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Success in Business
Published by Martin Books Pty Ltd ACN 112 719 052 20 Blackwoods Road Boat Harbour NSW 2484 Australia Tel: (61 2) 6679 1051 Fax: (61 2) 6679 1535 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.martinbooks.com.au
Copyright 2002-2007 Martin Books All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher National Library of Australia Cataloguing- in-Publication entry: Overton, Rodney Managing Human Resources ISBN 978-1-921360-44-2
First published 2002 in soft cover eBOOK version September 2007
The writer - Rodney Overton
is an international award winning writer (published in four languages) of more than twenty-five popular business skills ‘how-to’ books covering a wide range of business, human resources, management, planning and sales and marketing topics. Publishers in a number of overseas countries produce and distribute localised versions of these books. He works as business consultant and strategist and has wide experience in facilitating, writing and developing business training courses.
Martin Books have a combined range of more than 100 books, CD ROMs and Training Facilitators Manuals available, covering areas of business such as Administration, Planning, Finance, Human Resources, Management, Marketing, Sales and Small Business. We also have a Training Facilitators Manual available for a training course titled HUMAN RESOURCES. Our books are distributed and published in three languages in a number of overseas countries.
A recent and highly publicised case of a major retail chain hiring a new CEO was followed a short time after by news of major retrenchments by the new CEO! This book is intended as an aid for those who wish to study and learn the basics of Human Resources and to act as a prompt for those wishing to write their own Human Resources manual . To do this successfully of course involves motivation and making people feel that they are an important part of the business. covering areas of business such as Business Administration.our customer list reads like a who’s who of Australian business.their people. Human Resources. Our books are distributed and published in three languages in a number of overseas countries. Successful Human Resources involves many stages from recruitment to induction. Finance. Sales and Small Business. Management. Business Planning.from the novice small business operator to Human Resource professionals. We also have a Training Facilitators Manual available on this topic. CD ROMs and Training Facilitators Manuals available. maximising the potential of your people is of paramount importance in business. We currently have a combined range of more than 100 books. Many organisations fail to harness and utilise their most valuable and potentially their most lucrative resource . training and ideally promotion to mention but a few stages. Marketing. comments and suggestions. The business press on almost a daily basis gives coverage to the latest round of retrenchments which often fly in the face of sound Human Resource management. We welcome your feedback. special thanks to all those people who have purchased our books . Rodney Overton September 2007 email@example.com not the most difficult. Finally. Increasingly in many cases the only difference between companies selling similar products or services at almost identical prices and identical trading terms is their people. Thus.com . Many people would agree that Human Resources Management is one of the most difficult tasks in operating a business . More than ever the management of Human Resources in any organisation is a key success factor.Foreword This book is an enlarged and vastly revised version of a similar and very popular title which was first published in 1994 with subsequent numerous reprints.
..............................................................................................................40 • Communication.......................................................................................................................... 43 • Organisational structure.........................................................................52 • Crisis Management...............3 • Human Resources Planning and Development (HRPD)..............................2 • The role of the Human Resources Manager..................37 • How to keep your staff interested..........................P............. 47 • Executing change....................................34......................................................................................46 • Managing change.........................27 • Body language........................................................ 11 • Components of Human Resources...... 38 3 Organisations and people...................... 33 • Planning for and managing replacement and restaffing.................................................................................... 35 • Why do people fail?.....................................................................................................................56 • An employee handbook ..................................... 12-16 2 Recruitment........................................................................................41 • Six steps to managing your career.........................47 • Work cultures...............................................................................................54 • Some Peter Principles Occupational Health & Safety........................................................................................22-23 • The interview process.................26 • A 10 step hiring process................................................................................50.................... 49 • Company culture............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................59 • Creative negotiation........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 • What should staff contribute to the business?......................................... 20 • Writing a Job Description......... 24 • Some interview questions..........................................................................................................................30 • A press release .....................................................................................1 • What is Human Resources?...................................25 • How to interview.................................................................................................Table of contents 1 Human Resource Planning and Development (H...... 17 • Staff recruitment......................................39 • Mission statements............................... 6-8 • An organisation and its stakeholders......................55 • Discrimination.............................................................................................18 • Basic requirements for recruitment...........32 • Internal integration..................................................31 • Induction of new staff........36 • Disengagement interviews.....................................................new personnel..................................... Induction and Integration................................................................................21 • How to recruit and keep the best staff..44 • Typology of organisations.........19 • Steps in the recruitment process....R...............................................57 • Code of conduct........ 4 • Human Resource Policies..................................58 • Negotiation.....................29 • An Interview Evaluation...........5 • Steps in the Human Resources process...............................................9 • The politics of Human Resources................................................... 51 • Cultural attributes.........)...28 • Salary packages........................................................................ 42 • Meetings.............................................................................D............................................. 53 • Downsizing......................................................60 ...45 • Bureaucracy..........
...................................75 • Motivation and needs...............105 • Personality traits.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................78 • Determinants of behaviour................................................................81 • Stress and work......................................................84 • Leadership quiz.....................................................................................................• • • • The process of negotiation................... 108 • Are you a people person?...................................................73........85 5 Training and Evaluation.......................61 The negotiation conference.....................................77 • The people working for you will expect.......................93 • A Rating Form for Management................................................................................................................................................90 • Setting personal goals and objectives................................................................................ 63 My Job ...........................................................96 • The changing world of work....................... 79 • Productivity and motivation...........................................97 • Economies of scale.................................................................................65 • Leadership ...... 83 • Retaining scarce talent....................................................................................................................................................................................106 • Some euphemistic translations................. 92 • A Performance Review...................................................................86 • Competency Based Training.. 111 Index........................................87 • Recognition of Prior Learning....................................... 72 • Motivation..............94 6 Case Studies.............................................104 • Determinants of personality.............. 95 • An efficient office............................................76 • Motivation by shareholding..........................91 • Staff Appraisals................109 • Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews................................................101 • Interstate branches............. 98 • Community obligations and charities..................... 102 • some people adages..................................................................................................................................................... 103 • Personality attributes................................................................69 • Future vision.......................70 • Leading a team..................................................My Role....................................................................................................110.... Empowerment............... 74 • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.....................................100 • Some acronyms.................................................................................................................62 Questions..107 • Rating your manager............................................................89 • Evaluating personal strengths ................................82 • What attributes do you require to be a workaholic?............................................................................................. 66-69 • Empowerment...........................................................................................................99 • State sales administration.....................................................................112 .................................................................................... 64 4 Leadership and Motivation...96 • Human Resources check list........................................................................................................ 88 • Training Needs Analysis.......................................................................................................................................................................................80 • Does your workplace suffer morale problems?...........................
1 Human Resource Planning and Development .
The greatest resource / asset of any business is its people. Their people are complaining to each other about the reserved car spaces for management. and what they carry around in their heads.is readily acknowledged as the greatest resource that any organisation possesses. the management of people is arguably the most difficult aspect of any business and the cause of many problems. Your most precious possession is not your financial assets. bad blood. special toilets for staff and exclusive management dining rooms. develop and motivate a team to produce defined results. (to save the managers from having to walk an extra few metres). However.Managing Human Resources What is Human Resources? Human Resources (HR) . Your most precious possession is the people you have working there. out of all the countless tasks in the management of your business operation. HR Managers have a responsibility to recruit. Many organisations have no reserved car spaces. The management of many organisations are proud to boast about their good Human Resource policies while at the same time they have their people offside. and their ability to work together. Conversely many very successful organisations claim a major reason for their success is their people. arguments. Human Resource managers should constantly ask themselves. Robert Reich 2 . Human Resource issues can lead to tension. “Why would someone want to come and work in this organisation?” Can you gain more from your people by empowering them? Can you increase the ability of your people to achieve by enhancing their self-esteem and improving their skill set? A well established definition of Human Resources is: Human Resources Management should be running their companies so people get more satisfaction from their work. cliques and them and us mentalities. disputes.the people employed by an organisation and the use of their skills in that organisation . Those who arrive at work first get to choose their car spot.
• Be responsible for evaluating and comparing the performance of employees / staff. Staffing. • Convene Human Resources meetings. • Be responsible for Planning. • Contribute to work force morale. 3 . • Be responsible for hiring and training employees / staff. • Establish methods for reviewing performance. • Be responsible for providing job descriptions. • Provide and encourage a motivational environment. Directing and Controlling in the Human Resources area.1-Human Resource Planning and Development The Role of the Human Resources Manager An effective Human Resources Manager may be responsible for all of these areas. and many others as well: • Understanding the needs and requirements of management and the organisation. • Be a spokesperson and figurehead for the organisation in Human Resource matters. • Co-ordinate other Human Resources functions. • Establish quantitative control standards.
the same person spoke with some degree of pride and achievement about the ‘100 people I have fired in the last 3 years’. This particular M. always took great pride in claiming (usually after the second round at the local bar) that he was the possessor of high levels of ‘people skills’.Managing Human Resources Human Resource Planning and Development (HRPD) Any company controls a portfolio of the most powerful tools for changing behaviour. However when the phrase ‘Human Resources’ was introduced into the conversation his response was.D. ‘What’s that?’ Interestingly. It is in the best interests of both the individual and the organisation to have a healthy organisation that can provide opportunities for growth. Some organisational goals in the management of Human Resources: Productivity Promotability Innovation and flexibility Special skills Can management define what behaviours it wants in order to accomplish certain goals? Without such a specification we will not accomplish very much! There can be little growth and development for employees at any level in a sick and stagnant organisation.a true story In our recent experience we encountered the Managing Director of an organisation employing around 50 people. after the next round of drinks. What’s that? . Pay Promotion Training Job rotation Cross functional assignment Performance evaluation Supervision All of these areas are strong tools to modify behaviour. 4 .
including: • Security of employment • Conditions of employment • Remuneration Pay scales and methods Pay arrangements Compensation and benefits Incentive schemes Superannuation policy and arrangements Performance-based remuneration Incentive programs • Retirement policy. terms and conditions • Health and safety of employees • Equal opportunity and affirmative action • Promotions and transfers • Discipline procedures • Grievance procedures • Absenteeism policies and procedures • Training and development of employees • Recruitment procedures and standards 5 .1-Human Resource Planning and Development Human Resource Policies A variety of policies relating to the human resources of the organisation need to be developed and monitored.
Managing Human Resources
Steps in the Human Resources process
RECRUITMENT of staff using a job description and specification. TRAINING and INDUCTION of staff to acceptable levels. ASSIGNING of staff to a job or area with specific responsibilities, goals, objectives and targets. MOTIVATION of staff to achieve goals, objectives and targets. FORECASTING, MEASURING, COMPARING Forecasting future Human Resources requirements. Review and evaluation of staff performance against goals, objectives and targets. REVIEW and EVALUATION of staff performance for advancement and promotion and for setting levels of remuneration Human Resources involves a number of functions in areas including: SELECTION and PLACEMENT • Forecasting future staffing needs • Recruiting staff • Handling redundancies, retirements and termination's of employment • Relocating employees to other positions or locations TRAINING and DEVELOPMENT • Inducting new recruits to the organisation • Training and developing new employees • Determining the future competencies and skill mix required by the organisation • Training employees to meet current and future needs CAREER DEVELOPMENT • Ensuring that employees develop new skills • Ensuring that employees are challenged in their jobs • Maintaining and monitoring performance appraisal systems • Maintaining an up-to-date succession plan, particularly for key positions within the organisation LEGISLATION • Making required government returns, such as fringe benefits tax and equal opportunity reporting. • Ensuring and monitoring conformity with all employment legislation such as health and safety and equal opportunity.
1-Human Resource Planning and Development
POLICY FORMATION • A variety of policies relating to the human resources of the organisation need to be developed and monitored, including: • Security of employment • Conditions of employment • Pay scales and methods • Retirement policy, terms and conditions • Health and safety of employees • Equal opportunity and affirmative action • Promotions and transfers • Remuneration • Discipline procedures • Grievance procedures • Absenteeism policies and procedures • Training and development of employees • Recruitment procedures and standards EMPLOYEE RELATIONS • Negotiating and liaising with unions, employee representatives and employees on such areas as: • Legislative matters • Workforce restructuring • Industrial democracy • Enterprise bargaining • Pay awards • Employment contracts EMPLOYEE WELFARE • Ensuring the health, safety and welfare of all employees through organising or monitoring such things as: • Conditions of work • Provision of specialist crisis counselling, such as alcohol or drug abuse • Confidentiality of personal employee details REMUNERATION • Pay arrangements • Compensation and benefits • Incentive schemes • Superannuation policy and arrangements • Performance-based remuneration • Incentive programs
Managing Human Resources
ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Designing and implementing organisation change initiatives Introducing organisation development and change programs, such as TQM, Benchmarking, ISO Certification, job redesign, enterprise bargaining Ensuring the organisation is structured in a way that will achieve its vision and objectives Implementing and overseeing internal communication programs MISCELLANEOUS In addition, personnel departments often undertake a variety of miscellaneous duties such as: Overseeing the company canteen Producing an employee newsletter or news video Making business-related travel arrangements for employees Overseeing the company nurse and doctor Liaising with outside consultants and organisations on personnel-related issues, such as arrangements for temporary staff, and making or recommending charitable contributions Managing and maintaining HR information systems (HRIS) Human Resources, People and Flight Centre Graham Turner, the Chief Executive of travel success story Flight Centre Ltd has this to say about the way his business is run. ‘Flight Centre does not sell travel the conventional way. Everyone is on meaningful profit-share incentives. It places considerable importance on people being able to earn whatever they put their mind to, through incentives that are not capped. People who work in the shops earn a profit based on their individual business; the team leader earns a profit on the whole business, and so on. Ownership is not just about profit share, but is about operating the business believing it is yours and not just the company’s. There are no privileges unless everyone has them. No company cars, no car parks, no secretaries, no individual offices, and no receptionists. Our structure is team bases. This is based on the inherent desire of the human race to live and work in families (teams of up to seven people), villages (3-5 teams) and tribes (100-300 people). Standard systems operate throughout the company. There is only one best way to do anything. If you have one small business operating successfully and you can systemise and replicate that business, there is no reason you cannot have 100 or more businesses operating successfully. Flight Centre believes that profit is the best way of knowing whether you are offering the community something it wants.’
Balancing stakeholder satisfaction is very difficult to achieve. and their two-way dependency relationship with an organisation. Many people suggest that the best form of organisational performance is stakeholder satisfaction 9 . but the long term survival of any business depends on it. The illustration above shows six stakeholder groups.1-Human Resource Planning and Development An organisation and its Stakeholders OWNER INDUSTRY STAFF COMMUNITY SUPPLIERS CUSTOMERS ORGANISATION The ultimate success of any organisation depends on a number of stakeholders being satisfied with the performance of that organisation.
.Managing Human Resources The Politics of Human Resources The positive • Networking . posturing for the benefit of your peers..develop contacts throughout your organisation and industry. threaten to withhold or reveal critical information. communicating to superiors should be done on the basis that new news is bad news. • Continually promote and self market yourself in a positive. 10 . The cover-up routine is not confined to the top of the organisation. In the 1990’s well known business writer Max Walsh wrote in his Sydney Morning Herald column about an organisational disease which he called ‘the snake pit of organisational politics’. • Be thoroughly professional in everything you do. Never let people down and be aware that people have very long memories. nonaggressive manner. build opposition or refuse to give support. • Never indulge in power plays. • Spreading rumours and sowing inaccurate information about people or circumstances is a definite no. • Forget about ‘brown nosing’.eventually your critical mass of goodwill will be returned. • Offer information freely without expecting favours . All employees soon learn that . The negative • Never reinforce the failure of others to reinforce your cause. In the cover up process messengers are highly vulnerable and expendable.
Be easily manageable. and help improve the organisation’s effectiveness and competitiveness. Be easily controllable so that policies can be implemented consistently and costs contained within budgets. quality. Continually improve competence and personal development.1-Human Resource Planning and Development What should Staff contribute to the Business? Staff should: Provide value for money for the organisation. Help to support and change the culture of the organisation as expressed through its performance. Be an integrated part of the management process of the organisation. Support managers and management in the achievement of their goals. flexibility and team working. 11 . risk-taking. innovation. Motivate other employees to achieve higher performance. so that undue administrative burdens are not imposed on managers and staff. Assist in achieving continuous levels improvement in quality and customer service Reward people fairly and consistently according to their contributions. Support the attainment of the organisation’s mission statement. Improve co-operation and effective team working at all levels.
