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Success in Business
Published by Martin Books Pty Ltd ACN 112 719 052 20 Blackwoods Road Boat Harbour NSW 2484 Australia Tel: (61 2) 6679 1051 Fax: (61 2) 6679 1535 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.martinbooks.com.au
Copyright 2002-2007 Martin Books All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher National Library of Australia Cataloguing- in-Publication entry: Overton, Rodney Managing Human Resources ISBN 978-1-921360-44-2
First published 2002 in soft cover eBOOK version September 2007
The writer - Rodney Overton
is an international award winning writer (published in four languages) of more than twenty-five popular business skills ‘how-to’ books covering a wide range of business, human resources, management, planning and sales and marketing topics. Publishers in a number of overseas countries produce and distribute localised versions of these books. He works as business consultant and strategist and has wide experience in facilitating, writing and developing business training courses.
Martin Books have a combined range of more than 100 books, CD ROMs and Training Facilitators Manuals available, covering areas of business such as Administration, Planning, Finance, Human Resources, Management, Marketing, Sales and Small Business. We also have a Training Facilitators Manual available for a training course titled HUMAN RESOURCES. Our books are distributed and published in three languages in a number of overseas countries.
We currently have a combined range of more than 100 books. Our books are distributed and published in three languages in a number of overseas countries. comments and suggestions. Finance.their people. CD ROMs and Training Facilitators Manuals available. The business press on almost a daily basis gives coverage to the latest round of retrenchments which often fly in the face of sound Human Resource management. Management.from the novice small business operator to Human Resource professionals. Marketing. Increasingly in many cases the only difference between companies selling similar products or services at almost identical prices and identical trading terms is their people. special thanks to all those people who have purchased our books . Human Resources. Successful Human Resources involves many stages from recruitment to induction. We welcome your feedback.our customer list reads like a who’s who of Australian business. A recent and highly publicised case of a major retail chain hiring a new CEO was followed a short time after by news of major retrenchments by the new CEO! This book is intended as an aid for those who wish to study and learn the basics of Human Resources and to act as a prompt for those wishing to write their own Human Resources manual . More than ever the management of Human Resources in any organisation is a key success factor.Foreword This book is an enlarged and vastly revised version of a similar and very popular title which was first published in 1994 with subsequent numerous reprints.com . Sales and Small Business. Rodney Overton September 2007 rodney@sydneybusinesscentre. covering areas of business such as Business Administration. Many people would agree that Human Resources Management is one of the most difficult tasks in operating a business . Business Planning. We also have a Training Facilitators Manual available on this topic.if not the most difficult. Thus. To do this successfully of course involves motivation and making people feel that they are an important part of the business. training and ideally promotion to mention but a few stages. Finally. maximising the potential of your people is of paramount importance in business. Many organisations fail to harness and utilise their most valuable and potentially their most lucrative resource .
.............Table of contents 1 Human Resource Planning and Development (H..........26 • A 10 step hiring process..................................................................................................................................................54 • Some Peter Principles Occupational Health & Safety............................59 • Creative negotiation............................... 49 • Company culture...............31 • Induction of new staff...................28 • Salary packages.....................52 • Crisis Management.....................................................................new personnel.........................................R..........................................).........................................10 • What should staff contribute to the business?................................................................................................................................... 38 3 Organisations and people......................... 47 • Executing change......................39 • Mission statements..................................45 • Bureaucracy................................19 • Steps in the recruitment process........................................................ 53 • Downsizing.... 35 • Why do people fail?......................... 4 • Human Resource Policies............ 17 • Staff recruitment..........................34...........................................................................................................................60 ........................................... Induction and Integration...................................22-23 • The interview process....... 6-8 • An organisation and its stakeholders................................44 • Typology of organisations......................55 • Discrimination.......................... 43 • Organisational structure........D...........................................................................................................P.......27 • Body language..........40 • Communication...................................................56 • An employee handbook ..................................................................................................................................................................................2 • The role of the Human Resources Manager....................57 • Code of conduct....18 • Basic requirements for recruitment................... 11 • Components of Human Resources................................................................................................................................................................ 51 • Cultural attributes.......................................................................................................................50.............................................................................41 • Six steps to managing your career.......................................... 20 • Writing a Job Description...........................................................................................................................................46 • Managing change...................................................................................................21 • How to recruit and keep the best staff.............9 • The politics of Human Resources............................................................................................................... 42 • Meetings.............................47 • Work cultures............................................................................................5 • Steps in the Human Resources process...............................................................................37 • How to keep your staff interested..................3 • Human Resources Planning and Development (HRPD)................................32 • Internal integration.................................................25 • How to interview..........1 • What is Human Resources?.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24 • Some interview questions....................................................................................................................................58 • Negotiation................................................29 • An Interview Evaluation...................... 12-16 2 Recruitment. 33 • Planning for and managing replacement and restaffing.................................................................30 • A press release ..........36 • Disengagement interviews......................
.90 • Setting personal goals and objectives............................................................................................................................................................... 98 • Community obligations and charities............................................. 63 My Job ......................................• • • • The process of negotiation........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................112 ...................................... Empowerment......................................70 • Leading a team............96 • The changing world of work..........................................................................................................................................................................................91 • Staff Appraisals........76 • Motivation by shareholding........106 • Some euphemistic translations........................ 88 • Training Needs Analysis........................ 64 4 Leadership and Motivation...................61 The negotiation conference................. 103 • Personality attributes...............................97 • Economies of scale............................................................................................................ 108 • Are you a people person?.................................................................................................................................................................................87 • Recognition of Prior Learning..........................................................................85 5 Training and Evaluation......................................................................... 111 Index..................................69 • Future vision.........................................................................................81 • Stress and work...................................................................... 72 • Motivation................................................................................ 102 • some people adages.......................................................110....................................................... 95 • An efficient office............................................................................................................................................................107 • Rating your manager.............84 • Leadership quiz...99 • State sales administration..........................................................................................................................................................86 • Competency Based Training......... 66-69 • Empowerment.................................... 79 • Productivity and motivation......................................82 • What attributes do you require to be a workaholic?...104 • Determinants of personality................................94 6 Case Studies........................................................................73..............My Role..............................65 • Leadership ....101 • Interstate branches...................................................62 Questions...........................105 • Personality traits..................................................................................................................................100 • Some acronyms.................................................89 • Evaluating personal strengths ............................................................... 83 • Retaining scarce talent..............................................93 • A Rating Form for Management....................................................................................................................78 • Determinants of behaviour...............................................77 • The people working for you will expect........................................80 • Does your workplace suffer morale problems?.................. 74 • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs..................................................................................75 • Motivation and needs.............. 92 • A Performance Review..................................................109 • Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews..........................96 • Human Resources check list..............
1 Human Resource Planning and Development .
Human Resource issues can lead to tension. HR Managers have a responsibility to recruit. cliques and them and us mentalities. The management of many organisations are proud to boast about their good Human Resource policies while at the same time they have their people offside. Their people are complaining to each other about the reserved car spaces for management. arguments. Your most precious possession is the people you have working there. Human Resource managers should constantly ask themselves.is readily acknowledged as the greatest resource that any organisation possesses. develop and motivate a team to produce defined results. Your most precious possession is not your financial assets. Those who arrive at work first get to choose their car spot.Managing Human Resources What is Human Resources? Human Resources (HR) . and their ability to work together. Many organisations have no reserved car spaces. disputes. bad blood. However. special toilets for staff and exclusive management dining rooms.the people employed by an organisation and the use of their skills in that organisation . and what they carry around in their heads. The greatest resource / asset of any business is its people. the management of people is arguably the most difficult aspect of any business and the cause of many problems. “Why would someone want to come and work in this organisation?” Can you gain more from your people by empowering them? Can you increase the ability of your people to achieve by enhancing their self-esteem and improving their skill set? A well established definition of Human Resources is: Human Resources Management should be running their companies so people get more satisfaction from their work. Conversely many very successful organisations claim a major reason for their success is their people. (to save the managers from having to walk an extra few metres). out of all the countless tasks in the management of your business operation. Robert Reich 2 .
Staffing. • Be responsible for Planning. 3 .1-Human Resource Planning and Development The Role of the Human Resources Manager An effective Human Resources Manager may be responsible for all of these areas. • Be responsible for hiring and training employees / staff. • Be a spokesperson and figurehead for the organisation in Human Resource matters. • Provide and encourage a motivational environment. • Contribute to work force morale. • Be responsible for providing job descriptions. • Be responsible for evaluating and comparing the performance of employees / staff. • Establish quantitative control standards. Directing and Controlling in the Human Resources area. • Co-ordinate other Human Resources functions. and many others as well: • Understanding the needs and requirements of management and the organisation. • Convene Human Resources meetings. • Establish methods for reviewing performance.
always took great pride in claiming (usually after the second round at the local bar) that he was the possessor of high levels of ‘people skills’. Pay Promotion Training Job rotation Cross functional assignment Performance evaluation Supervision All of these areas are strong tools to modify behaviour. This particular M. What’s that? .a true story In our recent experience we encountered the Managing Director of an organisation employing around 50 people. the same person spoke with some degree of pride and achievement about the ‘100 people I have fired in the last 3 years’.D. It is in the best interests of both the individual and the organisation to have a healthy organisation that can provide opportunities for growth. after the next round of drinks. However when the phrase ‘Human Resources’ was introduced into the conversation his response was. ‘What’s that?’ Interestingly. 4 .Managing Human Resources Human Resource Planning and Development (HRPD) Any company controls a portfolio of the most powerful tools for changing behaviour. Some organisational goals in the management of Human Resources: Productivity Promotability Innovation and flexibility Special skills Can management define what behaviours it wants in order to accomplish certain goals? Without such a specification we will not accomplish very much! There can be little growth and development for employees at any level in a sick and stagnant organisation.
including: • Security of employment • Conditions of employment • Remuneration Pay scales and methods Pay arrangements Compensation and benefits Incentive schemes Superannuation policy and arrangements Performance-based remuneration Incentive programs • Retirement policy. terms and conditions • Health and safety of employees • Equal opportunity and affirmative action • Promotions and transfers • Discipline procedures • Grievance procedures • Absenteeism policies and procedures • Training and development of employees • Recruitment procedures and standards 5 .1-Human Resource Planning and Development Human Resource Policies A variety of policies relating to the human resources of the organisation need to be developed and monitored.
Managing Human Resources
Steps in the Human Resources process
RECRUITMENT of staff using a job description and specification. TRAINING and INDUCTION of staff to acceptable levels. ASSIGNING of staff to a job or area with specific responsibilities, goals, objectives and targets. MOTIVATION of staff to achieve goals, objectives and targets. FORECASTING, MEASURING, COMPARING Forecasting future Human Resources requirements. Review and evaluation of staff performance against goals, objectives and targets. REVIEW and EVALUATION of staff performance for advancement and promotion and for setting levels of remuneration Human Resources involves a number of functions in areas including: SELECTION and PLACEMENT • Forecasting future staffing needs • Recruiting staff • Handling redundancies, retirements and termination's of employment • Relocating employees to other positions or locations TRAINING and DEVELOPMENT • Inducting new recruits to the organisation • Training and developing new employees • Determining the future competencies and skill mix required by the organisation • Training employees to meet current and future needs CAREER DEVELOPMENT • Ensuring that employees develop new skills • Ensuring that employees are challenged in their jobs • Maintaining and monitoring performance appraisal systems • Maintaining an up-to-date succession plan, particularly for key positions within the organisation LEGISLATION • Making required government returns, such as fringe benefits tax and equal opportunity reporting. • Ensuring and monitoring conformity with all employment legislation such as health and safety and equal opportunity.
1-Human Resource Planning and Development
POLICY FORMATION • A variety of policies relating to the human resources of the organisation need to be developed and monitored, including: • Security of employment • Conditions of employment • Pay scales and methods • Retirement policy, terms and conditions • Health and safety of employees • Equal opportunity and affirmative action • Promotions and transfers • Remuneration • Discipline procedures • Grievance procedures • Absenteeism policies and procedures • Training and development of employees • Recruitment procedures and standards EMPLOYEE RELATIONS • Negotiating and liaising with unions, employee representatives and employees on such areas as: • Legislative matters • Workforce restructuring • Industrial democracy • Enterprise bargaining • Pay awards • Employment contracts EMPLOYEE WELFARE • Ensuring the health, safety and welfare of all employees through organising or monitoring such things as: • Conditions of work • Provision of specialist crisis counselling, such as alcohol or drug abuse • Confidentiality of personal employee details REMUNERATION • Pay arrangements • Compensation and benefits • Incentive schemes • Superannuation policy and arrangements • Performance-based remuneration • Incentive programs
Managing Human Resources
ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Designing and implementing organisation change initiatives Introducing organisation development and change programs, such as TQM, Benchmarking, ISO Certification, job redesign, enterprise bargaining Ensuring the organisation is structured in a way that will achieve its vision and objectives Implementing and overseeing internal communication programs MISCELLANEOUS In addition, personnel departments often undertake a variety of miscellaneous duties such as: Overseeing the company canteen Producing an employee newsletter or news video Making business-related travel arrangements for employees Overseeing the company nurse and doctor Liaising with outside consultants and organisations on personnel-related issues, such as arrangements for temporary staff, and making or recommending charitable contributions Managing and maintaining HR information systems (HRIS) Human Resources, People and Flight Centre Graham Turner, the Chief Executive of travel success story Flight Centre Ltd has this to say about the way his business is run. ‘Flight Centre does not sell travel the conventional way. Everyone is on meaningful profit-share incentives. It places considerable importance on people being able to earn whatever they put their mind to, through incentives that are not capped. People who work in the shops earn a profit based on their individual business; the team leader earns a profit on the whole business, and so on. Ownership is not just about profit share, but is about operating the business believing it is yours and not just the company’s. There are no privileges unless everyone has them. No company cars, no car parks, no secretaries, no individual offices, and no receptionists. Our structure is team bases. This is based on the inherent desire of the human race to live and work in families (teams of up to seven people), villages (3-5 teams) and tribes (100-300 people). Standard systems operate throughout the company. There is only one best way to do anything. If you have one small business operating successfully and you can systemise and replicate that business, there is no reason you cannot have 100 or more businesses operating successfully. Flight Centre believes that profit is the best way of knowing whether you are offering the community something it wants.’
The illustration above shows six stakeholder groups. Many people suggest that the best form of organisational performance is stakeholder satisfaction 9 .1-Human Resource Planning and Development An organisation and its Stakeholders OWNER INDUSTRY STAFF COMMUNITY SUPPLIERS CUSTOMERS ORGANISATION The ultimate success of any organisation depends on a number of stakeholders being satisfied with the performance of that organisation. but the long term survival of any business depends on it. and their two-way dependency relationship with an organisation. Balancing stakeholder satisfaction is very difficult to achieve.
build opposition or refuse to give support. The cover-up routine is not confined to the top of the organisation. threaten to withhold or reveal critical information. • Be thoroughly professional in everything you do. 10 . • Never indulge in power plays. communicating to superiors should be done on the basis that new news is bad news. In the cover up process messengers are highly vulnerable and expendable... • Spreading rumours and sowing inaccurate information about people or circumstances is a definite no. nonaggressive manner. The negative • Never reinforce the failure of others to reinforce your cause. • Continually promote and self market yourself in a positive. • Forget about ‘brown nosing’.Managing Human Resources The Politics of Human Resources The positive • Networking . • Offer information freely without expecting favours . posturing for the benefit of your peers.develop contacts throughout your organisation and industry. Never let people down and be aware that people have very long memories.eventually your critical mass of goodwill will be returned. In the 1990’s well known business writer Max Walsh wrote in his Sydney Morning Herald column about an organisational disease which he called ‘the snake pit of organisational politics’. All employees soon learn that .
quality. Assist in achieving continuous levels improvement in quality and customer service Reward people fairly and consistently according to their contributions. Motivate other employees to achieve higher performance. Support the attainment of the organisation’s mission statement. Improve co-operation and effective team working at all levels. innovation. Support managers and management in the achievement of their goals. 11 .1-Human Resource Planning and Development What should Staff contribute to the Business? Staff should: Provide value for money for the organisation. so that undue administrative burdens are not imposed on managers and staff. Be an integrated part of the management process of the organisation. Continually improve competence and personal development. and help improve the organisation’s effectiveness and competitiveness. risk-taking. Be easily manageable. flexibility and team working. Be easily controllable so that policies can be implemented consistently and costs contained within budgets. Help to support and change the culture of the organisation as expressed through its performance.
