wired. . [36] Marion. most feel-good way to shop" (http:/ / www. cnn. Wired Magazine. . Retrieved 20 March 2011. "Clive Thompson on the Revolution in Micromanufacturing" (http:/ / www. "Creating Etsy's Handmade Marketplace" (http:/ / online. [33] Wortham. html). Wall Street Journal. "writer" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-05-12. com/ 2011/ 03/ etsy-2011-sales-revenue-expected-to-exceed-400-million-sales-grew-74-4-in-2010/ ). nytimes. Cox News Service. 2011. com/ style/ hfe/ crafts/ articles/ 2006/ 08/ 08/ 20060808etsy0808. .com. Retrieved 2011-01-01. Quarterly Retail Review. Mark (2008-09-19).Etsy [30] Thompson. com/ 2010/ 12/ 27/ technology/ 27etsy. [32] Evans. "A crafty way to beat the chain stores" (http:/ / www. "Etsy may be the coolest. salon. Teri (2010-03-30). com/ 2008/ TECH/ science/ 09/ 18/ craft. [37] Steiner.etsy. [31] Tutton. 208 External links • Official website (http://http://www. Retrieved 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2007-12-19. Ina (2008-11-02). Clive (2009-02-23). . Retrieved 2010-03-30. com/ entertainment/ tv/ feature/ 2011/ 03/ 15/ etsy_privacy_people_search/ index. html). AuctionBytes. Retrieved 2009-05-12.4% in 2010" (http:/ / www. com/ article/ SB10001424052702304370304575152133860888958. . New York Times. Drew. Etsy's social media DIY-saster. [34] "Etsy 2011 Sales Revenue Expected to Exceed $400 Million – Sales Grew 74. auctionbytes. CNN. com/ techbiz/ people/ magazine/ 17-03/ st_thompson). com/ cab/ abu/ y208/ m11/ abu0226/ s03). quarterlyretailreview. . March 1. Fred (2006-08-08). html). [35] Grant.com/) . azcentral. Salon. "Ecommerce Collides with Handmade: An Interview with Etsy" (http:/ / www.com. revival/ ). wsj. . .

EverQuest 209 EverQuest EverQuest Developer(s) Publisher(s) Platform(s) Release date(s) Genre(s) Mode(s) Rating(s) Sony Online Entertainment Sony Online Entertainment Windows.) . and Bill Trost. digital download EverQuest. ranger. and distributes EverQuest. DVD-ROM. eye color. etc. runs. which range from elves. SOE develops. facial hair color.[2] EverQuest's development is ongoing. face style. The original design is credited to Brad McQuaid. including 1999 GameSpot Game of the Year and a 2008 Technology & Engineering Emmy Award. to cat-people (Vah Shir). players select each character's adventuring occupation (such as a wizard. "House of Thule". was released on October 12. Customization to the character facial appearance is available at creation (hair. lizard-people (Iksar). Since its acquisition of Verant in late 1999. Steve Clover. or cleric called a class--see below for particulars). a patron deity.[3] which in turn were inspired by traditional role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons. and dragon-people (Drakkin). facial hair. is a 3D fantasy-themed massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) that was released on the 16th of March. It was developed by Sony's 989 Studios and its early-1999 spin-off Verant Interactive. hair color. Mac OS X (partial) 16 March 1999 Fantasy MMORPG Multiplayer online • ESRB: T (Teen) Media/distribution CD-ROM. Gameplay Many of the elements from EverQuest have been drawn from text-based MUD (multi-user dungeon) games.[4] At creation. or colloquially as char or toon) by selecting one of 16 "races" in the game. and the 17th expansion. 1999.[1] It was published by Sony Online Entertainment (SOE). EverQuest has earned numerous awards. players create a character (also known as an avatar. In EverQuest. often shortened to EQ. dwarves and ogres of fantasy. and starting city. 2010.

EverQuest Players use their character to explore the fantasy world of Norrath, fight monsters and enemies for treasure and experience points, and master trade skills. As they progress, players advance in level, gaining power, prestige, spells, and abilities through actions such as defeating capable opponents, looting the remains of defeated enemies and completing quests (tasks and adventures given by non-player characters (NPCs). EverQuest allows players to interact with other people through role-play, joining player guilds, and dueling other players (in restricted situations--EQ only allows Player versus Player (PVP) combat on the PvP-specific server, specified "arena" zones and through agreed upon dueling).


A Sand Giant engaging a group in the Oasis of Marr, a desert zone

The geography of the game universe consists of nearly four hundred zones. Multiple instances of the world exist on various servers. In the past, game server populations were visible during log-in, and showed peaks of more than 3000 players per server. The design of EverQuest, like other Massively Multiplayer Online Games, makes it very group-centric, with each player having a specific role or function within the group.

The fourteen classes of the original 1999 version of EverQuest were later expanded to include the Beastlord and Berserker classes with the Shadows of Luclin (2001) and Gates of Discord (2004) expansions, respectively. The classes can be grouped into those that share similar characteristics that allow them to play certain types of roles within the game when grouped with others. One way of grouping classes is described below. Tank classes Members of this group are those that have a high number of 'health points' for their level, and who may wear heavy armor. They have the ability to taunt enemies into focusing on them, rather than other party members who may be more susceptible to damage and death. • Warrior: the prototypical "tank" class, able to avoid and mitigate more damage than any other class. In a way, this is offset by their inability to cast spells. Warriors were often designated as main "tank" due to a discipline they receive called Defensive Stance which mitigated a percent of incoming physical damage for a set period of time. • Shadow Knight: a durable tank class; this Warrior/Necromancer hybrid has vampiric and damage-over-time spells. Shadow Knights have the unique ability to Harm Touch (do direct damage) every 72 minutes, the power of which increases in absolute terms but decreases relative to enemies' hit points as a player levels up. Since this class is a hybrid, they must wait longer than the Necromancer to begin receiving spells, and longer yet for the more potent incantations such as Summon Corpse and Feign Death. In most cases the level difference in spell acquirement is +25-30 levels. For example a Necromancer might learn a certain spell at level 4 that a Shadow Knight is unable to learn until level 34. Eventually - Shadow Knights are able to summon a weak skeleton pet, summon players' corpses who are in the same zone as them, and cast the spell feign death, similar to the monk's feign death skill. The feign death spell allows the Shadow Knight to function as a "puller" for a group when successfully casting the spell allowing them to clear their agro list by pretending they are dead. Their necromantic abilities give them great power over the undead, making them able to do more damage to those opponents.

EverQuest • Paladin: the 'virtuous' counterpart to the Shadow Knight, a Paladin is a hybrid Warrior/Cleric. They were originally able to Lay on Hands (heal themselves or another player) once every 72 minutes (real-time); Lay on Hands is now available as an innate magic through the AA window; it maxes at rank 9 and can then be further enhanced through progressing it as an AA. At mid-levels, paladins can purchase some resurrection spells. Paladins are tough in melee with some healing, protective, and stun spells. At mid-range levels, they can purchase a "pacify" line of spells that allows them to function as a "puller" for a group. Like Shadow Knights, Paladins have powers which enable them to do comparatively greater damage to undead opponents. Damage dealers The following classes are able to deal high corporeal damage to opponents. Within the game, these classes are often referred to as 'DPS', which stands for Damage Per Second. There is not a single overall "best dps" class, as depending on many factors which vary from one encounter to another (such as the enemy's armor, its positioning, and its magic resistance), one among Berserkers, Rogues, or Wizards may be the better dealer than the other two in a specific instance. The melee damage dealers have a medium number of hit points per level, but cannot wear the heaviest armors and are less likely than a "tank" class to be able to survive direct attacks for a sustained period of time. • Beastlord: A unique class which combines some powers from the Monk and Shaman classes along with a powerful pet. Beastlords can imbue their pets with powers and combat enemies with hand-to-hand skills or with weapons. They can "de-buff" enemies with spells, and possess modest healing abilities. This diverse array of skills allows Beastlords to be effective solo adventurers at many levels as well as being handy in a group. • Berserker: A specialist form of the melee type, the Berserker is primarily a medium-armored, high-damage dealer that uses two-handed weapons and who can hurl axes and other thrown objects in the form of spell-like abilities, namely stunning and snaring their opponents. • Monk: As masters of martial arts, Monks are the hand-to-hand fighting experts who can learn to use one handed and two handed blunt weapons and are a powerful melee damage-dealer. Monks get many, if not all, combat skills (dual wield, double attack, triple attack, etc.) before any other class. Monks have the ability to feign death with a high degree of reliability and other skills that enable them to be a strong "pulling" class. They have the ability to heal themselves, with a moderate cooldown, with the ability Mend. • Ranger: A versatile hybrid class combining some of a Warrior's ability with a Druid's spells, Rangers are able to deal large amounts of damage both from a ranged distance and in melee. Their most unusual ability is to track unseen NPCs, for which they can be used as "pullers" in outdoor zones. Rangers also have the ability to "taunt" and a "harmony" line of spells (like "pacify", but only works outdoors) which allow them to play the role of "tank" to a limited degree. They can make use of archery better than any other class. Their line of snare spells (which slows enemies' run speed) is very useful in XP groups to stop enemies from running away when seriously injured, and kiting. • Rogue: With their backstab ability, which multiplies damage done to an unguarded enemy's back, Rogues are able to inflict a very high rate of damage, if they are in a party that can keep the opponent facing away from the Rogue. Later in life, with the help of alternate advancement abilities, rogues are able to backstab opponents even when facing them. Rogues have the ability to make poisons, pick pockets, and pick locks. Their abilities early on to sneak and hide allow them to walk past both living and undead mobs without being seen.


EverQuest Casters Caster classes have the lowest hit points per level and can only wear the lightest of armors. Casters draw their power from an internal pool of mana, which takes some time to regenerate and thus demands judicious and efficient use of spells. • Wizard: The primary nuking class; these casters are able to deal catastrophic damage to enemies over a very short time from a distance, particularly with their Manaburn skill, although the length of encounters often makes manaburn inefficient to use. Wizards have transportation spells that facilitate group travel to particular locations, including designated "safe spots" when things go bad for the whole group. Wizards direct damage spells are generally from the fire, frost, and magic schools. • Magician: Usually referred to as Mages, Magicians are similar to the Wizard class but with noticeably less direct-damage spell power. They are able to summon strong elemental pets, viz. Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, each with unique strengths and weaknesses. They have the capability to conjure pet armor and weapons, food, drink, and mod rods, which allow players to convert their health into mana. Magicians can summon party members to different parts of a zone with the Call of the Hero spell, which can be helpful in raid zones. Magicians' direct damage spells are generally from the fire school of magic. • Necromancer: These "masters of death" are able to summon, buff, and heal powerful undead pets and use poison, magic, fire, and disease damage-over-time spells.[5] Necromancers are able to feign death, snare enemies, and summon players' corpses in-zone. They have a combination of skills and abilities, most notably the ability to snare (make a target run/walk slowly), fear (make the target run directly away from the caster) and lifetap (heal the caster and damage the target) that allows them to function as an effective solo class. All caster classes have the ability to 'Research', an activity where all players can make spells for use by other players. These are made using assortments of different pieces of quest material found in the game. Crowd control / utility These classes share the ability to keep multiple enemies from attacking the party and have the ability to increase party members' ability to regenerate mana. • Enchanter: A caster class that has few hit points per level and can wear only the lightest forms of armor, Enchanters are crowd control experts and are the most proficient class at Charming, Stunning, and Mesmerizing enemies. They have the ability to Memory Blur an opponent (causing them to forget they were being attacked) or Pacify an opponent (making them oblivious to antagonists in the area, but which has a small chance of backfiring), both of which may be extremely useful in avoiding unwanted skirmishes. Enchanters have a wide range of utility spells, including the Clarity (AKA "crack") line of spells, which when cast on a player allows them to regenerate mana at an improved rate. In addition to being able to both increase players' rate of attack (with the Haste line of spells), and Slowing that of enemies, Enchanters may also cast Illusions on themselves and others, which may have no real benefit (other than conferring a new look) or may grant tangible benefits such as underwater breathing, flight, or a vampiric touch. Lastly, Enchanters possess the unique Rune line of spells, which creates a magical protective buffer against all forms of damage until it has been worn down. This class is also uniquely suited for the jewelcraft trade, because it is the only class able to enchant metals. It is also one of the four classes able to make spells using the spell research trade skill. • Bard: a jack-of-all-trades class with fair melee ability, good armor, and the ability to play songs that benefit all nearby comrades, such as "crowd control" effects as well as mana and health regeneration. Bards possess the unique ability to 'fade' from their enemies memories. This makes the bard an excellent pulling class. Bards possess lesser versions of many of the special abilities of other classes. They are known for their ability early on to increase the movement speed of their party faster than any mount or movement buff. Bards can weave the effects of up to four songs at once to confer the greatest advantage to their group. Bards themselves often do not receive the full benefit of their songs, but they can still be an effective solo class at many levels, especially with


EverQuest their strong "kiting" proficiency. "Kiting" is a form of attack based on drawing an enemy within the caster's spell range and casting to deal damage but continually running ahead of the enemy in order to remain outside the attack range of the NPC (or PC for that matter) allowing the aggressor to deal damage without taking any damage themselves. This method, which got its name because the player drags an enemy behind them like a person flying a kite, is used by many classes but happens to be especially effective with the Bard's class. For a very long time the Bard was generally considered the most overpowered class in the game, able to originally "stack" multiple versions of "buffs" and benefit from all of them while other classes could not. The Bard is also the only class able to cast spells from items while running at the same time. Healers Priest classes have medium level of hit points per level and have access to healing and "buff" spells. • Cleric: The most powerful healer in the game, and for the first few years of EverQuest the only class capable of resurrection with experience regained, and the only class with the spell Complete Heal. As the game has changed, Complete Heal has become less effective compared to the cleric's many different lines of more powerful and quicker (albeit more mana-intensive) heals. Primarily healers, the cleric also have some "death save" spells, as "Divine Intervention" and can increase spell casting haste with "Blessing of Loyalty". Clerics can wear the heaviest plate-mail type armors. Clerics are great solo classes due to the introduction of the "Vow of Valor" line of spells, which provides the cleric with increased melee damage and a high rate of self regeneration, at the cost of halving their direct heals' power. • Druid: A priest class that can cast healing spells, teleport, snare (to slow down enemies movement rate), and moderately-powerful nuking and damage-over-time spells, as well as charming animals to use them as pets. The range of abilities allows druids to play multiple roles in a group or to solo effectively. Their heals are lesser than clerics and better than shamans, but they share some of the healing/cures spells with the shamans. The Druid hitpoint (HP) spells, the "skin" line, also includes a mana regen component, and they can cast "Flight of the Eagle", the fastest group run speed spell in the game. Druids may only wear "leather class" armors. Druids also have a number of transportation spells that allow speedy movement throughout much of the gaming world, just as wizards, but the two classes have different zones or places in the zones that they are able to teleport to. Their combined tracking and foraging skills make them excellent trade-skillers, in terms of finding various components necessary for baking, tailoring, brewing and the like. Druids can, just like shamans, resurrect (rez) other players after a fight, but with the same experienced regained as a paladin, or a lower level cleric, can rez all the time. During the fight, the shaman and druid will instead use the AA "Call of the Wild) which calls the other player back to their corpse, without any experience regained, but the corpse can be resurrected later. • Shaman: Shamans can take many roles, and are often considered as a "utility" class. They are excellent in soloing, group and raid situations. With smaller heals than the other two classes, a shaman often has to use several skills at the same time where a cleric could simply heal right through: keeping a heal-over-time (HoT) spell at the tank, slow the enemy's rate of attack, as well as using their ordinary heals. Their buffs are both long duration buffs, which increases hitpoints (HP), agility and mitigation, and short durations buffs, which need to be recast often. The short buffs can be divided into two areas, where the first one is enhancing their group members dps, damage per second, with spells as "Champion" and the "Talisman of the Lynx" and with their epic. This works especially well on melee groups. The other short buff area is mainly directed towards tanks, "Listlessness" is cast on tanks, and when the tank gets hit, there is a chance that the monster will receive a small pre-slow, and the tank will receive a HoT on them. "Wild Growth" is a spell shamans share with the druids, and is a large HP increase during a short time. While a raiding shaman will primarily heal and increase other classes dps, a soloing shaman or a shaman in a group will use their strong damage-over-time (DoT) spells, primarily based on poison, curse and disease. Shamans, or "Shammies" may cannibalize their health to restore mana which means that they are able to keep casting their spells for much longer times than clerics or druids. They wear "chain mail" levels of armor, and can summon a pet. Because of the range of Shaman's spells, they are sometimes considered a "utility" class.


EverQuest Shamans are the only class able to make potions with the Alchemy skill.[6]


There are several deities in EverQuest who each have a certain area of responsibility and play a role in the "backstory" of the game setting. A wide array of armor and weapons are also deity-tied, making it possible for only those who worship that deity to wear/equip them. Additionally, deities determine, to some extent, where characters may and may not go without being killed on sight.

The EverQuest universe is divided into "more than 375" zones.[7] These zones represent a wide variety of geographical features, including plains, oceans, cities, deserts, and other planes of existence. One of the most popular zones in the game is the Plane of Knowledge, one of the few zones in which all races and classes can coexist harmoniously without interference. The Plane of Knowledge is also home to portals to many other zones, including portals to other planes and to the outskirts of nearly every starting city.

Social dynamics
Generally speaking, gameplay in EverQuest may be divided into adventuring – questing or gaining experience and loot, trading with other players, social interaction with other players, and tradeskilling – crafting game items using trade skills. On certain servers however there are special dynamics that exist. There are two main types of servers, those known as "red" servers where PVP (player versus player) can exist in one of two ways and non-pvp servers otherwise known as "blue" servers. The two forms of red servers are PVP free for all and PVP race wars, also named Team PVP. Free for all servers allow all classes and races to Lord Doljonijiarnimorinar guards the lower reaches of Velketor's attack at will any other player (the specific rules of Labyrinth play depend on the server that the players exist upon). The team PVP/race war servers are split into teams. These teams allow players to attack one another that are on opposing teams and protect those players that are on their team unless the player agrees to a "duel". A duel is an agreement which is entered into by the submission by both players acting as a contract and breaking the inert server rules thus allowing the two players to fight until death. Adventuring can be done alone (soloing); by forming or joining a group (grouping) with one to five other characters; or by forming or joining a raid (raiding) with as many characters as a zone can support. At low levels, all classes have the ability to solo. At higher levels only certain classes are widely popular for gaining experience by soloing. While some parts of EverQuest can be experienced without the help of other players, much of EQ has been designed to strongly encourage or require grouping. In these cases, a single character within the "design intent" level range for the encounter must often be twinked with equipment or have spell enhancements (buffs) to succeed easily, if at all. A group (or "party") may form to adventure, trade, or simply socialize. While any combination of classes can form a group, an adventuring group will often consist of a "tank", a "healer", one or more "damage dealers", someone to do

EverQuest "crowd control" and someone to bring the mobs to the group. The last role is called "pulling", and is a tactic used quite often when it is more effective to place the bulk of the group in a "safe", or at least "controlled", location. While a character of any class may "pull", this role is frequently held by a Monk, Shadow Knight or Paladin. A Ranger or Druid using the tracking ability is sometimes especially effective, particularly outdoors. Other groupings can also be effective. Especially popular is Duoing with healer/tank (or at least healer/melee) tandems. Most parts of the game can be completed with a single group, but some of the most challenging and rewarding encounters (especially in terms of loot) require players to raid. Any number of characters may take part in a raid. EQ's "Raid Window" will only allow 72 participants to directly share in raid experience and automatic raid loot rules. The upper limit for a given raid may be imposed by: the maximum number allowed in the "Raid Window", the maximum number of characters allowed in certain instanced zones, the maximum number the raid leaders can manage, or the maximum number that can be present without causing the zone or the players' computers to crash. The design of encounters in expansions have changed resulting in raid tactics that have become more and more involved. While "groups" and "raids" are temporary gatherings of players, "guilds" are associations that last beyond a single play session. Guilds are initially formed via an application process to SOE. Guilds may have widely varying goals. Each guild member can communicate with all (and only) other members at once using the GUILD chat channel. A character's guild affiliation appears with the character name when viewed in game. In some instances they are little more than a loose configuration of players who wish to be able to communicate easily. At the other end of the spectrum are guilds that concentrate on tackling challenging raid dungeons and boss monsters. Such "raid guilds" may require members to commit up to eight hours per day to the game, up to seven days a week. Players may be rewarded in these guilds with dragon kill points, an unofficial system of points awarded to players by guild leaders meant to make loot distribution less random. Dragon kill points (or DKP for short) were first created by a raiding guild in Everquest and named for Lady Vox and Lord Nagafen, two boss dragons.[8] [9] [10]


Gameplay jargon
Jargon develops around the need for shortened representations of in-game phenomena. Without the formation of this jargon, communicating various events inside the game world becomes tedious and even impossible in some scenarios. As shown above (grouping, soloing, raiding, pulling, etc.), EverQuest has its own jargon. Abbreviations and acronyms also may aid, or at least shorten, communication among players. Examples include SoW ("Spirit of Wolf" - a popular spell which accelerates run or walk speed), KEI (an acronym for "Koadic's Endless Intellect" - another popular spell which accelerates mana regeneration), PoK (Plane of Knowledge - a major "crossroads" zone for travelers), and "rez" (Resurrect - any of several spells or abilities cast on a corpse to summon the player to it, often restoring lost experience points). "Crack" or "mind candy" refers to mana regeneration spells such as Clarity or KEI. Additionally, a "mezz" (noun or verb, short for "mesmerize") refers to an ability that several classes and mobs have: the ability to render a target momentarily unable to act in any way, until the mezz wears off or the target sustains damage, which will instantly break the mezz. Nerf refers to game balance changes when they are viewed as unfair. DKP (Dragon kill points), a raid loot distribution method, originated in Everquest, and is now used within the game World of Warcraft. Proc (short for "Programmed Random OCcurence" by which an item's effect is generated) and Farm are credited as coming to WoW from EQ.[11] Some terms have made their way into EQ from other games, such as the term Zerging from the computer game StarCraft--used when a raid's main strategy is to overwhelm an enemy by sheer force of numbers. Monsters are sometimes called MOBs or mobs; a shorthand term for "mobile object", which is a computer controlled character in the game world. It is a practice that started in MUDs. Additionally, an example of this jargon can be seen in the word "Con." Con is an abbreviated version of the word `consider,' but it represents more than just the word, it represents an in-game system for measuring a monster's strength. What a monster "Cons" is an indicator of that monster's level of difficulty relative to the player. For

EverQuest example, if a player targets a monster and presses the `c' key, a textual message appeared on the screen informing the player of the monster's strength. Upon "Conning" a monster which was too difficult for the player, red text stated, "What would you like your tombstone to say?" This message allows the player to make an informed decision on whether or not he wishes to fight that monster. Frequently while playing Everquest, a player might be asked the `Con' of a monster by another player, and usually the response would be classified as one of seven colors: Grey, green, light blue, dark blue, white, yellow, and red. The answers are typified in this way because the five classifications of relative strength are represented by one of these colors. So if a player answered that a monster Cons green, that monster was relatively safe to engage, whereas a red monster would be a dangerous encounter. 'Conning' also lets the player know if the target is friendly, neutral, or hostile. This also stems from a practice that started in MUDs. While mostly consistent throughout the entire EQ community, there are also some differences in jargon among servers, and among Asian, European and American gaming communities. For example, KEI is also known as C3 (it is the third version of Clarity). In-game chat may prove quite impenetrable to anyone who has not played EQ extensively.


From John Smedley's initial concept in 1996, throughout various corporate restructurings, Sony has directly or indirectly been responsible for, and John Smedley has guided, the development of EverQuest.[1] EverQuest II was released in late 2004.[12] Set in an alternate universe similar to that of the original EverQuest, this "sequel" takes place 500 years after the awakening of The Sleeper. The game has also inspired a number of other spinoffs. The third iteration in the series, with the working title EverQuest Next, is currently in the early stages of development as first reported in the 2009 10th Anniversary EverQuest Book.[13] At the SOE Fan Faire in August 2010, in-game screenshots, concept art and more information was revealed.[14]

The design and concept of EverQuest is heavily indebted to text-based MUDs, in particular DikuMUD, and as such EverQuest is considered a 3D evolution of the text MUD genre like some of the MMOs that preceded it such as Meridian 59 and The Realm Online. John Smedley, Brad McQuaid, Steve Clover and Bill Trost who jointly are credited with creating the world of EverQuest have repeatedly pointed to their shared experiences playing MUDs such as DIKU and TorilMUD as the inspiration for the game.[3] Keith Parkinson created the box covers for earlier installments of EverQuest. Development of EverQuest began in 1996 when Sony Interactive Studios America (SISA) executive John Smedley secured funding for a 3D game much like text-based MUDs following the successful launch of Meridian 59 the previous year. To implement the design Smedley hired programmers Brad McQuaid and Steve Clover who had come to Smedley's attention through their work on the single player RPG Warwizard. McQuaid soon rose through the ranks to become Executive Producer for the EverQuest franchise and emerged during development of EverQuest as a popular figure among the fan community through his in-game avatar, Aradune. Other key members of the development team included Bill Trost, who created the history, lore and major characters of Norrath (including Everquest protagonist Firiona Vie), Geoffrey "GZ" Zatkin who implemented the spell system, and artist Milo D. Cooper, who did the original character modeling in the game. EverQuest launched with modest expectations from Sony on 16 March 1999 under its Verant Interactive brand and quickly became successful. By the end of the year, it had surpassed competitor Ultima Online in number of subscriptions. Numbers continued rising rapidly until mid-2001 when growth slowed. Sony's last reported subscription numbers were given as "more than 430,000 players" on 14 January 2004.[15] SOE released a Mac OS X

EverQuest version of EverQuest in 2003, incorporating all expansions through Planes of Power. Development of the OS X version has languished since then, but the server remains up and running, supporting a small but enthusiastic user community. In anticipation of PlayStation's launch Sony Interactive Studios America had made the decision to focus primarily on console titles under the banner 989 Studios while spinning off its sole computer title, EverQuest, which was ready to launch, to a new computer game division named Redeye (renamed Verant Interactive). Executives initially had very low expectations for EverQuest but in 2000, following the surprising continued success and unparalleled profits of EverQuest, Sony reorganized Verant Interactive into Sony Online Entertainment (SOE) with Smedley retaining control of the company. Many of the original EverQuest team, including Brad McQuaid, Steve Clover and Geoffrey Zatkin had left SOE by 2002. Subscription history Verant from 1999 to 2001 and SOE from 2001 to 14 January 2004 issued formal statements giving some indications of the number of EQ subscriptions and peak numbers of players online at any given moment.[15] However, most of these announcements have been archived and are available only by seeking historical copies through online "internet archives" or other sources. Accepting both Sony's press releases and the internet archives available today as accurate, these records show a rapid rise in subscriptions to "...more than 225,000..." on 1 November 1999. Sony announced the achievement of 300,000 subscriptions on 30 October 2000. By 2 October 2001, Sony stated that there were "...over 410,000...". On 29 July 2002, Sony announced that there were "...over 430,000..." and that for the 1st time 100,000 had played simultaneously. In preparation for the Fan Faire of 2003, Sony announced on 25 September 2003, that there were "... more than 450,000..." subscriptions. With that single exception, from 13 March 2003 until the final reference on 14 January 2004,[15] Sony releases that contained numbers referred only to more than 430,000 subscriptions, and/or more than 118,000 simultaneous logins. This leaves the peak and current number of subscriptions for EQ to secondary sources.


There have been seventeen expansions to the original game since release. Expansions are purchased separately and provide additional content to the game (for example: raising the maximum character level; adding new races, classes, zones, continents, quests, equipment, game features). Additionally, the game is updated through downloaded patches. The EQ expansions: 1. The Ruins of Kunark (March 2000) 2. The Scars of Velious (December 2000) 3. The Shadows of Luclin (December 2001) 4. The Planes of Power (October 2002) 5. The Legacy of Ykesha (February 2003) 6. Lost Dungeons of Norrath (September 2003) 7. Gates of Discord (February 2004) 8. Omens of War (September 2004) 9. Dragons of Norrath (February 2005) 10. Depths of Darkhollow (September 2005) 11. Prophecy of Ro (February 2006) 12. The Serpent's Spine (September 2006) 13. The Buried Sea (February 2007) 14. Secrets of Faydwer (November 2007)

EverQuest 15. Seeds of Destruction (October 2008) 16. Underfoot (December 2009) 17. House of Thule (October 2010)


The game runs on multiple "game servers", each with a unique name for identification. These names were originally the deities of the world of Norrath. In technical terms, each "game server" is actually a cluster of server machines. Once a character is created, it can only be played on that server unless the character is transferred to a new server by the customer service staff, generally for a fee. Each server often has a unique community and people often include the server name when identifying their character outside of the game.

Special rules servers
Some EverQuest special servers have or had different rule sets than the "standard" EQ servers: • Al'Kabor - The EQMac Server. The EQMac server is so different from standard EQPC servers that it counts as a special rules server. Generally speaking: EQMac is EQ as it was in October 2002 and as close to EQ 'classic' as exists on an official SOE server. Differences include: • • • • • • Original zones: Freeport, Plane of Mischief, Plane of Hate, EC, Oasis. Original spells: generally EQMac spells have longer cast/recast/fizzle times and lower damage. Original mob graphics. The Sleeper still sleeps. No mini-map. Old Bazaar. Additionally EQMac's version of the Planes of Power uses the old non-nerfed 1.0 version of the major PoP mobs and requires that every member of the raid be 'flagged' to move on to the next plane (EQPC currently requires only 85% 'flagging'. Making planar progression significantly harder than the current version of EQ PoP.

• Zek - The PvP server. Players can attack each other with fewer restrictions than there are on the standard servers. All PvP servers were merged to populate Zek in 2005, which follows the PvP ruleset of the original PvP server. • Firiona Vie (FV) - The "Roleplaying Preferred" server. FV has a set of rules more friendly to role-playing. Some rules make it attractive to non-role-players, such as the absence of the "No Drop" tag from the vast majority of items. Some Players argue this defeats the purpose of having a "Roleplaying Preferred" server. • Stormhammer - The Legends server. For a higher fee this server provided a greater level of in-game customer service. Many players saw this as a way to charge players more money for a level of service which should have existed without the fee. In December 2005 Sony announced it was closing the Legends server. • The Sleeper and The Combine - The Progression Servers. Initially these only offered access to the original continents of Odus, Antonica, and Faydwer. The continents were (and are) different than the original, however. Odus includes the Warrens and Antonica includes Jaggedpine Forest, though these zones were added long after the start of the game. The expansion content available is determined by the progress of the players on those servers. The completion of designated tasks triggers the addition of later expansions. These tasks may include defeating specific characters, completing particular quests, or crafting of certain items. The Sleeper was eventually merged into The Combine, which is "opened up" through the Secrets of Faydwer expansion as of 26 August 2008[16] With the release of Seeds of Destruction on 21 October 2008, The Combine server became a standard rules server.[17] Soon after, Sony announced that The Combine would be merged into the Druzzil Ro server on 21 January 2009.[18]

2009. Mayong was merged with Tunare-Seventh on September 18. except on certain "Station Exchange" servers in EQ2.[21] In 2004. 2010. it was impossible to transfer off. Provided the vote does not pass. this server featured permanent death. Sebilis (French) and Kael Drakkal (German). A player could exchange a house in The Sims Online for EverQuest platinum pieces. the server will be prompted to vote as to whether or not they are ready for the next expansion.EverQuest • Discord . virtual currency to real currency exchange rates have been calculated. Later on the servers were acquired by SOE and all three were merged. Once the timer has expired. Also. none of the pre-Station Exchange EverQuest II or EverQuest servers are affected. into Antonius Bayle server. With the advent of the New Dawn promotion. and game problems Sale of in-game objects/real world economics EverQuest has been the subject of various criticisms.Launched on February 15. depending solely on market laws of supply and demand. Because items can be traded within the game and also because of illegal online trading on websites.[22] Companies created characters. much greater effort has been spent by the development team to make them a bit more 'Classic' at launch than the previous attempts were. social issues.Created June 30. The BBC reported that in 2002 work done by Edward Castronova showed that Everquest was the 77th richest country in the world. 2011. At this point this system only applies to select EverQuest II servers. Sony officially discourages the payment of real-world money for online goods. sandwiched between Russia and Bulgaria and its GDP per capita was higher than that of the People's Republic of China and India.[23] . For a time. The downside of the servers was that while it was possible to transfer to them. a follow-up analysis of the entire online gaming industry indicated that the combined GDP of the online "worlds" populated by the two million players was approximately the same as that of Namibia. The program facilitates buying in-game items for real money from fellow players for a nominal fee. launched in July 2005. 219 European servers Two SOE servers were set up to better support players in (or simply closer to) Europe: Antonius Bayle and Kane Bayle. These server uses similar rules to The Combine and The Sleeper.Created in December 2003 as a temporary promotion for the Gates of Discord expansion set. which changed market conditions and allowed a number of specialized auction sites to utilize this new virtual economy.[20] Controversies. as Kayne Bayle had already been. Characters created on this server start at level 51 and are given 50 AA points to spend as they wish. Rather than certain tasks unlocking the next expansion. three additional servers were set up and maintained by Ubisoft: Venril Sathir (British). Originally only one server (Fippy Darkpaw) was planned to be launched but due to demand the second server was brought online the same day with an identical ruleset. • Fippy Darkpaw and Vulak'Aer (Time Locked Progression & Voting) . to make the servers as practically 'Classic' as possible at this point in time. it will be placed up for voting again the following week. after those tasks are completed there will be a 'lockout timer'. One example involves the sale of in-game objects for real currency (often through eBay). Only characters of a certain level will be able to vote and a majority vote will be required to unlock the next expansion. However. and then resold the characters or specialized in exchanging money between games. such auctions were immediately removed. many items were removed from these servers that drop or are quested in Original EQ zones. leveled them to make them powerful. The Warrens and Jaggedpine Forest were not available at launch.[19] • Mayong 51/50 . The developers of EQ have always forbidden the practice and in January 2001 asked eBay to stop listing such auctions. Kane Bayle was merged into Antonius Bayle.

com.EverQuest 220 Intellectual property and role-playing Another well-publicized incident from October 2000.[25] There has been one well-publicized suicide of an EverQuest user named Shawn Woolley that resulted in his mother. involved Verant banning a player for creating controversial fan fiction. Running such an emulator is a violation of EQs end user license agreement and could result in a player being banned from Sony's EverQuest servers if caught doing so.[31] . Liz. with relationships broken because of obsessive playing resulting in the creation of an online support group called EverQuest Widows and sites like GamerWidow. and correct specific issues within the game. The reason was that the game leads the players to a loss of virtuousness and takes them into "heavy" psychological conflicts because of the game quests. It has not gained the same popularity as server emulators for Ultima Online. The case was used by several academics in discussing such rights in the digital age. Out-of-game discussions thus took root at another location that became an on-line source of information for technical issues as well as for the various gameplay and sociological aspects that are unique to "EverQuest for Macintosh".[28] Sociological aspects of MMORPGs MMORPGs are described by some players[29] as "chat rooms with a graphical interface".[24] Fans have created the open source server emulator EQEmu. Prohibition in Brazil On 17 January 2008. gender issues. the Judge of the 17th Vara Federal da Seção Judiciária do Estado de Minas Gerais forbade the sales of the game in the whole Brazilian territory. The sociological aspects of EverQuest (and other MMORPGs) are explored in a series of online studies on a site known as "the HUB". founding Online Gamers Anonymous. Many players refer to it half-jokingly as "NeverRest" and "EverCrack" (a disparaging comparison to crack cocaine).[26] [27] EQ is very time-consuming for many people. "EverQuest for Macintosh" Forum Issues For several years. and more.[30] The call to boycott was rescinded after SOE held a summit to address player concerns. allowing users to run their own servers with custom rules.[29] The studies make use of data gathered from player surveys and discuss topics like virtual relationships. usually referred to as the "Mystere incident". causing outrage among Everquest players and sparking a major industry-wide debate about players' rights and the line between roleplaying and intellectual property infringement. player personalities. a "Everquest for Macintosh" subscription did not allow the subscriber to create posts on the official Sony "EverQuest for Macintosh" forums. Organized protests In May 2004. improve (internal and external) communication. Woody Hearn of GU Comics called for all EverQuest gamers to boycott the Omens of War expansion in an effort to force SOE to address existing issues with the game rather than release another "quick-fire" expansion. Addiction The game is renowned and berated (by some psychologists specializing in computer addiction) for its addictive qualities.

"The Sleeper". by Scott Ciencin (October 2004) Ocean of Tears. Kerafyrm is guarded by four ancient dragons (warders) in "The Sleeper's Tomb". MMORPG prequel to EverQuest--February 2003) EverQuest Hero's Call (Pocket PC. Originally intended to be unkillable.EverQuest 221 Characters in the EverQuest storyline Kerafyrm . Once The Sleeper awakes. While sleeping. February 2005) EverQuest II (PC. is a dragon boss in the original The Sleeper's Tomb zone. "Kerafyrm The Awakened" appears in the expansion Secrets of Faydwer as part of a raid event "Crystallos. December 2003) EverQuest Role-Playing Game (a role-playing game produced in collaboration with White Wolf which uses the d20 system). including: • • • • . Reid (September 2006) The Blood Red Harp. by Stewart Wieck (October 2005) Truth and Steel. as it only occurs once on each game server. MMORPG sequel to EverQuest--November 2004) EverQuest Online Adventures (PS2. Lair of the Awakened" in the instanced zone of "Crystallos". killing him because of a bug. Kerafyrm travels through and into multiple zones from The Sleeper's Tomb to Skyshrine.The Sleeper Kerafyrm. neither he nor the original guardians will ever appear again on that server. EverQuest universe Since Everquest's release. SOE prevented a raid of several guilds on Rallos Zek server from potentially [32] and allowed the players to retry the encounter. The Sleeper at 14% health As of 12 July 2008. triggering a rampage of death. These include: • • • • • • • • Champions of Norrath (PS2--February 2004) its sequel Champions: Return to Arms (PS2. When all four dragons are defeated by players and are dead at the same time. unless the event is reset. Rogue's Hour. January 2003) EverQuest Hero's Call 2 (Pocket PC. by Elaine Cunningham (October 2006) A line of novels have been published in the world of Everquest. by Thomas M. Sony Online Entertainment has added several EverQuest-related games. SOE later apologized for interfering. Kerafyrm remains asleep on both the Al'Kabor (Macintosh) server and the official Test Server. This event is unique in EverQuest. April 2004) Lords of EverQuest (PC real-time strategy. killing every player and NPC in his path. The Sleeper awakes.