JOB/ROLE PLANNING To determine what actually needs to be done at every level of the organisation. geographical location. and organisation structure or design. products.R. SOCIALISATION and INITIAL TRAINING After hiring. currently required and those required in the future are addressed.Managing Human Resources Some Human Resource Components OVERALL PLANNING COMPONENTS The function of these components is to ensure that the organisation has an adequate basis for selecting its human resources and developing them toward the fulfilment of organisational goals. Part of this process is to communicate to prospective employees a basic understanding of the company and its approach to its people. MANPOWER PLANNING and HUMAN RESOURCE INVENTORY These activities draw on the job descriptions generated in job planning and assess the capabilities of the present H. the new employee learns the ropes. INDUCTION. Often considered as a dynamic kind of job analysis. against those plans or requirements. how to work. 12 . values etc. market growth rate. learns how to get along in the organisation. The goal should be to facilitate the new employee becoming a productive and useful member of the organisation both in the short run and in terms of long range potential. The changing focus of Human Resources Not so many years ago people used to wear gloves at work to protect their hands: now they wear gloves to protect the product. JOB ANALYSIS To specify what jobs need to be filled and identify the required skills. future directions. STRATEGIC BUSINESS PLANNING To determine the organisation’s goals. how to master the particulars of the job and so on. how to fit in. where continuing reviews of skills. knowledge. priorities.. STAFFING PROCESSES To ensure that the organisation acquires the necessary human resources to fulfil its goals. RECRUITMENT and SELECTION The process of finding people and developing systems for deciding who to hire. They may be focused on the numbers of people in given categories and /or designed to ensure that given assumed growth there will be an adequate supply of people in those categories.
coaching. by thinking through its implications and value to furthering future total development. The actual process of supervising. SUPERVISION and COACHING It is generally accepted that the first boss is crucial in giving new employees a good start in their careers. with a set of activities that are neither too hard nor too easy. and monitoring are considered to be important components. either by promotion or lateral movement to new functions or assignments. remain motivated and productive. Can be done by department. division. promotions. or total organisation. Co-ordination between HR and the immediate supervisor in this situation should be maximised. and neither too meaningless nor too risky from the organisation’s point of view. and other formal organisational actions in respect to the employee. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING How will long term employees who may stay 30 or 40 years in the organisation.1-Human Resource Planning and Development INVENTORY OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS An effort to plan for the growth and development of all employees. guiding. and that training of supervisors in how to handle new employees is a valuable organisational investment. Does management want the employee to know their potential for 13 .salary increases. Potential conflicts can arise as to what level of feed back the employee receives. The system should be based on the organisation’s need to fill jobs as they open up and the employee’s needs to have some sense of progress in their working lives. The system must provide some kind of forward movement for the employee through a succession of jobs. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL and JUDGEMENT OF POTENTIAL These systems serve a number of functions . Also a basis for regular reviews between boss and subordinate to supplement day to day feedback and to assist with career planning and counselling. and maintain their job satisfaction? FOLLOW UP and EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES Devise a system to ensure that plans are implemented and that activities are evaluated against individual and organisational goals. CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES To match the organisation’s needs for work with the individual’s needs for a productive and satisfying work career. JOB DESIGN and JOB ASSIGNMENT The issue is how to provide optimal challenge to a new employee. make on-going contributions.
Employees cannot manage their own growth development without information on how their own needs. Managers should set goals and philosophies based on what the organisation is trying to reward and what employees needs actually are. and lateral job moves to ensure growth of human resources. Many companies have great difficulty addressing this area and use consistency and other organisations as models. PERQUISITES. Can the organisation open up the communication channel between employees. for most by promotion. This should be linked to performance appraisal. PROMOTION. At different career stages and in different types of careers employees will need different ‘things’. FOLLOW UP and EVALUATION The organisation should provide a means for employees at all levels to become more proactive about their careers and a method for discussions. How to ensure that the organisational rewards are linked to the needs of the individual and to the needs of the organisation for effective performance and development of potential. ORGANISATIONAL REWARDS. BENEFITS. values and plans fit with opportunities the organisation can offer. their bosses and the HR system. development planning? 14 . Evidence suggests that optimal challenge is what keeps human growth and effectiveness going. as much as possible be tied to job/role planning. talents. The individual wants to attend the course. PAY. PROMOTIONS and JOB CHANGES An effective HR system should concentrate on developing career paths. RECOGNITION As organisational careers become more varied and as social values surrounding work change. they will remain uninvolved in their own development. outside development programmes and other educational activities are necessary in the total process of human growth and development. PLANNING. They should be matched to the needs of the individual and the needs of the organisation. CAREER COUNSELLING. changing assignments. Training should. and lay the groundwork for realistic individual. systems of job rotation. reward systems should become more flexible. because they can see a benefit in their career path and see that it fits into their total career. TRAINING and DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES Companies should realise that periods of formal training.Managing Human Resources promotion? If individuals do not get good feedback around their development needs.
2 in every market it competes in. specialist counsellors. pay and many other issues. relationships with other workers. but no one does anything about it. but in the vast majority of 15 . and ultimate retirement. PERSONAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES (P. GE and a few other big companies have cultures that strongly encourage effective management and people development. job sharing. as most people realise. obsolescence. Legendary former GE Chairman Jack Welch makes an interesting point that. Managers should be trained in handling preretirement employees. child care programmes.I.everybody talks about it. ALTERNATIVE PATTERNS OF WORK and REWARDS Rostered days off. But "people" as a success factor is like the weather . flexible working hours. Conversely there is nothing wrong with less motivated and involved employees if the quality of their work meets the required standards. job redesign or rotation perhaps they should examine whether these employees are in responsive mode or not.1 or No. Psychological. Rather than attempting to ‘cure’ levelled off employees by remotivation. CONTINUING EDUCATION and RETRAINING Is it better to provide challenging work.1-Human Resource Planning and Development PLANNING FOR and MANAGING DISENGAGEMENT Organisations should recognise various options to deal with problems of loss of motivation. ENRICHMENT and ROTATION After a few years of employment many workers become unresponsive to the job requirements and pay more attention to factors such as the type of supervision. personalised programme for all or some employees? RETIREMENT PLANNING and COUNSELLING There should be a clear planning function that forecasts retirements and feeds this information into replacement and counselling functions.) Is it desirable to design a special. mechanical and financial assistance should be provided.P. are just a few examples. JOB REDESIGN. "People" are the key to business success. while GE aspires to be No. and then the training required for that work once the employee sees the need for it? For this strategy to work continuous feedback is required between employees and managers. Welch claims that their core competence is developing people. They should cater for the needs of the organisation as well as the employee and be closely linked to each other. by skilled. part time work.
The decision may be to act now or to delegate the problem to a task force if more information is essential. That axiom." Studies of non-managerial employees usually find that they consider internal communication to be inadequate. Avoid e-mails or memos for any information which might be misunderstood or possibly construed as negative. It shows people you care about them.Managing Human Resources companies. You cannot not communicate. Here are a few key truths about people as a success factor which may be helpful for you: That which gets reinforced gets repeated. respect you for asking. Face time says "I care about you" like nothing else. and will be more likely to follow whatever the outcome. But employee emotions are extremely time sensitive. If you want it done. Before initiating change or "improvements. Not communicating says you don't care about them. and they forget the importance of communicating with everyone about what's going on with the company. If you want somebody to repeat a behaviour. refers to the fact that not communicating with someone says to them. Everyone involved gets in one room and one manager is in charge. 16 . and that is his key point. No one leaves the room until the top manager decides what action will be taken on the problem. but some action is always taken. the emotional peak passes and you will not have another chance like that for a long time. That is obvious but so often not done. you sustain their enthusiasm and energies. They may rationalise that. reinforce it with some type of reward that they will appreciate. People want to know what is going on and how it does or will affect them. they appreciate being heard. even if you really do. If you wait too long. If you do not ask. it is amazing how people can resist in many subtle ways that ultimately sabotage the outcome. from The Pragmatics of Human Communication. You lift their hopes when you seek their input. "I don't care about you. When you ask for people's input. You do not have to do what they ask. Discussion focuses on one problem. The Greatest Management Principle in the World. ask the doers. that does not happen." but all the employees see is the stone wall of silence. and if you act on that input. Managers get busy putting out fires and trying to be sure clients' needs are met. and you cannot overdo that. Even if you go against their preferences. Skinner and has been rejected by some people because it applies as much to rats in a cage as it does to humans. This is one way GE keeps their people "electrified" and loyal. Michael LeBoeuf a few years ago wrote a book called. The most effective communication is always face to face." let the people who will be responsible for implementation have a say in the way the changes will be handled.F. This is one reason GE has been so successful with their "workout" sessions. Consistency is extremely important. "I’m in charge and I know what I'm doing. And guess what? It works just as well on both (including kids). The reinforcement principle of behaviourism was discovered by B. respond quickly.
Induction.2 Recruitment. Integration .
Training. MOTIVATION Motivation is the roof and spire of the building.Training . and in good management the solid foundation stones are: SELECTION TRAINING SUPERVISION Individuals as a rule tend to have a far different perception of motivating factors than does management. Three major considerations in the selection process: 1. co-operative manner? 3. and Supervision are the absolute corner stones of good Human Resources management. Does the candidate have the appropriate aptitudes. Roofs and spires don’t stand on air. Selection.Managing Human Resources Staff Recruitment Selection . qualifications and experience to do the job? 2. Why is it important to take great care in filling a job vacancy? • To benefit the company • To avoid the expense of having to hire a replacement after a short time • To increase profits • To create a team work atmosphere • The wrong person may create disharmony • The right person will do the job better • To raise levels of professionalism. Does the candidate have the appropriate attitude to accomplish the task and fit in with the team in a positive.Supervision These three items. These are the true basics and without them nothing in Human Resources management is possible. as to what really motivates them. medium or long term? Will they last and show resilience? 18 . skills. What is the candidates time frame? Short. they stand on solid foundations.
Maintaining of a high level of responsibility by management for employees / staff. Integration Some basic requirements for good recruitment include: The recruitment of the correct number of people to meet the sales and overall objectives. Providing a workable job description. In order to achieve these aims the organisation will be faced with a number of problems: Defining the nature of the job and determining how many people will be required to do it. Have a competitive edge that gives them the will to win and makes them unafraid of embarking on tough courses. The four E’s of recruiting people: People must have: 1. carrying out operational plans and coming up with the numbers 19 . To minimise the problems which can be inherent in recruitment and employment.2-Recruitment. Induction. The maximisation of the return to the company of the investment made in the employee. Determining the type of person required to do the job. 4. Plenty of energy 2. Building and maintaining long-term stable relationships with customers. The reduction of staff turnover by the correct selection of suitable people. To be able to execute by setting a vision. The maximum use of management time in pro-active. productive activity rather than ‘putting out fires’. Deciding where responsibilities for recruitment and appraisal will lie. Be able to energise others 3.
a committee? • Second and third interviews may be required. • Identifying sources of talent . the Sales Manager.ideally this should be presented to candidates at the first interview. • Interviewing the candidates . qualifications and experience will be required? • Preparation of a job description . • What type of person would be best? • What skills. by advertising.where can we find an ideal person? By head hunting. • Review and evaluation of effectiveness. 20 .and writing a person description.phone or written. • Training and retraining the person • Evaluating the training.who should interview? The Human Resources person. by internal promotion? • Call for applications . • Psychological testing. • Promotion or transfer. • Offering the job and negotiating terms and conditions. • The induction process.Managing Human Resources Steps in the Recruitment Process • Analysing the tasks of the position . • Screening the applications .do the applicants meet our person specification? • Preparing a short list. • Checking references of those preferred.
directing and motivating staff and controlling. 21 . • State what is done as succinctly as possible and why it is done. OVERALL RESPONSIBILITIES This section describes as concisely as possible the overall purpose of the job. Integration Writing a Job Description An essential ingredient for successfully hiring any employee is a Job Description. and the processes of management that are carried out. • Describe each main task briefly and separately in short numbered paragraphs. say.2-Recruitment. The Job Description should be based on a detailed job analysis and be as factual and brief as possible. 7 or 8 main activity areas remain. Many people start paragraphs with an active verb. such as: • Frequency (hourly. continually. but some indication is given of the purpose or objectives of each task. recommends. operating. • Analyse the initial list of tasks and simplify the list by grouping related tasks together so that not more than. liaises with. planning. prepares. daily. chronological order. • Decide on the order in which tasks should be described. ensures that. The job titles of all the posts reporting directly to the job holder are given under this heading. Some commonly used headings are:JOB TITLE The existing or proposed job title indicates as clearly as possible the function in which the job is carried out and the level of the job within that function. setting objectives. MAIN TASKS: Some suggestions for identifying the main tasks: • Identify and list the tasks that have to be carried out. co-ordinating. The aim being to convey in a few sentences a broad picture of the job which will clearly identify it from other jobs and establish the role of the job holder. REPORTING TO The title of the manager or superior to whom the job holder is directly responsible is given under this heading. weekly. No attempt is made to describe in detail how they are carried out. PERFORMANCE MEASURES How will the performance of the person be measured? Obviously very important for sales positions. organising. etc. Induction. order of importance. supervises. thus indicating the purpose of the job and giving a lead for setting targets and performance standards. completes.). e.g.
The two groups who have the best information on your business and its performance are your staff and your customers. If you can show an employee that you have taken the time to learn their job. 4 HAVE A BACK-UP Everybody should be able to do at least two jobs in the company.and let them do it! Give encouragement. Retain the ultimate authority though.Managing Human Resources How to recruit and keep the best staff 1 HIRE THE BEST Your success depends upon your staff. Three staff should be able to do the critical tasks. Look for intelligence. 22 . you show that you think the job is worthwhile. Don’t let your ego get in the way of the team performance. Give your staff the responsibility and authority to do their jobs . initiative and integrity in everyone you employ. Acknowledge each person’s contribution to your success. Reward your employees both financially and emotionally. 5 SHOW YOU CAN DO IT Know how to do every job in your organisation. 6 DELEGATE Do what you do best and delegate the rest. Show them where they fit in the system that produces the final result. 3 BUILD A TEAM Let each employee know they are a valuable member of the team. Trust them to do their job. Say thank you. Tell everyone that you expect their absolute best. preferably three. You should listen to both groups very closely. Pay over the market rate and expect more. 2 DON’T PAY PEANUTS Don’t pay peanuts unless you want monkeys. Most people would rather feel needed and respected than be given a pay increase. 7 COMMUNICATE Talk to your staff and ask for their suggestions. You can also act as a back up.
qualifications and experience to do the job? 2. Does the candidate have the appropriate aptitudes. co-operative manner? 3. Then go on holidays to test the system. Don’t accept second best personally or your staff will follow your lead. Let your staff know that your deputy has your confidence and your authority when you are absent. Integration 8 ENCOURAGE PRIDE Show pride in your company and its products and encourage others to take pride in their work.2-Recruitment. Three major considerations in the selection process: 1. Get suggestions on how to improve your product. What is the candidates time frame? Short. Reward ideas that work. medium or long term? Will they last and show resilience? 23 . service. Encourage on-going commitment. skills. Induction. Set a high example. customer satisfaction or profit. 9 ENCOURAGE CREATIVITY Meet with your staff at least once a month for a brainstorming session. 10 HAVE A SECOND-IN-COMMAND Groom a deputy who shares your goals and ideas. Does the candidate have the appropriate attitude to accomplish the task and fit in with the team in a positive.
They should be carefully planned to provide the best results. The interview should relate to work issues and should not infringe the personal rights of applicants. The interview process is as relaxed as possible and applicants are given ample opportunity to answer questions. Because of time involved managers should only be meeting with people who seem qualified to fill the vacant position. Notes are taken for future reference and applicants are ranked according to predetermined criteria. Interviewers should ensure that: Questions are not discriminatory to certain groups of applicants. The interview process is consistent for all applicants. Where possible an independent person should be part of the interview panel to assist in ensuring consistency and lack of bias. It will also assist in the first line manager to become aware of the criteria adopted for selection and the overall rationale used.Managing Human Resources The Interview Process Personal interviews are an important part of the selection process. Interviews should not be ad hoc. Questions are not ambiguous and are designed to gather information relevant to the position applied for. 24 . First line managers should be involved in the selection process of people who will work under them to increase the probability that the person selected will be someone able to relate to their immediate superior. a person who will have a commitment to getting the newcomer trained and integrated into the work group as quickly as possible.
Integration The Interview Process Some suggested interview questions • When dealing with a direct report. how have you determined when you were pushing too hard? • Give me an example of when this happened. • What were the alternatives you considered? • Why was it a good decision? TO ALL STAFF Now that we have established KWALITY CONTROL please THINK AHEA D 25 . • Describe a complicated task that you have had difficulty teaching someone to perform. • What approach did you take? • Why were you successful? • Tell me about a time when there was not much room for creativity in your work.2-Recruitment. • How satisfied were you in that situation and why? • Describe a face-to-face meeting in which you had to lead or influence a very sensitive individual. • Give me an example of a good decision you made recently. team member or peer. Induction.
’ yes. I see and I agree’. Ask yourself why you feel this way. firmness and dryness of handshake. Some people don’t function well under stress and any interview situation unnerves them. inspiring. • Look at the other person’s appearance. including taste in clothes. good. • Ask. boring. • Allow the other person to talk. let them. Try to get an idea of the other person’s thinking.optimism or defeat? • Is this person really interested in their work? • Do they have a strong sense of industry? • Will they enhance the productivity of the workplace? • Would you feel comfortable going to lunch with this person? • Are they socially aware. sincere. • The interview begins the moment the other person walks in the door. it is useful to bring up strengths in their resume. Be appreciative. and act positively. • Consider how this person makes you feel. every aspect of their appearance is important. With such people. or setting rigid goals. poised. and confident? • Do you feel any embarrassment for them or being with them? 26 . Ask yourself how you feel in the other person’s presence.Managing Human Resources How to Interview . Pay attention to your first impression. • Once the other person starts to talk. • Do you like being with them? • What contribution do you think this person would make to the mood of the people around them? • Ask yourself what it would be like to work with this person on a daily basis. • Let it be the other person’s interview. exactly.some suggestions Before the interview know what you are looking for • Prepare a list of features you are looking for. or a privilege? • What is the feeling the other person projects . Be patient and take your time to discover the other person. ‘What happened here?’ and observe how the interviewee responds. Smile! • Make positive comments like. • Would it be depressing. • Look for something about the other person you like and mention it. • Do they feel comfortable with their style or is it for impression? • Is this person reaching or are they understated? • If you are hiring someone to project the company image. confidence projected and tone of voice. Nod agreement. Avoid dominating the interview. • The best way to make people feel comfortable is to respond positively every time they do well. Remember you are trying to see how the other person functions at their best. Consider their sense of style. and listen. a drain. of course.