. market growth rate. STAFFING PROCESSES To ensure that the organisation acquires the necessary human resources to fulfil its goals. learns how to get along in the organisation. values etc. geographical location. where continuing reviews of skills. JOB ANALYSIS To specify what jobs need to be filled and identify the required skills. products.R. JOB/ROLE PLANNING To determine what actually needs to be done at every level of the organisation. 12 . Often considered as a dynamic kind of job analysis. against those plans or requirements. STRATEGIC BUSINESS PLANNING To determine the organisation’s goals. Part of this process is to communicate to prospective employees a basic understanding of the company and its approach to its people. currently required and those required in the future are addressed. the new employee learns the ropes. how to work. how to master the particulars of the job and so on. SOCIALISATION and INITIAL TRAINING After hiring. The changing focus of Human Resources Not so many years ago people used to wear gloves at work to protect their hands: now they wear gloves to protect the product. MANPOWER PLANNING and HUMAN RESOURCE INVENTORY These activities draw on the job descriptions generated in job planning and assess the capabilities of the present H. The goal should be to facilitate the new employee becoming a productive and useful member of the organisation both in the short run and in terms of long range potential.Managing Human Resources Some Human Resource Components OVERALL PLANNING COMPONENTS The function of these components is to ensure that the organisation has an adequate basis for selecting its human resources and developing them toward the fulfilment of organisational goals. RECRUITMENT and SELECTION The process of finding people and developing systems for deciding who to hire. future directions. how to fit in. priorities. INDUCTION. knowledge. They may be focused on the numbers of people in given categories and /or designed to ensure that given assumed growth there will be an adequate supply of people in those categories. and organisation structure or design.
and monitoring are considered to be important components.salary increases. either by promotion or lateral movement to new functions or assignments. The system should be based on the organisation’s need to fill jobs as they open up and the employee’s needs to have some sense of progress in their working lives. SUPERVISION and COACHING It is generally accepted that the first boss is crucial in giving new employees a good start in their careers. and maintain their job satisfaction? FOLLOW UP and EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES Devise a system to ensure that plans are implemented and that activities are evaluated against individual and organisational goals. JOB DESIGN and JOB ASSIGNMENT The issue is how to provide optimal challenge to a new employee. The system must provide some kind of forward movement for the employee through a succession of jobs. The actual process of supervising. Potential conflicts can arise as to what level of feed back the employee receives. Can be done by department. and other formal organisational actions in respect to the employee. coaching.1-Human Resource Planning and Development INVENTORY OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS An effort to plan for the growth and development of all employees. make on-going contributions. Also a basis for regular reviews between boss and subordinate to supplement day to day feedback and to assist with career planning and counselling. Does management want the employee to know their potential for 13 . by thinking through its implications and value to furthering future total development. remain motivated and productive. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING How will long term employees who may stay 30 or 40 years in the organisation. CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES To match the organisation’s needs for work with the individual’s needs for a productive and satisfying work career. promotions. guiding. with a set of activities that are neither too hard nor too easy. division. and neither too meaningless nor too risky from the organisation’s point of view. or total organisation. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL and JUDGEMENT OF POTENTIAL These systems serve a number of functions . and that training of supervisors in how to handle new employees is a valuable organisational investment. Co-ordination between HR and the immediate supervisor in this situation should be maximised.
RECOGNITION As organisational careers become more varied and as social values surrounding work change. changing assignments. because they can see a benefit in their career path and see that it fits into their total career. and lay the groundwork for realistic individual. PROMOTION. Can the organisation open up the communication channel between employees. PAY. BENEFITS. Evidence suggests that optimal challenge is what keeps human growth and effectiveness going. systems of job rotation. This should be linked to performance appraisal. The individual wants to attend the course. Training should. their bosses and the HR system. reward systems should become more flexible. talents. Many companies have great difficulty addressing this area and use consistency and other organisations as models. They should be matched to the needs of the individual and the needs of the organisation. values and plans fit with opportunities the organisation can offer. ORGANISATIONAL REWARDS. development planning? 14 . TRAINING and DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES Companies should realise that periods of formal training. Employees cannot manage their own growth development without information on how their own needs. and lateral job moves to ensure growth of human resources. for most by promotion. PROMOTIONS and JOB CHANGES An effective HR system should concentrate on developing career paths. outside development programmes and other educational activities are necessary in the total process of human growth and development.Managing Human Resources promotion? If individuals do not get good feedback around their development needs. PERQUISITES. as much as possible be tied to job/role planning. PLANNING. How to ensure that the organisational rewards are linked to the needs of the individual and to the needs of the organisation for effective performance and development of potential. CAREER COUNSELLING. they will remain uninvolved in their own development. FOLLOW UP and EVALUATION The organisation should provide a means for employees at all levels to become more proactive about their careers and a method for discussions. Managers should set goals and philosophies based on what the organisation is trying to reward and what employees needs actually are. At different career stages and in different types of careers employees will need different ‘things’.
by skilled. mechanical and financial assistance should be provided. Rather than attempting to ‘cure’ levelled off employees by remotivation. JOB REDESIGN. but no one does anything about it. are just a few examples. Managers should be trained in handling preretirement employees. PERSONAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES (P.1-Human Resource Planning and Development PLANNING FOR and MANAGING DISENGAGEMENT Organisations should recognise various options to deal with problems of loss of motivation.P. job sharing. Conversely there is nothing wrong with less motivated and involved employees if the quality of their work meets the required standards. and then the training required for that work once the employee sees the need for it? For this strategy to work continuous feedback is required between employees and managers. as most people realise. specialist counsellors. flexible working hours.everybody talks about it. ENRICHMENT and ROTATION After a few years of employment many workers become unresponsive to the job requirements and pay more attention to factors such as the type of supervision.) Is it desirable to design a special. But "people" as a success factor is like the weather . pay and many other issues. part time work. Legendary former GE Chairman Jack Welch makes an interesting point that. ALTERNATIVE PATTERNS OF WORK and REWARDS Rostered days off. Psychological.1 or No. child care programmes. GE and a few other big companies have cultures that strongly encourage effective management and people development. "People" are the key to business success. 2 in every market it competes in. CONTINUING EDUCATION and RETRAINING Is it better to provide challenging work. personalised programme for all or some employees? RETIREMENT PLANNING and COUNSELLING There should be a clear planning function that forecasts retirements and feeds this information into replacement and counselling functions. Welch claims that their core competence is developing people. They should cater for the needs of the organisation as well as the employee and be closely linked to each other. but in the vast majority of 15 . while GE aspires to be No.I. obsolescence. job redesign or rotation perhaps they should examine whether these employees are in responsive mode or not. and ultimate retirement. relationships with other workers.
Everyone involved gets in one room and one manager is in charge. Avoid e-mails or memos for any information which might be misunderstood or possibly construed as negative. "I’m in charge and I know what I'm doing. even if you really do. Face time says "I care about you" like nothing else. but some action is always taken. Consistency is extremely important. And guess what? It works just as well on both (including kids). You do not have to do what they ask.F. That axiom. refers to the fact that not communicating with someone says to them. When you ask for people's input. This is one reason GE has been so successful with their "workout" sessions. This is one way GE keeps their people "electrified" and loyal. "I don't care about you. Not communicating says you don't care about them. from The Pragmatics of Human Communication." Studies of non-managerial employees usually find that they consider internal communication to be inadequate. ask the doers. It shows people you care about them. People want to know what is going on and how it does or will affect them. you sustain their enthusiasm and energies. If you do not ask. Before initiating change or "improvements. But employee emotions are extremely time sensitive. The Greatest Management Principle in the World. respect you for asking. and you cannot overdo that. respond quickly. reinforce it with some type of reward that they will appreciate. that does not happen. and they forget the importance of communicating with everyone about what's going on with the company. The reinforcement principle of behaviourism was discovered by B. The decision may be to act now or to delegate the problem to a task force if more information is essential. They may rationalise that. the emotional peak passes and you will not have another chance like that for a long time." but all the employees see is the stone wall of silence.Managing Human Resources companies. That is obvious but so often not done. and that is his key point. No one leaves the room until the top manager decides what action will be taken on the problem. If you wait too long. and will be more likely to follow whatever the outcome. 16 . The most effective communication is always face to face. Even if you go against their preferences. and if you act on that input. Skinner and has been rejected by some people because it applies as much to rats in a cage as it does to humans. Here are a few key truths about people as a success factor which may be helpful for you: That which gets reinforced gets repeated. If you want somebody to repeat a behaviour." let the people who will be responsible for implementation have a say in the way the changes will be handled. Michael LeBoeuf a few years ago wrote a book called. If you want it done. Discussion focuses on one problem. You cannot not communicate. it is amazing how people can resist in many subtle ways that ultimately sabotage the outcome. You lift their hopes when you seek their input. Managers get busy putting out fires and trying to be sure clients' needs are met. they appreciate being heard.
Integration . Induction.2 Recruitment.
and in good management the solid foundation stones are: SELECTION TRAINING SUPERVISION Individuals as a rule tend to have a far different perception of motivating factors than does management. they stand on solid foundations.Managing Human Resources Staff Recruitment Selection . qualifications and experience to do the job? 2. as to what really motivates them. Does the candidate have the appropriate attitude to accomplish the task and fit in with the team in a positive. Why is it important to take great care in filling a job vacancy? • To benefit the company • To avoid the expense of having to hire a replacement after a short time • To increase profits • To create a team work atmosphere • The wrong person may create disharmony • The right person will do the job better • To raise levels of professionalism. Selection. Roofs and spires don’t stand on air. MOTIVATION Motivation is the roof and spire of the building. skills.Supervision These three items. What is the candidates time frame? Short. These are the true basics and without them nothing in Human Resources management is possible. Does the candidate have the appropriate aptitudes. Training. Three major considerations in the selection process: 1. and Supervision are the absolute corner stones of good Human Resources management.Training . co-operative manner? 3. medium or long term? Will they last and show resilience? 18 .
The reduction of staff turnover by the correct selection of suitable people. Deciding where responsibilities for recruitment and appraisal will lie. productive activity rather than ‘putting out fires’. Have a competitive edge that gives them the will to win and makes them unafraid of embarking on tough courses. Building and maintaining long-term stable relationships with customers. The maximum use of management time in pro-active. Integration Some basic requirements for good recruitment include: The recruitment of the correct number of people to meet the sales and overall objectives. 4. Providing a workable job description. To minimise the problems which can be inherent in recruitment and employment. Maintaining of a high level of responsibility by management for employees / staff. Determining the type of person required to do the job.2-Recruitment. The maximisation of the return to the company of the investment made in the employee. Induction. Be able to energise others 3. carrying out operational plans and coming up with the numbers 19 . To be able to execute by setting a vision. In order to achieve these aims the organisation will be faced with a number of problems: Defining the nature of the job and determining how many people will be required to do it. Plenty of energy 2. The four E’s of recruiting people: People must have: 1.
ideally this should be presented to candidates at the first interview. • Promotion or transfer.who should interview? The Human Resources person. • Interviewing the candidates . • Offering the job and negotiating terms and conditions. • What type of person would be best? • What skills. by advertising. 20 . • Identifying sources of talent . a committee? • Second and third interviews may be required. • Review and evaluation of effectiveness. qualifications and experience will be required? • Preparation of a job description . • Psychological testing.phone or written. • The induction process. • Screening the applications .where can we find an ideal person? By head hunting. • Training and retraining the person • Evaluating the training.and writing a person description.Managing Human Resources Steps in the Recruitment Process • Analysing the tasks of the position . • Checking references of those preferred.do the applicants meet our person specification? • Preparing a short list. by internal promotion? • Call for applications . the Sales Manager.
The Job Description should be based on a detailed job analysis and be as factual and brief as possible. OVERALL RESPONSIBILITIES This section describes as concisely as possible the overall purpose of the job. supervises. MAIN TASKS: Some suggestions for identifying the main tasks: • Identify and list the tasks that have to be carried out. • Describe each main task briefly and separately in short numbered paragraphs. prepares. liaises with. e. The aim being to convey in a few sentences a broad picture of the job which will clearly identify it from other jobs and establish the role of the job holder. and the processes of management that are carried out. 21 . planning.2-Recruitment. setting objectives. Induction.). say. • Analyse the initial list of tasks and simplify the list by grouping related tasks together so that not more than. but some indication is given of the purpose or objectives of each task. such as: • Frequency (hourly. • Decide on the order in which tasks should be described.g. thus indicating the purpose of the job and giving a lead for setting targets and performance standards. continually. PERFORMANCE MEASURES How will the performance of the person be measured? Obviously very important for sales positions. operating. Many people start paragraphs with an active verb. REPORTING TO The title of the manager or superior to whom the job holder is directly responsible is given under this heading. The job titles of all the posts reporting directly to the job holder are given under this heading. etc. co-ordinating. order of importance. No attempt is made to describe in detail how they are carried out. completes. daily. organising. directing and motivating staff and controlling. chronological order. Integration Writing a Job Description An essential ingredient for successfully hiring any employee is a Job Description. ensures that. weekly. • State what is done as succinctly as possible and why it is done. 7 or 8 main activity areas remain. Some commonly used headings are:JOB TITLE The existing or proposed job title indicates as clearly as possible the function in which the job is carried out and the level of the job within that function. recommends.
Reward your employees both financially and emotionally. Look for intelligence.Managing Human Resources How to recruit and keep the best staff 1 HIRE THE BEST Your success depends upon your staff. If you can show an employee that you have taken the time to learn their job. 22 . 4 HAVE A BACK-UP Everybody should be able to do at least two jobs in the company. 6 DELEGATE Do what you do best and delegate the rest. 2 DON’T PAY PEANUTS Don’t pay peanuts unless you want monkeys. The two groups who have the best information on your business and its performance are your staff and your customers. Trust them to do their job. 7 COMMUNICATE Talk to your staff and ask for their suggestions. Most people would rather feel needed and respected than be given a pay increase. Show them where they fit in the system that produces the final result. Three staff should be able to do the critical tasks. Tell everyone that you expect their absolute best. Acknowledge each person’s contribution to your success. You should listen to both groups very closely. you show that you think the job is worthwhile.and let them do it! Give encouragement. Retain the ultimate authority though. preferably three. 5 SHOW YOU CAN DO IT Know how to do every job in your organisation. 3 BUILD A TEAM Let each employee know they are a valuable member of the team. Don’t let your ego get in the way of the team performance. You can also act as a back up. initiative and integrity in everyone you employ. Give your staff the responsibility and authority to do their jobs . Pay over the market rate and expect more. Say thank you.
10 HAVE A SECOND-IN-COMMAND Groom a deputy who shares your goals and ideas. Set a high example. Get suggestions on how to improve your product. Don’t accept second best personally or your staff will follow your lead. skills. 9 ENCOURAGE CREATIVITY Meet with your staff at least once a month for a brainstorming session. Does the candidate have the appropriate attitude to accomplish the task and fit in with the team in a positive. Encourage on-going commitment. customer satisfaction or profit. Let your staff know that your deputy has your confidence and your authority when you are absent. Three major considerations in the selection process: 1. Integration 8 ENCOURAGE PRIDE Show pride in your company and its products and encourage others to take pride in their work. Reward ideas that work. co-operative manner? 3. Does the candidate have the appropriate aptitudes.2-Recruitment. Induction. service. qualifications and experience to do the job? 2. Then go on holidays to test the system. medium or long term? Will they last and show resilience? 23 . What is the candidates time frame? Short.
The interview process is as relaxed as possible and applicants are given ample opportunity to answer questions. a person who will have a commitment to getting the newcomer trained and integrated into the work group as quickly as possible. 24 . Where possible an independent person should be part of the interview panel to assist in ensuring consistency and lack of bias. They should be carefully planned to provide the best results. First line managers should be involved in the selection process of people who will work under them to increase the probability that the person selected will be someone able to relate to their immediate superior. The interview process is consistent for all applicants. Interviews should not be ad hoc. Interviewers should ensure that: Questions are not discriminatory to certain groups of applicants. The interview should relate to work issues and should not infringe the personal rights of applicants. It will also assist in the first line manager to become aware of the criteria adopted for selection and the overall rationale used. Questions are not ambiguous and are designed to gather information relevant to the position applied for. Because of time involved managers should only be meeting with people who seem qualified to fill the vacant position.Managing Human Resources The Interview Process Personal interviews are an important part of the selection process. Notes are taken for future reference and applicants are ranked according to predetermined criteria.
Induction. • What were the alternatives you considered? • Why was it a good decision? TO ALL STAFF Now that we have established KWALITY CONTROL please THINK AHEA D 25 .2-Recruitment. how have you determined when you were pushing too hard? • Give me an example of when this happened. Integration The Interview Process Some suggested interview questions • When dealing with a direct report. • Give me an example of a good decision you made recently. • What approach did you take? • Why were you successful? • Tell me about a time when there was not much room for creativity in your work. team member or peer. • Describe a complicated task that you have had difficulty teaching someone to perform. • How satisfied were you in that situation and why? • Describe a face-to-face meeting in which you had to lead or influence a very sensitive individual.
Be appreciative. a drain. poised. Ask yourself why you feel this way. including taste in clothes. Some people don’t function well under stress and any interview situation unnerves them. • The interview begins the moment the other person walks in the door. • Do you like being with them? • What contribution do you think this person would make to the mood of the people around them? • Ask yourself what it would be like to work with this person on a daily basis. I see and I agree’.optimism or defeat? • Is this person really interested in their work? • Do they have a strong sense of industry? • Will they enhance the productivity of the workplace? • Would you feel comfortable going to lunch with this person? • Are they socially aware. inspiring. • Would it be depressing. • Let it be the other person’s interview. • Once the other person starts to talk. it is useful to bring up strengths in their resume. Pay attention to your first impression. • Look at the other person’s appearance. • Do they feel comfortable with their style or is it for impression? • Is this person reaching or are they understated? • If you are hiring someone to project the company image. Ask yourself how you feel in the other person’s presence.’ yes. Remember you are trying to see how the other person functions at their best. confidence projected and tone of voice. exactly. sincere. Consider their sense of style. and act positively. and confident? • Do you feel any embarrassment for them or being with them? 26 . • The best way to make people feel comfortable is to respond positively every time they do well.Managing Human Resources How to Interview . let them. every aspect of their appearance is important. or a privilege? • What is the feeling the other person projects . • Consider how this person makes you feel. • Allow the other person to talk. With such people.some suggestions Before the interview know what you are looking for • Prepare a list of features you are looking for. Try to get an idea of the other person’s thinking. Smile! • Make positive comments like. boring. ‘What happened here?’ and observe how the interviewee responds. firmness and dryness of handshake. Be patient and take your time to discover the other person. of course. • Look for something about the other person you like and mention it. • Ask. Nod agreement. or setting rigid goals. good. Avoid dominating the interview. and listen.