Retrieved 2007-07-05. Gina (Spring 2005). Designing Virtual Worlds. Yale Journal of Law & Technology. . Quoted in Malone. 2007 [9] "DKP explanation" (http:/ / www. php). verant. . . com/ eqt/ menwomen. com/ races/ index. com).station. Eqplayers. php?p_faqid=821& p_created=1087929631& p_sid=nuPTOuZj& p_accessibility=0& p_redirect=1& p_srch=1& p_lva=16680& p_sp=cF9zcmNoPTEmcF9zb3J0X2J5PSZwX2dyaWRzb3J0PSZwX3Jvd19jbnQ9NDAsNDAmcF9wcm9kcz0xJnBfY2F0cz0wJnBfcHY9MS4xJnBfY3Y9JnBfc2V p_li=& p_topview=1). . station. [29] "Men are from Ogguk. [15] Champions Of Norrath Announcement.com.EverQuest 222 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Marks. 107. com/ forums/ index. .net (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-08-09. stratics. Retrieved 2009-03-13. Platinum. .station. sony. . Archived from the original (http:/ / eqlive.sony. . uol. jhtm). . . com/ games-and-entertainment-brief/ 1778-everquest-europe-joins-everquest-us). stm). sony. Jeon (2008). station. Retrieved 2006-09-13. com/ news_article. co. Vega. "Sony Online Entertainment: EverQuestor EverCrack?". Sony. TeamPandemic. [21] "Virtual kingdom richer than Bulgaria" (http:/ / news. com/ headset. station. Eqplayers. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. ISBN 0-1310-1816-7. com/ story. 2009-01-21. [30] "GU Comics by: Woody Hearn" (http:/ / www. 108. Everquest II News. 2008-01-18. gameogre. station. . xml "Necromancer Spell Reference" (http:/ / eqplayers. stm). uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 1899420. br/ pc/ ultnot/ 2008/ 01/ 18/ ult182u7954. 2002-03-29." (http:/ / www. station. [31] "Counter-Strike e EverQuest estao proibidos no Brasil" (http:/ / jogos. and Cheats" (http:/ / www. htm). uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 3570224. Sony Online Entertainment. 2010-08-09. Gameogre. Nick Yee. Beyond fun in games: The serious leisure of the power gamer. Sony. php). sony. . Retrieved 2009-03-13. Judith W. [27] Spain. jsp) [16] Official Everquest News Page. . Retrieved 2009-03-13.Reviews.com. org/ dkp-explanation). [20] "Everquest Europe joins Everquest US" (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0072229035. action?goToPageNumber=1& result=spellsearch& spellSearch. jsp?id=59485). Archived from the original (http:/ / eq. 91. [19] "Archived News for December 2003" (http:/ / web. vm?id=466& section=News& month=current). sony. The CASE Journal 1 (2): 60–66. .1007/s10551-005-1376-9. teampandemic. UOL. [28] "Index" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-03-13. Richard (2003). 2009-09-13. [8] Silverman. TG Daily. EQMac. Sony. . com. stratics. afterlifeguild. Retrieved 2009-03-13. bbc. Robert (2003). classId=11). M.com. "Announcement of Verant Merger" (http:/ / www. http:/ / eqplayers. station. . [14] "EQ2Wire Coverage of EverQuest Next" (http:/ / eq2wire. com/ 2010/ 08/ 07/ gallery-eqnext-screen-shots-and-concept-art-day-2). [32] "Developer's Corner post "The Sleeper 11-17-03"" (http:/ / web. Guild Leadership. vm?id=51155). zam. bbc. . Retrieved 2007-07-05. sony. p. html). sony. . [25] "EverQuest Lair . com/ content/ news/ arc11-2003. doi:10. pp. 2005. . (2006).sony. com/ news_archive.. co.com. archive. http:/ / www. 2004-05-26. [24] cf. com/ community/ dev_view. [7] "SOE Everquest page" (http:/ / everquest. cfg/ php/ enduser/ std_adp. "Player. Guild Afterlife. Garlick M. [10] Rezvani. gucomics. sony. com/ goToPage. "Five hundred years have passed since the Sleeper was awakened" [13] "SOE Confirms Development on EverQuest "Next"" (http:/ / eq2. eqcircle. station. station. . nickyee. [26] Spain. 2004-08-19. com/ content/ lore/ lore_toc. Allakhazam. tgdaily. BBC News. org/ web/ 20050717093438/ http:/ / eq. EQ2Wire. com/ everquest. [11] Origin of terms used in WoW Arena play. "Everquest: Entertainment or Addiction?". [23] "Additional information about Station Exchange" (http:/ / eq2players. Judith W. php) on July 17. Retrieved 2006-09-13.. Sony. com/ community/ dev_view. Retrieved 2009-09-13. Pirate or Conducer? A consideration of the rights of online gamers". com/ content/ news/ arc11-2003. ISBN 9781435739550. [22] "Virtual gaming worlds overtake Namibia" (http:/ / news. . net/ features/ 81) [12] "Stratics Official Game Lore" (http:/ / eq2. Concordia University. Vega. vm?id=51238).com (http:/ / championsofnorrath.com. php). sony. Women are from Kelethin. stratics. sony. com/ news_article. Retrieved 2009-03-13. New Riders Games. station.. jsp?id=59485) on 2003-11-21. com/ [17] "EverQuest Players" (http:/ / eqplayers. Gucomics. org/ web/ 20031121164036/ http:/ / eqlive. EQ Stratics. com/ cgi-bin/ soe. 2004-2005. station. com/ comic/ ?cdate=20040526). sony. Retrieved 2008-12-21. html?story=19260). archive. com). . Bartle. eqmac. Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1): 3–6. Everquest Companion: The Inside Lore of a Gameworld. [18] "EverQuest Players" (http:/ / eqplayers. Verant. BBC News. Retrieved 2010-06-02. [6] "Class and Race Specific Tradeskills" (http:/ / help. Gina (May 2005).

ISSN 1555-4120.com) • EverQuest Players (previously EQ Live) (http://eqplayers. Games and Culture (Forthcoming).everquest.com/sol3/ papers. "Dragon Kill Points: The Economics of Power Gamers" (http://papers.station.sony. External links • Official website (http://http://www.cfm?abstract_id=1008035). Retrieved 2008-12-21.com): official EverQuest News . Krista-Lee.ssrn.EverQuest 223 References • Malone.

confessions. blogs. the company has collected almost 7 million real-life experiences as of January 2011. they are linked with others who have those experiences in common. Members who list experiences in common are connected. Users can join communities organized around experiences and interests. The site is characterized by frank discussions of a genuine nature. and view shared experiences organized by city and region to connect and interact with people. paralleling the 'friends' concept of traditional social networks.[2] Introduced publicly in October 2006. Description The nodes of the network are life experiences. user-submitted network of personal stories. . confessions. mood and wellness journaling. the site features members sharing stories about their life experiences. The site emphasizes anonymity to promote conversations unhindered by fear of recognition or embarrassment. CTO Erik Darby Everything you Ever Wanted to Know About Life ExperienceProject. and videos. trivia games for helping animals. Founder & CEO Neil Sheth. AdSense. With an interactive. Referral marketing. within the context of groups. and a search engine that matches a mood to a particular song. Banner ads. groups. which in the extreme case has members claiming that the site saved their [3] life . photos. surveys. Themes of the site include the concepts of 'You are not Alone' and 'Discover New People Like You'.com Social network service Google. As members share experiences. California Armen Berjikly. Other features of the site include blogs. Cause marketing Required April 2007 [1] Slogan Website Type of site Advertising Registration Launched Current status Active Experience Project is a free social networking website of online communities premised on connecting people through shared life experiences. such as battling depression or surviving a divorce.Experience Project 224 Experience Project Experience Project Type Founded Headquarters Key people Private 2007 San Francisco.

experienceproject. . UCLA Daily Bruin. wired.nl Reviews (Dutch) [10] Venture Beat [11] Stanford Daily Review [12] [8] Notes [1] http:/ / www. all people. edu/ news/ 2007/ oct/ 09/ emdeep-dark-secrets-world-wide-webem). [3] "Anonymity on the Net" (http:/ / members. [4] http:/ / www. com/ sex/ 2006/ 10/ experience_proj. Berjikly identified that the key benefit to patients was not the editorialized content. Retrieved 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2007-10-09. e777 [10] http:/ / www. com/ [2] "Deep Dark Secrets on the World Wide Web" (http:/ / www. com [5] http:/ / members. Origins Experience Project was started by Armen Berjikly in late 2004. nl/ planet/ show/ id=118880/ contentid=768703/ sc=59a2e5 [11] http:/ / venturebeat. ucla. with executive leadership including Neil Sheth and Julio Vasconcellos. html). Experience Project extended the ability to connect with people who understood each other to all experiences. experienceproject. html [6] http:/ / www. Forbes. General media coverage • Forbes [5] • Read Write Web [6] • UCLA Daily Bruin [7] • • • • • Wired Review CNET Review [9] Planet.com) . html?tag=nl. com/ 2006/ 10/ 03/ roundup-of-latest-stuff-perenetys-shift-social-anti-phising-more/ [12] http:/ / daily. forbes. an online community for MS patients and caregivers focused on inspiring hope in patients through knowledge of current research. forbes. php [7] http:/ / www. com/ archives/ experience_project. edu/ article/ 2006/ 10/ 11/ alumCreatesNetworkingSite External links • Experience Project (http://www. and thus. As This is MS grew. readwriteweb. but the relationships that formed between people who understood each other through the shared experience of being afflicted with multiple sclerosis. edu/ news/ 2007/ oct/ 09/ emdeep-dark-secrets-world-wide-webem [8] http:/ / blog. com/ 4531-10921_7-6638009. com/ forbes/ 2007/ 1015/ 074. After a close friend's diagnosis with multiple sclerosis Berjikly created This is MS [4]. ucla. . cnet. thisisms.Experience Project 225 Leadership Armen Berjikly is founder and CEO of the community. dailybruin. dailybruin. html [9] http:/ / reviews. com/ forbes/ 2007/ 1015/ 074. planet. stanford.

online music player which let you listen to your and your friends' entire music collections anywhere. Upload Users have two alternative methods for uploading music to their Ezmo account: (1) using the Ezmo Music Uploader or.Ezmo 226 Ezmo Ezmo The Ezmo player URL Commercial? Type of site Registration http:/ / www. Ezmo was in its beta phase. com/ Yes Free Online Music Player Free Available language(s) English. users can play and listen to their music from any PC connected to the Internet. Spanish. Ezmo is a fully-owned subsidiary of Fast Search & Transfer and is based in Oslo. users can upload their entire music collections and share it with up to 10 of their friends. Italian. Ezmo has unlimited storage space for its users. French.(2) through the Manual Upload . Portuguese Owner Launched Current status Fast Search & Transfer 8 June 2007 Discontinued Ezmo was a free. Ezmo closed on the 14th of March 2008 due to a lack of funding. ezmo. Norway. The Ezmo player runs inside any web browser that has Adobe Flash Player 9 installed. The service uses technology from Fast Search & Transfer [1] and Adobe Flex. The music is streamed directly from the Ezmo server at approximately 128 kbit/s. and once registered.[2] The online music player With Ezmo. German. Norwegian.

. While the manual upload is running.Ezmo 227 Ezmo Music Uploader The easiest way for a user to upload their entire music collection to their Ezmo account is to download and install the “Ezmo Music Uploader”. However. A progress bar will then appear. as long as they don’t log out of Ezmo or close the browser. it is recommended to leave the uploader running overnight as uploading large collections could be time consuming. With the latest version of the Ezmo uploader. listen to music and explore their friend’s music collections. users are given four options for uploading music: • iTunes Library (uploads all the songs that you have in your iTunes library) • Windows Media Player (uploads all the songs that you have in your Windows Media Player library) • Winamp Media Library (uploads all the songs that you have in your Winamp library) • File folder (uploads all the songs in the folder of your choice) All songs will appear in the user's Ezmo account shortly after completed uploading. retry uploading. showing how much of the topmost song in the list has been uploaded. For users who want to upload a large collection of music. the speed of the Ezmo Music Uploader is limited by the upload capacity provided to the user by their local ISP. With the manual upload option a user simply add songs to their collections by choosing the songs he wish to upload from a file folder and start uploading by clicking the "Upload" button. a user is free to go back to the player. Supported filetypes Ezmo supports the following formats: • • • • • MP3 WMA Ogg Vorbis M4A AAC Ezmo does not yet support DRM-protected audio files. If you experience that some of your songs fail transcoding. After the uploading client is installed and launched. or report the song title and your username to Ezmo The Ezmo Music Uploader Manual Upload The manual uploader allows users to upload a folder or a track at a time to their Ezmo account from the browser. you can adjust the upload speed anywhere between 20 kbit/s to 10 Mbit/s. moving from left to right below the list.

com) • Official blog (http://blog. a standalone ID3 editing program such as Mp3 Tag Tools. or the name of a song. (http:/ / ezmo. editing metadata is limited in the sense that it does not yet store year or genre data. The mobile player streams music in CD quality in areas with an Edge.ezmo. 3G or Wi-Fi connection. Offline editing could easily be done by using a media player. Neither does Ezmo allow simultaneous editing of a few selected tracks from an album or artist. com External links • Official site (http://www. Ezmo provides 14 skins to customize the feel of Ezmo. Playback Playback in Ezmo is done via streaming. Ezmo also has a search feature which lets users search for other Ezmo members or songs available to them through their friends. you are able to access your own and 10 of your friends complete music collections from any computer with internet access Ezmo Mobile Music Player Ezmo released their Ezmo mobile music player the 28th of January 2008. but Ezmo is planning to release more clients for different devices sometimes during the first half of 2008. When logged into Ezmo. and is possible via any browser with support for Flash 9. References [1] Fast Search & Transfer [2] Announcement from the Ezmo team declaring the project was dead.ezmo. The music is streamed directly from the Ezmo server at approximately 128 kbit/s. A browser and mobile version is already released.com [3] Other features Ezmo is working to make the users music available from any device capable of streaming music. Users can use offline ID3 editing to get their music collection uploaded perfectly tagged on Ezmo. com/ ) [3] http:/ / m. and has several social features allowing users to interact with their friends through for instance writing on each others walls or recommending songs. Next on the list is the Nintendo Wii. This mobile player allows users to listen to their and their friends' music collections from any Flash Lite 3 enabled cell phone or a Windows Mobile with Flash Player 7.ezmo. ezmo. The Ezmo mobile music player is accessible from the mobile browser at the url: m. At present.com) .Ezmo 228 Editing metadata Ezmo currently supports online ID3 editing which allows you to rename an album or an artist. or by editing the tags manually.

000 members.[3] . shortly after its acquisition by Anarchy Towers. However. History Faceparty was founded by Andrew David Bamforth and Phineas Kibbey in Autumn 2000. It soon became the UK's most visited website by page impression .beating the likes of EBay and Amazon with over 1 billion page impressions per month (source Hitwise / ABC (Audit Bureau of Circulations UK)). with another 35.com Yes [1] Online Community Yes Available language(s) English Owner Created by Launched Anarchy Towers Ltd Andrew Bamforth Autumn 2000 Faceparty is a UK-based social networking site allowing users to create online profiles and interact with each other using forums and messaging facilities similar to email. Faceparty was reclaimed by Bamforth and Anarchy Towers. Membership By June 2006 the site had 6 million members.[2] It was also announced that all advertising had been removed in a bid to become less corporate. it would later reinstate those deleted by mistake. In March 2008.000 new members joining every week. and that staff levels would fall from 18 to 4.Faceparty 229 Faceparty Faceparty URL Commercial? Type of site Registration faceparty. The pair met while working at music site Peoplesound. although it later turned out that this was not true. In April 2008. The reason given by Faceparty was that it was required to do this by the UK government to comply with new child protection laws.com. Faceparty removed 7 million members from its database leaving 200. after closing down CIS Internet Ltd (Bamforth being a director/Major shareholder) the assets being transferred with no refunds.

gov. com [2] "Director in trademark case" (http:/ / www. aspx). some of the features of Faceparty such as a user being able to see who has been visiting their profile and rating them. 4178495. scotsman. May 21. allowing its artists to be promoted to the social network's members on an exclusive basis. 2009" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-12-08. [3] "Faceparty bans over-36s in shock ageist move" (http:/ / www. three men pleaded guilty at the Edinburgh Sheriff Court to various crimes involving indecent contact with a 14-year-old girl via Faceparty. com/ News/ List. Faceparty. Edinburgh Evening News. faceparty. com/ topstories/ Three-jailed-for-sexual-abuse. aspx?liArticleTypeID=1 [6] "Three jailed for sexual abuse of schoolgirl. References [1] http:/ / www.[6] On 5 November 2008. Faceparty was censured for running a banner that told purchasers of Blue Skin clothing it would ensure they "got laid". via text message or Paypal. techradar. Retrieved 2009-12-08. [4] "retrieved 6th September. The offences came to light after another man was jailed for statutory rape of the same girl. three men were sentenced to jail at the High Court in Paisley for sexual abuse of a 13-year-old schoolgirl who they met and communicated with on Faceparty.com. pdf). for an additional monthly fee. This partnership was cancelled when Faceparty was re-claimed by the original owners. . com/ account/ join.[2] In June 2008. External links • Official site (http://www. with competitions.com) .gov. newmediazero.[5] Controversy In 2006.faceparty. . and other promotions planned. uk/ types/ tm/ t-os/ t-find/ t-challenge-decision-results/ o10408.Faceparty 230 Paid services The Faceparty signup process currently requires users to buy a unique. com/ news/ internet/ faceparty-bans-over-36s-in-shock-ageist-move-370477). The men claimed that they didn't know the girl was underage. and that she was "promiscuous and inviting". following a complaint to the Advertising Standards Authority from a member of the public. Faceparty also offers Adult Verification System (AVS) which allows users over the age of 18 to view restricted Adult or Pending photos content on other users profiles. Sony BMG struck a short-lived partnership with Faceparty. jp). Users that want to take advantage of these extra features are required to pay an annual fee.[4] Additionally.uk. 2006-06-28. . one use only password. 13" (http:/ / news. 2008-06-12. however users have complained that this service is almost impossible to cancel since it is a recurring payment and Faceparty are reported to be very difficult to contact over the matter. TechRadar. 2008. Music In mid July 2006. [5] http:/ / www. who strongly objected to the message the banner was projecting to Faceparty's younger internet surfers. ipo. ipo. require Cool Tools. free music downloads. faceparty.

The site had a major overhaul around the start of 2007.com derives from a global audience with approximately 300.000 members. launched in March 2004. also acquired the rights to another profile-based website called "Face-pic. This was first brought up to prominence by the lead admin of the time Mark Harburn. The website has an Alexa Internet traffic ranking of 672. “We’ve been reading the market through our continued play in the mobile billing and dating sector. and the total user base. prominently users from America and Australia. bringing into play a Clan system (similar to creating your own groups) as well as music profiles. should be around 750.[3] many of which are from the UK. There also will be new features incorporated into the new site. making up the remainder. The typical demographic to begin with was members between the ages of 16 to 22. Profileheaven. and also intends to merge this into the final workings of Faces. Other notable features are web forums. The site became more popular and revered throughout 2005 and 2006 making many revisions and updates as time went by.[1] About Profileheaven.com. it should create a user base close to two million users. however these are being kept "top secret" by the Symbios Group.and overall winner for 2006.000 to 800. Since 2006 the site has increased its memberbase to around 400. the site was bought by the Symbios Group[4] with the intention to do much more with the site and relaunch under the name "Faces. Martin Montague: "This is a natural step for our business within the exciting Social networking channel.com". The website currently has approximately 250. once completed. users accessing social networks are on the increase too. Now we have access to a thriving community of 15-24 year olds that will help get us off the starting block quickly and improve our insight. unlimited photo galleries. I believe we can create a unique and exciting proposition that will become a benchmark for the next generation of users and social networking sites. Later in September.000 members from all over the world.000 members at the beginning. mostly of a female gender. the site went on to win the award of Website of the Year[2] in the community site category . and after a short amount of time became Face2meet.” Martin added. live video chat. Flash games and a points ranking system.com is a social networking website. but this (of course) will be subject to change as a lot of work is being undertaken by Symbios. video. This will allow us to profile the users more precisely. winner of 2006 UK Website of the Year and Best Community Site. the Symbios group and its CEO.” . with a goal to encourage online social interaction. In February 2008. Currently there is no launch date specified for Faces. in particular Scotland and northern England with some from the United States.000 members.com. with roughly an eighty percent userbase from the UK.975. The site itself used to have around 95% of its members from the UK. especially at a time when analysts remain bullish about the market.com began around March 2002. Australia and the rest of the world.com 231 Faces. As many other social networking sites provide.Faces. Martin Montague.com Profileheaven. under the first name Smilefriends. with other countries. As a result of this. Users can link these profiles together to form a linked friend network. On completion of this. The original faces.com". We aim to use this intelligence to deliver some fantastic benefits to existing and new users of our brand. allowing those with relatively unknown and local bands to come aboard and showcase the material they have to offer to a wider audience. From the Symbios CEO. each user can create a profile and blog about themselves.com became so as a relaunch from Face2Meet to bring more attraction to the internet using public to attain more of a drive of being "one of the more different" profile-based sites out there. and at the top of our existing customers’ priority list is the requirement to access truly innovative social networking sites complete with great tools and apps that can be delivered to their page and mobile phone.

com re-opened as a standalone site.faces.com/) . upload videos. uk/ ). In 2010. 2005. symbiosgroup. Profileheaven. March 18. com/ releases/ 2006/ 3/ prweb359657. Artists who use ProfileHeaven Music can showcase their music using the free integrated music player.com.com/) • Faces (http://www. Retrieved 12 June 2011. com/ data/ details/ ?url=www. co. prweb. co.com site and merge it with face-pic. Symbios Group Symbios Group (http:/ / www. create blogs and forums and engage in real-time live chat directly with fans. leaving the now ailing Faces. plans were drawn up to replace the faces. com). External links • Profileheaven (http://www. 2006. htm). photos. alexa.com using the member base to lever an idea to create an online fraternity as well as a new social network aimed at popular 18-30 year olds and centres of influence. websiteoftheyear. PRWeb press release (http:/ / www. uk/ 2005_uk/ home. Website of the Year 2005 results (http:/ / www. 232 ProfileHeaven Music ProfileHeaven is a UK focused social networking site allowing new and existing artists to post a profile about themselves. February 2008.com uses a LAMP setup to run the site. While other community spaces have huge international reach ProfileHeaven is more relevant to music fans looking for gigs in Bristol and important to artists building a local base. References [1] [2] [3] [4] Alexa Internet Alexa Traffic Ranking for faces.profileheaven.Faces. faces.com (http:/ / www. Software Faces. php).com In August 2009.

1963) was the Founding Chairman and CEO of Napster. com/ jerk/ External links Personal sites • John Fanning's Personal WebSite (http://www.[3] Fanning is the Chairman of NetCapital. netcapital.johnfanning. (http:/ / www.net (http:/ / www.net owned by NetGames. net/ ) The registration date for Chess. Brian went on to develop Picassa which was sold to Google. is part of the portfolio of NetCapital. He owned 70% of the company and represented the founders on the board of directors.net. launched in 1993. netcapital.com/) . He founded the company with his nephew Shawn Fanning. The site is currently in an early-stage alpha release. He has patents for Real Time Search Engine. chess. com/ home/ portfolio.net is listed in the whois database. audio chat. see (http:/ / www.John Fanning 233 John Fanning John Fanning (born December 21. as shown during his appearance on the 2005 European Poker Tour in Monte Carlo. and auto-upgrading/authentication. a small private equity firm.5K Euros.[4] [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Welcome to Chess. net/ whois_new.[1] an internet chess service rebuilt from scratch. Chess.net. cgi?d=chess& tld=net) For a list of NetCapital's portfolio companies. GM Roman Dzindzichashvili and Napster developer Shawn Fanning. He currently lives on Blackrock Beach on the south shore of Massachusetts.[2] Currently. netcapital. php?pid=9& contentid=14) http:/ / www. Along with John Fanning. Executive Summary for company Jerk. That project led to the development of Chess. Brian McBarron was also leader developer and very active in launching Chess. who with Brian Moore and Tony Acero built the first Internet chess server in the late 1980s and early 1990s.com. where he finished in 21st place for 11. John Fanning is founder of Jerk. John Fanning has introduced such net-related innovations as client–server game play. a social network platform that provides consumer reputation management. whois. com/ portcomp. html). Fanning is also an accomplished poker player.178. Fanning is an early internet entrepreneur. and Use Sensitive Distribution of Data Files Between Users.com (http:/ / wwww. a talkative and brash player at the tables. In November 2004 Fanning rose to 8th in the world on the World Poker tour winning $200.

net. He worked summers at his uncle. serial entrepreneur. Later he appeared on the cover of Wired Magazine and rose to fame. Massachusetts offices of Chess. Fanning enrolled at Boston's Northeastern University. where he spent much of the time sleeping on the couch. Napster Fanning was born in Brockton. however. Best Buy later purchased the company. Roxio purchased the logo and trademark effectively changing its name to Napster." During this work. Fanning spent months writing the code for Napster. pushing himself to get the Napster system completed.net with his uncle John. . In early 1999. 1980Brockton. Massachusetts.5 million (2009).[3] The site in its initial free P2P incarnation was shut down in 2001 after the company's unsuccessful appeal of court orders arising from its encouraging the illegal sharing of copyrighted material. John Fanning's Internet company.com/shawnfanning [2] [1] Shawn Fanning (born November 22. Napster was the target of several music industry-backed lawsuits. A paid subscription version of the site followed. LLC. and angel investor. and remains the current format. Chess. Rupture.Shawn Fanning 234 Shawn Fanning Shawn Fanning Born Residence Nationality Citizenship Alma mater Known for November 22. He is famous for developing Napster. and invested in. After graduating from Harwich High School in 1998. Massachusetts San Francisco. "I was just getting into programming. one of the first popular peer-to-peer ("P2P") file sharing platforms. in 1998. he joined. the system was launched. 1980) is an American computer programmer. which ultimately led to the end of the service. Path Net worth US$7. The popularity of Napster was widespread and Fanning was featured on the cover of Time magazine. Following his involvement with Napster. California American United States of America Northeastern University (Dropped out in 1999) Co-founder and lead software engineer of Napster Notable works Napster. so I spent a lot of my time just fiddling with projects and hanging out. a number of early-stage technology startup companies. a program that could provide an easy way to download music. Shawn spent Christmas break working at the Hull. Soon after. Website twitter. Snocap.

[8] Snocap was looking to sell itself and fast. One of their primary partners. Timberlake plays a real-life person named Sean Parker. He appeared wearing a "Metallica" T-shirt. a social networking tool designed to handle the task of publishing gamers' individual profiles to a communal space and facilitating communication between World of Warcraft players. 2007. However.Shawn Fanning 235 Snocap In 2003. Fanning developed Rupture. and Ron Conway. in which he poked fun at his file-sharing past. Snocap. stated.[12] Fanning's career at Electronic Arts was short lived as a round of layoffs in November 2009 included him and his team at Rupture. and technical issues were numerous. along with Jordan Mendelson (Napster's Chief Architect). Rupture was later acquired by Electronic Arts for $15 million." many people will assume that the similarly named Shawn Fanning was the basis for the character "Sean Parker. Fanning had a cameo appearance. Fanning opened a new company.[5] [6] In late 2007. That is not the case. who "made a mess of engineering before he was fired". The ValleyWag article stated that the failure was largely due to Snocap's CEO Rusty Rueff and that of former CTO Dave Rowley. In October 2000. playing himself. and CrunchBase [7] notes the date Shawn officially became CEO of Rupture was October 2. their partners and the public did not respond well. they found a buyer.[13] Path A few months after Fanning was laid off from Electronic Arts. The Social Network. "Sean Parker invented Napster. Dave Morin announced he was leaving Facebook. in the film The Italian Job (2003). "a friend of mine shared it with me. wrote a scathing account of their relationship [4]. .[17] In the film. Fanning appeared in a Volkswagen commercial directed by Roman Coppola.[9] In 2008. where he was a Senior Platform Manager. Seth Green's character accused Fanning of stealing Napster from him while he was taking a nap.[10] [11] Rupture In December 2006. and when asked where he got it.com.[3] In 2003. CD Baby.[18] Because a character in the movie declares. ValleyWag wrote an article that Fanning had long left Snocap and began to work on another venture. to join Fanning and become CEO at Path." played by Justin Timberlake in the movie. Snocap laid off 60% of its workforce. Fanning was featured on the cover of Time magazine. he started a new company called Path." Lars Ulrich's reaction was shown as yawning and feigned sleep. The Rupture project was announced in late 2006 with seed funding. Customer support was poor. an early employee — not a founder — of Napster. Shawn Fanning has no direct connection to Facebook. The company aspired to be a legitimate marketplace for digital media. Shawn Fanning appeared as a presenter at the MTV VMAs [16].[14] [15] In popular culture In 2000. Rupture. In January 2010. imeem acquired Snocap in a fire sale. In the spring of 2008.

The New York Times. CNET News. 2000" (http:/ / www. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [6] "The Rise & Fall of Snocap – What Did We Learn?" (http:/ / pennydistribution. twitter. org/ stories/ 07/ 10/ 19/ 0126457. com/ 2008/ 8/ shawn-fanning-s-incredible-shrinking-pay-day-ea-bought-game-company-for-15-million-not-30) [13] Rob Crossley (2009-11-22). "Shawn Fanning’s Snocap Prepares for Fire Sale" (http:/ / bits. [4] http:/ / cdbaby. . . com/ person/ shawn-fanning [8] "Shawn Fanning leaves his Snocap baby an orphan" (http:/ / valleywag.path. retireat21. "EA studios named in mass-layoff operation" (http:/ / www. businessinsider. com/ 310362/ shawn-fanning-leaves-his-snocap-baby-an-orphan). 2. Retrieved 2 April 2010. co. "Dave Morin Leaves Facebook. Saul (2007-10-12). Develop Online. org/ 5uKQPW0us). TIME magazine. ValleyWag. youtube.Shawn Fanning 236 References [1] "The most successful college dropouts in history" (http:/ / www. . com/ blog/ the-most-successful-college-dropouts-in-history#) on 2010-11-18. org/ stories/ 07/ 10/ 19/ 0126457.20001002. [2] http:/ / www.com/do/newsStory?cId=3155625) • Rupture site (http://www. crunchbase. crunchbase. . [15] "Dave Morin" (http:/ / www. blogs. net/ news/ 33236/ EA-studios-named-in-mass-layoff-operation). com/ watch?v=_q0Z3gBActg [17] Shawn Fanning (http:/ / www.com) • Path site (http://www. wrong time: Snocap's corpse washes up at Imeem (http:/ / www. .16641. Penny Distribution. boardsmag.rupture. [14] Michael Arrington (2010-01-22). gawker. "Shawn Fanning's Snocap lays off 60 percent of workforce" (http:/ / news. . .00.com. 2007-12-18. theregister. com/ 2010/ 01/ 22/ dave-morin-to-leave-facebook-launch-new-startup-with-napster-creator-shawn-fanning/ ). webcitation. develop-online. [10] Hansell. [7] http:/ / www.com) .1up. com/ 8301-10784_3-9796327-7. com/ name/ nm1357190/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [18] Boards Screening Room (http:/ / www. com/ time/ covers/ 0. 2007-10-19. html). html). com/ shawnfanning [3] "Time Magazine Cover: Shawn Fanning . [16] http:/ / www. cnet. com/ 2007/ 10/ 12/ shawn-fannings-snocap-prepares-for-fire-sale/ ). Retrieved 2009-02-10. com/ person/ dave-morin). [11] Right idea. com/ 2007/ 12/ 18/ the-rise-fall-of-snocap-what-did-we-learn/ ). To Launch New Startup with Napster Creator Shawn Fanning" (http:/ / techcrunch. nytimes. CrunchBase. wordpress. CD Baby. . com/ screeningroom/ commercials/ 5861/ ) External links • 1up article about the new service (http://www. . time. TechCrunch. html). retireat21.Oct. imdb. [9] Greg Sandoval (2007-10-11). html [5] "What happened with CD Baby and Snocap" (http:/ / cdbaby. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 07/ imeem_acquires_snocap/ ) [12] Business Insider (http:/ / www.

We mock it.000 page views in one month for the recipient. All links. This is colloquially referred to as the website being "farked" by the community. This can generate such an enormous amount of traffic in such a short a time that smaller websites are often rendered inoperable due to congestion or simple server failure. com/ We don't make news.000 story submissions per day and approximately 50 of them are publicly displayed on the site. . Founder Drew Curtis says the stories are selected without intentional political bias. but that he rather tries to run both far-left and far-right articles.310 active Fark is a community website created by Drew Curtis that allows members to comment on a daily batch of news articles and other items from various websites. Yes News Aggregator Required to post (free) Available language(s) English Owner Launched Alexa rank Current status Drew Curtis 1999 2. The site is frequently used as a humorous source for news by radio stations.[1] Links are submitted by Fark members (collectively referred to as "Farkers"). 2011 URL Slogan Commercial? Type of site Registration http:/ / www. fark. the site boasts approximately four million unique visitors per month. Greenlit links can generate upwards of 300. As of June 2009. as well as most late night comedy shows.Fark 237 Fark Fark The Fark homepage on June 1. which puts it among the top 100 English language websites. which admins can approve ("greenlight") for posting on either the main page or one of the subsidiary tab pages. whether approved or not. have associated threads where users can comment on the link. The site receives approximately 2.

[9] While most of the story links on the main page are submitted by users and selected for placement based on merit.[14] The first video was a spoof ad for a mock product called "Meth Coffee. where Gupta claimed Calacanis could buy an editorial on Fark for $300 to $400. 2007.000 page views and one million the year after. "Fark.[5] Since 1993. effectively canceling Fark TV. Curtis states that the word "fark" originated either from a chat room euphemism for a popular four-letter obscenity. Fark TV's host site.[10] [13] Fark launched Fark TV on January 17."[16] The new design was initially received with some controversy by many users.[6] Although this would later become the inspiration for Fark. In response."[14] In May 2008.[3] In 1999. and laying off most of the staff.[2] He registered Fark. primarily because advertisers complained about links to female breasts on the main site. who at the time worked for the Corbis Corporation. according to Curtis.[12] Customers could purchase NSFW links through Foobies at the price of $400 per link. It was time Screenshot depicting the design of the Web site from. ca. By January 2008. Fark contained no content except for an image of a squirrel with large testicles.[3] Originally.com in 2006 as a NSFW (not safe for work) offshoot of Fark. Kentucky. over time changes were nailed on to the design like loose shingles on a leaky roof.Fark 238 History Fark was created in 1999 by Drew Curtis of Lexington. although he tells people it is the former because it is a "better story that way". Hope nothing breaks. 2008. but it can still be found as the server's 404 error for pages that do not exist. This photograph is that of a Cape Ground Squirrel in Etosha National Park. the site was averaging an estimated 52 million page views per month from 4 million unique visitors.[10] Curtis dismissed the incident as the result of an overenthusiastic salesperson.[4] The squirrel image is no longer used in the production area of the site. into the Adult Swim brand.com CEO Jason Calacanis and third party sales employee Gogi Gupta.[15] A new design for the website was launched on April 25. Otherwise you end up with a layout anachronism like the Drudge Report. we're all out drinking. there was an incident in August 2004 in which Fark was accused of selling preferential placement of story links on the main page. The accusation stemmed from an exchange between Mahalo. with the comment. "Fark site redesign is now live. Namibia.[11] Gupta worked for a company called Gupta Media and did not have the authority to speak for Fark. Curtis toyed with the idea of starting an online curry recipe database. Drew Curtis noted the following reasons for the redesign: "Websites have to evolve over time. according to Curtis.[11] Curtis launched Foobies. when a friend mentioned that all of the four letter domain names were disappearing.[7] Fark was officially incorporated in the state of Delaware as. the site received 50.[3] During Fark's first year. taken by photographer Kevin Shafer. mostly due to the change in layout and a seemingly indifferent attitude by site moderators to user impact or feedback. The old design was put into place years ago. 2007–2011 .[8] Features such as link submission and forums were added as popularity and participation grew. 1993.com in September 1997.". and subsequently fired Gupta. Inc. on January 31. or from a drunken misspelling. Curtis had frequently read morning news stories and exchanged them with friends. Turner Broadcasting announced that it would be folding SuperDeluxe. 2007.[7] The first story posted was an article about a fighter pilot who crashed while attempting to moon another fighter pilot. he launched Fark as a way to share interesting news postings with his friends rather than sending them numerous emails. eighteen months after registering the domain name.

Fark launched a new partnership with USA Today. he estimated that. as they became the exclusive host and sponsor of Fark's Geek Page. website design. Heads-up for those of you who missed the other warning threads and need a place to completely lose your mind. above average CPMs. Its right column displays technology content from USA Today with video clips and a headline widget of USAToday.[20] a collection of technology-related links.[18] .[19] On November 24."[22] Having learned from the controversy caused by the 2007 redesign.[21] Fark tweaked its site design a little more on June 1. The primary reason for the redesigned site is to make it easier to use and more intuitive. Previously. the book only received mild attention from reviewers. Despite a fairly high revenue.000.[23] 239 Administration Compared to other popular websites."[17] The site layout was refined over the next few weeks in accordance with many suggestions. The book critically explores the mass media industry and the go-to stories used when there is a lack of hard news to report. 2011. where most of the content was already cross-posted anyway. This represents the site's first content partnership with a major media brand.[26] Fark has also spoken about its steady.[25] Additionally. Curtis had signed a sales only deal with Maxim Online. 2009. Drew takes a yearly salary of just $60.[25] Technology writer Mathew Ingram described Fark as "staggeringly successful" and noted the disparity between Fark's revenue and the amount of press given to sites like Digg. Fark has been known to turn down advertising that interrupts the user experience such as pop ups or advertisements with sound.[25] Although Curtis won't release official revenue figures. Curtis has used public relations to drive traffic. Salon.[18] Despite its initial strong reception. the site earned just under $600.Fark to reformat and remove a bunch of the clutter while trying to keep the core design intact. to allow users to comment on the changes and provide feedback on where things were broken. which only gave it a mini-review.[6] Its classifieds section alone generates as much as $40. The site's tagline was changed from "It's not news. run more or less singlehandedly by founder Drew Curtis from his home in Lexington. with the comment.000 per year. We mock it.icio. The page shows aggregated technology news headlines from other news sources with USA Today's Tech section branding. Kentucky.000 per year. in 2006.[8] It sold 25.000 copies in its first 12 weeks on the market.[24] The site earns revenue from advertising and membership in its TotalFark program. although the only major newspaper to review it was the Tucson Citizen. It's Not News.com gave it a favorable review. An overhaul to the Fark Mobile Web site was not done at this time. It's Fark: How Mass Media Tries to Pass off Crap as News in May 2007. Curtis introduced the new site as a preview one week (two weeks for TotalFark users) prior to June 1. and forum moderation. it's FARK" to "We don't make news.us.[25] The rest of the money goes to the site's legal "war chest" as well as to pay other expenses such as hosting." The music tab was also dropped. Fark is a relatively small operation. Curtis published the book. "Fark's redesign will go live at 5PM EST. including interviews every Friday on TechTV for one to one and a half years (ca. due to low usage – content was rolled into the Showbiz or Video tab.com's Tech Live and Game Hunters stories. 2002–2003) about the three weirdest tech-oriented stories of the week. such as Daily Kos and del. but Curtis did say that small changes would be implemented over time to make the mobile site more consistent with the overall design of the new site.