The candidate is invited over for an interview.O. non competitive companies in the town. The successful candidate has to pass muster with the master. 2. The industrial psychologist’s analysis is often enlightening but never binding.2-Recruitment.E. 27 . talks with the candidate in their home in the presence of their wife and children. 9.O. Is the candidate a music or movie buff? Off to the concert hall or theatre with the candidate and spouse.O. 4.E. The visits are brief and need to be reciprocated by reviewing the peer’s candidates in turn. Integration A Ten Step Hiring Process Below is a hiring process which will obviously not suit all organisations. How does this person act in a social setting? Especially important for sales people as they need to be their most skilful and persuasive. 3.O.O.E. persuade and communicate clearly over the phone? 5. The C. Can the person. talks with the candidate for 30 minutes. talks with the candidate on the phone for 30 minutes. 10.O.master controller. The personnel manager should be able to identify what management is looking for and be secure enough not to screen out unusual or intimidating candidates.E.O. The C.O. The C. Induction. talks with some outside sources. Let the candidate talk and not be bombarded by the C.their leads can be a good way to find candidates in the first place. but should ensure a quality candidate. The interviewers discuss their findings and make a specific hire / reject recommendation with reasons why.s peers in other. It is usually most helpful in addressing some-one’s strengths or weaknesses after you hire them. master executive secretary etc.E. The C. The C. 8. Make a point of knowing the masters . master purchasing agent. See the candidate’s personal values at work in the most revealing setting.E. Also a good integrity test. project. The candidate is invited over for a number of follow up interviews.E. A trip to the counsellor.E. 1. Check out the candidate in the Industry. It will require considerable amounts of time and effort. Every city has a master of profession . for 30 minutes. socialises with the candidate in a different environment. The candidate sees 2 or 3 of the C. They talk to the C. talking about his success. Who knows or should know about this person? 6. A trip to the Master. Does the home life match the description in the interview? 7.
secretive Bursts of energy Pre occupied Sincerity Defensive Domineering Settlement less likely Evaluation. goal orientated Critical. holding back feelings Attracted. chin forward Poker face Mouth open Two people looking at each other Nervousness Confidence Negative view Negative view Positive acceptance Holding something back Shock. but unconvinced Frustration Anxious. deep thought Distant.Managing Human Resources Body Language Many skilled interviewers make a special point of studying the body language of the people being interviewed. It can provide an insight into the interviewee. needs reassurance Ready to go Rapid walk. Clammy handshake Steepling of hands Downcast eyes Face turned away Relaxed mouth. ring. Leaning forward It is generally accepted that: • 55% of a negotiator’s message is perceived non verbally • Only 7% depends on what is said • And 38% depends on how it is said 28 . etc. arms swinging Walking with hands in pockets Walking with hands on hips Walking with hands behind back Open hands Arms crossed Straddling a chair Crossed legs Hand to cheek Body drawn back Hands behind head Rubbing nose Hands closed in front Head inclined Locked ankles Sitting back with legs crossed Hand to back of neck Playing with tie. or intense concentration More interested in the other person than you Cocky. critical Relaxed aggressiveness Puzzlement Self control Interested Nervous.
Integration Salary Packages The total value of an employment package can comprise provision of some of the following perquisites and / or other items.2-Recruitment. The total cost to the employer when totalled will give a ‘package value’. BASE WAGE / SALARY BONUS PERFORMANCE INCENTIVES SHARE OPTIONS SUPER-ANNUATION USE OF A VEHICLE TELEPHONE .PRIVATE HOUSING PERSONAL and FAMILY TRAVEL INSURANCE SCHOOL FEES TAX ADVICE CAR PARKING EMPLOYEE DISCOUNTS HOLIDAYS EXPENSE ACCOUNT CLOTHING ALLOWANCE OTHERS 29 . Induction.
. . . 5. 7. 2. 6. 4. 8. .Managing Human Resources An Interview Evaluation After the interview the following summary could be a useful assessment: Ranking Appearance Personality Maturity Aptitude Objectives Experience Education Overall assessment Others . 3. 9. . 10 30 . Total 1.
. and their (number of) children. Integration A Press Release for New Personnel • Use this press release to take advantage of the opportunity that hiring a new employee offers.. honours.. Previously.. If the person is in a position that could invite sensational publicity. at (... • Just remember to fold it so the headline appears when it is removed from the envelope. with . and association affiliations. Name joined company in year as title. board members.... The quote should address the way this promotion will contribute to the company achieving its goals. if this is pertinent to the position and reflects well upon both companies..... If you distribute the press release to your vendors.. as well as universities attended.. "Quote showing person's dedication...... Prior to joining company.. • You need not use a cover letter when mailing a press release. This should include positions with high visibility in well-known companies.. spokesperson's title of company.. 31 .. s/he held positions of . ....2-Recruitment.... worked for .... specify city or neighbourhood only.. where s/he was responsible for . State Date Name has been promoted to title at company.......... Induction.. as .) where s/he was responsible for ... lives in ........ commitment and / or ideas..... . S/he will be responsible for primary responsibility. customers.. Quote the person or a company official on this personnel change... "Quote showing person's productivity or worth to company”.. stockholders and employees..... Avoid specific information about the children that may jeopardise their safety.. the people who offer/ develop/ create (short company profile) with offices in ... keep personal details to a minimum.." said name earned a type and level of degree from . For Immediate Release Contact's name Contact's phone number Contact's fax number Company Promotes Name to Title City. if any..... honours. Specify degrees. a quote may help add credibility and build morale. said spokesperson's name...
• Product training. • Details of office or business hours. • You are employed on a daily / weekly / casual / permanent basis. • You are on employed on a trial / probationary period or basis. • Mail and filing room procedures. • Travel or meal reimbursement policies. The induction process should allow the Human Resources Manager. Staff evaluation policy. • Meetings with various key people. Training based on the Job Description should be an important part of the Induction period.Managing Human Resources Induction of New Staff New staff should be made to feel welcome to the business right from the outset. positions and responsibilities of other staff in the firm. The recruit should be made comfortable working with the rest of the team and be ready to contribute results as soon as possible. • Use of office equipment in general. • Details of publications available to the staff member. • Visits to various sections for orientation. NEW STAFF SHOULD BE GIVEN AND / OR MADE FAMILIAR WITH: • A LETTER of ENGAGEMENT detailing pertinent and relevant terms and conditions of employment. • Ensure a meeting on the first day. and special consideration should be given to their questions and needs until they become familiar with day to day procedures. • Keys or passes for access to buildings. Further Training in learning about the company’s products and systems is part of the Induction process. • Regular communication for first weeks. Holiday Policy. a visit to the sales territory with sales manager or mentor. • Staff procedures. • Use of telephone. • Wages are paid in cash / to a bank account. • For sales representatives. 32 . • Time reporting policy. Sick leave policy. • Details of EEO and OH&S policies • Payroll procedures. and the appropriate supervisor the opportunity to gain information about the new recruit and introduce them to the company and the rest of the team. • Have a work area and materials prepared. such as:• Wages are paid weekly / fort nightly etc. • A list of staff names.
Usually the solutions will reflect the biases of the founders and current leaders. 33 . REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS Consensus on criteria for allocation of rewards and punishments. and power.2-Recruitment. in a patterned way the nature of the underlying technology. what gets rewarded with property. two sides of the same coin. If members cannot communicate with and understand each other. Every group must know what its heroic and sinful behaviours are. and what gets punished through the withdrawal of rewards. Induction. even though the underlying issues around which the culture is formed will be common. maintains and loses power. with the experiences of each organisational culture being unique. and by what criteria one determines membership. who is out. Integration Internal Integration Problems Matching People to Business Conditions A group or organisation cannot survive if it cannot manage itself as a group. Every organisation must work out its pecking order and its rules for how one gets. a group is impossible by definition. friendship and love. BOUNDARIES Consensus on group boundaries and criteria for inclusion and exclusion. and ultimately excommunication. and the nature of the parent culture within which the organisation evolves? LANGUAGE Common language and conceptual categories. and the actual events experienced. This area of consensus is crucial in helping members manage their own feelings of aggression. status. External survival and internal integration problems are therefore. the age of the organisation. POWER and STATUS Consensus on criteria for the allocation of power and status. Every organisation will have different solutions to these problems and face different issues. for relationships between the sexes. the prior experiences of group members. Does the organisational culture reflect. One of the most important areas of culture is the shared consensus on who is in. and for the manner in which openness and intimacy are to be handled in the context of managing the organisation’s tasks. INTIMACY Consensus on criteria for intimacy. Every organisation must work out its rules of the game for peer relationships.
As a consequence. BELIEF IN THE ‘UNIVERSAL MANAGER’ For many years. the selection process is often less one of matching candidates with job requirements. like society. irrespective of its idiosyncratic demands. Growth businesses are those that are more mature and seen as minor variations of a common theme. objective rewards are still largely hierarchically based. COMPATIBILITY WITH PEOPLE. especially at senior levels. a manager just gets a sense of all these factors and makes decisions accordingly. PROMOTION IS CONSIDERED A ‘JUST REWARD’ There is little question that the nature of jobs changes as one moves up the ladder . are too abstract to be measured and too sensitive to be identified explicitly. Rather. Some critical elements. faces unexplainable events that must be given meaning.the best salesman seldom makes the best sales manager. and only a few executives are naturally gifted in this area. is mysterious and defies objective analysis. LACK OF SKILL Hiring subordinates is a skill an executive is expected to posses by virtue of his or her position. and many managers feel that they have very little choice but to promote their best performers. MANAGEMENT IS CONSIDERED A ‘MYSTERIOUS’ ACT A great number of executives feel that management. executives believed that a good manager can handle any situation. Consequently. 34 . since selection is always time consuming and often tedious. despite its importance. senior executives have often tended to search for ‘universal managers’. executives are rarely trained in selection.Managing Human Resources IDEOLOGY Consensus on ideology and ‘religion. NOT JOBS There seems to be a pervasive desire for people to surround themselves with individuals of similar kind. rather than those who are more specialised. it may get short shrift. such as a manager’s ‘style’ and the degree to which he ‘fits in’ with his colleagues. or they risk demoralising them or losing them to competitors. In most organisations. so that members can respond to them and avoid the anxiety of dealing with the unexplainable and uncontrollable. rather than as specialised business problems that create particular demands on the management in place.’ Every organisation. Furthermore. The pressure though is to reward performance with promotion. Consequently.
who will control the rewards and opportunities.S. Induction.) on what jobs are available and determining how to match this information to the Human Resources available in order to determine whether to replace from within the organisation or to go outside with a new recruiting programme. Integration Planning for and Managing Replacement and Restaffing Human Resource Planning and Development (HRPD) should address issues such as: • Updating the human resource inventory as retirements or termination's occur.2-Recruitment. • Instituting special programmes of orientation or training for new incumbents to specific jobs as these jobs open up.. and those processes should be designed to match the needs of the organisation with the needs of employees throughout their evolving careers. • The various components should be linked to each other. it is sending a clear message that supports internal recruitment and self development activities. • Continuously reanalysing jobs to ensure that the new incumbent is properly prepared for what the job now requires and will require in the future. the ultimate goal should be that the HRPD programme be ‘owned’ by middle management. and be managed to ensure coordination between the planning functions and implementation functions. because the employees are unable to influence them in any way. • The management of these processes are linked to other parts of the system through implicit messages that are sent to employees. job assignment. • Regardless of who designs and manages the HRPD programme or system. • Planning activities should be closely linked to the processes of supervision. training etc. and be seen as a total system for maximum effectiveness. • A company that manages its recruitment in a secretive manner may be sending a message to employees that the company is passive and complacent about their careers. • Managing the Information System (I. • Accountabilities will rest squarely with supervisors and management. 35 . even though these careers may not involve promotions. For example if the company decides to display all its vacancies ‘in house’.
PREJUDICE. They do not know why they should do it. FEAR. They think that their way is better. They have a poor attitude and / or lack motivation They lacked the skills to do the job. They were working to the wrong priorities They thought that they were doing it Poor management Personal problems CREATIVITY. They do not think it will work. for why people fail are: They do not know what they are supposed to do They do not know how to do it.Managing Human Resources Why do People Fail? Some common reasons in their order of frequency. There are obstacles beyond their control. INERTIA The best way of all to overcome creativity! 36 . HABIT. Why risk changing the status quo with the inherent risks of failure? PREJUDICE Fear + ignorance = prejudice ‘That would never work here. we just don’t do things like that’. INERTIA CREATIVITY HABIT FEAR What are barriers to people embracing and engaging in creative activities? We have always done it this way. and. There was not enough time to do it.
200 staff in a recent survey. not the person. Induction. or burn out. but never burn your bridges. In Australia the Bureau of Statistics is very proud of its low staff turnover rate . If someone has been a poor manager. goals and people.just 8. Integration Disengagement Interviews What do you do when people resign? It is quite amazing just how few organisations carry out ‘debriefings’ when people resign from their organisation. while conversely call centres average a 36% staff turnover rate. Attracting highly skilled staff is very difficult and most organisations are keen to learn the reasons why people are resigning. steering away from being brutally frank is probably the best course of action. Exit interviews should obviously be conducted by someone other than the person’s immediate supervisor to assure there is no bias and to ensure absolute confidentiality. Exit interviews should be conducted by all organisations when people leave to go and work elsewhere.often people problems.4% of more than 3. Some suggested questions for obtaining feedback might be: What are your long term goals? Why are you leaving at this time? What did you most enjoy about working here? What was disappointing about working here? How do your family relate to your work? Why did you choose to work here? What does your new position offer. such as lack of training and career development. They present an ideal opportunity for the organisation to receive meaningful feedback about itself and to learn what has triggered a resignation. Good exit interviews can make the work environment a better place for those who follow. that outweighs those available here? Was the training you received here of benefit to you? How could our organisation have helped you more? Are you disappointed in this organisation. then say that would be a better manager with more training. Enlightened thinking suggests that this is an opportune time to gather valuable feedback about the organisation. For many people who are leaving there is a huge temptation to relieve years of frustration by being absolutely frank about the reasons for leaving .2-Recruitment. its policies. but do not make it personal. Tackle the issues. Give honest feedback. 37 . For those who are leaving. and your achievements here? According to data supplied by the federal government 22% of the national workforce left their jobs in the year 2000. Resist the temptation to be vindictive.
Running the business like a dictatorship 5. • They succeed because of empathy. intolerance. Pressure to complete work on time and then the leader or manager fails to review the job for weeks 10. Salary paid is different to what was offered at the interview 2. Provide a variety of work . fear or simply because of circumstances which were too much against them. A ‘do as I say. Feedback consists of ‘you did this wrong’ 4. 5. Lack of planning 9. • No person is identical to another person and since no people problems are identical there is no standard formula for solving people problems.not managers Reward staff as individuals Encourage and have a team environment Provide a work environment that balances work and personal life How to lose your staff 1. learning and promotion Recognise good work Encourage your staff to take chances and to ‘take risks’ to broaden their point of reference Involve your staff in the ‘big picture’ . knowledge. restraint and courage. 38 . 4.job rotation and projects Ensure opportunities for growth. ignorance. and every manager will have their own unique style anyway. A ‘school’ approach to hours A MANAGER • A manager is someone who manages people. not do as I do’ work environment 7.Managing Human Resources How to keep your staff interested 1. A technologically backward work place 8. 7. 3. 9.keep staff informed about what the business is achieving and trying to achieve Encourage and reward contributions by staff Give staff leaders to work with . Not providing opportunities for ongoing staff training 6. 6. patience. 10. • They fail because of inexperience. ‘Forget’ salary reviews 3. 2. 8.
3 Organisations and People .
your special means for creating value. A value creation premise that people can actually picture as existing. but in terms of the fundamental value it represents in matching the customers need premise. something that can create value. A sense of worthwhile purpose . The value premise .Managing Human Resources A Mission Statement .What is it? Does your organisation have a Mission Statement? Could Human Resource issues be addressed more readily if you did have a Mission Statement? All members of the organisation should focus on. makes. and set out to achieve that vision. make the world a better place in some way and win people’s commitment.something that is really worth doing.defined not in terms of what your organisation does. and believe in that statement and vision. is from the South Australian Film Corporation: ‘We will stimulate and assist the film and video industry and community to achieve sustained economic and cultural benefits that are valued by the people of South Australia’. if not perfectly attainable. at least plausible to strive for.A.something beyond platitudes. A plausible chance of success .defined not in terms of some market segment or statistical category. What makes you special . and then develop and deploy the statement and vision throughout your organisation. The statement and vision should be founded on a set of values held by all members of the company. in order to win and keep the customer’s business. sells. Further the mission statement should define: The Customer . You will need to start by establishing the values of your organisation.something people can realistically believe to be possible and. or delivers. A very good real life example of a Mission Statement is this one from the Department of Administrative Services [D. 40 .S. Another excellent example which I noticed in the employment columns of a newspaper. What are the basic requirements of a meaningful mission statement? The components to help make a mission / vision useful and valid could include: A focused concept . make a contribution. but in terms of a basic defining need premise that leads that person [or entity] to consider doing business with your enterprise.]: ‘To be recognised by our customers and the government as Australia’s best provider of services and a leader in public sector reform’.
I expect you to do exactly as I say and to follow my instructions in your work as a team.3-Organisations and People Communication and Human Resources What is Business Communication? Human Resource skills involve high levels of business communication skills. the new person called a meeting of his staff and had this to say. persuading. consulting.’ 41 . Communication is used to address issues such as: How When What Why Who Where Open questions can be prefixed with any of these six words. Business communication covers many facets and can include: Being aware of non verbal behaviour . to answer with more than a straight out yes or no answer. They are irretrievably linked. Motivating others. Selling and representing your work mates and work place to others. Business communication is. The ability to influence and persuade others. Effective meeting skills. and convincing. An open question will cause the person the question is directed at. Seeking out and listening to feedback about yourself. If we work as a team we can accomplish a lot. The ability to select appropriate methods of interfacing with others. Questioning. On the first day on the job as the new manager.over 50 percent of a message is perceived non verbally. Don’t forget though. Selling and representing your self to others. Seeking out and processing information. Listening. Communication is about getting through and being understood. Providing feedback to others. ‘Now it is essential that we work as a team. and open the channels of communication.