1.O. talks with some outside sources. The visits are brief and need to be reciprocated by reviewing the peer’s candidates in turn. Can the person.E. Who knows or should know about this person? 6.E. The C. talks with the candidate in their home in the presence of their wife and children. master executive secretary etc. It is usually most helpful in addressing some-one’s strengths or weaknesses after you hire them.2-Recruitment. talking about his success.O. but should ensure a quality candidate. talks with the candidate on the phone for 30 minutes.E. Integration A Ten Step Hiring Process Below is a hiring process which will obviously not suit all organisations. master purchasing agent. socialises with the candidate in a different environment.their leads can be a good way to find candidates in the first place. for 30 minutes. The candidate is invited over for an interview. non competitive companies in the town. The C.E. Make a point of knowing the masters .O. 10. They talk to the C. talks with the candidate for 30 minutes. A trip to the Master. The successful candidate has to pass muster with the master. Check out the candidate in the Industry. 8.O.master controller. It will require considerable amounts of time and effort.O.E. Does the home life match the description in the interview? 7.E. Every city has a master of profession . A trip to the counsellor.O. The interviewers discuss their findings and make a specific hire / reject recommendation with reasons why. See the candidate’s personal values at work in the most revealing setting. Is the candidate a music or movie buff? Off to the concert hall or theatre with the candidate and spouse. The C. The candidate is invited over for a number of follow up interviews. How does this person act in a social setting? Especially important for sales people as they need to be their most skilful and persuasive.E. 4. Also a good integrity test. 9. The C. Induction.E. 2. The candidate sees 2 or 3 of the C.s peers in other. Let the candidate talk and not be bombarded by the C.O. 3. project.O. The industrial psychologist’s analysis is often enlightening but never binding. The personnel manager should be able to identify what management is looking for and be secure enough not to screen out unusual or intimidating candidates. 27 . persuade and communicate clearly over the phone? 5. The C.
but unconvinced Frustration Anxious. holding back feelings Attracted. or intense concentration More interested in the other person than you Cocky. critical Relaxed aggressiveness Puzzlement Self control Interested Nervous. needs reassurance Ready to go Rapid walk. ring. deep thought Distant. etc. secretive Bursts of energy Pre occupied Sincerity Defensive Domineering Settlement less likely Evaluation. It can provide an insight into the interviewee. goal orientated Critical. chin forward Poker face Mouth open Two people looking at each other Nervousness Confidence Negative view Negative view Positive acceptance Holding something back Shock. Clammy handshake Steepling of hands Downcast eyes Face turned away Relaxed mouth. Leaning forward It is generally accepted that: • 55% of a negotiator’s message is perceived non verbally • Only 7% depends on what is said • And 38% depends on how it is said 28 .Managing Human Resources Body Language Many skilled interviewers make a special point of studying the body language of the people being interviewed. arms swinging Walking with hands in pockets Walking with hands on hips Walking with hands behind back Open hands Arms crossed Straddling a chair Crossed legs Hand to cheek Body drawn back Hands behind head Rubbing nose Hands closed in front Head inclined Locked ankles Sitting back with legs crossed Hand to back of neck Playing with tie.
Integration Salary Packages The total value of an employment package can comprise provision of some of the following perquisites and / or other items.2-Recruitment. The total cost to the employer when totalled will give a ‘package value’.PRIVATE HOUSING PERSONAL and FAMILY TRAVEL INSURANCE SCHOOL FEES TAX ADVICE CAR PARKING EMPLOYEE DISCOUNTS HOLIDAYS EXPENSE ACCOUNT CLOTHING ALLOWANCE OTHERS 29 . Induction. BASE WAGE / SALARY BONUS PERFORMANCE INCENTIVES SHARE OPTIONS SUPER-ANNUATION USE OF A VEHICLE TELEPHONE .
8. 3. Total 1. . 2. 9. 5. 10 30 .Managing Human Resources An Interview Evaluation After the interview the following summary could be a useful assessment: Ranking Appearance Personality Maturity Aptitude Objectives Experience Education Overall assessment Others . 6. . . . . 7. 4.
......... with .. lives in .. if any.. s/he held positions of . For Immediate Release Contact's name Contact's phone number Contact's fax number Company Promotes Name to Title City... as well as universities attended....... board members... customers... • Just remember to fold it so the headline appears when it is removed from the envelope. "Quote showing person's productivity or worth to company”... This should include positions with high visibility in well-known companies. If the person is in a position that could invite sensational publicity. • You need not use a cover letter when mailing a press release. if this is pertinent to the position and reflects well upon both companies.) where s/he was responsible for . keep personal details to a minimum.... S/he will be responsible for primary responsibility.... commitment and / or ideas..2-Recruitment. honours.. Name joined company in year as title.... Quote the person or a company official on this personnel change...... Avoid specific information about the children that may jeopardise their safety..... the people who offer/ develop/ create (short company profile) with offices in . Induction... stockholders and employees. Prior to joining company.. at (. as .... Previously. If you distribute the press release to your vendors... and their (number of) children. Specify degrees.......... State Date Name has been promoted to title at company. .. said spokesperson's name... a quote may help add credibility and build morale.. .. specify city or neighbourhood only." said name earned a type and level of degree from .. where s/he was responsible for . worked for .. The quote should address the way this promotion will contribute to the company achieving its goals.. spokesperson's title of company. "Quote showing person's dedication... 31 . honours. and association affiliations... Integration A Press Release for New Personnel • Use this press release to take advantage of the opportunity that hiring a new employee offers.
• Use of office equipment in general. • Have a work area and materials prepared. • Regular communication for first weeks. • Staff procedures. Holiday Policy. • Details of publications available to the staff member. • You are on employed on a trial / probationary period or basis. • Time reporting policy. • Travel or meal reimbursement policies. 32 . • Meetings with various key people. • Wages are paid in cash / to a bank account. • Use of telephone. • Ensure a meeting on the first day. such as:• Wages are paid weekly / fort nightly etc. The induction process should allow the Human Resources Manager. and the appropriate supervisor the opportunity to gain information about the new recruit and introduce them to the company and the rest of the team. • You are employed on a daily / weekly / casual / permanent basis. NEW STAFF SHOULD BE GIVEN AND / OR MADE FAMILIAR WITH: • A LETTER of ENGAGEMENT detailing pertinent and relevant terms and conditions of employment. Sick leave policy. The recruit should be made comfortable working with the rest of the team and be ready to contribute results as soon as possible. • Keys or passes for access to buildings. Further Training in learning about the company’s products and systems is part of the Induction process. • Mail and filing room procedures. • Product training. • Details of office or business hours. a visit to the sales territory with sales manager or mentor. and special consideration should be given to their questions and needs until they become familiar with day to day procedures. positions and responsibilities of other staff in the firm. • For sales representatives. • Details of EEO and OH&S policies • Payroll procedures. • Visits to various sections for orientation.Managing Human Resources Induction of New Staff New staff should be made to feel welcome to the business right from the outset. Training based on the Job Description should be an important part of the Induction period. Staff evaluation policy. • A list of staff names.
with the experiences of each organisational culture being unique. who is out. If members cannot communicate with and understand each other. for relationships between the sexes. REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS Consensus on criteria for allocation of rewards and punishments. Every organisation will have different solutions to these problems and face different issues. maintains and loses power. and for the manner in which openness and intimacy are to be handled in the context of managing the organisation’s tasks. the age of the organisation. Induction. in a patterned way the nature of the underlying technology. friendship and love. POWER and STATUS Consensus on criteria for the allocation of power and status. and power. and ultimately excommunication. the prior experiences of group members. Integration Internal Integration Problems Matching People to Business Conditions A group or organisation cannot survive if it cannot manage itself as a group. Every group must know what its heroic and sinful behaviours are. External survival and internal integration problems are therefore. and the nature of the parent culture within which the organisation evolves? LANGUAGE Common language and conceptual categories. Every organisation must work out its pecking order and its rules for how one gets. a group is impossible by definition. One of the most important areas of culture is the shared consensus on who is in. INTIMACY Consensus on criteria for intimacy. and what gets punished through the withdrawal of rewards. two sides of the same coin. status. Every organisation must work out its rules of the game for peer relationships. BOUNDARIES Consensus on group boundaries and criteria for inclusion and exclusion. and by what criteria one determines membership. 33 . and the actual events experienced. This area of consensus is crucial in helping members manage their own feelings of aggression. even though the underlying issues around which the culture is formed will be common.2-Recruitment. what gets rewarded with property. Usually the solutions will reflect the biases of the founders and current leaders. Does the organisational culture reflect.
Some critical elements. In most organisations. especially at senior levels. PROMOTION IS CONSIDERED A ‘JUST REWARD’ There is little question that the nature of jobs changes as one moves up the ladder . despite its importance. LACK OF SKILL Hiring subordinates is a skill an executive is expected to posses by virtue of his or her position. a manager just gets a sense of all these factors and makes decisions accordingly. Consequently. such as a manager’s ‘style’ and the degree to which he ‘fits in’ with his colleagues. and only a few executives are naturally gifted in this area. faces unexplainable events that must be given meaning. it may get short shrift. executives believed that a good manager can handle any situation. like society. is mysterious and defies objective analysis.’ Every organisation. rather than as specialised business problems that create particular demands on the management in place. or they risk demoralising them or losing them to competitors. NOT JOBS There seems to be a pervasive desire for people to surround themselves with individuals of similar kind. and many managers feel that they have very little choice but to promote their best performers. Consequently.the best salesman seldom makes the best sales manager. so that members can respond to them and avoid the anxiety of dealing with the unexplainable and uncontrollable. Growth businesses are those that are more mature and seen as minor variations of a common theme. The pressure though is to reward performance with promotion. the selection process is often less one of matching candidates with job requirements. executives are rarely trained in selection. irrespective of its idiosyncratic demands. since selection is always time consuming and often tedious. are too abstract to be measured and too sensitive to be identified explicitly. Furthermore. objective rewards are still largely hierarchically based. COMPATIBILITY WITH PEOPLE. MANAGEMENT IS CONSIDERED A ‘MYSTERIOUS’ ACT A great number of executives feel that management. senior executives have often tended to search for ‘universal managers’. 34 . rather than those who are more specialised.Managing Human Resources IDEOLOGY Consensus on ideology and ‘religion. BELIEF IN THE ‘UNIVERSAL MANAGER’ For many years. Rather. As a consequence.
. Integration Planning for and Managing Replacement and Restaffing Human Resource Planning and Development (HRPD) should address issues such as: • Updating the human resource inventory as retirements or termination's occur. it is sending a clear message that supports internal recruitment and self development activities. and be managed to ensure coordination between the planning functions and implementation functions. the ultimate goal should be that the HRPD programme be ‘owned’ by middle management. training etc. • Accountabilities will rest squarely with supervisors and management. because the employees are unable to influence them in any way. • Managing the Information System (I. • The management of these processes are linked to other parts of the system through implicit messages that are sent to employees. • The various components should be linked to each other. Induction.S. 35 . • Regardless of who designs and manages the HRPD programme or system. • A company that manages its recruitment in a secretive manner may be sending a message to employees that the company is passive and complacent about their careers. job assignment.) on what jobs are available and determining how to match this information to the Human Resources available in order to determine whether to replace from within the organisation or to go outside with a new recruiting programme.2-Recruitment. • Instituting special programmes of orientation or training for new incumbents to specific jobs as these jobs open up. • Continuously reanalysing jobs to ensure that the new incumbent is properly prepared for what the job now requires and will require in the future. even though these careers may not involve promotions. and those processes should be designed to match the needs of the organisation with the needs of employees throughout their evolving careers. who will control the rewards and opportunities. For example if the company decides to display all its vacancies ‘in house’. and be seen as a total system for maximum effectiveness. • Planning activities should be closely linked to the processes of supervision.
They do not think it will work. INERTIA CREATIVITY HABIT FEAR What are barriers to people embracing and engaging in creative activities? We have always done it this way. we just don’t do things like that’. PREJUDICE.Managing Human Resources Why do People Fail? Some common reasons in their order of frequency. Why risk changing the status quo with the inherent risks of failure? PREJUDICE Fear + ignorance = prejudice ‘That would never work here. They do not know why they should do it. They think that their way is better. They have a poor attitude and / or lack motivation They lacked the skills to do the job. FEAR. HABIT. They were working to the wrong priorities They thought that they were doing it Poor management Personal problems CREATIVITY. INERTIA The best way of all to overcome creativity! 36 . for why people fail are: They do not know what they are supposed to do They do not know how to do it. There was not enough time to do it. There are obstacles beyond their control. and.
Give honest feedback. Enlightened thinking suggests that this is an opportune time to gather valuable feedback about the organisation. They present an ideal opportunity for the organisation to receive meaningful feedback about itself and to learn what has triggered a resignation.often people problems. not the person. or burn out. that outweighs those available here? Was the training you received here of benefit to you? How could our organisation have helped you more? Are you disappointed in this organisation. Integration Disengagement Interviews What do you do when people resign? It is quite amazing just how few organisations carry out ‘debriefings’ when people resign from their organisation. For those who are leaving. while conversely call centres average a 36% staff turnover rate. its policies. such as lack of training and career development. but do not make it personal. For many people who are leaving there is a huge temptation to relieve years of frustration by being absolutely frank about the reasons for leaving .just 8. Exit interviews should obviously be conducted by someone other than the person’s immediate supervisor to assure there is no bias and to ensure absolute confidentiality.200 staff in a recent survey. but never burn your bridges. goals and people. Exit interviews should be conducted by all organisations when people leave to go and work elsewhere. Attracting highly skilled staff is very difficult and most organisations are keen to learn the reasons why people are resigning. 37 . and your achievements here? According to data supplied by the federal government 22% of the national workforce left their jobs in the year 2000. Tackle the issues. then say that would be a better manager with more training. In Australia the Bureau of Statistics is very proud of its low staff turnover rate .2-Recruitment. steering away from being brutally frank is probably the best course of action. Resist the temptation to be vindictive. Good exit interviews can make the work environment a better place for those who follow. Induction. Some suggested questions for obtaining feedback might be: What are your long term goals? Why are you leaving at this time? What did you most enjoy about working here? What was disappointing about working here? How do your family relate to your work? Why did you choose to work here? What does your new position offer. If someone has been a poor manager.4% of more than 3.
7. • They succeed because of empathy. patience. Lack of planning 9.keep staff informed about what the business is achieving and trying to achieve Encourage and reward contributions by staff Give staff leaders to work with . 5. 8. 3. A ‘do as I say. Not providing opportunities for ongoing staff training 6. restraint and courage. fear or simply because of circumstances which were too much against them. A ‘school’ approach to hours A MANAGER • A manager is someone who manages people. Provide a variety of work . 10. 4.job rotation and projects Ensure opportunities for growth. Salary paid is different to what was offered at the interview 2. A technologically backward work place 8. and every manager will have their own unique style anyway. Feedback consists of ‘you did this wrong’ 4. learning and promotion Recognise good work Encourage your staff to take chances and to ‘take risks’ to broaden their point of reference Involve your staff in the ‘big picture’ . 9. 38 . knowledge. Running the business like a dictatorship 5. • They fail because of inexperience. • No person is identical to another person and since no people problems are identical there is no standard formula for solving people problems. ‘Forget’ salary reviews 3. 6. intolerance.not managers Reward staff as individuals Encourage and have a team environment Provide a work environment that balances work and personal life How to lose your staff 1. ignorance. not do as I do’ work environment 7. 2. Pressure to complete work on time and then the leader or manager fails to review the job for weeks 10.Managing Human Resources How to keep your staff interested 1.
3 Organisations and People .
What is it? Does your organisation have a Mission Statement? Could Human Resource issues be addressed more readily if you did have a Mission Statement? All members of the organisation should focus on.defined not in terms of what your organisation does. A very good real life example of a Mission Statement is this one from the Department of Administrative Services [D. in order to win and keep the customer’s business. and set out to achieve that vision.something that is really worth doing.defined not in terms of some market segment or statistical category. A sense of worthwhile purpose . but in terms of the fundamental value it represents in matching the customers need premise. or delivers. A value creation premise that people can actually picture as existing.something people can realistically believe to be possible and. The value premise . at least plausible to strive for.Managing Human Resources A Mission Statement . make a contribution. The statement and vision should be founded on a set of values held by all members of the company. Another excellent example which I noticed in the employment columns of a newspaper. sells. and then develop and deploy the statement and vision throughout your organisation. and believe in that statement and vision. but in terms of a basic defining need premise that leads that person [or entity] to consider doing business with your enterprise.something beyond platitudes. make the world a better place in some way and win people’s commitment.]: ‘To be recognised by our customers and the government as Australia’s best provider of services and a leader in public sector reform’. You will need to start by establishing the values of your organisation. makes. What makes you special .A.S. What are the basic requirements of a meaningful mission statement? The components to help make a mission / vision useful and valid could include: A focused concept . if not perfectly attainable. 40 . A plausible chance of success . is from the South Australian Film Corporation: ‘We will stimulate and assist the film and video industry and community to achieve sustained economic and cultural benefits that are valued by the people of South Australia’. something that can create value.your special means for creating value. Further the mission statement should define: The Customer .