2009. The UltraFark email service is provided through Google's Gmail service.[38] UFIA was prominently used again in . Subscribers who purchase a 6. whereas Fark's main page includes only 60 to 80 links from that total.[33] Farkisms and clichés Fark's comment threads are often littered with various Farkisms or clichés. obvious. it deserved its own Fark tag. as of 2010 an estimated 40% of links submitted to TotalFark are deleted within one minute of being submitted. though Walken has never participated on Fark.or 12-month subscription are also eligible to receive an @ultrafark.000 per year. the newsflash tag is used for news which is a matter of important breaking news. and Duke University.[37] TotalFARK UFIA Adopt a Highway sign One particularly notable Farkism involves the acronym UFIA (Unsolicited Finger In Anus). However.200 to 1.000 subscribers. Tags that say photoshop. 2008. when they encouraged readers to vote for Rick Astley's Never Gonna Give You Up as the song to be played during every home game of the 2008 season. the French. articles discussing Wil Wheaton – a Fark user himself[29] – are given the Wheaton tag and articles discussing Christopher Walken are occasionally given the Walken tag. which became a cliché after an article making the main page misquoted a judge using the line. and because "so many stupid things happen in Florida.[31] TotalFark In February 2002. These are essentially in-jokes which either originated on Fark or on other sites (such as 4chan or Something Awful) that have become an integral part of the community culture and used in myriad discussions in the forums.[25] Subscribers.Fark 240 Features Tags Submitters can give stories several different tags. interesting. and an email is sent to the administrators notifying them that someone has submitted a newsflash. to be used for submitted articles where the subject does something ignorant or when a major gaffe occurs.[32] By May 2007 there were an estimated 2.[35] The site has also become somewhat well known for including "NSFW" (Not Safe For Work) in the headlines of links that contain images or videos of a sensitive nature. known collectively as TotalFarkers or TFers. In addition. as opposed to only those approved for inclusion on the main page. TotalFark's main page includes 1. charging $5 per month. attempted to file a trademark of the phrase.[30] A new Caturday tag was introduced to in recognition of the caturday meme on December 21. at one time had the privilege of seeing and commenting on all links submitted to the site. according to Curtis. Due to the large amount of headlines submitted to the site from the state of Florida. a new fail tag was introduced. including PETA. or dumbass.[34] Several groups of people seem to take a bit more abuse than others on the site. generating $120." the Florida tag was created at the suggestion of users. regardless of whether they apply to the topic at hand. and in 2007. audioedit or videoedit are used for threads where digital content is edited for a humorous or artistic effect.[36] Fark was also involved in organizing the Rickrolling of the New York Mets in April 2008. such as stupid. Curtis introduced TotalFark as a subscription service. Catholic priests. In a typical 24-hour period.800 links with associated comment threads. On August 19.[27] [28] Similarly.com email address.

[41] The story was then picked up by Fark. The consensus choice of Fark's readers was that it should be re-dubbed the "Fark.[44] Romero thanked the Fark community on the news for their donations.[40] Another popular Farkism involves KABC-TV Consumer Specialist Ric Romero. Something Awful. sponsors Photoshop Phriday contests. 2009. Fark Parties are organized.” The sign remained up for a few days. where he was ridiculed for posting a story about something that many people did not consider "news" and was actually quite obvious. which is then voted on by others in the forum. along with his photo. when Curtis was doing some database consulting in Spartanburg. Boston Garden was chosen as the name due to obscenity concerns. South Carolina. Staying in a hotel with nothing to do.20 by December 16. he became somewhat of a meme on the site. “Uniting Friends in America. in which users use a graphical editing program (such as Adobe Photoshop.T. In the end.[49] . This might mean that the URL of a particular article will be that of the site showing the button."[45] 241 Photoshop contests The site features regular Photoshop contests. he posted a note up on the site asking anybody who lived in the area to email him if they wanted to join him for a beer.[28] FarkIt "FarkIt" or "Fark This" is a method of submitting information that increases its chances of being seen on the Fark web site.S. a Fark member convinced the Tennessee Department of Transportation to erect an Adopt a Highway sign in the name of UFIA on the two miles of State Route 63 west of the intersection of SR 63 and U. 2005.Fark February 2005. The contests satisfy our desire for to see things of an incongruous. Barnum in the 19th century with his "mermaid woman" using the head of a monkey stitched onto the body of a fish.[39] In April 2006. from which the contest draws its name) to manipulate an image provided by the creator of the contest. The practice began in 1999. On December 7.com UFIA Center". even if the site without the button was the first from which the given article was submitted. when Drew Curtis purchased the naming rights to the Fleet Center (now TD Garden) in Boston. usually in conjunction with the travels of Curtis. which subsequently resulted in 582 online donations totaling $13. and a brief caption stating something obvious that everyone already knew.[46] A similar site. Drew Curtis discovered his Facebook fan page. and links submitted through this button go to a different database. but was ultimately removed once authorities were informed of the origins of the acronym. also reporting the "breaking news" that "Water is Wet. and recognized his status as a Farkism. The Fark web site gives priority to submissions from sites that clearly show the button.659. when he wrote a news story on the "new" internet phenomenon of blogging. Massachusetts for the single day of February 28.[48] Fark Parties At periodic intervals throughout the year. A FarkIt button appears on a web site. Route 25E.[42] Over the course of the next several years. The Department required a definition of UFIA. however.[47] The image is usually manipulated for humorous effect. but can also be edited to create an aesthetically-pleasing image or to showcase a poster's image manipulation skill.[43] which led Ric to ask the Farkers that joined his new Facebook page to donate to the Spark of Love Toy Drive. such as that pioneered by P. rather than one which does not. 2005. sophomoric or sexual nature. which was explained as. as Farkers would post links to his stories. which began on October 19. 2009.

[56] In a June 2009 interview. although only about 5% actually read comments.310. it is very rarely cited as a source for many of these stories. with a category entitled "Fark. the citizen journalism of the events during the 2009 Iranian election protests was recognized by several major media outlets.2% of users originate from the United States.8 minutes per day on the site and 5. Drew Curtis placed a green band on the letter "K" in the site's logo at the top of the page." meaning that their servers have crashed. Fark was referenced on the game show Jeopardy!. during major events such as the September 11 attacks or the Hurricane Katrina aftermath.[57] Publicity As the site has gained in popularity. as well as late night comedy shows.000 user accounts on the site (including both TotalFark as well as unpaid accounts).[50] Some users can also contribute greatly to reporting actual events. and approximately 50 of them are displayed on the main page of the site. the site receives approximately four million unique visitors per month. However.0 magazine as part of the feature story about successful websites.337 sites linking in.Fark 242 Traffic and users As of June 2009.[58] [59] In 2007 and 2009. usage spikes and the site can actually be seen as a more serious outlet for news.com Fark logo used from 1999–2011 Headlines. Fark has appeared numerous times in popular media outlets. are able to view all 2.[1] Subscribers to the subscription TotalFark service.[53] There are around 500. consisting primarily of sex jokes and comments about various bodily functions.000 story submissions per day from users.[52] The site receives approximately 2.[7] [8] [62] Although much to Drew Curtis' dismay.000 page views in one month for the recipient. in the absence of serious news.[65] and actor Wil Wheaton. or "green-lighted". comments in the forums on the site tend to be of a more sophomoric nature. Some of these celebrities include Alan Colmes of Fox News. to show support for Mir-Hossein Mousavi. 67. In 2006. Curtis said that almost all traffic coming from the People's Republic of China and India was from spammers. Curtis and Fark were featured on the cover of Business 2."[60] [61] The site is also frequently used as a humorous source for news by many radio stations. so he blocked both countries from the site.[63] Mythbusters co-host Adam Savage.[64] science fiction author John Scalzi.[50] [55] In response to this coverage.[29] . for instance.000 submissions per day for a $5 per month fee.[62] Several celebrities have also stated that they either checked the website regularly or participated in its discussion forums using an account.[50] which puts it in the top 100 of English language websites.[51] Fark's Alexa rating is 2. which is such an enormous amount of traffic that smaller websites are often "farked. and only 1% actually post in the forums.[50] Greenlit links can generate upwards of 300. with the average user spending 5.[54] Normally.

Drew. com/ magazines/ business2/ business2_archive/ 2006/ 09/ 01/ 8384325/ )." (http:/ / www. 2009. poynter. . fark. Retrieved June 12.com. Scott C. pp. Drew (April 26. gov/ tin/ GINameSearch. com/ comments/ blog223). cnn. Retrieved June 12.com. badmouth. 2009. [11] Terdiman. [18] Bye. Salon. com/ marketing/ media_kit/ pressroom/ 2009/ releases/ 112409_usatoday_fark_partnership. 2010. com/ ). "Fark TV debuts. calacanis. [23] Curtis. Fark. 2011. com/ books?id=15bQBcqdWJoC& pg=PA56& dq=fark. 2006). com/ farq/ about. Paul (October 2. Fark. com& f=false). ISBN 978159240366." (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 02/ panel_of_web_co. Retrieved February 9. "Drew Curtis from Fark" (http:/ / meetinnovators. Retrieved June 27.calacanis. com/ ). "Blogging for Dollars" (http:/ / money. 2009). . 1993). com/ 2008/ 06/ takahashi-three-who-had-right-idea-at. 2009. Heidi (November 24. [25] "Fark. com/ ). Retrieved December 22. "Forget Digg. amacombooks. 56-57. (http:/ / books. Retrieved July 4. Jack (October 4. It's Fark: How Mass Media Tries to Pass Off Crap as News. CNN. . May 7. . 2009. mathewingram. Retrieved February 22. and the loyalty of their users. Retrieved June 6. Drew (2007).com (http:/ / www. (File Number: 4490837)" (https:/ / delecorp. Retrieved June 26. aspx?id=AF004534& ext=1). . com/ cgi/ comments.net (http:/ / www. "Fark Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): About Fark (What is Foobies?)" (http:/ / www. pl?IDLink=2762299#c29867598). com/ ). . John (December 14. . com/ farq/ about. France Surrenders" (http:/ / www. 2008). Drew. 2007). com/ ). google. . Adrian. USA Today." (http:/ / www. [20] Zimmerman. "Fark redesign notes and updates from Drew. 2009. fark. tbo. 2009. . Internet riches: the simple money-making secrets of online millionaires.Fark 243 References [1] Marcotte. "Takahashi: Three who had the right idea at the right time" (http:/ / bizsnacks. www. "Fark Sells Out. Retrieved July 4.guykawasaki. Retrieved June 1.com: Making Money Off of Goofy News" (http:/ / www. Fark. San Jose Mercury News. 2008). . [5] Curtis. .com. good times. usatoday. Inc. [8] Curtis.badmouth. Corbis. 2009.com sells their editorial. Fark. dmconfidential. [26] Ingram. . com/ techbiz/ media/ news/ 2004/ 08/ 64472). we're all out drinking. . It's Not News. org/ templates/ story/ story.com (http:/ / www.com" (http:/ / www. com/ id/ 2175244/ pagenum/ all/ ). 2010. what about Fark?" (http:/ / www. asp?id=31& aid=174344). "Fark. . 2009.5/28.com. 2009. "TBS’ Super Deluxe to Fold into Adult Swim" (http:/ / news. 2009. com/ work/ 2006/ 08/ 22/ forget-digg-what-about-fark/ ). Retrieved June 27. [10] Calacanis. net/ 2007/ 01/ 17/ fark-tv-debuts-meth-. "Fark Founder Flattens Fourth Estate" (http:/ / www. html). com/ cgi/ comments. [6] Sloan. dmconfidential. Joshua (May 7. . www. Retrieved June 1. Daniel (August 6. Fark. badmouth. com/ Enlargement/ Enlargement. html)." (http:/ / www. 2009. Jason (August 2. [12] Bye. "Interview: Fark’s Drew Curtis" (http:/ / www. Tubefilter.com. Retrieved June 26. [7] Takahashi.domconfidential. asscracks. blogspot. 2009. org/ column. [2] Curtis. Retrieved July 5. Wired. 2009. 2007. guykawasaki. [19] Shafer. "Fark Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): The word 'fark' was first used in print in Peter Farrelly's 1998 novel 'The Comedy Writer' where it was used as a euphemism for a dog's penis. fark. tv/ 2008/ 05/ 07/ tbs-super-deluxe-to-fold-into-adult-swim/ ). 2003). "SPOTLIGHT ON: Drew Curtis of Fark. shtml#What_is_Foobies. com/ 2004/ 08/ 02/ fark-com-sells-their-editorial-and-the-loyalty-of-their-users/ ). . [27] "Florida Seen As 'Fiesta Of Weirdness'" (http:/ / www2. Retrieved June 27. Hope nothing breaks. com/ content/ 2007/ aug/ 09/ na-florida-seen-as-fiesta-of-weirdness/ ). com/ 2007/ 10/ 18/ drew-curtis-from-fark/ ). 2009. ISBN 0-8144-7356-3. tubefilter. . USA Today Deal Demonstrates Aggregation's Value in Link Economy" (http:/ / www. 2006). August 9. 2004). [21] Betancourt. html). "Fark." (http:/ / www. [4] Shafer. . . 2007). 2007. NPR (All Things Considered). 2007). mathewingram. New York: [AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn http:/ / www. wired. slate. Matthew (August 22. [13] Curtis." (http:/ / www. [14] Jardin. [22] Curtis. . org/ ]. 2008. 2010. Drew. Retrieved July 5. Fark. About Fark" (http:/ / www. [3] Kawasaki. www. Gotham Books. net/ ). blog. . "Fark's redesign will go live at 5PM EST.com (http:/ / www. [9] "Fark. Retrieved June 26. April 25. 2008. Boing Boing. 2007. "404 Not Found (error page). Fark. Retrieved July 4. com& hl=en& ei=Vo_vTeDLMcio0AGpv-n1DA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=fark. Retrieved February 23. . npr.com. January 31. . 2011. Meth. matthewingram. shtml). and some of Fark's favorite headlines from 5/22 . 2009. (2008). html). com/ comments/ 6256691/ Farks-redesign-will-go-live-at-5PM-EST-Heads-up-for-those-of-you-who-missed-other-warning-threads-need-a-place-to-completely-lose-your-mind). 3F). Drew. corbisimages. "USA TODAY announces partnership with Fark. anthills. Leah. Xeni (January 17. jsp). fark. / 969/ ). [16] "Fark site redesign is now live. . php?storyId=10009173). Kevin (ca.com/ (http:/ / blog.com.com. net/ interview-farks-drew-curtis/ ).com" (http:/ / www. Adrian. . [15] Cohen. Retrieved June 27. "Cape Ground Squirrel with Large Testicles" (http:/ / www. delaware. Retrieved July 4. 2010. . . 2009. Retrieved June 1. Poynter Institute. pl?IDLink=2765382)." (http:/ / calacanis. 2011. . Retrieved February 22. fark. 2009. [17] Curtis. [24] Fox. guykawasaki. com/ 404squirrel). Adrian Bye's meetinnovators (http:/ / meetinnovators. "A quick note on the redesign. com/ blogs/ column/ Spotlight_On. Retrieved June 27. Guy (February 22. fark. boingboing. "Panel of Web Community Founders: Utter Defiance of the "Venture Capital" Model" (http:/ / blog. State of Delaware. Dean (January 1. . The Tampa Tribune. 2007). 2004). Drew. fark.

. 10 East 23rd Street. . . Looking closer 5. August 19. 2009).com. 2010. foxnews.com. Fark.com. [35] Why. . www. 2009. . Ric (December 11. [48] Bierut. Fark. [44] Romero. [29] "Wil Wheaton / Biography" (http:/ / au. fark. "New York Mets Get 'Rickrolled' in Musical Prank" (http:/ / www. [39] Wallace. sptimes. com/ 2003-features/ 120103_interview_with_drew_curtis. Drew. com/ books?id=aposWiEqcBQC& pg=PA264& dq=fark.com." (http:/ / www. Inc. . cnn. php). 2005). go. 2009). March 12. pl?IDLink=4875302). php?id=136128638283& share_id=206097532011& comments=1#s206097532011). com& hl=en& ei=Vo_vTeDLMcio0AGpv-n1DA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=8& ved=0CEoQ6AEwBw#v=onepage& q=fark. go. 51. Retrieved December 22.Fark [28] Cridlin. Fark. Kelly (June 22. 2009). . com/ farkit/ ). Retrieved June 27. 2008). [46] Gardner. 2009.. 2005. Retrieved December 22. com/ farq/ farkisms. Retrieved July 5. . 2009. www. Retrieved February 24. 2009. facebook. com& f=false). (http:/ / books. ISBN 1-58115-471-2. Retrieved July 3. [47] "Photoshop Phriday" (http:/ / www. Indianapolis. 2009.com. [55] "Farker Tatsuma gets props from journalists for his work on covering the brouhaha in Iran" (http:/ / www. com/ cgi/ comments. Fark. The Poynter Institute for Media Studies. 2009. html). "LYPA Rising Stars" (http:/ / www. com/ cgi/ comments. com/ posted. com/ TRANSCRIPTS/ 0502/ 18/ lad.. . pluginhq." (http:/ / abclocal. Rotten Tomatoes. Ric (October 18. Retrieved December 22. New York. shtml). fark. William. com/ 2005/ 06/ 03/ Floridian/ Gathering_to_embrace_. pl?IDLink=869740). com/ cgi/ totalfarksignup. fark. Steven. fark. com/ celebrity/ wil_wheaton/ biography. 2009. . [42] "Reporter discovers latest crazes: "Blogging" and "The Charleston"" (http:/ / www. [40] "It's official. com& f=false). fark. "Interview with Drew Curtis. . Fark. com/ farq/ totalfark. php?content=2003& section=features& title=120103_interview_with_drew_curtis& vo=83). "Archived Chat: Frat House Meets Debate Club When It's News and It's Fark" (http:/ / www. Retrieved February 4. October 19. KABC-TV. 2008.00. pl). 2007). 2009. pp. Retrieved 2010-03-03. Retrieved June 27. 113117_LYPA_Rising_Stars. Retrieved July 5.pluginhq. Fark. Fark. fark. Retrieved June 27. com/ tech-policy/ news/ 2007/ 12/ fark-com-trying-to-get-trademark-on-not-safe-for-work. 2006. archive. Indiana: Wiley Publishing. rottentomatoes. pp.349832. Alexi (April 11. Kelly (February 18. 2009. . com& hl=en& ei=KJPvTanWBoPy0gGw_9TyDA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=10& ved=0CFkQ6AEwCTgK#v=onepage& q=fark. Fancy Freebies. 2009. org/ web/ 20070217134725/ http:/ / abclocal. com/ farq/ ufemails. "Fark Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): TotalFark Only Questions" (http:/ / www.com (http:/ / www. Fark. Something Awful. Mireille. com/ story/ 0. "Fark Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): Farkisms" (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=TmGu1ISROkYC& pg=PA51& dq=fark. Ric (December 16. Alexa Internet. Fox News. Archived from the original (http:/ / abclocal. shtml). newmoanyeah. December 21. . [54] Allsopp. . com/ definitive-guide-to-fark/ ). Glen (June 16. "Gathering to embrace the power of the Fark Side" (http:/ / www. 2009. [37] Mostrous. Facebook. 2004. 02. [30] "Step 1: Fill dozens of balloons. NY 10010: Allworth Press. shtml). . [38] "Judge determines unsolicited finger in anus is crude. . KABC-TV. Joel (December 1. "Hey Rick you didn't seem to have enough fans so I suggested you to every Farker I know on FB. asp?id=67& aid=165392). fark. html). [49] "FarkIt Button" (http:/ / www. . Step 3: Submitter gets to use the spiffy new FAIL tag. [52] "Alexa information for Fark. Retrieved June 27. [53] "TotalFark Signup" (http:/ / www. [43] Curtis. Retrieved February 24. com/ )." (http:/ / www. . 2010. [31] "If you're running out of space to keep dozens of cats in your tiny apartment. [33] Curtis. Ars Technica. 2009. somethingawful. 2009. [34] Curtis. 2005). html). (http:/ / books. fark. 2010. Retrieved 2009-06-26. com/ kabc/ video?id=7166049& syndicate=syndicate& section=). don't overlook the storage capacity of your freezer" (http:/ / www." (http:/ / transcripts. CNN. .com (http:/ / www. Retrieved July 4. Buzz marketing with blogs for dummies.newmoanyeah. Eric (December 9. A two-mile stretch of Tennessee highway has been adopted by "Drew Curtis' TotalFark UFIA. Retrieved December 22. 2009. fark. com). "Georgia Lawmakers Weigh in on Childhood Obesity. com/ cgi/ comments. com/ siteinfo/ fark.com. (2006). Heller. google. 2009. April 3. St. 2009). Boston's FleetCenter Auctioned Single-Day Naming Rights on eBay. 2009. 264. pl?IDLink=1993763)." (http:/ / www. Michael Bierut. Fark. pl?IDLink=1720659& hl=Reporter-discovers-latest-crazes-Blogging-The-Charleston). lexweekly.com" (http:/ / alexa.com trying to get trademark on "Not Safe For Work"" (http:/ / arstechnica. Drew (December 7. go. 2009. com/ ). [32] Curtis. 2009. FARKin' Genius" (http:/ / www. "Definitive Guide to Fark and Getting Mass Traffic" (http:/ / www. "Fark Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): UltraFark Email Questions" (http:/ / www. newmoanyeah. com/ kabc/ story?section=consumer& id=3549166). google.. . [45] Romero. ars). com/ Articles-c-2008-05-29-76799. Susannah (2009). 2009. 2009. pluginhq. pl?IDLink=3813171). Retrieved February 26. com/ ConsumerNews?v=feed& story_fbid=190923928283).com. 2010. com/ kabc/ story?section=consumer& id=3549166) on February 17. June 20. but not criminal. pl?IDLink=4459645). Facebook. Lexington Weekly. Petersburg Times. . 244 . Step 2: Big countdown with all the participants. . fark. Your biggest fan. Jay (June 3.com for Donations. 2007. [51] Silcoff.com. "Your Opinions Online" (http:/ / web. 2003). Retrieved December 21. . com/ cgi/ comments. . Retrieved July 5. [36] Bangeman. Drenttel. poynter. shtml)." Link goes to a photo of the sign. com/ d/ photoshop-phriday/ ).com. You rock man. Retrieved July 4.2933.com. . Retrieved July 5. Retrieved July 5. fark. 2009. "Fark. "Donate Toys in Los Angeles" (http:/ / www. Retrieved July 4. com/ cgi/ comments. Retrieved July 3. [50] McBride. ISBN 0-7645-8457-X. 2009. facebook. Retrieved June 27. Drew. org/ column. Fark. . 2008). com/ cgi/ comments. 2005). Drew. . [41] Romero. . "Ric Romero thanks FARK.

insidethewebb. . 2009. Retrieved June 26. 2008). 2007). James (August 23. com/ ). com/ ). 2009. www.com/) ( Mobile (http://http://m. January 9. [65] Scalzi. j-archive. 2007" (http:/ / www.fark. Fark takes sides" (http:/ / vator. com/ showgame.mistersquirrel. com/ 2006/ 08/ 21/ technology/ bloggingdollars0822. "FARK Heatsink Entry" (http:/ / whatever.farktography. "With Iran on razor's edge. amnewstalk1360. [57] "Interview with the Genius Behind Fark. 2009.com/)) FARK. 2010. insidethewebb. 2009. php?game_id=2171). Jeopardy Archive (http:/ / www. Jeopardy Archive (http:/ / www. John (June 12. www. com/ jocks/ cullen. Discovery Channel. com/ showgame. [62] Cullen.scalzi. . [59] Gross. com/ fansites/ mythbusters/ top-ten/ web-sites/ web-sites. com/ 2008/ 06/ 12/ fark-heatsink-entry/ ). Retrieved June 26. [61] "Show #5605 – Friday.net/fark/stats/index.com (http:/ / www.ru (http://www.Fark [56] Francisco.php) – Fark Photoshop contest results and statistics . com/ story/ 0.com (http:/ / www. 2009). Retrieved June 26.jamesgross. com/ ). 2007. . php?game_id=2859). tv/ news/ show/ 2009-06-20-with-iran-on-razors-edge-fark-takes-sides). Kaihla. Retrieved July 22. CNN. j-archive. Retrieved June 26. Lynn (March 15. April 2. Retrieved June 26. Retrieved 2009-06-26.com Farktography (http://www. "Business 2.0 Cover Story" (http:/ / www.ru/) – Independently-run Russian language site modeled after FARK. 2009. 2009. 2009. 2009" (http:/ / www. j-archive.net/) – site for Fark photography (not Photoshop) contests Fark Photoshop Scrutinizer (http://www. Drew Curtis" (http:/ / www. jamesgross. Paul. [58] Sloan. "Blogging for Big Bucks" (http:/ / money. com/ ). aspx). scalzi. . 2007. scalzi. November 12. 245 External links • • • • Official website (http://http://www. Paul (August 22. . November 12. html). "Interview with Drew Curtis on the Lynn Cullen Show". 2006). 2006). discovery. [64] "Mythbusters Top Ten List: 10 Sites Adam Visits Daily" (http:/ / dsc. [63] "Alan's Favorite Web Links" (http:/ / www. com/ business-20-cover-story/ ). cnn.00. [60] "Show #5331 – Monday. . Bambi (June 20. jamesgross. htm). . insidethewebb. com/ ).fark. 2009.214667. foxnews. biz2/ index. June 29. Fox News.2933. Vator. 2009. . j-archive. January 9.fark. html). www. Retrieved June 26. Retrieved February 22. AM1360: Lynn Cullen Show (http:/ / www. . com/ 2009/ 06/ interview-with-genius-behind-fark-drew-curtis/ ).com (http:/ / www.

com Blue Dot Inc.us.com 246 Faves. the service was renamed Faves.icio.5 million from angel investors.Faves. History Blue Dot Inc. that have been most recently shared by their friends. and the website bluedot.[3] Features In addition to features shared with other bookmarking and social bookmarking services. called "Faves" by the company. .com [1] Faves is a social bookmarking and networking software that installs a single browser button for users to "fave" a webpage. thumbnails generated from the page. Blue Dot actively sought interaction with early adopters in "pizza and soft drink" focus groups on campus that have been cautiously criticized by some academics. Faves was called Blue Dot. Inc. and topic-based auto-generated favorites pages. While offering a service similar to the better-known del.faves. the web site still lists the company name as Blue dot. As of December 2007. Co-Founder www. Washington Key people Website Mohit Srivastava. they see a summary of the bookmarks.[6] Early on. dynamic voting.us was launched in June 2006. making a link to the page part of their Faves profile. Faves provides an in-page dialog for saving a Fave. Washington (2004) Headquarters Seattle. was co-founded in 2004 by Mohit Srivastava and Sumit Sen using $1.[5] and is part of the technology resurgence in the Washington Puget Sound area.[4] Blue Dot hopes to profit on of sales from "dotted" websites from its affiliate marketing program. Until October 2007.[2] When a registered user visits their Faves home page. Faves has a wider range of functionality that encourages interaction with "friends" in rating the content of linked webpages. Type Industry Founded Private Software & Programming Seattle.[7] In 2007.

.2000067121. 2006-09-27. Charles (2006-11-13). faves. nwsource. html). Kabir Shahani (http:/ / video. . Marshall (2006-07-06).icio. Harmony (2006-07-21). "BlueDot「 元 祖 」 del.us に 挑 む ソ ー シ ャ ル ブ ッ ク マ ー ク の 「 進 化 系 (Blue Dot challenges the innovator del. ""Blue Dot is not just another social bookmarking system"" (http:/ / www. com/ videoplay?docid=340976308175590219).icio.20176807. "2006 Year in Review: 10 developments that kept local tech companies in the news" (http:/ / seattletimes. com/ column/ somethingnew/ story/ 0. cnet. . nwsource. Retrieved 2006-12-18. [7] Cook. Washington: KOMO 4 News. Retrieved 2006-12-18. Seattle Post-Intelligencer.com/) FidoNet __ / \ /|oo \ (_| /_) _`@/_ \ _ | | \ \\ | (*) | \ )) |__U__| / \// _//|| _\ / (_/(_|(____/ ______ / FIDO \ (________) Old FidoNet logo . willing helpers on campus" (http:/ / www. com/ html/ businesstechnology/ 2003471553_lookback11. Retrieved 2006-12-18. google. Retrieved 2006-12-18. html). Kim (2006-12-11).com 247 References [1] http:/ / www. The Seattle Times.00. TechCrunch. Retrieved 2006-12-18.Faves. com/ html/ businesstechnology/ 2003414563_btinterface13. [Television News]. "Startup social networking sites find targeted. com/ business/ 292919_college20. htm) (in Japanese). . John (2006-11-20). The Seattle Times. techcrunch. com/ 2006/ 07/ 06/ blue-dot-is-not-just-another-social-bookmarking-system). CNET (Japan). External links • Official Site (http://www. Seattle. . [4] Kirkpatrick.faves. [3] Herb Weisbaum interviews Blue Dot Connector. "Blue Dot marks the spot for sharing best of Web" (http:/ / seattletimes. com [2] Satoshi.us in social networking)" (http:/ / japan. seattlepi. html). [6] Peterson. [5] Bermant.

other BBS software was independently adapted to support the relevant FidoNet protocols and the network became a popular means for computer users to communicate. It was common. Arpanet and Minitel networks. Netmail allowed for the "attachment" of a single file to every message. Minerva or Prodigy methodology for most of the world's population to send email to and from the Milnet. prior to the introduction of easy and affordable access to the Internet. or small country.[2] Network coordinators are responsible for managing the individual nodes within their area. Technical structure FidoNet was historically designed to use modem-based dial-up (POTS) access between bulletin board systems. 248 Origin FidoNet was originally founded as a non-commercial network in 1984 by Tom Jennings as a means to network BBSes that used his own "Fido" BBS software. Until 1994 with the arrival of commercial Internet.[1] Over time. the name of the intended recipient. typically the size of a state.FidoNet FidoNet is a worldwide computer network that is used for communication between bulletin board systems. On receiving such a message. These included the automated distribution of files. It was most popular in the early to mid 1990s. and transmission of data for inter-BBS games. usually a city or similar sized area. Regional coordinators are responsible for managing the administration of the network coordinators within their region. The world is divided into six zones. compressed it using ARC or ZIP. By far the most commonly-used of these piggyback protocols was Echomail. identified because it was . any privacy between sender and recipient was only the result of politeness from the owners of the FidoNet systems involved in the mail's transfer. This led to a series of "piggyback" protocols that built additional features onto FidoNet by passing information back and forth as file attachments. with the bulletin board software on each end being responsible for ensuring that only the intended recipient could read it. and much of its policy and structure reflected this. A netmail message would contain the name of the person sending. The FidoNet system officially referred only to transfer of Netmail—the individual private messages between people using bulletin boards—including the protocols and standards with which to support it. with designated coordinators at each level to manage the administration of FidoNet nodes and resolve disputes between members. and the respective FidoNet addresses of each. the coordinators of which elect one of themselves to be the "International Coordinator" of FidoNet. Fidonet was the only non Compuserve. primarily due to the closing of many BBSes during the increase of popularity of the Internet. "New" FidoNet logo FidoNet organizational structure FidoNet is governed in a hierarchical structure according to FidoNet policy. Echomail was supported by a variety of software that collected up new messages from the local BBSes' public forums (the scanner). The network continues to operate but has shrunk considerably. Due to the hobbyist nature of the network. Zone coordinators are responsible for managing the administration of all of the regions within their zone. The FidoNet system was responsible for routing the message from one system to the other (details below). for system operators to reserve the right to review the content of mail that passed through their system. attached the resulting archive to a Netmail message. however. public discussions similar to Usenet newsgroups in nature. and sent that message to a selected system.

the reverse process was used to extract the messages. Former Soviet Union Countries. and a tosser put them back into the new system's forums. Information on each node includes the name of the system or BBS. groupings of nodes which use Fido-compatible software to carry their own independent message areas without being in any way controlled by FidoNet's political structure. and hub status for particular nodes. consider a node located in Tulsa. Nodes and Points broken down more-or-less geographically. The lists are forwarded back to the International Coordinator via automated systems on a regular basis. and generate the list of changes (nodediff) to be distributed for node operators to apply to their existing nodelist. and a Node number. The region was used for administrative purposes.FidoNet addressed to a particular "user". located in Zone 1 (North America). and Network 170. Zones 7-4095 are used for "othernets". The highest level is the Zone. To accomplish regular updates. Using un-used zone numbers would ensure that each network would have a unique set of addresses. to avoid unwanted calls to nodes that had shut down. The FidoNet structure also allows for semantic designation of region. and software capabilities. which are listed in Zone 2) -. a Network number (or region number). and Israel Zone 3 is Australasia Zone 4 is Latin America (except Puerto Rico) Zone 5 is Africa Zone 6 is Asia (excluding Israel and the Asian parts of Russia. which are broken down into nets. FidoNet addresses FidoNet addresses explicitly consist of a Zone number. the geographic location. FidoNet policy requires that each FidoNet system maintain a nodelist of every other member system. For example. Regions. USA with an assigned node number is 918. which consist of individual nodes. Echomail was so popular that for many users. Networks. avoiding potential routing conflicts and ambiguities for systems that belonged to more than one network. Region 19. They are written in the form Zone:Network/Node[4] . the name of the node operator. The International Coordinator would then compile a new nodelist. which is largely continent-based: • • • • • • Zone 1 is North America Zone 2 is Europe. but this status is not directly indicated by the main address. and was only part of the address if the node was listed directly underneath the Regional Coordinator. The full FidoNet address for this system would be 1:170/918.On 26 July 2007 Zone 6 was removed. Private person-to-person Netmail was relatively rare. and all remaining nodes were moved to Zone 3. Oklahoma. coordinators of each network maintain the list of systems in their local areas. The nodelist is updated weekly. with different parts of the tree electing their respective coordinators. host. rather than one of the networks that were used to divide the region further. 249 Geographic structure FidoNet is politically organized into a tree structure.[3] Each zone is broken down into regions. the telephone number. Echomail was the FidoNet. . with their phone numbers possibly having been reassigned for voice use by the respective telephone company. The FidoNet hierarchy consists of Zones.

This ad-hoc system was particularly popular with networks that were built on top of FidoNet. . In Zone 1.FidoNet 250 Routing of FidoNet mail In a theoretical situation. a node would normally forward messages to a hub. Operators within individual networks would sometimes have cost-sharing arrangements. Originally there was no specific relationship between network numbers and the regions they reside in. This is not the case in other zones. In practice. Zone 2 also relates the node number to the hub number if the network is large enough to contain any hubs. allowing for a balance between collective cost saving and timely delivery. often involved relatively large file transfers due to its popularity. Region number X 20 Then when some regions started running out of network numbers. for instance. The only consideration taken was where they were located geographically in respect to the region's mapped outline. it was distributed 'down stream' to the destination node(s). the following was also used. might then send the message to the Net Coordinator. and node operators would sometimes form their own toll-calling arrangements on an ad-hoc basis. and those near it. most notably in Zone 2. contains nets 380-399 and 3800-3999 in addition to those that were in Region 19 when it was formed. but PKZIP is universally supported). if one node operator in a network offered to make regular toll calls to a particular system elsewhere. Zone 1 was the starting point and when Zones and Regions were formed. From there it may be sent through a Regional Coordinator. or in France. acting as a distribution point for mail. to the local volunteer. other operators might arrange to forward all of their mail destined for the remote system. things are much different. Echomail. where even local lines are expensive. Mail to other zones might be sent through a Zone Gate. This effect may be seen in the nodelist by looking at the structure of Net 2410 where node 2:2410/330 is listed under Hub 300. or to some other system specifically set up for the function. the existing nets were divided up regionally with no set formula. 2:201/329 is in Net 201 which is in Region 20 while 2:2410/330 is in Net 2410 which is in Region 24. In some areas of FidoNet. for instance. The hub. As net numbers got added. The FidoNet system was best adapted to an environment in which local telephone service was inexpensive and long-distance calls (or intercity data transfer via packet-switched networks) costly. Region number X 200 Region 19. Therefore. the following formula was used. From there. the relationship between region number and network number are entwined. the FidoNet structure allows for any node to connect directly to any other. one toll call could then be made during off-peak hours to exchange entire message-filled archives with an out-of-town uplink for further redistribution. In such cases. or to build their status in the community. where tolls on local calls and competition with Minitel or other data networks limited its growth. Echomail messages would be routed to the volunteers' systems instead. Part of the objective behind the formation of local nets was to implement cost reduction plans by which all messages would be sent to one or more hubs or hosts in compressed form (ARC was nominally standard. but it was also common for people to volunteer to pay for regular toll calls either out of generosity. For instance. For example. a FidoNet message might follow the path: • 1:170/918 (node) to 1:170/900 (hub) to 1:170/0 (net coordinator) to 1:19/0 (region coordinator) to 1:1/0 (zone coordinator). other node operators would sometimes volunteer. If official FidoNet distributors refused to transfer Echomail due to additional toll charges. it fared somewhat poorly in Japan. For example.