Make sure that at least some of these are put into practice for the sake of morale. 3 OPPORTUNITY AWARENESS Explore one or more jobs and gather information. Discover the extent and the limits of your own authority. Get clear success criteria. needs. and/or significant other. Discover what is regarded as the essential purpose of your job. but how you do it. When you take control Discover from your new staff how they tackle their own jobs. Get proposals from them on how working can be improved and what they would like to see done. Decide how you will get to where you want to be. Develop a list of possible career action steps which could provide opportunities for improved worklife satisfaction. List discarded options. interests and achievements to date. 42 . mentor. 2 INTERPRETING DATA Consult your mentor and/or career counsellor and/or significant other in your life. and your reasons for discarding them. 6 TRANSITION ACCOMPLISHED Get out the champagne. 5 TRANSITION TRAINING Produce a thoroughly written version of your career transition strategy and discuss it and its rationale with your counsellor. These should relate not only to the job’s result. 4 DECISION LEARNING Make decisions based on what you have learnt.Managing Human Resources Six Steps to Managing Your Career 1 SELF ASSESSMENT List your transferable skills. if for nothing else. Summarise your preferred skills. values. List employment likes and dislikes and your reasons for them.
” Committees are frequently used to postpone work or to avoid facing a controversial problem. Meetings are often just plain boring. as people get to work in a positive. Group assignments can foster unequal workloads that are a fertile ground for resentment and lowered morale. Improve planning. Groups can make the simple complex. Group work dissipates the glory any individual would have received for doing a good job. Participants stimulate one another. Team work can reduce resistance to change by encouraging those who implement a program to feel allegiance to it. A team approach should synergise thought. People may be forced to associate with colleagues they would rather avoid. Foster more satisfying work relationships. Committees can encourage controversy or conflict. Groups can lessen personal accountability for work. is less likely to miss an important contingency than is a person working alone. “a camel is a horse designed by a committee. with numerous viewpoints. so that the whole becomes far greater than the sum of the parts. A good way to invite commitment is to ask for involvement in the planning of any project. Participation groups can be frustrating for those who don’t get what they want. (Lets delegate that to a committee) Meetings can put individuals on the spot by pressuring them to state opinions publicly. Hence the expression.3-Organisations and People Why do people resist meetings? Meetings use more collective time to perform a simple task than any individual would use. Meetings and Teamthink Teamwork at meetings can increase creativity. 43 . Participation groups can be frustrating for those who don’t get what they want. productive manner with peers. Spread workload so that more gets done. or for those who operate at a higher pace than others. A critical group. especially for those who already know the material being covered.
COMPENSATION FOCUS Seniority 44 . within groups upon individuals Merit. group DIFFERENTIAL STATUS CONTROL High External. participatory Collaborative Groups. skills in hierarchy Low Internal. assembly lines Specialisation.Managing Human Resources Organisational Structure Old and new paradigms OLD STRUCTURE SPAN OF CONTROL COMMUNICATION DECISION MAKING Tall Narrow Downward Autocratic NEW Flat Wide Multi directional Democratic. teams WORK RELATIONSHIPS WORK STRUCTURING Competitive Departments. divisions Sequential Official position SKILL BASE Multi skilling INNOVATION PROCESS POWER BASE Simultaneous Expertise.
Number of products Problem solving Creating new ideas Research organisations Design and Engineering Consulting organisations Number of ideas Indoctrination Changing people’s habits. attitudes. intellect.3-Organisations and People What goals do organisations have? TYPE OF ORGANISATION MAJOR FUNCTION EFFECTIVENESS CRITERION Typology of organisations EXAMPLES Habit Replicating standard and uniform products Highly mechanised factories etc. and physical and mental behaviour Universities Prisons Hospitals etc. Number of people leaving Service Distributing services either directly to consumer or to above types Military Government Advertising Taxi companies Extent of services performed 45 .
Mediocrity in a bureaucracy exists. Or: Any company giving less than two-thirds of its energies to its business. CHARACTERISTICS of BUREAUCRACY Division of Labour Rules and procedures Authority Impersonality Careers and merit BUREAUCRACY POSSIBLE BENEFITS • Stability • Efficiency • Control POSSIBLE PROBLEMS • Red tape • Inflexibility • Dominating authority • Position protection Staff Rooms Many companies in the past set up their staff rooms as lacklustre and often small spaces and were at a loss to understand why usage of the facility by their staff was low. Enlightened companies are now commissioning interior decorators to design and implement stimulating. 46 . that exists to carry out an organisation. The aim being to encourage staff to interact in-house at break times rather than going out.Managing Human Resources Bureaucracy A definition of bureaucracy might be: A business. and more than one-third of its energies to its organisation. or any institution. These specially designed spaces take on a new persona and can even introduce a cafe ambience with a design theme and ‘funky’ colours’. when the penalty for success gets to be as big as the reward for failure. casual and relaxing staff rooms.
to examine themselves. Renewal conferences. Realise the level of dissatisfaction and discomfort with the current situation. Progress is a nice word. it is a good sign that you are doing something significant. planned basis. If some people become upset. their personal and company priorities. with a sample of employees from a variety of different organisational centres in order to keep appraised of the state of the system. Performance review on a systematic. POLITICAL ACTIONS Broaden the political support for radical actions. Feedback from outside parties. Robert Kennedy SOME COMMON FEEDBACK SYSTEMS ARE: Periodic team meetings to review a team’s functioning and what it’s next goal priorities should be. on a systematic. Periodic meetings between interdependent units of an organisation. forthcoming planning issues. Many organisations are living with the effects of successful short term change results that have not been maintained Probably the most important requirement for continued change is a continued feedback and information system that lets people in the organisation know the system status in relation to the desired states. As an example an annual 5 year planning meeting. new forces in the environment. Sensitise key factors / champions to the need for change. But change is its motivator. could be preceded by a weekend away at a retreat by the managers (and wives) concerned.3-Organisations and People Managing Change Do you have conscious procedures and commitment? Organisational change will not be maintained simply because there has been early success. what has happened in their working relationships and other issues for review before the planning meeting. and many are necessary if a change is to be maintained. Organisation sensing meetings in which the top of an organisation meets. There are a number of interventions that are possible. goal directed basis. and change has its enemies. 47 .
Working in teams can be helpful and very effective. Psychologist Joyce Brothers 48 . 5. 9. 6. Think about what the customer wants. Develop enabling structures Communicate.10 Steps 1. You may not need to be an expert to achieve significant change.Managing Human Resources Executing Change . 3. Define clearly what needs to be established. Articulate core values and beliefs. Expect resistance and be prepared to deal with it. Being part of Change can be fun and exciting. There is a little rule of sailing where the more manoeuvrable ship should give way to the less manoeuvrable craft. in a break with contemporary practice. Analyse the organisation and its need for change Create a shared vision and common direction Separate from the past Create a sense of urgency Support a strong leader role Line up political sponsorship Craft an implementation plan. 8. Cure all It has been reported that. Employees who are not at home when the card carrier arrives are invited to talk to the boss on their return to duties. I think this is sometimes a good rule to follow in human relations as well. Assess business priorities. involve people and be honest Reinforce and institute change. 2. Discard preconceived notions. Volkswagen halved absenteeism at its plants in Germany by handdelivering get-well cards to workers who call in to advise that they are too sick to come to work that day. Being an outsider can be an advantage. 7. 10. 4. CHANGING WORK HABITS Question assumptions.
Everybody is a ‘manager’. ‘to see it being done right’. In these settings. ’when you start trying to anticipate what he will find you get better as a manager’. for this type of scheme to work. The work force are kept informed of costs.not to catch people making mistakes.Cultures A simple definition of a work place culture is that its culture is the personality of the business. However there needs to be a genuine desire embodied in a published mission statement.3-Organisations and People People at Work . There is a broadening of the agenda for joint problem solving and the facilitation of conciliation. The good managers welcome his visits because. Concentration on profitability should help employees identify with overall company goals. Finally in good. profit and loss and accord a high priority to what surplus is all about. They are ‘market driven’. a positive attitude to such visits is. Common factors that lead to involvement and pride in ownership are: a high degree of communication high pay / incentives promotion from within stress on training recognition of the ‘social’ side of work a genuine respect for the individual We quote the example of a successful and well known Australian manufacturing company. acknowledging the claims of employees . Performance standards are designed to provide ‘stretch objectives’. 49 . Work place cultures are affected by: • levels of trust • risk taking • stress • fears and anxieties • social interaction • factions and politics • the structure of reporting relationships • company policies • personnel practices • work flow and work loads • management and supervisory styles • job design Many successful companies show a high profit orientation. with scope for equity sharing and retraining. This attitude change has major implications for employee participation.and shareholders. well run organisations. . The CEO of another Australian company travels over 160. the additional tasks include making relations less adversarial.000 km a year visiting his plants and warehouses.
The word was intended to mean there would be an internationally accepted internal standard and systems. Ultimately managerial positions overseas have to be filled by Australians because they are the only ones prepared to perpetuate the gospel laid down by Melbourne headquarters. one needs many qualities which are not intellectual but personal. staff go to great lengths to discourage arrogance. was that the common standards and phraseology being talked about would all be set in Melbourne and it was a case of do everything the Australian way.Managing Human Resources Company Culture FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS A well known and respected director of an Australian company. started to use the word ‘seamless’ to describe what the Australian headquarters called a ‘consistent level of standards’. It took a couple of years in industry to teach me I knew very little. which operates in a number of overseas countries likes to relate this story.K.” Another leading and well respected Australian company director with an MBA from Harvard. such as leadership. It soon became obvious to the staff and management world wide. To those in the Melbourne head quarters. ‘To be a successful manager and not just a back room specialist. that what the word ‘seamless’ really meant. 50 . says that even there. usually after the second port: “It is not only the MBA courses that produce arrogant graduates.. London. that it would probably be years before we worked ourselves up to a job senior enough to look on business from the high perspective from which we had been regarding it at school. Tokyo. But that is a warning young people find difficult to accept. “They tried to tell us that we would come out jacks of all trades and masters of none.” A common view of these two people is that. I came from University with a doctorate degree in economics thinking I knew everything in the world. and other parts of the world. The company found itself with serious problems of how to handle the discontent and complaints about corporate imperialism! The ultimate result of this philosophy was that creative and dynamic staff soon left because their freedom of thought was being eroded and only customers who are attracted to and want to buy Australian will remain as customers. New York or Singapore. it would mean that any client would receive a constant quality whether they purchased the services the company offered in Australia.’ An Australian owned company operating in the U.
The newcomers simply had nothing to forget. buildings and stock holdings. indoctrination.in whatever country .3-Organisations and People Forgetting Curves FUTURE SHOCK It was not the great companies traditionally linked with radio valves that made the great success of semiconductors. This was not through lack of knowledge and skill on the part of the original companies. but companies that were working in different areas. The reluctance to change comes in part from the attitudes described already. 51 . changing responsibilities. probably the wrong mix of skills in the work force. Education. These constraints will be compounded by old style attitudes towards management methods. but small companies that were almost complete strangers to the field. Forgetting curves persist for several reasons. A long established company will have old plant. A new company that has full access to latest technology . surplus machinery and buildings and will carry stock no longer relevant to the business. STRUCTURE An organisation that has evolved successfully around one type of product or market environment can rarely change rapidly. habits of thinking. but because their forgetting curves were too long. early retirement and restructuring of firms are all methods that need to be considered and acted upon. new people. but it is also due to too slow a pace of change. pride. and an ethos ill suited to the changing world. This is the irony and the threat. Yet all too often. will build up staff to the minimum level needed to work the equipment and will not be burdened by surplus plant. nor indeed lack of enterprise.will immediately acquire the most up to date equipment. It was not the great electronic companies that made the conquest of computers possible. new firms merely graft opportunities or challenges onto existing structures rather than take bold steps into the future. will train staff to the optimum level. People who can recognise the foothills of some dramatic change rather than merely seeing them as perturbations in the normal run of business are vital to innovation. ATTITUDES Dedication to past traditions. These are common human characteristics and should not be regarded as failings. arrogance or just plain obstinacy are invariably present when forgetting curves are long. a trade union structure inherited from earlier and different times.
yet allows operators to settle into a satisfying work rhythm. seems a fitting adage for the new millennium and should be practised at all times. The importance of quality service should be instilled early in every employee’s career and constantly reinforced by management. performance is critiqued to work out ways for improvement. But the boss is not breathing down their neck. Employment security. targets for performance are set. • A feeling that their work is useful to society. i. SHAREHOLDERS or OWNERS The third leg of the stool. Shareholder accountability should be safeguarded by those elements of organisational culture that encourage productivity and sound financial management.e. ‘The Customer is King (or Queen)’. good wages and benefits and employee safety are seen as the major issues in a lot of companies. Can your company conduct competitive customer service competitions to encourage excellence in customer service. 52 . • A situation where they can get help and respect from their work mates. • Adequate elbow room .Managing Human Resources Cultural Attributes .people are not left completely on their own so that they do not know what to do next. EMPLOYEES The chance to learn The first element involves treatment of on the job and to go employees.a job which enables the person to grow.The Three Legged Stool The Criteria for a Satisfying Job • An optimal level of variety . • The chance to learn on the job and to go on learning. feedback on performance is provided. • A desirable future . Dedication to the service ethos should be a powerful value in successful companies.one that avoids boredom. Employees dedication and loyalty is seen as a quid pro quo as a perception of fair treatment by the company. CUSTOMERS The second leg of the stool. which forms a prominent part of on learning the psychological contract between company and employee.
to your premises? Or your business was hit by an earthquake? (These are actual examples from our own work experience.3-Organisations and People Crisis Management Is your organisation prepared for the unexpected? Is your organisation prepared for. 53 . in 50% of cases it will interfere with business. in 50% of cases it will effect profits.) When this was originally written Sydney had just experienced a major hail storm. fast? Statistics suggest once a crisis commences: in 70% of cases it will escalate. IN A MAJOR BUSINESS CRISIS Do your key employees have a (confidential) list of after hours phone numbers? Who is the back up person if you are unavailable? Which Government Departments would you need to contact? Are their phone numbers on your list? Would the switchboard operator be able to handle incoming calls and questions in a crisis? Would a dedicated 1800 phone line be appropriate for use in a potential emergency? SOME POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREAS • Industrial accidents • Environmental problems • Union problems / strikes • Product recalls • Rumours / media leaks • Government regulatory problems • Terrorism • Embezzlement • Bad debts • Loss of a key supplier • Loss of a major customer What if your business burnt down on a Sunday night? What if there was no power supply one morning. and able to handle a major crisis? Is your organisation capable of handling a major crisis? Do you have a crisis management team with clearly defined strategies for crisis? Can you get accurate information about your crisis. Tarpaulins to cover roofs had to be flown in from China. which was reported as being Australia’s second worst natural disaster. At the time of a major revision of this book Sydney was experiencing bushfires with major loss of property. and weeks later many people affected by the storm were still experiencing difficulties.
DO YOU HAVE A POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARD SUCCESS? 1) Are you happy only when you are doing better than others? 2) Do you feel that achievement commands respect? 3) Is it important to you to do well in the things you undertake? If you answered yes to these questions you have a positive attitude to be being successful.2 million motor cars.a euphemism for staff retrenchments. ‘The pearl was once a bitter almond.2 million cars and trucks. Mark Twain said: Training is everything.S. Many companies.have identified several phases in the process. often on a major scale .000 people to produce more than 4.Some Peter Principles DOWNSIZING People responsible for downsizing .’ 54 .Managing Human Resources Downsizing . In the same year Toyota employed only 97. A cauliflower is nothing but a cabbage with a university education. THE GRIEF PHASE Shock Staff drop their work Staff congregate in groups for long periods of time trying to understand the ramifications A paralysis of feeling THE DEPRESSION PHASE Bargaining has failed A sense of helplessness and loss of control sets in Pessimism and hopelessness take place Some people with low skills remain in this phase until retirement ACCEPTANCE A recognition that the job and its benefits are lost An ability to look for new work and move on emotionally Rehabilitation and rebirth In 1991 General Motors in the U. organisations and managers peak at an optimum size or level of competency.000 people to make around 4. employed more than 400. by performing at least one rung below the maximum level of incompetence.
& S.) All organisations should have an Occupational Health and Safety policy in place which is clearly understood by all employees. They have a meeting now and again after our other meetings”. & S. the subject of O. H. came up. “We even keep minutes”. and many organisations have a full time officer to handle this complex task. ‘Jim to buy some band aids to stock up the first aid kit’. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be aware of current legal requirements and keep up to date with changes in legal requirements and community expectations. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be able to represent both employer and employee in the consultative process. O.H. Are your employees equipped with appropriate protective equipment? Does your organisation have an easily accessible FIRST AID station and a trained person to render emergency assistance? Does your organisation have a list of emergency phone numbers to be used in emergency situations? Does your organisation have an emergency procedure plan in place? Of course Occupational Health and Safety is a far more complex subject than this. at work In a general discussion with a construction company with 50 workers which we were doing some consulting work for. 55 . Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should have the knowledge. and be able to identify potential and existing risks and hazards. Some of the issues to address: Employees need to be aware of the factors involved in work related injuries and disease. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be able to develop and implement preventative strategies. Those responsible for the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be equipped with the necessary skills to carry out and perform these policies and their functions under this policy. The only entry for at least a year read.3-Organisations and People Occupational Health and Safety (O. and be made aware of changes in Occupational Health and Safety issues. A little later the appropriate minute book was shown to us. & S. The organisation should have a system for investigating. reporting and recording incidents and accidents with an emphasis on prevention. was the proud response. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should implement training policies to effectively address relevant issues in their organisation.H. “We have a committee that looks after that. skills and competencies to carry out their tasks.