An open question will cause the person the question is directed at. Providing feedback to others. the new person called a meeting of his staff and had this to say. consulting. They are irretrievably linked. The ability to influence and persuade others. I expect you to do exactly as I say and to follow my instructions in your work as a team. Business communication covers many facets and can include: Being aware of non verbal behaviour . Business communication is. Seeking out and processing information. Motivating others. If we work as a team we can accomplish a lot. persuading. Selling and representing your self to others. and convincing. Communication is used to address issues such as: How When What Why Who Where Open questions can be prefixed with any of these six words. Don’t forget though. On the first day on the job as the new manager. Listening. Questioning. to answer with more than a straight out yes or no answer. Seeking out and listening to feedback about yourself.over 50 percent of a message is perceived non verbally.3-Organisations and People Communication and Human Resources What is Business Communication? Human Resource skills involve high levels of business communication skills. The ability to select appropriate methods of interfacing with others. Effective meeting skills. ‘Now it is essential that we work as a team. Communication is about getting through and being understood.’ 41 . Selling and representing your work mates and work place to others. and open the channels of communication.
and your reasons for discarding them.Managing Human Resources Six Steps to Managing Your Career 1 SELF ASSESSMENT List your transferable skills. When you take control Discover from your new staff how they tackle their own jobs. Decide how you will get to where you want to be. Discover what is regarded as the essential purpose of your job. Make sure that at least some of these are put into practice for the sake of morale. Summarise your preferred skills. These should relate not only to the job’s result. 2 INTERPRETING DATA Consult your mentor and/or career counsellor and/or significant other in your life. Develop a list of possible career action steps which could provide opportunities for improved worklife satisfaction. values. Get clear success criteria. 42 . List discarded options. interests and achievements to date. List employment likes and dislikes and your reasons for them. 5 TRANSITION TRAINING Produce a thoroughly written version of your career transition strategy and discuss it and its rationale with your counsellor. and/or significant other. Discover the extent and the limits of your own authority. but how you do it. 3 OPPORTUNITY AWARENESS Explore one or more jobs and gather information. mentor. Get proposals from them on how working can be improved and what they would like to see done. 4 DECISION LEARNING Make decisions based on what you have learnt. 6 TRANSITION ACCOMPLISHED Get out the champagne. needs. if for nothing else.
Participation groups can be frustrating for those who don’t get what they want.” Committees are frequently used to postpone work or to avoid facing a controversial problem.3-Organisations and People Why do people resist meetings? Meetings use more collective time to perform a simple task than any individual would use. Foster more satisfying work relationships. as people get to work in a positive. Group assignments can foster unequal workloads that are a fertile ground for resentment and lowered morale. so that the whole becomes far greater than the sum of the parts. is less likely to miss an important contingency than is a person working alone. Meetings are often just plain boring. (Lets delegate that to a committee) Meetings can put individuals on the spot by pressuring them to state opinions publicly. “a camel is a horse designed by a committee. productive manner with peers. Spread workload so that more gets done. People may be forced to associate with colleagues they would rather avoid. Meetings and Teamthink Teamwork at meetings can increase creativity. A critical group. 43 . Group work dissipates the glory any individual would have received for doing a good job. Participation groups can be frustrating for those who don’t get what they want. with numerous viewpoints. or for those who operate at a higher pace than others. Committees can encourage controversy or conflict. Hence the expression. Team work can reduce resistance to change by encouraging those who implement a program to feel allegiance to it. Improve planning. A good way to invite commitment is to ask for involvement in the planning of any project. Participants stimulate one another. Groups can lessen personal accountability for work. especially for those who already know the material being covered. Groups can make the simple complex. A team approach should synergise thought.
group DIFFERENTIAL STATUS CONTROL High External. divisions Sequential Official position SKILL BASE Multi skilling INNOVATION PROCESS POWER BASE Simultaneous Expertise. assembly lines Specialisation. participatory Collaborative Groups. within groups upon individuals Merit. teams WORK RELATIONSHIPS WORK STRUCTURING Competitive Departments. skills in hierarchy Low Internal. COMPENSATION FOCUS Seniority 44 .Managing Human Resources Organisational Structure Old and new paradigms OLD STRUCTURE SPAN OF CONTROL COMMUNICATION DECISION MAKING Tall Narrow Downward Autocratic NEW Flat Wide Multi directional Democratic.
intellect. attitudes. and physical and mental behaviour Universities Prisons Hospitals etc. Number of people leaving Service Distributing services either directly to consumer or to above types Military Government Advertising Taxi companies Extent of services performed 45 .3-Organisations and People What goals do organisations have? TYPE OF ORGANISATION MAJOR FUNCTION EFFECTIVENESS CRITERION Typology of organisations EXAMPLES Habit Replicating standard and uniform products Highly mechanised factories etc. Number of products Problem solving Creating new ideas Research organisations Design and Engineering Consulting organisations Number of ideas Indoctrination Changing people’s habits.
CHARACTERISTICS of BUREAUCRACY Division of Labour Rules and procedures Authority Impersonality Careers and merit BUREAUCRACY POSSIBLE BENEFITS • Stability • Efficiency • Control POSSIBLE PROBLEMS • Red tape • Inflexibility • Dominating authority • Position protection Staff Rooms Many companies in the past set up their staff rooms as lacklustre and often small spaces and were at a loss to understand why usage of the facility by their staff was low. casual and relaxing staff rooms. These specially designed spaces take on a new persona and can even introduce a cafe ambience with a design theme and ‘funky’ colours’. Enlightened companies are now commissioning interior decorators to design and implement stimulating. or any institution. and more than one-third of its energies to its organisation. when the penalty for success gets to be as big as the reward for failure. The aim being to encourage staff to interact in-house at break times rather than going out. 46 .Managing Human Resources Bureaucracy A definition of bureaucracy might be: A business. that exists to carry out an organisation. Or: Any company giving less than two-thirds of its energies to its business. Mediocrity in a bureaucracy exists.
Many organisations are living with the effects of successful short term change results that have not been maintained Probably the most important requirement for continued change is a continued feedback and information system that lets people in the organisation know the system status in relation to the desired states. 47 . POLITICAL ACTIONS Broaden the political support for radical actions. what has happened in their working relationships and other issues for review before the planning meeting. As an example an annual 5 year planning meeting. Renewal conferences. it is a good sign that you are doing something significant. But change is its motivator. Robert Kennedy SOME COMMON FEEDBACK SYSTEMS ARE: Periodic team meetings to review a team’s functioning and what it’s next goal priorities should be. and change has its enemies. and many are necessary if a change is to be maintained. Realise the level of dissatisfaction and discomfort with the current situation. Progress is a nice word. on a systematic. If some people become upset.3-Organisations and People Managing Change Do you have conscious procedures and commitment? Organisational change will not be maintained simply because there has been early success. goal directed basis. to examine themselves. Performance review on a systematic. with a sample of employees from a variety of different organisational centres in order to keep appraised of the state of the system. could be preceded by a weekend away at a retreat by the managers (and wives) concerned. Sensitise key factors / champions to the need for change. Periodic meetings between interdependent units of an organisation. new forces in the environment. Organisation sensing meetings in which the top of an organisation meets. their personal and company priorities. forthcoming planning issues. planned basis. There are a number of interventions that are possible. Feedback from outside parties.
Think about what the customer wants. Cure all It has been reported that.10 Steps 1. 10. Expect resistance and be prepared to deal with it. 6. Discard preconceived notions. 3. in a break with contemporary practice. 2. involve people and be honest Reinforce and institute change. Being part of Change can be fun and exciting. 4. Employees who are not at home when the card carrier arrives are invited to talk to the boss on their return to duties. Define clearly what needs to be established. Articulate core values and beliefs. Develop enabling structures Communicate. CHANGING WORK HABITS Question assumptions. Analyse the organisation and its need for change Create a shared vision and common direction Separate from the past Create a sense of urgency Support a strong leader role Line up political sponsorship Craft an implementation plan. Psychologist Joyce Brothers 48 . 5.Managing Human Resources Executing Change . Assess business priorities. Working in teams can be helpful and very effective. Volkswagen halved absenteeism at its plants in Germany by handdelivering get-well cards to workers who call in to advise that they are too sick to come to work that day. I think this is sometimes a good rule to follow in human relations as well. 9. There is a little rule of sailing where the more manoeuvrable ship should give way to the less manoeuvrable craft. You may not need to be an expert to achieve significant change. Being an outsider can be an advantage. 7. 8.
However there needs to be a genuine desire embodied in a published mission statement. Concentration on profitability should help employees identify with overall company goals. well run organisations. The CEO of another Australian company travels over 160. Everybody is a ‘manager’.000 km a year visiting his plants and warehouses. They are ‘market driven’. a positive attitude to such visits is. Common factors that lead to involvement and pride in ownership are: a high degree of communication high pay / incentives promotion from within stress on training recognition of the ‘social’ side of work a genuine respect for the individual We quote the example of a successful and well known Australian manufacturing company. for this type of scheme to work. There is a broadening of the agenda for joint problem solving and the facilitation of conciliation. 49 .not to catch people making mistakes.3-Organisations and People People at Work . In these settings. The work force are kept informed of costs. profit and loss and accord a high priority to what surplus is all about. This attitude change has major implications for employee participation. Finally in good. The good managers welcome his visits because. ‘to see it being done right’. ’when you start trying to anticipate what he will find you get better as a manager’. the additional tasks include making relations less adversarial. Performance standards are designed to provide ‘stretch objectives’.and shareholders.Cultures A simple definition of a work place culture is that its culture is the personality of the business. Work place cultures are affected by: • levels of trust • risk taking • stress • fears and anxieties • social interaction • factions and politics • the structure of reporting relationships • company policies • personnel practices • work flow and work loads • management and supervisory styles • job design Many successful companies show a high profit orientation. acknowledging the claims of employees . with scope for equity sharing and retraining. .
‘To be a successful manager and not just a back room specialist. started to use the word ‘seamless’ to describe what the Australian headquarters called a ‘consistent level of standards’. “They tried to tell us that we would come out jacks of all trades and masters of none. It soon became obvious to the staff and management world wide.K. London. it would mean that any client would receive a constant quality whether they purchased the services the company offered in Australia. 50 .’ An Australian owned company operating in the U.” Another leading and well respected Australian company director with an MBA from Harvard. It took a couple of years in industry to teach me I knew very little. says that even there. that it would probably be years before we worked ourselves up to a job senior enough to look on business from the high perspective from which we had been regarding it at school. Ultimately managerial positions overseas have to be filled by Australians because they are the only ones prepared to perpetuate the gospel laid down by Melbourne headquarters. one needs many qualities which are not intellectual but personal. I came from University with a doctorate degree in economics thinking I knew everything in the world. The word was intended to mean there would be an internationally accepted internal standard and systems.” A common view of these two people is that. staff go to great lengths to discourage arrogance. To those in the Melbourne head quarters.Managing Human Resources Company Culture FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS A well known and respected director of an Australian company. usually after the second port: “It is not only the MBA courses that produce arrogant graduates. that what the word ‘seamless’ really meant. was that the common standards and phraseology being talked about would all be set in Melbourne and it was a case of do everything the Australian way. New York or Singapore. The company found itself with serious problems of how to handle the discontent and complaints about corporate imperialism! The ultimate result of this philosophy was that creative and dynamic staff soon left because their freedom of thought was being eroded and only customers who are attracted to and want to buy Australian will remain as customers. Tokyo. which operates in a number of overseas countries likes to relate this story.. But that is a warning young people find difficult to accept. and other parts of the world. such as leadership.
This is the irony and the threat. These constraints will be compounded by old style attitudes towards management methods. Forgetting curves persist for several reasons.in whatever country . surplus machinery and buildings and will carry stock no longer relevant to the business. but because their forgetting curves were too long. will train staff to the optimum level. 51 . pride. arrogance or just plain obstinacy are invariably present when forgetting curves are long. and an ethos ill suited to the changing world. Education. new firms merely graft opportunities or challenges onto existing structures rather than take bold steps into the future. but companies that were working in different areas.3-Organisations and People Forgetting Curves FUTURE SHOCK It was not the great companies traditionally linked with radio valves that made the great success of semiconductors. A long established company will have old plant. It was not the great electronic companies that made the conquest of computers possible. ATTITUDES Dedication to past traditions. new people.will immediately acquire the most up to date equipment. but it is also due to too slow a pace of change. STRUCTURE An organisation that has evolved successfully around one type of product or market environment can rarely change rapidly. Yet all too often. early retirement and restructuring of firms are all methods that need to be considered and acted upon. buildings and stock holdings. The newcomers simply had nothing to forget. These are common human characteristics and should not be regarded as failings. but small companies that were almost complete strangers to the field. A new company that has full access to latest technology . probably the wrong mix of skills in the work force. The reluctance to change comes in part from the attitudes described already. will build up staff to the minimum level needed to work the equipment and will not be burdened by surplus plant. indoctrination. habits of thinking. changing responsibilities. People who can recognise the foothills of some dramatic change rather than merely seeing them as perturbations in the normal run of business are vital to innovation. a trade union structure inherited from earlier and different times. This was not through lack of knowledge and skill on the part of the original companies. nor indeed lack of enterprise.
e. • A desirable future . • A situation where they can get help and respect from their work mates. yet allows operators to settle into a satisfying work rhythm. Employees dedication and loyalty is seen as a quid pro quo as a perception of fair treatment by the company. which forms a prominent part of on learning the psychological contract between company and employee. seems a fitting adage for the new millennium and should be practised at all times.a job which enables the person to grow. ‘The Customer is King (or Queen)’. Can your company conduct competitive customer service competitions to encourage excellence in customer service. • A feeling that their work is useful to society. 52 .one that avoids boredom. • The chance to learn on the job and to go on learning. i. • Adequate elbow room . feedback on performance is provided. The importance of quality service should be instilled early in every employee’s career and constantly reinforced by management.people are not left completely on their own so that they do not know what to do next. But the boss is not breathing down their neck. performance is critiqued to work out ways for improvement.The Three Legged Stool The Criteria for a Satisfying Job • An optimal level of variety . EMPLOYEES The chance to learn The first element involves treatment of on the job and to go employees. targets for performance are set. Dedication to the service ethos should be a powerful value in successful companies. Employment security. good wages and benefits and employee safety are seen as the major issues in a lot of companies. CUSTOMERS The second leg of the stool.Managing Human Resources Cultural Attributes . SHAREHOLDERS or OWNERS The third leg of the stool. Shareholder accountability should be safeguarded by those elements of organisational culture that encourage productivity and sound financial management.
in 50% of cases it will effect profits. At the time of a major revision of this book Sydney was experiencing bushfires with major loss of property. which was reported as being Australia’s second worst natural disaster. IN A MAJOR BUSINESS CRISIS Do your key employees have a (confidential) list of after hours phone numbers? Who is the back up person if you are unavailable? Which Government Departments would you need to contact? Are their phone numbers on your list? Would the switchboard operator be able to handle incoming calls and questions in a crisis? Would a dedicated 1800 phone line be appropriate for use in a potential emergency? SOME POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREAS • Industrial accidents • Environmental problems • Union problems / strikes • Product recalls • Rumours / media leaks • Government regulatory problems • Terrorism • Embezzlement • Bad debts • Loss of a key supplier • Loss of a major customer What if your business burnt down on a Sunday night? What if there was no power supply one morning. and able to handle a major crisis? Is your organisation capable of handling a major crisis? Do you have a crisis management team with clearly defined strategies for crisis? Can you get accurate information about your crisis.3-Organisations and People Crisis Management Is your organisation prepared for the unexpected? Is your organisation prepared for. and weeks later many people affected by the storm were still experiencing difficulties. 53 . to your premises? Or your business was hit by an earthquake? (These are actual examples from our own work experience. in 50% of cases it will interfere with business. Tarpaulins to cover roofs had to be flown in from China. fast? Statistics suggest once a crisis commences: in 70% of cases it will escalate.) When this was originally written Sydney had just experienced a major hail storm.
2 million motor cars.a euphemism for staff retrenchments. THE GRIEF PHASE Shock Staff drop their work Staff congregate in groups for long periods of time trying to understand the ramifications A paralysis of feeling THE DEPRESSION PHASE Bargaining has failed A sense of helplessness and loss of control sets in Pessimism and hopelessness take place Some people with low skills remain in this phase until retirement ACCEPTANCE A recognition that the job and its benefits are lost An ability to look for new work and move on emotionally Rehabilitation and rebirth In 1991 General Motors in the U. Mark Twain said: Training is everything.S.2 million cars and trucks.000 people to make around 4.have identified several phases in the process. organisations and managers peak at an optimum size or level of competency. In the same year Toyota employed only 97.000 people to produce more than 4. Many companies. A cauliflower is nothing but a cabbage with a university education.Some Peter Principles DOWNSIZING People responsible for downsizing . ‘The pearl was once a bitter almond. DO YOU HAVE A POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARD SUCCESS? 1) Are you happy only when you are doing better than others? 2) Do you feel that achievement commands respect? 3) Is it important to you to do well in the things you undertake? If you answered yes to these questions you have a positive attitude to be being successful. employed more than 400.Managing Human Resources Downsizing . often on a major scale .’ 54 . by performing at least one rung below the maximum level of incompetence.
and be able to identify potential and existing risks and hazards.) All organisations should have an Occupational Health and Safety policy in place which is clearly understood by all employees. ‘Jim to buy some band aids to stock up the first aid kit’. and be made aware of changes in Occupational Health and Safety issues. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should implement training policies to effectively address relevant issues in their organisation.H. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be aware of current legal requirements and keep up to date with changes in legal requirements and community expectations. They have a meeting now and again after our other meetings”.H. Are your employees equipped with appropriate protective equipment? Does your organisation have an easily accessible FIRST AID station and a trained person to render emergency assistance? Does your organisation have a list of emergency phone numbers to be used in emergency situations? Does your organisation have an emergency procedure plan in place? Of course Occupational Health and Safety is a far more complex subject than this. reporting and recording incidents and accidents with an emphasis on prevention. & S. came up. Some of the issues to address: Employees need to be aware of the factors involved in work related injuries and disease.3-Organisations and People Occupational Health and Safety (O. 55 . The only entry for at least a year read. at work In a general discussion with a construction company with 50 workers which we were doing some consulting work for. O. “We have a committee that looks after that. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should have the knowledge. H. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be able to represent both employer and employee in the consultative process. “We even keep minutes”. and many organisations have a full time officer to handle this complex task. was the proud response. the subject of O. & S. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be able to develop and implement preventative strategies. skills and competencies to carry out their tasks. Those responsible for the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be equipped with the necessary skills to carry out and perform these policies and their functions under this policy. The organisation should have a system for investigating. A little later the appropriate minute book was shown to us. & S.