Points were introduced to address this.) and so keeps the calls down to a few minutes a day at most.000 points listed in the Z2 pointlist. so how many points there really were is anybody's guess.: Yoohoo/Yoohoo2u2. file compression.000 listed points.the protocols to be used for transferring files containing FidoNet mail between systems. allowing technically savvy users to receive the already compressed and batched Echomail (and Netmail) and read it locally on their own machines. Dedicated offline mail reader programs such as Blue Wave. it became very difficult for users to keep up with the volume while logged into their local BBS. Contrary to North America where local calls usually are free. the FidoNet addressing scheme was extended with the addition of a final address segment. To do this. Zone mail hour Since computer bulletin boards historically used the same telephone lines for transferring mail as were used for dial-in human users of the BBS. In other parts of the world. especially Europe. transfer over reliable connections such as the Internet (Binkp). Listing points is on a voluntary basis and not every point is listed. .the standard format for FidoNet messages during the time which they were exchanged between systems. there are still some 50. The FidoNet software typically consisted of a number of small utility programs run by manually-adjusted scripts. In practice.the protocols used by mailer software to identify each other and exchange meta information about the session. For instance. particularly in later times. nodelist format. In Europe (Zone 2) pointing became very popular. In real-world use. and thus could be sent mail at the address 1:170/918. At the peak of FidoNet there were over 120. ARJ etc. Reading and editing the mail required either a "sysop editor" or a BBS be run locally. FidoNet policy dictates that at least one designated line of each FidoNet node must be available for accepting mail from other FidoNet nodes during a particular hour of each day. and quickly rendered the point system obsolete.and Region Pointlist Keepers and the Zone Point List Keeper assembles them into the Zone pointlist. with which all FidoNet systems were required to comply as a minimal requirement. in Europe local calls are mostly metered and so there was an incentive to keep the duration of the calls as short as possible.g. Point software employs standard compression (ZIP. Many regions distribute a pointlist in parallel with the nodelist.[5] "Zone Mail Hour. most FidoNet systems tend to accept mail at any time of day when the phone line is not busy. • Transfer protocol (XMODEM) . • Message format . and other aspects. The most basic of all was FTS-0001. usually during night." as it was named. a user on the example system above might be given point number 10. and was designated to occur during the early morning. EMSI). varies depending on the geographic location of the node. points are fairly difficult to set up.FidoNet 251 Points As the number of messages in Echomail grew over time. Technical specifications FidoNet contained several technical specifications for compatibility between systems. Most of them are in Russia and Ukraine. and even then only to a limited degree. FTS-0001 defined: • Handshaking . this was different.10. The exact hour varies depending on the time zone. different transfer protocols and handshake methods (e. As of June 2006. Squiggy and Silver Xpress (OPX) were introduced in the mid 1990s. Other specifications that were commonly used provided for echomail. Many of these packages supported the QWK offline mail standard. The pointlist segments are maintained by Net. the point number. and any node with only one telephone line is required to reject human callers. In North America (Zone 1) points were used only briefly.

has been rendered abandonware. Many BBSes also allowed users to exchange files. However. such as FastEcho. such as the BBS software. had no public bulletin board attached. at appropriate times. A scanner/tosser application. locally or on other BBSes. BBS software was used to interact with human callers to the system. This application would be responsible for handling the packaging of incoming and outgoing mail. One of the most popular editors in 2008 was GoldED+. TosScan and Squish. Intermail. The mailer would initially answer the phone and. and pass control to the BBS software. If the mailer answered the phone and a human caller was detected rather than other mailer software. and some other FidoNet-supporting software from the 1980s. the mailer software would attempt to send it from time to time by dialing and connecting to other systems who would accept and route the mail further. A typical deployment would involve several applications that would communicate through shared files and directories.e. and switch between each other through carefully designed scripts or batch files.FidoNet 252 FidoNet deployments Most FidoNet deployments were designed in a modular fashion. . In some cases. the mailer would exit. much of which was closed source. Such software eliminated the need for custom batch files and is tightly integrated in operation. which was a small device driver which provided a standard way for the Fido software to talk to the modem.: node to node chat). In later times. Due to the costs of toll calls which often varied between peak and off-peak times. mailer software would usually allow its operator to configure the optimal times in which to attempt to send mail to other systems. or more often FidoNet points. would normally be invoked when a BBS user had entered a new FidoNet message that needed to be sent. and by using a Virtual Modem such as NetSerial. if anything. The preference of deployment was that of the operator and there were both pros and cons of running in either fashion. such as D'Bridge. MainDoor and D'Bridge from the early 1990s can still be run today under Windows without a modem. Arguably the most important piece of software on a DOS-based Fido system was the FOSSIL driver. usually after the user had finished using the system. and existed only for the transfer of mail for the benefit of the node's operator.[6] This driver needed to be loaded before any Fido software would work. Most nodes in 2009 had no BBS access. deal with incoming mail via FidoNet transfer protocols. or when a mailer had received new mail to be imported into the local messages bases. Mail Tossers such as FastEcho and FMail are still used today under both Windows and Linux/DOSEMU. moving it between the local system's message bases and the mailer's inbound and outbound directories. including problems related to the Y2K bug. In some cases FidoNet nodes. The original Fido BBS software. There are similar solutions for Linux such as MODEMU (modem emulator) which has limited success when combined with DOSEMU (DOS emulator). When outgoing mail was waiting on the local system. An efficient FOSSIL driver meant faster. to read and write FidoNet and related messages. if necessary. which would then initialise for interaction with the user. and the software. The scanner/tosser application would generally be responsible for basic routing information. This allows the mailer to "Dial" an IP address or hostname via Telnet. determining which systems to forward mail to. the original authors have left the BBS or shareware community. Mailer software was responsible for transferring files and messages between systems. message readers or editors that were independent of BBS software were also developed. as well as passing control to other applications. more reliable connections. is no longer functional on modern systems. and interact with other users in a variety of ways (i. Several DOS based legacy FidoNet Mailers such as FrontDoor. BBS software would allow dial-in users to use the system's message bases and write mail to others. rather than dialing a real POTS phone number. rather than the BBS software itself. Mail directed to other BBSes would later be routed and sent by the mailer. monolithic software that encompassed all required functions in one package is available. This is for several reasons. but only points. by using the freeware NetFoss Telnet FOSSIL driver. FMail. Often the System Operator of a particular BBS would use a devoted message reader. play games.

.0. Throughout its history. com/ public/ fidonews/ archive/ 2007/ FIDO2431.0. June 9. Affectionately nicknamed "The Snooze". He named this network 'Fidonet'. There are also mail gates for exchanging messages between Internet and FidoNet. Widespread net abuse and e-mail spam on the Internet side has caused some gateways (such as the former 1:1/31 IEEE fidonet.fidonet.us/ dummyguide.com/) on 2008-05-10. htm).FidoNet There are several modern Windows based FidoNet Mailers available today with source code. [DVD.07" (http:/ / www. IP-only. Bj”rn. MainDoor is another Windows based Fidonet mailer. FidoNet. fidotel. Retrieved 2010-08-01. including those that are now available for users with Internet connections via telnet. it is still used in Russia and former republics of the USSR." [2] "FidoNet Policy Document: Version 4. Felten.archive. which also can be run using either a modem or directly over TCP/IP. operating a Fidonet system often required significant financial investment. fidonet. Boston. a FidoNet system usually had at least one dedicated phoneline. Finally.org/details/BBS. USA: Bovine Ignition Systems.org gateway) to become unusable or cease operation entirely. 30 July 2007. The addresses are made-up. Archived from the original (http://www. with quick CPUs. [3] Shenkenberger. • Scott. . At time 5:19.. As a Fidonet system was usually a BBS. BBS: The Documentary (http://www. Carol (26 July 2007). Section 4. .The. (2005). Fido systems were usually well-equipped machines. it needed to quickly process any new mail events before returning to its 'waiting for call' state." [4] Schuyler 1992. Retrieved 2010-09-30. and Taurus. FidoNet availability While the use of FidoNet has dropped dramatically compared with its use up to the mid-1990s. Consequently. Two popular free and open source software FidoNet mailers for Unix-like systems are the binkd (cross-platform.0. FidoNet. Radius. FidoNews FidoNews is the newsletter of the FidoNet community. high-speed modems and 16550 UARTs. Jason (director). Episode 4: "Fidonet"]. the ncurses UI for qico. Retrieved 2010-09-30. including the short-lived International FidoNet Association. for their day. also retain their FidoNet netmail and echomail feeds. Some BBSes. MA. which were at the time an upgrade. It was first published in 1984. uses the binkp protocol) and qico (supports modem communication as well as the IP protocol of ifcico and binkp). including Argus. "With sadness I have removed the last entry for Zone6 as of this writing. References [1] Scott 2005. Section 6. Some of FidoNet's echomail conferences are available via gateways with the Usenet news hierarchy using software like UFGate. 253 On the hardware side. All remaining members have been transitioned to Zone3 as previously determined by Z6 members at large. "Removal of Zone 6" (http:/ / www. the BBS itself usually necessitated lots of storage space. "The Big Dummy's Guide to FidoNet" (http://www. In addition. • Schuyler. Michael (November 1992). retrieved 2010-10-08. ed. it is published weekly. File queue in qcc.html). Section 10. OCLC 61156153. Documentary). [6] Schuyler 1992. FIDONEWS 24 (31): 2.bbsdocumentary. a cost usually met by the owner of the system. it has been published by various people and entities. 1989. html). [5] Schuyler 1992. us/ policy4. "Tom Jennings rewrote the Fido BBS program to network with other Fidos.

and add and edit book descriptions. the weekly newsletter of the FidoNet community (http://www. build a "What I'm Reading" list. post multimedia (PDF. sort the order of books.fidonet. Readers can also communicate with friends. Readers can build online bookshelves. "New Site Hosts 1. and add and edit endorsements. was co-founded in 2008 by Peter Clifton and Mike Shatzkin. and other readers with similar reading interests. rate books and post reviews. and interact with their readers. rate and review books. testimonials. and FiledBy. interact with their favorite authors and other readers with similar reading tastes. photographers.fidonews. 2009.net/) Fidonet Showcase Project (http://winramturbo. upload documents. Inc. and create groups and book clubs. "Local FiledBy startup asks authors to claim 1. and artists).org/) FidoNews. Reader Features With a free reader account. add two outbound links. 2009.8 million webpages" [6] • July 8. communicate with readers and other authors. Inc. Premium Memberships expand upon the basic features as well as allow authors to create a unique blog.FidoNet 254 External links • • • • • • • International FidoNet Home Page (http://www. list upcoming events and appearances. Atlas Book Distribution. illustrators. create electronic press kits. FiledBy has over 3 million author and contributor websites and over 8 million books in its database. post events and appearances. 2009 Venture Nashville Connections. FiledBy also has a pre-publication feature that allows both first time and published authors to build a pre-publication website to promote forthcoming books before they are released.[1] Launched in March 2009.8 Million Author Pages" [5] • March 25. post a resume. video). or video). users can use FiledBy to build and sort a personal online bookshelf.[3] Basic Memberships are free and allow authors to add and edit their personal biography and photo.fidonet. FiledBy. mp3. link to online booksellers. set links to other sites.[4] Premium Plus Memberships expand upon the Premium Memberships as well as allow authors to post a customizable header graphic. Author Features FiledBy offers both free and premium author websites with many tools and features designed for authors.org/) Alternate FidoNet Home Page (http://www. mp3. add or change book covers. References • March 25. offers online marketing solutions for both authors and publishers. and post one multimedia item (PDF.info/) International Echolist Home Page (http://www. book authors.tlchost. Publisher's Weekly.net/echolist/) IFDC FileGate Project (http://www.[2] Authors can announce forthcoming book releases. "FiledBy Launches Program to Assist Writers and Publishers" [7] . and awards.ftsc.filegate.us/) FidoNet Technical Standards Committee Home Page (http://www. authors.com/fnsp/) FiledBy FiledBy is a social cataloging website for content creators (ie.

com/ news. teleread. . fictionmatters. com/ service/ tier_matrix. html?q=filedby [6] http:/ / www. atlasbooksdistribution. Retrieved 2009-08-26.com) .FiledBy 255 Footnotes [1] "Q&A with cofounders Peter Clifton and Mike Shatzkin" (http:/ / www. php?viewStory=251 [7] http:/ / blog. Retrieved 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2009-08-28. [3] "Membership Levels" (http:/ / filedby. teleread. [5] http:/ / www. aspx). [2] "FiledBy Expands By Leaps" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. [4] "Pre-Publication Feature" (http:/ / www. org/ 2009/ 03/ 30/ filedbyauthor-qa-with-cofounders-peter-clifton-and-mike-shatzkin/ ). venturenashville. com/ 2009/ 07/ 08/ filedby-launches-program-to-assist-writers-and-publishers/ External links • FiledBy official site (http://www. . . . org/ 2009/ 07/ 01/ filedby-launches-pre-publication-website-for-new-and-established-authors/ ). com/ 2009/ 05/ 19/ filedby-expands-by-leaps/ ). Retrieved 2009-08-26. com/ article/ CA6646728.filedby.

Britain. Operated by Handmade Mobile Entertainment. Matt Dicks (CMO). About 80 percent of its members access Flirtomatic via mobile phone. in a study by the mobile measurement company Ground Truth. and find user-generated editorial content relating to flirting and dating. The company generates revenues from online advertising and value-added services paid for through carrier billing. James Stockton (CFO). Vodafone. has 3. Android. 36 Owner(s) Employees Flirtomatic is an online flirting and social networking service for people connected to the Internet via mobile phone or PC. Orange. Ltd. BlackBerry and Ovi and has integrated Facebook into its services. location and other information stored in their profile. such as virtual goods. Spain. Germany. Peugeot. Germany. Mark Curtis (CEO). chat with other users. Samsung. McDonalds. which members can purchase and use to buy additional services. Flirtomatic has virtual currency known as FlirtPoints.Flirtomatic 256 Flirtomatic Flirtomatic Type Industry Founded Founder(s) Headquarters Number of locations Area served Key people Private Social networking service (2005) Avi Azulai. The service is available on iPhone.[2] Flirtomatic is available to mobile users in Britain. Flirtomatic was named the number one mobile dating site in the U. Cricket. NatWest. interests. Walkers. U. MetroPCS and ninemsn and has attracted mobile advertising from companies such as Fiat. Rimmel. Italy and the United States. Australia.S.[3] Flirtomatic users average six logins a day while its iPhone users check in nine times a day. premium SMS and card payments. H&M and Sony Pictures. Flirtomatic has partnerships with AT&T. and pay to promote or advertise their profile within the service and through alert features. The service. Mark Curtis London. . Australia. 3. Verizon. send immediate messages with graphics and photos.S. Udi Jacobi (VP EMEA). Virgin Mobile. Orange. open to users 18 and older.5 million in the U. United Kingdom San Francisco. Jerry Ennis (COO).) registered users. T-Mobile. Mark Barlow (Head of Product) Handmade Mobile Entertainment.5 million (1. rate other members. Italy and the United States Avi Azulai (Chairman).[1] Flirtomatic allows members to connect on the basis of preferences.S. Flirtomatic monitors its site in order to maintain a PG-rated content. Spain. Vodafone. O2.

Doughty Hanson Technology Ventures. the company chairman. building cross-platform and mobile products for Nokia and Orange. Flirtomatic’s proprietary multimedia interaction platform was designed to provide a consumer entertainment proposition that stood between the popular social networking and online dating services.[13] During the 2010 election for UK prime minister. Fjord created and developed the flirting theme. By May 5.4 percent chose Liberal Democrat candidate Nick Clegg.m. including 19. released a report that found that Flirtomatic was the 15th most commonly searched term on the UK mobile web in 2009. fun. [14] Flirtomatic raised $18 million in overall funding by December 2010.” Curtis said to WeLoveBusiness.uk. which was made available for free via the Apple Inc. . ‘We’re describing flirting’ to which the rest of us thought. Seraphim Capital.co. humor.” according to MediaWeek. 2009. ‘Wow! There’s an idea. was formerly the global EVP for Razorfish and a co-founder of Fjord. Flirtomatic was made available on Android.000 virtual gifts in the four weeks leading up to Christmas of that year. BlackBerry and Ovi and integrated Facebook into its services. The company’s emphasis on flirting has differentiated it from more traditional online dating sites geared toward matching users with one another. How could we create an application that could make flirting as easy.[11] Flirtomatic launched an advertising-funded iPhone application in January 2010.[9] The company also expanded into Germany that year and into Australia in 2009.7 percent selected Labour candidate Gordon Brown. with $10 million secured that year. invented the service’s name and was instrumental in the design of all digital interfaces. fun and good as it possibly can be for mobile?’ ” Fjord took a lead role in securing funding to build and launch Flirtomatic.Flirtomatic 257 History Flirtomatic was founded by Avi Azulai and Mark Curtis in 2005. one of which became Flirtomatic.455 Christmas stockings.[7] The following year.9 percent picked Conservative candidate David Cameron and 31. Oxford Capital Partners and company chairman Avi Azulai. Mobile Commerce. Flirtomatic posted mock profiles of the three main candidates and invited members to “snog” them. 2010. In April 2010. a light touch.[12] Later that year. according to GSMA Mobile Media Metrics. with a Flirtomatic poll revealing that online flirting peaks daily at 4:30 p.[8] Flirtomatic reached 1 million users and had a 475 percent revenue increase in 2008. the London Stock Exchange-listed mobile entertainment business sold for £180 million ($284 million) in June 2005. The service started as a Fjord concept when Nokia enlisted the company to propose five ideas for mobile. Flirtomatic ranked 9th in mobile Internet use in the UK.[6] By November 2006. Flirtomatic also expanded into Spain and Italy. “Some bright spark piped up and said. previously founded iTouch. 33.[10] Flirtomatic sold 100. Azulai.[4] The company also developed such features as Flirtograms and Supersnogs. In Dec. we talked about messaging.000 registered users. Mark Curtis. “due to workers trying to waste that last hour before the end of their working day. 10. App Store. Flirtomatic had 185. the CEO.000 Flirtomatic users weighed in: 34. Flirtomatic had 100. which delivers 25 percent of all mobile Internet searches from UK carrier portals. at 55 million minutes for the month. which is now independently run.[5] “When we described dating on the mobile and what it’d feel like. Flirtomatic adopted a “freemium” model.000 users in July 2006. switching from subscriptions for mobile to mobile advertising revenues and premium services.[15] Among the investors: Nauta Capital.

(2010-02-10). uk/ commentisfree/ 2009/ dec/ 17/ unreal-christmas-virtual-goods/ ). [3] O’Hear. com/ 2008/ 11/ 16/ the-hottest-100-mediatech-companies-in-europe/ ). Joe. (2009-12-17). Retrieved 2011-01-04. guardian. [10] Bunz. article/ ). com/ flirtomatic/ ). "The Irresistible Draw of Mobile Apps" (http:/ / www. mcproton. [13] "The Top 100 Mobile Search Terms of 2010" (http:/ / www. co. 2010-12-21. "Flirtomatic Revenue up 475 %. research firm. Ingrid. (2008-11-16). "Flirtomatic Attracts $9 Million" (http:/ / paidcontent. com/ 2010/ 08/ flirtomatic-is-1-us-mobile-dating-site. Retrieved 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2011-01-04. mobileindustryreview. Retrieved 2011-01-04. "The Hottest 100 Mediatech Companies in Europe" (http:/ / thenextweb. "We Talk to Flirtomatic Founder Mark Curtis" (http:/ / welovebusiness. techcrunch.[19] In a January 2011 poll of its contacts in the mobile content business. (2010-01-18). html/ ). Retrieved 2011-01-04. The Guardian. [12] O’Sullivan. Ewan. "Flirtomatic Raises Another $1 Million. co. Cian. uk/ news/ flirtomatic-adds-video-to-web-and-mobile-service/ 30380. Victor. Retrieved 2011-01-04. the Meffy Awards [23] Overall Mobile Web Category. com/ corporate/ Modules/ News/ News. .[17] Flirtomatic ranked eighth in mobile downloads in the U. Steve. The Guardian. MediaWeek. gomonews. . accounting for 65 percent of the summer audience for mobile dating. [8] "Flirtomatic Scraps Subscription Service" (http:/ / www. "Digital tills are ringing to the sound of an unreal Christmas" (http:/ / www. co. . (2010-09-10). 2006-11-23. "Survey Reveals Bored Workers End Day With Flirty Messages" (http:/ / www. Smaato Mobile Advertising Awards 2009 [24] References [1] MacLeod. a Cambridge. Boris.S. a list of the hottest mediatech companies in Europe compiled by Library House. Mobile Commerce Ltd. [5] Agate. GoMo News. 1 Million Members" (http:/ / www. nma. . in August 2010. com/ 2010/ 12/ 09/ flirtomatic-keeps-growing-3-5m-users-and-several-key-hires/ ). Retrieved 2011-01-04. mediaweek. . (2010-07-14).. co. NewMediaAge. Flirtomatic was ranked #4 in the Guardian’s Tech Media Invest Top 100 companies. com/ the-irresistible-draw-of-mobile-apps-staunch-mobile-web-advocate-flirtomatic-launches-an-iphone-application/ ). uk/ media/ pda/ 2010/ feb/ 08/ facebook-rise-mobile-web-use#start-of-comments/ ).. Fjord. [6] Oatts. . aspx?pid=11& newscat=1/ ). com/ 2008/ 09/ flirtomatic_revenue_up_475_1_million_members. [14] O’Hear. org/ article/ 419-flirtomatic-attracts-9-million/ ). . James. Retrieved 2011-01-04.Flirtomatic 258 Reception Flirtomatic in 2008 topped The Mediatech 100. according to a study by the mobile measurement company Ground Truth. Retrieved 2011-01-04. com/ 2010/ 05/ 05/ voters-kissing-politicians-flirtomatic-users-choose-lib-dems-nick-clegg/ ). "Flirtomatic is #1 US mobile dating site" (http:/ / www. . html/ ). techcrunch.[20] Awards • • • • Best Social Media. PaidContent. mobileindustryreview. Retrieved 2011-01-04. (2010-12-09). [7] "Flirtomatic Adds Video to Web and Mobile Service" (http:/ / www. . net/ article/ 419-flirtomatic-raises-another-1-million-adds-new-investor/ ). uk/ tech-media-invest-100/ top-100/ ). guardian. Retrieved 2011-01-04. [17] "Tech Media Invest 100" (http:/ / www. The Next Web. uk/ we-talk-to-flirtomatic-founder-mark-curtis/ ). TechCrunch Europe. Retrieved 2011-01-04. . "Flirtomatic keeps growing – 3. 2009-09-07. (2010-11-23). Adds New Investor" (http:/ / moconews. UK. . MocoNews. co. uk/ news/ 657435/ Flirtomatic-scraps-subscription-service/ ). Retrieved 2011-01-04. Mobile Industry Review. TechCrunch Europe. uk/ news/ 567517/ Survey-reveals-bored-workers-end-day-flirty-messages/ ). (2010). co. [16] Veldhuijzen van Zanten. "Voters Kissing Politicians. . [9] MacLeod. Flirtomatic Users Choose Lib Dems Nick Clegg" (http:/ / eu.5m users and several key hires" (http:/ / eu. Ewan. Joanne. [11] Keegan. . Retrieved 2011-01-04. in March 2010 [18] Flirtomatic was named the number one mobile dating site in the U. [4] Fjord. (2008-09-23). . [2] Tartakoff. Mobile Entertainment named Mark Curtis one of the top 50 executives in the field. 2007-05-15. .. Mobile Industry Review. Social Networking 2009 and Social Media 2010. "Facebook Leads Rise in Mobile Web Use" (http:/ / www. . guardian. Retrieved 2011-01-04. [15] Lunden. The Guardian.. MediaWeek. . "Flirtomatic" (https:/ / fjordnet. co. . Retrieved 2011-01-04. NMA Effectiveness Awards 2009 [22] Community 2008. WeLoveBusiness. (2010-08-25).[16] In September 2009. (2006-07-06). (2010-12-21).S. mediaweek. Mercedes. Mobile Entertainment Awards 2009 and 2010 [21] Best Use of Mobile and the Grand Prix. Steve.

[21] O’Brien. sales from the store reached US$3 million. [22] "NMA Effectiveness Awards 2009" (http:/ / www.000 members on her email list. sent from the FlyLady Distribution Center in Brevard. [9] " The name FlyLady was Marla Cilley's screen name. .[2] Many members of FlyLady have stated that the group has helped them and has changed their lives. Mobile Entertainment. tmcnet. weekly and monthly cleaning. Marla Cilley.net. and a systematic view to housekeeping. the value of routines. Flylady. Stuart.[3] [4] FlyLady's messages cover topics include clutter. Handmade Mobile. com/ mobile-dating-heats-up-in-summer/ )..Flirtomatic [18] "US GetJar Rankings for March" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-01-04. and letting go of perfectionism. In 2007.com/flirtomark/) Handmade Mobile (http://www. then Yahoo groups)..net. com/ mobile-awards/ meffys/ ). 2010. TMCnews. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 2009-10-16.handmademobile. [6] History Marla Cilley. "ME Awards 2009: The Winners" (http:/ / www. handmademobile. Retrieved 2011-01-04. groundtruth. mobile-ent. [24] "Smaato Mobile Advertising Award Winners" (http:/ / www.com/Flirtomatic/) Flirtomatic on Twitter (http://twitter. Marla first created an email group (first on e-Groups. com/ usubmit/ 2009/ 10/ 16/ 4427756. (2011-01-06). mobile-ent. [7] In 1999. com/ 2010/ 04/ 30/ us-getjar-rankings-for-march/ ). [5] A store on her website sells organizational tools and housewares. Retrieved 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2011-01-04. [1] The group is based upon the website FlyLady..[7] .com/) Fjord (https://fjordnet. htm/ ). she has over 550. . Cilley joined a web forum called SHE's Online. . routines. NC. Mobile Entertainment. html/ ). "The top 50 top execs in mobile content" (http:/ / www. 2010-08-25. MobiThinking.. The Next Web. . ("The Slob Sisters") detailed in their book 'Sidetracked home executives: From pigpen to paradise'(1977) [8] The book covers many of the key topics that were adapted to become the FlyLady system. based on the housekeeping system created by Pam Young and Peggy Jones.. "slipshod cleaning". co. . FlyLady refers to Pam and Peggy as her mentors and inspiration. 2009-06-25. founded by "The FlyLady". . then published her website. [23] "The Meffy Awards" (http:/ / mobithinking. as well as a Federated Media's BigTent group for its email mailing list. as she was a fly fishing fan and instructor. biz/ news/ 34550/ ME-Awards-2009-The-Winners#/ ). As of 2010. [20] Green. 259 External links • • • • • Official website (http://www. founder of FlyLady. in February 2001. daily task lists. Tim.com/) FlyLady FlyLady is a support and self-help group that offers advice to help people with housekeeping . [19] "Mobile Dating Heats Up In Summer" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-01-06. uk/ emags/ nma/ awards2009/ pageflip.flirtomatic.facebook. (2009-10-01). is from North Carolina. increased self-esteem. 2010-04-30. New Media Age.com/) Flirtomatic on Facebook (http://www. Retrieved 2011-01-04. . One of the members of the FlyLady e-mail list later created a "backronym" for FLY: Finally Loving Yourself. centaur2. biz/ news/ 40018/ The-top-50-top-execs-in-mobile-content/ ).

whereby each weekday is assigned an additional task or focus. Weekly Routines Marla advises the use of a weekly routines. "anti-procrastination" day. Shine Your Sink Cilley's first instruction to new members is "Go shine your sink!" She asserts that even in a messy kitchen. One such exercise is FlyLady's "27-fling Boogie. Thursday is grocery day and Friday is "desk day". Get Dressed to Shoes Cilley insists that her followers "get dressed to lace-up shoes" before beginning their housekeeping tasks . Clutter Cannot Be Organized Cilley recommends that her followers get rid of excess items in their homes. the Marla Cilley and co-author Leanne Ely also released a New York Times bestselling book called Body Clutter: Love Your Body. and reduces opportunities to get sidetracked or bored. afternoon and evening. Flylady Reminders . and establishing routines. ISBN 0-553-38217-9) and on the web site." a household management notebook or binder. Weekly Home Blessing Cilley's adaption of the Pam Young and Peggy Jones' "Slipshod cleaning" is the one-hour housecleaning mission called the "weekly home blessing. building up to creating personalized routines for morning. focusing on paperwork and finances. Each day the email list will provide a "mission" with a detailed cleaning task in the current zone." in which the follower quickly selects 27 items in their home to discard or give away. This reduction "decluttering" is done 15 minutes at a time. and bring in less items. menu planning. to store the owner's routines. change bedsheets and clean up old magazines." Using their timers.FlyLady 260 Methodology FlyLady's methodology is outlined in Cilley's book Sink Reflections (Bantam Books. as well as the day to declutter the car. mop. Wednesday is errand day. through self-examination and increased self-respect. followers are instructed to vacuum. Monday is daily cleaning. as well as financial and health-related self-care[10] In 2007. empty trash.or contacting her for an interview. Love Yourself. The primary focus is on "Finally Loving Yourself" by making your life easier by decluttering. rather than attempting to organize them. dust. encouraging further cleaning in the rest of the room and home. The system encourages "baby steps" to develop routines and habits to organize and maintain your home. The short time commitment helps stop procrastination. Each task is allocated ten minutes only. lists and other important household information. which are allocated to the five weeks or partial weeks of the month. 15 Minutes at a Time Cilley that recommends using a timer to work for only 15 minutes at a time.a series of 31 small daily tasks which introduce and then reinforce aspects of cleaning and decluttering. Control Journal Flylady advises the use of a "Control Journal.[11] which aims to apply the FlyLady's housekeeping methodology to caring for the reader's body. the cleaned-out and polished sink provides positive reinforcement to the person who cleaned it. Key points in the FlyLady system include: Babysteps and Routines New recruits to the FlyLady system are called "Flybabies" and are introduced to "babysteps" .[5] Zones Flylady divides a house into five sections or zones.

Peggy Jones (January 1977).FlyLady Daily reminders of the routines. 2009 • Maaike Quinn.monologueaudition. cnn.bigtent. The Christian Science Monitor.flylady. deseretnews. [2] The BigTent Transition! (http:/ / www. "How FlyLady nags her way to millions" (http:/ / money. [7] Deirdre Donahue (2002-09-30). organization and mother wit" (http:/ / nl.lifewithflylady. usatoday. J1.edu/ bitstream/handle/1721. Binford & Mort. "FlyLady devotees find peace through cleaner homes. who you gonna call? FlyLady!" (http:/ / nl.mit. Retrieved 2007-07-21. Leanne Ely (January 2007). Marla. Makeovers. [11] Cilley. Sidetracked home executives: From pigpen to paradise.savingdinner.pdf). asp) [3] Mary Beth Breckenridge (2003-04-27). USA Today. Some frequently repeated sayings in this respect are "good enough is good enough" or "housework done incorrectly still blesses your family". Retrieved 2007-07-21.TheBratFactor. html). com/ uniontrib/ 20050102/ news_1c2flylady. Body Clutter: Love Your Body. newsbank.com) (Pam Young speaks to Flybabies about their "inner brat") . . newsbank. . [10] Molly Millett (2006-04-22).com/groups/flylady) Karen Kohlhaas. Transformational Tales: Media. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=PD& s_site=twincities& p_multi=SP& p_theme=realcities& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_topdoc=1& p_text_direct-0=1114C1E03A41E120& p_field_direct-0=document_id& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& s_trackval=GooglePM).flylady. 2006 • Orit Kuritsky. St. Retrieved 2007-07-21. "FlyLady helps you put house in order" (http:/ / nl. Love Yourself. zones and missions.net (http://www. com/ article/ 700020667/ The-FlyLady-helps-you-and-thousands-of-others-reel-in-spring-cleaning. The Miami Herald. Fortune Small Business. [9] Elizabeth Lund (2002-07-10). . signonsandiego. p. External links • • • • FlyLady.net) FlyLady. . Louis Post-Dispatch): p. . html). ISBN 978-1416534624. "FlyLady says a tidy soul comes first" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-07-21. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=SL& p_theme=sl& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_topdoc=1& p_text_direct-0=0F96881F865273C2& p_field_direct-0=document_id& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& s_trackval=GooglePM). fsb/ index. are sent to subscribers of the FlyLady list. Lifestyle (St. 10. htm). htm). newsbank. say nothing at all" 261 References [1] Molly Millett (2003-02-22). com/ life/ books/ news/ 2002-09-30-cilley_x. "When domestic chaos threatens. and Material Culture (http://dspace. Fireside. August. [5] Kate Beem (2010-03-30). 20H. Paul Pioneer Press. FlyLady buzzes to the rescue" (http:/ / www. [6] Susan Hauser (2007-08-16). Sign on San Diego. com/ 2007/ 08/ 16/ smbusiness/ Fly_Lady. [4] Aman Batheja (2005-01-02). ASIN B000H590VI. net/ pages/ btinfo. chat room and Facebook page are "No Whining Zones". and that "If you can't say anything nice. February.tv (http://www.com) by Leanne Ely (adviser to Flybabies) and The Brat Factor (http://www. highbeam. Retrieved 2011-05-06. No Whining FlyLady often repeats that her website.com/flylady. Deseret News. Retrieved 2007-07-21. html).com) . Retrieved 2011-05-05. Why flylady is great for actors (http://www. "To bust clutter.tv) FlyLady on BigTent (https://www. "FlyLady fans log into domestic support group" (http:/ / www.1/46660/427552651. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=MH& s_site=miami& p_multi=MH& p_theme=realcities& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_topdoc=1& p_text_direct-0=0FAC8CEE23C3CA55& p_field_direct-0=document_id& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& s_trackval=GooglePM). "The FlyLady helps you (and thousands of others) reel in spring cleaning" (http:/ / www. com/ doc/ 1G1-88627392. as people won't start a task if they think they don't have the time or the ability to do it perfectly. as well as "testimonials" of the system and products. Pam. Perfectionism leads to Procrastination FlyLady asserts that the most frequent reason for procrastination and inefficacy is perfectionism. Retrieved 2007-07-21. . [8] Young. . Life with FlyLady (http://www.pdf).a blog about FlyLady • Related websites: Saving Dinner (http://www. p. flylady. .

2007. up from 500 a day previously. Catalan. per country were allowed to join the community. french online advertising company Hi-Media agreed to acquire Fotolog for 65. Fotolog is a registered trademark of Fotolog. Fotolog headquarters are in New York City. In mid 2006. The site had frequent technical problems. Founded Owner Website Alexa rank Type of site Advertising Available in Launched 2002 Hi-Media Group fotolog.0-based shared photoblog web site. [2] History Launched in May 2002.com (changed from Fotolog.. Indeed. the book is organized in sections highlighting several themes that arose in the site's community of photographers and several individual photographers from some of the major cities and countries with many fotolog . Two years ago.com entered the list of the top 20 sites in the Alexa global site rankings. According to Fotolog co-founder Scott Heiferman.com was published by the UK publisher Thames & Hudson titled fotolog.FlyLady • "Sink Reflections" has been translated in French language: "Entretiens avec mon evier" (http://www. Spanish. 17th.[3] The site has since received improvements. English. which is a privately held company backed by BV Capital. Edited by Andrew Long and containing text contributions by Nick Currie. recent upgrades have made the site much faster and as of November 16. Italian. 3i and several individual investors. free members could not upload during peak hours. Fotolog.com/entretiens-avec-mon-évier-p-7. [4] This investment has made In Spring 2006. it is one of the oldest and largest sites for sharing pictures through online photo diaries or photo blogs.000 people per day. on December 10. Inc.4 million dollars from BV Capital possible the recent upgrades to the site.html) 262 Fotolog Fotolog Inc. Czech. 2005. Recently. Polish. 2006. With over 30 million registered users. Fotolog was generating 750 million pageviews a month .8 million euros (77 % Hi Media stock. On August. The deal is due to be closed in November. and for August 14.com [1] 1. Swedish April 23. editions-instant-present. 150 (apr 2009) photoblog Google AdSense Basque. 2002 Current status active Fotolog. Portuguese.net) is a Web 2. German. a book of photographs from fotolog. partly due to the rapid growth of the site. Dutch. French. the limiting of daily registrations was removed. the Fotolog site generates over 3 billion page views and receives over 20 million unique visitors each month. the site stated that "Fotolog is currently able to accept 1. 10. and only 500 people a day (per country) were welcomed in.000 new free members from each country each day". 23 % cash). 2005.book: A Global Snapshot for the Digital Age. Fotolog recently received a large investment of 2.

2005.387).102 accounts. References [1] http:/ / www. Fotolog gave rise to a fashion trend. and also in Portuguese. known as "Gold Camera patrons" can upload up to 6 pictures a day. Fotolog. These photos may be added by any member of the Fotolog community. In Spanish.com had 22. External links • Fotolog (http://www. Recent changes mean that Gold Cam members can comment on any guestbook that is full. As of December 28.209. while Brazil has 1. 2008. 2005 [4] The Blog Herald (http:/ / www. html?d=114076) Fotolog Surpasses 200 Million Photos Posted. 263 Usage Free account The website offers both free and subscription accounts. Fotolog secured major investment from BV Capital. Fotolog groups are allowed 50 photos per day. com/ heif/ ?pid=8816690).Fotolog users. In Argentina and Uruguay.fotolog..com/fotolog) .fotolog. Argentina is second with 4. 2008 Chile claims the most accounts (4. 2007 [3] Scott Heiferman's Daily Fotolog (http:/ / www.S. Groups are managed by fotolog users. As of September 2. March 30. the word fotolog is almost universally understood to mean any photoblog. For a long time.474 users. fotolog. and although the site is from the U.com/) • The Official Fotolog Fotolog (http://www. Brazil was the country with most users. have 200 comments per photo and can access better customer support. and limits users to uploading one picture per day. called 'Flogger'. com [2] PrimeNewswire (http:/ / www.952. com/ 2005/ 03/ 30/ fotolog-secured-major-investment-from-bv-capital/ ). and having the most recent image appear beside the members name when commenting on other photoblogs. but in recent years the site lost its popularity to Orkut. primenewswire.443. Success Its rapid growth was most notable in the Americas. Fotolog's success prompted many other websites to appear and compete.827. November 16. fotolog. blogherald.225. The free user can also customize their page and add other fotologs into their "Friends/Favorites" list. and having only 20 comments (in their "guestbook"). Gold Camera Members Paying members. com/ newsroom/ news. the majority of its users come from South America. Groups The Groups are fotologs that are of a certain topic. Chilean urban tribe pokemones made extensive use of Fotolog. The free version is ad-supported. Feb 20. Other new features include customized photo-headings.

or "chop" images based on current news stories. using the moniker. magazines and newspapers.FreakingNews 264 FreakingNews Lukol Networks Type Industry Founded Company Web Based 2002 Founder(s) Vladislav Golunov Products Website Visual Media www. The Dallas Morning News. 2002 and officially opened on October 23. The Daily Mail. that came online August 2. Weekly World News.freakingnews.000+ digital artists and members features free daily Photoshop contests that are fueled by global news and events. Stern Magazine. Worth1000 played a major role in launching FreakingNews by promoting it to its member artists. 2003 as a sister site of Worth1000. Golunov and Taylor remain close friends today. Taylor's news based parody[15] and satire images[16] have been circulated and often thought to be real[17] by Internet users that had received them. Golunov bought the edited code for Photoshop contests from Worth1000 . including Comedy Central.[2] This virtual community of 17.000 sites in the world. "Newsmaster" while Taylor also is an administrator under the screenname.by then an already established Photoshop contest site. Freaking News is one of the top 10. "Registered". The Guardian. Golunov registered the domain and called the site "Freaking News". Los Angeles Times. . Glenn Beck Show. as a mockery of "breaking news".com [1] Freaking News is a news oriented Photoshop contest site. Golunov had an existing website that posted humorous images with the visitor being able to leave comments or share the images via email. Freaking News has been featured on television shows. During one subsequent conversation. Apart from the custom code.[3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] History Vladislav Golunov and Rich Taylor became online friends in 2001 when Golunov contacted Taylor after he had seen a photo-manipulated image[14] that Taylor had created under the pseudonym Internet screenname "Registered". According to Alexa Internet. Taylor mentioned to Golunov that he wished there existed a community of Photoshoppers that would create. MTV. The Daily News. primarily via email or posted in online forums. and The Sun. Following this discussion. and Golunov is the owner and active administrator of the website. Since its inception.