The lesson is clear: to be competitive. In press article she claimed that. Good equal-opportunity practice Can you increase their makes good business sense. • In most companies 80% of the profits come from 20% of the customers. would someone want to A study in the United States rated the come and work in this performance of the Standard & Poors 500 organisation?” companies on equal-opportunity factors.Managing Human Resources Discrimination At the time of writing Sue Goward was the high profile head of the Office of the Status of Women. • In most companies 80% of the complaints come from 20% of the customers. ability to achieve by Surveys show that poor equal-opportunity enhancing their selfpractices contribute to high staff turnover and esteem and improving absenteeism. It found that companies rated in the bottom 100 for equal opportunity had an average of 8% return on investment. including the recruitment and promotion of women and minorities. organisations need to take advantage of the Can you gain more from range of talents of their staff and strengthen your people by their business profiles and management empowering them. diversity. “Why management. ‘Discrimination does not come cheap. 56 . A University of Melbourne study their skill set? has estimated it costs a professional services firm about $75.’ The PARETO PRINCIPLE • In most companies 80% of the sales come from 20% of the customers. it is better known as bad themselves. but also lost managers should opportunity. Companies rating in the top 100 had an average return of 18%.000 to replace a key employee. In fact it is almost passé to talk constantly ask about discrimination. Its costs are not just financial penalty or damaging Human Resource publicity for a company.
a suggested Outline As a component of their Human Resources policy an organisation should have an employee handbook. Sporting activities 7] These special services are for you 8] Index / table of contents 57 .3-Organisations and People An Employee Handbook . & S. H. Use of telephones How to air complaints 6] These are your benefits Holidays Rostered days off Work insurance Hospital and medical benefits Free parking Training program Christmas bonus Savings plan Profit . which is given to all employees when they commence working for the company. etc. annual outing.sharing plan Suggestion awards Service awards Credit union Education plans Medical dispensary Employee purchases Cafeteria Monthly magazine Social club. This handbook could contain information on the following: 1] Welcome message 2] History of the organisation 3] This is our business 4] You and your future 5] What you will need to know Working hours Reporting to work ‘Time clock’ Rest periods Absence from work Reporting absences Employment record Pay period Shift premiums O.
Internal auditors may be responsible for checking procedures. A code of ethics may be necessary to support a Code of Conduct. Employees would be expected to read it.Managing Human Resources Code of Conduct Many organisations produce a Code of Conduct for their employees. such as: What do we as an organisation think is worthwhile? What are our core values? What sort of principles are we using for our decision making process? These issues and values can be developed at monthly staff meetings 58 . including cultural issues. Everything must be above board and be seen to be so. Procedures might include: Protection of confidential information Avoiding conflicts of interest Directing media contacts to media relations Prohibiting drugs and alcohol Eliminating the risks of fraud and corruption Prohibiting gambling Discouraging and reporting gifts and entertainment A code of ethics may be necessary to support a Code of Conduct and to address issues. ask questions of their supervisor and then sign it to indicate they understand the ethical procedures of the organisation.
is an old adage veteran diplomats like to use. we might free ourselves from the mental tyranny of misusing power in negotiation. harmful behaviour confronted effectively. Negotiation can be more than a contest in relative power. Bargaining is also useful when limited resources must be shared.3-Organisations and People Negotiation Negotiate is what we do when the other side can hurt us’. This view implies there must be a winner and a loser. The two begin to bargain when the customer perceives that the price of the object is not fixed. THE UTILITY OF BARGAINING Bargaining is often legitimate. and new and more satisfactory ways of sharing a broad range of resources negotiated. and that outcomes favourable to both sides are possible. in which one side tries to win as much as possible while minimising the risk of getting hurt. Consequently. and the customer would be willing to buy if the price were right. This implies that negotiation is an exercise in relative power. can be an opportunity rather than a problem. Most of us see differences between us as problems to which we must apply our imagination to get our way. How much each side wins or loses depends on its relative power and its skill in using this power. People who try to resolve conflicts through the use of power often get the creativity of their opponents turned against them. during negotiation. and each party is striving to maximise its portion: the idea of splitting the difference may lead to a quick agreement that leaves everyone satisfied. If we could believe that conflict. CREATIVE NEGOTIATION: A WIN . Conflicts of need arise naturally and can produce beneficial results. or threatening to use it. when properly managed. but is not limited to bargaining 59 . Negotiation is a complex process that includes. such as when a shopkeeper would rather sell for less than not at all. at least relatively. what is seen as a win-lose confrontation (usually by both parties) frequently winds up as a lose-lose: neither party gets what it really needs.WIN APPROACH More than ever before conflict must be resolved beneficially.
60 . bargaining may be the best way to settle an issue. when ideologies conflict. peers and staff measure your professionalism? They are continually using clues to assess you (don’t forget. or when impasse exists. ‘Well. I got him down to ten. You can assert your control by influencing and optimising the effect of the clues you are sending. in areas such as: • Symbols of authority • Symbols of expertise • Vocabulary and articulation skills • Personal character development • Personal packaging When competitiveness or suspicion pervades a relationship. Measuring your professionalism How do your customers. He said. It is usually used to describe a commercial transaction or a trade off: Union-management talks being a good example. when haggling is expected and appropriate. techniques that may occur in negotiation but are not essential to it. but adultery is still in’. confront a problem and arrive at an innovative solution that best meets the needs of all parties and secures their commitment to fulfilling the agreement reached. Even Moses when he came down from the mountain after getting the Ten Commandments admitted to some negotiating. you only get one chance to make a first impression). when the use of power threat are endemic. The word bargaining is more or less synonymous with haggling.Managing Human Resources Creative Negotiating Creative negotiating is a process whereby two or more parties meet and through artful discussion and creativity. when the relationship is short term and formal. compromising or trading. we negotiated together. This includes bargaining.
speeches. tactics. Who are the decision makers. What led up to these negotiations and what possible solutions are available? Research the present conditions. and those wishing to maintain the status quo? Determine the costs of a stalemate. Is a site visit appropriate? Formulate requirements. philosophy. Familiarise yourself with the opponent’s past behaviours. Consider time and timing. viewpoints.do your homework ahead of time. Are there third parties or other people such as lawyers involved? Identify the power figures on the other side. What is the best alternative if my final offer is rejected? What is the next best alternative? Choose strategy or tactics. writings. aspirations. change agents. How much pressure will I be under to achieve an agreement? Should we finalise the matter later? Identify all the parties to the negotiations. What tactics best suit this situation? 61 . Evaluate both yours and that of the other party. Research the history of the conflict.3-Organisations and People The Process of Negotiation Preparation and planning . Research the opponent or opposition. What do you need out of the negotiations? Assess motivations. successes and failures.
Matters such as the use of facilities. Great care should be taken at this stage against any possible misconceptions. The reasons for the negotiation are summarised in unequivocal words. Initial remarks. Conclusion. arrival and protocol.) and support services can be discussed. Establishing the agenda. work schedules (hours. Agreements may be reached in stages. This is vital. The remarks do not deal with matters of substance. Developing an agreement. precedence. Statement of the problem. rituals. This can range between the parties saying ‘okay’. Formalities. Ratification. breaks. shaking hands or be far more complex and need some type of formal ratification. Establishing ground rules. to soften up the opponent. Seldom is anything critical discussed. 62 . as the purpose is to become acquainted amicably. This should be a step to a statement of the goals desired. Introductions. but all the activity of working out an agreement. relaxed and friendly environment that will discourage tension and competitiveness and encourage co-operation and a willingness to solve problems. This includes not only bargaining. The goal is to create an informal. The formal opening of the meeting and the presentation of the participants may establish rank. This step primarily sets the tone of the conference. This may vary between nodding of heads in agreement or the construction of a complex legal document. or can be introduced at appropriate or (advantageous) or vital times.Give and take. and there may be several stages at which agreements are reached. This is the problem solving stage. or to assess the potential problems involved in the negotiation. Opening the meeting. A formal agreement may be examined for loopholes. seating arrangements.Managing Human Resources The Negotiation Conference Pre negotiation discussion This may be done to establish a relationship. or charter. This is where the art of negotiation. You must ensure that all the items you consider critical are on the agenda. the crux of the negotiation. good or bad is displayed. etc. Discussion . ambiguous words or phrases etc. Review and adjustment. The meeting can be held at each others office or a neutral site. a statement of purpose. or a review of the background to the conference may come at this step. and other aspects of each party’s relationship to its counterpart.
Q. A question wants a playmate..What are they? A question is an opening to creation. A question is an unsettled and unsettling issue. TWELVE BASIC QUESTIONS Introduction Q. What is the reality of the situation? 8..that is not clear? The questions: 1. What do you need to do at this time? 11.g.e. What solutions have been attempted so far? 3. What is it about.... What would you like to see happen? 9.. criticism. What else would you like to see happen? 10. What is your feeling regarding the situation? . What is it about these attempts that did not work? 4.. I would like to get clear about my relationship to. A question is an invitation to creativity. What is the goal you would like to achieve? 2.g... How would your life be different if this situation were changed? 12.. What one thing are you willing to change to make this be what you would like it to be? 63 . A question is a point of departure.e. fear. 6.. A question is a disguised answer.3-Organisations and People Questions .. A question pokes and prods that which has not yet been poked and prodded... judgement. A question is seductive foreplay. hurt. 5. sorrow. What benefits do you receive from having this situation? 7. anger. What would you like to get clear about today? A. What is your attitude regarding the situation? . A question is a beginning of adventure.. contempt. A question has no end and no beginning.
Managing Human Resources
My Job - My Role
This quick quiz should be done from memory, without reference to any outside prompts. The most important areas of activity for me are: 1] 2] 3] The major outcomes required from my job are: 1] 2] 3] Targets which I am expected to meet are: 1] 2] 3] The most important people/departments for me to interact with are: 1] 2] 3] The individuals / groups I have direct authority over are: 1] 2] 3] For most people at work there is: A role that should be performed, a role that the person thinks they are performing and there is a role that they are actually performing. A common method of overcoming these problems is Management by Objectives [MBO], or similar setting of objectives for a person’s position. Some of the criteria used to set these objectives: CLEAR definite, specific and unambiguous. MEASURABLE in terms of quantity and / or quality CONSISTENT will contribute to the desired end result of the organisation or unit. CHALLENGING encouraging personal skills and knowledge growth ACHIEVABLE possible for the job holder ACCEPTABLE agreed to and accepted by both the person and the person’s manager.
4 Leadership and Motivation
Managing Human Resources
What type of leadership should an effective leader provide? Some of the myriad leadership responsibilities of management include: Showing the way, and defining the goals and intentions of the organisation. Going ahead of, in a spiritual relationship with your people. Guiding, people into alternate methods and directions. Causing progress, and setting in motion people and activities for progress. Being decisive, and maintaining constant flow and growth. Having grace under pressure Creating pathways with the leader’s values and visions. Controlling and influencing actions of people and the organisation. Directing and maintaining cohesive achievement. Commanding and exerting authority in the context of effective leadership. Raising morale, of people and the organisation. Being the first and more important, letting others be the first, and receive the credit. Heading the team and being ultimately responsible for what happens. Beginning, and setting in motion the stimulus and movement for motion. Each of us wants continuing reassurance on two points: 1. ‘Tell me what you expect of me.’ 2. ‘Tell me how I am getting on.
Good supervision is the art, of getting average people, to produce superior work.
welds them into a focused team to advocate the common goal. Information on what is happening and on what is going to happen. This association will result in the leader being automatically associated with a concept of success. a living symbol. An even work flow free from peaks and troughs. The Living Symbol Leads in a highly visible manner. The people working for you will expect: Clear direction and objectives. a good listener and be prepared to collaborate with the management team. and makes the necessary decisions and changes. everyday actions that enable people to associate the leader with the success of the organisation. and interpreting this meaning for the people in the organisation. sorts the truth from the challenges. Continually evolving. based on their present work to prepare them for advancement Proper equipment and adequate resources. 67 . at every opportunity. Protection from hazards. a team builder. This will involve simple. Equal and fair treatment. A good example. Good training. To develop as a team. and a buck stopper for their own enterprise. Good working conditions. The Team Builder Puts the correct people in the correct places for the leadership team. elaborating. which is not necessarily a charismatic style but a constant and persistent pattern of reinforcing the organisational goals. This person needs to be open minded. Recognition of their performance and of their worth as individuals. This person will become a ‘human logo’. using their individual strengths and resources. Encouragement of effort. including target dates. continuously developing them as a team and as individual leaders who can produce the desired results.4-Leadership and Motivation Leadership The Visionary Creates meaning by crafting a vision. within the enterprise. The Buck-stopper Faces the difficult issues. Each of these people needs to be a visionary. mission and direction that define the focus of an enterprise.
Managing Human Resources Leadership Steps PROCESS LEADER BEHAVIOURS BASIS Power Base Legitimate ASSIGN Reward Coercive Expert Referent Information Direct Order Instruct Plan OUTCOMES IMPLEMENT Guide Support Monitor Delegate EVALUATE REWARD Control Review Critique Appraise Revise Feedback Reward Punish PERFOR -MANCE Productivity Satisfaction Turnover Absenteeism 68 .
4-Leadership and Motivation Empowerment . Teams work together to improve their performance continually. • Change is slow and rare and comes from the top. The pyramid TRADITIONAL JOB SPECIFICATIONS People work cooperatively.What is it? Empowerment is a fundamentally different way of working together. achieving higher levels of productivity. Control and co-ordination come through continual communication. authority and control are shared. many employees find it very difficult to embrace EMPOWERMENT and to come to terms with it. • Each person is responsible for their own job. Employees feel responsible not for just doing a job. As with all change in the work place. Organisations are structured in such a way that people feel that they are able to achieve the results they want and that they can do what needs to be done. but also for making the whole organisation work better. The CUSTOMER is in the centre. As with most other new business ideas. EMPOWERMENT involves both managers and employees in rethinking old ways and learning new ones. reinforced at a number of meetings. The circle NEW ORGANISATIONAL FORM 69 . • Feedback and communication is from the top down. This invariably involves a vast shift in the way management and staff operate and will need to involve dedication and commitment. • Decisions are made at the top. Many people consider EMPOWERMENT as yet another buzz word in a seemingly never ending string of business solutions with a catchy name. • Movement and communication between divisions is minimal. Change can be rapid to meet challenges. Responsibility. skills.
and having the courage to be different. and regular communication. "The hard-faced image of the banks is not going to help us grow. grow and break out". bullying and inconsistent Feels threatened by divergent opinions and will surround him or herself with people of similar views Withholds information. John McFarlane. uses his or her power to effect change Enjoys intimidating staff and is often autocratic Is one dimensional Quells conflict rather than drawing differences out Is a workaholic with few if any close relationships HR at the banks At Hewitt Associates. and signs off personally on many pieces of communication with staff. Bell and Brown say that any change in culture that creates a desirable employer brand has to come from the top of an organisation. we have been doing lots of work on performance ethics. being more in control. "It is a simple communication to everyone in the company about performing better. about what gets our people excited and performing well. Maintain open. At Westpac." In early 2001. Encourage public service Encourage creativity Commit ourselves to productivity and quality Maintain consistency Dedication to improvement Keep things simple and basic Build on a basis of ‘need’ Give attention to detail Conserve resources Listen carefully to what others are saying and ‘take it on board’ A Bad Boss Is dictatorial. the bank began a program of what it calls "perform. We want to be the bank with the human 70 . chief executive David Morgan put his name to the "barbecue cards". consistent." McFarlane says. McFarlane says: "In terms of running the bank. honesty and integrity. the chief executive of ANZ Banking Group. has been keen promoter of better communication and motivation of staff.Managing Human Resources Good Leadership Demonstrate concern for people Provide for opportunity and assist in self development Provide an atmosphere encouraging self-satisfaction and pride Encourage team effort Maintain complete fairness. Similarly.
Completely. how you are going to do it and how much you are prepared to gain or sacrifice while getting it. Everything is not black and white . totally. • Stay the best at what you do You are responsible for your life. Stop looking around for people. Ultimately you decide what you are going to do. organisations and movements to blame. Obstacles. utterly.intimately. Finally.but you must do it if you want your life to progress and if you want to grow.either way . Fate. • Get better at what you do. whatever will throw you chances here and there but it is up to you to take hold of them. Enhancing the people agenda is vital for us.far from it." Future Vision How will you rate and address: Customer requirements? Employees’ desires and expectations? Improved employee job satisfaction? Improved communications. 71 . It often takes extreme courage and strength to make a decision . • Be the best at what you do. brick walls. and life is complicated. for customers but equally importantly for our people. A yes/no decision every time. both up and down? Active employee support for company vision.4-Leadership and Motivation face. goals and objectives? Improved quality and productivity? Suppliers’ desires and expectations? Core competencies? Vital issues affecting your business and organisation? Personal desires and ambitions of the leadership team? And compare against your local competitors? And compare against the worlds best practices? A Personal Goal • Be good at what you do. and everyday hassles will constantly try to hold you back (mainly in the form of other people) but it is up to you whether you let these affect you or not. 100% responsible. get to know yourself . destiny. When you peel back all the layers of yourself and the world it is as simple as that.
16. 2. Achievement: the feeling of accomplishing something at work. Supervision . 4. Independence: the chance to work without supervision.technical: the competence of my supervisor in making decisions. Responsibility: the freedom to use my personal judgement. Ability utilisation: the chance to do something with my abilities. Activity: the chance to be busy all the time.Managing Human Resources Leading a team . 72 . Community service: the chance to do things for other people. 18. 8. Co-workers: the way co-workers get along with each other. 6. 17. 9.human relations: the way the boss handles subordinates. Company policies and practices: the way company policies are put into place. 15. Ethical values: the chance to do things that do not go against my conscience or ethics. Social status: the chance to be recognised in the community. 13. 3. 11. 10. 12. 19. 5. 7. Compensation: the pay for the amount of work done. Working conditions: the amount of comfort and safety on the job. Variety: the chance to do different things from time to time. Creativity: the chance to try doing things my way. 20. Authority: the chance to tell other people what to do. Advancement: the chance for advancement. 14. Security: the provision of steady employment in my job.20 Work related needs and requests 1. Supervision . Recognition: the praise for doing a good job.