The lesson is clear: to be competitive. • In most companies 80% of the profits come from 20% of the customers. would someone want to A study in the United States rated the come and work in this performance of the Standard & Poors 500 organisation?” companies on equal-opportunity factors. “Why management. Companies rating in the top 100 had an average return of 18%. In fact it is almost passé to talk constantly ask about discrimination.000 to replace a key employee. It found that companies rated in the bottom 100 for equal opportunity had an average of 8% return on investment. but also lost managers should opportunity. it is better known as bad themselves. ability to achieve by Surveys show that poor equal-opportunity enhancing their selfpractices contribute to high staff turnover and esteem and improving absenteeism. Good equal-opportunity practice Can you increase their makes good business sense. 56 . diversity.’ The PARETO PRINCIPLE • In most companies 80% of the sales come from 20% of the customers. ‘Discrimination does not come cheap. A University of Melbourne study their skill set? has estimated it costs a professional services firm about $75. In press article she claimed that. organisations need to take advantage of the Can you gain more from range of talents of their staff and strengthen your people by their business profiles and management empowering them. • In most companies 80% of the complaints come from 20% of the customers.Managing Human Resources Discrimination At the time of writing Sue Goward was the high profile head of the Office of the Status of Women. Its costs are not just financial penalty or damaging Human Resource publicity for a company. including the recruitment and promotion of women and minorities.
This handbook could contain information on the following: 1] Welcome message 2] History of the organisation 3] This is our business 4] You and your future 5] What you will need to know Working hours Reporting to work ‘Time clock’ Rest periods Absence from work Reporting absences Employment record Pay period Shift premiums O. annual outing. Sporting activities 7] These special services are for you 8] Index / table of contents 57 . etc.3-Organisations and People An Employee Handbook . & S.sharing plan Suggestion awards Service awards Credit union Education plans Medical dispensary Employee purchases Cafeteria Monthly magazine Social club. Use of telephones How to air complaints 6] These are your benefits Holidays Rostered days off Work insurance Hospital and medical benefits Free parking Training program Christmas bonus Savings plan Profit . H. which is given to all employees when they commence working for the company.a suggested Outline As a component of their Human Resources policy an organisation should have an employee handbook.
Everything must be above board and be seen to be so. A code of ethics may be necessary to support a Code of Conduct. including cultural issues.Managing Human Resources Code of Conduct Many organisations produce a Code of Conduct for their employees. Employees would be expected to read it. ask questions of their supervisor and then sign it to indicate they understand the ethical procedures of the organisation. Procedures might include: Protection of confidential information Avoiding conflicts of interest Directing media contacts to media relations Prohibiting drugs and alcohol Eliminating the risks of fraud and corruption Prohibiting gambling Discouraging and reporting gifts and entertainment A code of ethics may be necessary to support a Code of Conduct and to address issues. such as: What do we as an organisation think is worthwhile? What are our core values? What sort of principles are we using for our decision making process? These issues and values can be developed at monthly staff meetings 58 . Internal auditors may be responsible for checking procedures.
harmful behaviour confronted effectively. but is not limited to bargaining 59 . Most of us see differences between us as problems to which we must apply our imagination to get our way. Negotiation can be more than a contest in relative power. in which one side tries to win as much as possible while minimising the risk of getting hurt. CREATIVE NEGOTIATION: A WIN . and the customer would be willing to buy if the price were right. THE UTILITY OF BARGAINING Bargaining is often legitimate. If we could believe that conflict. This view implies there must be a winner and a loser.3-Organisations and People Negotiation Negotiate is what we do when the other side can hurt us’. we might free ourselves from the mental tyranny of misusing power in negotiation. The two begin to bargain when the customer perceives that the price of the object is not fixed. can be an opportunity rather than a problem. and each party is striving to maximise its portion: the idea of splitting the difference may lead to a quick agreement that leaves everyone satisfied. and new and more satisfactory ways of sharing a broad range of resources negotiated. or threatening to use it. This implies that negotiation is an exercise in relative power. Consequently. Bargaining is also useful when limited resources must be shared. People who try to resolve conflicts through the use of power often get the creativity of their opponents turned against them. and that outcomes favourable to both sides are possible.WIN APPROACH More than ever before conflict must be resolved beneficially. Negotiation is a complex process that includes. How much each side wins or loses depends on its relative power and its skill in using this power. when properly managed. such as when a shopkeeper would rather sell for less than not at all. at least relatively. is an old adage veteran diplomats like to use. during negotiation. what is seen as a win-lose confrontation (usually by both parties) frequently winds up as a lose-lose: neither party gets what it really needs. Conflicts of need arise naturally and can produce beneficial results.
when the relationship is short term and formal. we negotiated together. techniques that may occur in negotiation but are not essential to it. compromising or trading. This includes bargaining. 60 . He said. ‘Well. Measuring your professionalism How do your customers. It is usually used to describe a commercial transaction or a trade off: Union-management talks being a good example. confront a problem and arrive at an innovative solution that best meets the needs of all parties and secures their commitment to fulfilling the agreement reached. or when impasse exists. Even Moses when he came down from the mountain after getting the Ten Commandments admitted to some negotiating. when haggling is expected and appropriate. when the use of power threat are endemic. The word bargaining is more or less synonymous with haggling. You can assert your control by influencing and optimising the effect of the clues you are sending. in areas such as: • Symbols of authority • Symbols of expertise • Vocabulary and articulation skills • Personal character development • Personal packaging When competitiveness or suspicion pervades a relationship.Managing Human Resources Creative Negotiating Creative negotiating is a process whereby two or more parties meet and through artful discussion and creativity. you only get one chance to make a first impression). when ideologies conflict. bargaining may be the best way to settle an issue. but adultery is still in’. peers and staff measure your professionalism? They are continually using clues to assess you (don’t forget. I got him down to ten.
do your homework ahead of time. and those wishing to maintain the status quo? Determine the costs of a stalemate. Consider time and timing. tactics.3-Organisations and People The Process of Negotiation Preparation and planning . Evaluate both yours and that of the other party. What tactics best suit this situation? 61 . How much pressure will I be under to achieve an agreement? Should we finalise the matter later? Identify all the parties to the negotiations. Research the history of the conflict. Who are the decision makers. What do you need out of the negotiations? Assess motivations. successes and failures. Familiarise yourself with the opponent’s past behaviours. Research the opponent or opposition. Are there third parties or other people such as lawyers involved? Identify the power figures on the other side. philosophy. What led up to these negotiations and what possible solutions are available? Research the present conditions. change agents. Is a site visit appropriate? Formulate requirements. writings. What is the best alternative if my final offer is rejected? What is the next best alternative? Choose strategy or tactics. aspirations. viewpoints. speeches.
Ratification. breaks. This is the problem solving stage. Introductions. or a review of the background to the conference may come at this step. arrival and protocol. rituals. work schedules (hours. or charter. seating arrangements. relaxed and friendly environment that will discourage tension and competitiveness and encourage co-operation and a willingness to solve problems. shaking hands or be far more complex and need some type of formal ratification. good or bad is displayed. Opening the meeting. This can range between the parties saying ‘okay’. to soften up the opponent. and other aspects of each party’s relationship to its counterpart. A formal agreement may be examined for loopholes. ambiguous words or phrases etc.) and support services can be discussed. The reasons for the negotiation are summarised in unequivocal words. and there may be several stages at which agreements are reached. Matters such as the use of facilities. Agreements may be reached in stages. Discussion . Initial remarks. This should be a step to a statement of the goals desired. Great care should be taken at this stage against any possible misconceptions. Developing an agreement.Managing Human Resources The Negotiation Conference Pre negotiation discussion This may be done to establish a relationship. Review and adjustment. Conclusion. You must ensure that all the items you consider critical are on the agenda. This step primarily sets the tone of the conference. Establishing the agenda. etc. Seldom is anything critical discussed. or to assess the potential problems involved in the negotiation. The meeting can be held at each others office or a neutral site. The remarks do not deal with matters of substance. precedence. Statement of the problem. This is where the art of negotiation. the crux of the negotiation. Formalities. Establishing ground rules. as the purpose is to become acquainted amicably.Give and take. but all the activity of working out an agreement. This may vary between nodding of heads in agreement or the construction of a complex legal document. The formal opening of the meeting and the presentation of the participants may establish rank. This includes not only bargaining. The goal is to create an informal. This is vital. a statement of purpose. 62 . or can be introduced at appropriate or (advantageous) or vital times.
What solutions have been attempted so far? 3.What are they? A question is an opening to creation.. sorrow.e. A question has no end and no beginning. What else would you like to see happen? 10. What one thing are you willing to change to make this be what you would like it to be? 63 .e. What is your feeling regarding the situation? .. judgement.. How would your life be different if this situation were changed? 12. A question is a beginning of adventure.g... Q.... What would you like to get clear about today? A. What is your attitude regarding the situation? . What would you like to see happen? 9. What is it about these attempts that did not work? 4. 5. A question is an unsettled and unsettling issue. contempt.g. A question is seductive foreplay. A question is a point of departure. 6... What benefits do you receive from having this situation? 7. I would like to get clear about my relationship to. A question wants a playmate. What is the reality of the situation? 8. fear.3-Organisations and People Questions .. What do you need to do at this time? 11.that is not clear? The questions: 1. A question pokes and prods that which has not yet been poked and prodded.. A question is an invitation to creativity. A question is a disguised answer. What is it about.. anger. criticism... hurt. TWELVE BASIC QUESTIONS Introduction Q. What is the goal you would like to achieve? 2.
Managing Human Resources
My Job - My Role
This quick quiz should be done from memory, without reference to any outside prompts. The most important areas of activity for me are: 1] 2] 3] The major outcomes required from my job are: 1] 2] 3] Targets which I am expected to meet are: 1] 2] 3] The most important people/departments for me to interact with are: 1] 2] 3] The individuals / groups I have direct authority over are: 1] 2] 3] For most people at work there is: A role that should be performed, a role that the person thinks they are performing and there is a role that they are actually performing. A common method of overcoming these problems is Management by Objectives [MBO], or similar setting of objectives for a person’s position. Some of the criteria used to set these objectives: CLEAR definite, specific and unambiguous. MEASURABLE in terms of quantity and / or quality CONSISTENT will contribute to the desired end result of the organisation or unit. CHALLENGING encouraging personal skills and knowledge growth ACHIEVABLE possible for the job holder ACCEPTABLE agreed to and accepted by both the person and the person’s manager.
4 Leadership and Motivation
Managing Human Resources
What type of leadership should an effective leader provide? Some of the myriad leadership responsibilities of management include: Showing the way, and defining the goals and intentions of the organisation. Going ahead of, in a spiritual relationship with your people. Guiding, people into alternate methods and directions. Causing progress, and setting in motion people and activities for progress. Being decisive, and maintaining constant flow and growth. Having grace under pressure Creating pathways with the leader’s values and visions. Controlling and influencing actions of people and the organisation. Directing and maintaining cohesive achievement. Commanding and exerting authority in the context of effective leadership. Raising morale, of people and the organisation. Being the first and more important, letting others be the first, and receive the credit. Heading the team and being ultimately responsible for what happens. Beginning, and setting in motion the stimulus and movement for motion. Each of us wants continuing reassurance on two points: 1. ‘Tell me what you expect of me.’ 2. ‘Tell me how I am getting on.
Good supervision is the art, of getting average people, to produce superior work.
Good training. A good example.4-Leadership and Motivation Leadership The Visionary Creates meaning by crafting a vision. mission and direction that define the focus of an enterprise. including target dates. within the enterprise. 67 . using their individual strengths and resources. This person will become a ‘human logo’. welds them into a focused team to advocate the common goal. elaborating. and interpreting this meaning for the people in the organisation. Good working conditions. at every opportunity. based on their present work to prepare them for advancement Proper equipment and adequate resources. sorts the truth from the challenges. continuously developing them as a team and as individual leaders who can produce the desired results. Protection from hazards. everyday actions that enable people to associate the leader with the success of the organisation. The Living Symbol Leads in a highly visible manner. Information on what is happening and on what is going to happen. The Buck-stopper Faces the difficult issues. Encouragement of effort. a living symbol. a team builder. This person needs to be open minded. Equal and fair treatment. To develop as a team. which is not necessarily a charismatic style but a constant and persistent pattern of reinforcing the organisational goals. and makes the necessary decisions and changes. An even work flow free from peaks and troughs. This association will result in the leader being automatically associated with a concept of success. Each of these people needs to be a visionary. This will involve simple. Continually evolving. The people working for you will expect: Clear direction and objectives. a good listener and be prepared to collaborate with the management team. Recognition of their performance and of their worth as individuals. The Team Builder Puts the correct people in the correct places for the leadership team. and a buck stopper for their own enterprise.
Managing Human Resources Leadership Steps PROCESS LEADER BEHAVIOURS BASIS Power Base Legitimate ASSIGN Reward Coercive Expert Referent Information Direct Order Instruct Plan OUTCOMES IMPLEMENT Guide Support Monitor Delegate EVALUATE REWARD Control Review Critique Appraise Revise Feedback Reward Punish PERFOR -MANCE Productivity Satisfaction Turnover Absenteeism 68 .
• Feedback and communication is from the top down. authority and control are shared. • Decisions are made at the top. achieving higher levels of productivity.What is it? Empowerment is a fundamentally different way of working together. • Each person is responsible for their own job.4-Leadership and Motivation Empowerment . skills. The circle NEW ORGANISATIONAL FORM 69 . • Movement and communication between divisions is minimal. As with most other new business ideas. This invariably involves a vast shift in the way management and staff operate and will need to involve dedication and commitment. As with all change in the work place. The pyramid TRADITIONAL JOB SPECIFICATIONS People work cooperatively. Control and co-ordination come through continual communication. Teams work together to improve their performance continually. Responsibility. EMPOWERMENT involves both managers and employees in rethinking old ways and learning new ones. • Change is slow and rare and comes from the top. Organisations are structured in such a way that people feel that they are able to achieve the results they want and that they can do what needs to be done. reinforced at a number of meetings. Many people consider EMPOWERMENT as yet another buzz word in a seemingly never ending string of business solutions with a catchy name. many employees find it very difficult to embrace EMPOWERMENT and to come to terms with it. Change can be rapid to meet challenges. Employees feel responsible not for just doing a job. but also for making the whole organisation work better. The CUSTOMER is in the centre.
" In early 2001.Managing Human Resources Good Leadership Demonstrate concern for people Provide for opportunity and assist in self development Provide an atmosphere encouraging self-satisfaction and pride Encourage team effort Maintain complete fairness. honesty and integrity. consistent. grow and break out". has been keen promoter of better communication and motivation of staff. being more in control. Encourage public service Encourage creativity Commit ourselves to productivity and quality Maintain consistency Dedication to improvement Keep things simple and basic Build on a basis of ‘need’ Give attention to detail Conserve resources Listen carefully to what others are saying and ‘take it on board’ A Bad Boss Is dictatorial. "The hard-faced image of the banks is not going to help us grow. and signs off personally on many pieces of communication with staff. Maintain open. and having the courage to be different. and regular communication. We want to be the bank with the human 70 . Bell and Brown say that any change in culture that creates a desirable employer brand has to come from the top of an organisation. Similarly. the bank began a program of what it calls "perform. about what gets our people excited and performing well. uses his or her power to effect change Enjoys intimidating staff and is often autocratic Is one dimensional Quells conflict rather than drawing differences out Is a workaholic with few if any close relationships HR at the banks At Hewitt Associates. "It is a simple communication to everyone in the company about performing better." McFarlane says. the chief executive of ANZ Banking Group. John McFarlane. chief executive David Morgan put his name to the "barbecue cards". bullying and inconsistent Feels threatened by divergent opinions and will surround him or herself with people of similar views Withholds information. At Westpac. McFarlane says: "In terms of running the bank. we have been doing lots of work on performance ethics.
• Be the best at what you do.far from it. Completely. and life is complicated. and everyday hassles will constantly try to hold you back (mainly in the form of other people) but it is up to you whether you let these affect you or not. how you are going to do it and how much you are prepared to gain or sacrifice while getting it. for customers but equally importantly for our people. organisations and movements to blame. totally.4-Leadership and Motivation face. goals and objectives? Improved quality and productivity? Suppliers’ desires and expectations? Core competencies? Vital issues affecting your business and organisation? Personal desires and ambitions of the leadership team? And compare against your local competitors? And compare against the worlds best practices? A Personal Goal • Be good at what you do. utterly. When you peel back all the layers of yourself and the world it is as simple as that. Fate.intimately. Enhancing the people agenda is vital for us. • Stay the best at what you do You are responsible for your life. Obstacles. A yes/no decision every time. destiny. Everything is not black and white . brick walls. both up and down? Active employee support for company vision. 71 ." Future Vision How will you rate and address: Customer requirements? Employees’ desires and expectations? Improved employee job satisfaction? Improved communications.but you must do it if you want your life to progress and if you want to grow. Ultimately you decide what you are going to do.either way . • Get better at what you do. It often takes extreme courage and strength to make a decision . 100% responsible. Finally. whatever will throw you chances here and there but it is up to you to take hold of them. Stop looking around for people. get to know yourself .
8. Working conditions: the amount of comfort and safety on the job. Advancement: the chance for advancement. 72 . 14. Compensation: the pay for the amount of work done. Ability utilisation: the chance to do something with my abilities. 18. 15. 2. 4.Managing Human Resources Leading a team . 11. 10. Supervision . Supervision . 16.20 Work related needs and requests 1. 17. 5.human relations: the way the boss handles subordinates. Community service: the chance to do things for other people. 19. Co-workers: the way co-workers get along with each other. 6. Variety: the chance to do different things from time to time. Creativity: the chance to try doing things my way. Company policies and practices: the way company policies are put into place. Achievement: the feeling of accomplishing something at work. 13. 7. 3. Activity: the chance to be busy all the time. Ethical values: the chance to do things that do not go against my conscience or ethics. Independence: the chance to work without supervision. Social status: the chance to be recognised in the community. 20. Authority: the chance to tell other people what to do. 12. Responsibility: the freedom to use my personal judgement.technical: the competence of my supervisor in making decisions. 9. Security: the provision of steady employment in my job. Recognition: the praise for doing a good job.