2007-09-20. freakingnews. html). The Dallas Morning News. planenation. com/ photos/ politics/ daschle. com/ photos/ politics/ daschle. 2009-10-23. asp). . [17] "Soldier Wears "Doing The Work Of. . snopes. com/ 2007/ 09/ 07/ boeing/ sneek-peek-at-the-google-jet-boeing-767. breakthechain. 2010-05-21. [23] "Dora The Illegal Immigrant?" (http:/ / www. com/ tosh. com/ 2007/ 09/ 20/ is-britney-the-new-courtney/ ). MTV. asp). . 2009-07-08. co.. Los Angeles Times. com/ siteinfo/ freakingnews. thesun. Snopes. magazines. asp). com/ sharedcontent/ dws/ fea/ breakroom/ stories/ 061606brwhatwelike. [7] "Willkommen in der Horrorshow" (http:/ / www. . London: The Daily Mail. youtube. featured the same hoax image as a real photo in their article about the Google Jet Boeing 767. com/ watch?v=Ba3VqzFb-Tc). [14] "Tom Daschle Pledge of Allegiance" (http:/ / www. [22] "Dora the Explorer Mugshot . 2008. [3] "Celebs with Ears Instead of Eyes" (http:/ / www. . [12] "The two-faced celebrities" (http:/ / www. snopes. foxnews. html).[19] Three months earlier. 2009-02-06. . 2009-09-06. References [1] http:/ / www.Page and Brin's personal plane[18] . . html?nv=sb).Photoshop Contest Entry" (http:/ / www. 2007-09-07.September 16. [16] "Tom Daschle Pledge of Allegiance" (http:/ / www. Dave (2009-07-19).com. html). [5] "Bat Boy Contest" (http:/ / weeklyworldnews. asp). . com/ headlines/ 6126/ bat-boy-contest-winners/ ). [9] "Spitzer Photoshop contest" (http:/ / www. Fox News. org/ exclusives/ flagpatch. 2007-12-06.[21] Dora the Explorer Mugshot Controversy In May 2010 Dora the Explorer mugshot image[22] .315721. [8] Williams. Stern. Snopes. com/ Google-plane-Pictures-17607. This mugshot image was used in the public rallies and was met with a lot of controversy. The Business Insider. . 2004-05-10. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 2008-03-13. html). Freaking News. . immigrants and where some of immigration reform debate may be headed. 2010-05-15. de/ lifestyle/ leute/ freakingnewscom-willkommen-in-der-horrorshow-598268. businessinsider. 2001. aviation news site Plane Nation. com/ photos/ politics/ kerry2.com. 0/ 2009/ 07/ 08/ celebs-with-ears-instead-of-eyes/ ). Snopes. dallasnews. [13] Masters.FreakingNews 265 Google Jet Hoax On December 6. [21] "Google Bribes NASA.. 8cd3485f. latimes. Plane Nation." Patch on His Uniform?" (http:/ / www. uk/ news/ article-480202/ The-faced-celebrities. created by FreakingNews member AndWhat (Debbie Groben) for a FreakingNews Photoshop contest. Gets Use of Land and 767 Runway For 40 Years" (http:/ / www. com/ / DORA-THE-EXPLORER-Pictures-75026. 2007-09-20. [6] "Picture of the Day . Jessica (2004-06-26). com/ 2004/ jul/ 26/ local/ me-polcol26). asp). comedycentral. Alexa Internet. 2001. uk/ sol/ homepage/ features/ 2484198/ Celeb-heads-in-a-spin-Angelina-Jolie-Jennifer-Aniston-Eva-Mendes-turned-upside-down. Ian (2008-05-30). co. Fox News showed the picture of the Google Jet Boeing 767 . "Antiviral medicine" (http:/ / www.Photoshop Contest Entry" (http:/ / www. [15] "Does a photograph show Senator John Kerry and Jane Fonda sharing a speaker's platform at an anti-war rally?" (http:/ / www. nydailynews. alexa. 2009-09-16. freakingnews. . 2007. 2005-11-05. [19] "Google Plane . guardian. com/ 2008/ 6/ google-secures-nasa-land-and-767-runway-for-40-years). 2004-03-01. glennbeck. com [2] "Alexa Rank" (http:/ / www. New York: The Daily News. Retrieved 2010-05-02. co. [20] "Sneek peek at the Google Jet Boeing 767" (http:/ / www. . Glenn Beck Show. 2006-06-15. . com/ story/ 0. . "Celeb heads in a spin" (http:/ / www.com. . and TV programs[23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] in light of the Arizona's Immigration Law debate.00. . uk/ commentisfree/ 2008/ may/ 30/ antiviralmedicine). . . freakingnews. was featured in the newspapers. . London: The Sun. revealing some Americans' attitudes about race.[20] The Business Insider website also published this image on June 4. without realizing that the picture was a photo hoax created by a Freaking News member for one of the Photoshop contests. snopes. [10] "What we like: Photoshop contest sites" (http:/ / www.2933. Weekly World News. News 5. stern. 2008-06-04. . html). mtv. com). . BreakTheChain.org. htm). London: The Guardian. [18] "The Greenest Hypocrites of 2007" (http:/ / www. . "Wigging Out Over Governor's 'Girlie Men' Remark" (http:/ / articles. 2009" (http:/ / www.. com/ news/ galleries/ spitzer_photoshop_contest/ spitzer_photoshop_contest. Freaking News. com/ content/ articles/ article/ 198/ 30666/ ). WLWT-TV. . Comedy Central. Inc. html). [11] Garrison. [4] "Is Britney The New Courtney?" (http:/ / buzzworthy. dailymail.

com/ nation/ article/ is-dora-the-explorer-an-illegal-immigrant/ 19486504). com/ article/ 20100523/ COLUMNIST/ 5231042/ -1/ FRONTPAGE?Title=Lyons-An-atypical-adventure-for-Dora& tc=ar). BBC News. 2010-05-21.FreakingNews [24] "Dora the Explorer illegal immigrant?" (http:/ / www. Fox News. bbc. 2010-05-23. ABC News. . 2010-05-21. .com/) . aolnews. com/ 2010/ 05/ 23/ dora-the-explorer-gets-dragged-into-immigration-debate/ ). [25] "Dora the Explorer Arrested for Being Illegal Immigrant in Mug Shot" (http:/ / www. go. Herald Tribune. redlasso. yahoo. 2010-05-23. AOL News. stm). [27] "Immigration Reform Debate" (http:/ / news. [31] "Dora the Explorer Caught Up in Immigration Debate" (http:/ / www. time. heraldtribune. . . [26] "An atypical adventure for Dora" (http:/ / www. Tima Magazine. 2010-05-21. 266 External links • Official website (http://www. uk/ 2/ hi/ americas/ 8698065. . Fox News. com/ US/ dora-explorer-labeled-illegal-immigrant/ story?id=10711944). . com/ nphotos/ slideshow/ photo/ / 100521/ 480/ urn_publicid_ap_org8b93b76603854e42b723deb56335bcbc/ ). [32] "Dora The Explorer Immigration Debate" (http:/ / www.freakingnews. myfoxny. com/ dpp/ news/ politics/ dora-the-explorer-immigration-debate-20100523-lgf). Fox News. 2010-05-23. com/ entertainment/ 2010/ 05/ 21/ dora-explorer-arrested-illegal-immigrant-mug-shot/ ). foxnews. . . [28] "Dora the Explorer Gets Dragged Into Immigration Debate" (http:/ / newsfeed. 2010-05-21. Yahoo News. [30] "Is Dora The Explorer an Illegal Immigrant?" (http:/ / abcnews. 2010-05-24. co. [29] "Is Dora the Explorer an illegal immigrant?" (http:/ / news. com/ ClipPlayer. 2010-05-21. aspx?id=a1032c6a-d215-4eb3-894c-7f58738c827e). .

can use the name and logo.190 [2] Founder & Executive Director Deron Beal[3] Hub Coordinator TM Team Leader Website [3] Stephanie Charlotte [3] http:/ / www. It provides a worldwide online registry. centralized site in 2004. Beal set up the first Freecycle e-mail group for the citizens of Tucson. TFN originally planned to move a custom designed.The Freecycle Network 267 The Freecycle Network The Freecycle Network Abbreviation Motto Formation Legal status Purpose/focus Region served Membership TFN Changing the world one gift at a time.[5] "Changing the world one gift at a time" is The Freecycle Network's official tagline.. largely because of a shortage of skilled volunteer labor.Freecycle. Groups approved by TFN are listed at the official website. giving TFN even more control over the individual groups. freecycle.org's new group system. and separately registered as a UK charity. subject to approval by regional New Group Approvers (NGAs). The concept has since spread to over 85 countries. a nonprofit corporation. Moderators of existing Yahoogroups have the choice (at this [6] time) of remaining on Yahoogroups or moving their groups to the freecycle.org site. Arizona. but the project moved slowly. with thousands of local groups and millions of members. Freecycle went live with a beta version of a centralized. promoting gift economics as a motivating cultural outlook. USA. RISE subsequently handed it over to the project leader. aiming to divert reusable goods from landfills.406. and coordinates the creation of local groups and forums for individuals and non-profits to offer and receive free items for reuse or recycling. org/ The Freecycle Network (often abbreviated TFN or just known as Freecycle) is a non-profit organization registered in the state of Arizona. all new groups must be started on www. to promote waste reduction in Tucson. and are subject to rules enforced by a structure of global and regional GOAs (Group Outreach Assistance). In 2008. As of March 2009.[4] that organizes a worldwide network of "gifting" groups. Deron Beal. TFN encourages the formation of new groups. Background The organization originated as a project of RISE Inc. [1] 1 May 2003 501(c)3 Recycling [1] 121 countries 8. Each local group currently exists either as a Yahoo! Groups mailing list or on the TFN's own MyFreecycle software run by volunteer moderators. custom site. .

regarding the lack of freedom for UK-based Freecycle groups to develop new localized initiatives and features. An injunction was granted against Mr.[7] [8] As of May 2011.190 across 4. (WMI)[10] Trademark issues • A formal trademark opposition[11] was filed in federal court by FreecycleSunnyvale against The Freecycle Network[12] in January 2006..000 from Waste Management. The basis for the opposition is that the lawsuit violates First Amendment rights.575 members. viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to TFN ...[18] In her opinion Judge Callahan stated unequivocally that "Beal did not coin the word “freecycle” and TFN is not the first organization to promote freecycling" and that "even . there was repeated conflict between the UK's Independent Association of Freecycle Moderators and the US-based founders of the company.406. Controversies Corporate support In February 2005. Separately Jimmy Wales.[15] • Free speech advocates. including the Electronic Frontier Foundation and 38 law professors filed an Amicus brief[16] to oppose a trademark infringement lawsuit TFN filed against Tim Oey. and some law professors.. 2010. and passed the 2 million member mark in February 2006. [they] engaged in naked licensing and consequently abandoned the trademarks. Oey in May 2006 for allegedly disparaging the TFN trademark. • On November 24. Deron Beal accepted TFN's first corporate support of $130.The Freecycle Network 268 Successes TFN has grown rapidly into a global organization of over four thousand local chapters.[13] This injunction was stayed in July 2006 and was eventually dissolved by the Ninth Circuit in September 2007. Freecycle UK claimed 494 groups with 1. and their treatment of volunteer group owners and moderators. the membership stands at 8. groups formed a new independent association called Freegle."[19] UK breakaway Over the course of 2009.[22] [23] [24] . GreenCycleSussex[21] and other UK-based Freecycle As of March 2010.[9] The original idea has since been copied and varied by hundreds of similar groups around the world. Inc.[20] This culminated in the UK Director Neil Morris and at least 20 local group owners and moderators being dismissed and replaced with US-based counterparts. including Lawrence Lessig. In response the leaders of Brighton’s Freecycle broke away from their US parent organisation and formed a rival site. filed a second amicus brief[17] also supporting Tim Oey.940 communities.722. in order to defend their trademark TFN also pursued other free recycling groups who either mentioned the term "freecycle" or allegedly had "confusingly similar derivations thereof". TFN lost its trademark claim to "Freecycle" and to its logo in United States federal court.[14] • During 2006.

R. doi:10. uspto. org/ trademark/ notice. org/ about/ history. gov." [6] The Freecycle Network moderator Yahoogroup [7] The Freecycle Network Tops Two Million Member Mark Today! (http:/ / freecycle. pdf) (PDF). org/ about/ staff "Freecycle UK" is registered under charity number 1118148 (http:/ / www. org/ gr/ files/ 2006-01-18_FreecycleComplaint. charity-commission. freecycle. Nelson.freecycle. . chillingeffects. Sage. pdf) [14] http:/ / caselaw. The Freecycle Network. 2006). Nelson. wileyrein. asp?remchar=& chyno=1118148) and its registration refers to uk. Cal. September 10. Text (http:/ / volokh. pdf [17] http:/ / volokh. Michael (2008). org) as its official website address. co. uk/ environment/ 2009/ oct/ 12/ freecycle-freegle-recycling-networks-groups).freecycle. and Paek explore the underpinnings of sharing and civic identity through a case study of consumers in a second-order. [12] FreecycleSunnyvale v. guardian. Rather. cgi?NoticeID=5022 [16] http:/ / volokh. Michelle R. Friedland. ISBN 1412959349. Brighton_Freecycle_leaders_go_solo/ ) The Argus. com/ publications. ilovefreegle. Dhavan V. com/ ?id=IAI2TeUCM4QC). freecycle. co. May 11. [11] FreecycleSunnyvale (18 January 2006). 12th September 2009 [22] (http:/ / www. google. 5 (D. v.org/) The Freecycle Network Germany (http://de. uk/ news/ 4625650. C06-00324CW (N. Trademark Trial and Appeal Board. Text (http:/ / freesharing. uk/ registeredcharities/ showcharity. Barclay. . pdf [18] http:/ / www.freecycle. Oey. Green Living For Dummies (http:/ / books. No. Ariz. ESTTA62464. Yvonne.1177/0002716207299647. guardian. M. The Telegraph. online consumption community: Freecycle. cop. freecycle. Wendy (1 March 2005).org. 6. telegraph.freecycle. (2007). Retrieved 29 December 2007. com/ data2/ circs/ 9th/ 0616219p. The Observer. 2006). p. the giveaway movement that helps internet users swap things they no longer want. USPTO. political and civic engagement for this group included political consumption and digital forms of political participation. cfm?sp=articles& id=6546 [19] http:/ / courtlistener.org. co.org/) Freecycle Australia (http://www. freecycle.D. USPTO: Trademark Trial and Appeal Board." (http:/ / www. findlaw. gov/ ttabvue/ ttabvue-91168664-OPP-1. Rademacher. CV 06-173 (CV-06-00173-RCC) . "Accusations of very tight control split UK recycling network from US parent: 'Overbearing input' from the States stops British groups making their own decisions. "Nelson. Results show that these individuals hold downshifting attitudes (favor less work and less consumption). pdf) [13] The Freecycle Network. Yet the downshifting does not necessarily mean increased civic engagement in a traditional sense. org http:/ / www.freecycle. [5] Shah. L. 329. Press release [8] Jeffery. html). say volunteers" (http:/ / www. co. 2009 [21] Brighton Freecycle leaders go solo (http:/ / www.freecycle. com/ files/ freecyclelemleybrief. "Notice of Opposition" (http:/ / ttabvue. com/ files/ freecycleorder. uk/ environment/ green-living-blog/ 2009/ sep/ 10/ uk-freecycle-us-network) The Guardian. Sam (12 October 2009). org/ [10] Angel. 611. . wasteage. pdf). The politics of consumption/the consumption of politics. WasteAge. Inc. freecycle. Liz.org) The Freecycle Network France (http://fr.The Freecycle Network 269 References http:/ / www. ISBN 9780470227428. com/ mag/ waste_free_fabulous/ ). [9] http:/ / www. "Freecycle in bitter transatlantic split. . org/ pressreleases/ 06-02-21_2millionMembers. com/ files/ freecyclepostbrief.dmoz. php) Freegle History [23] Ian Johnston (19 Sep 2009). uk/ technology/ news/ 6208589/ Freecycle-in-bitter-transatlantic-split.au/) .org (http:/ / uk. theargus.. No. org/ about/ background http:/ / www.org/) The Freecycle Network UK (http://uk. com/ ca9/ VsM/ freecyclesunnyvale-v-the-freecycle-network/ [20] UK Freecycle moderators break away from US network (http:/ / www. "Free and Fabulous" (http:/ / www. Freecycle. [24] Jones. American Academy of Political and Social Science. Grosvenor. For Dummies. [1] [2] [3] [4] External links • Waste and Recycling (http://www. pdf [15] http:/ / www.org/Society/Issues/Environment/Waste_and_Recycling//) at the Open Directory Project Official sites • • • • • The Freecycle Network US (http://www. has split with hundreds of thousands of UK members who have joined a rival group. Retrieved 29 December 2007.

org) . "UK Freecycle moderators break away from US network" (http:/ / www.220. html).iLoveFreegle. who had been speaking out. iLoveFreegle. and the dismissal of long-term UK moderators. [3] [4] References [1] Glaskin. [3] "What went wrong with Freecycle in the UK?" (http:/ / www. The Ecologist.220. The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). 30 September 2009. com/ cms/ s/ 0/ 35fd9422-a47d-11de-92d4-00144feabdc0. theecologist. ft. org Freegle is a British organisation that aims to reduce landfill by encouraging people to give things away instead of throwing them away. uk/ environment/ green-living-blog/ 2009/ sep/ 10/ uk-freecycle-us-network). uk/ News/ news_analysis/ 329180/ what_went_wrong_with_freecycle_in_the_uk. co.240 approx. guardian.iLoveFreegle.org) • Official Freegle Maps (http://maps. . . As of 22 June 2011. Financial Times (London: Pearson plc). and many can also be used from Facebook. Max (10 September 2009).240 members in the UK. co. 18 September 2009. there are 310 Freegle groups with an total of 1. Freegle was formed on 11 September 2009 after many Freecycle groups in the UK decided to break away from the US parent organisation following disagreements on how groups in the UK should operate. External links • Official Freegle site (http://www.Freegle 270 Freegle Freegle Freegle logo Motto Formation Don’t throw it away – give it away! 11 September 2009 Purpose/focus Recycling Region served United Kingdom Membership Volunteers Website 1. html) (Registration required). 1000 http:/ / iLoveFreegle. [2] "Web recycling groups split" (http:/ / www. [4] http:/ / www. org/ groups. .[1] [2] [3] The majority of Freegle groups are hosted on Yahoo Groups.

Bangladesh and India.friendster. bands. photos.[9] In May of 2011. Type Founded Headquarters Key people Owner Website Alexa rank Type of site Advertising Registration Users Available in Launched Private 2002 Mountain View. as of May 7.[4] [5] based in Mountain View. the company repositioned itself into a social gaming site and discontinued user social network accounts. Indonesia.[7] It was considered one of the original and even the "grandaddy" of social networks. In Asia. The website receives approximately 19 billion page views per month. Spanish March 22.[12] .[12] Over 90% of Friendster's traffic came from Asia.Friendster 271 Friendster Friendster. and share online content and media with those contacts.[13] [14] [15] [16] The top 10 countries accessing Friendster. 2002 Current status active Friendster was a social networking website. 2009 are the Philippines. They also stated that contact list (or friendlist) will be preserved along with user's basic information. Sponsorships Yes 8. Malaysia. Inc. but rather to complement Facebook.000 global websites based on web traffic. United Arab Emirates. Friendster said that in the new and improved website.com 1000 (June 2011) [1] [2] Social network service Banner ads. and hobbies. Malay. California.[8] The service became popular in Southeast Asia and is a major site in that region of the world.2 million (June 2010) [3] English. Korean.[10] But Friendster accounts will not be deleted and users can still log in using their existing e-mail login and password. maintain those contacts. Tagalog. messages and comments with other members via their profile and their network. Chief Executive Officer MOL Global www. Contextual ads.[6] The service allowed users to contact other members. Singapore. Traditional Chinese. Friendster had more monthly unique visitors than any other social network.[7] The website was also used for dating and discovering new events. the focus will be on pure "entertainment and fun". [11] Friendster had over 115 million registered users and over 61 million unique visitors a month globally. California and Malaysia • Ganesh Kumar Bangah. Indonesian. as of 2008. Sudan. Japanese. Thai. South Korea. Simplified Chinese. and aims not to compete. Pakistan. Users could share videos. and is in the top 1. according to Alexa. Vietnamese.

Tan Sri Vincent Tan. Chairman and Chief Executive of Berjaya Corporation Berhad. a rival social networking site.[5] Friendster received another $3 million in funding in February 2006 from Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Benchmark Capital. untouched since 2005. the site was the subject of a satirical portrayal by The Onion News Network of the sites discovery as an archaeological relic. launch and adoption of MySpace. more effective environment for meeting new people by browsing user profiles and connecting to friends. allowing members to expand their network of friends more rapidly than in real life.[32] In May 2010. which they declined. and private investors. Friendster is recognized as one of the "Hottest Silicon Valley Companies" by Lead411. Friendster is backed by Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers.[20] [21] [22] Kimber is focusing on Friendster's expansion in Asia. and others. Friendster hired ex-Google executive Richard Kimber as the CEO. MOL Global is funded by one of Malaysia's successful businessmen. Entertainment Weekly. Most people have since attributed this decline to the rise of Facebook.[31] In 2009. Friendster becomes Webware 100 winner.[5] Friendster's rapid success inspired a generation of niche social networking websites including Dogster and Elfster. California before the creation.[25] [24] Financial history The company was originally founded in 2003 with a $12 million investment by Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. face-to-face scenarios.Friendster 272 History Friendster was founded by computer programmer Jonathan Abrams and Peter Chin in 2002 in Morgan Hill.[33] .[29] In 2007. Benchmark Capital.[5] Publications including Time. DAG Ventures.[18] [19] As of 2008 Friendster had a membership base of more than 115 million registered users and continued to grow in Asia.com went live in 2002 and was quickly adopted by three million users within the first few months.[5] [26] In 2003. Awards and recognitions In July 2006.[27] In August 2006. Friendster also received $10 million in funding in a round led by DAG Ventures. Benchmark Capital.[15] [16] [17] According to Alexa. US Weekly and Spin wrote about Friendster's success and the founder appeared on magazine covers and late-night talk shows. one of Asia's biggest Internet companies.4 million US by MOL Global.[4] [28] Prior to its acquisition by MOL Global. it was announced that Friendster was acquired for $26.[23] On December 9. Friendster is selected by AlwaysOn Media as Top 100 Private Company Award Winner. From a peak 40 ranking it reached 800 in November 2010. friends of friends and so on. Friendster management received a $30 million buyout offer from Google.[27] and Friendster announced in August 2008 that it had raised an additional $20 million in funding in a round led by IDG Ventures. Esquire. the site has suffered an exponential decline in traffic in America since 2009.[30] In April 2008. Friendster is awarded Key Social Networking Technology Patent. In August 2008.[5] Friendster.[17] Friendster was founded to create a safer. 2009. Vanity Fair. IDG Ventures and individual investors. Facebook.

com in 9 additional languages.[40] Roughly 39 percent of Friendster's users have widgets on their profile. Korean. Friendster mobile is available in several languages in addition to English (Indonesian.[7] [37] Friendster Mobile and Friendster Text Alerts: Friendster mobile (m. In 2008. 10 new languages were added from 2007 up to January 2009. Korean.[7] Until September 2007. to power the Friendster Wallet and a payments platform enabling micro-spending for over 115 million users on Friendster. musicians and organizations. Chinese (both Traditional and Simplified). with Filipino being the newest language to be included. Friendster users in Singapore. Yahoo!. Indonesia and the Philippines can subscribe to and receive SMS text alerts on their mobile devices for network activity and friend related updates.000 physical and virtual payment channels worldwide. Malay. There are over 40 million total fan connections to Fan Profiles on Friendster. celebrities. online payments and credit card payments.[40] Friendster gives software developers access to APIs that utilize content and data within the Friendster network to build and deploy customizable applications on and off Friendster.[37] Friendster users can become fans of their favorite entities and keep up to date on all their latest news. Friendster announced a global partnership with MOL AccessPortal Berhad (MOL). In 2007 Friendster added Fan Profiles. Japanese. Fan Profiles are also accessible to non-Friendster members via search engines like Google. and Spanish. Friendster relaunched its website with a new interface.www. Friendster's Developer Program is an open.com. a leading payments provider leveraging a network of over 500.[41] In December 2009. non-proprietary platform with an open revenue model. Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese). Malaysia. Indonesian.[14] [22] [34] [35] Fan Profiles: Fan Profiles encompass over 40 different types of "entities"[36] – including artists.[42] .com) is free for users from any web-enabled mobile device and is available globally. Malay.Friendster 273 Services In November 2009.friendster. mobile payments. Vietnamese. The Friendster Wallet will support a variety of payment methods including pre-paid cards. Such entities can create a "Fan Profile" which helps them promote themselves and build a fan base on Friendster. Friendster launched all language support on a single domain . and MSN. Friendster was only available in English. Thai.[40] [41] Friendster was the first social network to support both the OpenSocial and the Facebook Platform.[39] Development Friendster has been an open site since August 2006 when it first began allowing widgets and content to be embedded in user profile pages through its developer program. models. Friendster continued to launch the site in new languages and also launched Friendster Mobile which includes SMS text alerts. Friendster is the first global online social network to support Asian languages and others on a single domain so that users from around the world can talk to each other.[38] Users can also enter content on Friendster in any language. the Friendster Developer Program (open platform) and started launching Friendster. Languages Available languages include Filipino.friendster.

Press Release. com/ images/ Friendster_At_A_Glance_September_2008. This tool has an ability to export photos to Flickr and Multiply. The accounts are unchanged and still existing. However. May 9. com/ 2008/ 08/ 04/ friendster-raises-20-million-nabs-a-googler-to-be-ceo/ )" VentureBeat. friendster. com/ siteinfo/ friendster. [22] Heather Havenstein. .8599. Retrieved October 27. time. 2008. Facebook confirmed that it had acquired 18 patents from Friendster.00. " Friendster Opens Platform to Developers (http:/ / www. com/ [2] "friendster. com/ info/ presscenter. August 4. messages. com/ press/ release. " Friendster Moves to Asia (http:/ / www. com/ -depth/ 04/ 27/ 11/ friendster-admits-defeat-facebook [12] Alexa Top 100 (http:/ / www.com . 2008. alexa. com/ staffblog/ archives/ 000323.00. [5] Gary Rivlin. [15] Press Release. 2008. com). Friendster shifted from social networking site to a social entertainment site which focus on gaming and music.[51] An exporting tool is provided to back-up the information of the user account. php?A=pr48)". time. " In Praise of Friendster (http:/ / blog. 2008.[50] Site transformation In June 2011. abs-cbnnews. 2008. Press Release. Press Release. 2006. php?A=pr47)". friendster. Press Release. 2008. comscore. [14] Ling Woo Liu. October 21. . com/ business/ 2008/ 05/ friendster-inpr. 2008. 2008. alexa. September 14. Retrieved October 27. 2008. friendster. google. pcworld. html [10] http:/ / www. " Wallflower at the Web Party (http:/ / www. October 28. 2008. [16] Press Release. October 21. html/ )". pcworld. com/ culture/ blogs/ gear-up/ friendster-is-dead-encourages-u-s-users-to-move-on-20110511 [11] http:/ / www. method and apparatus for connecting users in an online computer [45] Method of Inducing Content Uploads in a Social Network [46] System and Method for Managing Connections in an Online Social Network [47] Compatibility Scoring of Users in a Social Network [48] Method for sharing relationship information stored in a social network [49] In August 2010. 2008.Traffic Details from Alexa" (http:/ / www. " Friendster raises $20 million. 2006. Retrieved October 27. " Friendster is the #1 Social Network for Adults and Youth in Singapore (http:/ / www. Mashable.1707760. com/ time/ business/ article/ 0. [3] https:/ / www. 2004. October 15. Monday. 2008. com/ socialmedia/ 2011/ 05/ 20/ may-the-month-of-internet-rapture/ [9] http:/ / www. [6] About Us (http:/ / www. " Dogster’s Friendster for Dogs Raises $1M (http:/ / mashable.1707760. Retrieved October 27. html)". com/ time/ business/ article/ 0. [20] Press Release. php?A=pr41)". forums and groups that the users may have now no longer be part of the account. Retrieved 2011-06-01. friendster. Retrieved December 4. comments. According to comScore (http:/ / www. wired. all the photos. Retrieved October 27. com/ info/ presscenter. [21] Press Release. 2008. 2008. com/ 2006/ 10/ 15/ business/ yourmoney/ 15friend.Friendster 274 Patents Friendster holds some fundamental online social networking patents:[43] [44] • • • • • System. blogs. 2008. html)". 2008. PC World. friendster. Retrieved October 27. " India and China Propel Internet Audience Growth in Asia-Pacific Region. testimonials. com/ 2006/ 09/ 14/ dogsters-friendster-for-dogs-raises-1m/ )". 2008. com/ info/ presscenter. friendster. php) [7] Friendster at a Glance document (http:/ / images. com/ article/ 138956/ friendster_opens_platform_to_developers. html?_r=1). rollingstone. nytimes. com) [13] ComScore Press Release. asp?press=2295)".8599. com/ siteinfo/ friendster. [17] Betsy Schiffman. Retrieved October 27. June 30. com/ adplanner/ planning/ site_profile#siteDetails?identifier=friendster. php?A=pr42)". com& geo=001& trait_type=1& lp=true [4] Eric Eldon. " Friendster Announces New CEO And $20 Million in Funding (http:/ / www. [18] Pete Cashmore. com/ info/ presscenter. Developers and Industry (http:/ / www. 2008. Press Release. " Secret Santa Gift Swap Goes High Tech (http:/ / blogs. Alexa Internet. August 18. [19] Liane Cassavoy." New York Times. nabs a Googler to be CEO (http:/ / venturebeat. Retrieved December 4. friendster. html)". Wired. 2008. " Friendster is the #1 Social Network for Adults and Youth in Malaysia (http:/ / www. TIME. November 22. Inc. pdf) [8] http:/ / thenextweb. com/ info/ index. January 29. " Friendster Deploys OpenSocial Support for Benefit of 75 Million Users. Today @ PC World. Retrieved October 27. References [1] http:/ / www. shoutouts. August 5.

" Friendster Debuts Chinese Site (http:/ / blog. [38] Press Release. Leena (2009-12-09). com/ patents?vid=7. com/ index. php) [37] Caroline McCarthy. html). " Friendster. [51] http:/ / friendster. friendster. com/ info/ presscenter. htm). pnw/ topstory." GIGAOM. cnet." Press Release. html) [32] Fake Area Newspaper Gets Real Television Show (http:/ / artsbeat. 2008. " Friendster Announces Mobile Text Alerts (http:/ / www. Calls Other Social Networks Plain And Boring" (http:/ / techcrunch. in a bid for popularity. php?A=pr33). techcrunch. 2008. November 3.161 [49] http:/ / www." BusinessWeek. google. Now in Vietnamese (http:/ / www. 2004. com/ 8301-13577_3-9786080-36." Forbes. html). 2008. [36] Friendster Fan Profiles Page (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ 2009/ 12/ 03/ friendster-redesign/ ). Press Release. 2008.Friendster [23] Jessica Vascellaro." CNET. html)".078 [50] Liz Gannes. com/ silicon-valley-companies. com/ fanprofile_getone. Retrieved December 4. php?A=pr7) [30] Friendster Selected by AlwaysOn Media as Top 100 Private Company Award Winner (http:/ / www. 2008. TechCrunch. Retrieved October 27. [24] Michael Arrington (2009-12-15). Retrieved October 27. . 2008. 2008. 2007.069. com/ 8301-13546_109-9914678-29. introduces 'Fan Profiles' (http:/ / news. wired. Retrieved October 27. sexywidget. March 22. . [25] Rao." CNET News. September 24. "Friendster Valued At Just $26. " Friendster scoops up $10 million in funding (http:/ / news. August 5. 2008. html) [34] Press Release. Retrieved December 4. Retrieved December 9. [44] Eric Eldon. com/ 8301-13577_3-10118996-36. " Widget Summit: Hi5 vs. December 9. com/ patents?vid=7. 2008. wsj. com/ article/ SB121790017932212287. [43] Caroline McCarthy." CNET News. php?A=pr36)". com/ patents?vid=7. ehclients. com/ info/ presscenter. January 27. com/ info/ presscenter. com/ patents?vid=7. August 5. 2008. google. 2007. " Corporate Inter-Face-Time (http:/ / www. " Facebook Buys Friendster Patents for $40M (http:/ / gigaom. 2008. html). com/ 2010/ 03/ 22/ fake-area-newspaper-gets-real-television-show/ ) The Onion Takes Friendster Down a Few More Notches (http:/ / ccinsider. Retrieved December 4. Retrieved June 23. 2008. " Friendster gets $20 million. [29] Friendster Awarded Key Social Networking Technology Patent (http:/ / www. Retrieved December 4. The Wall Street Journal. html) [33] Lead411 launches "Hottest Silicon Valley Companies" awards (http:/ / www. " New Friendster CEO Has Asia Focus (http:/ / online. "Friendster Gets A Major Makeover. Retrieved December 4. 2008. September 27.451. Retrieved December 4. August 21. com/ patents?vid=7.254 [47] http:/ / www. blogs.153 [48] http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 12/ 09/ malaysias-mol-global-to-buy-friendster/ ). dozen more pending (http:/ / venturebeat. TechCrunch. friendster. Retrieved 16 December 2009. friendster. com/ best/ 2004/ 0322/ 002_print." News Blaze. businessweek. Retrieved 23 June 2011.478. Largest Social Network in Asia. [45] http:/ / www. May 22. com/ technology/ content/ may2007/ tc20070522_410783. [41] Lawrence Coburn. [42] Robin Wauters. Retrieved on December 9. " Friendster awarded 'compatibility scoring' patent (http:/ / news. 2006. google. com/ business/ 2007/ 09/ friendster-debu. com/ story/ 2009012716030300003." Epicenter from Wired. 2007. 2009. cnet. page& id=201 275 . ex-Googler as CEO (http:/ / news. 2008. 2011. cnet. html). forbes. 2006. html).117. . " Friendster. 2008. 2010. [40] Catherine Holahan. [26] Nikhil Hutheesing. cnet. " Sharing the Widget Wealth (http:/ / www. Friendster (http:/ / www. August 4. google. comedycentral. com/ 2008/ 12/ 08/ friendster-nabs-fourth-social-networking-patent-dozen-more-pending/ ). cnet. nytimes.4 Million In Sale" (http:/ / techcrunch.308 [46] http:/ / www." Sexy Widget." CNET News. com/ 8301-13577_3-10006743-36. Retrieved on February 4. [28] Caroline McCarthy. "Malaysian Payments Company MOL Global Snaps Up Friendster" (http:/ / www. December 9. com/ 2009/ 12/ 15/ friendster-valued-at-just-26-4-million-in-sale/ ). Retrieved December 4. TechCrunch. June 26.188. friendster. 2008. google. com/ 2010/ 08/ 04/ facebook-buys-friendster-patents-for-40m/ ). html). html). html). lead411. 2009. pressreleasepoint. May 15. " Friendster nabs fourth social networking patent. com/ Friendster-scoops-up-10-million-in-funding/ 2100-1038_3-6107860. com/ my_weblog/ 2008/ 11/ widget-summit-h." VentureBeat. [35] Julie Sloane. com/ 2009/ 12/ 16/ friendster-civilization-f_n_394422. [39] Press Release. 2008. com/ friendster-selected-alwayson-media-top-100private-company-award-winner) [31] Webware 100 winner: Friendster (http:/ / news. php?pg=kb. [27] Dawn Kawamoto. com/ 2009/ 12/ 17/ the-onion-takes-friendster-down-a-few-more-notches/ ) Internet Archaeologists Find Ruins Of 'Friendster' Civilization: The Onion (VIDEO) (http:/ / www. 2008. " Friendster Now Available in Filipino (http:/ / newsblaze.

thesocialarchive.redherring.latimes.com/2008/03/friendster-kent. 2010 .friendster.theinquirer. March '08 (http://www. December 9.aspx?a=17498). January 29.time.globalpost. 2008 • How to Kill a Great Idea! (http://www. February 3.Friendster 276 External links • Friendster official website (http://www. June 1. July 15.html).com/dispatch/thailand/100714/ asia-internet-friendster-youth-facebook/).com/time/business/article/0. Red Herring • CEO Kent Lindstrom Interview. 2009 (http://www.com/Article.socialnetworkingwatch.1707760. html?iid=digg_share).inc.net/inquirer/news/1050763/ friendster-relocates-australia) • TIME: Friendster Moves to Asia (http://www. 2009 • Friendster in Social Media (http://www.com/magazine/20070601/features-how-to-kill-a-great-idea.com/ technology/2009/07/friendster. 2007 • Malaysian Payments Company MOL Global Snaps Up Friendster (http://www.techcrunch.html) • Friendster relocates to Australia.com/category/Social Networks/Friendster/1/) • Think Friendster’s dead? Not in Asia (http://www.com/) • Friendster Wins Patent (http://www.8599.00. html) • Friendster founder on the rise and fall of America's first big social network (http://latimesblogs.com/2009/12/09/ malaysias-mol-global-to-buy-friendster/).

the OS-tans would be one such meme that has spread to western internet culture.Futaba Channel 277 Futaba Channel Futaba Channel URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Owner Created by Launched Revenue 2chan. lit. It is frequently unclear whether this is intended to mean Futaba Channel or 2channel. such as figures. ramen. Two Leaf Channel"). as a refuge for 2channel users when 2channel was in danger of shutting down. as if they were a single website. with topics ranging from daily personal problems to junk food.[4] . 2001. dolls or images printed on pillows. Futaba Channel also inspired an English image board 4chan as a sister site. and pornography. and sometimes it even refers to both. sports. It is a popular Japanese imageboard dealing in otaku and underground culture. The 4chan image sharing site is based on Futaba. To eliminate confusion.[2] Concept Futaba Channel consists of about 60 imageboards (three of which are oekaki boards) and about 40 message boards. the names Futaba and 2channel are often used. 2001 none Current status Active Futaba Channel (ふ た ば (双 葉 )☆ち ゃ ん ね る Futaba Channeru. The Futaba script is open source and is used to run many Japanese imageboards.[3] There is also a place to upload general non-image files. "Double Leaf Channel. Some of the characters that appear on Futaba Channel have entered the real world in the form of various real-life goods. Non-Japanese Internet users sometimes refer to Futaba Channel as 2chan. or Futaba for short. Futaba is powered by a custom script based on GazouBBS.net No [1] Imageboard/TextBBS None available Unknown Unknown August 30. is an internet forum in Japan. Such items are mainly produced by Japanese dōjin artists and groups. Culture Futaba has spawned a number of strange visual gags and characters. due to the address of the site. Origin Futaba Channel was set up on August 30.