Maintenance factors. Herzberg believed that only those needs that corresponded to Maslow’s ego status and self-actualisation levels were direct sources of work motivation. Maslow believed that an individual must satisfy one need before feeling free to take on the tensions associated with the next level and before trying new behaviours aimed at satisfying the next higher need. issues such as achievement. Among his motivating factors were the challenge of the job itself. advancement. Abraham Maslow held that individual unsatisfied needs are the main source of motivation. and the nature of the work will over ride money considerations. A sense of belonging. centred on issues not directly related to work and were factors that most people assumed would be met. recognition. Motivating factors. and the nature of the work. recognition. It held that money is the prime motivating factor and that financial rewards should be related directly to performance. which he labelled dissatisfiers. safety. He placed five needs in a hierarchy from most basic to most mature: Basic or psychological (as needed for survival). Many people at first glance think that money is the all important motivator. with money seldom discussed! 73 . Frederick I. However research shows that as long as a reasonable and fair income is supplied. and growth. job security. and good working conditions. evolved early in 20th century from the scientific management theory. he found overlapped both categories.what motivates people at work? The Traditional theory of motivation. a sense of belonging. or maintenance factors. more attention was focused on the worker. He called these factors motivators and he thought that the lower level needs of survival and safety. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory As the Human Relations movement grew.invariably the answer is achievement.4-Leadership and Motivation Motivation . achievement. Among Herzberg’s maintenance (dissatisfier) factors were salary. Focusing more specifically on the work situation. ego status and self actualisation Sequence. responsibility. recognition. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory. In some of our tutorials we ask people what work issues they talk about in their breaks .
Managing Human Resources What motivates people at work? National surveys of workers consistently indicate the following important motivating factors: Element Achievement Recognition Nature of work Responsibility Advancement Wages / money Ranking 41 33 26 23 20 15 What motivates you? What do you do best? How often do you do that? What would you rather be doing than your present job? Is there anyone with whom you would like to exchange jobs? What appeals to you about the other job? Can any part of this be included in your present work? What stands in the way of you doing this? What part of your job do you do least well? How much of the time do you do this? When are you most productive? How often does this positive situation occur? What does your productivity depend upon? Are you able to ‘run’ with your most productive times or does your schedule or other duties cut them short? When are you happiest in your work? Are these times the same as your productive times? 74 .
to become more like one’s natural self SELF ESTEEM Status. sexual needs. clothing and physical fitness 75 . privileges. being informed. authority. prestige. trust. feedback. recognition. living quarters. selffulfilment. selfesteem. attention Self respect. autonomy.4-Leadership and Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs focuses on the inner needs of individuals SELF ACTUALISATION Drive to become what you are capable of Inherent well-being. the opportunity to fulfil one’s basic potential. security PHYSIOLOGICAL Basic need for food. belonging. fringe benefits. personal growth and development. routine. professional group membership SOCIAL BELONGING Need for affection. stability. drink. esteem needs for accomplishment. acceptance and friendship Social needs for affection and caring relationships. safety. friendships. financial reward. participation. helping other people SAFETY Need for security and protection from physical and emotional harm Health care. independent thought and action. achievement Ego and status. recognition. discussions.
from the top 76 .Managing Human Resources Motivation and Needs ORGANISATIONAL GENERAL FACTORS Growth Achievement Advancement Recognition Status Self esteem Self respect Companionship Affection Friendship NEED LEVELS Self .actualisation SPECIFIC FACTORS Challenging job Creativity Advancement at work Achievement in work Job title Earn a pay rise Peer recognition The nature of work Quality of supervision Compatible work mates Professional friendships Safe work conditions Fringe benefits Job security Heat and air conditioning Base salary Canteen Working conditions Ego. Esteem Social Safety Safety and security Security Competence General wage increases Stability Air Food Shelter Sex Psychological WHAT CAUSES WORK DISSATISFACTION SATISFACTION Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Company policy Company administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Wages Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Security Items are listed in order of importance. Status.
Another way is to offer these people a stake in the business by means of share ownership. Life is similar to a juggling act with five balls.is rubber.are made of glass. Further you could make shares conditional upon specified service periods being completed. If the company was to become an unlisted public company there could be several options. The other four . The message is clear. the company gives them one free. one successful manufacturing organisation we know of is currently 66% owned by family members and the remaining 34% is owned by twelve key staff. An approach to issuing shares could be to allocate shares on the basis of length of service. As an example of staff share ownership. The organisation could: Issue newly created shares to staff at a discount Issue staff with contributing shares.family. friends and spirit . which would mean that they are partly paid with the proviso that they become fully paid at a later date Offer staff interest free loans to buy fully-paid shares Issue share rights or options. For every five shares they buy.4-Leadership and Motivation Motivation by shareholding Many newly successful businesses are forced to think long and hard about retaining their key employees. Glass shatters.work . Rubber bounces. giving staff the opportunity to buy shares at a specific price at a specific date Any share scheme would need to be structured in such a way that control of the business was not lost by its original proprietors. They worry that their larger and more affluent competitors might make them offers which they could not possibly match. One ball . One way of doing this is to create a special class of shares that give a profit entitlement but not an equity entitlement. health. Another organisation in the western suburbs of Sydney offers all employees the chance to buy company shares through a scheme that enables them to contribute 10% of their wages into a share pool. 77 . How can this risk be minimised? Many organisations already pay key staff a performance bonus.
HOT and COLD There is a story about a business tycoon who had no heirs. • Encouragement of effort. • Recognition of their performance and of their worth as individuals. • Information on what is happening and on what is going to happen. People in business who can hold opposites in their vision simultaneously can win the empire! This contextual shift is an interesting analogy for management! 78 . the runner-up created Baked Alaska. • An even work flow free from peaks and troughs. • Protection from hazards. The winning dish was the hot fudge sundae. and was fond of food and intellect. including target dates. • Good working conditions. • To develop as a team. based on their present work to prepare them for advancement • Proper equipment and adequate resources. • A good example. • Good training. He offered the inheritance of his business empire to whoever could create the best dish of food that was both hot and cold at the same time. • Equal and fair treatment. Most people are stumped by the apparent contradiction.Managing Human Resources The people working for you will expect: • Clear direction and objectives.
4-Leadership and Motivation Motivational Determinants of Behaviour The Individual • • • • • • • • • • • drive force emotion instinct need urge want desire wish feeling impulse striving Environmental event Effort Incentive • • • • • • • purpose interest intention goal plan aspiration attitude value Behaviour Performance Environmental event 79 .
Managing Human Resources Productivity and Motivation Most businesses suffer a common problem in motivating their people to greater productivity. has no motivating effect Requires ever increasing rewards Short lived. Quick adjustment Company cannot afford these offers Cynical acceptance Ineffective due to inflation and taxes Does not permit a change in life style No real incentive to produce Usually viewed as merited and expected Short lived gratitude Powerful and often lasting motivator Lack of self esteem Start looking for alternative job Many almost bankrupt companies have been saved by increased worker participation Must be a genuine threat Self motivation Best way of increased productivity Offers appealing to greed Minor wage increases Threat of losing job Provide stimulus Identify and tap into people’s inner drives See that people are matched with their capabilities and preferences 80 . In simplistic terms the answer is to identify their needs and employ their strongest talents. though very few people would agree to the premise that they are doing (being allowed) what they want to do and being used to their full potential. TASK Manipulating to perform Money for unpleasant jobs Threaten and manage by fear Increase productivity attempts External rewards FEELINGS EVOKED/RESULTS Disheartenment Working for a price Question own values Eventually become accustomed to threat Ignore threats and find own comfort level Short lived gains Erosion of effectiveness When expected.
4-Leadership and Motivation Does your Workplace suffer Morale Problems? Some common and often overlooked signs of morale problems: Poor and uncooperative attitudes Lack of enthusiasm Lack of commitment ‘Them and us’ mentality Nit picking and fault finding High. and growing levels of complaints Absenteeism Negativity General tardiness Poor appearance of the work place Lack of discipline Long. sour faces Staff openly discussing their discontent and grievances WHAT CAUSES LOW MORALE? Some common (and often easily rectified) causes: • Inaccessible management • Poor communication • Unrealistic goals • Hard to understand goals • Aloof management • Poor leadership by management • Lack of coaching by management • Bloated hierarchy (or workers think so) • Poor job placement • Poor work environment • No room for promotion or advancement • Lack of understanding of job responsibilities THE HIGH MORALE ENVIRONMENT • • • • • • • • • Interesting work Innovation welcomed A sense of accomplishment Recognition of effort Fair treatment of people Responsibility Appropriate compensation Attractive work conditions Opportunities for personal growth • Feeling important • A sense of belonging • Opportunities for advancement 81 .
Increased. Inappropriate anger 3. Irritability over trivial matters 2. Insomnia Burn out (a severe form of stress) Five stages of Burn Out can be readily identified: 1. Isolation and disinterest 82 .Managing Human Resources Stress and Work Some common causes of stress. Withdrawal 5. Frustration 3. Brooding 6. Depression 7. Vague speech patterns 5.drinking. Lack of enthusiasm and interest 2. smoking. eating. in order of occurrence: Type of work performed Lack of communication Under staffing Employer’s demands Preoccupation with work Incompetent supervisors Not allowed to do a good job Fellow workers Incompetent subordinates Stress . Stagnation 4. drugs 4.some warning signs Rapid pulse Intestinal distress Insomnia Frequent illness Nail biting Irritability Persistent fatigue Lack of concentration Hunger for sweets Increased use of alcohol and drugs Seven sure signs that you need a holiday: 1.
4-Leadership and Motivation
What attributes do you require to be a workaholic?
You do not think you are one, or admit to being one. You work through lunch and tea breaks. You work while waiting on the telephone. You get up early, regardless of when you go to bed. You can’t keep away from work on weekends, and ‘clean up’ then. You work on holidays. You take pen and paper to bed with you. You find it difficult to do nothing. You are energetic and competitive. You are able to work any time and anywhere. Travel time is used to process paper work. You are loath to take holidays. You are not looking forward to retirement. Your work habits exceed expectations. Your work is important by its sheer volume. Much of your work is for work’s sake, with little major impact. Statistics suggest few workaholics ever become a successful C.E.O.
Former McKinsey managing director, Ron Daniel, once outlined the company’s recruitment philosophy. “The real competition out there is not for clients, it is for people. We look to hire people who are first, very smart; second, insecure and thus driven by their insecurity; and third, competitive. Put together 3,000 of these egocentric, task-orientated people, and it produces an atmosphere of something less than humility.”
Managing Human Resources
Retaining scarce talent
One of the top strategies for retaining scarce talent is to identify the top 10 percent to 20 percent of the key people on staff and taking special care to keep them. These key people may be high-potential individuals or those who are critical to completing a major project. However, companies should not lose sight of the big picture. All people count, and smart companies realise this. Companies do not become great because of only a few key people—everyone must count all the time. Organisations should customise their solutions based on their workforce, culture, business situation, and business strategy. In general, companies should use a combination of components for creating total rewards and provide opportunities for individual growth, a positive workplace, a compelling future, and total pay. Some examples of successful strategies for retaining scarce talent are: Develop a buddy system. Provide a mentor for scarce talent that keeps them happy from day one. A good start goes a long way. Stay "state-of-the art" with your expectations of scarce talent. And make sure you pay scarce talent for developing new skills and competencies or your competitors will. Offer win-win project incentives for people remaining with your company until the successful completion of the project. Project incentives clearly acknowledge a person’s contribution to the company. And while many companies may already be doing this annually, consider incentives more frequently for those workers that prove to be increasingly valuable. Research shows that you may lose scarce talent within the first three years. Make people owners in the company through stock options as early in their careers as possible. Focus on key-talent workers below management level who may be more up-to-date on key technical skills and knowledge. Provide exciting and challenging work that people want to do. Look for the kind of business that interests people. This is a great way to keep individuals motivated. Produce meaningful (and breakthrough) work for your customers which in return will also be meaningful (and exciting) for the workforce. Provide excellent colleagues with whom people want to learn and work. Hire and train top-notch leaders people admire. Provide "feel good" benefits such as casual dress, longer vacations, flexible hours or work schedules, a pleasing and comfortable space, and amenities like a fully stocked kitchen and health club. Some companies even provide umbrellas in the workforce lobby for when it rains, allow pets at work, and provide car pools and transportation for employees’ children before and after school. Most companies are not in the business of buying talent at any price. Companies that have proven themselves over the years focus on strategies that keep key people who add value. The solution is total rewards. It is more than just how much people are paid or how many
4-Leadership and Motivation
share options they have.
Leadership - the delicate balance
Leading a group - try this checklist YES NO
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.
I would most likely act as the spokesperson for the group I would encourage overtime work I would allow members complete freedom in their work I would encourage the use of uniform procedures I would permit the members to use their own judgement in solving problems I would speak as a representative of the group I would needle members for greater effort I would try out my ideas in the group I would let the members do their work in the way they think best I would be working hard for promotion I would tolerate postponement and uncertainty I would speak for the group if there were visitors present I would keep the work moving at a rapid pace I would turn the members loose on the job and let them go for it I would settle conflicts when they occur in the group I would get swamped by details I would represent the group at outside meetings I would be reluctant to allow the members any freedom of action I would decide what should be done and how it should be done I would push for increased production I would let some members have authority which I could keep Things would usually turn out as I had predicted I would allow the group a high degree of initiative I would assign group members to particular tasks I would be willing to make changes I would ask members to work harder I would trust the group members to exercise good judgement I would schedule the work to be done I would refuse to explain my actions I would persuade others that my ideas are to their advantage I would permit the group to set its own pace I would urge the group to beat its previous record I would act without consulting the group I would ask that group members follow standard rules and regulations
Managing Human Resources 86 .
5 Training and Evaluation .
industry does not want to indulge in expensive assessments.not other people. Improved quality of products and services to customers. privacy. Cost effectiveness . Develop coherent and consistent training standards. Offer increased opportunities for advancement. 88 . Practicality . Reliability . Appraise performance on the job.ensuring the right competency is being assessed. Comparisons are made against specified standards . Increased skills levels. companies and the nation from: Increased productivity and efficiency. Linked to Industry or employment requirements .the total will be more than the parts.not classroom practices. • Safety . Some Features of Competency Based Assessment are: Measurement of actual outcomes and performance. Self paced. Companies assess workers in order to: Recognise skills and abilities acquired through non-formal training. • Equal Opportunity legislation. Provides consistency across enterprises. noise. Improve the responsiveness of training to industry requirements.no risk to candidates in accordance with OH & S practices. • Compliance with enterprise policy and procedures.no discrimination: • Underpinning the core values of the organisation. Good assessments will be HOLISTIC .) Competency Based Training was adopted by Australian business and industry to gain benefits for workers. distractions. • Occupational Health & Safety legislation. Fairness . Workplace reform. B. Some factors considered in selecting assessment methods are: Validity . Multi skilling of workers leading to greater versatility. Increased international competitiveness.Managing Human Resources Competency Based Training (C. T.in the work environment. Recognise skills and abilities acquired through experience in the workplace.ensuring the result would be the same no matter where or by whom the assessment was conducted.
What are the benefits of RPL for organisations? • It optimises use of training resources. What are the benefits of RPL for individuals? • Shorten time taken for qualifications. L. .Recognition of Prior Learning Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is the acknowledgement of skills and knowledge obtained through: • Formal training • Work experience • Life experience The main focus of RPL is the benchmarks or competency standards achieved.Performances or tests set to increase relevant current competencies. • Status in present job. 89 . However it is important that the applicant for recognition can demonstrate the skills and knowledge at this point in time. • It provides motivation for employees to participate in training.5-Training and Evaluation R. • Selection into a new job. • Promotion. Why have PRIOR LEARNING assessed? To gain: • Selection into a course or training program. It does not matter how. What evidence is acceptable as Recognition of Prior Learning? Historical Interview data Examination of products Reports from supervisors and referees Prizes Awards Certificates Current . P. • Recognise self worth. • Identify training and development needs. when or where the standards were achieved. • Save money.
Some issues to address are: What training needs does the organisation have. WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN? An acquaintance of ours.Managing Human Resources Training Needs Analysis Some organisations embrace Training Needs Analysis as part of Competency Based Training (CBT) and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). which is yet to be tested or applied in the academic field. in order to meet objectives. who is heavily involved in advanced training techniques with a very well known Australian training organisation. Japanese catch cry 90 . It offers new competency standards which include: 100% Unbelievably competent 80% Mega competent 20% Unbelievably incompetent 15% Painfully incompetent 5% Irrevocably incompetent 0% Rampant stupidity If your competitive advantage lies only in your equipment. goals and targets which have been set? What Training needs does the organisation have in order to meet National Standards? A survey could be conducted to ascertain these needs. Part of this survey could be asking staff to demonstrate their competence and have Prior Learning assessed. your competitors can easily catch up by making the same investment. has rather facetiously devised a new grading standard.