He called these factors motivators and he thought that the lower level needs of survival and safety. responsibility. However research shows that as long as a reasonable and fair income is supplied. Among his motivating factors were the challenge of the job itself. He placed five needs in a hierarchy from most basic to most mature: Basic or psychological (as needed for survival). which he labelled dissatisfiers. It held that money is the prime motivating factor and that financial rewards should be related directly to performance. ego status and self actualisation Sequence. with money seldom discussed! 73 . A sense of belonging. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory As the Human Relations movement grew. or maintenance factors. evolved early in 20th century from the scientific management theory. Maintenance factors. Focusing more specifically on the work situation. issues such as achievement. recognition. Frederick I. recognition. safety.4-Leadership and Motivation Motivation . recognition. he found overlapped both categories. Among Herzberg’s maintenance (dissatisfier) factors were salary. and good working conditions. Maslow believed that an individual must satisfy one need before feeling free to take on the tensions associated with the next level and before trying new behaviours aimed at satisfying the next higher need. Abraham Maslow held that individual unsatisfied needs are the main source of motivation. Herzberg believed that only those needs that corresponded to Maslow’s ego status and self-actualisation levels were direct sources of work motivation. achievement. advancement. and the nature of the work will over ride money considerations. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory. Many people at first glance think that money is the all important motivator. centred on issues not directly related to work and were factors that most people assumed would be met.invariably the answer is achievement. Motivating factors. and the nature of the work. job security. more attention was focused on the worker.what motivates people at work? The Traditional theory of motivation. a sense of belonging. and growth. In some of our tutorials we ask people what work issues they talk about in their breaks .
Managing Human Resources What motivates people at work? National surveys of workers consistently indicate the following important motivating factors: Element Achievement Recognition Nature of work Responsibility Advancement Wages / money Ranking 41 33 26 23 20 15 What motivates you? What do you do best? How often do you do that? What would you rather be doing than your present job? Is there anyone with whom you would like to exchange jobs? What appeals to you about the other job? Can any part of this be included in your present work? What stands in the way of you doing this? What part of your job do you do least well? How much of the time do you do this? When are you most productive? How often does this positive situation occur? What does your productivity depend upon? Are you able to ‘run’ with your most productive times or does your schedule or other duties cut them short? When are you happiest in your work? Are these times the same as your productive times? 74 .
fringe benefits. prestige. esteem needs for accomplishment. achievement Ego and status. security PHYSIOLOGICAL Basic need for food. to become more like one’s natural self SELF ESTEEM Status. privileges. belonging. autonomy. the opportunity to fulfil one’s basic potential. sexual needs. recognition. clothing and physical fitness 75 . selffulfilment. independent thought and action. participation. drink. personal growth and development. selfesteem. recognition. feedback. helping other people SAFETY Need for security and protection from physical and emotional harm Health care. trust. attention Self respect. discussions. living quarters. acceptance and friendship Social needs for affection and caring relationships. authority. professional group membership SOCIAL BELONGING Need for affection. being informed. stability. routine. financial reward. friendships.4-Leadership and Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs focuses on the inner needs of individuals SELF ACTUALISATION Drive to become what you are capable of Inherent well-being. safety.
actualisation SPECIFIC FACTORS Challenging job Creativity Advancement at work Achievement in work Job title Earn a pay rise Peer recognition The nature of work Quality of supervision Compatible work mates Professional friendships Safe work conditions Fringe benefits Job security Heat and air conditioning Base salary Canteen Working conditions Ego. Esteem Social Safety Safety and security Security Competence General wage increases Stability Air Food Shelter Sex Psychological WHAT CAUSES WORK DISSATISFACTION SATISFACTION Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Company policy Company administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Wages Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Security Items are listed in order of importance.Managing Human Resources Motivation and Needs ORGANISATIONAL GENERAL FACTORS Growth Achievement Advancement Recognition Status Self esteem Self respect Companionship Affection Friendship NEED LEVELS Self . Status. from the top 76 .
health. The other four .family. 77 . For every five shares they buy. How can this risk be minimised? Many organisations already pay key staff a performance bonus. one successful manufacturing organisation we know of is currently 66% owned by family members and the remaining 34% is owned by twelve key staff. Glass shatters. The organisation could: Issue newly created shares to staff at a discount Issue staff with contributing shares.are made of glass. the company gives them one free. The message is clear. which would mean that they are partly paid with the proviso that they become fully paid at a later date Offer staff interest free loans to buy fully-paid shares Issue share rights or options.work . As an example of staff share ownership. If the company was to become an unlisted public company there could be several options.4-Leadership and Motivation Motivation by shareholding Many newly successful businesses are forced to think long and hard about retaining their key employees. friends and spirit . Rubber bounces. giving staff the opportunity to buy shares at a specific price at a specific date Any share scheme would need to be structured in such a way that control of the business was not lost by its original proprietors. One ball . Another organisation in the western suburbs of Sydney offers all employees the chance to buy company shares through a scheme that enables them to contribute 10% of their wages into a share pool. Further you could make shares conditional upon specified service periods being completed. Life is similar to a juggling act with five balls. An approach to issuing shares could be to allocate shares on the basis of length of service. One way of doing this is to create a special class of shares that give a profit entitlement but not an equity entitlement. Another way is to offer these people a stake in the business by means of share ownership.is rubber. They worry that their larger and more affluent competitors might make them offers which they could not possibly match.
• Protection from hazards. The winning dish was the hot fudge sundae. • Information on what is happening and on what is going to happen. HOT and COLD There is a story about a business tycoon who had no heirs. the runner-up created Baked Alaska.Managing Human Resources The people working for you will expect: • Clear direction and objectives. • Recognition of their performance and of their worth as individuals. • Good working conditions. • A good example. • Encouragement of effort. People in business who can hold opposites in their vision simultaneously can win the empire! This contextual shift is an interesting analogy for management! 78 . • To develop as a team. • Good training. based on their present work to prepare them for advancement • Proper equipment and adequate resources. Most people are stumped by the apparent contradiction. • Equal and fair treatment. He offered the inheritance of his business empire to whoever could create the best dish of food that was both hot and cold at the same time. and was fond of food and intellect. • An even work flow free from peaks and troughs. including target dates.
4-Leadership and Motivation Motivational Determinants of Behaviour The Individual • • • • • • • • • • • drive force emotion instinct need urge want desire wish feeling impulse striving Environmental event Effort Incentive • • • • • • • purpose interest intention goal plan aspiration attitude value Behaviour Performance Environmental event 79 .
Managing Human Resources Productivity and Motivation Most businesses suffer a common problem in motivating their people to greater productivity. has no motivating effect Requires ever increasing rewards Short lived. TASK Manipulating to perform Money for unpleasant jobs Threaten and manage by fear Increase productivity attempts External rewards FEELINGS EVOKED/RESULTS Disheartenment Working for a price Question own values Eventually become accustomed to threat Ignore threats and find own comfort level Short lived gains Erosion of effectiveness When expected. In simplistic terms the answer is to identify their needs and employ their strongest talents. though very few people would agree to the premise that they are doing (being allowed) what they want to do and being used to their full potential. Quick adjustment Company cannot afford these offers Cynical acceptance Ineffective due to inflation and taxes Does not permit a change in life style No real incentive to produce Usually viewed as merited and expected Short lived gratitude Powerful and often lasting motivator Lack of self esteem Start looking for alternative job Many almost bankrupt companies have been saved by increased worker participation Must be a genuine threat Self motivation Best way of increased productivity Offers appealing to greed Minor wage increases Threat of losing job Provide stimulus Identify and tap into people’s inner drives See that people are matched with their capabilities and preferences 80 .
sour faces Staff openly discussing their discontent and grievances WHAT CAUSES LOW MORALE? Some common (and often easily rectified) causes: • Inaccessible management • Poor communication • Unrealistic goals • Hard to understand goals • Aloof management • Poor leadership by management • Lack of coaching by management • Bloated hierarchy (or workers think so) • Poor job placement • Poor work environment • No room for promotion or advancement • Lack of understanding of job responsibilities THE HIGH MORALE ENVIRONMENT • • • • • • • • • Interesting work Innovation welcomed A sense of accomplishment Recognition of effort Fair treatment of people Responsibility Appropriate compensation Attractive work conditions Opportunities for personal growth • Feeling important • A sense of belonging • Opportunities for advancement 81 .4-Leadership and Motivation Does your Workplace suffer Morale Problems? Some common and often overlooked signs of morale problems: Poor and uncooperative attitudes Lack of enthusiasm Lack of commitment ‘Them and us’ mentality Nit picking and fault finding High. and growing levels of complaints Absenteeism Negativity General tardiness Poor appearance of the work place Lack of discipline Long.
smoking.Managing Human Resources Stress and Work Some common causes of stress. Increased. Insomnia Burn out (a severe form of stress) Five stages of Burn Out can be readily identified: 1. drugs 4. Lack of enthusiasm and interest 2.some warning signs Rapid pulse Intestinal distress Insomnia Frequent illness Nail biting Irritability Persistent fatigue Lack of concentration Hunger for sweets Increased use of alcohol and drugs Seven sure signs that you need a holiday: 1. Vague speech patterns 5. Irritability over trivial matters 2. Brooding 6. Depression 7. eating. in order of occurrence: Type of work performed Lack of communication Under staffing Employer’s demands Preoccupation with work Incompetent supervisors Not allowed to do a good job Fellow workers Incompetent subordinates Stress . Inappropriate anger 3. Withdrawal 5. Isolation and disinterest 82 .drinking. Frustration 3. Stagnation 4.
4-Leadership and Motivation
What attributes do you require to be a workaholic?
You do not think you are one, or admit to being one. You work through lunch and tea breaks. You work while waiting on the telephone. You get up early, regardless of when you go to bed. You can’t keep away from work on weekends, and ‘clean up’ then. You work on holidays. You take pen and paper to bed with you. You find it difficult to do nothing. You are energetic and competitive. You are able to work any time and anywhere. Travel time is used to process paper work. You are loath to take holidays. You are not looking forward to retirement. Your work habits exceed expectations. Your work is important by its sheer volume. Much of your work is for work’s sake, with little major impact. Statistics suggest few workaholics ever become a successful C.E.O.
Former McKinsey managing director, Ron Daniel, once outlined the company’s recruitment philosophy. “The real competition out there is not for clients, it is for people. We look to hire people who are first, very smart; second, insecure and thus driven by their insecurity; and third, competitive. Put together 3,000 of these egocentric, task-orientated people, and it produces an atmosphere of something less than humility.”
Managing Human Resources
Retaining scarce talent
One of the top strategies for retaining scarce talent is to identify the top 10 percent to 20 percent of the key people on staff and taking special care to keep them. These key people may be high-potential individuals or those who are critical to completing a major project. However, companies should not lose sight of the big picture. All people count, and smart companies realise this. Companies do not become great because of only a few key people—everyone must count all the time. Organisations should customise their solutions based on their workforce, culture, business situation, and business strategy. In general, companies should use a combination of components for creating total rewards and provide opportunities for individual growth, a positive workplace, a compelling future, and total pay. Some examples of successful strategies for retaining scarce talent are: Develop a buddy system. Provide a mentor for scarce talent that keeps them happy from day one. A good start goes a long way. Stay "state-of-the art" with your expectations of scarce talent. And make sure you pay scarce talent for developing new skills and competencies or your competitors will. Offer win-win project incentives for people remaining with your company until the successful completion of the project. Project incentives clearly acknowledge a person’s contribution to the company. And while many companies may already be doing this annually, consider incentives more frequently for those workers that prove to be increasingly valuable. Research shows that you may lose scarce talent within the first three years. Make people owners in the company through stock options as early in their careers as possible. Focus on key-talent workers below management level who may be more up-to-date on key technical skills and knowledge. Provide exciting and challenging work that people want to do. Look for the kind of business that interests people. This is a great way to keep individuals motivated. Produce meaningful (and breakthrough) work for your customers which in return will also be meaningful (and exciting) for the workforce. Provide excellent colleagues with whom people want to learn and work. Hire and train top-notch leaders people admire. Provide "feel good" benefits such as casual dress, longer vacations, flexible hours or work schedules, a pleasing and comfortable space, and amenities like a fully stocked kitchen and health club. Some companies even provide umbrellas in the workforce lobby for when it rains, allow pets at work, and provide car pools and transportation for employees’ children before and after school. Most companies are not in the business of buying talent at any price. Companies that have proven themselves over the years focus on strategies that keep key people who add value. The solution is total rewards. It is more than just how much people are paid or how many
4-Leadership and Motivation
share options they have.
Leadership - the delicate balance
Leading a group - try this checklist YES NO
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.
I would most likely act as the spokesperson for the group I would encourage overtime work I would allow members complete freedom in their work I would encourage the use of uniform procedures I would permit the members to use their own judgement in solving problems I would speak as a representative of the group I would needle members for greater effort I would try out my ideas in the group I would let the members do their work in the way they think best I would be working hard for promotion I would tolerate postponement and uncertainty I would speak for the group if there were visitors present I would keep the work moving at a rapid pace I would turn the members loose on the job and let them go for it I would settle conflicts when they occur in the group I would get swamped by details I would represent the group at outside meetings I would be reluctant to allow the members any freedom of action I would decide what should be done and how it should be done I would push for increased production I would let some members have authority which I could keep Things would usually turn out as I had predicted I would allow the group a high degree of initiative I would assign group members to particular tasks I would be willing to make changes I would ask members to work harder I would trust the group members to exercise good judgement I would schedule the work to be done I would refuse to explain my actions I would persuade others that my ideas are to their advantage I would permit the group to set its own pace I would urge the group to beat its previous record I would act without consulting the group I would ask that group members follow standard rules and regulations
Managing Human Resources 86 .
5 Training and Evaluation .
Increased international competitiveness. B. • Safety . Some factors considered in selecting assessment methods are: Validity .not classroom practices. privacy.in the work environment. Improved quality of products and services to customers.industry does not want to indulge in expensive assessments. T. Linked to Industry or employment requirements . noise. Cost effectiveness . Practicality . Offer increased opportunities for advancement.no risk to candidates in accordance with OH & S practices.ensuring the right competency is being assessed. companies and the nation from: Increased productivity and efficiency. • Equal Opportunity legislation. • Occupational Health & Safety legislation.the total will be more than the parts. Some Features of Competency Based Assessment are: Measurement of actual outcomes and performance. Self paced. 88 .) Competency Based Training was adopted by Australian business and industry to gain benefits for workers.no discrimination: • Underpinning the core values of the organisation.ensuring the result would be the same no matter where or by whom the assessment was conducted. Workplace reform. Improve the responsiveness of training to industry requirements. distractions. Multi skilling of workers leading to greater versatility. Increased skills levels. Appraise performance on the job. Fairness .not other people. Recognise skills and abilities acquired through experience in the workplace. Comparisons are made against specified standards . Develop coherent and consistent training standards. Companies assess workers in order to: Recognise skills and abilities acquired through non-formal training. Provides consistency across enterprises. • Compliance with enterprise policy and procedures.Managing Human Resources Competency Based Training (C. Reliability . Good assessments will be HOLISTIC .
• It provides motivation for employees to participate in training. It does not matter how. • Status in present job.5-Training and Evaluation R. L. • Selection into a new job. What are the benefits of RPL for individuals? • Shorten time taken for qualifications. P. • Identify training and development needs. Why have PRIOR LEARNING assessed? To gain: • Selection into a course or training program. when or where the standards were achieved. What are the benefits of RPL for organisations? • It optimises use of training resources. • Promotion. 89 .Performances or tests set to increase relevant current competencies. What evidence is acceptable as Recognition of Prior Learning? Historical Interview data Examination of products Reports from supervisors and referees Prizes Awards Certificates Current . However it is important that the applicant for recognition can demonstrate the skills and knowledge at this point in time. . • Save money.Recognition of Prior Learning Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is the acknowledgement of skills and knowledge obtained through: • Formal training • Work experience • Life experience The main focus of RPL is the benchmarks or competency standards achieved. • Recognise self worth.
It offers new competency standards which include: 100% Unbelievably competent 80% Mega competent 20% Unbelievably incompetent 15% Painfully incompetent 5% Irrevocably incompetent 0% Rampant stupidity If your competitive advantage lies only in your equipment. Some issues to address are: What training needs does the organisation have. has rather facetiously devised a new grading standard. goals and targets which have been set? What Training needs does the organisation have in order to meet National Standards? A survey could be conducted to ascertain these needs. in order to meet objectives.Managing Human Resources Training Needs Analysis Some organisations embrace Training Needs Analysis as part of Competency Based Training (CBT) and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). your competitors can easily catch up by making the same investment. which is yet to be tested or applied in the academic field. Part of this survey could be asking staff to demonstrate their competence and have Prior Learning assessed. Japanese catch cry 90 . WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN? An acquaintance of ours. who is heavily involved in advanced training techniques with a very well known Australian training organisation.