. 2008. Stephanie Cohen. itself an offshoot of the enormously popular Japanese 2chan site.4chan. nypost. 2chan.us/futaba/) . ". net/ [2] " Tuning into innovation outside the confines of English-speaking web (http:/ / www.Futaba Channel 278 References [1] http:/ / www. 2009 (accessed 01/10/01) External links • Futaba Channel (http://www. html)". com/ newspaper/ finance/ 2008/ 0502/ 1209632797289.. 8:25 PM. "The Dark Heart of the Internet" (http:/ / www. Irish Times. May 2. com/ p/ news/ opinion/ opedcolumnists/ item_YlmRY23stU5llXNQdQwrLL). an American anonymous image-sharing site that is based on the Japanese Futaba channel. net [4] New York Post." [3] (Japanese) http:/ / www. irishtimes.bluethree. 2chan. February 21.net) • Translated Futaba Navigation (http://www.2chan.

interacting with the environment (catching bugs. Gaia Gold and Gaia Cash. eye style and color. including skin tone. Gaia laid off 15-20 of their 110 staff members. Gaia Interactive. hair style and color. over a million posts are made daily[5] and it is visited by 7 million unique users each month[7] (with over 23 million total registered users). this could be due in part to the decline in ad sales since the recession.[9] As suggested by VentureBeat.Gaia Online 279 Gaia Online Gaia Interactive. and[4] eventually became a forum-based website. the company won the Mashable Best User experience Award for 2010. following a statement by founder Derek Liu (username "Lanzer"). receive a customizable avatar when they sign up. Gaia also won the 2007 Webware 100 award in the Community category.com [3] Gaia Online is an English-language. Type Industry Corporation Internet Social Networking MMORPG [1] [2] February 18. anime-themed social networking and forums-based website. Gaiaonline was founded in 2003. Inc. Users have the ability to customize their avatar in many ways. Gaia originally began as an anime linklist and eventually developed a small community.[8] In November 2010.[11] Avatars Members of Gaia Online. 13-25 year olds. gender and attire. shaking trees and rocks for gold. 40% of Gaia's revenue stems from advertising geared toward Gaia's target audience. California.[1] [2] but the name was changed to GaiaOnline. and in Gaia Towns and other environments the avatar appears as a movable character that can travel from place to place.gaiaonline.[2] but. the website moved towards social gaming. collecting trash and flowers etc.com in 2003 from go-gaia by its owner. Avatars appear next to posts in the forums and profile comments (the post itself encapsulated in a "speech bubble"). Numerous clothing items and accessories for avatars can be purchased from a range of NPC-run stores using the site currencies.[5] [6] Today. 2003 Derek Liu Long Vo Josh Gainsbrugh Founded Founder(s) Headquarters San Jose. USA Key people Employees Website Mike Sego (CEO) 90-95 (estimated) www. digging for buried treasure. . known as Gaians.) and other users.[10] In January 2011.

Gaia released another virtual currency called Gaia Cash. The service can be canceled at anytime. Speedway SuperAmerica. $1 USD is equivalent to 100 Gaia cash. such as forums discussing topics regarding the Gaia community and NPC story lines. or directly from Gaia itself. The current cost per month for the feature is $10. . forums for casual conversation and lifestyle discussions. The benefits of using AutoCash include: • • • • 1000 Gaia Cash every month 200 Bonus Gaia Cash every month An exclusive item for every 3 months of concurrent participation in the feature 10% off all Cash Shop purchases until October 31 Users can still purchase Gaia Cash via GaiaOnline and do not have to purchase Gaia Cash via the AutoCash feature. AutoCash can be charged to a credit or debit card and members may also pay for the feature using a PayPal account. cash card.g. Blockbuster.[15] AutoCash is an optional feature where GaiaOnline members can sign up to buy Gaia Cash on a reoccurring monthly schedule. Gaia announced the introduction of AutoCash. and thread-bumping services.[12] Gaia Cash Cards include a PIN that can be used at the website to redeem the card's Gaia Cash value. Gaia Cash cards are offered in $10 and $25 amounts. users are given a generous amount of content for the monthly fee. as long as they follow each forum's guidelines. 2010. Gaia Cash cards can be bought at Rite Aid. art commissions.e. Target stores. Gold is regularly distributed to users as they browse around the website. collectible. chance. which can be purchased with real money. There are also forums for users to buy and sell items. and participate in other various events and contests. and artist discussions. PayPal. commonly referred to as gold. Wal-Mart.Gaia Online 280 Forums Forums are the public message boards. post in the forums. The item(s) purchased are usable but cannot be sold or gifted to other members. the site also rewards users every day with random gold or items from the Daily Chance. staying past 3 months offers users the bonues of receiving items specifically designed and made for those that continue to use the AutoCash feature. play games. various types of role play. On June 21. Currently the system that is in place is not able to determine the source of the Gaia Cash so if a user signed up for the monthly feature and also purchased Gaia Cash via another source (i.[14] AutoCash On September 13. general entertainment. Economy Currency The currency used in Gaia is known as "Gaia Gold". as well as a forum for user-run businesses. Gaia Cash can also be bought through cell phone payments.[13] Paying Gaia users generally spend about $30 USD per month to purchase Gaia Cash which is then used to buy virtual things such as evolving. and GameStop. In July 2007. 7-11. e. and limited edition items. 2010 7-11 stopped stocking the $10 Gaia Cash cards. Users that sign up for the AutoCash feature will notice that any items they purchase using Gaia Cash will be frozen for 7 days. Users may make threads in almost every forum. featured games on Gaia. on site purchase) any items bought with Gaia Cash will be frozen for 7 days. There is a large variety of forums in which a user can post.

Recent additions of "Rapid .Gaia Online 281 Market Sales within the Gaian market can be divided into four areas . Established in June 2003 after users of Gaia Online petitioned for a "donation system" in an attempt to increase site revenue. Users can have up to 10 items for sale at once. Rather than self-auctioning an item through a thread in the Exchange forum. • Cash Shops: Items from these stores can be purchased with Gaia Cash only. • Gold Shops: Items from these stores can be bought with Gold or Gaia Cash (most users purchase with Gold). commonly abbreviated to EIs. Notable Items Monthly Collectibles Monthly Collectibles (previously known as Donation Items. During August & September 2008 the envelopes were unsealed on the 8th. "Random Item Generators". and "Monthly Collectibles". These are various NPC-run stores which sell a variety of items. a different set of poses become available instead. Trade. Cash Shops. users can either put their item up for immediate sale with a "Buy Now" price. credit card. via PayPal. and one could only purchase that letter in April 2006. Users are then able to open these virtual letters to choose one of two or three limited-edition items to be granted into their inventory from each letter. Other Cash-Only stores include "Phin Phang" (Gaia Aquarium items). A majority of these trades are settled in the "Gaia Exchange" forum (and its sub-forums). are items which change or evolve over time. Additionally. also referred to as MCs) are special items that can be bought with real money meant to support Gaia's maintenance and costs. When the item has fully evolved all previous poses become available for the item. Sealed Envelopes go on sale the first day of every month and are released on the 15th of each month. Times between evolutions are different for each EI. Items found in the shops can also be sold back to the shop for 50% of the shop price. Items begin with one set of item poses. and each item can be listed for a maximum of 14 days. for every US $2. and parts for Gaia Cars. and "Back Alley Bargains" (power-up items for Gaia's MMORPG. or leave their item for auction with a starting "Bid" price. Letters can be purchased over the phone.[16] Monthly Collectible items and the "Thank You" Letter items they are found in are specific to the month that they were released in: for example. Most items from La Victoire are continuously rotated in and out of the store. The cost of this convenience is a 2% tax on all gold earned from sales. but on October 2.50 a user gives to the site. "zOMG!"). The Sealed Envelope disappears from the user's inventory and is replaced by a "Thank You Letter" for the current paid month (for example. • Marketplace: The Marketplace is a separate area of the site for users to buy and sell items. but with each new evolution. The majority of Gaia Cash sales are from La Victoire. furniture for Gaia Houses. with each subsequent evolution a re-release of the item becomes available at the Cash Shop as a "next generation" release. and Marketplace. and can be anywhere between a few weeks to a few months. such as avatar clothing and accessories. 2008 it was decided that the release date should be returned to the fifteenth. traditional mail or with Gaia Cash through the Cash Shop.Gold Shops. Envelopes and letters can be later bought and sold through user trades or through Marketplace. and can range from regular store items to upmarket items.[5] he or she receives an item known as a "Sealed Envelope" in his or her inventory. the items found in the "Thank You" Letter for April 2006 can only be found in that letter. Evolving Items Evolving Items. "La Victoire". • Trade: Users can trade items and gold with other users. These items were known as Donation Items until potential legal problems prompted the name change. It specializes in high-end items such as "Evolving Items". with a text message from a mobile phone. a "Thank You Letter for August 2004" represents a payment made in that month of that year). an NPC-run store that only accepts Gaia Cash.

yearly Summer festivities. Sentinel. vice captain(s). Guilds cost 20. Chance Items/Random Item Generators With Chance Items . random gift items can be found floating across web pages while browsing the site. New evolution updates are noted in regular site announcements as "Evolving Item Reports" present by the NPC.000 gold to create. Games will vary depending on the RIG . guilds were simply run using a thread in the Guilds forum. when they decide to stop playing and collect an item. During the event. or their failure to complete the game. EIs are removed from the Cash Shop sometime after their final evolution becomes available. users were to ally themselves with either The Overseer or Sentinel. and some are hidden (only viewable by members). role playing guilds and guilds for various discussion topics. and can be later sold through trading or in the Marketplace.some may require users to choose a "correct" response. users play a chance mini-game and the item they are granted depends on their success with completing the game. and perform certain tasks in order combat the opposing side. Valentine's Day. regular holiday events. which are clubs specially devoted to certain topics. Some guilds are public (viewable by everyone and anyone can post in it). Guilds Users can form guilds.Gaia Online Evolving Items" evolve twice a week. however Gaia later expanded on this. The 2009 Halloween event saw the introduction of the Aquarium Overseer in his human form along with his nemesis. some which can be bought from normal NPC-run shops 282 Other Site Features Site-wide Events Gaia holds various special events throughout the year . Each random gift grants users a rare or uncommon clothing and accessory items that cannot be bought from any store. others are completely free. There are 6 different types of random items: • Brown Magical Giftbox: Contains uncommon items • Pink Magical Giftbox: Contains rare items • Blue Magical Giftbox: Contains items from both the Pink and Brown boxes. EIs are available from the Cash Shop "La Victoire". RIGs are available from the Cash Shop "La Victoire" and are eventually rotated out of the shop. while some are and Gaia-specific events which may or may not be run yearly. Random Event Items Occasionally. These include hangout guilds. Christmas.some may require a payment to join. but only members can post). such as carol-singing during Christmas events by visiting NPC-owned stores to eventually collect commemorative Christmas items. and additional sub-forums may be purchased for 2. Dr. allowing users to create private forums for guilds. users take part in site-wide mini-games and tasks. Easter. Events such as these can determine storyline outcomes. these have included: April Fools. and the Gaian Prom. while some are simply a choice between continuing the game or stopping and collecting an item. as well as a few items found only in the Blue Giftbox • Enchanted Wooden Trunk: Contains uncommon Gaia Housing items • Enchanted Golden Trunk: Contains rare Gaia Housing items • Fat Cat Alert: Contains various cat-related items. GaiaOnline's Site Anniversary. and crew are responsible for moderating threads within their guilds. Singh. commonly referred to as CIs (previously known as Random Item Generators. Joining a guild can depend on the guidelines set by a guild captain and their crew . or RIGs). private (viewable by everyone. In previous years.500 gold.some are yearly. Halloween. In the past. During the majority of events. while some may be invitation-only. . The guild captain.

fog lights. Aquarium item bundles (which include various fish and tank items) can be purchased from the main Cash shop. Gaia Aquarium Users can maintain fish and other creatures in Gaia Aquariums. Houses are available in 3 different styles: Round. You Don't Mess With The Zohan.000 Gold and rewards up to 50. Gaia Cars On June 18. Bee Movie. or series for watching trailers or advertisements. quests on the site are now for promotional purposes. Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End.with some of these arenas have subcategories. Rare housing items can be found in Enchanted Wooden Trunks and Enchanted Golden Trunks randomly found floating across site pages. avatars. At certain times. Paul Blart: Mall Cop. Although previously quests for doing tasks around the website (similar to Gaia's current Achievement system).Gaia Online 283 Gaia Houses Users are able to own their own Gaia House situated in Gaia Towns. Members can vote in the arenas and comment on art. and spoilers. or Long. granting items related to a featured movie. The Scion tC. Anime series and TV shows have also been promoted. 2007. tail lights.[18] [19] Other car choices available were the fictional Possum and Musculero. Entering the Art and Housing Arena is free. PopStar Guitar. Nancy Drew. Art. Items can also be bought at the marketplace. can be purchased from the NPC-run store. Dynasty Warriors: Strikeforce. video game. Entering the Avatar Arena costs 1. August Underground's Mordum.000 gold for winners. Avatar and Writing . Arenas There are four main arenas on Gaia Online: Housing. "La Victoire". Harry Potter. such as Naruto. The Sims 3. Parts and decals for cars (such as paint color and antenna ornaments). Sonic and the Black Knight. "Sam's Body and Parts".[17] Gaia Online and Scion announced a partnership that allowed users to create a virtual Scion with customizable wheels. decals. A range of decorative furniture items can be bought from the NPC-run store. "The Faktori". Movies. Square. Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle. enabling the Booty Grab mini-game. chairs. Scion xD. commonly as a signature under a post in the forums) will "glow". and The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants 2. video games. Entries to the Writing Arena costs 100 Gold. and no prizes are awarded. Users are also able to relocate their home to a different Town postcode at a cost of 1000 gold. bringing the total to seven possible cars to choose from. Sponsor Quests The Gaia Quest system grants users items for performing certain tasks. among many others. as well as car bases. tables. The Golden Compass. and other products that are promoted by the Gaia Quest system include Gracie. "Phin Phang".[19] The Last Mimzy. and The Hills. Cars are used as part of the Rally game available on the website. . UFO and Kiki Car (which is available only with Cash)[20] were later released. There are a few for games such as "Dragon Quest Swords" and the "Naruto: Ultimate Ninja". Kung Fu Panda. lamps. houses or written works which have been submitted by other users. the fish inside a tank (from a different owner. among others. Users can own up to 3 cars.[21] The Spiderwick Chronicles. To purchase a house is free. which are stored in their Garage. such as include floor and wall tiles. however future changes to the style of the house costs 500 gold. There are also some quests for advertisement such as the new Crazy Cores Skittles. Fish and tank accessories can be purchased only with Gaia Cash from the NPC-run store.

Evolving Items. Completion of Achievements grants users Achievement Points. among many others. Gold is the most common pay out for playing these games. The items purchased in Prize & Joy can only be bought with tickets. and creatures original to the game or have yet not seen on Gaia Online. There are a variety of different Achievements that can be obtained . but occasionally. and since then a number of updates have been made to the rings and flow of the game. zOMG was made public and open to beta testing in November 2008. Mini-Games There are various mini games which can be played to earn gold and items. Puzzles have at times yielded items. but very rarely.[5] zOMG zOMG is a browser-based MMORPG on Gaia where users are able to battle monsters and participate in RPG-style quests. The creatures in the game are Gaia World related. The game utilizes special rings to activate abilities. Players can purchase Power Picks with Gaia Cash from the Cash Shop. though the same items can be found in the market place for a significantly higher gold price. Games Gaia Online currently offers a number of Flash games. selling an item in Marketplace. Other games offer tickets with can be used to purchase items in the shop called Prize & Joy. Matching all of the numbers gives players the majority of the jackpot where matching 3 or 4 will give players a smaller payout.Gaia Online 284 Achievements Achievements are tasks that can be performed around the site. . such as throwing fireballs or conjuring up a defense. seen from various item releases such as Chance Items. the app is inspired by the popular franchise Pokémon and various other creature catching series. If the numbers are not guessed the Jackpot rolls over to the next day. some which additionally grant users gold. 2010. like the name suggests is a lottery ran on Gaia that offers players the change to win a gold jackpot by purchasing lottery tickets with gold. Gold Lotto Gold Lotto.[22] [23] Monster Galaxy Monster Galaxy [24] is a Facebook application located in the Game category created by Gaia Online. players can earn an item by reaching a high score or completing a special condition. These games comprise of 10% to 15% of total site activity. changing one's equipped avatar items (or equipping specific items). Tickets cost 100 Gold each and require the selection of 5 numbers. Appearing November 13. Tickets are often sold on the market place for a low to high gold price making the cost with tickets for ticket only items almost the same as for gold. Power Picks guarantee two winning numbers for each ticket. and is free to test by anyone willing to give it a try.tasks to gain these can include posting in a thread. As of now its in the Beta. and users can win different items or gold from these games.

By completing words in yellow. Another row of tiles is added after a small amount of time. such as time extension/deduction. The power up gauge consists of 3 clear orbs which fill with color as a word is completed in either red. Besides the main gold tiles that spell the object word. and can also be bought and sold on Marketplace. at which point the game is over. Rally Users are able to create their own Gaia Cars which can be used to race with other users in Gaia Rally. In the game. players are awarded with power for the power up gauge. The tiles have letters in them and can be chained together to make words. green. blue. keeping their current winnings. Tokens are also a regular prize from the Daily Chance. blue and yellow. or yellow. or alternatively be exchanged for fish-shaped hats and other accessories. increase/decrease coin value (coin multiplier). The in game side bar will show how long the chains must be in order to count as a completed chain. as some fish drop coins that are worth more than normal coins. Word Bump In Word Bump players win gold by matching various tiles. users fish on the banks of various lakes in the Gaian world and may catch anything from different species of fish to garbage. tiles can be mixed in various ways as long as at either the foreground or background match. giving players only a few seconds to make words. users must first purchase Tokens from the Ticket Booth at Gold Mountain Casino. Booty Grab Booty Grab is a mini-game available when a user's Aquarium fish are "glowing". "Prize and Joy". The value of coins dropped vary depending on the fish. The fish and trash can be sold on the Marketplace or back to the fishing store. Coins of a higher value appear with a red. they are given on of the following power ups: . If the chain is too short a fire tile will be dropped. Tiles Tiles is a mini game in which players must clear out a board of tiles by making tile chains. In essence. while the user holds a Overseer shell at the bottom of the screen and moves left and right to catch as many coins as possible. To play these games. which can be traded for exclusive prizes at the Ticket store. users are able to "drive" their cars on a simple track in which numerous obstacles appear. red or blue. The gold received is based on the rarity of the fish or item. for every move after that the fire card will burn through another card until the burning card reaches the bottom. clearing out tiles yields a payout of tickets. The object is to get the golden tiles to the top of the board. the other tiles are red. If players successfully fill an orb. Once players have completed the level. the players will have the option to continue to the next level by putting their tickets won on the line or they can leave. Cards is a game of Blackjack while Slots is simply a slot machine game. If the tiles fall too low the game will end. Cards & Slots Gaia Cards and Gaia Slots are two Casino-themed games. or blue glowing outline. the glowing fish swim around at the top of the screen dropping coins. In order to make a chain players much connect card that have a similar background or foreground character. The game is won by successfully “bumping” the golden tiles to the top of the board. increase/decrease speed. When racing. and increase/decrease shell size.Gaia Online 285 Gaia Fishing In Gaia Fishing. before the reach the bottom and disappear. Various power-ups and power-downs can be collected during the game. as well as how many chains are needed to complete the level. Users receive Tickets from playing Cards or Slots.

Von Helson Mansion: every time players rebuild the Gambino Mansion they will see that one of the letters to the word “GAIA”. Power ups can be any one of the following: • Removing red volts that obstruct the path. Once inside the mansion players will need to try to spell the words VON HELSON. Electric Love Faktori The object of the game is to connect similar colored ends to complete circuit section. the ball becomes faster. and Hard. Also added to other difficulties is a more mixed up color selection for the colored ends making connections much more difficult to make. • Freezing the power meter for several seconds. In order to gain power ups from within the game players must complete a circuit with the at least part of the complete circuit passing through a “?” (Power ups can also be obtained via the market place). Medium. The harder difficulties yield more gold and a higher chance of obtaining items. the power meter can be replenished by small amounts upon completion of circuits. There is an option to "reset circuits" if a puzzle is to difficult. players must strike the individual letters with the pinball.Gaia Online 286 Jigsaw Players choose from various Gaia related images. Players must knock all three Grunnies out in order to move the multiplier up. in order to spell the words. It is somewhat hard to do because when someone has been playing for a long time. Pinball In this game players play pinball that is themed after various events and characters in the Gaia world. Once the power meter reaches zero the game is over. Among the items on the pinball table are: Grunnies: hit these to increase the field multiplier. Bigger circuit completion yields a bigger replenishment to the meter. Gambino’s Mansion: destroying and rebuilding the mansion gives players gold to spend in the Barton Boutique. • Doubling the score of the next completed circuit. the circuit sections have to connect to circuit ends (which look like blue volts in random placement at the edges of the circuit board). Normal 70. Hard 120 and insane has 300 tiny pieces). doing so removes 10 percent of the power meter. Barton town is the main focus of the game. but many other areas and characters are present. Players must hit the ball into the form door of the Von Helson Mansion to play with in the mansion. It is important to note that higher difficulties yield more gold. When all letters are green the Von Helson Mansion will appear. The game has three difficulty options: Easy. will turn green. The number of pieces the images is broken up into is dependent upon which difficulty has been selected (Easy has 30. Other factors in the reward ammout are the number of times played in a day and the longer the time to complete a puzzle. The gold can only be used to buy power ups from within the game. once an image has been selected it is broken up into various pieces. Which enables it to be quite trickier to spell out "Von Helson" . Completing this task yields a high point pay out. in the center of the pinball machine. Depending on the difficulty chosen red volts appear more often and make the completion of circuits more difficult.

Bugs. Shaking trees. Gaia has old classic films as well as new anime in their theaters like Suzuka and Moon Phase. either for free. and advertisements from site sponsors. Virtual Worlds Towns Gaia Towns (often simply called Towns) is a virtual world where avatars may move and interact with each other. for various site sponsors. Users may use a virtual chat system while in the towns.Gaia Online 287 OMGPop! A recent partnership with the OMGPop! wesite has allowed players to play 3 more mini games on the website: Draw My Thing: Players join groups of other players in a game of charades. These have included a rainbow-styled world for a Skittles sponsor. education shorts. TV shows. 1 . a large forest tree for the Legend of the Guardians film. a castle for an Alice in Wonderland film promotion. that correlate with the Gaia storyline [25] . Each player takes turns drawing whatever word is chosen for you. Gaia has been implementing virtual worlds. similar to Towns.6 players take up 2 rounds. and flowers can be collected while in towns.2 players take up 3 rounds. 3 . cartoons.[27] Due to lack of interest and inactivity. under the title of MMVII. The artist gets 2 points for the first person that guesses correctly. Sponsored Worlds Recently. with other users. and shrubs can yield small amounts of gold to be collected. as well as other things during a cinema session. and everyone after that gets 1 point. litter. A full 7 players take up 1 round. Programs shown in Gaia Cinemas are anime or cartoons shown with permission from Gaia Online's sponsors. In 2007. Round lengths depend on the amount of people playing in the group. Gaia has created its own 3-D animated films. when a user finishes watching a trailer for a movie they may receive a quest item. In a recent announcement [26]. films in the public domain. and is now only used to display film trailers. these items can later be made into other items for a small cost. Gaia VJ is where users can make a virtual living room cinema with playlists composed of videos from video-hosting sites such as YouTube. etc. Users have the ability to throw temporary virtual items such as tomatoes. allowing Gaia to screen films from their libraries. Quest movies also take place in cinemas. rocks. among many others. . and allows users to sit in a virtual theater. fireballs. New films are released in Gaia Cinemas every Monday. The towns often host events such as snowball fights and trick-or-treating. or a Gaia Cash rental fee. and watch anime. There is no penalty for random guessing. Users can interact with certain NPCs in these areas. Gaia Cinemas no longer open to users for regular viewings.. Cinemas Gaia Cinemas was released in April 2007. or films made by Gaia or by users. game trailers. popcorn. Users are often awarded with sponsor-themed items from viewing the trailer or advertisement. and are often awarded prizes for visiting these areas. the rest of the players must type in what they think it is. While in Towns users can pick up various items. a one time gold fee. As the player is drawing. Homes can be found throughout Towns and more than one user can visit someone else's home. The first person to guess the picture correctly gets 3 points. Gaia announced a partnership with Sony and Time Warner. You have 60 seconds to do so.

GigaOmniMedia. com/ 2010/ 06/ 21/ where-in-the-world-are-gaia-cash-cards/ ). mainichi-msn. com/ 2010/ 09/ 02/ inside-info-on-a-new-feature-autocash/ ). gaiaonline. gaiaonline. . org/ web/ */ http:/ / mdn. com/ 8301-13546_109-9729606-29. archive. 35417337/ [27] "Sony Pictures Television Partners with Gaia Online" . php?n=60). 2009-12-17. 57060607/ ). html) [24] http:/ / www.com.gaiaonline. com/ 2008/ 04/ interview-talki. Retrieved 2010-06-21. html) [20] "Rally Update: New Animated Parts & Kiki Car" (http:/ / www. "Creation date of the board: February 18. [9] (http:/ / www. html) External links • Gaia Online (http://www." [2] "Interview: Derek Liu. Retrieved 2007-06-10. wordpress. Retrieved 2007-06-20. com/ forum/ community-announcements/ rally-update-new-animated-parts-kiki-car/ t. org/ mediashift/ 2007/ 07/ marketers-grapple-with-giving-teens-more-control-online198. theautochannel. "Founded in 2003. com/ 2010/ 11/ 23/ teens-virtual-world-gaia-online-lays-off-15-to-20-staffers/ ) VentureBeat. Gaia Online's Blog. com/ doc/ 1P1-146998422. Gaia Online is here" (http:/ / gigaom. 2007-06-19. jp/ waiwai/ archive/ news/ 2003/ 01/ 20030104p2g00m0dm998000c. Retrieved 2009-01-08. gaiaonline. com/ 2007/ 04/ 22/ move-over-myspace-gaia-online-is-here/ ). htm) [22] "Focus testing Gaia's 'zOMG" . [17] "Gaia Online announcement of Gaia Rally release" (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 11/ 23/ teens-virtual-world-gaia-online-lays-off-15-to-20-staffers). . highbeam. com/ 2008/ 09/ virtual-great-1. com/ about). Retrieved 2010-10-02. . VentureBeat. . [18] "Gaia Online and Scion Allow Teens to Pimp their Virtual Rides" (http:/ / www. html) [23] "Interview: Talking Gaia MMOG with Dave Georgeson.com/) . Ereka (2006-10-30). Gaia Interactive. Inc. [14] (http:/ / venturebeat. gaiaonline. 26. com/ [4] Announcement of Link List removal (http:/ / www. . com/ int. wordpress. 2010 [11] http:/ / mashable. Gaia Online. . 2channel is the largest forum in the world.CNET (http:/ / news. webware. big-boards. com/ technology/ content/ may2007/ tc20070523_707199_page_2. php?info=gold). Gaia Interactive. com/ news/ 2007/ 06/ 19/ 052375. .Virtual Worlds News (http:/ / www. Gaia Online is the leading online hangout on the web. com/ 8301-13772_3-10044367-52. co. com/ forum/ viewtopic. [16] Liu. Inside Social Games Nov. virtualworldsnews. fif-flowers. Retrieved 2010-06-26. [19] "Marketers Grapple with Giving Teens More Control Online" . php?id=129748227041755 [25] http:/ / www. [21] "Valley of the Virtual Dolls" . php?t=19031035). Inc. facebook. pbs. . virtualworldsnews. . [15] "Inside info on a new feature — AutoCash" (http:/ / gaiainteractive. 2003" [3] http:/ / www. php) (http:/ / web. com/ 2011/ 01/ 07/ mashable-awards-2010-announcing-the-winners/ [12] "Where in the World are Gaia Cash Cards?" (http:/ / gaiainteractive. html).Gaia Online 288 References [1] "Gaia Intranet :: About us" (http:/ / corp. com/ info/ about. com/ apps/ application. . html [8] "Gaia Online: Webware 100" (http:/ / www. html). Retrieved 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2006-12-30. Sr. com/ 2010/ 11/ 26/ social-gaming-roundup-black-friday-rockyou-foursquare-layoffs-pocket-god-rixty-eve-online-disney-gaia-online-game-center-lionside/ ). cnet. php?page=6& t=58021#425475898) [5] "Move over MySpace. 2010. php?t=28475605). com/ forum/ viewtopic. Producer" . businessweek. gaiaonline. gaiaonline. com/ forum/ announcements/ introducing-the-new-gaia-cinemas-new-movie-mondays/ t. Retrieved 2007-08-25. org/ japan/ internet/ 1093543502. . (http:/ / ojr. November 23. insidesocialgames. [10] (http:/ / venturebeat. CNET Networks. 2007-06-18. 18 June 2007.. com/ news-and-events/ [26] http:/ / www. [6] According to some sources. gaiaonline. com/ forum/ viewtopic.MediaShift (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-01-08. gaiaonline. [13] "About Gaia Gold" (http:/ / www. "Donation items name changed to monthly collectibles" (http:/ / gaiaonline. Gaia Online Anime Community" (http:/ / www. Gaia Online's Blog. Retrieved 2007-02-25.Wireless News (http:/ / www.Business Week (http:/ / www. html) [7] http:/ / www.

Members may tag themselves with information on games they have played. and quizzes such as the Bartle Test. or find guilds or other gamers to play with based on play style. These features allow players to maintain social contact with each other as they grow beyond individual games. guild/clan memberships. and screenshots of game accomplishments. gamerdna. Massachusetts Key people Industry Employees Slogan Website Jon Radoff Computer and video game industry 7 [1] Bringing the World Together Through Games http:/ / www.[10] and supports the storage of game histories. Type Founded Private 2006-09-21 Headquarters Cambridge. roster management and private communication. now owned by Crispy Gamer. [8] Some industry analysts have observed that social networks for online games are part of a new trend in which major MMORPG products are spawning secondary industries. However. Steam and Xbox Live. scores and profiles. and use this information to find people they have played with in the past.[4] [5] Social network for online gamers GamerDNA helps people discover new games to play based on their interests. including features for event scheduling.[3] The company is funded by Flybridge Ventures (formerly known as IDG Ventures). and traverse the database of member profiles by these social connections or by user-defined tag clouds. the service allows members to form social connections with other members. The site features a number of tools to help game-players learn about what aspects of games they enjoy. which helps a player identify what aspects of game play they are most interested in—and then form connections with other players with similar interests. The service also allows members to form groups oriented around their gaming guilds and clans. com/ [2] gamerDNA Inc. guilds or servers.[6] [7] The company has been compared to a Facebook and MySpace for online game players. a database of games that locates games based on gameplay elements such as setting. The name is usually spelled with a lower case g: gamerDNA. the member profiles are geared toward the alter-egos that people play as within online games. server names and guild affiliations.GamerDNA 289 GamerDNA GamerDNA Inc. is a social media company for computer and video game players founded on 2006-09-21. including automated tracking of games on Xfire.[9] Also like other social networks. . tone and game mechanics.

Retrieved 2007-01-04. April 18. boston. http:/ / www. com/ news/ article_1229510. Retrieved 2007-01-04. Obsessable. Game 2. php/ GuildCafe_introduces_social_networking_to_the_world_of_online_gaming). 2007. com/ business/ technology/ articles/ 2007/ 09/ 03/ a_place_where_online_gamers_can_hang_out_after_the_game/ [8] Derek Boiko-Weyrauch (December 4. [16] . p. synthscribe.GamerDNA 290 Other services In April 2008 GamerDNA acquired 360voice.[13] GamerDNA nearly halfed its workforce from 13 to 7 employees in October 2009 causing the company to operate at "better than break-even". com/ php-bin/ news_index. References [1] GamerDNA cuts staff. December 8. . html). com/ archives/ 2006/ 12/ post_2. to GamerDNA Inc." http:/ / www. jpg [4] Alistair Wallis.[15] It is currently unclear what will happen to Crispy Gamer and gamerDNA. GamerDNA also operates TweetMyGaming [11]. com [12] Barb Dybwad (June 4." http:/ / gigaom. GigaOM. August 2007. monstersandcritics. 2008. com/ php-bin/ news_index. php?story=12425 [11] http:/ / TweetMyGaming. . "WoW and Cottage Industries" (http:/ / radar. weighs HQ move http:/ / www. php?story=14995 [5] Wagner James Au. 2009). http:/ / www. 2006).0. php?story=18304 [14] Crispy Gamer Media Acquires gamerDNA http:/ / www. a website that displays game-related tweets from Twitter in real-time. joystiq. [9] Brady Forrest (December 4. [10] Gamasutra. gamerdna. The company is also considering moving its office. August 7. "GuildCafe introduces social networking to the world of online gaming" (http:/ / gaming. Retrieved 2007-01-04. "Q&A: GuildCafe's Jon Radoff On MMO Community. "Social Site GamerDNA Raises $3M. a service that generates blogs using Xbox 360 gameplay data using a data feed offered by Microsoft. Boston Globe." http:/ / www." http:/ / www. 2007. CEO resigns in protest http:/ / www. 2008. "A place where Online Gamers Can Hang Out After the Game. com/ [3] "Meet me at the Cafe. In April 2008. the company changed its name from GuildCafe Entertainment Inc. xconomy. com/ 2008/ 04/ 18/ gamerdna-gets-3m-from-flybridge/ [6] Wade Roush." PC Gamer Magazine. History Jon Radoff founded the company in 2006. com/ 2010/ 01/ 21/ crispy-gamer-editorial-staff-laid-off-ceo-resigns-in-protest/ [16] http:/ / www. gamasutra. GamerDNA CEO Jon Radoff mentioned he only learned of this through inquiring journalists. "GamerDNA’s New Discovery Engine Helps Gamers Find More Games They’ll Love.[12] This site utilizes a combination of Twitter and GamerDNA Helix APIs. com/ news/ 2009/ 06/ 04/ gamerdna-launches-tweet-my-gaming-a-real-time-zeitgeist-of-gaming-tweets/ ). CEO and co-founder Chris Heldman resigned in protest. "GamerDNA gets $3M from Flybridge. com/ boston/ 2008/ 12/ 08/ gamerdnas-new-discovery-engine-helps-gamers-find-more-games-theyll-love/ [7] Hiawatha Bray. html [2] http:/ / www. com/ media/ pcg_cafe. masshightech. Gamasutra. php/ 2009-12-17/ crispy-gamer-media-acquires-gamerdna/ [15] Crispy Gamer editorial staff laid off." http:/ / www.14. com/ stories/ 2009/ 10/ 26/ daily3-GamerDNA-cuts-staff-weighs-HQ-move. gamasutra. September 3. Jan. "gamerDNA launches Tweet My Gaming. crispygamer. The site is currently being maintained and ran by playxpert. who laid off its entire editorial staff on the authority of the company's board of directors on 2010-01-21. com/ news/ index. com/ php-bin/ news_index. [13] Chris Remo. playxpert. April 18. 2006. obsessable. O'Reilly Radar. a real time zeitgeist of gaming tweets" (http:/ / www. 17. com/ web/ guest/ home . .[1] GamerDNA was acquired by Crispy Gamer on 2009-12-16[14] . Monsters and Critics. "Q&A: Guildcafe's Radoff Talks VC Backing. gamasutra. Renames Self. Xconomy. 2006). oreilly.

[1] The first playable version of the game was known as GemStone ][[2] and was launched in April 1988 on GEnie.GamerDNA 291 External links • GamerDNA (http://www. There are several official interfaces to the game. while a . StormFront offers several additional extensions to the game. Macintosh 1988 Fantasy MUD Multiplayer Media/distribution Online System requirements Client software install GemStone IV is a multiplayer text-based online role-playing game (often known as a MUD) produced by Simutronics. Technical Information GemStone IV is a text-based game built on Simutronics' proprietary engine. and the game can be played with a Telnet interface after authentication. The Wizard has since been superseded with the "StormFront" Front End introduced in 2003. A Wizard (similar to the Windows version) also exists for Macintosh Classic. GemStone is rarely taken offline. macros. The GemStone interface is simply a text stream. with three additional subscriptions levels available. The Java FE and a browser-based version named "eScape" are less popular alternatives. This engine is capable of changing nearly any aspect of the game on the fly which allows updates without the necessity for downtime. "Premium. offers several useful features such as status readouts. and limited scripting abilities. AOL. including a "point and click" interface that allows one to click on text within the game and bring up action menus applicable to that portion of text. giving a 24-hour uptime cycle aside from the occasional game crash. Players control characters in a High Fantasy game world named "Elanthia".[4] Access to the game is subscription-based (monthly fee) through its website.com/) GemStone IV Gemstone IV Developer(s) Publisher(s) Platform(s) Release date(s) Genre(s) Mode(s) Simutronics GEnie. the IFE (Interactive Fiction Engine).gamerdna. The oldest interface for Windows is called the "Wizard Front End" and The Wizard Front End for GemStone IV. as well as several unofficial ones. a problem of many graphical RPGs. Due to the use of the IFE.[3] It was one of the first MMORPGs and is one of the longest running online games still active." "Platinum." and "Shattered". independent Windows.