.. Career development activities Written communication skills 13........ a 4 for moderate strength... Reputation of company Leadership ability ... 6.. Salary Administrative knowledge and ability2.... 11. Then go over these strengths and weaknesses with a friend and ask for their candid opinion...... Immediate superior Intelligence .. research... and a 1 for a major weakness. 4.... Travel requirements 9........ 15.. Ambition and self motivation 5.... 10......... Clear job responsibilities Maturity and poise .) operations........ Freedom in working Sociability .. Job security .............................. Give yourself a 5 for a major strength......5-Training and Evaluation Evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses When you have established your goals and objectives...... Fringe benefits ... The answers to the four questions below can help that analysis : • • • • What are my six strongest skills? What is my greatest accomplishment in life? Is it saleable? Why should an employer hire me instead of someone else? Rate your self on each of the characteristics listed below.......... human resources.... In-service educational TOTAL opportunities ................ an analysis of your personal strengths and weaknesses is in order.Company policies and ....... Promotion policies Conscientiousness ........... a 2 for a moderate weakness.... Ingenuity and creativity ....... a 3 for a characteristic that is neither a strength nor a weakness. Work associates Educational credentials . Academic achievement (grades) ... etc......................... try to discover ways in which your skills can be used..... Job title . procedural manual 16...... When you have developed a list of your basic skills. 91 . finance.... 8.. decision Prior work experience ..... You will be surprised at how many different types of careers can be built from a given set of skills and interests... Participation in .......... 1... Cooperativeness 3... making 14............ 12......... environment Technical competence (marketing............................. Supervisory responsibilities Oral communication skills ... 7..
it is difficult to plan how to get there. you will have clearer understanding of your goals. values and priorities. 92 . For the top group. you should ask yourself the following questions: What kinds of tasks or activities have I enjoyed the most? What kinds of tasks or activities have I enjoyed the least? If I could have any job I wanted. Rate them by first dividing the items into four groups. Some of the factors that must be considered when answering these questions are: • desired income • geographical location • amount of travel • job security • independence • autonomy • and company size What price are you prepared to pay to get ahead? Are you willing to move whenever and wherever your firm dictates? When you answer these questions. which relate to work environments and advancement potential. 2. and so forth. 3. What are your priorities? The list of factors shown to the right. but without some idea of where you want to go. or 4 in the spaces following each item to show the group to which the item has been assigned. can help you find out. Goal analysis takes time. what job would it be? The best way to determine what you really want out of life is to answer such questions honestly. Assign the other eight to the two middle groups in a similar manner.Managing Human Resources Setting personal goals and objectives When setting personal goals and objectives. Place the numerals 1. you should go a step further and rank the four items from most important to second most important. putting the four most important to you in the top group and the four least important to you in the bottom group.
b) My job would be more efficient if somebody else was responsible for . What course would you like to do that would develop your personal skills (unrelated to the job)? 93 . What course or training program would you like to do that would directly improve your on-the-job performance? 16.) Review Job Description Amend Job Description Identify performance issues Identify additional resource requirements Set and review performance targets Determine and professional development initiatives Confirm next review Appraisal question booster Some questions (in no particular order) which may assist you to conduct a better appraisal interview.. What is the best way to measure the job you are doing? 8. Has anything changed in your life? Do we need to update your personnel file? 2. 6. What one skill would you most like to improve? 11. 4. 10. What one thing could I change in the workplace that would improve your productivity? 4. c) The one piece of equipment (within reason) that I wish we had is . Update personnel file (addresses.. Finish these phrases: a) My job would be easier if I was the one who . 8. 2. 3. 7. contacts. 1. 5. which one would it be? Why? 14. Are we measuring that adequately? 9. If you had to argue that one of my assessments of your performance is wrong. How do you set about the job you are doing? 3. Do you agree with my assessment of your performance? 13. Has your Job Description become out of date in any way? 15...5-Training and Evaluation Staff Appraisals An Agenda for an Appraisal Meeting 1.. Do you feel that you are given adequate feedback about the job you are doing? 7. How do you rate the communication within the business? 5.. How could you improve in the areas I identified as needing attention? 12. etc. How do you rate me as a communicator? 6.
...... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 PRESENCE Personality.... company... other.............. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 ATTITUDE Towards management.......... persuasiveness. ambition.................. other............... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 COMMUNICATION Expression................. economy of operation.......... time control... Position... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 SELF ORGANISATION Work planning... other.............. Date.. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 JOB KNOWLEDGE Procedures............. fluency......... other. job................................. personal goals........................ neatness.. compliance. others............ quality......... regulations............... Since last review • Improvement? 94 • Deterioration? • No change ... conformity.. authority and responsibility limits........ appearance.... other. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Name ......... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 SELF MOTIVATION Initiative..Managing Human Resources A Performance Review JOB PERFORMANCE Quantity..................... other -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 CO-OPERATION Work relationships............. other............... TOTAL RATING.
. Review and evaluate work of subordinates 7..... which of the following best describes the person’s attitude towards their organisation...... Plan a broad programme for their division or store 2. Manage sales growth 9. Wants to use their position as a stepping stone to a major position elsewhere... Personally supervise subordinates 6....... Dedicated to helping it reach its objectives... with personal ambitions subordinated to this goal..... Carry out the current programme 3.Doubtful Poorly Adequately Not Excellently observed 95 ... Do you feel that the person has the capacity to grow in case the business expands in size and activity? ... Delegate authority to subordinates 5. Wants to establish a secure position for themself with the organisation. Make contacts with outside organisations 8.Yes. Handle stock and expense control In your estimation..No....5-Training and Evaluation A Rating Form for Management How well does the person? 1........ Make wise and prompt decisions 4...
6 Case Studies .
clients and leaders • Vendors 97 . 7. 2. I have received recognition and praise for doing good work My supervisor. someone at work had talked to me about my progress At work. 6. 9.6-Case Studies The 12 attitudes that indicate an efficient office 1. or someone else at work. 4. has talked to me about my progress There is someone at work who encourages my development In the past six months. 3. 8. I know what is expected of me at work I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work right At work I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day In the past 7 days. 10. 5. 12. my opinion seems to count The mission/purpose of my company makes me feel that my job is important My fellow employees are committed to doing quality work I have a best friend at work In the past year I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow The changing world of work Old Have a job Office Success equals career ladder Authority Status equals position Entitlement Loyalty to company Salaries and benefits Job security Identity defined by job Bosses and manager Employees New • Do work • Virtual space • Success equals career lattice • Influence • Status equals impact • Marketability • Commitment to work and self • Contracts and fees • Personal freedom/control • Identity defined by and organisation circumstances and work done • Customers. 11.
I need to work somewhere my family commitments are recognised. 98 . customers. shareholders and the community? Are you familiar with the mainstreams of technical change as they affect your organisation? Do you know how to obtain information and advice? Do you intend to initiate change? Is your organisation keeping pace with the technology in your industry? Are new technologies likely to undermine your own competitive position? Are you investing sufficiently in R&D and product development to provide product and market leadership opportunities? Is there resistance to change in the organisation? Is management receptive to change and practised in its implementation? Are all employees informed about.Managing Human Resources A Human Resources Check List Is the correct priority being given to the interests of employees. To me. phased retirement. and participate in. That does not happen here. My new employer pays me what I am worth. the goals of this organisation are unclear. and the community sufficiently close? Is there scope for a relaxation of some of the traditional habits of employment? (Flexible hours.) Is the perpetuation of privileges and distinctions at different levels of the organisation generally acceptable? Are you too forthright? What you really want to say My efforts mean nothing to this organisation I was neglected and overlooked for training and promotion This organisation does not care about anyone’s family Everyone hates or detests the boss I feel as though I am underpaid I am sick of the poor reputation and work standards of this organisation How to say it Communication and feedback between management and staff are poor Training and career development programs were insufficient or did not help me. decisions affecting them directly? Is the participation genuine or contrived? When introducing technological changes do you think them out in terms of the needs of people. Our boss does not have the respect of staff because their management skills are lacking. job sharing. part time work. or mechanistically? Do you consult your work force about likely changes and invite their co-operation? Does your organisation aim to develop fully the potential of individuals throughout their careers? How do you assess employees for retraining? Are your contacts with schools.
When the company’s production had increased 10 fold to 1. a manufacturing company based in Sydney found a lucrative niche market for it’s products and continuously expanded their production and facilities. which in simplified form were. walls and barriers and major increases in non productive overhead costs. the demand for the company’s products grew ten fold. originally:10 production people were producing 100 units per hour. These days of course. (though some of that was obviously inherent). and • 23 in purchasing and expediting When management had recovered from the initial shock at the vast increase in people. Organisations and companies take business processes such as purchasing. comprising:• 100 production people • 10 supervisors • 1 manager • 3 assistant managers • 18 people in human resources • 19 people in long range planning • 22 in accounting and procedures. In due course.000 units per hour they required not 110 people (10 times as many) as thought but 196 people. said it would never be able to keep to the timetable if it did! 99 . lack of responsiveness. this company no longer exists in this form. Most people are able to identify an organisation with these problems! Keeping close to the customer! A suburban bus company accused of failing to pull up at bus stops to pick up passengers. They were amazed at the results. they realised that this diseconomy of scale was not all just a bureaucratic proliferation and empire building. with lack of innovation. Management realised and accepted grudgingly that their major problem was the Big is good college of organisational management syndrome. accounting and expediting and create fragmented departments with bureaucratic job titles. Invariably in this situation customer focus is lost and activity becomes more important than results.6-Case Studies Economies of Scale In the early 1990’s. and constantly increasing overheads and ‘analysis paralysis’. A few years later the company management decided to carry out a meaningful survey of the cost benefits and economies of scale they thought they had achieved by producing 10 times more product. which required 10 people and 1 supervisor. inflexibility.
This expression of the organisation’s acceptance of its obligations to the community in which it operates should create or reinforce the operations and activities of the organisation in a variety of ways to create benefits for both the organisation and the beneficiaries. particularly that of being a responsible unit in society. • To increase identification of employees with the organisation and the community. • To increase the organisation’s identification with a particular segment. Aged care support. community. responsibility. professional development and management development activities which are to the mutual benefit to all concerned. • To strengthen the organisational image as a market leader. e.Managing Human Resources Community Obligations and Charities Many organisations express their acceptance of their obligations to the community in which they operate by apportioning a percentage of after tax profits for allocation to appropriate causes and projects. • To plan and integrate organisational participation in charity. • To give tangible expression to the organisation’s belief in private enterprise. Some goals in this respect might be: • To reinforce organisational philosophy and values. by fostering self reliance rather than dependence. • To underline the importance of profits from another perspective. by relating implementation of charity donations to profitability. particularly on government.g. with charity projects supported by the organisation with a positive motivational impact. 100 . through specially targeted support to segments or niche areas. creativity and entrepreneurial action.
During the course of several interviews the State Manager’s wife left the interview without excusing herself and did not return. enthusiasm. with an appropriate pay scale. in the paper that week). What would you have done differently? 101 . Most applicants were surprised to find during the course of the interview that the position advertised as STATE SALES ADMINISTRATOR was merely an internal clerical position. The advertisement informed prospects that their company was the state branch of a national organisation. which aroused mixed feelings in some of those asked to attend for an interview. The advertisement said nothing about the companies products. Six weeks later many of the previous applicants permitted themselves a wry smile when they saw this position re advertised. Further. career focused. all on a Saturday. for a STATE SALES ADMINISTRATOR. ability to take direct control of customer enquiries. What duties would you expect a STATE SALES ADMINISTRATOR to perform? In due course over 100 written replies were received in response to the advertisement and interviews were arranged with the State Manager for 7 people. ‘maturity. customers or its people. commercial appreciation.6-Case Studies State Sales Administration A company placed a very large advertisement (it was the largest job ad. results orientated. The State Manager’s wife sat in on the interviews (without explanation as to why she was there) and asked a few questions of those being interviewed. and supplied no further information than that outlined here. sales and service orientated. some people were not surprised when they saw the same position advertised (in exactly the same terms) a further two times over the next few months. routine word processing and presentation of reports’. able to promote a team environment. determination. The advertisement went on to outline the following requirements for the position which included.
desire. action AQL Acceptable quality level AS Australian Standard CAD CAM C&F CBT CEO CIF CPM EDI FAS FIS FMCS FOB FOW GM Computer aided design Computer aided manufacturing Cost and freight Competency based training Chief Executive Officer Cost. interest.Managing Human Resources Some Human Resource Acronyms AIDA Attention. check. stupid Long term unemployed SBU Strategic business unit SWOT Strength. do. weaknesses.evaluation and review technique POS Point of sale QA QAE Quality assurance Quality assurance engineering QBS Queen bee syndrome QCS Quality customer service QM Quality management QWG Quality workshop group QWL Quality of work life R&D RDO RHIP ROI RPL RRP Research and development Rostered day off Rank has its privileges Return on investment Recognition of prior learning Recommended retail price HRM Human resource management HRPD Human Resource Planning and Development IT JIT Information technology Just in time manufacturing Kaizen Japanese concept of continuing improvement in all aspects of a persons home and work life. act PERT Programme. threats (analysis) TQM Total quality management USP Unique selling point MBO Management by objectives MD Managing Director MIS Management (or Marketing) information system MIT Managing information technology MRP Materials resource planning 102 VAM Value adding manufacture VAM-M Value adding management manufacture VSP Voluntary separation package WIIFM What’s in it for me? . opportunities. KISS LTU Keep it simple. insurance and freight Critical path method Electronic data input Free alongside ship Free into store Fast moving consumer goods Free on board Free on wharf General Manager OEM Original equipment manufacture OEM Original equipment manufacture OEM Original equipment manufacture PDCA Plan.
Despite the change in ownership head office still did not supply any guide lines. to address them. After two years the ongoing bad feeling between the two owners was resolved by one of them buying the other one out. much to the chagrin of the remaining director. The two co-directors who ran and owned the company (although they worked in offices only 15 meters apart they used to make appointments. expecting the new owner to say something motivational about the companies future and their role in it. much to the surprise of one of the directors. The new manager found this situation difficult. for meetings to see each other for discussions). but after three months was struggling to gain market share. days in advance. In due course the new branch was opened.) . budgets or policies for future directions. but set some budgets of his own.D. and we will take this new state by storm. and of course more profits on the bottom line. The general feeling seemed to be. was lost for words and could not find anything at all to say. On a number of occasions the new manager asked what was expected of the new branch.the manager there convened a meeting of staff and invited the M. In due course an experienced manager to run the new branch was recruited and that person spent six weeks at head office ‘learning the business’ and preparing to open the new branch.D.D. On a number of occasions the branch managers asked the M. for annual or six monthly managers meetings to discuss strategies and to 103 . When the topic of budgets was raised a firm answer or commitment could never be obtained. with optimistic and profitable projections for the next three years. kept referring to the other as the person who would be responsible as the person to report to. what was expected of him (no Job Description was ever supplied) who he would report to. However after a year the new branch was showing significant growth and market share and was running at a modest profit. The M. The benefits were thought to be an increased national presence. a further step towards a national network of branches. and in three months be in profit’. increased purchasing power. what budgets he was expected to set and perform to and a number of other similar questions. Despite this.6-Case Studies Interstate Branches A company with two interstate branches decided that the time was opportune to open a third interstate branch in another state. On a visit to one of the branches by the new sole owner . ‘We are market leaders here. The new branch continued to perform well and exceed the optimistic budgets the branch manager had set. much to the embarrassment and disappointment of the staff in this branch. the former co-owner used to enjoy visiting the branches he had helped create.who was also now Managing Director (M.D.
D.D. they will respond with enthusiasm and creativity. In order to keep in touch with the branches. generally performing well beyond the technical relationship of a fair day’s work for a fair days pay. Not surprisingly. The secret lies in psychological gratification in addition to monetary rewards. The branch managers overcame this by having regular meetings on the telephone. the M. In due course the M. was both surprised and hurt about the feedback he was getting from suppliers and customers about the lack of respect the branch managers and people working in the branches and in the industry had for him. Another important difference between developing behavioural skills. used to phone selected people working in the branches at home. The branch managers were not among the people he would phone at home. and found other jobs.D. internal people. ‘I don’t want my managers talking to each other and discussing sales and wages’. His reaction to this was swift. In all cases the replacement managers were inexperienced. wages and profitability. 104 . to find out what ‘was happening’. After the first manager was fired morale sagged and gossip in the branches and in the trade flourished. Economies or efficiencies were never achieved by leaving employees feeling that they are slightly underpaid. was held in ridicule. who had been earmarked as future managers without their knowledge. when they compared branch sales.Managing Human Resources review operations on a ‘big picture’ scale. What would you have done? Some simple People adages If competent people are hired. On various pretexts he fired all the branch managers over a short period. If they are provided with challenging responsibilities. By the time the third branch manager was ineptly and publicly dismissed the owner / M. They will respond to this feeling by slightly under working. a number of key people in all the branches looked for.D. The M. they will be able to do the work that is required. and physical skills is that different personalities may require different approaches. refused point blank and admitted that.
Named after Niccolo Machiavelli who wrote in the 16th century on how to gain and manipulate power.6-Case Studies Major personality attributes influencing organisational behaviour As a manager it may assist you to understand the behaviour and personality of your subordinates. Machiavellianism. which describes the growth and development of person’s whole psychological system. distrustful and resistant to change. They want to overcome obstacles and feel that their success or failure is due to their own actions. Locus of control. Authoritarism. ‘If it works. This is most often described in terms of measurable personality traits that a person exhibits. Personality can be thought of as the sum total ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. who tend to be less satisfied with their jobs) see themselves as pawns of fate. Personality looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. People with a high need and motivation to succeed (internals) can be described as continually striving to do things better. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic. maintains emotional distance. deferential to those above and exploitive of those below. and believes that ends can justify the means. The extremely high-authoritarian personality is intellectually rigid. tact and the ability to adapt to complex and changing situations this person may be viewed negatively. A long standing definition of personality is ‘the dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychological systems that determine their unique adjustments to their environment’ According to psychologists Personality is a dynamic concept. believing that what happens to them in their lives is due to luck or chance. judgmental of others. 105 . In jobs requiring sensitivity to the feelings of others. Some people (internals) believe they are masters of their own fate. Risk taking People differ in their willingness to take chances. Achievement orientation. This propensity to assume or avoid risk has been shown to impact on how long it takes managers to make a decision and how much information they require before making their choice. Rather than looking at parts of the person. use it’ is consistent with a highMach perspective. Other people (externals.