....... Clear job responsibilities Maturity and poise ... research.) operations.........5-Training and Evaluation Evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses When you have established your goals and objectives. Freedom in working Sociability ..... Supervisory responsibilities Oral communication skills ...... Travel requirements 9...... a 2 for a moderate weakness.. procedural manual 16................. 4... a 4 for moderate strength.... 12................... Academic achievement (grades) ........ In-service educational TOTAL opportunities ..... 10.Company policies and ... Immediate superior Intelligence . Give yourself a 5 for a major strength........ Job title ...... finance. try to discover ways in which your skills can be used......... 11...... a 3 for a characteristic that is neither a strength nor a weakness... Cooperativeness 3........... making 14.. You will be surprised at how many different types of careers can be built from a given set of skills and interests. Then go over these strengths and weaknesses with a friend and ask for their candid opinion... Fringe benefits ................... 1. Ambition and self motivation 5.................. 91 .. Work associates Educational credentials ............. 7............ 15.. an analysis of your personal strengths and weaknesses is in order................. etc.......... Ingenuity and creativity .. Salary Administrative knowledge and ability2... 6.. Job security .... The answers to the four questions below can help that analysis : • • • • What are my six strongest skills? What is my greatest accomplishment in life? Is it saleable? Why should an employer hire me instead of someone else? Rate your self on each of the characteristics listed below..... decision Prior work experience . environment Technical competence (marketing.. When you have developed a list of your basic skills.. Career development activities Written communication skills 13................ Participation in ....... 8..... Reputation of company Leadership ability .. Promotion policies Conscientiousness ..... human resources.. and a 1 for a major weakness....
or 4 in the spaces following each item to show the group to which the item has been assigned. Place the numerals 1. 3. it is difficult to plan how to get there. can help you find out.Managing Human Resources Setting personal goals and objectives When setting personal goals and objectives. values and priorities. Rate them by first dividing the items into four groups. For the top group. but without some idea of where you want to go. 2. and so forth. you should ask yourself the following questions: What kinds of tasks or activities have I enjoyed the most? What kinds of tasks or activities have I enjoyed the least? If I could have any job I wanted. Goal analysis takes time. What are your priorities? The list of factors shown to the right. putting the four most important to you in the top group and the four least important to you in the bottom group. what job would it be? The best way to determine what you really want out of life is to answer such questions honestly. Some of the factors that must be considered when answering these questions are: • desired income • geographical location • amount of travel • job security • independence • autonomy • and company size What price are you prepared to pay to get ahead? Are you willing to move whenever and wherever your firm dictates? When you answer these questions. Assign the other eight to the two middle groups in a similar manner. you will have clearer understanding of your goals. you should go a step further and rank the four items from most important to second most important. which relate to work environments and advancement potential. 92 .
which one would it be? Why? 14. Do you feel that you are given adequate feedback about the job you are doing? 7.. 5. 2.. 4. c) The one piece of equipment (within reason) that I wish we had is . If you had to argue that one of my assessments of your performance is wrong. 8. etc. contacts. 3. Has your Job Description become out of date in any way? 15. How do you set about the job you are doing? 3. What one skill would you most like to improve? 11. How do you rate me as a communicator? 6.. Are we measuring that adequately? 9.5-Training and Evaluation Staff Appraisals An Agenda for an Appraisal Meeting 1.. Do you agree with my assessment of your performance? 13... How do you rate the communication within the business? 5. 6. 7. Update personnel file (addresses. What is the best way to measure the job you are doing? 8. 1. How could you improve in the areas I identified as needing attention? 12.) Review Job Description Amend Job Description Identify performance issues Identify additional resource requirements Set and review performance targets Determine and professional development initiatives Confirm next review Appraisal question booster Some questions (in no particular order) which may assist you to conduct a better appraisal interview. b) My job would be more efficient if somebody else was responsible for . 10. What one thing could I change in the workplace that would improve your productivity? 4. What course would you like to do that would develop your personal skills (unrelated to the job)? 93 . Finish these phrases: a) My job would be easier if I was the one who . What course or training program would you like to do that would directly improve your on-the-job performance? 16. Has anything changed in your life? Do we need to update your personnel file? 2.
..... Since last review • Improvement? 94 • Deterioration? • No change ...... others........... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Name .............. neatness.......................... regulations.. conformity.. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 SELF MOTIVATION Initiative. economy of operation........... compliance....... Date......... other.... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 SELF ORGANISATION Work planning............. personal goals......... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 COMMUNICATION Expression................... quality....... Position........ other -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 CO-OPERATION Work relationships...... company.............. other...... other................ other...... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 JOB KNOWLEDGE Procedures........ -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 ATTITUDE Towards management............... ambition... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 PRESENCE Personality........................ TOTAL RATING.... fluency......Managing Human Resources A Performance Review JOB PERFORMANCE Quantity........... persuasiveness............. authority and responsibility limits..... appearance. other. job........................ time control.. other..
....No... Manage sales growth 9. Review and evaluate work of subordinates 7....... Plan a broad programme for their division or store 2.. Make contacts with outside organisations 8.. Wants to establish a secure position for themself with the organisation. Do you feel that the person has the capacity to grow in case the business expands in size and activity? .... Make wise and prompt decisions 4.. Wants to use their position as a stepping stone to a major position elsewhere... which of the following best describes the person’s attitude towards their organisation.Yes..5-Training and Evaluation A Rating Form for Management How well does the person? 1......... Carry out the current programme 3.... with personal ambitions subordinated to this goal....... Handle stock and expense control In your estimation... Delegate authority to subordinates 5..Doubtful Poorly Adequately Not Excellently observed 95 . Personally supervise subordinates 6. Dedicated to helping it reach its objectives.
6 Case Studies .
7. has talked to me about my progress There is someone at work who encourages my development In the past six months. 2. I have received recognition and praise for doing good work My supervisor. 11. 8. someone at work had talked to me about my progress At work. 12. 10. clients and leaders • Vendors 97 . my opinion seems to count The mission/purpose of my company makes me feel that my job is important My fellow employees are committed to doing quality work I have a best friend at work In the past year I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow The changing world of work Old Have a job Office Success equals career ladder Authority Status equals position Entitlement Loyalty to company Salaries and benefits Job security Identity defined by job Bosses and manager Employees New • Do work • Virtual space • Success equals career lattice • Influence • Status equals impact • Marketability • Commitment to work and self • Contracts and fees • Personal freedom/control • Identity defined by and organisation circumstances and work done • Customers.6-Case Studies The 12 attitudes that indicate an efficient office 1. or someone else at work. I know what is expected of me at work I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work right At work I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day In the past 7 days. 4. 5. 9. 6. 3.
Managing Human Resources A Human Resources Check List Is the correct priority being given to the interests of employees. or mechanistically? Do you consult your work force about likely changes and invite their co-operation? Does your organisation aim to develop fully the potential of individuals throughout their careers? How do you assess employees for retraining? Are your contacts with schools. the goals of this organisation are unclear. shareholders and the community? Are you familiar with the mainstreams of technical change as they affect your organisation? Do you know how to obtain information and advice? Do you intend to initiate change? Is your organisation keeping pace with the technology in your industry? Are new technologies likely to undermine your own competitive position? Are you investing sufficiently in R&D and product development to provide product and market leadership opportunities? Is there resistance to change in the organisation? Is management receptive to change and practised in its implementation? Are all employees informed about. and participate in. decisions affecting them directly? Is the participation genuine or contrived? When introducing technological changes do you think them out in terms of the needs of people. part time work. phased retirement. I need to work somewhere my family commitments are recognised. 98 . customers. and the community sufficiently close? Is there scope for a relaxation of some of the traditional habits of employment? (Flexible hours. My new employer pays me what I am worth.) Is the perpetuation of privileges and distinctions at different levels of the organisation generally acceptable? Are you too forthright? What you really want to say My efforts mean nothing to this organisation I was neglected and overlooked for training and promotion This organisation does not care about anyone’s family Everyone hates or detests the boss I feel as though I am underpaid I am sick of the poor reputation and work standards of this organisation How to say it Communication and feedback between management and staff are poor Training and career development programs were insufficient or did not help me. To me. Our boss does not have the respect of staff because their management skills are lacking. job sharing. That does not happen here.
accounting and expediting and create fragmented departments with bureaucratic job titles. comprising:• 100 production people • 10 supervisors • 1 manager • 3 assistant managers • 18 people in human resources • 19 people in long range planning • 22 in accounting and procedures. Organisations and companies take business processes such as purchasing. A few years later the company management decided to carry out a meaningful survey of the cost benefits and economies of scale they thought they had achieved by producing 10 times more product. which in simplified form were. this company no longer exists in this form. which required 10 people and 1 supervisor. with lack of innovation. Most people are able to identify an organisation with these problems! Keeping close to the customer! A suburban bus company accused of failing to pull up at bus stops to pick up passengers. a manufacturing company based in Sydney found a lucrative niche market for it’s products and continuously expanded their production and facilities. walls and barriers and major increases in non productive overhead costs. lack of responsiveness. Management realised and accepted grudgingly that their major problem was the Big is good college of organisational management syndrome. They were amazed at the results. These days of course. said it would never be able to keep to the timetable if it did! 99 . the demand for the company’s products grew ten fold.6-Case Studies Economies of Scale In the early 1990’s. and constantly increasing overheads and ‘analysis paralysis’. Invariably in this situation customer focus is lost and activity becomes more important than results. and • 23 in purchasing and expediting When management had recovered from the initial shock at the vast increase in people. originally:10 production people were producing 100 units per hour. inflexibility. they realised that this diseconomy of scale was not all just a bureaucratic proliferation and empire building.000 units per hour they required not 110 people (10 times as many) as thought but 196 people. When the company’s production had increased 10 fold to 1. In due course. (though some of that was obviously inherent).
through specially targeted support to segments or niche areas. Aged care support. particularly on government. • To increase the organisation’s identification with a particular segment. • To underline the importance of profits from another perspective. 100 . by relating implementation of charity donations to profitability.g. • To give tangible expression to the organisation’s belief in private enterprise. creativity and entrepreneurial action. community. • To increase identification of employees with the organisation and the community. responsibility. e. • To plan and integrate organisational participation in charity. This expression of the organisation’s acceptance of its obligations to the community in which it operates should create or reinforce the operations and activities of the organisation in a variety of ways to create benefits for both the organisation and the beneficiaries.Managing Human Resources Community Obligations and Charities Many organisations express their acceptance of their obligations to the community in which they operate by apportioning a percentage of after tax profits for allocation to appropriate causes and projects. by fostering self reliance rather than dependence. professional development and management development activities which are to the mutual benefit to all concerned. • To strengthen the organisational image as a market leader. Some goals in this respect might be: • To reinforce organisational philosophy and values. particularly that of being a responsible unit in society. with charity projects supported by the organisation with a positive motivational impact.
6-Case Studies State Sales Administration A company placed a very large advertisement (it was the largest job ad. able to promote a team environment. and supplied no further information than that outlined here. The State Manager’s wife sat in on the interviews (without explanation as to why she was there) and asked a few questions of those being interviewed. The advertisement said nothing about the companies products. Further. Most applicants were surprised to find during the course of the interview that the position advertised as STATE SALES ADMINISTRATOR was merely an internal clerical position. all on a Saturday. with an appropriate pay scale. commercial appreciation. What would you have done differently? 101 . What duties would you expect a STATE SALES ADMINISTRATOR to perform? In due course over 100 written replies were received in response to the advertisement and interviews were arranged with the State Manager for 7 people. in the paper that week). enthusiasm. sales and service orientated. routine word processing and presentation of reports’. career focused. Six weeks later many of the previous applicants permitted themselves a wry smile when they saw this position re advertised. The advertisement informed prospects that their company was the state branch of a national organisation. which aroused mixed feelings in some of those asked to attend for an interview. for a STATE SALES ADMINISTRATOR. customers or its people. ability to take direct control of customer enquiries. The advertisement went on to outline the following requirements for the position which included. During the course of several interviews the State Manager’s wife left the interview without excusing herself and did not return. determination. results orientated. ‘maturity. some people were not surprised when they saw the same position advertised (in exactly the same terms) a further two times over the next few months.
threats (analysis) TQM Total quality management USP Unique selling point MBO Management by objectives MD Managing Director MIS Management (or Marketing) information system MIT Managing information technology MRP Materials resource planning 102 VAM Value adding manufacture VAM-M Value adding management manufacture VSP Voluntary separation package WIIFM What’s in it for me? . check. KISS LTU Keep it simple.Managing Human Resources Some Human Resource Acronyms AIDA Attention. action AQL Acceptable quality level AS Australian Standard CAD CAM C&F CBT CEO CIF CPM EDI FAS FIS FMCS FOB FOW GM Computer aided design Computer aided manufacturing Cost and freight Competency based training Chief Executive Officer Cost. insurance and freight Critical path method Electronic data input Free alongside ship Free into store Fast moving consumer goods Free on board Free on wharf General Manager OEM Original equipment manufacture OEM Original equipment manufacture OEM Original equipment manufacture PDCA Plan. act PERT Programme. weaknesses. do. stupid Long term unemployed SBU Strategic business unit SWOT Strength. desire. interest. opportunities.evaluation and review technique POS Point of sale QA QAE Quality assurance Quality assurance engineering QBS Queen bee syndrome QCS Quality customer service QM Quality management QWG Quality workshop group QWL Quality of work life R&D RDO RHIP ROI RPL RRP Research and development Rostered day off Rank has its privileges Return on investment Recognition of prior learning Recommended retail price HRM Human resource management HRPD Human Resource Planning and Development IT JIT Information technology Just in time manufacturing Kaizen Japanese concept of continuing improvement in all aspects of a persons home and work life.
days in advance. for meetings to see each other for discussions). The M.D. increased purchasing power.D. The general feeling seemed to be. In due course the new branch was opened. much to the surprise of one of the directors. In due course an experienced manager to run the new branch was recruited and that person spent six weeks at head office ‘learning the business’ and preparing to open the new branch. and in three months be in profit’.the manager there convened a meeting of staff and invited the M. but after three months was struggling to gain market share. The new manager found this situation difficult. and of course more profits on the bottom line. On a visit to one of the branches by the new sole owner . ‘We are market leaders here. budgets or policies for future directions. Despite the change in ownership head office still did not supply any guide lines. was lost for words and could not find anything at all to say. much to the embarrassment and disappointment of the staff in this branch. expecting the new owner to say something motivational about the companies future and their role in it. what budgets he was expected to set and perform to and a number of other similar questions.D.D.) . After two years the ongoing bad feeling between the two owners was resolved by one of them buying the other one out. to address them. The two co-directors who ran and owned the company (although they worked in offices only 15 meters apart they used to make appointments. much to the chagrin of the remaining director. what was expected of him (no Job Description was ever supplied) who he would report to. but set some budgets of his own. Despite this. kept referring to the other as the person who would be responsible as the person to report to. a further step towards a national network of branches. When the topic of budgets was raised a firm answer or commitment could never be obtained. for annual or six monthly managers meetings to discuss strategies and to 103 . and we will take this new state by storm.6-Case Studies Interstate Branches A company with two interstate branches decided that the time was opportune to open a third interstate branch in another state. However after a year the new branch was showing significant growth and market share and was running at a modest profit. On a number of occasions the new manager asked what was expected of the new branch. The new branch continued to perform well and exceed the optimistic budgets the branch manager had set. with optimistic and profitable projections for the next three years. On a number of occasions the branch managers asked the M. The benefits were thought to be an increased national presence.who was also now Managing Director (M. the former co-owner used to enjoy visiting the branches he had helped create.
The branch managers overcame this by having regular meetings on the telephone. In all cases the replacement managers were inexperienced. Not surprisingly. internal people. they will respond with enthusiasm and creativity.Managing Human Resources review operations on a ‘big picture’ scale. was held in ridicule. By the time the third branch manager was ineptly and publicly dismissed the owner / M. What would you have done? Some simple People adages If competent people are hired. 104 . His reaction to this was swift.D. The branch managers were not among the people he would phone at home. Economies or efficiencies were never achieved by leaving employees feeling that they are slightly underpaid. If they are provided with challenging responsibilities. In order to keep in touch with the branches. generally performing well beyond the technical relationship of a fair day’s work for a fair days pay. The M. and physical skills is that different personalities may require different approaches.D. On various pretexts he fired all the branch managers over a short period. who had been earmarked as future managers without their knowledge. The secret lies in psychological gratification in addition to monetary rewards. was both surprised and hurt about the feedback he was getting from suppliers and customers about the lack of respect the branch managers and people working in the branches and in the industry had for him. and found other jobs.D. In due course the M. They will respond to this feeling by slightly under working. the M. Another important difference between developing behavioural skills. ‘I don’t want my managers talking to each other and discussing sales and wages’. refused point blank and admitted that. used to phone selected people working in the branches at home. a number of key people in all the branches looked for. they will be able to do the work that is required. when they compared branch sales. wages and profitability. After the first manager was fired morale sagged and gossip in the branches and in the trade flourished. to find out what ‘was happening’.D.