Game mechanics were greatly changed with the de-ICEing (as the period is colloquially named).GemStone IV Front End named "Avalon" is available for Mac OS X. New Riders.Shattered In May of 2010. References [1] Olivetti. GemStone originally operated with a license to use the Rolemaster game mechanics and Shadow World environment from Iron Crown Enterprises (ICE). 292 History GemStone was first demonstrated to GEnie in 1987 before Simutronics was officially incorporated. However. Retrieved 2011-04-25. and Federation II (it already had Neverwinter Nights). com/ print/ 12_23/ 13829-1. Dragon's Gate. requiring all players to begin anew. Simutronics and ICE agreed to let the business relationship expire. The end result was that every character was required to "re-roll" their character with the option to change race and skills. making any direct translation between the two systems difficult. When AOL switched to flat-rate pricing. [2] Bartle. . and renaming the deities while keeping their previous characteristics. and started phasing customers off of the online services and onto the web interface.000-2. and character records were not maintained over the transition. GemStone ][ was released in April 1988 to GEnie customers. washingtontechnology. and GemStone III went into open beta testing in December 1989. including two very important virtual worlds: Gemstone II in 1988 and Dragon's Gate in 1990" [4] Gignews." [7] NPNEWS archives . . netpreneur. htm) Interview: Elonka Dunin [5] Online Gaming Firm Attracts Fans (http:/ / www. officially launching on February 1. and equipment. but maintaining their old experience level. ISBN 0-1310-1816-7. Designing Virtual Worlds. GemStone ][ was very short-lived. Richard (2003). GemStone did over 1. Academy of Interactive Arts and Sciences[9] • December 1996. co. 1995. GemStone III evolved into GemStone IV in November 2003. Many of the game changes were simply renaming ICE names." [3] Bartle. Errata" (http:/ / mud. 14.[8] Simutronics launched a web portal in 1997.1997/02/06 (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ 04/ 19/ the-game-archaeologist-plays-with-muds-the-games/ ). Online Game of the Year. Awards and achievements • 1998 Finalist. gignews. "Designing Virtual Worlds. GemStone III was promoted on GEnie by promising players the opportunity to receive real-life versions of gems found in-game. Richard (2003).com May 2002 (http:/ / www. New Riders. pp. something that persisted for many years. In 1995.500 simultaneous players. No official Linux client exists. necessitating the removal of all ICE intellectual property from GemStone. html) [6] Bartle. Designing Virtual Worlds. ISBN 0-1310-1816-7. but not all. org/ tsarch/ arch0206. Roman numerals were used for the third and fourth versions. "The second version was "GemStone ][" (rather than "Gemstone II"). html). html#5) . "AOL went for the throat and signed up Gemstone III. pp. Richard (2003-07-17).4 million customer-hours in a single month[7] and was attracting 2. "The Game Archaeologist plays with MUDs: The games" (http:/ / massively. AOL Members' Choice Award[10] GemStone IV . "GEnie was the launch point for many classic online games. although it would take several years before the last of the online service portals were closed. which required every game character to undergo significant changes. uk/ dvw/ errata. Massively. such as changing the world name from Kulthea to Elanthia. com/ goddess/ dunin. It had already become available on CompuServe and Prodigy before that. GemStone IV . 1990. class. Justin (2011-04-19).[5] The transition from "][" to "III" maintained significant portions of the environment.Shattered was released by Simutronics. 15. but the game world and character records were maintained over the transition. GemStone became available on AOL[6] in September. Character racial and class choices were also changed. It was only used as a demonstration model and was never available to the general subscribers. just after the de-ICEing process. joystiq.

Games. org/ awards/ annual_awards. interactive. ISBN 0-1310-1816-7.000-2. including banking. Designing Virtual Worlds. (Later. respectively. mirroring the tiered service model popular at the time. Louden purchased DECWAR source code and had MegaWars developed. pp. though eventually replaced by the Internet and graphics-based services. washingtontechnology.net/gs4/) GEnie GEnie (General Electric Network for Information Exchange) was an online service created by a General Electric business .[2] Early history GEnie log-in screen GEnie was founded by Bill Louden on October 1.GemStone IV [8] Bartle. Richard (2003).GEIS (now GXS) that ran from 1985 through the end of 1999. was $5–$6 per hour during "non-prime-time" hours (evenings and weekends) and $36 an hour (to discourage daytime use) otherwise. Other services cost extra.S. GEIS executives steadfastly refused to view the service as anything but "fill in" load and would not expand the network by a single phone line. Maryland. html) 293 External links • GemStone IV website (http://www.play. to accommodate GEnie's growing user base. and received attention as the first serious commercial competition to CompuServe. Louden was originally CompuServe's product manager for Computing. Although it became very popular and a national force in the on-line marketplace. later adjusted to $6 per hour and $18 per hour.95/month. 1985[3] and was launched as an ASCII text-based service by GE's Information Services division in October 1985. GEIS served a diverse set of large-scale. but was able to run GEnie on their many GE Mark III time-sharing mainframe computers that otherwise would have been underutilized after normal U. Electronic Data Interchange and e-mail services to companies worldwide. . "At its peak. This orientation was part of GEnie's downfall. commercial network-based custom application needs. 2400 bit/s was also available at a premium. ecommerce. com/ print/ 12_23/ 13829-1. most notably AOL. international. now GXS) based in Rockville.000 users. New Riders. GEnie was not allowed to grow. In 1994. It was one of the pioneering services in the field. let alone expand mainframe capacity. The service was run by General Electric Information Services (GEIS.500 players simultaneously. one of the earliest multi-player online games (or MMOG). Community (forums).) The initial price for connection.[1] Peak simultaneous usage was around 10. asp) [10] Washington Technology 1998-03-05 (http:/ / www. It offered a set of "unlimited use" features for $4. which had its own dial-up points of presence.000 users. in 1982. Later. 17." [9] AIAS awards (http:/ / www. GE did consent to make the service available through the SprintNet time-sharing network. business hours. soon renamed Genie*Basic after Prodigy threatened a trademark lawsuit over the use of the word "Star". at both 300 bits per second and the then-high-speed 1200 bits per second. and email product lines. GEnie developed the Star*Services package. however. Gemstone III on AOL was attracting 2. GEnie claimed around 350.

etc.’s RSCARDS Jim Dunnigan’s Hundred Years’ War Simutronics’s DragonRealms Simutronic's Orb Wars Federation II [5] Simutronics’s Modus Operandi A-Maze-ing Diplomacy Online Bob Maples’s Castle Quest RoundTables A RoundTable on GEnie was a discussion area containing a message board ("BBS"). Also. as well as other internal services. would bring you to the GemStone III game page. Usenet newsgroups and email mailing lists. Most RoundTables were actually operated not by GEnie employees but by independent contractors working from home. had a page number associated with it. RoundTables available on GEnie included: • The 911 / Emergency RoundTable for discussion of emergency preparedness. In the most popular forums. later GemStone III AUSI’s Dragon's Gate Simutronics’s CyberStrike (3D graphics — later spun off and expanded into the stand-alone CyberStrike 2. similar to the “doorway” games on bulletin board systems but often massively multiplayer. mail and shopping. Top titles included: • • • • Kesmai’s Air Warrior (3D graphics) Simutronics’s GemStone.) • Kesmai’s Multiplayer BattleTech: EGA Other major titles included: • • • • • • • • • • • • • AUSI’s Galaxy II NTN Trivia Kesmai’s Stellar Warrior — GEnie’s first multiplayer online game Kesmai's Stellar Emperor — The GEnie version of Kesmai’s Compuserve game MegaWars III J. They were part of an online community culture that predated the Internet's emergence as a mass medium. with textured 3D graphics. GEnie's early chat room was called the LiveWire CB Simulator. Weaver Jr. this revenue stream was often substantial enough to hire one or two part-time or full-time staffers. lighting effects. which also included such separate entities as CompuServe forums.[4] after the Citizens' band radios popular at the time. working for a "free flag" (which granted them free access to that RoundTable) or an "internal account" (which granted free access to all of the service). which was standard practice for online services at the time. for instance.GEnie GEnie's forums were called RoundTables (RTs).. For some time. Many RoundTables also had a number of unpaid assistants. and each. akin to a Web address today. there were graphical games using then-state-of-the-art non-textured 3D graphics on PCs with VGA displays. 294 Games GEnie had a reputation for being the home of excellent online text games. a chatroom ("RealTime Conference" or RTC) and a Library for permanent files. games. typing "m 1335".. The service included RTs. The contractors received royalties on time spent in their forums. LiveWire. GEnie published a bimonthly print magazine.and a forum set up for quick mobilization during emergencies .

created by film critic Bill Warren in 1989. founded by Tracy Kornfeld The ShowBiz RoundTable. including GEnie's hosted online games The Scuba RoundTable . an early MIDI discussion forum hosted by Robert Moore The NBC Online RoundTable [7] The New Age RoundTable NeedleArts RoundTable -Sysop Jody McFadden PetNet .humor.funny TI-99/4A and Geneve RoundTable The TSR Online RoundTable 295 • • • • • • • • • • • . The MIDI/WorldMusic RoundTable. Dick Flanagan. run by Glen Johnson The Religion and Philosophy RoundTable The four Science Fiction RoundTables (the SFRT). who were all published authors. a popular discussion board for the Forth programming language The Game Design RoundTable Gardening RoundTable -Sysop Jody McFadden Hobby RoundTable -Sysop Jody McFadden The Health RoundTable The IBM PC RoundTable . The CP/M RoundTable The Deutschland/European Roundtable (sysops Walter Koenig & Jim Van) The Education RoundTable. one of the largest RTs on the service and one of the first public gathering places for Apple Macintosh devotees. received free access to the SF RoundTables) {J.J. and still active today on the online service Delphi The Space and Science RoundTable The Spaceport RoundTable.Sysops Charlie Strom and Rick Ruhl The Japan RoundTable. The TeleJoke RoundTable.all things animal The Public Forum*Non-Profit Connection RoundTable was the place to discuss current events and politics. dedicated to games of all types. later The American West RoundTable) The Macintosh RoundTable. school-aged GEnie users The Forth RoundTable.the first non-computing related RT on GEnie. the official online home of the Horror Writers Association and the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America before the Internet became popular (SFWA members. Michael Straczynski developed the show Babylon 5 while on the SFRT and maintained his e-mail presence throughout the run of the show. run by Glen Johnson The *StarShip* Amiga. The Sports RoundTable.} The Jerry Pournelle RoundTable Scorpia's Games RoundTable.Sysop Tom Sherman then John McGing Remote Control RoundTable -Sysop Jody McFadden RubberStamping RoundTable -Sysop Jody McFadden The Radio and Electronics RoundTable.GEnie • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The A2 RoundTable for discussion of Apple II computers. which was managed by Brad Templeton and cross-linked with the Usenet newsgroup rec. an early home of Apple devotees The Astrology RoundTable The Atari ST RoundTable The Automotive RoundTable (sysops J. oriented around engineering projects that could be carried out in space. Bill Moulas and Linda Pendleton) The Comics and Animation RoundTable (originally part of the SFRT). and also assisted non-profits to use online resources to further their mission . run by deb! Christensen. Gertler & Greg Amy) The Aviation Roundtable (sysops Roy Barkas. which included a separate area for younger. including "Japanimation Online". an early anime forum [6] The Left Coast RoundTable (initially The California RoundTable.

which had been developed earlier by an independent developer and eventually supported by GEnie. • Tom Clancy. 1999. TV shows. television and film novelizations. The users were notified with only 12 hours notice that all Basic (flat-rate) services would cease to exist. and a dwindling number watched at the close of each day. and were a prominent presence on GEnie. created by J.000 total users. participated in the chat area and he played games such as GemStone II with his children. these were the equivalent of modern-day email programs and newsreaders. SFWA Grand Master . Programs such as Aladdin. but ultimately failed. which was later taken over by IDT Corp. Michael Straczynski. The SFRTs served as the show's first online "home" and were the source of many in-jokes and references throughout its run. • Peter David. But Genie did not close for four more days. except the Top page. but the service did not survive long enough for it to become popular. was active on GEnie’s Science Fiction RoundTable • Damon Knight. where he led the transition of the service from text-only to the Web (and from a pay-per-hour to an advertising-supported revenue model). One example is the Babylon 5 television show. Notable users Many well-known personalities were early adopters of the online medium.Sysops Rick Ruhl and Charlie Strom • The Writers' Ink RoundTable 296 Rise and fall Although GEnie for years was second as a service provider only to CompuServe. Remaining users gathered in chat areas of the few RoundTables remaining to say goodbye. In addition. GE sold GEnie in 1996 to Yovelle. GEnie took its time developing an Internet e-mail gateway.Sysop John McGing • The Windows RoundTable . author. which was first announced publicly in GEnie's Science Fiction RoundTables. became unavailable slightly before midnight on December 30. which opened on July 1. author. the service failed to keep up when Prodigy and America Online produced graphics-based online services that drew the masses. it was announced that Genie would close for good on December 27 due to Y2K issues. founder of Science Fiction Writers of America. screenwriting and many original novels and short stories • Cory Doctorow. The RoundTables and all areas of Genie. Visitors to Genie dropped with the growth of other online services and fell dramatically following a very sudden change in the fee structure in 1996. helped many of the newcomers who came to GEnie from Prodigy and AOL adjust. or frequent public participants in GEnie’s CB Chat. insiders reported fewer than 10. the original creator of GEnie. IDT also funded the development of a GUI for the text-based service. self-styled “writer of stuff. this client was actually released. On December 4. 1999. films and other projects had their genesis and inspiration on GEnie. Legacy Several books. incorporating a more user-friendly interface which automated message and mail downloading and posting. By the final year.” such as comic books. IDT attempted to transition Genie (now without the all-uppercase "GE") to an internet service provider.GEnie • The White House RoundTable for making available press releases and other hard to find administration materials and for partisan discussions on actions of the Bill Clinton administration. co-author of the Boing Boing blog and science fiction novelist. formed a group of investors to buy the Delphi online service from News Corp. either active in one of its RoundTables. 1993. Bill Louden. while prices of the other services would rise dramatically.

com/ modules. Robert J. Designing Virtual Worlds. 1994). actor (Seinfeld. Star Trek graphics designer frequented the SFRT • Richard Pini.htm) Online Games White Paper (http://www. had his own RoundTable. John Barnes. net/ ibinfo/ ibhistory3.com/iskm/iskw2html/pt3/ch09/ch09e. producer and creator of Babylon 5 • Wil Wheaton. Michael A. television writer. Jeter and Ken Grimwood.whtech. frequent presence in Writer’s Ink • Jerry Pournelle. com/ SimuTimeline.os2ezine. Steven Brust.thinkquest.txt) Internet Starter Kit for Macintosh: GEnie (http://www. Neil Gaiman.uk/richard/pcmjun90. husband of Wendy Pini.mud. "Genie and CompuServe Offer Die-Hard Adventure Fans Wide New On-line Worlds" (http:// www. was a frequent presence in the chat area Other well-known science fiction authors who were frequent visitors to the SFRT included Dafydd ab Hugh. ibgames.html) Simutronics timeline (http://www. Rich Normandie.htm) Last night of the SFRTs (http://www. Joe Haldeman.delphiforums. Scott Edelman.com/v1n4/genie. Martin. GEnie (9/88) (http:/ / cgi. Katharine Kerr.html) maintained by Simutronics' Elonka Dunin Tom Mostellor.com/SimuTimeline.GEnie • Wayne Knight.sfwa. Teresa Nielsen Hayden. html) [3] Remarks by William Louden. com/ internet/ hackingenie.org/C002414/history. was an occasional visitor to the ShowBiz RT • Michael Okuda. elonka. html#aa34) Review: GEnie (http://www. Martha Soukup. Harry Turtledove. ISBN 0-1310-1816-7. Burstein. Patrick Nielsen Hayden. Jurassic Park).org/News/genieend.html) Thinkquest Timeline of game history (http://library. compiled by the IGDA Online Games Committee .php) • GEnie TI-99/4A and Geneve File Library (ftp://ftp.php?q=node/52) Genie and the SFRTs are closed (http://www. 297 References [1] Lewis.pdf). Susan Shwartz. gjhost. • J.elonka. George R. Science fiction editors Gardner Dozois.com/genie/index.com/9640news/) • • • • • • • • • MultiPlayer BattleTech: EGA Roundtable Archive (http://www. Tappan King. Michael Kube-McDowell. Debra Doyle. Judith Tarr. html [7] http:/ / www.tidbits.mpbt3025. current “geek author” and actor (Wesley in Star Trek: The Next Generation). External links • I Dream of GEnie: forum discussion and memories of past GEnie members (http://forums. 2002. html) [4] The Information Center's guide to LiveWire CB Simulator (http:/ / www. html?res=9406E1DF123FF931A25754C0A962958260).dm. Richard (2003). and Jane Yolen.R. Neil Schulman. (July 12. pegboard. cjas. J.net/~centaur/lastsfrt. html [6] http:/ / www. • Daniel Pinkwater.com/index. and Dean Wesley Smith were also frequent participants. Lawrence Watt-Evans. org/ ~leng/ lainspotting/ 2006/ 03/ pre-web-anime-fandom-out-of-archives-4. Paul Levinson. W. . science fiction author and political commentator. "A Boom for On-Line Services" (http:/ / query. Peter Heck. Josepha Sherman. The New York Times. nytimes.com/ ignite22/start) • GEnie Commodore File Library (http://cbmfiles. GM. textfiles. [2] Simutronics Timeline (http:/ / www. Mike Resnick. Beth Meacham. com/ ~cgi/ mt/ netweaverarchive/ 000236.igda. New Riders. and editor/publisher of her cult favorite fantasy (with SF elements) comic book series ElfQuest. Michael Straczynski. php?name=Content& pa=showpage& pid=23 Further reading • Bartle. Occasional but less frequent visitors included K. Sawyer.co. Peter H. Leslie What. txt) [5] http:/ / www.org/online/IGDA_Online_Games_Whitepaper_2002. com/ gst/ fullpage.

This neighborhood became part of the member's web address along with a sequentially assigned "street address" number to make the URL unique (for example.[9] At that point GeoCities was headquartered at 9401 Wilshire . In its original form.[3] [4] [5] There were at least 38 million user-built pages on GeoCities before it was shut down." "SunsetStrip. bulletin boards. a small Web hosting and development company in Southern California. helping foster rapid growth. During the sign-up process. site users selected a "city" in which to place their web pages. and other elements of "community" were added soon after.geocities.[7] History GeoCities began in mid-1995 as BHI. which now had a total of 14 neighborhoods. Chat. organized thematically in six "neighborhoods". the The first GeoCities logo.GeoCities 298 GeoCities Yahoo! GeoCities URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Owner Created by geocities.[6] The GeoCities Japan version of the service is still available. was signing up thousands of Homesteaders a day and getting over six million monthly page views. and on December 15." "Paris. new members chose to which neighborhood they wanted to belong." and "Tokyo. company decided to offer users (thereafter known as "Homesteaders") the ability to develop free home pages within those neighborhoods." "SiliconValley. GeoCities never enforced neighborhood specific content. computer-related sites were placed in "SiliconValley" and those dealing with entertainment were assigned to "Hollywood" — hence the name of the site. which stood for Beverly Hills Internet. "www." "Hollywood." and "WestHollywood". [2] Ten years after Yahoo! bought GeoCities."[8] By December 1995.jp Yes Web hosting Yes Yahoo! Inc. [1] David Bohnett and John Rezner Current status Active in Japan. The "cities" were named after real cities or regions according to their content — for example. In mid-1995." "WallStreet. The company decided to focus on building membership and community. the company. a "Hollywood" homesteader could be nothing but a college student's home page. defunct in the United States and Canada Yahoo! GeoCities is a web hosting service. BHI became known as GeoCities after having also been called Geopages. currently available only in Japan. On July 5. including "CapitolHill.com/RodeoDrive/number").co. which would be more appropriate for another neighborhood." "RodeoDrive. 1995. 1995 Geocities added additional cities. The neighborhoods included "Colosseum. the company announced that it would shut down the United States GeoCities service on October 26. 2009. for example.[8] The company created its own Web directory. GeoCities was originally founded by David Bohnett and John Rezner in late 1994 as Beverly Hills Internet (BHI). and GeoCities websites actually became unavailable the next day.

[13] The GeoCities logo of the 299 Acquisition by Yahoo! In January 1999. including Yahoo!. Launchcast. and by October of that year the company had signed up its millionth Homesteader. Yahoo! switched from neighborhoods and street address URLs for homesteaders to "vanity" URLs through members' sign-up names to Yahoo! ("www. with an office on the 8th floor of 125 Park Avenue in Manhattan. so GeoCities' volunteer program (Community Leaders) was terminated.[19] During 2001. and stopped accepting new registrations.[21] . though the existing GeoCities accounts remained active.2 MB per hour.[9] By December 1996 it was headquartered on the third floor of 1918 Main Street in Santa Monica. Many users felt the watermark interfered with the design of their website and threatened to move their web pages elsewhere. GeoCities claimed in a press release that the company had received upbeat feedback regarding the watermark.[18] The paid accounts were later unified in the Yahoo! Web Hosting service. but was enforced as a limit of about 4. New York City."[3] GeoCities joined a long list of other services discontinued by Yahoo such as: Farechase. Live.[20] Closure On April 23. However. listing on the NASDAQ exchange with the code GCTY. unpopular. My Web. a lawsuit was filed against Yahoo! by its volunteer group of community managers. GeoCities was purchased by Yahoo! for $3. GeoCities was the fifth most popular site on the Web. GeoCities introduced a late 1990s. Soon after the change to a username-based system. with Yahoo! taking control on May 28. In 2001. Briefcase and Yahoo! for Teachers. The IPO price was $17. Yahoo! introduced a for-fee premium hosting service at GeoCities accessibility of free and low-price hosting accounts by limiting their data transfer rate for webpage visitors.57 billion in stock. Kickstart.geocities. behind AOL and Yahoo!. GeoCities continued to grow.[4] In late June 2009. much like an onscreen graphic on some television channels.[2] [14] [15] The acquisition proved extremely The first Yahoo! GeoCities logo.[12] The headquarters had moved to 4499 Glencoe Avenue in Los Angeles. watermark to user web pages. near the Marina del Rey area of Los Angeles County.[16] The terms stated that the company owned all rights and content. members who signed up prior to the abandonment of neighborhoods retained their old address in addition to the new username-based one until the day of GeoCities' closure.[10] Over time. the chain e-mail making that claim cited a The New York Times article that stated the opposite. including media such as pictures. in an effort to increase brand awareness. with higher data transfer limits. Despite negative reaction from users. Yahoo! quickly reversed its decision. was a transparent floating GIF which used JavaScript to stay on the bottom right side of the browser screen. 2009. users began to leave en masse in protest at the new terms of service put out by Yahoo! for GeoCities. In May 1997. since that time the data transfer limit for free accounts was said to be limited to 3 GB per month. near the peak of the dot-com bubble.GeoCities Boulevard in Beverly Hills. invested extensively in GeoCities and.com/membername"). 2009.[11] The company went public in August 1998. In June 1998. GeoCities introduced advertisements on its pages. The watermark also had cross-browser issues. Yahoo! announced that it would be closing its United States branch of GeoCities. with the introduction of paid premium services. By June 1997. Audio Search. amidst speculation by analysts that GeoCities was not yet profitable (it having declared an $8 million loss [17] and reduced the for the final quarter of 1998). the site continued to grow. Pets. Yahoo! updated the GeoCities home page to indicate: "GeoCities is closing on October 26. The watermark. a rumor began that GeoCities was to close. rising rapidly after launch to a peak of over $100. By 1999 GeoCities was the third-most visited website on the World Wide Web.[16] In July 1999. many companies.

it was approximately 900 GB of data[33] ).. visitors. the editor of ZDNet.5 million unique visitors. criticized Yahoo's handling of GeoCities.[28] The website InternetArchaeology. On April 16. started by GeoCities competitor uCoz. rival webhosting services began to compete for the web sites leaving GeoCities.com. For instance. are hereby declared unlawful.[30] Another site which is attempting to build an archive of defunct GeoCities web sites is GeoCities.9 million unique visitors from the U. the Internet Archive announced a project to archive GeoCities pages. The Archive Team released a torrent file archive of 641 GB (prior to 7zip compression. in March 2006." The FTC found that GeoCities was engaged in deceptive acts and practices in contravention to their stated privacy act.org also archived and is showcasing artifacts from GeoCities. is a similar project launched to save GeoCities websites.[29] The operators of the website ReoCities downloaded as much of the content hosted on GeoCities as they could before it shut down and intend to create a mirror of GeoCities. which states in relevant part.T. the CEO of Blekko." Internet Archive made it their task to ensure the thoroughness and completeness of their archive of GeoCities sites. 2011. stating "GeoCities has been an important outlet for personal expression on the Web for almost 15 years. The Archive Team released a patch to the first Geocities torrent (originally released on October 29.[27] 300 Archiving GeoCities websites Shortly after the GeoCities closing announcement. a 24% decline from March 2008.[25] In response to the closure.S.GeoCities With the closure of GeoCities in the U. and unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce. Subsequently. Other sites with this purpose are Geociti. "Unfair methods of competition in or affecting commerce.[4] Litigation In 1999. perceived the closure of GeoCities as an end of an era." Rich Skrenta. he described GeoCities as "the first proof that you could have something really popular and still not make any money on the internet.[22] Yahoo! encouraged users to upgrade their accounts to the fee-based Yahoo! Web Hosting service. 94 [37]. In March 2009 Geocities had 11.ws. 2010) [34] [35] Selected traffic statistics The domain geocities.C. an internet and cyber security expert quoted in the Business Standard. In the first anniversary from Geocities closing.[12] [26] Geocities-closing.[23] [24] Rupert Goodwins. Mukhi described GeoCities as "a lost opportunity for Yahoo! They could have made it a Facebook if they wanted. In March 2008 Geocities had 15."[22] Vijay Mukhi.S. albeit an incomplete one.com attracted at least 177 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete. a complaint was instituted against GeoCities stating that the corporation violated the provisions of the Federal Trade Commission Act under 14 USC §45.[38] (page 94) .[31] Although it is using the GeoCities name. Yahoo! no longer offers free webpage hosting except in Japan. posted on Twitter an offer to take over GeoCities from Yahoo! in exchange for 50% future revenue share. German web host Jimdo started the "Lifeboat for GeoCities" service to encourage GeoCities users to put their websites on Jimdo. A copy of the complaint and order can be found at 127 F.1 million unique U. it is not clear from the site what its relationship with the original GeoCities is.com study. a consent order was entered into which prohibits GeoCities from misrepresenting the purpose for which it collects and/or uses personal identifying information from consumers.es[32] and WebCite.S.[36] ComScore stated that the Geocities had 18.

engineering. and Pines – Computers. poetry. and philosophy Augusta – Golf Baja – Off-road SUVs and adventure travel BourbonStreet – Jazz. Cajun food. programming.GeoCities The litigation came about in this way: GeoCities provided free home pages and e-mail address to children and adults who provided personally identifying and demographic information when they registered for the website. Park. and technology SoHo and Lofts – Art and writing SouthBeach and Marina – A "high-style hot spot for hanging out. in any manner about its collection or use of personal identifying information. rafting." SunsetStrip.[40] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Area51 and Vault – Science fiction and fantasy Athens and Acropolis – Teaching. Lesbian. New Orleans and Southern United States topics Broadway – Theater and performing arts CapeCanaveral and Lab – Science. Studio and Towers – Music such as blues. reading. punk rock. and skiing Heartland and Plains – Parenting and family (Originally also focused • [39] on pets ) Hollywood and Hills – Films and actors HotSprings – Health and fitness MadisonAvenue – Advertising MotorCity – Automobiles and racing NapaValley – Wine Nashville – Country music LeftBank – Romance." GeoCities illegally permitted third-party advertisers to promote products targeted to GeoCities' 1. hardware.[39] By 1999. education. technology. mathematics. GeoCities had more than 1.8 million users. including what information will be disclosed to third parties. writing. Vine. and aviation CapitolHill – Politics and government CollegePark and Quad – University life Colosseum.[38] It was ordered that GeoCities would not make any misrepresentation. GeoCities sold personal information to third parties who used the information for purposes other than those for which members gave permission." which had groupings of content created by the "homesteaders" (GeoCities users). hiking. and rock 'n roll TheTropics and Shores – Travel and vacations TelevisionCity – Television TimesSquare and Arcade – Computer and video games Tokyo – Far East-related topics.8 million members who were "homesteaders. and transgender topics Yosemite – Outdoor recreation including climbing. including anime Vienna – Ballet.[38] 301 Neighborhoods In 1996. Heights. GeoCities had 29 "neighborhoods. and opera WallStreet – Business and finance Wellesley – Women-related topics WestHollywood – Gay. bisexual. Palms. seeing and being seen. and the arts (For Paris-related topics [39] such as food and culture around 1996 ) Pentagon – Military • • • • • . Alley. technology SiliconValley. GeoCities had additional neighborhoods and refocused existing neighborhoods. meeting and greeting. classical music. These acts and practices affected "commerce" as defined in Section 4 of the Federal Trade Commission. grunge. At the time of the complaint. by using personally identifiable information obtained in the registration process. Field and Loge – Athletics and sports EnchantedForest – Topics of interest to children Eureka – Small business and home offices Fashion Avenue – Fashion • • • • • • • • • • • • • Petsburgh – Pets Picket Fence – Home improvement and real estate Pipeline – Extreme sports RainForest – Conservation RodeoDrive – Shopping and upscale lifestyles Research Triangle – Research and Development.[38] The problem GeoCities faced was that it placed a privacy statement on its New Member Application Form and on its website promising that it would never give personally identifying information to anyone without the user's permission. GeoCities was not allowed to collect personal identifying information from any child if GeoCities had actual knowledge that the child did not have his parents' permission to provide the information.

and it is still accepting new account registrations. yahoo.00. with no signs of upcoming closure. jp/ ) [8] "Beverly Hills Internet. builder of interactive cyber cities. December 19. [5] Millian.2817. [11] Hu. CapitolHill. Retrieved 2009-06-03." GeoCities. design. techcrunch. Paris and Tokyo offer free homesteads to residents of BHI's 'GeoCities'" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ technology/ 2009/ 10/ geocities-closing. "Yahoo Quietly Pulls The Plug On Geocities" (http:/ / www. CNet. Mark (2009-10-26). geocities. com/ article2/ 0. Retrieved 2009-04-30. Geoff (2009-07-10). archive. com/ rawfile/ 2009/ 11/ geocities) [7] Yahoo!ジ オ シ テ ィ ー ズ (http:/ / geocities." (http:/ / www. 1995. but now all services are only available in Japanese. 2011. html). GeoCities Japan is still online. Leena (2009-04-23). geocities. 2009.[42] GeoCities Japan was headquartered in the Nihonbashi Hakozaki Building in the Nihonbashi area of Chūō. Builder of Web Communities. co. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0EIN/ is_1995_July_5/ ai_17190114/ ). Users cashed in GeoPoints in the store. allbusiness. wired. html) Business Wire.[7] Japan neighborhoods GeoCities Japan has the following neighborhoods:[44] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • WallStreet (ウ ォ ー ル 街 Wōrugai) – Finance and business Epicurean Table (エ ピ キ ュ リ ア ン テ ー ブ ル Epikyurian Tēburu) – Dining Colosseum (コ ロ シ ア ム Koroshiamu) – Outdoor sports and health SiliconValley (シ リ コ ン バ レ ー Shirikon Barē) – Computers and the internet SilkRoad (シ ル ク ロ -ド Shiruku Rōdo) – Travel Technopolis (テ ク ノ ポ リ ス Tekunoporisu) – Science and high technology Berkeley (バ ー ク レ イ Bākurei) – Education and student life Heartland (ハ ー ト ラ ン ド Hātorando) – Family and pets Hollywood (ハ リ ウ ッ ド Hariuddo) – Films and performing arts Playtown (プ レ イ タ ウ ン Pureitaun) – Video games Broadway (ブ ロ ー ド ウ ェ イ Burōdowei) – Pop. rock music. pcmag. "Yahoo Sets the Date of GeoCities' Death" (http:/ / www. GeoCities Japan was based on Japanese culture. co. launches 4 more virtual communities linked to real places. PCMag. [4] Rao. [6] Ghost Pages: A Wired. . Retrieved on April 30. CNN. "GeoCities' time has expired. Yahoo closing the site today" (http:/ / latimesblogs. com/ 2009/ 04/ 23/ yahoo-quietly-pulls-the-plug-on-geocities/ ). which sold GeoCities-branded merchandise. Monthly Page. com/ BHI/ ad_info. Jim (1998-06-28). com/ 1999/ 01/ 28/ technology/ yahoo_a/ ). 1995. "GeoCitizens fume over watermark" (http:/ / news. cnn. Tokyo.GeoCities 302 GeoCities Marketplace In 1999 GeoCities had an online commercial presence with GeoCities Marketplace. . 1996. TechCrunch. GeoCities Japan. . 1999-01-28. July 5.[43] As of February 27.com Farewell to GeoCities (http:/ / www. Changes Name to GeoCities. and shopping Milkyway (ミ ル キ ー ウ ェ イ Mirukīwei) – Dating MotorCity (モ ー タ ー シ テ ィ Mōtā Shiti) – Automobiles and motorcycles References [1] http:/ / www. 2009. and concerts Milano (ミ ラ ノ Mirano) – Fashion.com. . GeoCities had a Japanese subsidiary. [10] " Advertising and Sponsorship Information (http:/ / web. asp). jp/ [2] "Yahoo! buys GeoCities" (http:/ / money. com/ marketing-advertising/ marketing-advertising/ 7191644-1. [3] Fox. SiliconValley. Its member sites are still accessible. Business Wire. Retrieved on May 1. . latimes. com/ GeoCitizens-fume-over-watermark/ 2100-1023_3-212596. org/ web/ 19961219234521/ www. html). . . LA Times (blog). html). [9] "Beverly Hills Internet. Thursday December 14. It included the GeoStore.[41] GeoCities Japan Prior to the takeover by Yahoo!. cnet.com.2350024. Retrieved 2010-11-05.

Retrieved on May 5. Retrieved on April 30. uk/ 1/ hi/ business/ the_company_file/ 264577. 2009. Retrieved on April 25. 2009. org/ web/ 19990209074656/ www. groups. com/ vnunet/ news/ 2241092/ yahoo-closing-geocities). 2009. html). Retrieved on May 3. org/ story/ 10/ 10/ 29/ 1847246/ Geocities-To-Be-Made-Available-As-a-900GB-Torrent) [34] Geocities The Patched Torrent (http:/ / thepiratebay. "Internet Archeology: In which the internet's sordid past is preserved and curated" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 19990202213836/ geocities. gov/ os/ decisions/ docs/ Volume127. . [15] Narasimhan. vnunet. 2009. [13] " Contact GeoCities (http:/ / web. archive. Archived from the original (http:/ / geocities. Retrieved 2010-06-05. [20] " GeoCities Closing (http:/ / www. 2009.gov (http:/ / www. 2009. Retrieved on May 3. 2009. html). com/ homestead/ homedir. Retrieved on April 30.com. com?metric=uv) [37] http:/ / www. com/ neighborhoods/ ). [26] " Jimdo's Lifeboat for GeoCities (http:/ / www. 2009. [32] Geociti. geocities. slashdot. com/ 2009/ 04/ 23/ jimdo-s-lifeboat-for-geocities).But There Are Other Options (http:/ / www. 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-03. April 30. html) on May 4. org/ 5gXDlsd8n). [27] " GeoCities Shuts It Doors and Thousands of Sites Could be Lost. February 21. php)." GeoCities. [43] " ス タ ッ フ 募 集 (http:/ / web. stm). April 30. zmogo. [41] "GeoCities Marketplace" (http:/ / web. yahoo. "A Community That Stays Together." GeoCities. archive. " The death of GeoCities (http:/ / www. "Saving a Historical Record of GeoCities" (http:/ / www. 2009. "Yahoo! moves in on GeoCities" (http:/ / news. snopes. " Yahoo! writes GeoCities' obituary (http:/ / www. [29] Tech Crunch (2009)." BBC. com/ web/ geocities-shuts-it-doors-and-thousands-of-sites-could-be-lost/ ). geocities. jp/ features/ recruit/ ). columbia. com/ main/ info/ company/ japan. jimdo. nytimes. archive. 2009. org/ web/ geocities." Retrieved on October 8. Retrieved on April 30. org/ archives/ geocitiespatch/ ) [36] GeoCities attracts almost 180m visitors online yearly (http:/ / siteanalytics." Jimdo. org/ web/ 19990220082428/ www. forbes. com/ geocities. co." GeoCities Japan. . com/ technology/ Yahoo+ abandoning+ GeoCities/ 1530841/ story. html) [22] " Yahoo pulls the plug on GeoCities (http:/ / news. February 9." (http:/ / www. gov/ os/ decisions/ docs/ Volume127. geocities. html). [18] "Data Transfer" (http:/ / tech. Retrieved on October 27. co. [40] Visit these neighborhoods (http:/ / web. 2009. com/ 2001/ 08/ 28/ 0828yahoo. Retrieved on April 30. [19] "GeoCities PLUS and WebHosting Starter" (http:/ / web. 303 . [25] D'Monte. February 9. ftc. yahoo. 2009. com/ ). [42] " Visiting GeoCities Japan (http:/ / web. geocities. Retrieved 2009-06-03. business-standard." GeoCities. Archived from the original (http:/ / help. com/ l/ us/ yahoo/ geocities/ close/ ). asp). archiveteam. Retrieved 2009-08-17. "GeoCities will close later this year. 2009. December 19. 1999. law. . "GeoCities Closing" (http:/ / help. Retrieved on April 30. org/ web/ 19990221225412/ www. GeoCities. bbc. 1999. co." Snopes. . org/ web/ 20051123234834/ http:/ / geocities.es (http:/ / geociti. archive. Rosalie. Retrieved 2009-10-20. " Yahoo closing Geocities web hosting service (http:/ / www. Yahoo! Help. April 25. yahoo. Retrieved on April 30. Retrieved on April 30. 1999-06-30. . 1996. ws). Balaji. February 3. webcitation." MID-Day. archive. 2009. 2009.ws (http:/ / geocities. com/ marketplace/ ). April 24. . com/ 2009/ 10/ 10/ internet-archaeology-in-which-the-sordid-past-of-the-internet-is-preserved-forever/ ). yahoo. 2009. com/ group/ ygcpagebuilderhelp/ message/ 29988). 1999. [21] Yahoo! abandoning GeoCities (http:/ / www. org/ torrent/ 6353395/ Geocities_-_The_PATCHED_Torrent) [35] Geocities Patch (http:/ / www. com/ lifestyle/ 2009/ apr/ 270409-Geocities-former-websites-IT-Adda-Bangalore-Yahoo-Anglefire-Tripod. 2009. [28] Internet Archive (2009). Retrieved 2010-06-05. jp/ neighborhoods/ ). es/ ) [33] Geocities To Be Made Available As a 900GB Torrent (http:/ / tech. . com/ main/ info/ company/ contact/ )." vnunet. April 24. crunchgear. Betsy (2001-08-28). archive. 2009. mid-day. April 27. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 8016211. 1999. [14] Nuttall. [31] GeoCities. [30] " Welcome to ReoCities (http:/ / reocities. htm). com/ l/ us/ yahoo/ geocities/ geocities-05." GeoCities. Retrieved on May 1. archive. geocities. 2009. stm). edu/ LIS/ archive/ webright/ geocities-changes. 1999. [44] " コ ミ ュ ニ テ ィ (http:/ / web. ftc. pdf#page=94) [39] " 29 Neighborhoods (http:/ / web. 2009. Pays Together" (http:/ / www. calgaryherald. com/ computer/ internet/ geocities. [23] Yahoo!. 2009. [24] Yahoo! (October 2009). Leslie. Forbes. Retrieved on February 22. org/ web/ 19961219233921/ www. Retrieved 2009-06-03. . archive. [17] Schiffman. com/ india/ news/ yahoo-writes-geocities-obituary/ 356196/ ). Chris (1999-01-29). yahoo. php) on 2005-11-23. html). BBC News. . Retrieved 2009-10-30.GeoCities [12] Marshall. compete. pdf#page=94 [38] FTC. com/ ps/ info3/ index. [16] "Yahoo Angers GeoCities Members With Copyright Rules" (http:/ / emoglen. php). com/ ps/ info3/ index. bbc. archive." GeoCities Japan. co. Retrieved 12 December 2009. org/ web/ 19990203203419/ www19. org/ web/ 19990209135604/ geocities." Business Standard." Reocities.

webcitation.2009) Archive at Wayback Machine (http://archive.geocities.cnet. 2000). [9] local authorities. with over 2000 registered members at May 2007. [8] therapists.yahoo. firstly on June 25.de/) (German) (most pages were disabled on 27.com/geocitiesizer/index. [5] [6] doctors. and later on November 11. 2005.[2] The site's main feature is a highly active messageboards forum.2009) Yahoo! GeoCities Germany (http://www. Gingerbeer is one of the largest and most popular social networking services for lesbian and bisexual women in the United Kingdom. [10] equality workers [11] and travel journalists. html) The Geocities-izer (http://wonder-tonic.[4] One of the distinctive features of the messageboards is that they support an active calendar of social. cultural and sporting events across the UK. when it was registered as a limited company by guarantee.com/index. up to date resource for lesbians by a wide range of sources. [12] [13] Research on the needs of black LGB communities was undertaken in 2001 by Galop. The name "Gingerbeer" (Cockney rhyming slang for "queer") refers to both the web site. Besides the messageboards. and a London guide. [16] [17] . Gingerbeer was initially launched on January 1.org/20000815052956/http://geocities. The messageboards receive approximately 10 million hits per month. so that Gingerbeer exists as both a web community and a real life community.co. The research found that LGBT internet services including Gingerbeer were used by 34% of the respondents.jp/) (Japanese) (still online & active) Yahoo! GeoCities UK And Ireland (http://uk.geocities.com/) (most pages were disabled on 27.10. Gingerbeer offers listings of bars. including universities.000 posts in over 5000 topics or discussion threads. 2001. yahoo. It is maintained and moderated entirely by a team of volunteers. [15] Gingerbeer has also been cited as a source of lesbian respondents for research on LGBT issues.com/2100-1023-227916.org/) Archive at Webcite (http://www.archive.10. and to the community which it supports.geocities.yahoo.org/archive) Yahoo! GeoCities homepage from June 2000 (http://web. clubs and community events. 2000.GeoCities 304 External links • • • • • • • • • • Yahoo! GeoCities (http://geocities. [14] a London charity which gives advice and support to LGBT people affected by homophobic hate crimes.php) Yahoo! Relents on GeoCities Terms of Service – CNET NEWS (http://news.yahoo.php) Gingerbeer (web community) Gingerbeer is a London-based virtual community for lesbian and bisexual women. Gingerbeer has been recommended as a useful.com/home/) at the Wayback Machine (archived August 15. they had logged over 335.com/) (most pages were disabled on 27. following a major redesign. [7] lawyers.[3] and in the eighteen months to the end of May 2007. with 79% finding them useful. reviews.10.yahoo. Yahoo! Canada GeoCities (http://ca. [1] and has undergone two subsequent relaunches.2009 ) Yahoo! GeoCities Japan (http://geocities. Gingerbeer became an official not-for-profit organisation in March 2004.