SITUATIONS seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behaviour . Culture establishes the norms. temperament. and biological rhythms. Different demands in different situations call forth different aspects of one’s Personality. e. physiological. The HEREDITARY argument can be used to explain why someone’s nose resembles her mothers or why someone is a good athlete. 106 . and inherent psychological makeup. stature. HEREDITARY refers to those factors which were determined at conception. The HEREDITARY approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individuals personality is the molecular structure of the genes. sex. while others such as a picnic in the park constrain few people. moderated by situational conditions. process. and values that are passed along from one generation to the next and create consistencies over time. the norms among our family. Change is inevitable. ENVIRONMENT concerns the culture in which we were raised . energy level. when their parents were also.Managing Human Resources Determinants of Personality An adults personality is considered to be made up of both hereditary factors (was their Personality determined at birth?) and environmental factors (the interaction with their environment). does change in different situations. SITUATION influences the effects of hereditary and environment on Personality. customers. and other influences that we experience. while generally stable and consistent. facial attractiveness. business strategies and leadership. but growth is optional.g. they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience would alter them. To obtain strong results including sustained growth and profit.some situations may constrain behaviour e. attitudes.g.people. muscle composition and reflexes. and social groups. If all Personality characteristics were completely dictated by hereditary. located in the chromosomes.our early conditioning. Physical. who your parents were and their biological. Church or a job interview. An individual’s Personality. loyal customers and a high performing workforce the company needs to embrace the five elements of an organisation . friends.
Submissive 5. allowing prediction of an individual’s behaviour in specific circumstances by weighing the characteristics of their situational relevance 1. Trusting 10. Practical 11. Relaxed Outgoing More intelligent Emotionally stable Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Sensitive Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Experimenting Self-sufficient Controlled Tense 107 . Serious 6. Less intelligent 3.6-Case Studies Personality traits Researchers have identified 16 PERSONALITY TRAITS. Expedient 7. Conservative 14. Group-dependent 15. which have been found to be generally steady and constant sources of behaviour. Affected by feelings 4. Uncontrolled 16. Forthright 12. Tough-minded 9. Reserved 2. Timid 8. Self-assured 13.
person with an Charm free Cerebrally challenged Consensual monogamy Cosmetically different Corporate recovery services specialist Corporate downsizing Corporate right sizing Differently abled Dipstick Equity retreat Experientially enhanced Fop. a Funding. lack of Gross national product Harvesting Geographical mobility will be encouraged Management Initiated Attrition Market adjustment Member of the career-offender cartel Member of the mutant albino generic-regressive global minority Motivationally deficient Non discretionary fragrance Persons with difficult to meet needs An obese person Boring Stupid Exchanging sex partners Ugly Bankruptcy accountant Retrenching workers Firing large numbers of workers Physically or mentally disabled Originally a device for measuring oil levels Stock market crash Old Someone whose coat and trousers match Excuse for most forms of inaction Politician’s measure of economic welfare Mass slaughter of helpless fish Extended country sales calls needed IBM talk for firing Fall in stock market Mafia member White person Lazy Body odour Serial killer Re-visiting a site Bombing a site previously bombed Service users Recipients of government benefits Servicing a target Bombing somewhere to ruins STD Once a form of telephone communication Severely euphemised Disabled Spend more time with my family (coalition) Have accepted a board position Spend more time with my family ( socialist) Have accepted a media position Statutory senility Retirement age Terminally inconvenienced Dead Vertically challenged Short 108 .Managing Human Resources Some Euphemistic Translations Business speak for the new millennium Alternative body image.
When corrected for something I did or omitted. I understood how they fitted into the overall aims for the engagement. TOTALS 109 Agree 4 5 . Disagree 1 2 3 When assigned tasks. it was done in a constructive way. whether good or bad. I thoroughly understood what was expected of me. My work was interesting and challenging. I felt I was a member of a well functioning team. Team meetings were conducted in a way that builds trust and mutual respect. I was actively encouraged to volunteer new ideas and make suggestions for improvement. When assigned tasks.6-Case Studies Rating your Manager This rating form can be used by staff to rate their managers Rate on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). I received good coaching to help me improve my performance. In this engagement we set very high standards for performance. I had the freedom to make the necessary decisions to do my work properly. I received prompt feedback on my work. I was kept informed of things I needed to know to do my job properly. My engagement helped to learn and grow. Help was available when I needed to have questions answered. My work made good use of knowledge and ability.
10. 8. ideas and solutions? Do you allow employees to make their own decisions? Do you genuinely care about your employees? Can you empathise with employees’ feelings? Do you assist employees prioritise difficult tasks? Are you patient? Do you ensure the work environment is free of distractions? Are you able to instil your employees with confidence to solve their own problems? Do you allow your employees free rein to air their grievances? Do you take your employees’ interests. 9. 13. 3. 6.you really need some work on your people skills 110 . 2. 12. 17. 15. skills and values into account when assigning tasks? Do you know your employees’ career goals so you can match future promotions? Can you give your employees the space for personal grief after they suffer loss? Can you step back from your own ego and avoid acting like an expert when discussing personal problems? Do you have a strong sense of the ridiculous and an ever-ready sense of humour about life at work? TOTAL Scoring higher than 50 . 16. 14. 11. 5. 4.49 . Do you treat employees’ feelings as valid? Are you scrupulous in keeping confidences? Are you able to reassure insecure employees? Do you support employees in taking risks? Are you able to solicit employees feelings.your skills could do with a brush up below 40 . 18. 7.your skills are excellent 40 .Managing Human Resources Are you a people person? Enter your response in the appropriate column • For a mostly answer put a 3 in the mostly column • For an occasionally answer put a 2 in the occasionally column • For a hardly ever answer put a 1 in the hardly ever column Mostly Hardly Occasionally ever 1.
along with some real-life examples: 1. A recent study surveyed hiring managers to identify the most common mistakes candidates make. Many hiring managers complain about candidates showing up late and the surprising number who interrupt the interview to take calls on their cell phones. What They Say (or Don't Say) According to the survey. While still others use profanity or ramble on about their personal problems and social lives rather than answer . Some come in with a pre-determined script and sound as if they are reading from a textbook.questions about the job or company." While a man applying at a drug treatment facility anxiously asked if they drug-tested employees and whether they'd give advance notice. then turned around and fell to the floor! 3.or two much coffee. Several hiring managers complained of nail-biting while another watched in horror as a candidate jumped up to make a point. Many of these mistakes are the result of being unprepared and knowing nothing about the job or company. or the one who pulled out a sandwich and began eating? Yet other bloopers are simply a result of nerves .or ask . one candidate replied: "I'm open to anything. Here are the top five categories . One woman brought her children along. Others complain about former bosses. Bad Attitudes 111 . I really need to get some medical insurance." He was 37! 2." Those interviewing for customer service positions confessed: "I'm not a people person. Others are too candid. Others give oneword answers with no further elaboration. Others are because candidates don't listen to the questions being asked or try to bluff their way through technical questions. when asked what interested her about the position. But the "Too Much Information" award has to go the candidate who said: "I'm only here because my mum wants me to get a job.6-Case Studies Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews Not feeling so great about your last interview? Take heart. Some stem from a lack of common sense or courtesy. And many make the mistake of bringing up money and hours-required in the first interview. How They Act The second most common way candidates flub their interviews is what they do. the number one mistake interviewees make relates to how they communicate." and "customers are annoying. And which is worse? The candidate who asked the hiring manager to hurry up because he wanted to have lunch. For example." Another candidate at a children's organisation stated that he "hates kids. Chances are the interviewer has seen worse.
the survey confirms that truth is stranger than fiction and proves that life is not all that rosy on the other side of the interview process either. I want to know what they are going to deliver and when they are going to deliver it. Source: CareerBuilder. another who wore dark glasses throughout the interview and a candidate with dirty fingernails wearing jeans and a t-shirt oh. How They Look Coming to the interview improperly groomed and dressed is the fourth most common mistake. HR practitioner 112 . by the way." On the other side of the coin. One candidate spent the better part of the interview looking at his watch. There's also the candidate who mentioned his arrest after saying on his application he had never been arrested . Besides highlighting ignorance in action. They're Dishonest Common forms of dishonesty include exaggerating about achievements or misrepresenting knowledge. Along with the usual culprits: bad posture. Effective time management is critical. fluorescent-colored hair and poor hygiene. too! 5. tattoos. hiring managers also told of a candidate who did not wear shoes.and the one who actually stole something from the interviewer's office.com Results speak for themselves. 4. No one I work with would wonder how I see their performance. No one likes a braggart. Many hiring managers complained of interviewees who show little energy or interest in the conversation. know-it-all or name-dropper . he was drunk. Then there's the interviewee who declared he was "used to a higher class of business. one who wore a skirt slit to her derriere. are those who show no enthusiasm.or the candidate with the super-sized ego who demanded to be hired and said the company could do no better.Managing Human Resources The third most-cited category of mistakes has to do with the candidate's attitude. facial piercings.
a 57 relations 7 welfare 7 Employees 52 Empowerment 69 Engagement. the 67 Bureaucracy 46 Burn out 82 Business communication 41 speak 107 Career counselling 14 development 6 development processes 13 CareerBuilder. 8 Follow up 13 Forecasting 6 Forgetting curves 51 Four E’s of recruitment 19 Future shock 51 Future. job 15 Euphemistic translations 107 Evaluation of development 113 activities 13 Evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses 90 Executing change 48 Expectations of people 78 Failure. 51 Comparing 6 Components of Human Resources 12-16 Compatibility 34 Competency based training 87 Conduct. when you take 42 Counselling retirement 14 Creative negotiation 60 Creativity 36 Crisis management 53 Criteria for a satisfying job 52 Cultures 49-52 Cultural attributes 52 Cure all 48 Customers 52 Determinants of behaviour 79 Development plans. new 41 Memo 25 Moses 60 Six steps to managing your career 42 Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews 110. and objectives 91 Good leadership 70 Goward. 103 . 25 to keep your staff interested 38 to lose your staff 38 to recruit 22 Human Resource acronyms 101 at the banks 70 checklist 97 communication 41 components 12-16 definition 2 inventory 12 manager. Peter 23 E’s. inventory of 13 processes. role of 3 planning and development 4 policies 5 politics of Human Resources defined 2 Ideology 34 Induction 12. systems 47 Filling a vacancy 18 Flight Centre. the. signs you need a 82 Hot and cold 78 How to interview 24. vision 71 General Motors 54 Goals organisational 4 personal 71 personal. some 101 Adages. outline 57 Herzberg 73 Hewitt Associates 70 Hierarchy of needs 75 Hiring acid test for 22 10 step process 27 Holiday.Index Achievement orientation 104 Acid test. 34 Interstate branches 102. human resources 41 Community Obligations 99 Company culture 50. 103 Manager. the 96 work habits 48 Charities 99 Check list. negotiation 62 Continuing education 15 Control. career Discrimination 56 Disengagement interviews 37 planning 15 Do you have a positive attitude toward success? 54 Does your workplace suffer morale problems? 81 Downsizing 54 Drucker. why people 36 Fear 36 Feedback. bad. a 70 Banks. 54 of an efficient office 96 Attributes. People and Flight Centre. human resources 97 Coaching 13 Code of Conduct 58 Communication. utility of 59 Behavioural determinants 79 Belief in the universal manager 34 Bell and Brown 70 Body language 28 Boss. for hiring 22 Acronyms. four of recruitment 19 Economies of scale 98 Education. a 70 Boundaries 33 Buck stopper. 32 Inertia 36 Internal integration 33.com 111 Case studies Cure all 48 Economies of scale 98 Human Resources. continuing 15 Employee handbook. code of 58 Conference. people 103 Analysis job 12 needs 89 ANZ Banking Group 70 Appraisal performance 13 staff 92 Are you a people person? 109 too forthright? 97 Attitudes 51. cultural 52 Authoritarism 104 Bad boss. 8 Interstate branches 102. letter of 32 Enrichment. 111 State sales administration 100 Volkswagen 48 What does it all mean? 89 What’s that? 4 Change executing 48 managing 47 Changing world of work. Prue 56 Habit 36 Hand book employee. HR and 70 Bargaining.
and its stakeholders 9 Organisational development 8 form. induction of 12.25 process 24. old and new 44 Pareto principle 56 Patterns of work 15 Pay 29 People. 5 Policy formation 7 Political actions 47 correctness 101 Politics. a 71 goals and objectives. role of 3 rating 108 universal 34 Managing change 47 replacement 35 restaffing 35 your career. the. overall 12 disengagement 15 job/role 12 manpower 12 overall components 12 replacement and restaffing 35 retirement 15 Policies. measuring your 60 Promotion is considered a just reward 34 Promotions 14 Punishments 33 Questions open 41 ten basic 63 what are they? 63 .Managing Human Resources Interview disengagement 37 evaluation 30 how to 24. 75 Matching people 33 Measuring 6 your professionalism 60 Meetings 43 and team think 43 Memo to all staff 25 Machiavellianism 104 Mission statements 40 Morale problems 81 Morgan. John 70 McKinsey & Co 83 Management crisis 53 is considered a mysterious act 34 rating form 94 Manager a 38 Human Resources. analysis 89 Needs. my role 64 Needs. work related 72 Negotiation 59-62 Conference 62 Creative 59. Michael. attitudes of 96 Open questions 41 Organisation. 16 Legislation 8 Letter of engagement 32 Living symbol. an. typology of 45 Overall planning components 12 Owners 52 Package. 25 questions 25 Interviewers should ensure that 24 Interviewing how to 26 Intimacy 33 Inventory Human Resource 12 of development plans 13 Job Analysis 12 changes 14 Descriptions. to 42 Manpower planning 12 Maslow 73. adages 103 at work 49 114 matching 33 Why do they fail? 36 will expect 78 Performance appraisal 13 review 93 Person description 20 Personal goal. writing a 21 Design 13 Enrichment 15 My 64 Planning Redesign 15 /role playing 12 Rotation 15 Judgment of potential 13 Juggling 77 Keeping close to the customer 98 Lack of skill 34 Language 33 Leadership 66-72 good 70 quiz 85 steps 68 Leading a team 72 Le Boeuf. the 61 staffing 12 steps in the HR process 6 Productivity and motivation 80 Professionalism. efficient. salary 29 Paradigms. 32 Occupational Health & Safety. new 44 goals 4 rewards 14 stakeholders 9 structure 44 Organisations. six steps. of Human Resources 10 Portfolio of tools 4 Potential judgment of 13 problem areas Power and status 33 Prejudice 36 Press release. the 67 Locus of control 104 McFarlane. setting 91 improvement programs 15 evaluating 90 Personality attributes 104 determinants of 105 traits 106 Peter principles 54 Planning and development components.win 59 New staff. new personnel 31 Process of negotiation. (OH&S) 55 Office. 74 and needs 76 and productivity 80 by shareholding 77 shareholding. David 70 Moses 60 Motivation 73. by 77 traditional theory 73 what motivates people? 74 what motivates you? 74 Motivational determinants 79 My job. 60 Process 61 Utility of 59 Win . human resources.
a 59 Work habits. portfolio of 4 Toyota 54 Training 18 and development 6 competency based initial 12 needs analysis 89 Translations. a 72 think 43 Ten step hiring process. B f. attitude to 54 Supervision 13 Talent. euphemistic 107 Turner. Mark 54 Twelve attitudes of an efficient office 96 Twenty work related needs 72 Typology of organisations 45 Utility of bargaining 59 Universal manager 34 Vision. my 64 RPL. 22. the 67 Volkswagen 48 Welch. attributes 83 Writing a job description 21 . 19. 88 Salary packages 29 Satisfying job. basic of good recruitment. planning 35 Retaining scarce talent 84 Retirement planning 15 Retraining 15 Review. future 71 Visionary. 10 Three legged stool. 111 Staff Appraisals 92 Contribution 11 Hand book outline 57 Recruitment 18. 16 Socialisation 12 Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews 110.my role 64 Rating your manager 108 Rating management. a true story 4 When you take control 42 Why do people fail? 36 do people resist meetings 43 is it important to take care in filling a job vacancy? 18 Win-win approach to negotiation. for management 94 your manager 108 Recognition of Prior Learning 88 Recruitment.Index Quizzes Are you a people person? 109 Human Resource checklist 98 Leadership 85 My job . a form. 22. Jack 16 Westpac 70 What are questions? 63 attributes do you require to be a workaholic? 83 causes work 115 dissatisfaction? 76 satisfaction? 76 do you do when people resign? 37 does it all mean? 89 goals do organisations have? 45 is business communication? 41 is Human Resources? 2 motivates people at work? 73 motivates you? 74 should staff contribute to the business? 11 type of leadership should an effective leader provide? 66 What’s that. the 67 leading. 19 Restaffing. Robert 2 Remuneration 7 Replacement. 18-20. Graham. 8 Twain. a 27 The people working for you will expect 78 snake pit of organisational politics. 6 process 12 major considerations 23 Setting personal goals and objectives 91 Shareholders 52 Shareholding motivation by 77 Six steps to managing your career 42 Skinner. planning 35 Requirements. performance 93 Rewards 33 Risk taking 104 Role of the Human Resource manager 3 Role. retaining 84 Team builder. criteria for 52 Scale economies of 98 Selection and placement. 23 basics 19 four E’s of 19 steps in the process 20 Reich. 23 Recruitment and selection 12 Replacement 18 Rooms 46 Selection 18 Staffing processes 12 Stakeholders 9 State sales administration 100 Steps in the HR process 6 in the recruitment process 20 Strategic business planning 12 Stress and work 82 Structure 51 organisational 44 Success. 20. and selection 12. changing 48 place morale 81 related needs 72 satisfaction /dissatisfaction 76 Workaholic. the 52 Tools.
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