Authoritarism. deferential to those above and exploitive of those below. Risk taking People differ in their willingness to take chances. This propensity to assume or avoid risk has been shown to impact on how long it takes managers to make a decision and how much information they require before making their choice. Rather than looking at parts of the person. Personality can be thought of as the sum total ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Achievement orientation. They want to overcome obstacles and feel that their success or failure is due to their own actions. Named after Niccolo Machiavelli who wrote in the 16th century on how to gain and manipulate power. This is most often described in terms of measurable personality traits that a person exhibits. use it’ is consistent with a highMach perspective. A long standing definition of personality is ‘the dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychological systems that determine their unique adjustments to their environment’ According to psychologists Personality is a dynamic concept. maintains emotional distance.6-Case Studies Major personality attributes influencing organisational behaviour As a manager it may assist you to understand the behaviour and personality of your subordinates. which describes the growth and development of person’s whole psychological system. Some people (internals) believe they are masters of their own fate. Other people (externals. who tend to be less satisfied with their jobs) see themselves as pawns of fate. 105 . Locus of control. tact and the ability to adapt to complex and changing situations this person may be viewed negatively. People with a high need and motivation to succeed (internals) can be described as continually striving to do things better. judgmental of others. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic. Personality looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. and believes that ends can justify the means. The extremely high-authoritarian personality is intellectually rigid. In jobs requiring sensitivity to the feelings of others. believing that what happens to them in their lives is due to luck or chance. distrustful and resistant to change. ‘If it works. Machiavellianism.
and values that are passed along from one generation to the next and create consistencies over time. stature. process. temperament. facial attractiveness. the norms among our family. they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience would alter them. business strategies and leadership. The HEREDITARY argument can be used to explain why someone’s nose resembles her mothers or why someone is a good athlete. and other influences that we experience. customers. muscle composition and reflexes. The HEREDITARY approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individuals personality is the molecular structure of the genes. who your parents were and their biological. sex. while others such as a picnic in the park constrain few people. does change in different situations. To obtain strong results including sustained growth and profit. while generally stable and consistent. when their parents were also. HEREDITARY refers to those factors which were determined at conception. Physical. Church or a job interview. attitudes. ENVIRONMENT concerns the culture in which we were raised .some situations may constrain behaviour e. If all Personality characteristics were completely dictated by hereditary.our early conditioning. Different demands in different situations call forth different aspects of one’s Personality.people.g. loyal customers and a high performing workforce the company needs to embrace the five elements of an organisation . Change is inevitable. SITUATIONS seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behaviour . and social groups. An individual’s Personality. physiological.Managing Human Resources Determinants of Personality An adults personality is considered to be made up of both hereditary factors (was their Personality determined at birth?) and environmental factors (the interaction with their environment). but growth is optional. SITUATION influences the effects of hereditary and environment on Personality. energy level. 106 .g. located in the chromosomes. and biological rhythms. e. and inherent psychological makeup. friends. Culture establishes the norms. moderated by situational conditions.
Submissive 5. Conservative 14. Forthright 12. Uncontrolled 16. Serious 6. which have been found to be generally steady and constant sources of behaviour. Relaxed Outgoing More intelligent Emotionally stable Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Sensitive Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Experimenting Self-sufficient Controlled Tense 107 . Group-dependent 15. Expedient 7. allowing prediction of an individual’s behaviour in specific circumstances by weighing the characteristics of their situational relevance 1. Self-assured 13. Reserved 2.6-Case Studies Personality traits Researchers have identified 16 PERSONALITY TRAITS. Less intelligent 3. Timid 8. Affected by feelings 4. Trusting 10. Practical 11. Tough-minded 9.
person with an Charm free Cerebrally challenged Consensual monogamy Cosmetically different Corporate recovery services specialist Corporate downsizing Corporate right sizing Differently abled Dipstick Equity retreat Experientially enhanced Fop.Managing Human Resources Some Euphemistic Translations Business speak for the new millennium Alternative body image. a Funding. lack of Gross national product Harvesting Geographical mobility will be encouraged Management Initiated Attrition Market adjustment Member of the career-offender cartel Member of the mutant albino generic-regressive global minority Motivationally deficient Non discretionary fragrance Persons with difficult to meet needs An obese person Boring Stupid Exchanging sex partners Ugly Bankruptcy accountant Retrenching workers Firing large numbers of workers Physically or mentally disabled Originally a device for measuring oil levels Stock market crash Old Someone whose coat and trousers match Excuse for most forms of inaction Politician’s measure of economic welfare Mass slaughter of helpless fish Extended country sales calls needed IBM talk for firing Fall in stock market Mafia member White person Lazy Body odour Serial killer Re-visiting a site Bombing a site previously bombed Service users Recipients of government benefits Servicing a target Bombing somewhere to ruins STD Once a form of telephone communication Severely euphemised Disabled Spend more time with my family (coalition) Have accepted a board position Spend more time with my family ( socialist) Have accepted a media position Statutory senility Retirement age Terminally inconvenienced Dead Vertically challenged Short 108 .
In this engagement we set very high standards for performance. whether good or bad. I had the freedom to make the necessary decisions to do my work properly. I received prompt feedback on my work. Team meetings were conducted in a way that builds trust and mutual respect. it was done in a constructive way. When corrected for something I did or omitted. I was kept informed of things I needed to know to do my job properly. TOTALS 109 Agree 4 5 . My work was interesting and challenging. My engagement helped to learn and grow. Help was available when I needed to have questions answered. I thoroughly understood what was expected of me. When assigned tasks. I understood how they fitted into the overall aims for the engagement. I felt I was a member of a well functioning team. My work made good use of knowledge and ability. Disagree 1 2 3 When assigned tasks. I received good coaching to help me improve my performance. I was actively encouraged to volunteer new ideas and make suggestions for improvement.6-Case Studies Rating your Manager This rating form can be used by staff to rate their managers Rate on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).
9. 10. 3. 18. Do you treat employees’ feelings as valid? Are you scrupulous in keeping confidences? Are you able to reassure insecure employees? Do you support employees in taking risks? Are you able to solicit employees feelings. ideas and solutions? Do you allow employees to make their own decisions? Do you genuinely care about your employees? Can you empathise with employees’ feelings? Do you assist employees prioritise difficult tasks? Are you patient? Do you ensure the work environment is free of distractions? Are you able to instil your employees with confidence to solve their own problems? Do you allow your employees free rein to air their grievances? Do you take your employees’ interests. skills and values into account when assigning tasks? Do you know your employees’ career goals so you can match future promotions? Can you give your employees the space for personal grief after they suffer loss? Can you step back from your own ego and avoid acting like an expert when discussing personal problems? Do you have a strong sense of the ridiculous and an ever-ready sense of humour about life at work? TOTAL Scoring higher than 50 . 8.Managing Human Resources Are you a people person? Enter your response in the appropriate column • For a mostly answer put a 3 in the mostly column • For an occasionally answer put a 2 in the occasionally column • For a hardly ever answer put a 1 in the hardly ever column Mostly Hardly Occasionally ever 1. 14. 13.you really need some work on your people skills 110 .your skills are excellent 40 . 2.your skills could do with a brush up below 40 . 12. 7. 5. 4. 17. 11. 16. 15. 6.49 .
questions about the job or company. Others are because candidates don't listen to the questions being asked or try to bluff their way through technical questions. But the "Too Much Information" award has to go the candidate who said: "I'm only here because my mum wants me to get a job." He was 37! 2. the number one mistake interviewees make relates to how they communicate." Another candidate at a children's organisation stated that he "hates kids. Many hiring managers complain about candidates showing up late and the surprising number who interrupt the interview to take calls on their cell phones. And which is worse? The candidate who asked the hiring manager to hurry up because he wanted to have lunch. A recent study surveyed hiring managers to identify the most common mistakes candidates make. What They Say (or Don't Say) According to the survey. then turned around and fell to the floor! 3.6-Case Studies Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews Not feeling so great about your last interview? Take heart. For example. Bad Attitudes 111 . or the one who pulled out a sandwich and began eating? Yet other bloopers are simply a result of nerves . One woman brought her children along. While still others use profanity or ramble on about their personal problems and social lives rather than answer . How They Act The second most common way candidates flub their interviews is what they do. And many make the mistake of bringing up money and hours-required in the first interview." While a man applying at a drug treatment facility anxiously asked if they drug-tested employees and whether they'd give advance notice. Others complain about former bosses. Some stem from a lack of common sense or courtesy. Some come in with a pre-determined script and sound as if they are reading from a textbook. one candidate replied: "I'm open to anything. Many of these mistakes are the result of being unprepared and knowing nothing about the job or company." Those interviewing for customer service positions confessed: "I'm not a people person. Others give oneword answers with no further elaboration." and "customers are annoying. Several hiring managers complained of nail-biting while another watched in horror as a candidate jumped up to make a point. when asked what interested her about the position. Here are the top five categories .or two much coffee. Chances are the interviewer has seen worse.or ask .along with some real-life examples: 1. Others are too candid. I really need to get some medical insurance.
hiring managers also told of a candidate who did not wear shoes. Many hiring managers complained of interviewees who show little energy or interest in the conversation. by the way. No one I work with would wonder how I see their performance. facial piercings.or the candidate with the super-sized ego who demanded to be hired and said the company could do no better. No one likes a braggart. he was drunk.Managing Human Resources The third most-cited category of mistakes has to do with the candidate's attitude. How They Look Coming to the interview improperly groomed and dressed is the fourth most common mistake. fluorescent-colored hair and poor hygiene. Besides highlighting ignorance in action. One candidate spent the better part of the interview looking at his watch. Along with the usual culprits: bad posture. They're Dishonest Common forms of dishonesty include exaggerating about achievements or misrepresenting knowledge. too! 5. HR practitioner 112 .com Results speak for themselves. Then there's the interviewee who declared he was "used to a higher class of business. I want to know what they are going to deliver and when they are going to deliver it. one who wore a skirt slit to her derriere. tattoos. Source: CareerBuilder." On the other side of the coin. another who wore dark glasses throughout the interview and a candidate with dirty fingernails wearing jeans and a t-shirt oh.and the one who actually stole something from the interviewer's office. are those who show no enthusiasm. There's also the candidate who mentioned his arrest after saying on his application he had never been arrested . know-it-all or name-dropper . the survey confirms that truth is stranger than fiction and proves that life is not all that rosy on the other side of the interview process either. 4. Effective time management is critical.
letter of 32 Enrichment. a 70 Banks. utility of 59 Behavioural determinants 79 Belief in the universal manager 34 Bell and Brown 70 Body language 28 Boss. Peter 23 E’s. People and Flight Centre. career Discrimination 56 Disengagement interviews 37 planning 15 Do you have a positive attitude toward success? 54 Does your workplace suffer morale problems? 81 Downsizing 54 Drucker. 54 of an efficient office 96 Attributes. cultural 52 Authoritarism 104 Bad boss. vision 71 General Motors 54 Goals organisational 4 personal 71 personal. 103 Manager. people 103 Analysis job 12 needs 89 ANZ Banking Group 70 Appraisal performance 13 staff 92 Are you a people person? 109 too forthright? 97 Attitudes 51. inventory of 13 processes.com 111 Case studies Cure all 48 Economies of scale 98 Human Resources. for hiring 22 Acronyms. the. 103 . signs you need a 82 Hot and cold 78 How to interview 24. negotiation 62 Continuing education 15 Control. outline 57 Herzberg 73 Hewitt Associates 70 Hierarchy of needs 75 Hiring acid test for 22 10 step process 27 Holiday. human resources 97 Coaching 13 Code of Conduct 58 Communication. new 41 Memo 25 Moses 60 Six steps to managing your career 42 Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews 110. 8 Follow up 13 Forecasting 6 Forgetting curves 51 Four E’s of recruitment 19 Future shock 51 Future. HR and 70 Bargaining. 111 State sales administration 100 Volkswagen 48 What does it all mean? 89 What’s that? 4 Change executing 48 managing 47 Changing world of work. why people 36 Fear 36 Feedback. code of 58 Conference. 51 Comparing 6 Components of Human Resources 12-16 Compatibility 34 Competency based training 87 Conduct. 25 to keep your staff interested 38 to lose your staff 38 to recruit 22 Human Resource acronyms 101 at the banks 70 checklist 97 communication 41 components 12-16 definition 2 inventory 12 manager.a 57 relations 7 welfare 7 Employees 52 Empowerment 69 Engagement. four of recruitment 19 Economies of scale 98 Education.Index Achievement orientation 104 Acid test. systems 47 Filling a vacancy 18 Flight Centre. when you take 42 Counselling retirement 14 Creative negotiation 60 Creativity 36 Crisis management 53 Criteria for a satisfying job 52 Cultures 49-52 Cultural attributes 52 Cure all 48 Customers 52 Determinants of behaviour 79 Development plans. job 15 Euphemistic translations 107 Evaluation of development 113 activities 13 Evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses 90 Executing change 48 Expectations of people 78 Failure. 32 Inertia 36 Internal integration 33. 8 Interstate branches 102. 34 Interstate branches 102. the 67 Bureaucracy 46 Burn out 82 Business communication 41 speak 107 Career counselling 14 development 6 development processes 13 CareerBuilder. and objectives 91 Good leadership 70 Goward. some 101 Adages. continuing 15 Employee handbook. Prue 56 Habit 36 Hand book employee. a 70 Boundaries 33 Buck stopper. the 96 work habits 48 Charities 99 Check list. human resources 41 Community Obligations 99 Company culture 50. bad. role of 3 planning and development 4 policies 5 politics of Human Resources defined 2 Ideology 34 Induction 12.
my role 64 Needs.Managing Human Resources Interview disengagement 37 evaluation 30 how to 24. 74 and needs 76 and productivity 80 by shareholding 77 shareholding. new 44 goals 4 rewards 14 stakeholders 9 structure 44 Organisations. role of 3 rating 108 universal 34 Managing change 47 replacement 35 restaffing 35 your career. Michael. of Human Resources 10 Portfolio of tools 4 Potential judgment of 13 problem areas Power and status 33 Prejudice 36 Press release. an. and its stakeholders 9 Organisational development 8 form. David 70 Moses 60 Motivation 73.25 process 24. the 67 Locus of control 104 McFarlane. 75 Matching people 33 Measuring 6 your professionalism 60 Meetings 43 and team think 43 Memo to all staff 25 Machiavellianism 104 Mission statements 40 Morale problems 81 Morgan. six steps. human resources. to 42 Manpower planning 12 Maslow 73. work related 72 Negotiation 59-62 Conference 62 Creative 59. 5 Policy formation 7 Political actions 47 correctness 101 Politics. setting 91 improvement programs 15 evaluating 90 Personality attributes 104 determinants of 105 traits 106 Peter principles 54 Planning and development components. efficient. overall 12 disengagement 15 job/role 12 manpower 12 overall components 12 replacement and restaffing 35 retirement 15 Policies. 25 questions 25 Interviewers should ensure that 24 Interviewing how to 26 Intimacy 33 Inventory Human Resource 12 of development plans 13 Job Analysis 12 changes 14 Descriptions. 16 Legislation 8 Letter of engagement 32 Living symbol.win 59 New staff. John 70 McKinsey & Co 83 Management crisis 53 is considered a mysterious act 34 rating form 94 Manager a 38 Human Resources. the 61 staffing 12 steps in the HR process 6 Productivity and motivation 80 Professionalism. writing a 21 Design 13 Enrichment 15 My 64 Planning Redesign 15 /role playing 12 Rotation 15 Judgment of potential 13 Juggling 77 Keeping close to the customer 98 Lack of skill 34 Language 33 Leadership 66-72 good 70 quiz 85 steps 68 Leading a team 72 Le Boeuf. attitudes of 96 Open questions 41 Organisation. by 77 traditional theory 73 what motivates people? 74 what motivates you? 74 Motivational determinants 79 My job. adages 103 at work 49 114 matching 33 Why do they fail? 36 will expect 78 Performance appraisal 13 review 93 Person description 20 Personal goal. new personnel 31 Process of negotiation. a 71 goals and objectives. salary 29 Paradigms. the. old and new 44 Pareto principle 56 Patterns of work 15 Pay 29 People. analysis 89 Needs. measuring your 60 Promotion is considered a just reward 34 Promotions 14 Punishments 33 Questions open 41 ten basic 63 what are they? 63 . typology of 45 Overall planning components 12 Owners 52 Package. 32 Occupational Health & Safety. 60 Process 61 Utility of 59 Win . induction of 12. (OH&S) 55 Office.
attitude to 54 Supervision 13 Talent. a true story 4 When you take control 42 Why do people fail? 36 do people resist meetings 43 is it important to take care in filling a job vacancy? 18 Win-win approach to negotiation. 6 process 12 major considerations 23 Setting personal goals and objectives 91 Shareholders 52 Shareholding motivation by 77 Six steps to managing your career 42 Skinner. the 52 Tools. Graham. 22. performance 93 Rewards 33 Risk taking 104 Role of the Human Resource manager 3 Role. 19 Restaffing. 23 Recruitment and selection 12 Replacement 18 Rooms 46 Selection 18 Staffing processes 12 Stakeholders 9 State sales administration 100 Steps in the HR process 6 in the recruitment process 20 Strategic business planning 12 Stress and work 82 Structure 51 organisational 44 Success. 10 Three legged stool. planning 35 Retaining scarce talent 84 Retirement planning 15 Retraining 15 Review. retaining 84 Team builder. a form.my role 64 Rating your manager 108 Rating management. 16 Socialisation 12 Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews 110. euphemistic 107 Turner. basic of good recruitment. 22. a 59 Work habits. 20. the 67 leading.Index Quizzes Are you a people person? 109 Human Resource checklist 98 Leadership 85 My job . future 71 Visionary. 111 Staff Appraisals 92 Contribution 11 Hand book outline 57 Recruitment 18. a 72 think 43 Ten step hiring process. attributes 83 Writing a job description 21 . a 27 The people working for you will expect 78 snake pit of organisational politics. Mark 54 Twelve attitudes of an efficient office 96 Twenty work related needs 72 Typology of organisations 45 Utility of bargaining 59 Universal manager 34 Vision. and selection 12. criteria for 52 Scale economies of 98 Selection and placement. portfolio of 4 Toyota 54 Training 18 and development 6 competency based initial 12 needs analysis 89 Translations. changing 48 place morale 81 related needs 72 satisfaction /dissatisfaction 76 Workaholic. 18-20. 23 basics 19 four E’s of 19 steps in the process 20 Reich. 8 Twain. Jack 16 Westpac 70 What are questions? 63 attributes do you require to be a workaholic? 83 causes work 115 dissatisfaction? 76 satisfaction? 76 do you do when people resign? 37 does it all mean? 89 goals do organisations have? 45 is business communication? 41 is Human Resources? 2 motivates people at work? 73 motivates you? 74 should staff contribute to the business? 11 type of leadership should an effective leader provide? 66 What’s that. the 67 Volkswagen 48 Welch. for management 94 your manager 108 Recognition of Prior Learning 88 Recruitment. Robert 2 Remuneration 7 Replacement. 88 Salary packages 29 Satisfying job. B f. 19. planning 35 Requirements. my 64 RPL.