Gingerbeer (web community) 305 References [1] Interview with SuMay Hwang (http:/ / www. htm) [12] Damron Women's Traveller 2007. p6 [7] Gay and Lesbian Association of Doctors and Dentists (http:/ / www. uk/ Files/ Domestic-Violence-in-Lesbian-Relationships.gingerbeer. Gay. Gay men and Bisexuals talk about their experiences and needs. page 25. htm) 2007 [8] BLAGG (Bar Lesbian and Gay Group) (http:/ / www. Vol 37. gov. php?CategoryID=13) [3] Figure provided by a forum administrator. Damron. galop. co. London. gladd. founder of Gingerbeer. 31 May 2007 [14] GALOP (http:/ / www. [16] Sally Averill LLB (Hons) Barrister at Law. London's LGBT community safety charity [15] The low down. com/ downloadables/ 1cpc/ LGBT Resources. Lesbian. pdf) [10] Haringey Council (http:/ / www. Bisexual. mensadviceline. ucop. dimsum.uk) . uk/ french. and Transgender (LGBT) Study Abroad Guide (http:/ / www. html).see Forum Statistics [5] New York University. haringey. Domestic Violence within Lesbian Relationships (http:/ / www. Life in the UK (http:/ / eap. org) for barristers [9] Pink Therapy. haringey. [4] Gingerbeer message boards (http:/ / boards. gingerbeer. page 528 [13] Bay Area Reporter. doc) lesbians [11] Schools Out: Working towards equality in education for lesbian. gingerbeer. htm)'s advice to Somalian (http:/ / www. ebar. England: Europe's 'gay' capital (http:/ / www. org. GALOP. uk/ index. MSc Criminology and Criminal Justice. uk/ culture/ gingerbeer---a-womans-perspective. Black lesbians. haringey. uk/ somali. London. co. nyu. uk/ research/ contents. co. php?sec=news& article=401). uk). 2006. page 38 External links • Gingerbeer (http://www. doc) and French-speaking (http:/ / www. com/ news/ article. San Francisco. pinktherapy. pdf). gov. "How can young people be empowered to achieve justice when they experience homophobic crime?" [17] Kerry Townley. gov. Loughborough University. edu/ lgbt/ lgbtabroadguide. bisexual and trans people (http:/ / www. 2001. pdf). gay. uk). uk/ site/ women. uk/ index/ council/ how_the_council_works/ equalities/ sexual_orientation/ lgbt_directory. blagg. org. edu/ sc/ uki/ cahouse/ pdf/ LifeinUK. org. on DimSum. schools-out. org. No 22. ISBN 978-0929435596. LGBT Resources (http:/ / www. the British Chinese community website [2] Gingerbeer (http:/ / www.co. pdf) [6] University of California Education Abroad Programme.

groups. style and news sections. possibly with more of Europe affected too.com's professional networking site. the true extent is unknown. Users register and create profiles. Operations The site is free to users.Glee. generating revenues through advertising. Instant messaging. and community bulletin boards covering a variety of issues but with the added emphasis on those issues of importance to the LGBT community.com is available only in the English language and primarily the North American market with [2] approximately 86% of its users in the United States. bisexual and transgender communities. profiles might include uploaded photo albums. music players. lists of interests and friends list.video hosting. users also have the option of custom designing a profile layout. lesbian. Currently GLEE.The site was launched in February 2007 by Community Connect Inc. Community Connect operates several niche market social networking sites and GLEE is their latest venture. Other features include blog hosting.com [1] GLEE. military actively bars from joining through its Don't ask.[3] In October 2007 GLEE. 6th Floor New York. USA Owner(s) Website Community Connect Inc glee. In addition profiles are allowed a mirror on Glee.S. However.com GLEE Type Founded Social networking company 2007 Headquarters 205 Hudson Street. GLEE is modeled after the popular MySpace and Facebook offering many of the same features. A Glee. . and email is available with other registered users. the United States military. which allows for job search (through an arrangement with Monster. As with their other social network sites. Publicity GLEE.com) along with the other features found on the social network.com spokesperson purports this move was due to "spammer" activity. don't tell policy. The mainstream and LGBT press along with several comedians picked up on the gaffe of advertising to an audience that the U. with the caveat about competition from established sites and others still on the drawing board divvying up the niche market for potential LGBT users. which can include a variety of layout themes for profiles. Typically.com 306 Glee.com's launch in early 2007 received generally favorable coverage in internet focused media.com is a social networking site that is geared toward the gay.[4] [5] The advertising firm that handles the military's recruiting advertising inadventantly placed the ads on the site. as of October 2008 it is blocking countries such as the UK and Netherlands.com received free publicity from an unlikely source.

com) Mashable. From Global Village to Global Theatre No chapter in Understanding Media. The next medium. com Alexa:internet traffic report for November 07 (http:/ / www. or later books.communityconnect.[3] In bringing all social and political functions together in a sudden implosion. obsolesce mass library organization.com) • Community Connect Inc Home page (http://www. whatever it is . physical distance is even less of a hindrance to the real-time communicative activities of people. contains the idea that the Global Village and the electronic media create unified communities.[7] Similarly. from acquisition to involvement. com/ news/ nation/ 2007-10-17-gayads_N.glee.com 307 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.will include television as its content. this technology fosters the idea of a conglomerate yet unified global community. electric speed heightened human awareness of responsibility to an intense degree. from job holding to role playing. glee. usatoday.[5] Today. In fact. and will transform television into an art form. alexa. com/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 18/ the_skinny/ main3379904. in an interview with Gerald Stearn.com (http://www. com/ 2007/ 01/ 29/ glee-gay-lesbian-social-network/ ) CBSNews Military ads on Glee (http:/ / www. The Global Village is far more diverse. McLuhan starts to use the term Global Theater to emphasise the changeover from consumer to producer.[8] McLuhan says that it never occurred to him that uniformity and tranquillity were the properties of the Global Village. not as its environment.Glee.[1] popularized in his books The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962) and Understanding Media (1964). cbsnews.[4] Marshall McLuhan presupposed the internet as an "extension of consciousness" in The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man thirty years before its invention. retrieve the individual's encyclopedic function and flip into a private line to speedily tailored data of a saleable kind.com on Glee Launch (http:/ / mashable. A computer as a research and communication instrument could enhance retrieval. stressing that there is no more community to clothe the naked specialist.it may be the extension of consciousness . spread. and react to global news very rapidly. web-connected computers enable people to link their web sites together. and therefore social spheres are greatly expanded by the openness of the web and the ease at which people can search for online communities and interact with others that share the same interests and concerns. This new reality has implications for forming new sociological structures within the context of culture. After the publication of Understanding Media. McLuhan described how the globe has been contracted into a village by electric technology[2] and the instantaneous movement of information from every quarter to every point at the same time.com) Global village (term) Global Village is a term closely associated with Marshall McLuhan. McLuhan says this forces us to become more involved with one another from countries around the world and be more aware of our global responsibilities. McLuhan argued that the Global Village ensures maximal disagreement on all points because it creates more discontinuity and division and diversity under the increase of the village conditions. the term "Global Village" is mostly used as a metaphor to describe the Internet and World Wide Web.[9] .[6] Due to the enhanced speed of communication online and the ability of people to read about. On the Internet. Therefore. shtml) USA Today on Military Ads on Glee (http:/ / www. com/ data/ details/ traffic_details/ glee. htm) External links • Glee.

but there is no evidence that he got the idea or the phrasing from either. . uk/ media/ Students/ bas9401. [5] http:/ / www. 308 Notes and references [1] Wyndham Lewis's America and Cosmic Man (1948) and James Joyce's Finnegans Wake are sometimes credited as the source of the phrase. Retrieved 2008-12-30. [4] Understanding Media p6. Today not only the tangible commodities but the concepts and ideas are becoming sale-able market products. Marshall. McLuhan Studies (issue 2). 2003) p6. [2] McLuhan. html [8] Stearn. Barrington. ca/ mcluhan-studies/ v1_iss2/ 1_2art2. 1972) p265 and back cover . aber. [9] McLuhan. . 1968) p314. ac. utoronto. Letters of Marshall McLuhan. utoronto. From Take Today: The Executive as Dropout (Harcourt Brace. Source: Eric McLuhan (1996). McLuhan Hot & Cool (Penguin Books. we sell on image. McLuhan is generally credited as having coined the term. 1964. a Joyce scholar and a close friend of Lewis. htm). ca/ mcluhan/ marshal. Everything we sell. [3] McLuhan. cios. htm [6] http:/ / www. (Oxford University Press. org/ encyclopedia/ mcluhan/ m/ m. Understanding Media. Gerald Emmanuel. We don’t know how to sell products based on performance. According to McLuhan's son Eric McLuhan. likely discussed the concept with Lewis during their association. chass. "The source of the term 'global village'" (http:/ / www. Marshall and Nevitt. (Gingko Press.Global village (term) World and Global Village We are living in the age of Free Market Economy and are converting our planet into a Global Village. 1987) p254. html [7] http:/ / www. but neither used the words "Global Village" specifically. Marshall. his father.

GlobalCampus seems to be an extension or replacement for StudentMash also run by UCTV Digital Ltd References [1] GlobalCampus debuts at CASE European Annual Conference 2008 (http:/ / www. 2008 Current status public beta GlobalCampus is a new online service attempting to match prospective students to universities and degrees worldwide. Vice-Chancellor of Liverpool University. Pro Vice-Chancellor of University of Westminster[2] and Sir James Drummond Bone. case.com) . United Kingdom 10 UCTV Digital Ltd http:/ / www.com) • StudentMash Official Website (http://www. Mauritz Van Rooijen. com University selection service optional October. cfm) [2] GlobalCampus blog entry by Mauritz Van Rooijen (http:/ / www.globalcampus.GlobalCampus 309 GlobalCampus GlobalCampus Type Founded Headquarters Employees Parent Website Type of site Registration Launched Private 2008 London. History GlobalCampus was first introduced at the CASE European Annual Conference 2008[1] GlobalCampus has a board of advisors from academia including Sir Graeme Davies (Vice-Chancellor of University of London. org/ conferences/ ceac/ exlist. globalcampus. globalcampus.studentmash. com/ blog/ node/ 57) External links • GlobalCampus Official Website (http://www.

It also allows users to create their own groups of book suggestions and discussions.00.Goodreads 310 Goodreads Goodreads URL Type of site Registration Owner Created by Launched Goodreads.time.000 books added. goodreads. Goodreads received their first [4] round from angel investors. "Business. goodreads. Publishers Weekly.html) • September 27. publishersweekly. a barcode scanner was added to the Goodreads iPhone app.30583. readwriteweb. a software engineer and entrepreneur. [3] Comment 31 "Otis" (http:/ / www. html).000. Barcode_Scanner_in_iPhone_app) Barcode Scanner in iPhone app. Goodreads had reached 2. Retrieved 2007-17-09.php?leftnm=4&subLeft=2& chklogin=N&autono=299416&tab=r) (archived) • July 9. "Goodreads Raises Angel Round To Help You Find That Perfect Book". 2007.1686204_1686305_1691167. Retrieved 2011-03-20.com/time/specials/2007/ top10/article/0. "Top 10 Websites of 2007" (http://www. . com/ hack/ 2010/ 10/ goodreads-launches-social-read. 2007.archive. Retrieved 2007-17-09.[3] By January 2010. 2007 (correcting main blogpost that described 10. "The world's largest reading room" (http://web. In October 2010. The website permits individuals to sign up and register books to create their library catalogs and reading lists.com/opinionanalysis/storypage. techcoastreview. Business Standard.000 reviews).html) . techcrunch. Dec. com/ 2007/ 12/ good-reads-book-nerds-social-networking. TechCrunch. techcrunch. Time Magazine.[6] In January 2011. com/ portfolio/ ) Our portfolio [6] ReadWrite (http:/ / www. The first year of the company was run without any formal funding. trueventures. In December 2007. Pleasure Mix on Book Networking Sites" (http://www. [5] True Ventures (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 12/ 17/ goodreads-raises-angel-round-to-help-you-find-that-perfect-book/ ).[7] Footnotes [1] http:/ / www. the company opened its API enabling developers to access to its ratings and titles. com [2] TechCoastReview (http:/ / www.000. 2007.000 members and 78. the site had over 650.900. php) Goodreads Launches Social Reading API [7] Goodreads blog (http:/ / www. In December 2007.com [1] Catalog and community Free Otis Chandler Otis Chandler December 2006 Current status Active Goodreads is a privately run "social cataloging" website started in December 2006 by Otis Chandler. com/ 2007/ 12/ 17/ goodreads-raises-angel-round-to-help-you-find-that-perfect-book/ #comment-1853293). References • December 11. estimated at $750. 18th.000. The company raised additional funding from True Ventures in [5] 2009. [4] TechCrunch (http:/ / www.000 books added.com/article/CA6458174.org/web/ 20071021053817/http://business-standard. com/ blog/ show/ 263.000 members[2] and over 10.

.com) .goodreads.csmonitor.uk/opinion/ story/0.html) 311 External links • Goodreads official site (http://www.00. "Peer-to-peer book reviews fill a niche" (http://www. 2007.html) • June 15. "It's a new online chapter for books" (http://technology.2107361.Goodreads • June 21.guardian. The Christian Science Monitor.co. com/2007/0615/p11s02-bogn. 2007. The Guardian.

Contextual ads.000 members in its first 6 months of existence. evolving to a meeting management platform offering meeting-oriented tools. Meeting services that focuses on guidance and coaching based on personality plays is also an attraction. share thoughts and comments on a wall. French. The outcome is that most people find it hard to connect and get to know people online. goodwizz. and send them virtual gifts. com 214. Goodwizz allow users to post and upload pictures and videos. Founder http:/ / www. Sponsorships Required 15. Originally launched with a matchmaking algorithm and personality games developed with psychologists. Arab. Features Like most social networking service.[6] Today.[7] Applications that provide service like online radio. credentials to signup and log on to Goodwizz. classifieds.Goodwizz 312 Goodwizz Goodwizz Type Founded Headquarters Key people Website Alexa rank Type of site Advertising Registration Users Available in Launched Private 2010 Paris. Deutsch. focusing on guidance. . [5] Goodwizz was a result from a market study with the cooperation of 200 people.000 (March 2011) Unique Visitors [3] English. photo editing. Spanish.214 (March 2011) [1] [2] Online dating service. Chinese. invite friends. Social network service Banner ads. France Emmanuel Cassimatis. Portuguese September 2010 Current status active Goodwizz is a social network service website based in France. It has its own personality games and external games from Facebook. Goodwizz extended steadily the range of proposed functionalities. psychic services and many others. Goodwizz also offers a mobile phone version of its website. It developed a unique matchmaking system that suggests particular users to members with common interests and compatible personal feature. The study was able to find ways on how to connect to other users by means of genuine connections. [4] Users have an option to use their Facebook History In September 2010 Emmanuel Cassimatis started and gathered 75.

com/) . com/ adplanner/ planning/ site_profile#siteDetails?identifier=goodwizz. net/ news/ 5853947-goodwizz-com-le-premier-site-de-rencontres-2-0 External links • Goodwizz Website (http://www.Goodwizz 313 See Also • List of Social Networking Websites References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. com& geo=001& trait_type=1& lp=true http:/ / www. aufeminin. com/ gene/ main. buffalonews. commentcamarche. alexa. google. com/ http:/ / www.goodwizz. goodwizz. com# https:/ / www. php?langue=uk& base=12& id_news=1982 http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. edhecalumni. com/ business/ prospectus/ banking/ article322944. com/ mieuxvivre/ goodwizz-goodwizz-com-site-web-se-rencontrer-rencontres-celibataire-celibat-n63220. com/ siteinfo/ goodwizz. ece http:/ / www.

FM Towns. Habitat was not a 3D environment and did not incorporate [2] immersion techniques. Quantum Link. Fujitsu Habitat. The Habitat had a GUI and large . as a "graphical MUD" it is considered a forerunner of the modern MMORPGs.e.[1] who were given a "First Penguin Award" at the 2001 Game Developers Choice Awards for this innovative work. 8 MB RAM. and it was quite unlike other online communities of the time (i. Developer(s) Publisher(s) Producer(s) Designer(s) Platform(s) Release date(s) Lucasfilm Games. While not VR (virtual reality). Robinett 1994) that was graphically based. MUDs and MOOs with text-based interfaces).Habitat (video game) 314 Habitat (video game) Lucasfilm's Habitat. Randy Farmer. and many others Commodore 64. Fujitsu Quantum Link. All: Modem or Internet access Lucasfilm's Habitat was an early and technologically influential online role-playing game developed by Lucasfilm Games and made available as a beta test in 1986 by Quantum Link. which are more similar to VR-style applications. Fujitsu Steve Arnold Chip Morningstar. WorldsAway:Intel 486 CPU. WorldsAway. an online service for the Commodore 64 computer and the corporate progenitor to America Online. and was the first attempt at a large-scale commercial virtual community (Morningstar and Farmer 1990. and others. It was initially created in 1985 by Randy Farmer and Chip Morningstar. Qlink's Club Caribe. Dreamscape: DirectX 5. Microsoft Windows • • • • NA NA JP Habitat (Beta): Q2 1986 Club Caribe: Q3 1988 WorldsAway: Q3 1994 NA Fujitsu Habitat: Q3 1990 Genre(s) Mode(s) Rating(s) Media/distribution MMORPG Virtual World Avatar Multiplayer ESRB: Teen Floppy Disk CD System requirements Habitat and Club Caribe:Commodore 64 or FM Towns.

The client software provides the user interface. and interact with one another. especially if they are working in a virgin environment uninfluenced by the works and reactions of other designers".com (who later became Avaterra. The users were responsible for laws and acceptable behavior within the Habitat. As of 2010 WorldsAway's flagship world known as the Dreamscape has survived independently as one of the VZones. for example) was launched for general release as Club Caribe on Quantum Link in January 1988. With this outlook Morningstar and Farmer stated that a developer should consider providing a variety of possible experiences within the cyberspace. and an elaborated and evolved version launched in Japan as Fujitsu Habitat in 1990. Creation One challenge in producing games is to resist the "conceit that all things may be planned in advance and then directly implemented according to the plan's detailed specification". communicating via modem and telephone over a commercial packet-switching network to a centralized. Inc) stepped up and bought the licensing rights and took over the reins. As CompuServe morphed into AOL's "value brand. 315 Culture Habitat is "a multi-participant online virtual environment. purely existential activities (socializing with other members). The best method to manage and maintain such an immense project.owned by Stratagem Corporation. truly drove cyberspace.e. they've . generating a real-time animated display of what is going on and translating input from the player into messages to the host.Habitat (video game) userbase of consumer-oriented users. Each participant ("player") uses a home computer (Commodore 64) as an intelligent. speak (through onscreen text output from the users). mainframe host system. Lucasfilm licensed the technology underlying Habitat and Club Caribe to Fujitsu in 1989. after which it was closed down at the end of the pilot run. They generalized this well by pointing out that "even [the most] imaginative people are limited in the range of variation that they can produce. which led to rules and regulations (and authority avatars) to maintain order." a cyberspace." Fujitsu sought to sell off its product as they were making a loss.[3] [4] meaning that individual users had a third-person perspective of themselves. The host maintains the system's world model enforcing the rules and keeping each player's client informed about the constantly changing state of the universe. The players in the same region (denoted by all objects and elements shown on a particular screen) could see. and those elements in particular have made the Habitat a much-cited project and acknowledged benchmark for the design of today's online communities that incorporate accelerated 3D computer graphics and immersive elements into their environments.com worlds . since they felt that interaction. this led to chaos within the Habitat. Initially. Fujitsu later bought the technology outright. Inworlds. A sized-down incarnation but with vastly improved graphics (avatars became equipped with facial expressions. Morningstar and Farmer argues that this mentality only leads to failure as the potential capabilities and imagination of a game would remain confined within the small niche of developers. Interesting notes about Habitat was that it was self-governed by its citizenry. Timeline Lucasfilm's Habitat ran from 1986[3] to 1988. and an even more sophisticated system was relaunched on CompuServe in 1995 as WorldsAway. The only off-limits portions were those concerning the underlying software constructs and physical components of the system. and could even be robbed or "killed" by other avatars.[4] Avatars had to barter for resources within the Habitat. ranging from events with established rules and goals (i. hunts) to activities propelled by the user's own motivations (entrepreneur) to completely free-form. (Farmer 1993) Users in the virtual world were represented by onscreen avatars. interactive client. Seducity and Datylus. Other WorldsAway worlds using the same client/server software have since been launched by Stratagem: newHorizone. The authors of Habitat were greatly concerned with allowing the broadest range of interaction possible. thus making the environment rather videogame-like in nature. not technology or information.

eddcoates.. (Wardrip-Fruin. In summary.” Computer Graphics. “Interactivity and Individual Viewpoint in Shard Virtual Worlds: The Big Screen vs.. Austin. David (Winter 1986). pp. com/ wired/ archive/ 4. The user not need to be aware of how data are encoded in the application. 663–677. The New Media Reader. R.htm) • Playing Catch Up: Habitat's Chip Morningstar and Randy Farmer (http://gamasutra. 28(2). TX. 06/ avatar. Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games. 2003. This is described as a 2D graphical MUD [. 291. com/ chip/ lessons.Habitat (video game) discovered. R. University Of Chicago Press. Tokyo. or the "reality" of the world). "[. eds. W.] established Habitat as a result. php?story=11232) • VZN's guide to Club Caribe (http://vzn. which the operators are free to explore.atarimagazines. the authors note the importance of separation between the access levels of the designer and the operator.com/amdmmog/ week1/) • Farmer. Metaworlds (http:/ / www. crockford. [2] Castronova.crockford. Hispanic Engineer & IT (Career Communications Group) 2 (5): 50–54. "Lucasfilm's Habitat" pp. (1993). The First International Conference on Cyberspace. They classify the two coexisting virtuality as the "infrastructure level" (implementation of the cyberspace. was to simply to let the people drive the direction of design and aid them in achieving their desires. html?pg=3). fudco. C.” Virtual Realities: An Anthology of Industry and Culture.com/clubcaribe/) Screenshots and comparisons to the modern version of habitat. "Between Here and Interactivity". the owners became the facilitators as much as designers and implementers Regardless. Gijutsu Hyoron Sha. Retrieved 2008-02-26. Farmer (1990) "The Lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat" (http:/ / www..]" [3] Lytel.gamespy.com/php-bin/news_index. ed. Electric Communities (http://www. wired. Randall Farmer (Fall 1988). Japan (http://www. This naturally follows from the good programming practice of encapsulation. and F. Edward (2006).com/compute/issue77/habitat. . Networked Personal Displays.. • COMPUTE! magazine article about Habitat from COMPUTE! ISSUE 77 / OCTOBER 1986 / PAGE 32 (http:// www. [4] Morningstar. 127 External links • Alternate Reality: The history of massively multiplayer online games.html) • History and screen shots of the original Habitat (http://www. Loeffler.com/ec/citizenry.dsgames. which the creators should only control. (1994).php) . “Social Dimensions of Habitat's Citizenry. F. Wired.net/qlink/habitat/pictures1. Vzones • Wardrip-Fruin. ISSN 1088-3452. (http://archive. ISBN 0226096270.html) • “Habitat Anecdotes and other boastings” by F. html).. and the "experiential level" (visual and interactive feature for users). 670-672) 316 References [1] Robert Rossney (June 1996).com/ec/anecdotes. Noah and Nick Montfort. USA • Robinett. Cambridge: MIT Press. C. ISBN 0-262-23227-8.

Participation on HealthBoards requires free registration. but cannot post messages. The site is unique in that it is purely a health community site. By 2000. Simmons turned to the Web for answers and support. In 1997. org/ . iVillage. External links • HealthBoards. after experiencing a variety of symptoms for which doctors had no explanation.). Operation On HealthBoards all health topics are given individual message boards. Due to the extremely tight control that the moderators keep over the board people are often unable to get the full picture of available resources as they ban anyone who submits links to outside resources or tries to exchange emails so they may speak in private. Anonymous posting is not allowed.HealthBoards 317 HealthBoards HealthBoards is a long-running support group website consisting of over 150 Internet message boards for peer to peer health support (also referred to as a virtual community or online health community). he decided to develop a health support site covering a wide range of health topics. webmd. each relating to a specific question or comment initiated by a HealthBoards user. Since then.HealthBoards co-branded site [2] • Consumer Reports HealthRatings. the site had grown to over 90 boards. etc. When he did not find online support groups in the areas he needed. After a year of development. unlike other established health communities on the Web which have generally been part of large web portals (WebMD.org top 20 health information websites [3] References [1] http:/ / www. HealthBoards is currently ranked in the top 20. Any information that the moderators disagree with is censored and made unavailable for members to view and decide about themselves. As of June 2006 the site received over 2. healthboards. The boards are moderated by a large staff of mostly volunteers. com/ [2] http:/ / healthboards. In 2004 HealthBoards established a partnership with WebMD to provide additional health content and advertising support for HealthBoards.com [1] • WebMD . healthratings. the site has experienced steady growth. com/ [3] http:/ / www. Yahoo. History HealthBoards was founded by site owner and current President/CEO Chuck Simmons. Users who register must supply an email address and login name.000 websites worldwide in terms of traffic by Alexa. There are numerous complaints around the internet about the behavior of the site staff and the draconian and misapplied moderation. Users who violate the participation policy are temporarily banned from using the site.3 million messages posted by over 250. Each message board typically contains thousands of discussion threads. Users who are not registered may still view all the contents of the message boards. Repeat violations usually result in a permanent ban.000 registered members. the site launched with 70 message boards.

[4] HeiaHeia allows people to "check-in" to do over 350 different sports and activities and more are added by administrators as they are requested. Whilst all the "usual" types of sport and exercise are represented. snow shoveling reached a top 10 spot in 9 different countries in the winter of 2010/11. ece http:/ / blog. It was launched in December 2009 by Olli Oksanen. HeiaHeia has users in 134 different countries with over 40. Heia! Heia! in Norwegian and Heja! Heja! in Swedish) is a sports and exercise related social networking website developed in Finland. which has influenced the look and feel of the service. HeiaHeia allows users to support and encourage their friends to do sports and exercise. fi/ taustat/ apaja/ article496667.[3] The idea behind HeiaHeia is to promote participation in sports and exercise and thus improving global wellbeing. Oksanen and Kuznetsov left Nokia to found the new company. Users see what other people in their network have done and what they have achieved. It is geared towards people who are not elite athletes and thus stand to gain most out of community encouragement. colleagues and sports team members. com Yes Social network service Required Mooze Oy (Ltd) Current status Active HeiaHeia (derived from a Scandinavian sporting chant. fi/ elintavat/ 2010122912925100_el. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.com/) . Users create their own network of friends.heiaheia.HeiaHeia 318 HeiaHeia HeiaHeia URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Owner http:/ / www. Jussi Räisänen and Ivan Kuznetsov. HeiaHeia users logged over 1.[5] Features HeiaHeia allows people to take control of their exercise planning. iltalehti. arcticstartup.000 exercises in the first 370 days of operation. heiaheia. For example. heiaheia.[2] More than half of HeiaHeia users are female.000 users in Finland alone. shtml http:/ / www. motivation and targets.[1] As of January 2010. shtml External links • HeiaHeia (http://www. HeiaHeia users can also choose to count other activities that provide exercise. fi/ elintavat/ 2010122912924692_el. HeiaHeia sells services for companies and sports teams as well. com/ 2010/ 12/ 22/ heiaheia-logs-one-million-exercises-in-their-first-year http:/ / www. family. iltalehti. tietoviikko.000. com http:/ / www.

com 319 Helium. the ones who rate are the writers. there is a "Fact Checking Team" which fact checks articles which are flagged by people who visit or are members of the site. Inc. Type Industry Founded Privately held corporation Internet information providers 2006 Headquarters Andover.[4] [5] Site methodology Members write articles on the Helium site in return for a share of the site's revenue (see below). and are vetted for quality.000 in October 2006 to 100. Articles are arranged by categories and sub-categories ('Channels'). This process is repeated until all the articles in a title have been ranked in order (although each rater is shown only a couple of "rating pairs" per topic to ensure a spread of raters within a title). it must be submitted for approval by Helium staff or member of the Editorial Advisory Board (EAB) before it appears live on the site. user ratings determine the rank of an article. In this case.com's rank increased significantly during 2008-2010 and is now consistently better than 1300 internationally and better than 500 nationally as of September 2010. two articles from a title are presented side by side. Articles written to existing or new titles are run through Helium's Editorial Advisory Board team. User generated content in a given title is rated up or down by other writers in a form of peer review system. which is carried out by Helium members. and visitors can read these articles for free. User generated content www.000 in February 2008. it is now possible to simply propose a new title. Articles within a title appear in ranked order. If a writer creates a new title. When rating. New titles can be created by a Helium staff member or by a writer. For instance. however. The ranking is achieved by the rating process.Helium. Massachusetts. Although. is a website where active writers are paid for contributing articles. In turn. The process is anonymous to avoid bias. Essays and Satire ('Leaf Channels'). writers had to write the first article when submitting a new title.com Helium. As with social news sites like Digg or Reddit. . In the past. Creative Writing ('Base Channel') has sub-topics such as Drama. New Article Review System (NARS). high-rated [2] articles receive more page views and earn more money for writers. USA Products Website Citizen journalism. According to Alexa's website global traffic rankings. Each writer can submit only one article to any one Title. and members are asked to vote for the better article.com.helium. Articles are grouped into topics (called 'Titles'). they may subsequently be removed if flagged as inappropriate.com [1] Helium.com. and multiple articles exist and compete in most topics. however. Inc. Helium. Additionally.[3] The site's number of users has grown from over 5.

This improves earnings but is labour intensive as each article must be promoted individually to have a significant effect.com and the best essays would get featured on the TV show. This has led to many lively debates on the topic. however the formula is not disclosed. Earnings vary considerably depending on the Channels and Titles chosen. Writers are encouraged to promote their work by writing blogs linking to Helium. . Helium writers who perform better than this may have hundreds of articles on the site. Writers can also win prizes varying from $10 to $60 in Helium contests. the rating process is repeated. The National Press Club allows the best citizen journalists among Helium's writers to apply for membership. It is a key prerequisite for members to perform at least 10 rates per thirty days at a good quality standard in order to earn income on Helium.[6] The rating algorithm is confidential to Helium. and/or have considerable success in contests and the Marketplace (see below). Writing stars are essential to qualify for additional benefits such as upfront payments or the right to compete in some contests. and/or promote their work heavily elsewhere. The average article earns between 5 and 20 cents per month.[8] Another example is the TV show Foreign Exchange with Fareed Zakaria where viewers could submit essays to Helium. There is a flagging system which enables contributors to report plagiarism and otherwise poor articles.Helium. Revenue Helium earns income through Adsense and pays a share of the ad revenue earned by each article to the writer of that article. The sum paid to the writer is claimed to also include an amount based on the rank of their article and the page views. The actual income earned by the article and the percentage share paid to the writer is also not disclosed. 320 Writer's social network Helium has released in beta as of March 2009 a range of social networking features for its members. promotions or Marketplace. including the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting and National Press Club (USA). Members can discuss and share in groups and forums. but this has since expired. meaning that members are given only general guidance on what constitutes "good quality". Partnerships Helium has entered into partnerships with a number of non-profit organizations. The Pulitzer Center is sponsor of "Global Issues/Citizen Voices essay contest"[7] aiming at engaging citizen journalists in what the center considers underreported issues. or posting links on MySpace. forums. Writers earn writing stars according to the number of articles they have written and their rank. Income earned by articles from writers who do not have a rating star is distributed to other members. Reportedly. Contest winners are determined by ratings. it is the first time in the National Press Club's 100-year history that it has made outreach to a non-traditional news outlet. social bookmarking sites etc.com Each time a new article is posted to a title. Writers with writing stars can qualify for upfront payments for their articles (depending on the number of stars they have). Revenue share is paid to a writer only on days when he/she has a minimum of one rating star. They can send in-site emails to each other. Members can make friends and follow the Helium activities of their friends. which requires either 10 "quality" rates within the last 30 days or 30 "quality" rates within the last 90 days. Facebook. and may be changed at any time.

to the current 400 words. Its original format was similar to Yahoo! Answers.Helium. and articles ranked in the 20's or 30's have often been chosen. an article cannot be deleted by the writer). The minimum payout is $25.com. informative answers (the minimum word count was 100 words). the work needed to maintain income is very minimal). it is deleted from Helium. Helium itself felt it was superior to Yahoo! Answers and pitched itself more as an alternative to Wikipedia. debates and creative writing. The writer is notified of this purchase and the fee paid into their account. where the publisher chooses their preferred article. Poor quality and too-short articles are being culled from the site in huge numbers. In the last two years. For writers. Income is no longer truly passive. Some early contributors have seen most of their articles (which they expected to earn for years). they can purchase reprint rights to it. Helium takes a commission on all sales which is reportedly outperforming their ad revenue. deleted. A Site Steward is appointed for each Channel. There is a strong move towards quality. Helium takes a commission but passes the majority of the fee to the writer. Writers now need to achieve and maintain writing and rating stars to benefit from the full range of rewards available on the site. Helium's marketing focussed on the opportunity to earn passive income in perpetuity (once posted. Whole Titles which have failed to produce earnings have been deleted. even though by that time. focussing on developing a community of writers and facilitating the sale of their articles on Marketplace and elsewhere. All this has resulted in major changes for members. Helium has the right to make all these changes without consulting their members. If a Helium partner publisher likes an existing article on Helium.com Writers who achieve certain minimum standards can also compete to sell articles to publishers in the Marketplace section. Under its terms and conditions. payment requests must have been made by 23:59 GMT on the 4th. These articles are not visible on the public Helium website. The minimum word count has increased. To be paid by the 10th of the month. 321 History Beginning life as HeliumKnowledge. The final income opportunity is stock sales. The key difference to Yahoo! Answers was that the answers were ranked ('rated') by fellow members according to the value and quality of the information. whose job it is to monitor the Channel for quality and mentor writers. The site now relies heavily on members who work for a small fee or on a volunteer basis. Helium. (although at this point. Helium appears to have changed direction. All payments are made via PayPal. . The unsuccessful articles are then transitioned to the main Helium site. If an article is sold in Marketplace. a large proportion of articles on the site was devoted to personal memoirs. from 100 words to 200 words and finally. however it has understandably caused some backlash from disgruntled contributors. with contributors answering questions with short. Ratings are less relevant in the Marketplace section.com was launched in October 2006. usually for $5. Article reviewers work on the culling of unwanted articles (see above).[9] This marketing approach persisted into 2007.

. Retrieved 2007-05-24. helium. org/ web/ 20070511004338/ http:/ / corp. searchenginejournal. html). . com/ About/ about. 2007 [14] http:/ / www.About" (http:/ / web.Business Wire. html). htm [12] Seacoast Online (http:/ / www. .Helium. [7] "BBC World News . com/ 8301-10784_3-9869718-7. Wednesday July 25. . "The Pundit Economy.26 Mar 2008" (http:/ / www. • Forrest. Jacqueline (2008-05-01). Chris "Taming Internet Flamers and Attracting Adults to Boot. BetaNews. com/ stars-and-badges#Rating). [13] Forbes. alexa. Can a vegetable be sexy? Yep. [5] Olsen.Official site. com+ floats+ blog-rating+ site). aspx) on 2007-05-11. 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-19. archive. . [4] Noyes. com/ article/ Crossplatform_Ruby_on_Rails_gets_SaaS_management_tool_set/ 1209660142). Jesse (October 12. . com/ usnews/ news/ articles/ 070610/ 18flaming. 2007. July 26. com [2] "Helium. com/ watch?v=a_wgaGcHz8I). com). New user sites find ways to add civility to the cacophony" US News [11] US News & World Report Sunday June 10.+ Helium. Boston Herald Business Reporter. news.Helium. [6] "Helium Stars and Badges . youtube.com (